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Sample records for radiation sickness cases

  1. Clinical characteristics of subacute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Benrong; Ye Genyao; Huang Shimin

    1991-01-01

    The clinical characteristics, diagnosis and differential diagnosis of subacute radiation sickness are analysed and discussed in this paper on the basis of clinical data from cases in a 137 Cs source accident in Mudanjiang and of a review of the literature. We consider that the subacute radiation sickness is a whole body disease caused by comparatively large dose of continuous or intermittent external irradiation in several weeks or months. it must be differentiated from acute radiation sickness, chronic radiation sickness, idiopathic aplastic anemia and other hematological diseases, such as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome

  2. Radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoh, Masaru; Ishida, Yusei; Saeki, Mitsuaki

    1983-01-01

    The frequency of radiation sickness in 1,060 patients treated at our Department was 12.8 percent. It was frequent in patients with brain cancer (12 percent), whole spine cancer (47 percent), uterus cancer (28 percent), lung cancer (22 percent) and esophagus cancer (12 percent). Radiation sickness following X-irradiation was studied in its relation to patient's age, size of radiation fields, dosis and white blood cell count. However, we could not find any definite clinical feature relevant to occurrence. There are many theories published concerning the mechanism of radiation sickness. Clinical experiences have shown that radiation sickness cannot be explained by one theory alone but by several theories such as those based on psychology, stress or histamine. (author)

  3. Explanation of diagnosis criteria for radiation sickness from internal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhiwei; Jiang Enhai; Du Jianying; Bai Guang

    2012-01-01

    A revised edition of the Diagnostic Criteria for Radiation Sickness from Internal Exposure has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. It is necessary to research the internal radiation sickness to adapt to the current serious anti-terrorism situation. This standard was enacted based on the extensive research of related literature, from which 12 cases with internal radiation sickness and screened out were involving 7 types of radionuclide. The Development of Emergency Response Standard Extension Framework: Midterm Evaluation Report is the main reference which approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency and World Health Organization. This amendment contains many new provisions such as internal radiation sickness effects models and threshold dose, and the appendix added threshold dose of serious deterministic effects induced by radionuclide intake and radiotoxicology parameters of some radionuclides. In order to understand and implement this standard, and to diagnose and treat the internal radiation sickness correctly, the contents of this standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  4. Suggested classification of acute radiation sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Guo; Mingyue, Zhu; Zhiqin, Zhao

    1984-08-01

    Acute radiation sickness is usually classified into three types. Over the last decade, we have been engaged in experimental studies on the classification of this syndrome. Our findings from these studies, however, point to the fact that between the hemopoietic and intestinal types, and between the intestinal and cerebral types there are transitive forms, namely, hemopoieto-intestinal type and cardio-vascular type, respectively. In this article the required radiation doses and the clinical courses of these transitive forms with special emphasis on their histological and clinical manifestations are described. In case of the hemopoieto-intestinal form, histological examination may reveal residual crypts and typical ''abnormal cells'' in the intestinal mucosa, and clinical manifestations include almost the whole spectrum of symptoms and signs of infection and hemorrhage. The watery stool in pink colour may be specific and helpful in diagnosis. In case of the cardio-vascular form, shock may occur immediately after exposure, and histological examination may show myocardial edema, hemorrhage, cell-infiltration and even necrosis. We propose that the acute radiation sickness should be divided into 5 forms, namely, hemopoietic, hemopoieto-intestinal, intestinal, cardio-vascular and cerebral types. Accurate diagnosis can only be made by taking an comprehensive view of radiation dose, clinical course, clinical manifestations and histological findings. (author).

  5. Clinical report of three cases of acute radiation sickness from a 60Co radiation accident in Henan Province in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qiang; Jiang Bo; Jiang Liping; Wu Ying; Wang Xiaoguang; Jiang Enhai; Zhao Fengling; Fu Baohua; Istvan, Turai

    2008-01-01

    On 26 April 1999, three persons were accidentally exposed by high dose 60 Co irradiation. They suffered from severe (one case) or moderate (two cases) hemopoietic form of acute radiation sickness (ARS). As part of the comprehensive treatment, strict reverse isolation and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) therapy were applied. All the patients recovered after an appropriate treatment for 83 days. In our experience, the correct diagnosis and effective treatment at an early stage proved to be helpful to the patients in pulling out from the critical stage of acute radiation sickness. To avoid menstruation by the female patient just in the critical stage, we modified her menstruation cycle by testosterone. In our view, GM-CSF should be given as early as possible with enough dosage for promoting early hematological reconstruction. The experience obtained from the medical management of these patients is valuable for the treatment of such patients in the future. (author)

  6. Diagnosis of moderate acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shoucheng; Chen Zhijian; Chen Youxin

    1989-01-01

    Forty patients with malignant lymphoma were given 60 Co TLI. 21 cases received 6 Gy and 19 received 8 Gy. It was estimated that a single TLI of 6 and 8 Gy would correspond to TBI of 3.55 Gy and 4.25 Gy (average values) by analysing peripheral blood cell chromosome aberrations and 1.85-2.37 Gy by measuring red bone marrow stem cells clinically. Moderate acute radiation sickness with digestive tract reaction and hemopoietic and immunologic depression was observed. WBC and platelets decreased rapidly. Lymphocytes showed quantitative and qualitative changes even at early stage. All these indexes are significant for diagnosis. Besides, the degree of labial stimulation response, levels of C-reactive protein, corticoid, and urinal nucleoside and alkaloid base presented great changes both pre-and post-irradiation. Early diagnosis of moderate acute radiation sickness could be made in cancer patients subjected to 6-8 Gy TLI

  7. A suggested classification of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yao; Zhu Mingyue; Zhao Zhiqin

    1984-01-01

    Acute radiation sickness is usually classified into three types. Over the last decade, we have been engaged in experimental studies on the classification of this syndrome. Our findings from these studies, however, point to the fact that between the hemopoietic and intestinal types, and between the intestinal and cerebral types there are transitive forms, namely, hemopoieto-intestinal type and cardio-vascular type, respectively. In this article the required radiation doses and the clinical courses of these transitive forms with special emphasis on their histological and clinical manifestations are described. In case of the hemopoieto-intestinal form, histological examination may reveal residual crypts and typical ''abnormal cells'' in the intestinal mucosa, and clinical manifestations include almost the whole spectrum of symptoms and signs of infection and hemorrhage. The watery stool in pink colour may be specific and helpful in diagnosis. In case of the cardio-vascular form, shock may occur immediately after exposure, and histological examination may show myocardial edema, hemorrhage, cell-infiltration and even necrosis. We propose that the acute radiation sickness should be divided into 5 forms, namely, hemopoietic, hemopoieto-intestinal, intestinal, cardio-vascular and cerebral types. Accurate diagnosis can only be made by taking an comprehensive view of radiation dose, clinical course, clinical manifestations and histological findings. (author)

  8. Some problems of antibiotic therapy in radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalnova, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Data on the application of antibiotics and the mechanism of their action in radiation sickness are reviewed. Questions are discussed, such as the effect of antibiotics on the course and outcome of radiation sickness, the development of dysbacteriosis following irradiation, the effect of antibiotics on endogenic infection, the development of resistance of autoflora microbes to antibiotics in an irradiated organism and various aspects of the mechanism of action of antibiotics in radiation sickness. (author)

  9. Study of prochlorperazine (Stemetil) in radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, A.K.

    1976-01-01

    The incidence of radiation sickness and the efficacy of prochlorperazine in alleviating it among the patients under radiotherapy have been investigated. 116 patients from those under radiotherapy were randomly chosen. 38% of this sample developed radiation sickness symptoms (nausea and vomiting). The onset of symptoms occurred in the earlier periods of radiotherapy. The younger and older group were more susceptible to side effects of radiation. Prochlorperazine was administered immediately after the onset of symptoms of radiation sickness in the dose schedule of 10 mg twice daily for adults and was continued for 5 to 10 days after the alleviation of the symptoms. This was found to be effective in all patients. (M.G.B.)

  10. Explanation of nurse standard of external exposure acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiuling; Jiang Enhai; Sun Feifei; Zhang Bin; Wang Xiaoguang; Wang Guilin

    2012-01-01

    National occupational health standard-Nurse Standard of External Exposure Acute Radiation Sickness has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. Based on the extensive research of literature, collection of the previous nuclear and radiation accidents excessive exposed personnel data and specific situations in China, this standard was enacted according to the current national laws, regulations, and the opinions of peer experts. It is mainly used for care of patients with acute radiation sickness, and also has directive significance for care of patients with iatrogenic acute radiation sickness which due to the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation pretreatment. To correctly carry out this standard and to reasonably implement nursing measures for patients with acute radiation sickness, the contents of this standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  11. Pathological findings in the fatal case (the late Mr. Kuboyama) of the radiation sickness caused by Bikini ashes. [In Japanese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, S; Hashimoto, K; Fukushima, N; Tashiro, K; Sugano, H; Mori, W

    1955-01-01

    Autopsy findings and the case history are summarized from a case diagnosed as radiation sickness caused by exposure to fall-out from a thermonuclear explosion. The patient died 207 days following exposure while on a fishing boat said to be located about 100 mi east of Bikini at the time of the explosion. Evidence was also found of a secondary virus hepatitis and aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia.

  12. Estimation of doses to patients with chronic radiation sickness from external occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Delin; Dai Guangfu

    1991-01-01

    The doses to patients with chronic radiation sickness who had engaged in diagnostic radiology have been estimated according to the radiation work load, type and capacity of X-ray equipment, protection conditions, data of nationwide survey on doses to X-ray workers in China, or the data of dose monitoring in working places. Based on the activities of radium sources, time taken up in performing radium therapy, distance to radium sources and radiation work load, the doses to patients who had engaged in radium therapy have been estimated. The results of estimated average doses for 29 cases of chronic radiation sickness are given. Their average red marrow dose, trunk dose and effective dose equivalent are 1.3 Gy, 1.2 Gy and 1.6 Sv, respectively

  13. Clinical report of one case of intestinal form of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Changlin; Qiao Jianhui; Luo Weidong; Guo Mei; Wang Danhong; Sun Qiyun; Zhang Shi; Chen Jiankui; Li Xiaobing; Ai Huisheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the irradiation course, estimation of radiation dosage, clinical course, diagnosis and treatment of the patient A in a 60 Co radiation accident on October 21, 2004 in Jining, Shandong Province, China. Methods: According to the simulated test of the scene, chromosome aberration analysis, clinical course and tooth enamel ESR measurement, the total body dose of A was 20-25 Gy and diagnosed as intestinal form of acute radiation sickness. The patient was transferred to our hospital on day 3 post- irradiation, total environmental protection (TEP), antibiotics and emergency HLA-typing from his elder sister were given. On day 7 HLA haplo-identical peripheral blood stem cell transplantation was performed. Results: On day 10 post-transplant (+ 10 d), the counts of WBC began to increase and up to 5.1 x 10 9 /L on + 12 d. Bone marrow feature showed hematopoietic recovery of the three lineage blood cells. Continuous detection of the implantation ratio of donor's cells by STR-PCR showed stable 100% donor-derived chimera. On day 13, severe acute peritonitis and intestinal obstruction occurred; imipenem was much effective to control intestinal bacteria infection. Three days later, hematopoiesis reconstructed rapidly, peritonitis and intestinal obstruction were cured. On day 19, chest X-ray picture and CT scanning suggested that pulmonary mixed infection of bacteria and fungi appeared. The most severe skin irradiation burn damage occurred on day 25 which occupied the 14% of whole body skin surface. The functions of lung, heart and kidney were deteriorated sequentially. On day 30, tracheotomy had to be conducted and respirator was used. The patient died of multiple organ failure (MOF) on day 33. Conclusions: Patient A was exposed to relative well-distributed high dose and high dose rate of irradiation up to 20-25 Gy. This is the first case report of successful HLA haplo-identical peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for intestinal form of acute

  14. Current problems of prevention diagnosis and treatment of radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kova, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    Causes of increasing interest to the problems of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of radiation sickness are presented. On the basis of recent publications some new aspects as quantitative criteria in radiobiology, organization problems of medical aid at radiation incidents estimation of efficiency of preventive medicine and radiation sickness therapy, theoretical development of radiotherapy of different organs et al., are characterized

  15. Radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, A.; Leer, J.W.H.; Craandijk, M.; Feenstra, W.F.F.

    1990-01-01

    In a prospective inventory analysis of 169 irradiated patients concerning the incidence and course of Acute Radiation Sickness (fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting), it was found that 2/3 of the patients had these complaints. The complaints started during the first week of treatment and mostly even within a few hours after each radiotherapy session. All complaints were progressive during the radiotherapy course, but disappeared spontaneously within one week after completion of the treatment. The possible occurrence of these symptoms soon after the start of radiotherapy should be kept in mind, especially since they can be reduced by simple retimens. (author). 14 refs.; 2 tabs

  16. Anti-infection treatment of iatrogenic acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shulan; Ke Xiaoyan; Jia Tengzhen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To occumulatle experience of anti-infection treatment in acute radiation sickness (ARS) induced by medical treatment in order to provide beneficial help for victims of accidental of acute radiation sickness. Methods: The changes of peripheral blood indices, body temperature and clinical symptoms of 17 cases who were clinically irradiated with 6.0-7.2 Gy X-rays were observed both before peripheral blood stem cell transplantation(PBSCT) and after anti-infection treatment. Results: WBC count began to decrease to below 1 x 10 9 /L from the 8th to 10th days after irradiation and maintained at row level for 4 days or for 13.3 days if the patients had not received rhG-CSF treatment. In 29.4% of patients the body temperature was higher than 38.5 degree C. After comprehensive enviromental protection and anti-infection treatment, all patients could successfully tide over the period of bone marrow depression without appearance of the typical critical phase of ARS. Conclusion: PBSCT and rhG-CSF treatment can reduce the time span for reconstruction of bone marrow. Comprehensive enviromental protection and combined anti-infection treatment are key points fm successful treatment. (authors)

  17. Long-term follow-up observation of patients with chronic radiation sickness due to external irradiation treated with thymopeptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shenyong; Sun Wenji; Zhang Aizhen; Ye Anfang

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To provide the clinical data and prognosis judgement, the authors observed the results and progression of 11 cases of chronic radiation sickness due to external irradiation treated with thymopeptide. Methods: The clinical symptoms, hematopoiesis, T lymphocyte percentage and chromosome aberration rate were used as the judgement indexes for recovery from the chronic radiation sickness. Results: Thymopeptide treatment greatly improved the neurasthenic syndrome and increased the T lymphocyte percentage (P 0.05), and improvement of neurasthenic syndrome occurred 3.5 years after they left radiation work or diminished the exposure level. 5 to 8 years after, bone marrow hematopoiesis also restored to the normal level. However, the chromosome aberration rate restored to the normal level 10 years after. Conclusion: According to the judgement criteria, the chronic radiation sickness due to external radiation exposure can recover and thymopeptide is a helpful and simple means to treat it

  18. Clinical study of fetal liver transplantation in treatment of four cases of accidental or therapeutic acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report summarized the clinical experience of fetal liver transplantation (FLT) in the medical handling of accidental (case 1) or therapeutic (cases 2-4) acute radiation sickness of severe haemopoietic form. In addition to receiving 80 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide, cases 2, 3 and 4 were exposed to total body single irradiation of 5.5, 5.0 and 5.0 Gy, respectively; while case 1 was exposed to whole body irradiation of 5.2 Gy only. The total number of nucleated fetal liver cells transplanted was 2.26-4.1 x 10 8 /kg. Only 2-5% of peripheral blood cells of cases 2, 3 and 4 were found to have allogeneic marker. The author points out that FLT may be beneficial in those cases of accidental irradiation or patients with acute leukemia when there were no HLA-identical bone marrow donors available

  19. Changes in mast cells during acute radiation sickness(a morphometric study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datsenko, A.V.; Shikhodyrov, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the morphometric parameters of rat mast cells during acute radiation sickness have been studied. The most significant deviation of the quantitative indices of mast cells from the control values were noted at the height of the bone-marrow, at the terminal stage of the intestinal, and during the first few hours of the cerebral forms of acute radiation sickness

  20. Effect of domperidone on radiation sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakakibara, T; Sato, K [Nihon Univ., Tokyo. School of Medicine; Watari, T; Tanaka, T; Furuta, A

    1981-07-01

    Domperidone was administered to 95 patients with radiation sickness following radiotherapy for various cancers. The chest and the mediastinum were irradiated in 43 patients, the upper and lower abdomen in 40 patients, and the head, neck, and supraclavicular region in 12 patients. As to radiation source, x-ray was used for 46 patients, ..gamma..-ray for 41 patients, electron beam for 3 patients, and more than one radiation was used for 5 patients. The dose given before the onset of radiation sickness totaled 3000 rad in 20 patients, 1000 rad -- 3000 rad in 41, and less than 1000 rad in 34. Domperidone was given to the patients one tablet (5 mg or 10 mg) P.O., 3 times per day before meals, for 1 -- 2 weeks. The overall effective rate of the drug was 68.4%. The 10 mg tablets were slightly more effective than the 5 mg ones. In the patients who were given the drug in a dose of 10 mg, the ameliorating rate of subjective symptoms was 68.1% for nausea, 88.9% for vomiting, 44.6% for anorexia, 17.5% for general fatigue, and 69.2% for dizziness. Laboratory findings showed no abnormal effects of the drug. One patient had itching with eruptions, which, however, was mild and disappeared immediately after withdrawal of the medication.

  1. In vitro effects of recombinant human stem cell factor on hematopoietic cells from patients with acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chuansheng; Cheng Tao; Xu Yanqun

    1994-01-01

    The effects of rhSCF, rhPIXY 321, rhGM-CSF and rhIL-3 on clonal proliferation of hematopoietic cells from five cases of acute radiation sickness were studied. The results showed that rhSCF could stimulate clonal proliferation of normal hematopoietic cells and the best results were obtained when the concentration of rhSCF was 5 x 10 4 ng/L. Clonal proliferation of hematopoietic cells from four cases of acute radiation sickness was stimulated while that from one case was inhibited. Moreover, the responsiveness of cells to rhSCF was correlated with the doses of radiation. Analysis of cell surface antigen, cell morphology and histochemistry revealed that rhSCF promoted predominantly the proliferation of granulocyte-macrophage lineage. rhSCF in combination with other three factors could further enhance the clonal proliferation of hematopoietic cells. The effects of rhPIXY 321, a fusion protein of GM-CSF and IL-3, were also analysed and found it to be a novel valuable hematopoietic growth factor

  2. Effect of Miradol (Sulpiride) on radiation sickness studied by a double-blind test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Yuko; Morita, Shinroku

    1981-01-01

    Effect of Miradol on radiation sickness was investigated by a double-blind test. The rate of ''effective'' was 66.7% of the patients given Miradol and 20.1% of those given placebo (p < 0.01). The drug was especially effective on the patients chiefly complaining of nausea and vomiting. Placebo was also effective in some of the cases with appetite loss etc. (Ueda, J.)

  3. Characteristics of sick-listing cases that physicians consider problematic--analyses of written case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engblom, Monika; Alexanderson, Kristina; Rudebeck, Carl Edvard

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to discern common characteristics in the sick-listing cases that physicians in general practice and occupational health services find problematic. Descriptive categorization within a narrative theoretical framework. Sickness-insurance course for physicians in general practice and occupational health services. A total of 195 case reports written by 195 physicians. Main outcome measures. Categories of features regarding medical, work, and social situation as well as medical interventions. Beside age and sex, the following information was often provided: family situation, stressful life events, occupation, problem at work, considerations concerning diagnoses, medical investigations, treatments, and vocational rehabilitation measures. Two-thirds of the patients had been sickness absent for more than a year. The most common type of case reports concerned women, employed in non-qualified nursing occupations, and sick listed due to mental disorders. The most common measures taken by the physicians were referrals to psychotherapy and/or physiotherapy, and prescribing antidepressants (SSRI). Facts about alcohol habits were rarely provided in the cases. Some of the circumstances, such as prolonged sick-listing, are likely to be more or less inevitable in problematic sick-listing cases. Other circumstances, such as stress-full life events, more closely reflect what the reporting physicians find problematic. The categories identified can be regarded as markers of problematic sick-listing cases in general practice and occupational health service.

  4. Multifocal atherosclerosis in patient after acute first degree radiation sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metlyaeva N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: assessment the heavy psychosomatic and all-somatic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular pathology of patient, transferred an acute I degree radiation sickness, from the general evenly gamma-beta radiation. Conclusions. The subdepressive and disturbing-depressive syndrome of patient, transferred an acute radiation sickness (ARS of I degree, from the general evenly gamma-beta radiation, was independent risk factor of development of multifocal atherosclerosis; Features of development of all-somatic and psychosomatic pathology of patient are based on a combination of genetic prerequisites, environment influences (the stress caused by accident on the ChNPP and social factors, influencing on him during a course of life, especially during early socialization. Thus at development of psychosomatic frustration the combination of feature of the mental reaction connected with the personal characteristic and special relationship between mental (stress and physiological (somatic by aspects of reaction which led to metabolism violation, to aging, decrease in adaptation opportunities of an organism and development age — dependent pathology took place.

  5. Explanation of application standards of hematopoietic stimulating factors in the treatment of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhiwei; Jiang Enhai; Wang Guilin; Luo Qingliang

    2012-01-01

    Occupational standard of the Ministry of health-Application Standards of Hematopoietic Stimulating Factors in the Treatment of Acute Radiation Sickness has been completed as a draft standard. Based on the wide study and analysis of related animal experimental literature about hematopoietic stimulating factor in the treatment of acute radiation sickness and domestic and foreign clinical reports about application of hematopoietic stimulating factor in radiation accidents in the past decade, the standard was enacted according to the suggestions of International Atomic Energy Agency and the United States Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group and European countries about the application of hematopoietic stimulating factor. It is mainly used for nuclear accident emergency and the treatment of the bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness caused by radiation accidents. It also applies to other hematopoietic failure diseases. In order to implement this standard correctly, the relevant contents of the standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  6. Pyrimetin therapy of early symptoms of radiation sickness in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehky, F.; Dobsinska, E.

    1975-01-01

    The antiemetic effect of Pyrimetin in dogs whole-body irradiated with gamma rays at a dose of 500 R, administered per os, intramuscularly, and subcutaneously, immediately before the exposure and after it in the course of the initial symptoms of radiation sickness was studied. A decreased emesis occurred after per os administration of Pyrimetin immediately before whole-body irradiation of the dogs. After the intramuscular application before whole-body irradiation two dogs vomitted, and in the case of the intramuscular administration after whole-body irradiation one dog vomitted. The subcutaneous application of Pyrimetin to dogs before whole-body irradiation and also after it produced only a 30% therapeutic effect. (author)

  7. Cholesterol level in the circulating immune complexes of subjects suffering from the remote aftereffects of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, G.Yu.; Barabanova, A.V.; Nadezhina, N.M.; Tertov, V.V.; Orekhov, A.N.

    1994-01-01

    The potentiaoity of coronary atherosclerosis was assessed from cholesterol levels in the ciculationg immune complexes (CIC) in 53 subjects who suffered acute radiation sickness in 1986 after the Chernobyl power plant accident. CIC cholesterol levels of the subjects who suffered 3-4 years before acute radiation sickness of the first-second degrees of severity were found elevated as against an adequately matched reference group. Thus, subjects who suffered the second degree of severity acute radiation sickness after the radiation exposure, from 3-4 years later a group at high risk of coronary atherosclerosis

  8. Immunological effects in acute radiation sickness reconvalescents - results of thirteen years of follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, A.A.; Bazyka, D.A.; Belyaeva, N.V.; Azarskova, M.B.; Minchenko, Zh.N.; Pleskach, O.Ya.; Mishchenko, L.P.

    2000-01-01

    For immunological follow-up of people who had suffered from acute radiation sickness in 1986 connected with the Chernobyl NPP accident different immunological reactions were used. Both in the period of early recovery and remote reconvalescence period people had changes in expression of lymphocytes surface antigens, suggesting that even in the cases of satisfactory compensations functional reserves of immune system was narrow. Correlations with absorbed doses and somatic mutations in the locus of T-cell receptor were found. Results of the study suggested that individual characteristics of postirradiation recovery depended both on absorbed doses and genetically determined responses on the radiation hazard

  9. Tissue Respiration and Glycolysis in the Development of Acute Radiation Sickness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golubentsev, D

    1960-01-01

    The condition of tissue respiration and glycolysis in the development of acute radiation sickness has been insufficiently studied, and the factual data and opinions of various investigators are frequently contradictory...

  10. Sickness presence, sick leave and adjustment latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Gerich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Previous research on the association between adjustment latitude (defined as the opportunity to adjust work efforts in case of illness and sickness absence and sickness presence has produced inconsistent results. In particular, low adjustment latitude has been identified as both a risk factor and a deterrent of sick leave. The present study uses an alternative analytical strategy with the aim of joining these results together. Material and Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, a random sample of employees covered by the Upper Austrian Sickness Fund (N = 930 was analyzed. Logistic and ordinary least square (OLS regression models were used to examine the association between adjustment latitude and days of sickness absence, sickness presence, and an estimator for the individual sickness absence and sickness presence propensity. Results: A high level of adjustment latitude was found to be associated with a reduced number of days of sickness absence and sickness presence, but an elevated propensity for sickness absence. Conclusions: Employees with high adjustment latitude experience fewer days of health complaints associated with lower rates of sick leave and sickness presence compared to those with low adjustment latitude. In case of illness, however, high adjustment latitude is associated with a higher pro­bability of taking sick leave rather than sickness presence.

  11. The pathogenetic mechanisms of lesion and reconstruction of hematosis at critical radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukhtaev, T.M.

    1978-01-01

    In this chapter author made conclusion that for understanding pathogenetic mechanisms lead to critical radiation sickness after influence ionizing radiation it is necessary to take into account the consecution of all reactions beginning from physical and chemical processes of interaction radiation with matter till displaying final radiation effect on cell level and organism

  12. The relationship of sick leave benefits, employment patterns, and individual characteristics to radiation therapy-related fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Patricia

    2006-05-03

    To examine the relationship among sick leave benefits, employment patterns, individual characteristics, and fatigue in patients receiving radiation therapy. Prospective, longitudinal design. A community hospital radiation oncology department. 77 patients receiving radiation therapy to the breast, chest, head and neck, pelvis, or prostate. All were employed at the time of diagnosis. The Piper Integrated Fatigue Model guided the study. The Revised Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS), Brief Fatigue Inventory, and a single-item scale were used to measure five dimensions of subjective fatigue. Sick leave, employment, individual characteristics, and fatigue were measured at baseline, weekly during treatment, and at one month post-treatment. Employment patterns, availability of sick leave benefits, and fatigue. Mean total fatigue scores on the PFS ranged from 0-4.77 at baseline (mean = 0.46, SD = 0.93), 0-8.77 at the completion of treatment (mean = 2.84, SD = 2.40), and 0-4.82 at one month post-treatment (mean = 0.77, SD = 1.20). Side effects, education, living situation, age, treatment site, and work were associated with fatigue along the trajectory of radiation therapy. Study participants who were working at the end of radiation had lower fatigue scores than those who were not. Availability of sick leave benefits was associated with employment patterns during treatment. Work may have benefits during radiation therapy but may be affected by radiation therapy-related fatigue. Management of treatment side effects, including fatigue, may help patients remain in the workforce during radiation.

  13. Basic principles of medical aid in cases of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, E.; Mikhajlov, M.A.; Bliznakov, V.

    1979-01-01

    A model scheme has been presented of medical aid organization in emergency cases of irradiation. The tasks of medical service have been pointed out in connection with evacuation stages, bulk of medical aid depending on the natur of radiation damages, first aid and some general principles of radiation sickness treatment. (author)

  14. Prospect for application of umbilical cord blood to clinical treatment of radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Tingzhen; Ke Xiaoyan

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To look forward to the prospect for application of umbilical cord blood to clinical treatment of radiation sickness by analyzing the results using umbilical cord blood in laboratory experiments and clinical research. Method: The data on umbilical cord blood published in literature are reviewed. Results: The umbilical blood is rich in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, low in immunological activity of lymphocytes, expanded significantly ex vivo under selected culture condition readily available and collected easily. Conclusion: With the above advantages, the prospect for application of umbilical cord blood is encouraging, particularly in the clinical treatment of radiation sickness

  15. Therapeutic effect of bee pollens on acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingsuo; Huang Chaoqun; Chen Zhen; Huang Meiying; Jiang Ying; Wang Tao

    1997-09-01

    The therapeutic effect of bee pollens on acute radiation sickness were evaluated by observing the changes in the peripheral white blood cell (PWBC) count, the total activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the levels of lipid peroxides (LPO) in sera of the irradiated rats following P.O. administration of bee pollens. It was found that bee pollens could remarkably help irradiated rats recover from radiation-induced injury. The functions of bee pollens might be summarized as follows: (1) Stimulating Proliferation of PWBC. The PWBC count of the bee pollens group showed no significant difference as compared with the normal control group on the 30 th day postirradiation. (2) Enhancing antioxidative effect of clearing free radicals. The total activity of serum SOD in the bee pollens group increased by 6.48% as compared with the normal control group on the 30 th day after irradiation, and the LPO levels i.e. MDA and POV in sera of the irradiated rats decreased by 54.73% and 21.60% respectively. The result suggests that using bee pollens as antiradiation and health-promoting agents in clinical treatment of acute radiation sickness and during radiotherapy of patients with tumors may has certain practical value. (12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.)

  16. Probable reasons for the lower effectiveness of remedies for early treatment of acute radiation sickness accompanied by combination of radiation and thermal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budagov, R.S.; Ul'yanova, L.P.

    2001-01-01

    Mechanism underlying a lower effectiveness of remedies for early treatment of acute radiation sickness in the case of combined radiation and thermal injuries are studied. Experiments were carried out on mice. Animals had been subjected to either a 3B degree thermal burn covering 10% of the body surface or a single whole body gamma-irradiation of 7 Gy dose or a combined injury (radiation exposure + burn), and changes of the blood serum level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) were investigated by means of ELISA kits. Modifying influence of remedies for early therapy (a synthetic analogue of dicorynomycolate trehalose and a preparation based on killed Lacobacillus acidophilus) on the endogenous serum level of IL-6 and on the 30-day survival was evaluated. In accordance with the degree and duration of increased levels of IL-6 in blood serum, the investigated groups of animals were ranged as follows: combined action > burn only > irradiation only. L. acidophilus based preparation rendered a transient modifying action on the IL-6 level at the combined injury and contributed to increasing the 30-day survival. Lower effectiveness of remedies for early treatment of acute radiation sickness may be associated with too excessive levels of IL-6 in the blood serum [ru

  17. How physicians have learned to handle sickness-certification cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Anna; Silén, Charlotte; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2011-05-01

    Sickness absence is a common ''prescription'' in health care in many Western countries. Despite the significance of sick-listing for the life situation of patients, physicians have limited training in how to handle sickness-certification cases and the research about sickness-certification practices is scarce. Gain knowledge on physicians' learning regarding management of sickness certification of patients in formal, informal, and non-formal learning situations, respectively, and possible changes in this from 2004 to 2008. Data from two comprehensive questionnaires to physicians in Sweden about their sickness-certification practice in 2004 (n = 7665) and 2008 (n = 36,898); response rates: 71% and 61%, respectively. Answers from all the physicians ≤64 years old and who had sickness certification tasks (n = 4019 and n = 14,210) were analysed. ratings of importance of different types of learning situations for their sickness-certification competence. Few physicians stated that formal learning situations had contributed to a large or fairly large extent to their competence in sickness certification, e.g. undergraduate studies had done that for 17%, internship for 37%, and resident training for 46%, respectively. Contacts with colleagues had been helpful for 65%. One-third was helped by training arranged by social insurance offices. There was a significant increase between 2004 and 2008 in all items related to formal and non-formal learning situations, while there were no changes regarding informal learning situations. This study of all physicians in Sweden shows that physicians primarily attain competence in sickness certification in their daily clinical practice; through contacts with colleagues and patients.

  18. Case-specific colleague guidance for general practitioners' management of sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhagen, H P; Harvey, S B; Rosvold, E O; Bruusgaard, D; Blonk, R; Mykletun, A

    2017-12-02

    General practitioners (GPs) report sickness absence certification as challenging. They express need for support with functional assessment beyond guidelines and reforms. Case-specific collegial one-to-one guidance for other clinical topics has proved popular with GPs and may be an acceptable and effective way to improve GPs skills and competence in sickness absence certification. To present a new model of case-specific colleague guidance focusing on the management of long-term sickness absence and to describe its feasibility in terms of application and reception among GPs, and also GPs' self-reports of effects on their practice. Randomly selected GPs received case-specific collegial guidance over a 12-month period, in two Norwegian trials, delivered by former GPs employed by the social security administration. We measured reception and perceived effects by GPs' self-report and registered participation and withdrawal rates. The participation rate (n = 165) was 94%, and no GPs withdrew during training. Among the 116 GPs responding to the survey (70%), 112 (97%; 95% CI 92-99) stated they would recommend it to their colleagues. Considerable benefit from the guidance was reported by 68 (59%; 95% CI 50-68). The GPs self-reported other effects on their sickness absence certification, specifically an increased use of part-time sickness absence (Fit-Note equivalent). This model of case-specific colleague guidance to aid GPs' management of long-term sickness absence is feasible and was popular. This type of guidance was perceived by GPs to be somewhat beneficial and to alter their sickness absence certification behaviour, though the true impact requires further testing in controlled trials. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Composition for the treatment of radiation sickness and topical bacterial infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffin, S.L.

    1985-01-01

    A therapeutic composition for the theatment of radiation sickness comprises a carrier medium including one or more antibodies specific to gram negative bacteria chosen from the group Klebsiella, Pseudomoneas, Shigella, Salmonella and Escherichia species is discussed. The composition may by formed for oral administration or topical application

  20. Improving the effectiveness of sickness benefit case management through a public-private partnership?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malene Rode; Aust, Birgit; Høgelund, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether a multidimensional public-private partnership intervention, focussing on improving the quality and efficiency of sickness benefit case management, reduced the sickness benefit duration and the duration until self-support. Methods We used...... a difference-in-difference (DID) design with six intervention municipalities and 12 matched control municipalities in Denmark. The study sample comprised 282,103 sickness benefit spells exceeding four weeks. The intervention group with 110,291 spells received the intervention, and the control group with 171......,812 spells received ordinary sickness benefit case management. Using register data, we fitted Cox proportional hazard ratio models, estimating hazard ratios (HR) and confidence intervals (CI). Results We found no joint effect of the intervention on the sickness benefit duration (HR 1.02, CI 0...

  1. Challenges in the diagnosis and management of sleeping sickness in Tanzania: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindato, C; Kibona, S N; Nkya, G M; Mbilu, T J N K; Manga, C; Kaboya, J S; Rawille, F

    2008-07-01

    In Tanzania sleeping sickness presents a serious threat to human health with a country-wide average of 400 cases reported annually. Both wild and domestic animals have been found to play a significant role in the epidemiology of sleeping sickness. Serengeti National Park in northern Tanzania, has experienced a number of sleeping sickness epidemics since 1922. The epidemics were associated with abundant game animals in the areas and Glossina swynnertoni was incriminated as the main vector. However since 2001 there has been no case of sleeping sickness reported from the park. This case report highlights on the possibility of resurgence and challenges in the diagnosis and management of sleeping sickness in Serengeti. A 38 years old Tanzanian man working in the Serengeti National Park who had experienced various tsetse bites was presented with a febrile condition and history of unsuccessful case management at different health facilities. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were examined for the presence oftrypanosomes using wet film, Field's stain and concentration techniques. Typanosoma brucei rhodesiense were detected in both the blood and CSF samples. The patient was treated successfully with melarsoprol. The results of this case study highlight the possibility of resurgence of sleeping sickness in the park hence calls for the need to create more awareness among the community and clinicians. There is need for early reporting to health facility and strengthening the diagnostic capacity of healthcare facilities in and around national parks endemic for sleeping sickness.

  2. Award nomination for study of cell death in radiation sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanitskiy, G

    1985-01-01

    The author discusses the importance of the work entitled Formulation of Theoretical Bases of the Phenomenon of Cell Death and Their Use in Explaining the Pathogenesis of Radiation Sickness, which has been nominated for the 1985 USSR State Prize. The author notes that the study of the nature and mechanisms of cell death from ionizing radiation consumed the efforts of researchers of various specialties for more than 20 years. The author observes that study of the molecular basis of the high radiosensitivity of lymphocytes became the key to understanding the general biological phenomenon of cell death.

  3. Characteristics of long-term consequences of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, A.N.; Belyj, D.A.; Bebeshko, V.G.

    2000-01-01

    In persons who suffered from acute radiation sickness (ARS) as a result of the Chernobyl accident in course of time there are revealed the stochastic and non-stochastic effects of irradiation both in 'critical' and 'non-critical' organism systems. It is connected with maintenance of somatic mutation high level and steady changes in membranes subcellular structures, biomolecules as well as metabolic disturbances. Stable changes of hemopoietic and immune system indexes have to be considered as pre-pathological status with high hazard of stochastic effects development. Frequency rate of typical radiation cataracts (posterior subcapsular) is correlated with ARS severity degree; fundus oculi vessel pathology have essential weight in total eye pathology. Chronic radiation dermatitis is an important clinical problem being a long-term consequence of irradiation. It demands a constant attention in order to prevent trophic secondary skin lesions. Radiation damage of eye and skin as well as high frequency of chronic somatic diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders conditioned the high level of disablement in ARS-patients

  4. Physicians' messages in problematic sickness certification: a narrative analysis of case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudebeck Carl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many physicians find sickness certification tasks problematic. There is some knowledge about situations that are experienced as problematic, whereas less is understood about how physicians respond to the problems they face. One way to acquire such knowledge is to consider "reflection-in-action", aspects of which are expressed in the physician's interpretation of the patient's story. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge about the meaning content of case reports about problematic sickness certification. Specifically, we looked for possible messages to the colleagues intended to read the reports. Methods A narrative approach was used to analyse reports about problematic sickness certification cases that had been written by GPs and occupational health service physicians as part of a sickness insurance course. The analysis included elements from both thematic and structural analysis. Nineteen case reports were used in the actual analysis and 25 in the validation of the results. Main narrative qualities and structural features of the written case reports were explored. Results Five types of messages were identified in the case reports, here classified as "a call for help", "a call for understanding", "hidden worries", "in my opinion", and "appearing neutral". In the reports, the physicians tried to achieve neutrality in their writing, and the patients' stories tended to be interpreted within a traditional biomedical framework. In some cases there was an open request for help, in others it was not obvious that the physician had any problems. Overall, the messages were about having problems as such, rather than the specific features of the problems. Conclusions The case reports clearly demonstrated different ways of writing about problems that arise during sickness certification, from being neutral and not mentioning the problems to being emotionally involved and asking for help. The general character of the messages suggests

  5. Effect of BMPs on hematopoietic injury of acute radiation sickness in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Qiong; Zhang Shaozhang; Pu Qin; Zhang Fake; Hannah, X.H.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) on hematopoietic acute radiation sickness in mice. BMP, rhBMP-2m and PBK/hBMP-2-NIH3T3 cells were obtained separately by chemistry, molecule biological method and genetherapy method. In this study, the effect of BMPs on hematopoiesis was detected at postirradiation: some hematological parameters, 30 days the survival ratio and formation of bone marrow CFU-GM colony. The experiments indicate that when phBMP (purified bovine bone morphogenetic protein) can increase the formation of bone narrow CFU-GM colony (p<0.05) at 10th d after irradiation. Irradiation control group's mice died in 30 days, but effect of rhBMP-2m on the survival of mice after 7.5Gy irradiation, was detected whereas there were 10%, 15% and 35% all mice of survived after injection i.p. with 0.5 mg, 1.0 mg and 2.0 mg of rhBMP-2m respectively. All hematological parameters of treated mice were significantly higher than control group (p<0.01). PBK/hBMP-2-NIH3T3 cells were established and transplanted into mice irradiated by 7.0Gy r ray by i.p., the survival ratio of treated mice higher than negative control group (p<0.01), and all hematopoietic parameters were increased statistically significant (p<0.01). These data support the our hypothesis: BMPs can treat the acute radiation sickness. The results indicate that in adult mice, BMPs can recover or treat the hematopoietic injury of acute radiation sickness in mice. (author)

  6. Health care worker decompression sickness: incidence, risk and mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Inadvertent exposure to radiation, chemical agents and biological factors are well recognized hazards associated with the health care delivery system. Less well appreciated yet no less harmful is risk of decompression sickness in those who accompany patients as inside attendants (IAs) during provision of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Unlike the above hazards where avoidance is practiced, IA exposure to decompression sickness risk is unavoidable. While overall incidence is low, when calculated as number of cases over number of exposures or potential for a case during any given exposure, employee cumulative risk, defined here as number of cases over number of IAs, or risk that an IA may suffer a case, is not. Commonly, this unique occupational environmental injury responds favorably to therapeutic recompression and a period of recuperation. There are, however, permanent and career-ending consequences, and at least two nurses have succumbed to their decompression insults. The intent of this paper is to heighten awareness of hyperbaric attendant decompression sickness. It will serve as a review of reported cases and reconcile incidence against largely ignored individual worker risk. Mitigation strategies are summarized and an approach to more precisely identify risk factors that might prompt development of consensus screening standards is proposed. Copyright© Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society.

  7. RBE of 0,85 MeV neutrons in guinea pigs with intestinal form of radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaporov, V.N.; Sokolova, T.I.; Nasonova, T.A.; Aleshin, S.N.

    1989-01-01

    Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) coefficient of 0.85 MeV neutrons was 1.87 in comparison with 0.66 MeV γ-radiation ( 137 Cs) when estimated by the death rate of guinea pigs with intestinal form of radiation sickness. LD 50/5 was 5.9 and 11.06 respectively. Features of the mortality rate dynamics, clinical picture and pathoanatomical changes are discussed

  8. Changes in drinking as predictors of changes in sickness absence: a case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervasti, Jenni; Kivimäki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Halonen, Jaana I; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna

    2018-01-01

    We investigated whether changes in alcohol use predict changes in the risk of sickness absence in a case-crossover design. Finnish public sector employees were surveyed in 2000, 2004 and 2008 on alcohol use and covariates. Heavy drinking was defined as either a weekly intake that exceeded recommendations (12 units for women; 23 for men) or having an extreme drinking session. The responses were linked to national sickness absence registers. We analysed the within-person relative risk of change in the risk of sickness absence in relation to change in drinking. Case period refers to being sickness absent within 1 year of the survey and control period refers to not being sickness absent within 1 year of the survey. Periods of heavy drinking were associated with increased odds of self-certified short-term (1-3 days) sickness absence (multivariable-adjusted OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.38 for all participants; 1.62, 95% CI 1.19 to 2.21 for men and 1.15, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.33 for women). A higher risk of short-term sickness absence was also observed after increase in drinking (OR=1.27, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.52) and a lower risk was observed after decrease in drinking (OR=0.83, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.00). Both increase (OR=1.38, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.57) and decrease (OR=1.27, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.43) in drinking were associated with increased risk of long-term (>9 days) medically certified all-cause sickness absence. Increase in drinking was related to increases in short-term and long-term sickness absences. Men and employees with a low socioeconomic position in particular seemed to be at risk. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Work-related psychosocial events as triggers of sick leave - results from a Swedish case-crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindholm Christina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although illness is an important cause of sick leave, it has also been suggested that non-medical risk factors may influence this association. If such factors impact on the period of decision making, they should be considered as triggers. Yet, there is no empirical support available. The aim was to investigate whether recent exposure to work-related psychosocial events can trigger the decision to report sick when ill. Methods A case-crossover design was applied to 546 sick-leave spells, extracted from a Swedish cohort of 1 430 employees with a 3-12 month follow-up of new sick-leave spells. Exposure in a case period corresponding to an induction period of one or two days was compared with exposure during control periods sampled from workdays during a two-week period prior to sick leave for the same individual. This was done according to the matched-pair interval and the usual frequency approaches. Results are presented as odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results Most sick-leave spells happened in relation to acute, minor illnesses that substantially reduced work ability. The risk of taking sick leave was increased when individuals had recently been exposed to problems in their relationship with a superior (OR 3.63; CI 1.44-9.14 or colleagues (OR 4.68; CI 1.43-15.29. Individuals were also more inclined to report sick on days when they expected a very stressful work situation than on a day when they were not under such stress (OR 2.27; CI 1.40-3.70. Conclusions Exposure to problems in workplace relationships or a stressful work situation seems to be able to trigger reporting sick. Psychosocial work-environmental factors appear to have a short-term effect on individuals when deciding to report sick.

  10. RBE of 0.85 MeV neutrons in Guinea pigs with a cerebral form of radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaporov, V.N.; Sokolova, T.I.; Nasonova, T.A.; Aleshin, S.I.

    1989-01-01

    The RBE coefficient of neutrons (0.85 MeV) was 1.87 in comparison with that of electron radiation (8 MeV) as determined by the death rate of guinea pigs with the cerebral form of radiation sickness. LD 50/1.5 amounted to 43.2 and 80.7 Gy. The dynamics of clinical symptoms at the height of the disease is discussed

  11. Changes in reticulocyte in 2 patients with acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yuan; Chen Jiankui; Zheng Naxin; Kang Shuwei; Jin Xin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical value of routine blood and reticulocyte parameters in acute radiation sickness(ARS). Methods: Two patients with ARS were analyzed. White blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), platelet count (Plt), reticulocyte count (RET), absolute reticulocyte count, immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF), high fluorescence reticulocytes (HFR), middle fluorescence reticulocytes (MFR), and low fluorescence reticulocytes (LFR) were measured using Sysmex XT-2000i automatic hematology analyzer. Results: During early days after exposure, an increase in WBC, decrease in lymphocyte count, RET and absolute RET were observed, HFR and IRF were zero. After hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, HFR and IRF recovered at first, 1 day before the rise in WBC, 2 days before the rise in RET and absolute RET, and 3 days before the rise in Plt. Conclusion: During early days, WBC, lymphocyte count, RET and absolute RET are related to radiation dose. The rises of WBC, HFR and IRF can reflect marrow recovery after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in ARS. (authors)

  12. The characters and developments of therapy and research of neutron-induced acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinru; Luo Qingliang; Wang Baoqing; Dong Shukui

    2003-01-01

    Neutron radiation will exert seriously lesions on body and lead to acute radiation sickness (ARS). Neutron induced ARS is characterized by complicated symptoms of gastrointestinal, high earlier death rate and lacking of specially therapeutic approaches. The primarily curable method is to treat patients with comprehensive means such as anti-infection, anti-bleeding and blood infusion, et. Cytokines can improve the hematopoietic functions of bone marrow. With the rapid development of the molecular biology and the emergence of cytokines such as recombinant human interleukin-11 that could help the regeneration of the gastrointestinal mucosa, neutron-induced ARS will be treated with new methods

  13. Radiation sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposure to ionizing radiation. There are two main types of radiation: nonionizing and ionizing. Nonionizing radiation comes in the form of light, radio waves, microwaves and radar. These forms usually don't cause tissue damage. ...

  14. Risk factors associated with sick leave due to work-related injuries in Dutch farmers: an exploratory case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Frankena, K.; Oude Vrielink, H.H.E.; Nielen, M.; Metz, J.H.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Using data from an insurance company, the occurrence of sick leave among Dutch farmers due to work-related injuries, and the epidemiological risk factors were investigated. In this case-control study the cases had filed a sick leave claim for work-related injury from 19982001 and the controls had

  15. Pathmorphological investigation of pulmonary infections complications in persons dying from acute radiation sickness after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, P.A.; Kvacheva, Yu.E.

    1993-01-01

    Lungs of 27 persons who participated in liquidation of Chernobyl accident and died from acute radiation sickness were studied histologically. Pulmonary infections were found, including invasion of viral, bacterial and fungal agents. Being depended on hematopoietic function the inflammatory reactions were areactive during postirradiation aplasia and became typical within the recovery beginning

  16. Reliability of sickness certificates in detecting potential sick leave reduction by modifying working conditions: a clinical epidemiology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnsen Roar

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical sickness certificates are generally the main source for information when scrutinizing the need for aimed intervention strategies to avoid or reduce the individual and community side effects of sick leave. This study explored the value of medical sickness certificates related to daily work in Norwegian National Insurance Offices to identify sick-listed persons, where modified working conditions might reduce the ongoing sick leave. Methods The potential for reducing the ongoing sick leave by modifying working conditions was individually assessed on routine sickness certificates in 999 consecutive sick leave episodes by four Norwegian National Insurance collaborators, two with and two without formal medical competence. The study took place in Northern Norway in 1997 and 1998. Agreement analysed with differences against mean, kappa, and proportional-agreement analysis within and between groups of assessors was used in the judgement. Agreements between the assessors and the self-assessment of sick-listed subjects were additionally analysed in 159 sick-leave episodes. Results Both sick-listed subjects and National Insurance collaborators anticipated a potential reduction in sick leave in 20–30% of cases, and in another 20% the potential was assessed as possible. The chance corrected agreements, however, were poor (k Conclusion Information in medical sickness certificates proved ineffective in detecting cases where modified working conditions may reduce sick leave, and focusing on medical certificates may prevent identification of needed interventions. Strategies on how to communicate directly with sick-listed subjects would enable social authorities to exploit more of the sick leave reduction potential by modifying the working conditions than strategies on improving medical information.

  17. Sick building syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Sick building syndrome describes a number of mostly unspesific complaints of some occupants of the building. The exact pathophysiological mechanism remains elusive. It is a multi factorial event which may include physical, chemical, biological as well as psycological factors. In many cases it is due to insufficient maintenance of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, air conditioning system in the building. Sign and symptoms can be uncomfortable and even disabling, which may include mucus membrane irritation, neurotoxic symptoms, asthma like symptoms, skin complaints, gastrointestinal symptoms and other related symptoms. There are various investigation methods to diagnose sick building syndrome, and on site assessment of the building is extremely useful. Prevention through a proactive air quality monitoring program is far more desirable than dealing with an actual sick building. Indoor air and the sick building symdrome serves as a paradigm of modern occupational and environmental medicine. (Med J Indones 2002; 11:124-31Keywords: indoor air pollution, sick building syndrome, building related illness

  18. Evaluation of the sickness rate for acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenova, Y. V.; Litvinenko, T. M.; Takhanov, R. M.; Karpov, A. B.

    2004-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases seem to be the main cause of people's death in industrial developed countries. That is why the active study of factors and conditions affecting the sickness and death rate for this group of diseases is being continued at present. Apart from the well-known risk factors, there is a group of technogenic factors the contribution of which to genesis of the examined group of diseases is not clear enough and requires a detailed study. One of such factors appears to be ionizing radiaiton, especially in case of a prolonged effect with the so-called small doses. The sickness rate due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the period 1999-2001 has been studied in the closed population ZATO Seversk. To conduct examinations there was created the towns AMI register to be a structural component of the regional medico-dosimetric register (RMDR) of the Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises (SGCE) personnel and population of ZATO Seversk. Information on coronary disasters among adult population above 20 is being collected according to the program AMI Register created by WHO in 1968 with our additional results of modern methods of examining patients with ischemic heart disease and prospective observation. The analysis of data obtained testifies to the tendency towards the sickness rate increase in the period under study both among residents of the town (2,011-2,014-2,238 per 1000 people in 1999, 2000 and 2001, respectively) and among SGCE workers (4,354-4,572-5,006 per 1000) that corresponds to general tendencies of AMI sickness rate on the territory of Russian Federation. it is noted that in the group of workers at the main production the AMI sickness rate exceeds similar indices by the plant as a whole (6,205-7, 176-6,518 per 1000). Great prevalence of this AMI form among workers of a large industrial enterprise can be conditioned by a predominance of male contingent high emotional mental load (shift work on complex technological equipment with

  19. Evaluation of the sickness rate for acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenova, Y. V.; Litvinenko, T. M.; Takhanov, R. M.; Karpov, A. B.

    2004-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases seem to be the main cause of people's death in industrial developed countries. That is why the active study of factors and conditions affecting the sickness and death rate for this group of diseases is being continued at present. Apart from the well-known risk factors, there is a group of technogenic factors the contribution of which to genesis of the examined group of diseases is not clear enough and requires a detailed study. One of such factors appears to be ionizing radiaiton, especially in case of a prolonged effect with the so-called small doses. The sickness rate due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the period 1999-2001 has been studied in the closed population ZATO Seversk. To conduct examinations there was created the towns AMI register to be a structural component of the regional medico-dosimetric register (RMDR) of the Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises (SGCE) personnel and population of ZATO Seversk. Information on coronary disasters among adult population above 20 is being collected according to the program AMI Register created by WHO in 1968 with our additional results of modern methods of examining patients with ischemic heart disease and prospective observation. The analysis of data obtained testifies to the tendency towards the sickness rate increase in the period under study both among residents of the town (2,011-2,014-2,238 per 1000 people in 1999, 2000 and 2001, respectively) and among SGCE workers (4,354-4,572-5,006 per 1000) that corresponds to general tendencies of AMI sickness rate on the territory of Russian Federation. it is noted that in the group of workers at the main production the AMI sickness rate exceeds similar indices by the plant as a whole (6,205-7, 176-6,518 per 1000). Great prevalence of this AMI form among workers of a large industrial enterprise can be conditioned by a predominance of male contingent high emotional mental load (shift work on complex technological equipment with

  20. Infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool to indicate sick-house-syndrome: a case-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Ake

    1996-03-01

    Every third child and many adults in Sweden have allergic reactions caused by indoor environmental problems. A lot of buildings constructed during the building-boom period of 1950 - 1990 expose the sick-house-syndrome, due to built-in moisture problems and poor ventilation performance of the building. Leaky building construction, transport of humid air condensing on thermal bridges within the construction gives rise to a humid environment, and forms a base for a microbial deterioration process of organic materials, with emissions hazardous for human health. So far there are no universal and cost efficient techniques or methods developed which could be used to reveal the sick-house-syndrome. In this paper we present the results of a case-study of the sick-house-syndrome, and an investigation concept with a combination of different techniques and methods to detect and to map underlying factors that form the base for microbial activities. The concept includes mobile and indoor thermography, functional control of ventilation systems, tracer gas techniques for measurement of air flow exchange rate in different rooms, microbial investigation of emissions, field inspections within the building construction and the building envelope, and medical investigation of the health status of the people working in the building. Mobile thermography of the exterior facades has been performed with a longwave AGEMA THV 900, respectively THV 1000 infrared system, during the period December 1994 - June 1995, at different and similar weather and radiation conditions, and with the building pressurized at one accession. Indoor thermography has been performed with a shortwave AGEMA THV 470 system, for a selection of objects/surfaces with thermal deviations, indicated in thermograms from the different mobile thermographic surveys. Functional control was performed for the ventilation systems, and air flow rates were measured using tracer gas technique for a selection of rooms with different

  1. Prevention and treatment of the gastric symptoms of radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, A.; Fiala, N.; Boward, C.A.; Bogo, V.

    1988-01-01

    Currently available treatments for radiation-induced nausea and vomiting either are ineffective or reduce performance. The new antiemetic and gastrokinetic agent zacopride was tested in rhesus monkeys to assess its behavioral toxicity and its ability to inhibit radiation-induced emesis. Zacopride (intragastric, 0.3 mg/kg) or a placebo was given blindly and randomly in the basal state and 15 min before a whole-body 800 cGy 60Co gamma-radiation dose (except for the legs which were partially protected to permit survival of some bone marrow). We determined (1) gastric emptying rates; (2) the presence and frequency of retching and vomiting; and (3) the effect of zacopride on the performance of a visual discrimination task in nonirradiated subjects. No vomiting, retching, or decreased performance was observed after either placebo or zacopride in the control state. Following irradiation plus placebo, 70 emeses were observed in 5 of 6 monkeys, and 353 retches were observed in all 6 monkeys. In contrast, only 1 emesis was observed in 1 of 6 monkeys and 173 retches were seen in 4 of 6 monkeys after irradiation plus zacopride (P less than 0.01). Zacopride also significantly inhibited radiation-induced suppression of gastric emptying. When given after the first vomiting episode in a separate group of irradiated monkeys, zacopride completely prevented any subsequent vomiting. The present results demonstrate that intragastric administration of zacopride significantly inhibited radiation-induced retching, vomiting, and suppression of gastric emptying in rhesus monkeys and did not cause detectable behavioral side effects when given to nonradiated monkeys. This observation has important implications in the treatment of radiation sickness

  2. [Use of lithium carbonate as a leukocyte stimulant in acute radiation sickness in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konchalovskiĭ, M V; Shishkova, T V; Chotiĭ, V G; Baranov, A E

    1989-03-01

    A total of 50 patients, who had suffered from acute radiation sickness (I-III degree of severity) as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, were followed up for hematological changes. The absorbed dose of relatively even gamma-irradiation assessed by karyometry fluctuated from 0.5 to 5.7 Gy. In 17 of the patients the influence of lithium carbonate on the course of radiation neutropenia was evaluated. No appreciable effect of the agent administration in a dose of 900 mg/patient/day was recorder from 9 to 42 day after irradiation. The authors have also considered the correlations of the values of irradiation doses calculated by varying methods of biological dosimetry.

  3. A clinical report on three cases of subacute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shimin; Ye genyao; Liang Demin

    1989-01-01

    On April 20, 1985 a 137 Cs gamma-ray source of about 10 curies was taken into a family's bedroom. The son and both his parents were exposed to a nearly continuous irradiation for 150 days with estimated accumulated dose of 8-15 Gy. The father was complicated by skin radiation burn. The essential clinical findings on admission were general malaise, bleeding and pancytopenia (Hb 50g/l; WBC 0.4-0.7 x 10 9 /l; platelets 10 x 10 9 /l). The bone marrow was hypocellular with low colony yield in CFU-GM culture. The immunological examinations were essentially normal except for low E-RFC and lymphocyte transformation in all cases, and low IgA was seen only in the mother. Abnormalities were found in nail-bed microcirculation and thromboelastogram. Aspermia was detected twice in the son. The principal therapeutic measures were complete rest and adequated nutrition. The ward and nursing services were strictly controlled to avoid contamination. The son was transferred to LAFR for 2 weeks when the WBC was as low as 0.4 x 10 9 /l. Combined large doses of stanozolol and anisodamine were prescribed for all cases, while the son and his father received fetal liver transfusions in addition. All of them recovered well, especially the son

  4. Risk factors for sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders among self-employed Dutch farmers: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Vrielink, H.H.E.O.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background In Dutch agriculture, musculoskeletal disorders are a main cause of sick leave. Among self-employed insured farmers, neck, shoulder upper extremity, and back disorders accounted for 30% of the claims for sick leave of less than 1 year This case-control study set out to identify and

  5. Risk factors for sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders among self-employed Dutch farmers : A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E; Vrielink, HHEO; Huirne, RBM; Metz, JHM

    Background In Dutch agriculture, musculoskeletal disorders are a main cause of sick leave. Among self-employed insured farmers, neck, shoulder upper extremity, and back disorders accounted for 30% of the claims for sick leave of less than 1 year This case-control study set out to identify and

  6. Risk factors for sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders among self-employed Dutch farmers: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Oude Vrielink, H.H.E.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background In Dutch agriculture, musculoskeletal disorders are a main cause of sick leave. Among self-employed insured farmers, neck, shoulder, upper extremity, and back disorders accounted for 30% of the claims for sick leave of less than 1 year This case-control study set out to identify and

  7. The sick-building syndrome; Das Sick-Building-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henne, A.; Neumann, H.F.; Winneke, G.

    1992-12-31

    The sick-building syndrome is characterized by the presence of general, non-specific symptoms (e.g., headache, tiredness, respiratory problems, eye trouble, vertigo, nausea, unspecific hypersensitivity) in association with a particular indoor ambience. It is clearly distinguishable from `building-related illness`, referring to a well-defined clinical syndrome due to staying in a building and for which a cause can, in general, be established. Disorders in the case of the sick-building syndrome are manifold and confirmed objectifiable results are hardly available so far. Yet there are some organ-related methods for the confirmation of findings concerning, for instance, the eyes, the skin and the area of the nose. The causes of the incidence of sick-building syndrome are more or less unclear. It is a multifactorial phenomenon involving physical, biological, chemical, individual-specific and psychological factors. Buildings where sick-building syndrome occurs typically exhibit certain properties. The European Community has already made proposals for the investigation of incriminated buildings. A systematic survey by questionnaire together with individual interviews plays an import part towards clarifying the syndrome. (orig./UWA) [Deutsch] Das Sick-Building-Syndrom beschreibt das Vorhandensein von allgemeinen, nicht spezifischen Symptomen (z.B. Kopfschmerzen, Muedigkeit, Atembeschwerden, Augenreizungen, Schwindelgefuehl, Uebelkeit, unspezifische Ueberempfindlichkeit), assoziiert mit einer besonderen Innenraumumgebung. Deutlich hiervon abzugrenzen ist die ``Building related illness``, bei der ein klinisch definiertes Krankheitsbild vorliegt, das durch den Aufenthalt im Gebaeude verursacht wird und fuer das im allgemeinen eine Ursache ermittelt werden kann. Das Beschwerdebild beim Sick-Building-Syndrom ist vielfaeltig, und gesicherte, objektivierbare Befunde liegen hierzu bisher kaum vor. Dennoch gibt es einige organbezogenen Methoden zur Befundabsicherung, z.B. fuer das

  8. Consequences and outcomes of chronic radiation sickness induced by external γ-rays(50 years of clinical follow-up)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okladnikova, Nadezhda D.; Sumina, Margarita V.; Pesternikova, Valentina S.

    2002-01-01

    Health was analyzed for 673 workers of the first Russian nuclear facility. These nuclear workers had CRS induced by external overall exposure to γ -rays in high doses (total, 1.0-9.76 Gy). The study was focused on evaluation of the post-exposure recovery in most radiosensitive systems and organs, consequences and outcomes of chronic radiation sickness (CRS). The complex evaluation of peripheral blood data and results of bone marrow studies revealed a moderately pronounced bone marrow hypoplasia for 2% of cases and partial hypoplasia of granulocytopoiesis for 4.9% of cases (most patients aged over 70). The changes were clinically compensated and did not require any special treatment. Chromosome aberrations in somatic cells are still indicators of radiation past-exposures; their frequency has a correlation with total dose and 239 Pu incorporation. No high incidence of complications such as cerebrovasciular diseases (CVD) was revealed for CRS patients with high doses (total dose exceeded 4.0 Gy, maximum annual dose exceeded 2.0 Gy) and clinical symptoms of the early (up to 45 years) cerebral atherosclerosis (CAS). The retrospective analysis of clinical data for 370 CRS cases registered during 1950-60ss among workers with lower doses indicated that the moderately pronounced symptoms of CRS were formed at dose not less than 1.4 Gy accumulated during the first 1-2 years of work and annual dose, 0.73 Gy. Cardiovascular diseases prevailed followed by malignant neoplasms in the structure of death causes during 50 years of follow-up. Presented results for the cohort of individuals exposed in high doses can be used in health examination of those, who were involved in radiation accidents or exposure incidents

  9. Emergency preparedness of Research Center for Radiation medicine and its hospital to admit and treat the patients with signs of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyi, D. A.; Khomenko, V. I.; Bebeshko, V. G.

    2009-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the Research Center for Radiation Medicine (RCRM) was established in Kiev (Ukraine). Its main task was to maintain a high level of emergency preparedness and be ready to examine and treat patients who suffer as a result of hypothetical radiation accident. Based on the previous experience, this institution's specialists worked out new diagnostic criteria and drug treatment schemata for acute radiation sickness, created a database on 75 patients with this diagnosis and improved educational programmes for medical students and physicians working in the field of radiation medicine. RCRM collaborates fruitfully with western partners through the joint research projects and connects with the World Health Organisation's Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network centre. Collaboration with Kiev Center for Bone Marrow Transplantation allows RCRM to use aseptic wards having highly filtered air for the treatment of most severely irradiated patients. (authors)

  10. Lack of adjustment latitude at work as a trigger of taking sick leave-a Swedish case-crossover study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Hultin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Research has shown that individuals reporting a low level of adjustment latitude, defined as having few possibilities to temporarily adjust work demands to illness, have a higher risk of sick leave. To what extent lack of adjustment latitude influences the individual when making the decision to take sick leave is unknown. We hypothesize that ill individuals are more likely to take sick leave on days when they experience a lack of adjustment latitude at work than on days with access to adjustment latitude. METHODS: A case-crossover design was applied to 546 sick-leave spells, extracted from a cohort of 1 430 employees at six Swedish workplaces, with a 3-12 month follow-up of all new sick-leave spells. Exposure to lack of adjustment latitude on the first sick-leave day was compared with exposure during several types of control periods sampled from the previous two months for the same individual. RESULTS: Only 35% of the respondents reported variations in access to adjustment latitude, and 19% reported a constant lack of adjustment latitude during the two weeks prior to the sick-leave spell. Among those that did report variation, the risk of sick leave was lower on days with lack of adjustment latitude, than on days with access (Odds Ratio 0.36, 95% Confidence Interval 0.25-0.52. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show the influence of adjustment latitude on the decision to take sick leave. Among those with variations in exposure, lack of adjustment latitude was a deterrent of sick leave, which is contrary to the à priori hypothesis. These results indicate that adjustment latitude may not only capture long-lasting effects of a flexible working environment, but also temporary possibilities to adjust work to being absent. Further studies are needed to disentangle the causal mechanisms of adjustment latitude on sick-leave.

  11. Considerations on the classification of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, M.A.; Andreev, E.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation disease is a well-defined and extensively studied entity with typical signs and symptomatology. A basic point in establishing a classification is dose absorbed by the organism. The pattern of pathology displayed will vary with dose distribution in time and space. Acute radiation disease after single, overall exposure to a radiation level ranging from 100 to 1000 rem and above may be manifested in four main forms, according to the prevailing pathogenetic mechanism: cerebral, toxemic, intestinal, and a typical form dominated by injury to the hematopoietic system. In the course of the disease, three major periods may be distinguished: development, recovery, and long-term effects and outcome. These three periods will not necessarily be represented in all forms of radiation disease. As for the clinical symptomatology of acute radiation disease, its evolution allows the delineation of four phases: primary general reactions, latent period, clinical manifestation, and apparent recovery. In a typical form of acute radiation disease, severity of effects is a function of dose. Chronic radiation disease may also be of two varieties, depending on space distribution of dose. In addition, a third variety has been distinguished, namely the case of a combination of external exposure with internal contamination. Similar to the acute radiation disease, periods and degrees of severity in chronic radiation disease will vary with cumulative radiation dose. In this case, degrees of severity overlap with phases in the development of the pathological process. A category by itself in the classification is alloted to combined lesions resulting from exposure to radiological plus nonradiological factors. (A.B.)

  12. Physical working ability in persons who survived acute radiation sickness due to Chernobyl accident (the data of 16-year follow-up)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, O.M.; Byilij, D.O.

    2004-01-01

    Considerable reduction in physical working ability (PWA) in persons who survived acute radiation sickness in the early period is chiefly caused by negative influence of ionizing radiation and is not determined by the degree of severity of bone-marrow syndrome. Further restoration of PWA does not occur which can be explained by development of neurosomatic pathology against a background of age-related changes in the organs and systems of the victims

  13. Sick-visit immunizations and delayed well-baby visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Steve G

    2013-07-01

    Giving recommended immunizations during sick visits for minor and acute illness such as acute otitis media has long been an American Academy of Pediatrics/Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice recommendation. An addition to the American Academy of Pediatrics policy in 2010 advised considering whether giving immunizations at the sick visit would discourage making up missed well-baby visits. This study quantifies the potential tradeoff between sick-visit immunizations and well-baby visits. This study was a retrospective cohort analysis with a case-control component of sick visits for acute otitis media that supplanted normal well-baby visits at age 2, 4, or 6 months. Infants were stratified for sick-visit immunization, no sick-visit immunization but quick makeup well-baby visits, or no sick-visit immunizations or quick makeup visits. Immunization rates and well-baby visit rates were assessed through 24 months of age. For 1060 study cases, no significant difference was detected in immunization rates or well-baby visits through 24 months of age between those with or without sick-visit immunizations. Thirty-nine percent of infants without a sick-visit shot failed to return for a quick makeup well-baby visit; this delayed group was significantly less likely to be up-to-date for immunizations (relative risk: 0.66) and had fewer well-baby visits (mean: 3.8) from 2 through 24 months of age compared with those with sick-visit shots (mean: 4.7). The substantial risk that infants will not return for a timely makeup well-baby visit after a sick visit should be included in any consideration of whether to delay immunizations.

  14. General practitioners' use of sickness certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roope, Richard; Parker, Gordon; Turner, Susan

    2009-12-01

    At present, sickness certification is largely undertaken by general practitioners (GPs). Guidance from the Department of Work and Pensions (DWP) is available to help with this task; however, there has been little formal evaluation of the DWP's guidance in relation to day-to-day general practice. To assess GPs' training, knowledge and application of the DWP's sickness certification guidelines. A structured questionnaire was sent to GPs within a (former) primary care trust (PCT). It probed demographics, training and knowledge of sickness certification guidelines. Case histories and structured questions were used to assess current practice. In this group of 113 GPs, there was a low awareness and use of the DWP's guidelines and Website relating to sickness certification. The majority of the GPs (63%) had received no training in sickness certification, and the mean length of time for those who had received training was 4.1 h. Most GPs also felt that patients and GPs have equal influence on the duration of sickness certification. This evidence of variable practice indicates that GPs should have more guidance and education in sickness certification. Closer sickness certification monitoring through existing GP computer systems may facilitate an improvement in practice that benefits patients and employers. The DWP, medical educators and PCTs may all have an additional role in further improving sickness certification practice.

  15. Disturbance of binding of corticosteroids with blood plasma proteins during acute radiation sickness of different experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroz, B.B.; Omel'chuk, N.N.

    1979-01-01

    In experiments on different animals a study was made of the effect of total-body γ-irradiation on binding of corticosteroids with blood plasma proteins. It was demonstrated that the increase in the number of physiologically active corticosteroids at the peak of radiation sickness is due to diminution of linking ability of corticosteroid-binding globulin of blood plasma and independent ot the total concentration of hormones in blood which is, evidently, a general radiobiological law

  16. Changes in the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of psycholeptic drugs in radiation-sickness. Effect of X-ray radiation on pharmacodynamic activity of nitrazepam in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczawinska, K.; Chodera, A.; Wojciak, Z.; Kozaryn, I.

    1975-01-01

    The anticonvulsive effect of nitrazepam was determined in animals exposed to a single 600 R radiation and the exploring activity of the animals was studied after nitrazepam administered during radiation sickness caused by this exposure. On the 1st day after exposure the activity, reducing effect was slightly weaker but on days 3rd and 6th this effect was significantly stronger. The anticonvulsant effect of nitrazepam on the 3rd day after exposure was significantly greater as compared with control animals, but on the 6th day no difference in the power of anticonvulsant activity between the two groups of animals was found. (author)

  17. Changes of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of psycholeptic drugs in radiation sickness. Part 3. Changes of pharmacodynamics of thioridazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazaryn, I.; Wojciakowa, Z.; Chodera, A.; Szczawinska, K.

    1977-01-01

    The cataleptic actions of thioridazine, its effect on the exploring mobility of rats and the hexobarbital-induced sleep in radiation sickness were studied. Irradiation of animals causes deepening and prolongation of catatonic state after thioridazine (20 mg/kg), and considerably reduces the mobility of rats after the drug (7 mg/kg). Irradiation increases also the influence of thioridazine (10 mg/kg) on prolongation of sleep after hexobarbital (150 mg/kg). (author)

  18. Decompression sickness in a vegetarian diver: are vegetarian divers at risk? A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, Robert A.; van der Kamp, Wim

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of a diver who suffered decompression sickness (DCS), but who also was a strict vegetarian for more than 10 years. He presented with symptoms of tingling of both feet and left hand, weakness in both legs and sensory deficits for vibration and propriocepsis after two deep dives with

  19. MRI diagnosis of acute spinal cord decompression sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaofeng; Yuan Fengmei; Ma Heng; Xu Yongzhong; Gai Qingzhu; Wang Ying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To describe MRI findings of acute spinal cord decompression sickness. Methods: MRI findings of 5 cases with clinical definite acute spinal cord decompression sickness were retrospectively analyzed. The main clinical informations included underwater performance history against regulations, short-term complete or incomplete spinal cord injury symptoms after fast going out of water, sensory disability and urinary and fecal incontinence, etc. Results: Spinal cord vacuole sign was found in all 5 cases. Iso-signal intensity (n=3), high signal intensity (n=1), and low signal intensity (n=1) was demonstrated on T 1 WI, and high signal intensity (n=5) was found on T 2 WI. Owl eye sign was detected in 3 cases, and lacune foci were seen in 2 cases. Conclusion: MRI findings of acute spinal cord decompression sickness had some characteristics, and it was easy to diagnose by combining diving history with clinical manifestations. (authors)

  20. Work and family: associations with long-term sick-listing in Swedish women – a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandmark Hélène

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of Swedish women who are long-term sick-listed is high, and twice as high as for men. Also the periods of sickness absence have on average been longer for women than for men. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between factors in work- and family life and long-term sick-listing in Swedish women. Methods This case-control study included 283 women on long-term sick-listing ≥90 days, and 250 female referents, randomly chosen, living in five counties in Sweden. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses with odds ratios were calculated to estimate the associations between long-term sick-listing and factors related to occupational work and family life. Results Long-term sick-listing in women is associated with self-reported lack of competence for work tasks (OR 2.42 1.23–11.21 log reg, workplace dissatisfaction (OR 1.89 1.14–6.62 log reg, physical workload above capacity (1.78 1.50–5.94, too high mental strain in work tasks (1.61 1.08–5.01 log reg, number of employers during work life (OR 1.39 1.35–4.03 log reg, earlier part-time work (OR 1.39 1.18–4.03 log reg, and lack of influence on working hours (OR 1.35 1.47–3.86 log reg. A younger age at first child, number of children, and main responsibility for own children was also found to be associated with long-term sick-listing. Almost all of the sick-listed women (93% wanted to return to working life, and 54% reported they could work immediately if adjustments at work or part-time work were possible. Conclusion Factors in work and in family life could be important to consider to prevent women from being long-term sick-listed and promote their opportunities to remain in working life. Measures ought to be taken to improve their mobility in work life and control over decisions and actions regarding theirs lives.

  1. Sleeping sickness surveys: game reserve adjacent villages in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sleeping sickness surveys: game reserve adjacent villages in Malawi. ... Sera from 160 game ranger volunteers and from 82 suspected cases_of Rhodesian sleeping sickness were tested by use of ELISA, ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. The actions of the social insurance agency regarding long-term sickness absentees before and after a medical assessment--a study of 384 case files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Staffan; Lundh, Göran; Gustafsson, Klas; Linder, Jürgen; Svedberg, Pia; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate actions taken by the Social Insurance Agency (SIA) for long-term sickness absentees and possible associations of this with future sick leave or disability pension. For 384 long-term sickness absentees who had had a multidisciplinary medical assessment (MMA) during 2001-2006, three types of data were obtained: (1) case file information about SIA actions, (2) suggested rehabilitation measures from the MMA and (3) sickness absence and disability pension data. Most individuals had been subject to a range of actions by the SIA. Sixty percent had been invited to a coordination meeting, and half of those who assessed by the MMA for vocational rehabilitation were approved to get it by the SIA. Few SIA actions were associated with full or partial return to work. Although the studied individuals had been on sick leave for a long time, the number of SIA actions related to vocational rehabilitation was limited and came late in the sick-leave spell. The information from the MMA was often not used as a basis for further SIA action and seldom resulted in return to work. The positive MMA views on the potential of vocational rehabilitation were not met by SIA actions. Suggestions on vocational rehabilitation from a medical assessment was in many cases not used by the social insurance agency in relationship to long-term sickness absentees. Active rehabilitation measures by the social insurance agency were few and came late in the sickness absence process. Few of the activities taken by the social insurance agency enhanced return to work.

  3. Effects of radiation upon gastrointestinal motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mary F Otterson

    2007-01-01

    Whether due to therapeutic or belligerent exposure, the gastrointestinal effects of irradiation produce symptoms dreaded by a majority of the population. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal cramping are hallmarks of the prodromal phase of radiation sickness, occurring hours to days following radiation exposure. The prodromal phase is distinct from acute radiation sickness in that the absorptive, secretory and anatomic changes associated with radiation damage are not easily identifiable. It is during this phase of radiation sickness that gastrointestinal motility significantly changes. In addition, there is evidence that motor activity of the gut contributes to some of the acute and chronic effects of radiation.

  4. Therapeutic effect of rhIL-11 administered at different times on acute radiation sickness in rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Jing; Luo Qingliang; Xiong Guolin; Liu Xiaolan; Qiu Liling; Chen Guozhi; Huang Ying; Ge Ping; Geng Yu; Sun Liansheng; Dong Bo; Li Yuanmin; Chen Wangqiu; Shen Chun

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The author describes the therapeutic effect of recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) administered at different times on acute radiation sickness in monkeys. Methods: Rhesus monkeys irradiated with 3.0 Gy 60 Co γ rays were divided into 3 groups. One group was the control administered with vehicle, the second one was subjected to administer rhIL-11 on days 0-13 after TBI (60 μg·kg -1 ·d -1 , sc) and the third one to administer rhIL-11 on days 13-26 after TBI at the same doses. Results: The early treated group had higher platelet nadirs compared with that of the other two. The duration of platelet and leukocyte numbers below 50% of their baseline values shortened significantly in animals treated with rhIL-11, especially in the early treated group. During the first week after irradiation, the early treated group had lower erythrocyte count compared with the control, but it began to rise at day 19 after irradiation. Semi-solid bone marrow cell culture demonstrated that rhIL-11 could stimulate bone marrow cells to form more CFU-MK, CFU-Mix, CFU-E, BFU-E and CFU-GM in vitro. The authors also got the same results in histopathological observation. Conclusion: rhIL-11 administered at different times can not only accelerate the haematopoietic recovery of acute radiation sickness in rhesus monkeys, but also result in better therapeutic effect when administered earlier

  5. Sickness allowance histories among disability retirees due to mental disorders: A retrospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Mikko; Blomgren, Jenni; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari

    2016-05-01

    The aim was to describe sickness allowance histories before disability retirement due to mental disorders and to examine whether receiving sickness allowance due to mental disorders and somatic conditions predicts future disability retirement. Pre-retirement sickness allowance histories were traced backwards for 7 years among Finnish residents aged 25-64 years who had retired due to mental disorders in 2011 (n=5.544). For each retiree, five sex- and age-matched controls were drawn from the non-retired population. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the risk for disability retirement by sickness allowance history and to control for the effects of educational level, social class, marital status and the urbanisation level of the municipality. The proportion of sickness allowance recipients increased steadily during the years preceding disability retirement, and was highest among those who retired due to bipolar disorders or depression. Those who had received sickness allowance due to mental disorders 6-7 years earlier had 6.5 times higher risk and those with sickness allowance 1-2 years earlier 11.7 times higher risk for disability retirement. Sickness allowance due to somatic conditions increased the risk for disability retirement 1.6-1.9 times. Sickness allowance most strongly predicted retirement due to bipolar disorders and depression. Adjustment for covariates had little effect. Those who retired due to mental disorders more often had sickness allowance due to both mental disorders and somatic conditions, but in particular sickness allowance due to mental disorders predicted disability retirement due to mental disorders. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  6. Validation of sick leave measures: self-reported sick leave and sickness benefit data from a Danish national register compared to multiple workplace-registered sick leave spells in a Danish municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapelfeldt, Christina Malmose; Jensen, Chris; Andersen, Niels Trolle; Fleten, Nils; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2012-08-15

    Previous validation studies of sick leave measures have focused on self-reports. Register-based sick leave data are considered to be valid; however methodological problems may be associated with such data. A Danish national register on sickness benefit (DREAM) has been widely used in sick leave research. On the basis of sick leave records from 3,554 and 2,311 eldercare workers in 14 different workplaces, the aim of this study was to: 1) validate registered sickness benefit data from DREAM against workplace-registered sick leave spells of at least 15 days; 2) validate self-reported sick leave days during one year against workplace-registered sick leave. Agreement between workplace-registered sick leave and DREAM-registered sickness benefit was reported as sensitivities, specificities and positive predictive values. A receiver-operating characteristic curve and a Bland-Altman plot were used to study the concordance with sick leave duration of the first spell. By means of an analysis of agreement between self-reported and workplace-registered sick leave sensitivity and specificity was calculated. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (95% CI) were used. The probability that registered DREAM data on sickness benefit agrees with workplace-registered sick leave of at least 15 days was 96.7% (95% CI: 95.6-97.6). Specificity was close to 100% (95% CI: 98.3-100). The registered DREAM data on sickness benefit overestimated the duration of sick leave spells by an average of 1.4 (SD: 3.9) weeks. Separate analysis on pregnancy-related sick leave revealed a maximum sensitivity of 20% (95% CI: 4.3-48.1).The sensitivity of self-reporting at least one or at least 56 sick leave day/s was 94.5 (95% CI: 93.4 - 95.5) % and 58.5 (95% CI: 51.1 - 65.6) % respectively. The corresponding specificities were 85.3 (95% CI: 81.4 - 88.6) % and 98.9 (95% CI: 98.3 - 99.3) %. The DREAM register offered valid measures of sick leave spells of at least 15 days among eldercare employees. Pregnancy

  7. Validation of sick leave measures: self-reported sick leave and sickness benefit data from a Danish national register compared to multiple workplace-registered sick leave spells in a Danish municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stapelfeldt Christina Malmose

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous validation studies of sick leave measures have focused on self-reports. Register-based sick leave data are considered to be valid; however methodological problems may be associated with such data. A Danish national register on sickness benefit (DREAM has been widely used in sick leave research. On the basis of sick leave records from 3,554 and 2,311 eldercare workers in 14 different workplaces, the aim of this study was to: 1 validate registered sickness benefit data from DREAM against workplace-registered sick leave spells of at least 15 days; 2 validate self-reported sick leave days during one year against workplace-registered sick leave. Methods Agreement between workplace-registered sick leave and DREAM-registered sickness benefit was reported as sensitivities, specificities and positive predictive values. A receiver-operating characteristic curve and a Bland-Altman plot were used to study the concordance with sick leave duration of the first spell. By means of an analysis of agreement between self-reported and workplace-registered sick leave sensitivity and specificity was calculated. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (95% CI were used. Results The probability that registered DREAM data on sickness benefit agrees with workplace-registered sick leave of at least 15 days was 96.7% (95% CI: 95.6-97.6. Specificity was close to 100% (95% CI: 98.3-100. The registered DREAM data on sickness benefit overestimated the duration of sick leave spells by an average of 1.4 (SD: 3.9 weeks. Separate analysis on pregnancy-related sick leave revealed a maximum sensitivity of 20% (95% CI: 4.3-48.1. The sensitivity of self-reporting at least one or at least 56 sick leave day/s was 94.5 (95% CI: 93.4 – 95.5 % and 58.5 (95% CI: 51.1 – 65.6 % respectively. The corresponding specificities were 85.3 (95% CI: 81.4 – 88.6 % and 98.9 (95% CI: 98.3 – 99.3 %. Conclusions The DREAM register offered valid measures of sick

  8. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Notenbomer

    Full Text Available Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves.We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD-R model as theoretical framework.Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence.The JD-R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance.

  9. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notenbomer, Annette; Roelen, Corné A M; van Rhenen, Willem; Groothoff, Johan W

    2016-01-01

    Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year) is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves. We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD-R) model as theoretical framework. Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills) were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence. The JD-R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance.

  10. Prostaglandis and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romantsev, E.F.; Blokhina, V.D.; Zhulanova, Z.I.; Koshcheenko, I.N.; Nikol'skij, A.V.; Filippovich, I.V.

    1984-01-01

    It was established that some biochemical distortions in the brain of animals, subjected to superlethal doses of ionizing radiation don't develope; the starting mechanisms of a radiation damage can be fundamentally another, as compared to the medullar and intestinal forms of radiation sickness. It enables to assume that observed changes in activity of prostaglandin-synthetase system during irradiation by 250 Gr dose are based on earlier formed changes in membrane permeability and distortion of receptor cell activity. Investigations of the effect of radiation damage modificators give additional information when studying the primary biochemical processes, initiating radiation sickness

  11. On the study of a sick building: the case of Athens Air Traffic Control Tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assimakopoulos, V.D.; Helmis, C.G. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2004-07-01

    It is well known that in many cases the responsibility for the formation of the sick-building syndrome lies with the inappropriate envelope design, the misuse of the building by the inhabitants and the combination of indoor-outdoor pollution sources. In the case of Athens Air Traffic Control Tower (ATCT), sick syndrome episodes were reported by the employees. In the present study, recently obtained indoor air quality measurements, during selected meteorological conditions, taken in the ATCT, are presented and discussed. These include concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which in many cases were thought responsible for the poor indoor environment. The measurements cover the indoor and outdoor environment of selected building regions, the ventilation systems and the plenum under the floor. The data indicates that there are certain places in the building where the VOCs concentrations were well above outdoor levels, while in others the concentrations were lower. Further analysis of the results showed that the central ventilation system is not sufficient for the building needs and that in some areas, either due to cleaning negligence or to the construction material used, VOCs pollution sources have developed. In order to eliminate these problems and to improve the indoor environment certain actions were taken. Following these interventions a second set of measurements were collected, inside and outside the ATCT building, which indicated a substantial improvement of the indoor air quality. (author)

  12. SICK SINUS SYNDROME IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Kazakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a clinical case of 2 patients with heart arrhythmias of the sick sinus syndrome type, who were implanted electriccardiac pacemakers in the acute period of cerebrovascular accidents. There were no cardiac complaints in the clinical manifestation, however, a comprehensive assessment confirmed the diagnosis of sick sinus syndrome.

  13. Work-family conflict as a risk factor for sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, N W H; Kant, I J; van Amelsvoort, L G P M; Kristensen, T S; Swaen, G M H; Nijhuis, F J N

    2006-07-01

    (1) To study both cross-sectional and prospective relationships between work-family conflict and sickness absence from work; (2) to explore the direction of the relationships between the different types of conflict (work-home interference and home-work interference) and sickness absence; and (3) to explore gender differences in the above relationships. Data from the Maastricht Cohort Study were used with six months of follow up (5072 men and 1015 women at T6). Work-family conflict was measured with the Survey Work-Home Interference Nijmegen (SWING). Sickness absence was assessed objectively through individual record linkage with the company registers on sickness absence. In the cross-sectional analyses, high levels of work-family conflict, work-home interference, and home-work interference were all associated with a higher odds of being absent at the time of completing the questionnaire, after controlling for age and long term disease. Differences in average number of absent days between cases and non-cases of work-home interference were significant for men and most pronounced in women, where the average number of absent days over six months follow up was almost four days higher in women with high versus low-medium work-home interference. A clear relation between work-family conflict and sickness absence was shown. Additionally, the direction of work-family conflict was associated with a different sickness absence pattern. Sickness absence should be added to the list of adverse outcomes for employees struggling to combine their work and family life.

  14. When healthcare workers get sick: exploring sickness absenteeism in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Erin; Yu, Shicheng; Alamgir, Hasanat

    2010-01-01

    To determine the demographic and work characteristics of healthcare workers who were more likely to take sickness absences from work in British Columbia, Canada. Payroll data were analyzed for three health regions. Sickness absence rates were determined per person-year and then compared across demographic and work characteristics using multivariate Poisson regression models. The direct costs to the employer due to sickness absences were also estimated. Female, older, full-time workers, long-term care workers and those with a lower hourly wage were more likely to take sickness absences and had similar trends with respect to the costs due to sickness absence. For occupations, licensed practical nurses, care aides and facility support workers had higher rates of sickness absence. Registered nurses, and those workers paid high hourly wages were associated with highest sickness related costs. It is important to understand the demographic and work characteristics of those workers who are more likely to take sickness absences in order to make sure that they are not experiencing additional hazards at work or facing detrimental workplace conditions. Policy makers need to establish healthy, safe and in turn more productive workplaces. Further research is needed on how interventions can reduce sickness absence.

  15. Nifurtimox plus Eflornithine for late-stage sleeping sickness in Uganda: a case series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Checchi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We report efficacy and safety outcomes from a prospective case series of 31 late-stage T.b. gambiense sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis, HAT patients treated with a combination of nifurtimox and eflornithine (N+E in Yumbe, northwest Uganda in 2002-2003, following on a previously reported terminated trial in nearby Omugo, in which 17 patients received the combination under the same conditions.Eligible sequential late-stage patients received 400 mg/Kg/day eflornithine (Ornidyl, Sanofi-Aventis for seven days plus 15 mg/Kg/day (20 mg for children <15 years old nifurtimox (Lampit, Bayer AG for ten days. Efficacy (primary outcome was monitored for 24 months post discharge. Clinical and laboratory adverse events (secondary outcome were monitored during treatment. All 31 patients were discharged alive, but two died post-discharge of non-HAT and non-treatment causes, and one was lost to follow-up. Efficacy ranged from 90.3% to 100.0% according to analysis approach. Five patients experienced major adverse events during treatment, and neutropenia was common (9/31 patients.Combined with the previous group of 17 trial patients, this case series yields a group of 48 patients treated with N+E, among whom no deaths judged to be treatment- or HAT-related, no treatment terminations and no relapses have been noted, a very favourable outcome in the context of late-stage disease. N+E could be the most promising combination regimen available for sleeping sickness, and deserves further evaluation.

  16. Car Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preventable Diseases Healthy Children > Health Issues > Conditions > Head Neck & Nervous System > Car Sickness Health Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Car Sickness Page Content ...

  17. Sick but yet at work. An empirical study of sickness presenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronsson, G; Gustafsson, K; Dallner, M

    2000-07-01

    The study is an empirical investigation of sickness presenteeism in relation to occupation, irreplaceability, ill health, sickness absenteeism, personal income, and slimmed down organisation. Cross sectional design. Swedish workforce. The study group comprised a stratified subsample of 3801 employed persons working at the time of the survey, interviewed by telephone in conjunction with Statistics Sweden's labour market surveys of August and September 1997. The response rate was 87 per cent. A third of the persons in the total material reported that they had gone to work two or more times during the preceding year despite the feeling that, in the light of their perceived state of health, they should have taken sick leave. The highest presenteeism is largely to be found in the care and welfare and education sectors (nursing and midwifery professionals, registered nurses, nursing home aides, compulsory school teachers and preschool/primary educationalists. All these groups work in sectors that have faced personnel cutbacks during the 1990s). The risk ratio (odds ratio (OR)) for sickness presenteeism in the group that has to re-do work remaining after a period of absence through sickness is 2.29 (95% CI 1.79, 2.93). High proportions of persons with upper back/neck pain and fatigue/slightly depressed are among those with high presenteeism (pwork when sick. The link between difficulties in replacement or finding a stand in and sickness presenteeism is confirmed by study results. The categories with high sickness presenteeism experience symptoms more often than those without presenteeism. The most common combination is low monthly income, high sickness absenteeism and high sickness presenteeism.

  18. [Risk factors for absenteeism due to sick leave in the petroleum industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oenning, Nágila Soares Xavier; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Lima, Veronica Maria Cadena

    2014-02-01

    To identify risk factors for absenteeism among workers with sick leave in an oil company. A case-control study (120 cases and 656 controls) nested in a retrospective cohort study following up all employees of an oil company in the North-Northeast of Brazil from 2007 to 2009. The response variable used to represent absenteeism with sick leave was the average incidence of sick leave, defined as the ratio between total sick days and potential working days in the period. Logistic regression techniques were used to investigate the association between average incidence of sick leave > 5.0% over the period and the variables sex, position, age, time at work, shift work, smoking, arterial hypertension, body mass index, physical activity, coronary risk, sleep, glycemia, non-managed diabetes, cardiovascular, digestive, musculoskeletal, neurological and neoplastic diseases, straining body positioning during work, satisfaction at work, relationship with management, and concentrated attention at work. Average incidence of sick leave higher than 5.0% in the cohort period was 15.5%. The logistic model revealed that workers with average incidence of sick leave higher than 5.0% were 2.6 times more likely to be female; 2.0 time more likely to be smokers; 1.8 time more likely to be former smokers; 2.2 times more likely to report abnormal sleep and 10.5 times more likely to report dissatisfaction with their than workers with average incidence of sick leave ≤ 5.0% in the period. In this population, female gender, being a smoker or a former smoker, reporting dissatisfaction with the job and reporting abnormal sleep are good predictors of occupational absenteeism with sick leave. To identify risk factors for absenteeism among workers with sick leave in an oil company. A case-control study (120 cases and 656 controls) nested in a retrospective cohort study following up all employees of an oil company in the North-Northeast of Brazil from 2007 to 2009. The response variable used to

  19. Decompression sickness rates for chamber personnel: case series from one facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Megan S; Morrison, Thomas O; Butler, William P

    2009-06-01

    During 2004, a case series of decompression sickness (DCS) meeting the definition of epidemic DCS was observed in the Shaw AFB Physiological Training Program. There were 10 cases of chamber-induced altitude DCS observed. Internal and external investigations focused on time, place, person, and environment. No temporal trend was observed. Chamber, masks, regulators, crew positions, and oxygen sources revealed no defects. Among the cases, mean age was 27 yr. Peak altitude in four cases was 35,000 ft and in the other six cases was 25,000 ft. Six had joint pain, one skin symptoms, and three neurological findings. Four were treated with 100% ground-level oxygen and six with hyperbaric oxygen. Four were students and six were inside observers (IO). Four were women and six men. In the IO, where four of the six were women, no gender effect was seen. Examining the IO monthly exposure load (exposures per month) against DCS suggested a dose-response relationship. This relationship held true when 4 yr of Shaw AFB IO data was studied. Indeed, Poisson regression analysis demonstrated a statistically significant 2.1-fold rise in DCS risk with each monthly exposure. Consequently, the number of exposures per month may need to be considered when devising IO schedules.

  20. Motion sickness in ancient China: Seasickness and cart-sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Thomas; Bauer, Matthias; Benson, Judy; Huppert, Doreen

    2016-07-19

    To find and analyze descriptions of motion sickness in Chinese historical sources. Databases and dictionaries were searched for various terms for seasickness and travel sickness, which were then entered into databases of full texts allowing selection of relevant passages from about the third to the 19th century ad. Already in 300 ad the Chinese differentiated cart-sickness, particularly experienced by persons from the arid north of China, from a ship-illness experienced by persons from the south, where rivers were important for transportation and travel. In the Middle Ages, a third form of motion sickness was called litter-influence experienced by persons transported in a bed suspended between 2 long poles. The ancient Chinese recognized the particular susceptibility of children to motion sickness. Therapeutic recommendations include drinking the urine of young boys, swallowing white sand-syrup, collecting water drops from a bamboo stick, or hiding some earth from the middle of the kitchen hearth under the hair. The Chinese medical classics distinguished several forms of travel sickness, all of which had their own written characters. The pathophysiologic mechanism was explained by the medicine of correspondences, which was based on malfunctions within the body, its invasion by external pathogens like wind, or the deficit or surfeit of certain bodily substances such as the life force Qi. The concept of motion as the trigger of sickness initially appeared in a chapter on warding off the influence of demons and corpses, e.g., ancient magic and beliefs. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  1. Determinants of sick-leave length: still limited to diagnosis elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, Yvan; Denis, Angélique; Fassier, Jean-Baptiste; Kellou, Nadir; Schott, Anne-Marie; Letrilliart, Laurent

    2017-12-01

    Sickness certification implies that a health problem impairs ability to work. However, its assessment is seldom performed by physicians. Our objective was, therefore, to assess the specific influence of functional and environmental limitations on the length of sick-leave prescriptions. We conducted a cross-sectional study in French general teaching practices and recorded 353 initial sick-leave certifications. For each of them, the functional and environmental limitations were collected using the ATCIF questionnaire, derived from the International Classification of Functioning. Data analysis was based on a linear regression multivariate model. Among the functional limitations, "pain" was the main body function impairment (22% of impairments) and "mobility" the main activity limitation (48%). An environmental barrier was identified in 39% of sick-listed patients, mainly relating to "products and technology" (20%), which refers to workplace factors. The prescription was longer in cases of activity limitations relating to "mobility" and in cases of environmental barriers relating to "products and technology". The multivariate model explained 27% of the variability of sick-leave length through diagnosis elements and only 7% through functional and contextual elements. In sick-leave prescription, a functional and contextual approach, in addition to the traditional diagnosis-based approach, could better support patients' shared understanding and follow-up, and accountability towards health authorities. Implication for Rehabilitation Although sickness certification implies that a health problem impairs ability to work, decision on sick-leave length in general practice is primarily based on diagnosis. A more functional and contextual approach could better support patients' and other health professionals' shared understanding and follow-up, and accountability towards health authorities. Such evolution requires a change of paradigm in medical education, and the way of

  2. Effects of Autonomic Conditioning on Motion Sickness Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, P. S.; Toscano, W. B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents case-studies of 9 shuttle crewmembers (prime and alternates) and one U.S. Navy F-18 pilot, as they participated in all preflight training and testing activities in support of a life sciences flight experiment aboard Spacelab-J, and Spacelab-3. The primary objective of the flight experiment was to determine if Autogenic-feedback training (AFT), a physiological self-regulation training technique would be an effective treatment for motion sickness and space motion sickness in these crewmembers. Additional objectives of this study involved the examining human Physiological- responses to motion sickness on Earth and in space, as well as developing predictive criteria for susceptibility to space motion sickness based on ground-based data. Comparisons of these crewmembers are made to a larger set of subjects from previous experiments (treatment and test-only controls subjects). This paper describes all preflight methods, results and proposed changes for future tests.

  3. Comparison of treatment strategies for Space Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. R.; Jennings, R. T.; Beck, B. G.

    1992-01-01

    Treatment strategies for Space Motion Sickness were compared using the results of postflight oral debriefings. Standardized questionnaires were administered to all crewmembers immediately following Space Shuttle flights by NASA flight surgeons. Cases of Space Motion Sickness were graded as mild, moderate or severe based on published criteria, and medication effectiveness was judged based on subjective reports of symptom relief. Since October 1989, medication effectiveness is reported inflight through Private Medical Conferences with the crew. A symptom matrix was analyzed for 19 crewmembers treated with an oral combination of scopolamine and dextroamphetamine (scopdex) and 15 crewmembers treated with promethazine delivered by intramuscular (IM) or suppository routes. Scopdex has been given preflight as prophaxis for Space Motion Sickness but analysis showed delayed symptom presentation in 9 crewmembers or failed to prevent symptoms in 7. Only three crewmembers who took scopdex had no symptoms inflight. Fourteen out of 15 crewmembers treated with IM promethazine and 6 of 8 treated with promethazine suppositories after symptom development had immediate (within 12 h) symptom relief and required no additional medication. There were no cases of delayed symptom presentation in the crewmembers treated with promethazine. This response is in contrast to untreated crewmembers who typically have slow symptom resolution over 72-96 h. We conclude that promethazine is an effective treatment of Space Motion Sickness symptoms inflight. NASA policy currently recommends treating crewmembers with Space Motion Sickness after symptom development, and no longer recommends prophylaxis with scopdex due to delayed symptom development and apparent variable absorption of oral medications during early flight days.

  4. Treatment of extremely severe acute hemopoietic radiation sickness beagles with RhG-CSF and RhIL-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jianzhi; Zhang Ri; Li Ming; Xing Shuang; Luo Qingliang; Zhang Xueguang; Miao Jingcheng; Zhu Nankang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of treatment combined recombinant human G-CSF (rhG-CSF) and recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) on severe acute hemopoietic radiation sickness (ARS) beagles. Methods: Beagles were irradiated with 4.5 Gy 60 Co γ-ray to establish ARS models, and animals were divided into the irradiated control group and the supportive care and combined cytokines treatment cohort. After irradiation the irradiated control beagles was given no treatment, the supportive care beagles received purely symptomatic treatment including blood transfusion and anti-infection while the combined cytokines treatment beagles received rhG-CSF and rhIL-11 subcutaneously for three weeks besides symptomatic treatment.Results After irradiation, all kinds of cells' population declined sharply, but rebounded to normal basically in the combined cytokines treatment rate in the cohort. The mean blood transfusion volume of cytokines in the cohort and the period of blood transfusion all were less than those in the supportive care cohort (P<0.01). The period of administrated antibiotic of cytokines in the cohort was shorter than that in the supportive care cohort (P<0.05). In the observe period of 45 d, survival rate in the irradiated controls cohort was 0%, in the supportive care cohort was 80%, and in the combined cytokines treatment cohort was 100%(P<0.01). Conclusion: Administration of rhG-CSF and rhIL-11 early after irradiation and continued daily, in combined with supportive care in severe acute hemopoietic radiation sickness beagles can improve hematopoietic function restoration, stimulate blood cells to restore to the normal level quickly, significantly decrease the reguired volume of blood transfusion, shorten the period of anti-infection and increase survival of irradiated canines. (authors)

  5. Risk factors for absenteeism due to sick leave in the petroleum industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oenning, Nágila Soares Xavier; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Lima, Veronica Maria Cadena

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors for absenteeism among workers with sick leave in an oil company. METHODS A case-control study (120 cases and 656 controls) nested in a retrospective cohort study following up all employees of an oil company in the North-Northeast of Brazil from 2007 to 2009. The response variable used to represent absenteeism with sick leave was the average incidence of sick leave, defined as the ratio between total sick days and potential working days in the period. Logistic regression techniques were used to investigate the association between average incidence of sick leave > 5.0% over the period and the variables sex, position, age, time at work, shift work, smoking, arterial hypertension, body mass index, physical activity, coronary risk, sleep, glycemia, non-managed diabetes, cardiovascular, digestive, musculoskeletal, neurological and neoplastic diseases, straining body positioning during work, satisfaction at work, relationship with management, and concentrated attention at work. RESULTS Average incidence of sick leave higher than 5.0% in the cohort period was 15.5%. The logistic model revealed that workers with average incidence of sick leave higher than 5.0% were 2.6 times more likely to be female; 2.0 time more likely to be smokers; 1.8 time more likely to be former smokers; 2.2 times more likely to report abnormal sleep and 10.5 times more likely to report dissatisfaction with their than workers with average incidence of sick leave ≤ 5.0% in the period. CONCLUSIONS In this population, female gender, being a smoker or a former smoker, reporting dissatisfaction with the job and reporting abnormal sleep are good predictors of occupational absenteeism with sick leave. PMID:24789643

  6. You’re the Flight Surgeon: Pulmonary Decompression Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    follow-up of this patient Diagnosis: Decompression sickness (DeS) with pulmonary symptoms (Type Il DeS, older nomenclature). Treatment: Hyperbaric ...is quite clear thai any case of suspected decompression sickness in the USAF be discussed with the hyperbariC medicine specialists at Brooks City...physician in as respectful manner as you can that you suspect the patient’s condition is likely related to his hypobaric exposure. B. Agree with

  7. Virtual reality sickness questionnaire (VRSQ): Motion sickness measurement index in a virtual reality environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun K; Park, Jaehyun; Choi, Yeongcheol; Choe, Mungyeong

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to develop a motion sickness measurement index in a virtual reality (VR) environment. The VR market is in an early stage of market formation and technological development, and thus, research on the side effects of VR devices such as simulator motion sickness is lacking. In this study, we used the simulator sickness questionnaire (SSQ), which has been traditionally used for simulator motion sickness measurement. To measure the motion sickness in a VR environment, 24 users performed target selection tasks using a VR device. The SSQ was administered immediately after each task, and the order of work was determined using the Latin square design. The existing SSQ was revised to develop a VR sickness questionnaire, which is used as the measurement index in a VR environment. In addition, the target selection method and button size were found to be significant factors that affect motion sickness in a VR environment. The results of this study are expected to be used for measuring and designing simulator sickness using VR devices in future studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sleeping sickness in Buikwe South Health sub-district: Neuroinfection situation report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrodenkova, Silvia

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the incidence of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense sleeping sickness in the last functioning treatment centre in Buikwe South HSD in Southeast Uganda, in Mukono District, for a 19-year period (1989-2008). This is a report on the treatment outcome, structure of population affected, comparison with the published data on general incidence of T. b rhodesiensae in Uganda and functioning of sleeping sickness control program. Cross-sectional sleeping sickness data from 1989 to 2008 were collected retrospectively in 2009 at Buikwe Sleeping Sickness Center to identify case counts and measures of disease magnitude per sub-county per year. Data were collected from all available records of sleeping sickness patients. Case counts from the Buikwe South sub-counties, and even some neighboring sub-counties for 19 years (1989-2008) were collected and analyzed by Microsoft Excel and EpiInfo program. In the period from 1989 to 2008, 372 cases of sleeping sickness were diagnosed and treated. Children under 5 years were 12 (3.22%) - males 6, females 6, patients in the age from 6 to 15 years were 51 (13.7%) - males 30, females 21, and patients above 15 were 309 (83.06%) - males 176, females 133. In the category 5-15 years and above 15 years there was a significant gender difference closely connected to the professional exposure. The oldest patient was 80 years old, the youngest was 3 moths old. The average age of the patients was 30.8 years. From all 372 patients with trypanosomiasis 30 had died - 10 females and 20 males, which means 8% case fatality. The case fatality rate in the late stage of the disease was 14%. From this group 6 patients (20%) had negative BS. The average interval between the diagnosis and death was 14.4 days, in 10 patients the exact date of death was not recorded. Average age of the patients that died was 30.6 years. Sleeping sickness still remains a serious public health problem. Since the preventive and educational activities

  9. Clinical report of an extremely severe bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Jianhui; Yu Changlin; Luo Weidong; Guo Mei; Wang Danhong; Sun Qiyun; Zhang Shi; Zhang Xigang; Li Guang; Niu Wenkai; Chen Jiankui; Li Xiaobing; Ge Feijiao; Ai Huisheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To sum up the experiences from the diagnosis and treatment of patient B subjected to an accidental 60 Co exposure on October 21st, 2004, in Jining, Shandong Province, China. Methods: Radiation dose of B was assessed by analysis of chromosome aberration and microneucleus assay, simulation test of the accident site, autopsy and electron spin resonance (ESR). The ultimate clinical diagnosis was based on analysis of irradiation dose, clinical manifestations and laboratory results. In therapeutical aspects, total environmental protection, HLA-identical allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT), anti- infection and protection managements of organs were given. Results: Patient B was diagnosed as extremely severe bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness (ARS). HLA-identical allogeneic PBSCT was performed on the patient from his brother on the 7th day after the accident. The hematopoietic recovery began on the 9th day after transplantation. The patient acquired permanent full donor' engraftment without graft versus host disease (GVHD), But the radiation injury was continuing and the patient complicated with polyinfection in lung, and cardiac insufficiency. On the 45th day after the accident, patient B was performed with tracheotomy and maintained ventilation with respirator. On the 75th day after the accident, patient B died of multiple organ failure. Conclusions: Early triage diagnosis and total environmental protection should be performed as soon as possible for extremely severe bone marrow form of ARS. It is very important to perform a successful HLA-identical allogeneic PBSCT, in order to extend the life time of the patient. Multiple organ injuries and infections of bacteria and fungi usually occurred on this kind of patients, so intense measures of anti-infection and protection of multiple organs should be taken. The important and difficult point in the treatment of this kind ARS might be for help the immune-reconstruction and tissue

  10. Worried sick? Sickness absence during organizational turmoil

    OpenAIRE

    Bratberg, Espen; Monstad, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Sickness absence has risen over the past years in Norway. An explanation put forward is that a tougher labour market represents a health hazard, while a competing hypothesis predicts that loss of job security works as a disciplinary device. In this analysis we aim to trace a causal impact of organizational turmoil or job insecurity on sickness absence, applying a difference-in-difference approach. Utilizing a negative financial shock that hit specific employers and workplaces, we find that...

  11. Remote after-effect of occupational radiation action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gus' kova, A K; Soldatova, V A; Denisova, E A; Gorbarenko, N I; Gribova, I A; Kirsanova, G I; L' vovskaya, E N

    1976-04-01

    Examination of medical roentgenologists and operators of accelerators and gamma-defectoscopes exposed for a long time to ionizing radiation and irradiated in total doses of 30 to 400 rad showed that the condition of their health was quite satisfactory. Cases of occupational diseases (chronic radiation sickness and local radiation affections) were single with the maximum total dose. There is a tendency to the increase of the number of cases of the vegetative-vascular dystony of a hypertensive type and in the group with a large dose of irradiation--a tendency to acceleration of involutional processes in the lens and in the cardiovascular system. No substantial shifts in the indices of the peripheral blood in all the occupational groups were revealed.

  12. Evaluation of three ancillary treatments in the management of equine grass sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fintl, C; McGorum, B C

    2002-09-28

    Brotizolam, acetylcysteine and aloe vera gel were evaluated as ancillary treatments for 29 cases of equine grass sickness. None of the treatments had any significant beneficial effect on the survival of the horses. However, 11 of 13 horses with mild chronic grass sickness survived solely with intensive nursing care.

  13. Characterization of changes in composition and function of erythrocyte membrane proteins in patients with bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinying; Wei Shanjian; Hu Xiaojian

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The delayed effect of radiation on erythrocyte membrane protein, the composition and function of the membrane proteins in five patients with bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness (ARS) were follow up at six years after the Shanghai 60 Co irradiation accident. Methods: Percoll centrifugation, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and analysis of NO 2 - transport rate and DIDS inhibition rate were performed. Results: The injuries of the membrane proteins induced by radiation, characterized by reduced content of band 8 and declined anion transport function of band 3 protein remained the same as initially observed. The further study showed that the inhibition of DIDS on the anion transport of the ARS erythrocytes was decreased and the transport time for NO 2 - by band 3 was significantly prolonged in younger erythrocytes than those in middle-or old-aged cells. Conclusion: It is suggested that the radiation damage to erythrocyte membrane proteins might occur at the stage of erythropoiesis in bone marrow. The exo-facial site in band 3 may be changed after radiation, which could result in the abnormalities in anion transport. It is believed that the aging of erythrocytes might be present in advanced stage of ARS

  14. The prevalence of sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Bendix, Jane

    2018-01-01

    of long-term sick leave. Method Data from 508 employed pregnant women seeking antenatal care was collected by questionnaires from August 2015 to March 2016. The questionnaires, which were filled in at 20 and 32 weeks of gestation, provided information on maternal characteristics, the number of days spent...... on sick leave and the associated reasons. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were applied. Results The prevalence of sick leave was 56% of employed pregnant women in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four reported long-term sick leave (>20 days, continuous...... was a negative predictor. Conclusions The prevalence of sick leave was 56% in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four women reported long-term sick leave. The majority of reasons for sick leave were pregnancy-related and low back pain was the most frequently given reason....

  15. 20 CFR 218.28 - Sick pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sick pay. 218.28 Section 218.28 Employees... Beginning Date § 218.28 Sick pay. (a) From railroad employer. If the employee is carried on the payroll while sick, the annuity can begin no earlier than the day after the last day of sick pay. However, sick...

  16. Role of Ionizing Radiation in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neel K. Sharma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation (IR from terrestrial sources is continually an unprotected peril to human beings. However, the medical radiation and global radiation background are main contributors to human exposure and causes of radiation sickness. At high-dose exposures acute radiation sickness occurs, whereas chronic effects may persist for a number of years. Radiation can increase many circulatory, age related and neurodegenerative diseases. Neurodegenerative diseases occur a long time after exposure to radiation, as demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors, and are still controversial. This review discuss the role of IR in neurodegenerative diseases and proposes an association between neurodegenerative diseases and exposure to IR.

  17. Role of Ionizing Radiation in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neel K.; Sharma, Rupali; Mathur, Deepali; Sharad, Shashwat; Minhas, Gillipsie; Bhatia, Kulsajan; Anand, Akshay; Ghosh, Sanchita P.

    2018-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) from terrestrial sources is continually an unprotected peril to human beings. However, the medical radiation and global radiation background are main contributors to human exposure and causes of radiation sickness. At high-dose exposures acute radiation sickness occurs, whereas chronic effects may persist for a number of years. Radiation can increase many circulatory, age related and neurodegenerative diseases. Neurodegenerative diseases occur a long time after exposure to radiation, as demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors, and are still controversial. This review discuss the role of IR in neurodegenerative diseases and proposes an association between neurodegenerative diseases and exposure to IR. PMID:29867445

  18. Sick of Taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    I estimate a price elasticity of sickness absence. Sick leave is an intensive margin of labor supply where individuals are free to adjust. I exploit variation in tax rates over two decades, which provide thousands of differential incentives across time and space, to estimate the price responsiven...... of sick leave, -0.7, with respect to the net of tax rate. Though large relative to traditional labor supply elasticities, Swedes are half as price elastic as bike messengers, and just as elastic as stadium vendors on the margin which they can adjust freely....

  19. Attitudes towards sickness absence and sickness presenteeism in health and care sectors in Norway and Denmark: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krane, Line; Larsen, Eva Ladekjær; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Stapelfeldt, Christina Malmose; Johnsen, Roar; Risør, Mette Bech

    2014-08-27

    In the health and care sector, sickness absence and sickness presenteeism are frequent phenomena and constitute a field in need of exploration. Attitudes towards sickness absence involve also attitudes towards sickness presenteeism, i.e. going to work while sick, confirmed by previous studies. Sickness behavior, reflecting attitudes on work absence, could differ between countries and influence absence rates. But little is known about attitudes towards sickness absence and sickness presenteeism in the health and care sectors in Norway and Denmark. The aim of the present paper is therefore to explore attitudes towards sickness absence and sickness presenteeism among nursing home employees in both countries. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide, the main attention of which was attitudes towards sickness absence and sickness presenteeism. FGDs were conducted in two nursing homes in Norway and two in Denmark, with different geographic locations: one in a rural area and one in an urban area in each country. FGDs were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using framework analysis to identify major themes and explanatory patterns. Four major significant themes were identified from the FGDs: a) sickness absence and sickness presenteeism, b) acceptable causes of sickness absence, c) job identity, and d) organization of work and physical aspects of the workplace. Our analyses showed that social commitment and loyalty to residents and colleagues was important for sickness absence and sickness presenteeism, as were perceived acceptable and non-acceptable reasons for sickness absence. Organization of work and physical aspects of the workplace were also found to have an influence on attitudes towards sickness absence. The general interpretation of the findings was that attitudes towards sickness absence and sickness presenteeism among nursing home employees were embedded in situational patterns of moral relationships and were

  20. Autogenic-Feedback Training for the Control of Space Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, W. B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents case-studies of 9 shuttle crewmembers (prime and alternates) and one U.S. Navy F-18 pilot, as they participated in all preflight training and testing activities in support of a life sciences flight experiment aboard Spacelab-J, and Spacelab-3. The primary objective of the flight experiment was to determine if Autogenic-feedback training (AFT), a physiological self-regulation training technique would be an effective treatment for motion sickness and space motion sickness in these crewmembers. Additional objectives of this study involved the examining human physiological responses to motion sickness on Earth and in space, as well as developing predictive criteria for susceptibility to space motion sickness based on ground-based data. Comparisons of these crewmembers are made to a larger set of subjects from previous experiments (treatment and "test-only" controls subjects). This paper describes all preflight methods, results and proposed changes for future tests.

  1. Indications of a Scarring Effect of Sickness Absence Periods in a Cohort of Higher Educated Self-Employed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnvoord, Liesbeth E. C.; Brouwer, Sandra; Buitenhuis, Jan; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Little is known regarding incidence and recurrence of sickness absence in self-employed. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the number of prior episodes of sickness absence on the risk of subsequent periods of sickness absence in higher educated self-employed. Methods In a historic register study based on the files of a Dutch private disability insurance company all sickness absence periods of 30 days or more were analysed. Results A total of 15,868 insured persons contributed 141,188 person years to the study. In total, 5608 periods of sickness absence occurred during follow-up. The hazard of experiencing a new period of sickness absence increased with every previous period, ranging from a hazard ratio of 2.83 in case of one previous period of sickness absence to a hazard ratio of 6.72 in case of four previous periods. This effect was found for both men and women and for all diagnostic categories of the first period of sickness absence. Conclusions Our study shows that for all diagnostic categories the hazard of experiencing a recurrence of sickness absence is appreciably higher than for experiencing a first episode. This suggests that this increased hazard may be related to the occurrence of sickness absence itself rather than related to characteristics of the insured person or of the medical condition. These findings could indicate that sickness absence periods may have a scarring effect on the self-employed person experiencing the sickness absence. PMID:27213963

  2. Air pollution and sick-leaves. A case study using air pollution data from Oslo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, A.C.; Selte, H.K.

    2000-01-01

    During the last decade an increasing amount of studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and human health effects. In this study we investigate how these effects in turn induce reduced labour productivity in terms of sick-leaves, which is an important factor in assessment of air pollution costs in urban areas. For this purpose we employ a logit model along with data on sick-leaves from a large office in Oslo and different air pollutants. Our results indicate that sick-leaves are significantly associated with particulate matter (PM 1 0), while the associations with SO 2 and NO 2 are more ambiguous. We also try to estimate the induced social costs in terms of lost labour productivity and increased governmental expenditures, although these estimates are more uncertain. 17 refs

  3. Iso-risk air no decompression limits after scoring marginal decompression sickness cases as non-events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, F Gregory; Swingler, Ashleigh J; Gerth, Wayne A; Howle, Laurens E

    2018-01-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) in humans is associated with reductions in ambient pressure that occur during diving, aviation, or certain manned spaceflight operations. Its signs and symptoms can include, but are not limited to, joint pain, radiating abdominal pain, paresthesia, dyspnea, general malaise, cognitive dysfunction, cardiopulmonary dysfunction, and death. Probabilistic models of DCS allow the probability of DCS incidence and time of occurrence during or after a given hyperbaric or hypobaric exposure to be predicted based on how the gas contents or gas bubble volumes vary in hypothetical tissue compartments during the exposure. These models are calibrated using data containing the pressure and respired gas histories of actual exposures, some of which resulted in DCS, some of which did not, and others in which the diagnosis of DCS was not clear. The latter are referred to as marginal DCS cases. In earlier works, a marginal DCS event was typically weighted as 0.1, with a full DCS event being weighted as 1.0, and a non-event being weighted as 0.0. Recent work has shown that marginal DCS events should be weighted as 0.0 when calibrating gas content models. We confirm this indication in the present work by showing that such models have improved performance when calibrated to data with marginal DCS events coded as non-events. Further, we investigate the ramifications of derating marginal events on model-prescribed air diving no-stop limits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sick-listing adherence: a register study of 1.4 million episodes of sickness benefit 2010-2013 in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijon, Ola; Josephson, Malin; Österlund, Niklas

    2015-04-14

    This register study aims to increase the knowledge on how common it is that sickness benefit recipients are sick-listed for as long as their physician prescribes in their medical sickness certificate, i.e. sick-listing adherence, or wholly/partly bring return-to-work (RTW) forward, i.e. early RTW. The unit for analysis was an episode of 100% sickness benefit, commenced between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013. Completed episodes of sickness benefit and full or partial early RTW was analysed by comparing the prescribed length of sick leave in medical sickness certificates and benefit days disbursed by the sickness insurance system. Probability for a full and partial early RTW was estimated with hazard ratio (HR) using the Cox proportional hazard model. In total, about 1.4 million episodes of sickness benefit (60% women) were included in the study. The overall sick-listing adherence was 84% for women and 82% for men during the first year of sick leave. Adherence varied between 82 and 87% among women and between 79 and 86% among men with regard to ICD-10 diagnosis chapter. The probability of an early RTW varied between diagnosis chapters, where mental disorders was associated with a lower probability of a full early RTW among women and men (HR 0.52 and HR 0.47) as well as a partial early RTW (HR 0.51 and HR 0.46). Younger age (16-29 years), high educational level and high income was associated with a higher probability of an early RTW, while older age (≥ 50 years), not native-born, low educational level, unemployment and parental leave were associated with a lower probability. The study demonstrates that sick-listing adherence is relatively high. Probability of an early RTW differs with regard to diagnosis chapter, demographic, socioeconomic and labour market characteristics of the sickness benefit recipients. Interventions intended to improve the sick-listing process, and to affect the length and degree of sick leave in certain target groups, should include

  5. The study of thrombocytopenia in sick neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aman, I.; Hassan, K.A.; Ahmad, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the number of cases and manifestations of thrombocytopenia in sick neonates. Subjects and Methods: A total of 365 neonates from 0-28 days of age admitted with different clinical problems irrespective of birth weight and gestational age were evaluated for thrombocytopenia. These neonates were categorized into five different groups (A-E), which were of neonatal infections, asphyxia neonatorum, preterm and smallness for gestational age, jaundice and miscellaneous respectively. Results: Out of 365 cases, 88 were found to have thrombocytopenia (platelet counts < 150,000 per mm/sup 3/) which was 24.1% of the total. In group A (neonatal infections), out of 152 neonates, 62 had low platelet counts (40.78%). In group B (neonatal asphyxia), out of 90 only 11 had thrombocytopenia (12.2%). In group C (preterm and small for gestational age), out of 60 cases only 9 had thrombocytopenia. In group D (jaundice), all 33 cases had normal platelet counts. In group E (miscellaneous), out of 30 cases only 6 had thrombocytopenia. The common manifestations in thrombocytopenic babies were petechiae and bruises followed by gastrointestinal hemorrhages. The percentage of manifest thrombocytopenia cases was 56.8% and of occult thrombocytopenia 43.1 %. Conclusion: The leading causes of thrombocytopenia in sick neonates are infections, asphyxia, complicated pre- maturity and smallness for gestational age. Apart from the platelet counts the bleeding mainfestations also depend upon the underlying ailments. (author)

  6. Labour market trajectories following sickness absence due to self-reported all cause morbidity-a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille; Lund, Thomas; Lindholdt, Louise

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate differences in return to work (RTW) and employment trajectories in individuals on sick leave for either mental health reasons or other health related reasons. METHODS: This study was based on 2036 new sickness absence cases who completed a questionnaire on social charac...... compared to employees on sick leave due to other health reasons. The difference could be explained by their lower RTW expectations at baseline. This emphasises the need to develop suitable and specific interventions to facilitate RTW for this group of sickness absentees....

  7. [Workplace bullying and sickness absenteeism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanini, Paolo; Conway, Paul Maurice; Neri, Luca; Punzi, Silvia; Camerino, Donatella; Costa, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationship between workplace bullying and sickness absenteeism in a large sample of Italian workers. A cross-sectional study conducted by means of questionnaires. In all, 8,992 subjects filled in a questionnaire to detect workplace bullying, the presence of work stress factors and days of sickness absence in the last year. Workplace bullying and psychosocial stressor were measured by the means of the CDL 2.0 questionnaire. Days of sickness absence reported by the subjects. On average, days of sickness absence were 7.4, and 7.2% of the respondents were defined as bullied. Results from logistic regression analyses showed that a workplace bullying was associated with more days of sickness absence after controlling for gender, age, professional qualification, company sector and juridical nature and other psychosocial factors (men: OR =1.62; women: OR =2.15). The present study confirms that workers exposed to a workplace bullying reported higher sickness absenteeism as compared with non-exposed subjects, also when a potentially highly stressful work environment is considered. The results of the present study support that workplace bullying may be viewed as an extreme stressful condition. Interventions to avoid workplace bullying not only favoure workers' health, but also avoid the company costs associated with workers' sickness absenteeism.

  8. Sick Leave and Factors Influencing Sick Leave in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; Appelman-Noordermeer, Simone; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; de Bruin-Weller, Marjolein

    2015-03-27

    Little is known about the prevalence of sick leave due to atopic dermatitis (AD). The current literature on factors influencing sick leave is mostly derived from other chronic inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sick leave due to AD and to identify influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out in adult patients with AD. sick leave during the two-week and one-year periods, socio-demographic characteristics, disease severity, quality of life and socio-occupational factors. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine influencing factors on sick leave over the two-week period. In total, 253 patients were included; 12% of the patients had to take sick leave in the last two weeks due to AD and 42% in the past year. A higher level of symptom interference (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.13-1.40) or perfectionism/diligence (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.83-0.96) may respectively increase or decrease the number of sick leave days. Sick leave in patients with AD is a common problem and symptom interference and perfectionism/diligence appeared to influence it. Novel approaches are needed to deal with symptoms at work or school to reduce the amount of sick leave due to AD.

  9. Medical management of patients overexposed to irradiation in acute and subacute accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genyao, Ye; Guilin, Wang; Shimin, Huang; Xiyuan, Cheng; Bingzhi, Mao; Yingqi, Li [North Taiping Road Hospital, Beijing, BJ (China)

    1991-11-01

    The authors summarize the experiences in the medical management of 7 radiation accidents resulting in 5 cases of acute radiation sickness, 3 cases of subacute radiation sickness and 8 cases of overexposed persons with estimated physical doses below 1 Gy in the past 5 years. The therapeutic measures including the application of antiradiation drugs such as estriol and herbal medicine '208', measures to improve the microcirculation and transfusion of fetal liver cells, etc., were emphasized in the treatment of acute radiation sickness. For subacute radiation sickness, large doses of stanozolum (18 mg/d) in combination with 654-2 (60 mg/d) were administered as the principal therapeutic agents. The advances in the medical management of acute accidentally overexposed cases in China are briefly reviewed and discussed.

  10. Sickness absence and sickness attendance--what people with neck or back pain think.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Margareta; Boström, Carina; Harms-Ringdahl, Karin

    2006-05-01

    This study explores the decision of 33 men and women to be sick-listed from work for neck pain or low-back pain. Qualitative interviews with the subjects, who lived in a city or a sparsely populated area of Sweden, were tape-recorded, transcribed and analysed in the interpretive tradition by the three authors. New, intense and threatening pain quickly made persons report sick. For other pain, sickness absence, its timing and duration, were negotiated on the basis of the subjects' self-image, work-duty norms, organisational and extra-organisational work factors. Thirty-one people aimed to return to work, but spine-related pain was a hindrance. Five strategies to avoid, delay or shorten sickness absence were identified. Concepts of the illness flexibility model well described how the workers balanced the factors driving them from work and those forcing them or attracting them to remain. The conclusion is that reporting sick is neither undertaken lightly nor for short-term reasons only. Instead, personal history and anticipated future, spine-related pain, workplace and labour market factors are also important considerations.

  11. Changes in sickness absenteeism following the introduction of a qualifying day for sickness benefit--findings from Sweden Post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    AIMS: In 1993, a qualifying day without sickness benefit was introduced to the Swedish sickness benefit system. The aim of the present study is to investigate sickness absenteeism before and after the introduction of the qualifying day, in the light of conditions inside and outside working life....... METHODS: The study was based on 1,952 female and 2,229 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by sickness incidence one year before and one year after the introduction of the qualifying day (sick-leave events/person days at risk). Information about explanatory factors was collected...

  12. 3 cases of radiation-induced sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Keiichiro; Fukuma, Hisatoshi; Beppu, Yasuo; Hirota, Teruyuki; Shinohara, Norio.

    1982-01-01

    Criteria for the diagnosis of radiation-induced sarcoma have been previously described. All cases must have a history of irradiation and the second neoplasm must have arisen in the area of the radiation field. A latent period of several years must have elapsed after irradiation before clinical evidence of a second malignant neoplasm. Most important thing is that, all suspected cases must have been proved histologically. We have experienced 3 cases of radiation-induced sarcoma, they were 42-years-old man who developed an osteosarcoma of the lumbar spine at the field of postoperative irradiation for seminoma 7 years previously, 69-years-old woman who developed a malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the buttock at the field of radical radiation for uterine carcinoma 7 years previously and 59-years-old woman who developed an extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the abdominal wall at the field of postoperative irradiation for uterine sarcoma 7 years previously. The last case is very rare and only 8 cases of radiation-induced extraskeletal osteosarcoma have been reported. Since there has been a definite trend in the treatment of cancer toward employing radiation for more favorable cases, in addition to technical improvements in the administration of radiotherapy and more modern equipment, survival data may have been altered considerably in many malignant tumors. Accordingly, more radiation-induced tumors may be encountered in the future. The clinical presentation and histopathology of these radiation-induced sarcomas are presented with a review of the literature. (author)

  13. Healthy change processes - Relations with job insecurity, sickness absenteeism, sickness presenteeism and turnover intention

    OpenAIRE

    Bødal, Åshild

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of a healthy change process (HCPI) could predict negative outcomes that normally follow organisational change, such as qualitative job insecurity, total sickness (sickness absenteeism and -presenteesim) and turnover intention. It was hypothesised that negative relationships existed between a healthy change process and qualitative job insecurity, total sickness and turnover intention. In addition, it was believed that experienced st...

  14. Sick Leave and Factors Influencing Sick Leave in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmieke van Os-Medendorp

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Little is known about the prevalence of sick leave due to atopic dermatitis (AD. The current literature on factors influencing sick leave is mostly derived from other chronic inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sick leave due to AD and to identify influencing factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in adult patients with AD. Outcome measures: sick leave during the two-week and one-year periods, socio-demographic characteristics, disease severity, quality of life and socio-occupational factors. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine influencing factors on sick leave over the two-week period. Results: In total, 253 patients were included; 12% of the patients had to take sick leave in the last two weeks due to AD and 42% in the past year. A higher level of symptom interference (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.13–1.40 or perfectionism/diligence (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.83–0.96 may respectively increase or decrease the number of sick leave days. Conclusion: Sick leave in patients with AD is a common problem and symptom interference and perfectionism/diligence appeared to influence it. Novel approaches are needed to deal with symptoms at work or school to reduce the amount of sick leave due to AD.

  15. Human reactions to electromagnetic radiation in millimeter range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, E.A.; Belyy, M.U.; Sit' ko, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    The article deals with a problem that is on the boundary of different disciplines. The authors discovered previously unknown effects of low-energy electromagnetic radiation on the human body. A total of 188 subjects, both healthy and sick in terms of medical diagnosis, were submitted to sensory tests. The vast majority of healthy subjects did not react to radiation in the range of 27-78 GHz and power density of up to 10 mW/cm/sup 2/. The same situation was also observed in many cases with patients. However, exposure of very specific parts of the body of sick subjects to electromagnetic waves at a fixed frequency in the range of 45-65 GHz elicited a sensory reaction in the region of the organ with a marked impairment, and this was an organ that was spatially remote from the irradiated region. It was established that the zones on the surface of the body that are the most sensitive to radiation coincide with acupuncture zones that are known in reflex acupuncture therapy. In addition to presentation of experimental results, the authors also propose a theoretical interpretation of the demonstrated effects.

  16. Paid Sick Leave as a Means to Reduce Sickness Presenteeism Among Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Steen Rostad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent international data show that physicians often attend work while ill, termed sickness presenteeism. The current study investigated if sickness presenteeism scores among European physicians varied according to national paid sick leave legislation. We hypothesized that prevalence of presenteeism was higher in countries with lower levels of paid sick leave. We used repeated cross-sectional survey data, phase I (2004/2005, N = 1326 and phase II (2012/2013, N = 1403, among senior consultants at university hospitals in Sweden, Norway, and Italy. Analyses of variances assessed cross-country differences in presenteeism. To assess the impact of country on presenteeism, we used multiple regression analyses controlled for sex, age, family status, work hours, and work content. The results from phase I supported the initial hypothesis. At phase II, presenteeism scores had decreased among the Italian and Swedish sample. The results are discussed with regard to changes in legislation on workhours and medical liability in Italy and Sweden between phase I and II.

  17. Assessment of radiation injuries: role of nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khushu, Subhash; Rana, Poonam

    2014-01-01

    In the event of an intentional or accidental release of ionizing radiation, timely assessment of the radiation exposure is critical for the triage and to facilitate timely and optimal medical care to the effected population. In addition to mild to severe injuries to tissues and organs, radiation injury can also cause cognitive decline, depressive behavior and affective state disturbances following exposure to both high and low doses of radiation. These may be even seen without evident tissue injury within hours to days or months to years after exposure to low doses of radiation. In this study, we exploited the multi-parametric contrast of NMR/MRI and its potential to assess radiation dose absorbed and radiation sickness thereof. High resolution NMR spectroscopy experiments were conducted on urine and serum samples collected from mice irradiated (whole body and focal irradiation) with 3, 5 and 8 Gray of γ-radiation at different time points post irradiation. Irradiated mice serum and urine showed distinct metabolic phenotypes and revealed dose and time dependent clustering of irradiated groups depicting different phases of radiation sickness. Increased concentration of urine metabolites related to gut microflora and energy metabolism were observed during different phases of radiation sickness. On the other hand serum spectra reflected changes associated with lipid, energy and membrane metabolism during radiation sickness. In vivo NMR spectroscopy and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) was also performed in different regions of brain post irradiation in animal model, which showed radiation induced metabolite changes in hippocampus region. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) also demonstrated dose related changes in various brain regions which corroborated well with the behavioral parameters. The results of the present work lay a scientific foundation for development of high throughput radiation bio-dosimetry. This could further be useful in development

  18. Presenteeism among sick workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2003-01-01

    Much attention has been focused on absenteeism. However, ‘presenteeism’ is also an issue, i.e. staying at work even when feeling sick. Analyses have shown that, the greater the work pressure, the higher the percentage of people who keep working when feeling sick.

  19. Radiation protection measures in the case of incidents and radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzberg, B.

    1976-01-01

    Measures to be taken in the case of radiation accidents connected with an unusually high radiation exposure to persons, the amounts of which exceed the limiting values, with depend on whether there has been an external or an internal exposure. In order to give further treatment in the case of whole-body or partial-body irradiation, it is necessary to estimate the exposure dose. In nuclear medicine the accident doses are generally low, i.e. acute radiation damage does not occur here, and immediate measures are not necessary. Therapeutic measures in the case of incorporation accidents are only necessary when the maximum amounts for the nuclide in question recommended by the ICRP has been reached or exceeded in the organism. However, decorporation measures ought to be carried out only by qualified radiation protection physicians. The type of radiation accident which occurs most frequently in nuclear medicine is radiation exposure as a result of contamination. If in the case of contamination of a person the measurement exceeds the radioactivity limit, the decontamination measures are necessary. In the present contribution, these measures for cases without injuries are described in detail. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Office design's impact on sick leave rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin Danielsson, Christina; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Wulff, Cornelia; Westerlund, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    The effect of office type on sickness absence among office employees was studied prospectively in 1852 employees working in (1) cell-offices; (2) shared-room offices; (3) small, (4) medium-sized and (5) large open-plan offices; (6) flex-offices and (7) combi-offices. Sick leaves were self-reported two years later as number of (a) short and (b) long (medically certified) sick leave spells as well as (c) total number of sick leave days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used, with adjustment for background factors. A significant excess risk for sickness absence was found only in terms of short sick leave spells in the three open-plan offices. In the gender separate analysis, this remained for women, whereas men had a significantly increased risk in flex-offices. For long sick leave spells, a significantly higher risk was found among women in large open-plan offices and for total number of sick days among men in flex-offices. A prospective study of the office environment's effect on employees is motivated by the high rates of sick leaves in the workforce. The results indicate differences between office types, depending on the number of people sharing workspace and the opportunity to exert personal control as influenced by the features that define the office types.

  1. Sick Leave and Factors Influencing Sick Leave in Adult Patients with Atopic Dermatitis : A Cross-Sectional Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; Appelman-Noordermeer, Simone; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A.F.M.; de Bruin-Weller, MS

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of sick leave due to atopic dermatitis (AD). The current literature on factors influencing sick leave is mostly derived from other chronic inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sick leave due to AD and to identify

  2. Analyses of Sickness Absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, S.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Sickness absence is an empirical phenomenon of all time. Generally, it has a medical cause. However, other factors also appear to have an impact on the actual rate of sickness absence, such as the institutional setting, the business cycle and the economic structure. Many questions on the different

  3. Positive and negative consequences of sick leave for the individual, with special focus on part-time sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieurin, Leif; Josephson, Malin; Vingård, Eva

    2009-01-01

    To describe the consequences of long-term sick leave (>28 days) on working situation, health and lifestyle among employees from the public sector in Sweden. Employees in four county councils and two municipalities on long term sick leave on 1 November 2005 (n = 1,128) answered a questionnaire in February 2006. The response rate was 71.7%. Eighty seven per cent were still on sick leave when the questionnaire was answered: 54% part time and 33% full time. Reporting positive consequences was rare but reporting negative consequences, such as effects on the development of salary, the possibilities of pursuing a career or to change to another job were common. Sick leave seemed to lead to a considerable loss of zest for work, even if the respondents were back in work full time. Regardless of the negative consequences at work, 92% of those on part-time sick leave believed that the part-time sick leave was good for them even if many thought it had negative consequences for employer and colleagues. Long-term sick leave has negative consequences for the individual in work situations, even for those back at work full time. The development of salary and career seem to be most affected. The attitude towards part-time sick leave was positive and this result indicates that there is a potential for an increased degree of partial return to work in the group of people on long-term sick leave.

  4. Decompression Sickness during Construction of the Dartford Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, F. Campbell; Griffiths, P.; Hempleman, H. V.; Paton, W. D. M.; Walder, D. N.

    1960-01-01

    A clinical, radiological and statistical survey has been made of decompression sickness during the construction of the Dartford Tunnel. Over a period of two years, 1,200 men were employed on eight-hour shifts at pressures up to 28 pounds per square inch (p.s.i.). There were 689 cases of decompression sickness out of 122,000 compressions, an incidence of 0·56%. The majority of cases (94·9%) were simple “bends”. The remainder (5·1%) exhibited signs and symptoms other than pain and were more serious. All cases were successfully treated and no fatality or permanent disability occurred. In two serious cases, cysts in the lungs were discovered. It is suggested that these gave rise to air embolism when the subjects were decompressed, and pulmonary changes may contribute more than hitherto believed to the pathogenesis of bends. Some other clinical features are described, including “skin-mottling” and an association between bends and the site of an injury. The bends rate is higher for the back shift (3 p.m. to 11 p.m.) and the night shift (11 p.m. to 7 a.m.) than for the day shift. In the treatment of decompression sickness it appears to be more satisfactory to use the minimum pressure required for relief of symptoms followed by slow decompression with occasional “soaks”, than to attempt to drive the causative bubbles into solution with high pressures. During the contract the decompression tables recently prescribed by the Ministry of Labour were used. Evidence was obtained that they could be made safer, and that the two main assumptions on which they are based (that sickness will not occur at pressures below 18 p.s.i., and that a man saturates in four hours) may be incorrect. It is desirable to test tables based on 15 p.s.i. and eight-hour saturation. The existence of acclimatization to pressure was confirmed; it is such that the bends rate may fall in two to three weeks to 0·1% of the incidence on the first day of exposure. Acclimatization is lost again

  5. Sickness absence at a young age and later sickness absence, disability pension, death, unemployment and income in native Swedes and immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Bo; Nordqvist, Tobias; Lundberg, Ingvar; Vingård, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sickness absence with cash benefits from the sickness insurance gives an opportunity to be relieved from work without losing financial security. There are, however, downsides to taking sickness absence. Periods of sickness absence, even short ones, can increase the risk for future spells of sickness absence and unemployment. The sickness period may in itself have a detrimental effect on health. The aim of the study was to investigate if there is an association between exposure to sickness absence at a young age and later sickness absence, disability pension, death, unemployment and income from work. Methods: Our cohort consisted of all immigrants aged 21–25 years in Sweden in 1993 (N = 38 207) and a control group of native Swedes in the same age group (N = 225 977). We measured exposure to sickness absence in 1993 with a follow-up period of 15 years. We conducted separate analyses for men and women, and for immigrants and native Swedes. Results: Exposure to ≥60 days of sickness absence in 1993 increased the risk of sickness absence [hazard ratio (HR) 1.6–11.4], unemployment (HR 1.1–1.2), disability pension (HR 1.2–5.3) and death (HR 1.2–3.5). The income from work, during the follow-up period, among individuals with spells of sick leave for ≥60 days in 1993 was around two-thirds of that of the working population who did not take sick leave. Conclusions: Individuals on sickness absence had an increased risk for work absence, death and lower future income. PMID:25634955

  6. Stability of return to work after a coordinated and tailored intervention for sickness absence compensation beneficiaries with mental health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Marie H. T.; D. Nielsen, Maj Britt; Pedersen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Mental health problems (MHPs) are increasingly common as reasons for long-term sickness absence. However, the knowledge of how to promote a stable return to work (RTW) after sickness absence due to MHPs is limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a multidisciplinary...... showed no benefits in terms of improved stability of RTW, reduced sickness absence or improved labour market status after 2 years when compared to conventional case management. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION: Evidence for effective return-to-work (RTW) interventions for people with mental health...... compared to conventional case management of sickness absence beneficiaries in Denmark. A stronger focus on cooperation with social insurance officers and employers may produce better results....

  7. Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About ACOG Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Morning Sickness: Nausea ... PDF Format Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Pregnancy How common is nausea and vomiting of ...

  8. Biological implications of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1977-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: effects of diagnostic and therapeutic radiation on dividing cells, DNA, and blood cells; radiation sickness in relation to dose; early and late effects of radiation; effects of low dose irradiation; dose-effect curves; radioinduction of tumors in animals; and incidence of cancer in children following in utero exposure to diagnostic x rays

  9. Civil conflict and sleeping sickness in Africa in general and Uganda in particular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang Ford, Lea

    2007-03-29

    Conflict and war have long been recognized as determinants of infectious disease risk. Re-emergence of epidemic sleeping sickness in sub-Saharan Africa since the 1970s has coincided with extensive civil conflict in affected regions. Sleeping sickness incidence has placed increasing pressure on the health resources of countries already burdened by malaria, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis. In areas of Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Angola, sleeping sickness occurs in epidemic proportions, and is the first or second greatest cause of mortality in some areas, ahead of HIV/AIDS. In Uganda, there is evidence of increasing spread and establishment of new foci in central districts. Conflict is an important determinant of sleeping sickness outbreaks, and has contributed to disease resurgence. This paper presents a review and characterization of the processes by which conflict has contributed to the occurrence of sleeping sickness in Africa. Conflict contributes to disease risk by affecting the transmission potential of sleeping sickness via economic impacts, degradation of health systems and services, internal displacement of populations, regional insecurity, and reduced access for humanitarian support. Particular focus is given to the case of sleeping sickness in south-eastern Uganda, where incidence increase is expected to continue. Disease intervention is constrained in regions with high insecurity; in these areas, political stabilization, localized deployment of health resources, increased administrative integration and national capacity are required to mitigate incidence. Conflict-related variables should be explicitly integrated into risk mapping and prioritization of targeted sleeping sickness research and mitigation initiatives.

  10. Civil conflict and sleeping sickness in Africa in general and Uganda in particular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrang Ford Lea

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conflict and war have long been recognized as determinants of infectious disease risk. Re-emergence of epidemic sleeping sickness in sub-Saharan Africa since the 1970s has coincided with extensive civil conflict in affected regions. Sleeping sickness incidence has placed increasing pressure on the health resources of countries already burdened by malaria, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis. In areas of Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Angola, sleeping sickness occurs in epidemic proportions, and is the first or second greatest cause of mortality in some areas, ahead of HIV/AIDS. In Uganda, there is evidence of increasing spread and establishment of new foci in central districts. Conflict is an important determinant of sleeping sickness outbreaks, and has contributed to disease resurgence. This paper presents a review and characterization of the processes by which conflict has contributed to the occurrence of sleeping sickness in Africa. Conflict contributes to disease risk by affecting the transmission potential of sleeping sickness via economic impacts, degradation of health systems and services, internal displacement of populations, regional insecurity, and reduced access for humanitarian support. Particular focus is given to the case of sleeping sickness in south-eastern Uganda, where incidence increase is expected to continue. Disease intervention is constrained in regions with high insecurity; in these areas, political stabilization, localized deployment of health resources, increased administrative integration and national capacity are required to mitigate incidence. Conflict-related variables should be explicitly integrated into risk mapping and prioritization of targeted sleeping sickness research and mitigation initiatives.

  11. Influenza in workplaces: transmission, workers' adherence to sick leave advice and European sick leave recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christina Hansen; Tomba, Gianpaolo Scalia; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge about influenza transmission in the workplace and whether staying home from work when experiencing influenza-like illness can reduce the spread of influenza is crucial for the design of efficient public health initiatives. This review synthesizes current literature on sickness presenteeism and influenza transmission in the workplace and provides an overview of sick leave recommendations in Europe for influenza. A search was performed on Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Cinahl, Web of Science, Scopus and SweMed to identify studies related to workplace contacts, -transmission, -interventions and compliance with recommendations to take sick leave. A web-based survey on national recommendations and policies for sick leave during influenza was issued to 31 European countries. Twenty-two articles (9 surveys; 13 modelling articles) were eligible for this review. Results from social mixing studies suggest that 20-25% of weekly contacts are made in the workplace, while modelling studies suggest that on average 16% (range 9-33%) of influenza transmission occurs in the workplace. The effectiveness of interventions to reduce workplace presenteeism is largely unknown. Finally, estimates from studies reporting expected compliance with sick leave recommendations ranged from 71 to 95%. Overall, 18 countries participated in the survey of which nine (50%) had issued recommendations encouraging sick employees to stay at home during the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, while only one country had official recommendations for seasonal influenza. During the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, many European countries recommended ill employees to take sick leave. Further research is warranted to quantify the effect of reduced presenteeism during influenza illness. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  12. Influenza in workplaces: transmission, workers’ adherence to sick leave advice and European sick leave recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomba, Gianpaolo Scalia; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben

    2016-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about influenza transmission in the workplace and whether staying home from work when experiencing influenza-like illness can reduce the spread of influenza is crucial for the design of efficient public health initiatives. Aim: This review synthesizes current literature on sickness presenteeism and influenza transmission in the workplace and provides an overview of sick leave recommendations in Europe for influenza. Methods: A search was performed on Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Cinahl, Web of Science, Scopus and SweMed to identify studies related to workplace contacts, -transmission, -interventions and compliance with recommendations to take sick leave. A web-based survey on national recommendations and policies for sick leave during influenza was issued to 31 European countries. Results: Twenty-two articles (9 surveys; 13 modelling articles) were eligible for this review. Results from social mixing studies suggest that 20–25% of weekly contacts are made in the workplace, while modelling studies suggest that on average 16% (range 9–33%) of influenza transmission occurs in the workplace. The effectiveness of interventions to reduce workplace presenteeism is largely unknown. Finally, estimates from studies reporting expected compliance with sick leave recommendations ranged from 71 to 95%. Overall, 18 countries participated in the survey of which nine (50%) had issued recommendations encouraging sick employees to stay at home during the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, while only one country had official recommendations for seasonal influenza. Conclusions: During the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, many European countries recommended ill employees to take sick leave. Further research is warranted to quantify the effect of reduced presenteeism during influenza illness. PMID:27060594

  13. Motion sickness: a negative reinforcement model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowins, Brad

    2010-01-15

    Theories pertaining to the "why" of motion sickness are in short supply relative to those detailing the "how." Considering the profoundly disturbing and dysfunctional symptoms of motion sickness, it is difficult to conceive of why this condition is so strongly biologically based in humans and most other mammalian and primate species. It is posited that motion sickness evolved as a potent negative reinforcement system designed to terminate motion involving sensory conflict or postural instability. During our evolution and that of many other species, motion of this type would have impaired evolutionary fitness via injury and/or signaling weakness and vulnerability to predators. The symptoms of motion sickness strongly motivate the individual to terminate the offending motion by early avoidance, cessation of movement, or removal of oneself from the source. The motion sickness negative reinforcement mechanism functions much like pain to strongly motivate evolutionary fitness preserving behavior. Alternative why theories focusing on the elimination of neurotoxins and the discouragement of motion programs yielding vestibular conflict suffer from several problems, foremost that neither can account for the rarity of motion sickness in infants and toddlers. The negative reinforcement model proposed here readily accounts for the absence of motion sickness in infants and toddlers, in that providing strong motivation to terminate aberrant motion does not make sense until a child is old enough to act on this motivation.

  14. Examining paid sickness absence by shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catano, V M; Bissonnette, A B

    2014-06-01

    Shift workers are at greater risk than day workers with respect to psychological and physical health, yet little research has linked shift work to increased sickness absence. To investigate the relationship between shift work and sickness absence while controlling for organizational and individual characteristics and shift work attributes that have confounded previous research. The study used archive data collected from three national surveys in Canada, each involving over 20000 employees and 6000 private-sector firms in 14 different occupational groups. The employees reported the number of paid sickness absence days in the past 12 months. Data were analysed using both chi-squared statistics and hierarchical regressions. Contrary to previous research, shift workers took less paid sickness absence than day workers. There were no differences in the length of the sickness absence between both groups or in sickness absence taken by female and male workers whether working days or shifts. Only job tenure, the presence of a union in the workplace and working rotating shifts predicted sickness absence in shift workers. The results were consistent across all three samples. In general, shift work does not seem to be linked to increased sickness absence. However, such associations may be true for specific industries. Male and female workers did not differ in the amount of sickness absence taken. Rotating shifts, regardless of industry, predicted sickness absence among shift workers. Consideration should be given to implementing scheduled time off between shift changes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The associations between workplace bullying, salivary cortisol, and long-term sickness absence: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Lange, Theis; Conway, Paul Maurice; Bonde, Jens Peter; Garde, Anne Helene; Gullander, Maria; Kaerlev, Linda; Persson, Roger; Rugulies, Reiner; Vammen, Marianne Agergaard; Høgh, Annie; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2017-09-16

    Workplace stressors, such as bullying, are strongly related to subsequent long-term sickness absence, but little is known of the possible physiological mechanisms linking workplace stressors and sickness absence. The primary aim of this study was to investigate to what extent cortisol levels were associated with subsequent sickness absence and if cortisol mediated the association between workplace bullying and sickness absence. We additionally investigated possible bidirectional associations between bullying, cortisol, and long-term sickness absence. Participants came from two Danish cohort studies, the "Psychosocial RIsk factors for Stress and MEntal disease" (PRISME) cohort and the "Workplace Bullying and Harassment" (WBH) cohort (n = 5418). Information about exposure to workplace bullying and morning and evening salivary cortisol was collected at three time points with approximately two years in between. After each data collection, all participants were followed for two years in registers, and cases with long-term sickness absence lasting 30 or more consecutive days were identified. The association between cortisol levels and subsequent sickness absence was assessed by logistic regression, while the extent to which the association between bullying and sickness absence was mediated by cortisol was quantified through natural direct and indirect effects. High evening cortisol was associated with a decreased risk of sickness absence (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68-0.99), but we did not find that high morning cortisol levels (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.81-1.18) or high morning-to-evening slope (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.82-1.18) were associated with subsequent sickness absence. We also tested for reverse causation and found that long-term sickness absence, but not salivary cortisol, was a strong risk factor for subsequent workplace bullying. There was no indication that cortisol mediated the association between workplace bullying and sickness absence. We found no

  16. Research of possible connection of oncological sickness rate with environment pollution by physical and chemical carcinogens on the population both West-Kazakhstan area and Kokshetau oblast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, M.A.; Doskeeva, R.A.; Bityukov, A.I.; Bajmukhamedova, M.Kh.

    2003-01-01

    It was researched a number of the oncological diseases cases (lung and hemic-blastosis) of population within 10 years (1984-1993) for revealing a possible correlation of sickness rate on oncological diseases with oncological inauspicious part of West Kazakhstan region (Atyrau, Oral, Kyzylorda) and Kokshetau. The first three regions have oil-mining and oil refining industries and nuclear tests experience. In Kokshetau gold-mining industry takes place. We can connect to some degree a number of cases of lung cancer and hemic-blastosis with effect of ionizing radiation. It is possibly influence of oil products and gas condensate on malignancy. (author)

  17. Parental availability for the care of sick children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, S J; Earle, A; Egleston, B

    1996-08-01

    Parents have always played a critical role in the care of sick children. Although parents' roles remain crucial to children's health, parental availability has declined during the past half century. The percentage of women with preschool children who work has risen almost fivefold in 45 years from 12% in 1947 to 58% in 1992. The percentage of women in the paid work force with school-aged children has almost tripled in the same period, from 27.3% to 75.9%. Research has examined the effects of a variety of parental work conditions on children. However, past research has not examined how working conditions affect the ability of parents to care for their sick children. In this article, we examine how often the children of working parents get sick and whether parents receive enough paid leave to care for their sick children. This analysis makes use of two national surveys, which provide complementary information regarding the care of sick children. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth is a longitudinal survey of a nationally representative probability sample of 12,686 men and women; the National Medical Expenditure Survey is a panel survey of 34,459 people. First, we estimated the family illness burden. Second, we looked in detail at the number of days of sick leave mothers had. Third, we examined whether mothers who had sick leave had it consistently during a 5-year period. Finally, we conducted a logistic regression to determine what factors were significant predictors of both lacking sick leave. More than one in three families faced a family illness burden of 2 weeks or more each year. Yet, 28% of mothers had sick leave none of the time they were employed between 1985 and 1990. Employed mothers of children with chronic conditions had less sick leave than other employed mothers. Thirty-six percent of mothers whose children had chronic conditions had sick leave none of the time they were employed. Although 20% of working parents who did not live in poverty lacked

  18. Sickness absence due to mental disorders and psychosocial stressors at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Junior, João Silvestre; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2015-01-01

    Mental disorders are the third leading cause of social security benefit due to sickness in Brazil. Occupational exposure to psychosocial stressors can affect the workers' mental health. The social security medical experts are responsible for characterizing if those sicknesses are work-related. To evaluate the factors associated with sick leave due to mental disorders, in particular, the perception of workers on psychosocial factors at work. This is an analytical study carried out in São Paulo, Brazil, with 131 applicants for sickness benefit due to mental disorders. Questionnaires were applied to assess the sociodemographic data, habits/lifestyle information, and perceived psychosocial factors at work. The most common diagnosis was depressive disorders (40.4%). The medical experts considered 23.7% of all applications as work-related. Most of the participants were female (68.7%), up to 40 years of age (73.3%), married/common-law marriage (51.1%), with educational level greater than or equal to 11 years (80.2%), nonsmokers (80.9%), not alcohol consumers (84%), and practice of physical activities (77.9%). Regarding psychosocial factors, most of the participants informed a high job strain (56.5%), low social support (52.7%), effort-reward imbalance (55.7%), and high overcommitment (87.0%). There was no statistical association between the work-related mental disorders sickness benefits and independent variables. The concession of social security sickness benefits is not associated with sociodemographic data, habits/lifestyle, or psychosocial factors at work. Occupational exposure to unfavorable psychosocial factors was reported by most workers on sick leave due to mental disorders. However, several cases were not recognized by the social security medical experts as work-related, which may have influenced the results of the associations.

  19. Industrial Sickness in Indian Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Rahel

    2005-01-01

    In India, the term ‘sick units’ refers to economically unviable firms which are kept alive ‘in the public interest’ by means of subsidies of various kinds. Since this practice is common, and large parts of the industrial sector are affected, this phenomenon is referred to as industrial sickness. As of March 2001, the Reserve Bank of India counted over a quarter of a million of sick units with outstanding credit worth more than a quarter of a trillion of Indian Rupees, i.e. about 1.2 percent o...

  20. Occupational health impact of the 2009 H1N1 flu pandemic: surveillance of sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torá-Rocamora, Isabel; Delclos, George L; Martínez, José Miguel; Jardí, Josefina; Alberti, Constança; Manzanera, Rafael; Yasui, Yutaka; Clèries, Ramón; Tobías, Aurelio; Benavides, Fernando G

    2012-03-01

    Workplace absences due to illness can disrupt usual operations and increase costs for businesses. This study of sickness absence due to influenza and influenza-related illness presents a unique opportunity to characterise and measure the impact of the 2009 (H1N1) pandemic, by comparing trends during the pandemic to those of previous years, and adding this information to that obtained by traditional epidemiological surveillance systems. We compared the numbers of cases of sickness absence due to illness caused by influenza and influenza-related illness in 2007-2009, and in the first 3 months of 2010 in Catalonia (n=811 940) using a time series approach. Trends were examined by economic activity, age and gender. The weekly endemic-epidemic index (EEI) was calculated and its 95% CI obtained with the delta method, with observed and expected cases considered as independent random variables. Influenza activity peaked earlier in 2009 and yielded more cases than in previous years. Week 46 (in November 2009) had the highest number of new cases resulting in sickness absence (EEI 20.99; 95% CI 9.44 to 46.69). Women and the 'education, health and other social activities' sector were the most affected. Results indicate that the new H1N1 pandemic had a significant impact on business, with shifts in the timing of peak incidence, a doubling in the number of cases, and changes in the distribution of cases by economic activity sector and gender. Traditional epidemiological surveillance systems could benefit from the addition of information based on sickness absence data.

  1. Two cases of radiation retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoda, Miho; Yuzawa, Mitsuko; Matsui, Mizuo; Kaneko, Akihiro.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation retinopathy is characterized by retinal micovascular abnormalities after radiation therapy of the eye and its surrounding structures. The authors performed focal laser photocoagulation in two cases of radiation retinopathy. Case 1 was a 16 year old woman with radiation retinopathy who had been treated for retioblastoma in her right eye using cobalt 60-applicator 16 years prior to the first visit. Her corrected visual acuity of the right eye was 0.4. Ophthalmoscopy revealed large macular deposits, soft exudates, and retinal hemorrhage. Fluorescein angiography showed hyperpermeability of capillaries in the vicinity of the lower temporal retinal vessels. The visual acuity improved to 1.2 after the photocoagulation. Case 2 was a 16 year old man who had received 50 gray of external beam for a primary rhabdo-myosarcoma in the temporal region. Retinal avascular areas in the posterior pole of his both eyes were observed and the area showed increased retinal vessel permeability in the right eye was photocoagulated. The visual acuity in his right eye increased from 0.08 to 1.0 following the treatment. (author)

  2. Motion sickness, stress and the endocannabinoid system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Choukèr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A substantial number of individuals are at risk for the development of motion sickness induced nausea and vomiting (N&V during road, air or sea travel. Motion sickness can be extremely stressful but the neurobiologic mechanisms leading to motion sickness are not clear. The endocannabinoid system (ECS represents an important neuromodulator of stress and N&V. Inhibitory effects of the ECS on N&V are mediated by endocannabinoid-receptor activation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the activity of the ECS in human volunteers (n = 21 during parabolic flight maneuvers (PFs. During PFs, microgravity conditions (<10(-2 g are generated for approximately 22 s which results in a profound kinetic stimulus. Blood endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, 2-AG were measured from blood samples taken in-flight before start of the parabolic maneuvers, after 10, 20, and 30 parabolas, in-flight after termination of PFs and 24 h later. Volunteers who developed acute motion sickness (n = 7 showed significantly higher stress scores but lower endocannabinoid levels during PFs. After 20 parabolas, blood anandamide levels had dropped significantly in volunteers with motion sickness (from 0.39+/-0.40 to 0.22+/-0.25 ng/ml but increased in participants without the condition (from 0.43+/-0.23 to 0.60+/-0.38 ng/ml resulting in significantly higher anandamide levels in participants without motion sickness (p = 0.02. 2-AG levels in individuals with motion sickness were low and almost unchanged throughout the experiment but showed a robust increase in participants without motion sickness. Cannabinoid-receptor 1 (CB1 but not cannabinoid-receptor 2 (CB2 mRNA expression in leucocytes 4 h after the experiment was significantly lower in volunteers with motion sickness than in participants without N&V. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that stress and motion sickness in humans are associated with impaired endocannabinoid

  3. [The sick individual as a concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejerizo López, Luis Carlos

    2011-01-01

    We start from the premise, shared by some current philosophical movements and by the author, which states that philosophy is not contemplation, or reflection, or introspection or communication. Philosophy is the art of shaping, inventing and creating concepts. It is an explicit way of introducing new differences in life, a different reading level, a specific jargon, which may imply revealing the flip side of the coin, or a dissimilar view of the side facing us. The philosopher is the friend of the concept, he holds it in his power, which means, basically and in all honesty, that philosophy is the discipline of creating concepts. Let us remember the brilliant idea of the Russian director Tarkovsky, who announced his greatest ambition as an artist: "To capture time". At the same time, we must recall one of the sayings of this director: "Every film I have directed and I intend to direct is always tied to characters who have something to overcome". The healthy individual lives in a specific time, with precise coordinates, aware that his life consists only of living that time. That is, living as defined by Josep María Esquirol: "Then we could also see that the best way of living the present is not to run after the fleeing time, but to see and live the opportunity that appears before us". One of the many circumstances that can intercept the way we see and live the opportunity that appears before us is sickness, one of those inescapable experiences we have not been taught how to pay an adequate attention to, and the meaning of which can, in a way, go unnoticed. As "time" goes by, the circumstance that we consider to be the basis on which existence is founded, sickness can appear, thus introducing a new dimension in the time of the healthy individual. For this reason we, as doctors and professionals, know that sickness "is tied to characters who have something to overcome". In view of the fact that a sickness invades a healthy individual and transforms him into a sick one

  4. Explaining the gender gap in sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østby, K A; Mykletun, A; Nilsen, W

    2018-04-17

    In many western countries, women have a much higher rate of sickness absence than men. To what degree the gender differences in sickness absence are caused by gender differences in health is largely unknown. To assess to what degree the gender gap in sickness absence can be explained by health factors and work- and family-related stressors. Norwegian parents participating in the Tracking Opportunities and Problems (TOPP) study were asked about sickness absence and a range of factors possibly contributing to gender differences in sickness absence, including somatic and mental health, sleep problems, job control/demands, work-home conflicts, parent-child conflicts and stressful life events. Using a cross-sectional design, we did linear regression analyses, to assess the relative contribution from health and stressors. There were 557 study participants. Adjusting for health factors reduced the gender difference in sickness absence by 24%, while adjusting for stressors in the family and at work reduced the difference by 22%. A simultaneous adjustment for health factors and stressors reduced the difference in sickness absence by about 28%. Despite adjusting for a large number of factors, including both previously well-studied factors (e.g. health, job control/demands) and lesser-studied factors (parent-child conflict and sexual assault), this study found that most of the gender gap in sickness absence remains unexplained. Gender differences in health and stressors account for only part of the differences in sickness absence. Other factors must, therefore, exist outside the domains of health, work and family stressors.

  5. Part-Time Sick Leave as a Treatment Method?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén D; Andrén T

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of being on part-time sick leave compared to full-time sick leave on the probability of recovering (i.e., returning to work with full recovery of lost work capacity). Using a discrete choice one-factor model, we estimate mean treatment parameters and distributional treatment parameters from a common set of structural parameters. Our results show that part-time sick leave increases the likelihood of recovering and dominates full-time sick leave for sickness spel...

  6. Radiation Retinopathy: Case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Lorna

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ocular damage from radiation treatment is a well established phenomenon. Many factors are now known to influence the incidence of radiation retinopathy, including total dosage and daily fraction size. Patients who are diabetic, hypertensive or received previous chemotherapy are more susceptible to radiation retinopathy. Case Presentation A 55 year old male was referred from the oncology department with epiphora. His medical history included Type 2 Insulin treated Diabetes Mellitus and hypertension. One year prior to presentation he had undergone a total rhinectomy with a 4 week course of post-operative radiotherapy for an aggressive sqaumous cell carcinoma of the nose. On examination the visual acuity was noted to be 6/36 left eye and 6/9 right eye. Posterior segment examination revealed marked retinal ischaemia present in the posterior pole and macular region of both eyes. The appearance was not thought to be typical of diabetic changes, radiation retinopathy being the more likely diagnosis especially in view of his history. Over the next four months the vision in both eyes rapidly deteriorated to 3/60 left eye and 1/60 right eye. Bilateral pan retinal photocoagulation was thought to be appropriate treatment at this point. Conclusion This case highlights the importance for ophthalmologists and oncologists to be aware of the close relationship between diabetes and radiation treatment and the profound rapid impact this combination of factors may have on visual function. Radiation is being used with increasing frequency for ocular and orbital disease, because of this more cases of radiation retinopathy may become prevalent. Factors which may potentiate radiation retinopathy should be well known including, increased radiation dosage, increased fraction size, concomitant systemic vascular disease and use of chemotherapy. Counselling should be offered in all cases at risk of visual loss. As no effective treatment currently exists

  7. Leisure sickness: a pilot study on its prevalence, phenomenology, and background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingerhoets, Ad J J M; Van Huijgevoort, Maaike; Van Heck, Guus L

    2002-01-01

    To explore the prevalence, phenomenology, and background of leisure sickness, i.e., the condition of people developing symptoms of sickness during weekends and/or vacations. In order to obtain an estimate of its prevalence, a representative Dutch sample consisting of 1,128 men and 765 women was asked to indicate to what extent they recognized themselves in our description of weekend and vacation sickness. For the investigation of the phenomenology and background of this condition and the characteristics of the patients suffering from it, questionnaire data were collected in new samples consisting of 114 cases and 56 controls. Questions referred to symptoms, onset, duration, appreciation of weekend and vacation activities, and appraisal of work and workload. In the case of male respondents, 3.6 and 3.2% recognized themselves in the description of the weekend and the vacation syndrome, respectively, compared with 2.7 and 3.2% women. Most frequently reported symptoms were headache/migraine, fatigue, muscular pains, and nausea. In addition, viral infections (flue-like, common cold) were often reported in relation to vacations. Cases had generally suffered from leisure sickness for over 10 years and the onset was associated with stressful conditions. They attributed their condition to difficulties with the transition from work to nonwork, stress associated with travel and vacation, as well as workload and personality characteristics. There were no significant group differences in the appreciation of weekend and leisure activities or lifestyle during days off. Most striking differences were found with respect to experienced workload, sense of responsibility, and inability to relax. Leisure sickness is a relatively common condition. Specific lifestyle factors or leisure activities seem to be less relevant for its development. Concerning risk factors, the data tend to point to high workload and person characteristics, namely, the inability to adapt to the nonworking

  8. 20 CFR 335.2 - Manner of claiming sickness benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., or in the case of a female employee, pregnancy, miscarriage, or childbirth, an employee must file the... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of claiming sickness benefits. 335.2 Section 335.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT...

  9. Managerial leadership is associated with self-reported sickness absence and sickness presenteeism among Swedish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Anna; Westerlund, Hugo; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Theorell, Töres

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between managerial leadership and self-reported sickness absence/presenteeism among Swedish men and women. Five thousand one hundred and forty-one Swedish employees, 56% of the participants in a nationally representative sample of the Swedish working population, were included in this cross-sectional questionnaire study. The leadership dimensions measured were five subscales of a standardized leadership questionnaire (Global Leadership and Organizational Behaviour Effectiveness Programme): Integrity, Team integration, Inspirational leadership, Autocratic leadership, and Self-centred leadership. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted, adjusting for factors in private life, employment category, labour-market sector, working conditions, self-reported general health, and satisfaction with life in general. Inspirational leadership was associated with a lower rate of short spells of sickness absence (women. Autocratic leadership was related to a greater amount of total sick days taken by men. Sometimes showing integrity was associated with higher rate of sickness absence >1 week among men, and seldom showing integrity was associated with more sickness presenteeism among women. Managers performing Team integration were sometimes associated with women taking fewer short (1 week) spells of sickness absence. Adjustment for self-reported general health did not alter these associations for men, but did so to some extent for women. Managerial leadership was found to be relevant for the understanding of sickness absence in the Swedish working population. There were distinctive gender differences.

  10. Sickness benefit cuts mainly affect blue-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaviksoo, E; Kiivet, R-A

    2014-08-01

    To analyse the impact of sick-pay cuts on the use of sickness absence by employees of different socioeconomic groups. In 2009 cuts in sick pay were implemented in reaction to an economic crisis in Estonia. Nationwide health survey data from the years 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010 were used to evaluate sickness absence among blue-collar and white-collar workers. The dataset comprised 7,449 employees of 20-64 years of age. Difference in prevalence of absentees before and after the reform was assessed using the chi-squared test. Odds ratios (OR) for sickness absence were calculated in a multivariate logistic regression model. After the reform, the proportion of blue-collar workers who had been on sick leave decreased from 51% to 40% (pgender, age, self-rated health, and presence of chronic disease, especially among those with low incomes; in white-collar employees it reached statistical significance only in those with good self-rated health (p=0.033). In a multivariate model the odds of having lower sickness absence were highly significant only in blue-collar employees (OR 0.63; 95% confidence interval 0.51-0.77, p<0.001). The cuts in sickness benefits had a major impact on the use of sickness absence by blue-collar employees with low salaries. This indicates that lower income was a major factor hindering the use of sick leave as these employees are most vulnerable to the loss of income. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  11. Prognostic factors for duration of sick leave in patients sick listed with acute low back pain: a systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstra, I. A.; Verbeek, J. H.; Heymans, M. W.; Bongers, P. M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The percentages of patients with acute low back pain ( LBP) that go on to a chronic state varies between studies from 2% to 34%. In some of these cases low back pain leads to great costs. Aims: To evaluate the evidence for prognostic factors for return to work among workers sick listed

  12. Prognostic factors for duration of sick leave in patients sick listed with acute low back pain: a systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstra, I.A.; Verbeek, J.H.A.M.; Heymans, M.W.; Bongers, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The percentages of patients with acute low back pain (LBP) that go on to a chronic state varies between studies from 2% to 34%. In some of these cases low back pain leads to great costs. AIMS: To evaluate the evidence for prognostic factors for return to work among workers sick listed

  13. Prognostic factors for duration of sick leave in patients sick listed with acute low back pain: A systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstra, I.A.; Verbeek, J.H.; Heymans, M.W.; Bongers, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The percentages of patients with acute low back pain (LBP) that go on to a chronic state varies between studies from 2% to 34%. In some of these cases low back pain leads to great costs. Aims: To evaluate the evidence for prognostic factors for return to work among workers sick listed

  14. Cinerama sickness and postural instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Jelte E; Ledegang, Wietse D; Lubeck, Astrid J A; Stins, John F

    2013-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms and increased postural instability induced by motion pictures have been reported in a laboratory, but not in a real cinema. We, therefore, carried out an observational study recording sickness severity and postural instability in 19 subjects before, immediately and 45 min after watching a 1 h 3D aviation documentary in a cinema. Sickness was significantly larger right after the movie than before, and in a lesser extent still so after 45 min. The average standard deviation of the lateral centre of pressure excursions was significantly larger only right afterwards. When low-pass filtered at 0.1 Hz, lateral and for-aft excursions were both significantly larger right after the movie, while for-aft excursions then remained larger even after 45 min. Speculating on previous findings, we predict more sickness and postural instability in 3D than in 2D movies, also suggesting a possible, but yet unknown risk for work-related activities and vehicle operation. Watching motion pictures may be sickening and posturally destabilising, but effects in a cinema are unknown. We, therefore, carried out an observational study showing that sickness then is mainly an issue during the exposure while postural instability is an issue afterwards.

  15. Approaches for predicting long-term sickness absence. Re: Schouten et al. "Screening manual and office workers for risk of long-term sickness absence: cut-off points for the Work Ability Index".

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amelsvoort, Ludovic Gpm; Jansen, Nicole W H; Kant, I Jmert

    2015-05-01

    who are in fact suffering from disease" (ie, situations of secondary prevention). This means that, when applying this definition on long-term sickness absence under the precondition that the individuals are still at work, screening enables the identification of high-risk individuals in the early "stages" of a "disease" that can progress into long-term sickness absence. In the case of the Schouten et al study, the population at risk, as derived from their predictive instrument, consists of workers with and without sickness absence, and as such excludes the use of the term "screening" in this case. To conclude, we have substantiated that, in addition to correct usage of the term "screening", careful selection of the study population, predictors and most importantly the aim of the predictive model are essential in the process of developing predictive instruments aimed at identifying workers at high risk of long-term sickness absence. Two fundamentally different approaches are possible. One approach aims at identifying workers on sick leave with either a below-average chance to return to work an/or a high risk for a successive episode of long-term sickness absence. From a methodological and practical point of view, such an instrument should be developed and validated among workers already on sick leave. A second approach aims at identifying workers who are still at work but at high risk for future long-term sickness absence. To develop and validate such an instrument, a study sample where workers already on sick leave are excluded is a prerequisite. Such instruments fit in a pro-active approach of preventing future sickness absence, where an early intervention can be offered to those workers with an increased risk for future sickness absence.

  16. Analysis of Chronic Radiation Sickness Cases in the Population of the Southern Urals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    manufacturing plant. She usually felt very tired by the end of her work- day. Her medical history included flu, parotitis, measles, scarlet fever , and...childhood. He had typhoid fever at the berg et al. [271, external radiation at the patient’s age of 17 and malaria at the age of 22. The onset of...introduced for natural 40K radioactivity. With the ena ( petechial skin eruption, hemorihages into the deduction of this value, the net activity of beta

  17. Sickness and love: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, S.; Vandamme, S.

    2008-01-01

    Love is a neglected topic in anthropology, for good reasons: it has always resisted scientific definition and analysis. By associating love with sickness seven authors attempt to capture various meanings and experiences of love. Two broad concepts arise: love as sickness and love in response to

  18. The associations between workplace bullying, salivary cortisol, and long-term sickness absence: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Brødsgaard Grynderup

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Workplace stressors, such as bullying, are strongly related to subsequent long-term sickness absence, but little is known of the possible physiological mechanisms linking workplace stressors and sickness absence. The primary aim of this study was to investigate to what extent cortisol levels were associated with subsequent sickness absence and if cortisol mediated the association between workplace bullying and sickness absence. We additionally investigated possible bidirectional associations between bullying, cortisol, and long-term sickness absence. Methods Participants came from two Danish cohort studies, the “Psychosocial RIsk factors for Stress and MEntal disease” (PRISME cohort and the “Workplace Bullying and Harassment” (WBH cohort (n = 5418. Information about exposure to workplace bullying and morning and evening salivary cortisol was collected at three time points with approximately two years in between. After each data collection, all participants were followed for two years in registers, and cases with long-term sickness absence lasting 30 or more consecutive days were identified. The association between cortisol levels and subsequent sickness absence was assessed by logistic regression, while the extent to which the association between bullying and sickness absence was mediated by cortisol was quantified through natural direct and indirect effects. Results High evening cortisol was associated with a decreased risk of sickness absence (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68–0.99, but we did not find that high morning cortisol levels (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.81–1.18 or high morning-to-evening slope (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.82–1.18 were associated with subsequent sickness absence. We also tested for reverse causation and found that long-term sickness absence, but not salivary cortisol, was a strong risk factor for subsequent workplace bullying. There was no indication that cortisol mediated the association

  19. Medically certified sickness absence among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Rajab Ali; Sikander, Raheel; Khawaja, Asad Ali; Jareno, Rechel Joy Macadaan; Halepota, Aurangzeb Taj

    2012-09-01

    To compare the days and spells of sickness absence among males versus females and Saudi nationals versus expatriate employees of King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, and to identify the cause of sickness absence. The cross-sectional, descriptive study comprised 3117 King Khalid University Hospital employees. Records of physician-certified sickness absence from January 1 to June 30, 2009, were obtained from the employee health clinic's register. Absence rate, frequency, duration and severity were assessed and compared between genders and nationalities, and causes were noted. SPSS version 16 and student's t test were used for statistical analyses and comparison. A total of 377 (12.1 %) employees had 416 spells of sickness absence with 639 sick-off days (mean: 1.54 +/- 0.85). The probability of sickness absence was higher among Saudi (OR=1.33) and female (OR=1.39) employees. The association of sickness absence was not found among the absentees with either gender (p= 0.335) or nationality (p = 0.086). Almost all spells of sick-off days were of short duration. Longer spells were mainly due to chicken pox which was found to be more among the expatriates. Heavy absenteeism was found only among the Saudis. The most common causes of sickness absence were acute upper respiratory infection, diseases of musculoskeletal system and the digestive system. The rate, frequency and duration of absence due to sickness in the study were higher among Saudi and female employees. The rate of absence, with passage of time, has increased significantly among Saudi nationals.

  20. ACUTE MOUNTAIN SICKNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Krzeszowiak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the most likely pathophysiological causes of the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS, also known as altitude sickness, its pulmonary form i.e. high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE, and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE. These diseases constitute extraordinary environmental hazards because they are directly connected with low atmospheric pressure, and thus low partial oxygen pressure. The above adverse atmospheric conditions start to affect humans already at an altitude of 2,500 meters above the sea level and, coupled with extreme physical exertion, can quickly lead to respiratory alkalosis, which is not present under any other conditions in the lowlands. Mountaineering above 4,500 m a.s.l. leads to hypoxia of internal organs and, primarily, reduced renal perfusion with all its consequences. The above adverse changes, combined with inadequate acclimatization, can lead to a situation of imminent danger to life and health. This paper describes in detail the consequences of acute mountain sickness, which can ultimately lead to the development of AMS and one of severe forms of HACE and/or HAPE.

  1. Relation between sick leave and selected exposure variables among women semiconductor workers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, H; Rampal, K

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To determine the relation between sick leave and selected exposure variables among women semiconductor workers. Methods: This was a cross sectional survey of production workers from 18 semiconductor factories. Those selected had to be women, direct production operators up to the level of line leader, and Malaysian citizens. Sick leave and exposure to physical and chemical hazards were determined by self reporting. Three sick leave variables were used; number of sick leave days taken in the past year was the variable of interest in logistic regression models where the effects of age, marital status, work task, work schedule, work section, and duration of work in factory and work section were also explored. Results: Marital status was strongly linked to the taking of sick leave. Age, work schedule, and duration of work in the factory were significant confounders only in certain cases. After adjusting for these confounders, chemical and physical exposures, with the exception of poor ventilation and smelling chemicals, showed no significant relation to the taking of sick leave within the past year. Work section was a good predictor for taking sick leave, as wafer polishing workers faced higher odds of taking sick leave for each of the three cut off points of seven days, three days, and not at all, while parts assembly workers also faced significantly higher odds of taking sick leave. Conclusion: In Malaysia, the wafer fabrication factories only carry out a limited portion of the work processes, in particular, wafer polishing and the processes immediately prior to and following it. This study, in showing higher illness rates for workers in wafer polishing compared to semiconductor assembly, has implications for the governmental policy of encouraging the setting up of wafer fabrication plants with the full range of work processes. PMID:12660374

  2. Changes in alcohol drinking and subsequent sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonsalmi, Aino; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Laaksonen, Mikko

    2015-06-01

    The aim was to examine whether changes in alcohol drinking are associated with sickness absence. Repeated postal questionnaires on alcohol drinking were conducted among employees of the City of Helsinki in 2000-2 and 2007 to assess changes in drinking habits between these two time points. Data on the number of self-certified and medically confirmed sickness absences were derived from the employer's register. Sickness absences were followed from 2007 until the end of 2010 among employees participating in both questionnaire surveys. The study includes 3252 female and 682 male employees 40-60 years old at baseline. Poisson regression was used in the data analysis and population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated. Alcohol drinking was associated especially with self-certified sickness absence. Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for increasing weekly average drinking were 1.38, 1.18-1.62 among women and 1.58, 1.18-2.12 among men. Also stable problem drinking (for women 1.39, 1.26-1.54, for men 1.44, 1.10-1.87) and among women stable heavy drinking (1.53, 1.20-1.94) increased self-certified sickness absence. There were associations between alcohol drinking and medically confirmed sickness absence but these were mainly explained by health and health behaviours. Also, a decrease in weekly average drinking was associated with sickness absence among women whereas among men former problem drinking increased sickness absence. According to the PAF values, problem drinking had a stronger contribution to sickness absence than weekly average drinking. Alcohol drinking is particularly associated with self-certified sickness absence. Reducing adverse drinking habits is likely to prevent sickness absence. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  3. Prediction of sickness absenteeism, disability pension and sickness presenteeism among employees with back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Gunnar; Hagberg, Jan; Busch, Hillevi; Jensen, Irene; Björklund, Christina

    2014-06-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive ability of the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (ÖMPSQ) concerning long-term sick leave, sickness presenteeism and disability pension during a follow-up period of 2 years. The study group consisted of 195 employees visiting the occupational health service (OHS) due to back pain. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, the area under the curve (AUC) varied from 0.67 to 0.93, which was from less accurate for sickness presenteeism to highly accurate for the prediction of disability pension. For registered sick leave during 6 months following the baseline the AUC from the ROC analyses was moderately accurate (0.81) and a cut off score of 90 rendered a high sensitivity of 0.89 but a low specificity of 0.46 whereas a cut off score of 105 improves the specificity substantially but at the cost of some sensitivity. The predictive ability appears to decrease with time. Several workplace factors beyond those included in the ÖMPSQ were considered but only social support at the workplace was significantly related to future long-term sick leave besides the total score of the ÖMPSQ. The results of this study extend and confirm the findings of earlier research on the ÖMPSQ. Assessment of psychosocial risk factors among employees seeking help for back pain at the OHS could be helpful in the prevention of work disabling problems.

  4. The flying radiation case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, J.H.; Bowers, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Los Alamos foil implosion program has the goal of producing an intense, high-energy density x-ray source by converting the energy of a magnetically imploded plasma into radiation and material energy. One of the methods for converting the plasma energy into thermal energy and radiation and utilizing it for experiments is called the flying radiation case (FRC). In this paper the authors shall model the FRC and provide a physical description of the processes involved. An analytic model of a planar FRC in the hydrodynamic approximation is used to describe the assembly and shock heating of a central cushion by a conducting liner driver. The results are also used to benchmark a hydrodynamics code for modeling an FRC. They then use a radiation-hydrodynamics computational model to explore the effects of radiation production and transport when a gold plasma assembles on a CH cushion. Results are presented for the structure and evolution of the radiation hohlraum

  5. What is healthy work for women and men? - A case-control study of gender- and sector-specific effects of psycho-social working conditions on long-term sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidwall, Ulrik; Marklund, Staffan

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relevance of the demand-control model and social support in predicting long-term sickness absence (LTSA). Identifying gender- and sector- (private vs. public) specific patterns was in focus. The study uses a cross-sectional design with a case and a control group. The cases are a sample of 2 327 long-term sick listed (>60 days) and the controls are a Swedish population-based sample of 2 063. Data on sickness absence were retrieved from the Swedish national social insurance registers. Data on health, working and living conditions were gathered through a self-administered questionnaire. The results show that employed women have a notably higher risk for LTSA than employed men. High-strain jobs increase the odds for LTSA among both women and men. Active jobs were also associated with LTSA among women. The study confirms the demand-control model (job strain hypothesis) and social support and their associations with LTSA. However, the job strain hypothesis is more evident in the private sector. Active jobs with high psychological demands and high decision latitude seem to be problematic for many women, especially in the private sector. Thus, the active learning hypothesis receives no support for women in the Swedish working population in general.

  6. Job satisfaction and sickness absence: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Corné A M; Koopmans, Petra C; Notenbomer, Annette; Groothoff, Johan W

    2008-12-01

    When dissatisfaction with work precedes sickness absence, screening for satisfaction levels might usefully detect workers at risk of sickness absence. To investigate whether job satisfaction was associated with subsequent sickness absence days or episodes. A sample of workers was randomly drawn from a population of employees who had an episode of absence between January and April 2003. Job satisfaction was measured using a validated single question with a Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 7 (very satisfied). Job satisfaction levels were linked to the number of recorded sickness absence days and episodes in 2003, distinguishing between short (1-7 days) episodes and long (>7 days) episodes. Of 898 questionnaires distributed, 518 (58%) were returned. The mean+/-standard deviation job satisfaction level was 5.1+/-1.4 and negatively related to the number of sickness absence days. Job satisfaction was also negatively related to the number of short episodes and long episodes of absence, but these associations were not significant. Job satisfaction was significantly related to total sickness absence duration. The association with the number of sickness absence episodes was weak and just below the level of statistical significance. Assessing work satisfaction levels might usefully identify those workers most likely to have the greatest sickness absence duration.

  7. General Automatic Components of Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, S.; Toscano, W. B.; Kamiya, J.; Naifeh, K.

    1985-01-01

    A body of investigations performed in support of experiments aboard the space shuttle, and designed to counteract the symptoms of Space Adaptation Syndrome, which resemble those of motion sickness on Earth is reviewed. For these supporting studies, the automatic manifestations of earth-based motion sickness was examined. Heart rate, respiration rate, finger pulse volume and basal skin resistance were measured on 127 men and women before, during and after exposure to nauseogenic rotating chair tests. Significant changes in all autonomic responses were observed across the tests. Significant differences in autonomic responses among groups divided according to motion sickness susceptibility were also observed. Results suggest that the examination of autonomic responses as an objective indicator of motion sickness malaise is warranted and may contribute to the overall understanding of the syndrome on Earth and in Space.

  8. Introduction of a medical questionnaire concerning long-term sick leave

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    In order to ensure a closer follow-up of those on long-term sick leave, the Organization will introduce a new medical questionnaire to be sent to employed members of the personnel. This questionnaire consisting of four questions (concerning the diagnosis, pending and future examinations and treatments, the prognostic and the possibility to resume work) will be sent from the Consulting Medical Practitioner to all employed members of the personnel following two consecutive months of sick leave and, thereafter, periodically on a case by case basis. The employed member of the personnel is requested to submit the medical questionnaire to his/her medical practitioner (or the specialist taking care of him/her) in order to complete and return it to the Consulting Medical Practitioner. It should be noted that this questionnaire does not exempt, in any way, the employed member of personnel from providing a medical certificate for all absence due to illness of more than three consecutive calendar days. The procedure to...

  9. Relationship Between Occupational Stress Dimensions and Sickness Absence Among a Gas Company Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvan Zare

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Working conditions have considerably changed and exposure to psychosocial risk factors, particularly occupational stress, has recently had an increasing trend. Studies have shown that sickness absence was the worst outcome of occupational stress. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between dimensions of occupational stress and sickness absence in a gas company in Boushehr, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 employees of a gas company, Boushehr, Iran who were selected through random sampling. Osipow occupational stress questionnaire was used to determine the participants’ stress levels. Then, the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: The participants’ mean of sickness absence was 2.164.57± days per year. Besides, 1.5%, 32.5%, 36.3%, and 29.8% of the participants had low, low to moderate, moderate to severe, and severe occupational stress, respectively. Additionally, the mean of total stress was moderate to severe among the study participants. This was also the case concerning the stress dimensions. The results revealed a significant relationship between the number of sickness absences and dimensions of occupational stress, including workload, role insufficiency, role conflict, responsibility, physical environment, and total stress (P=0.0001. Conclusion: The majority of the employees had high levels of occupational stress. Besides, a significant association was observed between the dimensions of occupational stress and sickness absence. Accordingly, to decrease the number of sickness absence, we should take measures to reduce occupational stress.

  10. System for analysing sickness absenteeism in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indulski, J A; Szubert, Z

    1997-01-01

    The National System of Sickness Absenteeism Statistics has been functioning in Poland since 1977, as the part of the national health statistics. The system is based on a 15-percent random sample of copies of certificates of temporary incapacity for work issued by all health care units and authorised private medical practitioners. A certificate of temporary incapacity for work is received by every insured employee who is compelled to stop working due to sickness, accident, or due to the necessity to care for a sick member of his/her family. The certificate is required on the first day of sickness. Analyses of disease- and accident-related sickness absenteeism carried out each year in Poland within the statistical system lead to the main conclusions: 1. Diseases of the musculoskeletal and peripheral nervous systems accounting, when combined, for 1/3 of the total sickness absenteeism, are a major health problem of the working population in Poland. During the past five years, incapacity for work caused by these diseases in males increased 2.5 times. 2. Circulatory diseases, and arterial hypertension and ischaemic heart disease in particular (41% and 27% of sickness days, respectively), create an essential health problem among males at productive age, especially, in the 40 and older age group. Absenteeism due to these diseases has increased in males more than two times.

  11. Serum sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem should be stopped. Avoid using that medicine or antiserum in the future. ... Call your provider if you received medicine or antiserum in the last 4 weeks and have symptoms of serum sickness.

  12. Sickness absence: a systematic review and meta-analysis of psychological treatments for individuals on sick leave due to common mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsson, Sigrid; Hedman-Lagerlöf, Erik; Öst, Lars-Göran

    2018-01-30

    Sick leave due to common mental disorders (CMDs) increase rapidly and present a major societal challenge. The overall effect of psychological interventions to reduce sick leave and symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated and there is a need for a systematic review and meta-analysis of the field. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to calculate the effect size of psychological interventions for CMDs on sick leave and psychiatric symptoms based on all published randomized controlled trials. Methodological quality, the risk of bias and publication bias were also assessed. The literature searches gave 2240 hits and 45 studies were included. The psychological interventions were more effective than care as usual on both reduced sick leave (g = 0.15) and symptoms (g = 0.21). There was no significant difference in effect between work focused interventions, problem-solving therapy, cognitive behavioural therapy or collaborative care. We conclude that psychological interventions are more effective than care as usual to reduce sick leave and symptoms but the effect sizes are small. More research is needed on psychological interventions that evaluate effects on sick leave. Consensual measures of sick leave should be established and quality of psychotherapy for patients on sick leave should be improved.

  13. [Teacher sick leave: Prevalence, duration, reasons and covariates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercambre-Jacquot, M-N; Gilbert, F; Billaudeau, N

    2018-02-01

    Absences from work have considerable social and economic impact. In the education sector, the phenomenon is particularly worrying since teacher sick leave has an impact on the overall performance of the education system. Yet, available data are scarce. In April-June 2013, 2653 teachers responded to a population-based postal survey on their quality of life (enquête Qualité de vie des enseignants, MGEN Foundation/Ministry of education, response rate 53 %). Besides questions on work environment and health, teachers were asked to describe their eventual sick leave(s) since the beginning of the school year: duration, type and medical reasons. Self-reported information was reinforced by administrative data from ministerial databases and weighted to be extrapolated to all French teachers. Tobit models adjusted for individual factors of a private nature were used to investigate different occupational risk factors of teacher sick leave, taking into account both the estimated effect on the probability of sick leave and the length of it. More than one in three teachers (36 %) reported having had at least one day of sick leave since the beginning of the school year. Respiratory/ENT diseases were the leading reason for sick leave (37 %). However, and because sick leave duration depended on the underlying health problem, such diseases came in third place among justifications of sick leave days (14 %), far behind musculoskeletal problems (27 %) and neurological and psychological disorders (25 %). Tobit models suggested that some occupational factors significantly associated with the risk of sick leave may represent promising preventive targets, including high psychological demand, workplace violence and unfavorable socio-environmental context. Our study provides objective evidence about the issue of sick leave among French teachers, highlighting the usefulness of implementing actions to minimize its weight. To this end, the study findings point-out the importance of

  14. Relative deprivation and sickness absence in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgertz, Jonas; Hess, Wolfgang; Scott, Kirk

    2013-08-29

    A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual's degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual's career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Altering individual's health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies.

  15. Is part-time sick leave helping the unemployed?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Using a discrete choice one-factor model, we estimate mean treatment parameters and distributional treatment parameters to analyze the effects of degree of sick leave on the probability of full recovery of lost work capacity for employed and unemployed individuals, respectively. Our results indicate that one year after the sick leave spell started, the average potential impact of part-time sick listing on an individual randomly chosen from the population on sick leave was positive for both gr...

  16. Stability of return to work after a coordinated and tailored intervention for sickness absence compensation beneficiaries with mental health problems: results of a two-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Marie H T; Nielsen, Maj Britt D; Pedersen, Jacob; Rugulies, Reiner

    2015-01-01

    Mental health problems (MHPs) are increasingly common as reasons for long-term sickness absence. However, the knowledge of how to promote a stable return to work (RTW) after sickness absence due to MHPs is limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a multidisciplinary, coordinated and tailored RTW-intervention in terms of stability of RTW, cumulative sickness absence and labour market status after 2 years among sickness absence compensation beneficiaries with MHPs. In a quasi-randomised, controlled trial, we followed recipients of the intervention (n = 88) and of conventional case management (n = 80) for 2 years to compare their risk of recurrent sickness absence and unemployment after RTW, their cumulative sickness absence and their labour market status after 2 years. We found no statistically significant intervention effect in terms of the risk of recurrent sickness absence or unemployment. Intervention recipients had more cumulated sickness absence in year one (mean difference = 58 days; p sickness absence or improved labour market status after 2 years when compared to conventional case management. Evidence for effective return-to-work (RTW) interventions for people with mental health problems is limited, as most research to date has been done in the context of musculoskeletal disorders. A complex, multidisciplinary intervention, detached from the workplace, does not appear to improve the stability of RTW and may actually lead to more sickness absence days and less self-support when compared to conventional case management of sickness absence beneficiaries in Denmark. A stronger focus on cooperation with social insurance officers and employers may produce better results.

  17. [Vestibular testing abnormalities in individuals with motion sickness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Ou, Yongkang; Chen, Ling; Zheng, Yiqing

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the vestibular function of motion sickness. VNG, which tests the vestibular function of horizontal semicircular canal, and CPT, which tests vestibulospinal reflex and judge proprioceptive, visual and vestibular status, were performed in 30 motion sickness patients and 20 healthy volunteers (control group). Graybiel score was recorded at the same time. Two groups' Graybiel score (12.67 +/- 11.78 vs 2.10 +/- 6.23; rank test P<0.05), caloric test labyrinth value [(19.02 +/- 8.59) degrees/s vs (13.58 +/- 5.25) degrees/s; t test P<0.05], caloric test labyrinth value of three patients in motion sickness group exceeded 75 degrees/s. In computerized posturography testing (CPT), motion sickness patients were central type (66.7%) and disperse type (23.3%); all of control group were central type. There was statistical significance in two groups' CTP area, and motion sickness group was obviously higher than control group. While stimulating vestibulum in CPT, there was abnormality (35%-50%) in motion sickness group and none in control group. Generally evaluating CPT, there was only 2 proprioceptive hypofunction, 3 visual hypofunction, and no vestibular hypofunction, but none hypofunction in control group. Motion sickness patients have high vestibular susceptible, some with vestibular hyperfunction. In posturography, a large number of motion sickness patients are central type but no vestibular hypofunction, but it is hard to keep balance when stimulating vestibulum.

  18. Motion sickness and postural sway in console video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffregen, Thomas A; Faugloire, Elise; Yoshida, Ken; Flanagan, Moira B; Merhi, Omar

    2008-04-01

    We tested the hypotheses that (a) participants might develop motion sickness while playing "off-the-shelf" console video games and (b) postural motion would differ between sick and well participants, prior to the onset of motion sickness. There have been many anecdotal reports of motion sickness among people who play console video games (e.g., Xbox, PlayStation). Participants (40 undergraduate students) played a game continuously for up to 50 min while standing or sitting. We varied the distance to the display screen (and, consequently, the visual angle of the display). Across conditions, the incidence of motion sickness ranged from 42% to 56%; incidence did not differ across conditions. During game play, head and torso motion differed between sick and well participants prior to the onset of subjective symptoms of motion sickness. The results indicate that console video games carry a significant risk of motion sickness. Potential applications of this research include changes in the design of console video games and recommendations for how such systems should be used.

  19. Comparison outcomes of sick babies born to teenage mothers with those born to adult mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotigeat, Uraiwan; Sawasdiworn, Siraporn

    2011-08-01

    Adolescent period is the transitional stage of physical and mental development from childhood to adulthood. Pregnancy in teenage girls is generally classified to have a higher risk than those in adults. In many previous studies reported only the outcome of teenage mothers but no comparative outcome between sick babies born to teen mothers and adult mothers, so the authors conducted the present study. To compare the outcomes of sick infants born to teenage mothers with those born to adult mothers (age > or = 20 years). This prospective study was carried out from October 1st, 2006 to September 30th, 2009. The study group consisted of sick babies born to teenage mothers and admitted at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH). These babies were compared to sick babies (control group) born to adult mothers during the same period. The demographic data of mothers and sick babies in both groups were recorded in the designed case record forms. Developmental assessment was done until two years of age. A total of 6,342 deliveries took place in Rajavithi Hospital during the study period of which 697 babies were born to teenage mothers. The incidence of teenage pregnancy was 10.99%. The number of sick babies from teenage mothers and adult mothers were 78 and 147 cases, respectively. There was a significantly higher mortality in the study group (7 cases, 9%) than the control group (4 cases, 2.7%). There was statistically significant difference in most of the demographic characteristics between the teenage and adult mothers except anemia, PROM and MSAF (meconium stain amniotic fluid). Although there was a trend of more cases of anemia and MSAF in teenage mothers than in adult mothers, there was no statistically significant difference. There was a shorter interval time from marriage to pregnancy in teen mothers than in adult mothers and a lower number of antenatal care visits with late antenatal care among the teenage mothers too. On comparing the data in infants

  20. Economic costs due to workers' sick leave at wastewater treatment plants in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toseva, Elka Ilieva; Stoyanova, Rumyana; Turnovska, Tanya

    2018-03-09

    The compensatory mechanisms of social security include expenses for sick leave. The aim of the study is to determine the economic cost due to sick leave among workers in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), comparing with the same economic indicators of the National Social Security Institute (NSSI) in Bulgaria. The sick leave of 111 workers at 3 WWTPs was studied in the period 2012-2014 on the grounds of registered absences from work due to temporary incapacity for work. The economic indicators of the NSSI, the gross salary at WWTPs, payable social security contributions and compensatory payments for sick leave have been used for economic cost calculation for temporary incapacity of the workers. The frequency of cases and the frequency of lost days due to temporary incapacity were increased in the observed period at WWTPs and in Bulgaria, and it is significantly higher for the employed at WWTPs. The percentage share of workers equivalent to 1.66% at WWTPs have not worked for an entire year as a result of temporary incapacity in 2012, 2.76% - in 2013, and 4.61% - in 2014. The economic burden due to sick leave at WWTPs was raised from EUR 4913.02 in 2012 to EUR 16 895.80 for 2014 for employers and the NSSI. The frequency of cases and the frequency of lost days due to temporary incapacity were increased in the observed period at WWTPs and in Bulgaria, and it is significantly higher for the employed at WWTPs. The economic burden was equally distributed between employers and the NSSI. Med Pr 2018;69(2):129-141. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  1. Compliance with referral of sick children: a survey in five districts of Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newbrander William

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognition and referral of sick children to a facility where they can obtain appropriate treatment is critical for helping reduce child mortality. A well-functioning referral system and compliance by caretakers with referrals are essential. This paper examines referral patterns for sick children, and factors that influence caretakers’ compliance with referral of sick children to higher-level health facilities in Afghanistan. Methods The study was conducted in 5 rural districts of 5 Afghan provinces using interviews with parents or caretakers in 492 randomly selected households with a child from 0 to 2 years old who had been sick within the previous 2 weeks with diarrhea, acute respiratory infection (ARI, or fever. Data collectors from local nongovernmental organizations used a questionnaire to assess compliance with a referral recommendation and identify barriers to compliance. Results The number of referrals, 99 out of 492 cases, was reasonable. We found a high number of referrals by community health workers (CHWs, especially for ARI. Caretakers were more likely to comply with referral recommendations from community members (relative, friend, CHW, traditional healer than with recommendations from health workers (at public clinics and hospitals or private clinics and pharmacies. Distance and transportation costs did not create barriers for most families of referred sick children. Although the average cost of transportation in a subsample of 75 cases was relatively high (US$11.28, most families (63% who went to the referral site walked and hence paid nothing. Most caretakers (75% complied with referral advice. Use of referral slips by health care providers was higher for urgent referrals, and receiving a referral slip significantly increased caretakers’ compliance with referral. Conclusions Use of referral slips is important to increase compliance with referral recommendations in rural Afghanistan.

  2. Compliance with referral of sick children: a survey in five districts of Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbrander, William; Ickx, Paul; Werner, Robert; Mujadidi, Farooq

    2012-04-27

    Recognition and referral of sick children to a facility where they can obtain appropriate treatment is critical for helping reduce child mortality. A well-functioning referral system and compliance by caretakers with referrals are essential. This paper examines referral patterns for sick children, and factors that influence caretakers' compliance with referral of sick children to higher-level health facilities in Afghanistan. The study was conducted in 5 rural districts of 5 Afghan provinces using interviews with parents or caretakers in 492 randomly selected households with a child from 0 to 2 years old who had been sick within the previous 2 weeks with diarrhea, acute respiratory infection (ARI), or fever. Data collectors from local nongovernmental organizations used a questionnaire to assess compliance with a referral recommendation and identify barriers to compliance. The number of referrals, 99 out of 492 cases, was reasonable. We found a high number of referrals by community health workers (CHWs), especially for ARI. Caretakers were more likely to comply with referral recommendations from community members (relative, friend, CHW, traditional healer) than with recommendations from health workers (at public clinics and hospitals or private clinics and pharmacies). Distance and transportation costs did not create barriers for most families of referred sick children. Although the average cost of transportation in a subsample of 75 cases was relatively high (US$11.28), most families (63%) who went to the referral site walked and hence paid nothing. Most caretakers (75%) complied with referral advice. Use of referral slips by health care providers was higher for urgent referrals, and receiving a referral slip significantly increased caretakers' compliance with referral. Use of referral slips is important to increase compliance with referral recommendations in rural Afghanistan.

  3. Radiation research contracts: Biological effects of small radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hug, O [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Health, Safety and Waste Disposal, Vienna (Austria)

    1959-04-15

    To establish the maximum permissible radiation doses for occupational and other kinds of radiation exposure, it is necessary to know those biological effects which can be produced by very small radiation doses. This particular field of radiation biology has not yet been sufficiently explored. This holds true for possible delayed damage after occupational radiation exposure over a period of many years as well as for acute reactions of the organism to single low level exposures. We know that irradiation of less than 25 Roentgen units (r) is unlikely to produce symptoms of radiation sickness. We have, however, found indications that even smaller doses may produce certain instantaneous reactions which must not be neglected

  4. Automyelotherapy efficiency limit in treatment for acute radiation sickness as determined by experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertkov, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    Automyelotherapy is the most effective method for treatment of acute radiation sickness. Therapy with use of frozen long-storage hemopoietic cells owing to their complex procurement and storage may be recommended only to a limited cohort with a high risk for uncontrolled irradiation. Prognosis of substitution therapy outcome is based, firstly, on knowledge of a maximum irradiation dose at which a therapeutic effect is manifested. Such information may be obtained only in experiment. The object of research is to establish the upper limit of irradiation dose at which therapeutic results of automyelotherapy are manifested. Research was performed on guinea pigs irradiated with doses from 5 to 10 Gy. A bone marrow cell suspension was obtained from anesthetizied animals by diaphysis puncture and lavage of 2 tibial bones. An effective therapeutic dose of cells (120 mln) was transplanted which guaranteed 100% survival of animals irradiated with the dose of 8.5 Gy exceeding the minimum absolute lethal dose by 7%. As the irradiation dose was further increased up to 10, 11 and 13 Gy survival of treated animals decreased to 61, 55 and 22% respectively. Although all treated guinea pigs perished after irradiation with the dose of 15 Gy, their life span increased twice as much versus control and reached 9.5 days. Experimental data have confirmed that there is a limit of automyelotherapy efficacy. In the described experiment, it amounted to 15 Gy. The analysis of dose-effect'' relationship in treated and control animals has demonstrated DRF being equal to 1.8. This index characterizes the maximum therapeutic result of automyelotherapy. (author)

  5. Labour market trajectories following sickness absence due to self-reported all cause morbidity--a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Pernille; Lund, Thomas; Lindholdt, Louise; Nohr, Ellen A; Jensen, Chris; Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Labriola, Merete

    2016-04-16

    To investigate differences in return to work (RTW) and employment trajectories in individuals on sick leave for either mental health reasons or other health related reasons. This study was based on 2036 new sickness absence cases who completed a questionnaire on social characteristics, expectations for RTW and reasons for sickness absence. They were divided into two exposure groups according to their self-reported sickness absence reason: mental health reasons or other health reasons. The outcome was employment status during the following 51 weeks and was measured both as time-to-event analysis and with sequence analysis. Individuals with mental health reasons for sickness absence had a higher risk of not having returned to work (RR 0.87 (0.80;0.93)). Adjusting for gender, age, education and employment did not change the estimate, however, after adding RTW expectations to the model, the excess risk was no longer present (RR 1.01 (0.95;1.08)). In relation to the sequence analysis, individuals with mental health related absence had significantly higher odds of being in the sickness absence cluster and significantly lower odds for being in the fast RTW cluster, but when adjusting for RTW expectations, the odds were somewhat attenuated and no longer significant. Employees on sick leave due to self-reported mental health problems spent more weeks in sickness absence and temporary benefits and had a higher risk of not having returned to work within a year compared to employees on sick leave due to other health reasons. The difference could be explained by their lower RTW expectations at baseline. This emphasises the need to develop suitable and specific interventions to facilitate RTW for this group of sickness absentees.

  6. Measures of work-family conflict predict sickness absence from work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clays, Els; Kittel, France; Godin, Isabelle; Bacquer, Dirk De; Backer, Guy De

    2009-08-01

    To examine the relation between work-family conflict and sickness absence. The BELSTRESS III study comprised 2983 middle-aged workers. Strain-based work-home interference (WHI) and home-work interference (HWI) were assessed by means of self-administered questionnaires. Prospective data of registered sickness absence during 12-months follow-up were collected. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted. HWI was positively and significantly related to high sickness absence duration (at least 10 sick leave days) and high sickness absence frequency (at least 3 sick leave episodes) in men and women, also after adjustments were made for sociodemographic variables, health indicators, and environmental psychosocial factors. In multivariate analysis, no association between WHI and sickness absence was found. HWI was positively and significantly related to high sickness absence duration and frequency during 12-months follow-up in male and female workers.

  7. Do work-place initiated measures reduce sickness absence? Preventive measures and sickness absence among older workers in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtsundstad, Tove I; Nielsen, Roy A

    2014-03-01

    The article examines whether preventive measures and work adjustments at the establishment level affects sickness absence among workers aged 50 years and older. We combine survey data from a representative sample of 713 Norwegian companies, mapping the prevalence of preventive health measures in the work place in 2005, with register data on sickness absence and demographic variables for workers aged 50 years or older in 2001 and 2007. By means of a difference-in-differences approach, we compare changes and differences in the likelihood of sickness absence among the sample group, with and without the various measures/ instruments in 2005 respectively. In general, work-place preventive measures at the establishment level have not contributed to reducing the probability for sickness absence among workers aged 50 years and older. However, analyses comparing differences between industries find that the work-place measures have had a positive effect on public administration employees. Whether work-place preventive initiatives influence levels of sickness absence seems to be contingent on sector and industry. Therefore, work-place measures may be more effective in the public administration sector where most employees have office jobs compared to sectors such as manufacturing, construction and transportation, where many employees have manual work and more physical demanding jobs. Work-place initiatives thus seem to have less effect on preventing sickness absence in sectors dominated by manual labour.

  8. Sleeping Sickness Surveillance In The Abraka Sleeping Sickness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Confirmation of sleeping sickness (ss) was by the detection of trypanosomes in blood, body fluids and biopsy tissues. Thirteen (0.8%) seropositive subjects were parasitologically confirmed and treated with melasoprol at the Baptist Medical Centre (BMC) Eku. One (0.06%) patient died during the course of treatment.

  9. Relative Deprivation and Sickness Absence in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Helgertz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. Methods: 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual’s degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. Results: The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual’s career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Conclusions: Altering individual’s health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies.

  10. Fever and sickness behavior: Friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, L M; Kent, S; Pittman, Q J; Roth, J

    2015-11-01

    Fever has been recognized as an important symptom of disease since ancient times. For many years, fever was treated as a putative life-threatening phenomenon. More recently, it has been recognized as an important part of the body's defense mechanisms; indeed at times it has even been used as a therapeutic agent. The knowledge of the functional role of the central nervous system in the genesis of fever has greatly improved over the last decade. It is clear that the febrile process, which develops in the sick individual, is just one of many brain-controlled sickness symptoms. Not only will the sick individual appear "feverish" but they may also display a range of behavioral changes, such as anorexia, fatigue, loss of interest in usual daily activities, social withdrawal, listlessness or malaise, hyperalgesia, sleep disturbances and cognitive dysfunction, collectively termed "sickness behavior". In this review we consider the issue of whether fever and sickness behaviors are friend or foe during: a critical illness, the common cold or influenza, in pregnancy and in the newborn. Deciding whether these sickness responses are beneficial or harmful will very much shape our approach to the use of antipyretics during illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiation dermatitis : report of 3 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sei Chul; Bahk, Yong Whee; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Kim, Choon Yul; Cho, Baek Kee; Wee, Sung Shin

    1986-01-01

    It has just passed 90 years since the discovery of X-ray by W.C. Roentgen in 1895. Not only in the medicine but also in the industry, have great utilization of ionizing radiation increased since the beginning of this century. There were also many known its hazards in spite of astonishable profits and contributions for mankind's welfare. Authors experienced 3 cases of radiation dermatitis which developed during gamma radiograms for nondestructive testing of pipelines with Ir-192. We tried to calculate the supposed exposure doses in each case, discuss the working situation and review of literatures to see the systemic and local effects of radiation.

  12. Artificial horizon effects on motion sickness and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Dror; Gonen, Adi; Wiener, Guy; Bar, Ronen; Gil, Amnon; Nachum, Zohar; Shupak, Avi

    2012-07-01

    To investigate whether the projection of Earth-referenced scenes during provocative motion can alleviate motion sickness severity and prevent motion sickness-induced degradation of performance. Exposure to unfamiliar motion patterns commonly results in motion sickness and decreased performance. Thirty subjects with moderate-to-severe motion sickness susceptibility were exposed to the recorded motion profile of a missile boat under moderate sea conditions in a 3-degrees-of-freedom ship motion simulator. During a 120-minute simulated voyage, the study participants were repeatedly put through a performance test battery and completed a motion sickness susceptibility questionnaire, while self-referenced and Earth-referenced visual scenes were projected inside the closed simulator cabin. A significant decrease was found in the maximal motion sickness severity score, from 9.83 ± 9.77 (mean ± standard deviation) to 7.23 ± 7.14 (p pitch, and heave movements of the simulator. Although there was a significant decrease in sickness severity, substantial symptoms still persisted. Decision making, vision, concentration, memory, simple reasoning, and psychomotor skills all deteriorated under the motion conditions. However, no significant differences between the projection conditions could be found in the scores of any of the performance tests. Visual information regarding the vessel's movement provided by an artificial horizon device might decrease motion sickness symptoms. However, although this device might be suitable for passive transportation, the continued deterioration in performance measures indicates that it provides no significant advantage for personnel engaged in the active operation of modern vessels.

  13. Morning sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not predict how you will feel in future pregnancies. Causes The exact cause of morning sickness is unknown. It may be caused by hormone changes or lower blood sugar during early pregnancy. Emotional stress, fatigue, traveling, or some foods can ...

  14. Predictors of sickness absence in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cohort study was to investigate associations between parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), assisted reproductive therapy (ART), time to pregnancy (TTP), and engagement in physical exercise and the risk of sickness absence in pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy...... with higher HR of sickness absence. Physical exercise of >120 minutes per week was associated with lower HR 0.84 (95% CI 0.75-0.95). CONCLUSION: Risk for sickness absence was higher among women who were multiparous, overweight, obese, received ART, and had prolonged TTP, and lower among women engaged...

  15. Motion sickness incidence during a round-the-world yacht race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M; Griffin, M J

    1995-09-01

    Motion sickness experiences were obtained from participants in a 9 month, round the world yacht race. Race participants completed questionnaires on their motion sickness experience 1 week prior to the start of the race, during the race, and following the race. Yacht headings, sea states, and wind directions were recorded throughout the race. Illness and the occurrence of vomiting were related to the duration at sea and yacht encounter directions relative to the prevailing wind. Individual crewmember characteristics, the use of anti-motion sickness drugs, activity while at sea, and after-effects of yacht motion were also examined with respect to sickness occurrence. Sickness was greatest among females and younger crewmembers, and among crewmembers who used anti-motion sickness drugs. Sickness varied as a function of drug type and activity while at sea. Crewmembers who reported after-effects of yacht motion also reported greater sickness while at sea. The primary determinants of motion sickness were the duration of time spent at sea and yacht encounter direction to the prevailing wind.

  16. Sickness certification difficulties in Ireland--a GP focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, M; Thorley, K; Von Hout, M-C

    2013-07-01

    Sickness certification causes problems for general practitioners (GPs). Difficulty with the assessment of capacity to work, conflict with patients and other non-medical factors have been shown to influence GPs' decision-making. Inadequate leadership and management of certification issues add to GPs' difficulties. To explore problems associated with sickness certification, as part of a larger mixed method research project exploring GPs' experiences and perceptions of sickness certification in Ireland. A qualitative study in an urban region of Ireland. A focus group of four male and four female GPs explored problems encountered by GPs in certifying sickness absence. Thematic data analysis was used. Three major themes emerged: perception of the sickness certification system, organization of health care and cultural factors in sickness absence behaviour. Employment structures in public and private sectors and lack of communication with other health care providers and employers were identified as complicating sickness certification. GPs encounter a complexity of issues in sick certification and are dissatisfied with their role in certifying sickness absence. Our results open the debate for policy change and development in Ireland.

  17. A case showing a blistering disorder in radiation dermatitis during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonoshita, Takeshi; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki

    2007-01-01

    We experienced a case showing a blistering disorder in radiation dermatitis during radiation therapy for thymic cancer. Application of steroid to the lesion improved blisters. The literature on bullous eruption including radiation-induced bullous pemhigoid was critically reviewed. (author)

  18. Work health determinants in employees without sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, E; Theorell, T; Nilsson, B; Saraste, H

    2013-01-01

    Working ability is known to be related to good physical condition, clear work tasks, positive feedback and other occupational, organizational and psychosocial factors. In Sweden, high levels of sickness absence are due to stress-related disorders and musculoskeletal pain. To identify work health characteristics in a working population with a large variety of professional skills and occupational tasks. Employers' data on occupation, sickness absence, age and gender in a working population of 11 occupational groups and questionnaire responses regarding work-organization, environment, work stress, pain, health, and socio-demographic factors were collected. Employees with no history of sick-leave were compared with those with a history of sick-leave (1-182 days, mean 25 days). Of 2641 employees, 1961 participated. Those with no history of sick-leave reported less work-related pain, work-related stress, sleep disturbances, worry about their health, 'sick-presenteeism', monotonous work, bent and twisted working positions and exposure to disturbing noise than those with a history of sick-leave (P health, support from superiors, having influence on their working hours and evening and week-end working, longer working hours per week (P health and less neck, shoulder and back pain and more support from their superiors and influence on their working hours.

  19. Motion sickness history, food neophobia, and sensation seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Thomas R; Willet, Kathleen A; Muth, Eric R

    2006-06-01

    Motion sickness is believed to be caused by conflicting sensory signals, a situation that mimics the effects of ingesting certain toxins. Thus, one might suspect that individuals who have experienced a relatively high frequency of motion sickness may be particularly vigilant about avoiding anything that produces nausea, induding potentially nauseating toxins. Consequently, they may be more resistant to trying new foods, i.e., be more food neophobic, since unfamiliar foods can have unexpected adverse effects due to toxins or allergens. Likewise, many highly stimulating experiences can trigger motion sickness, so individuals who are more susceptible may be more prone to avoid such experiences, i.e., be less sensation seeking. Finally, it was expected that food neophobia would be more frequent in individuals low on sensation seeking tendencies. Self-reported motion sickness history in 308 adults (M= 18.8 yr.; SD = 1.6) was correlated with scores on the Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking and the Food Neophobia Scale. As predicted, greater history of motion sickness was associated with lower Sensation Seeking scores. Food Neophobia was not correlated with motion sickness history but, as expected, was negatively correlated (r = -.42) with scores on Sensation Seeking. Further research is recommended that measures actual sensitivity to motion sickness.

  20. Gambiense Sleeping Sickness In The Abraka Region Of Delta State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gambiense Sleeping Sickness In The Abraka Region Of Delta State, Nigeria: Passive Case Detection (Pcd) At The Baptist Medical Centre (BMC) Eku 1999 – 2004. ... The highest prevalence of infection was among patients aged between 26-35 years with 35.6% infection rate, 23.3 percent was recorded among those aged ...

  1. Medical management of irradiated patients in a radiation accident in Jining, Shandong province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai Huisheng; Yu Changlin; Qiao Jianhui; Zhang Shi; Guo Mei; Zhang Xignag; Wang Danhong; Sun Qiyun; Niu Wenkai; Li Guang; Yao Bo; Zhou Zhenshan; Luo Weidong; Liu Sugang; He Yaozhong; Chen Jiankui; Li Xiaobing; Hu Kaixun; Chen Ying; Wu Ke; Yang Guoshan; Liu Ying

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the experience of diagnosis and treatment from the extremely severe bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness and intestinal form of acute radiation sickness. Methods: A nuclear accident occurred in China on October 21st, 2004. Two individuals were accidentally irradiated by a 60 Co source. The two patients were estimated at more than 20-25 Gy and 9-15 Gy of γ-rays exposures, respectively, and were diagnosed as the intestinal form of acute radiation sickness (patient A) and the extremely severe bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness (patient B), respectively. After urgent preparative regimen based on low- dose fludarabine, antilymphocyte globulin and cyclophosphamide, the two patients received HLA-haploidentical (patient A) or HLA-identical (patient B) peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT), respectively. Cyclosporin A combined mycophenolate mofetil regimen was used for the prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from donor were injected to bone marrow of patient A additionally. Results: Both peripheral blood and bone marrow examinations showed hemopoietic recovery after PBSCT. Neither of the two patients showed obvious clinical signs specific to GVHD. Patient A died of septicemia and multi-organ failure on the 33rd day after exposure, while patient B died of multi-organ failure with predominant heart failure on the 75th day after exposure. Conclusions: Chromosome analysis of bone marrow and peripheral blood, and electron spin resonance measurement of tooth enamel play a very important role in diagnosis of the very high dose radiation disease. It is possible and feasible to treat acute radiation sickness using HLA-haploidentical or HLA-identical PBSCT. The death of patients is mainly due to infection and multi-organ failure. (authors)

  2. Health-related behaviours and sickness absence from work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, M; Piha, K; Martikainen, P; Rahkonen, O; Lahelma, E

    2009-12-01

    To compare associations of health-related behaviours with self-certified and medically confirmed sickness absence, and to examine whether these associations can be explained by psychosocial and physical working conditions and occupational social class. The study included 5470 female and 1464 male employees of the City of Helsinki surveyed in 2000-2002. These data were linked to sickness absence records until the end of 2005, providing a mean follow-up time of 3.9 years. Poisson regression analysis was used to examine associations of smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, dietary habits and relative weight (body mass index) with self-certified (1-3 days) and medically confirmed (> or =4 days) absence spells. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated to quantify the sickness absence burden related to the behaviours. Smoking and high relative weight were most strongly associated with sickness absence, while the associations of other studied health-related behaviours were weaker. The associations were stronger for medically confirmed sickness absence spells for which heavy smoking and obesity more than doubled the risk of sickness absence in men and nearly doubled it in women. Adjusting for psychosocial working conditions had little or no effect on the associations. Physical working conditions and social class somewhat attenuated the associations, especially for smoking and relative weight. In self-certified sickness absence the PAF for smoking (16.4 in men, 10.3 in women) was largest, while in medically confirmed absence relative weight had the largest PAF (23.5 in men, 15.0 in women). Health-related behaviours, smoking and high relative weight in particular, were associated with subsequent sickness absence independently of psychosocial and physical working conditions and social class. Decreasing smoking and relative weight is likely to provide important gains in work ability and reduce sickness absence.

  3. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heribanova, A.

    1995-01-01

    The basic principles and pathways of effects of ionizing radiation on living organisms and cells are outlined. The following topics are covered: effects of radiation on living matter (direct effects, radical or indirect effects, dual radiation action, and molecular biological theories); effects of radiation on cells and tissues (cell depletion, changes in the cytogenetic information, reparation mechanisms), dose-response relationship (deterministic effects, stochastic effects), and the effects of radiation on man (acute radiation sickness, acute local changes, fetus injuries, non-tumorous late injuries, malignant tumors, genetic changes). (P.A.). 3 tabs., 2 figs., 5 refs

  4. Seven cases of radiation-induced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugita, Kazunari; Yamamoto, Osamu; Suenaga, Yoshinori [Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-09-01

    We report 7 cases of radiation-induced skin cancer. The diagnosis was based on the history of radiotherapy for benign skin diseases (5 cases) and of occupational exposures to medical doctors (2 cases). All cases were squamous cell carcinomas which arose from chronic radiodermatitis. The estimated latent period of these tumors ranged from 6 to 64 years, with an average of 29.9 years. After surgical treatments of the lesions, no local recurrences were observed in all cases. Benign skin diseases had sometimes been treated with low-energy radiation before the 1960s. Considering the estimated latent period, the peak time point of developing risk of radiation-induced skin cancer by such treatment has been already passed, however, the danger of it should not be ignored in future. In association with multiplicity of radiation usage, occupational exposure of radiation may develop the risk of occurrence of skin cancer in future. Therefore, we should recognize that radiation-induced skin cancer is not in the past. In the cases of chronic skin diseases showing warty keratotic growth, erosion and ulcer, we should include chronic radio-dermatitis in the differential diagnosis. It is necessary to recall all patients about the history of radiotherapy or radiation exposure. Rapid histopathological examination is mandatory because of the suspicion of radiation-induced skin cancer. (author)

  5. Seven cases of radiation-induced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Kazunari; Yamamoto, Osamu; Suenaga, Yoshinori

    2000-01-01

    We report 7 cases of radiation-induced skin cancer. The diagnosis was based on the history of radiotherapy for benign skin diseases (5 cases) and of occupational exposures to medical doctors (2 cases). All cases were squamous cell carcinomas which arose from chronic radiodermatitis. The estimated latent period of these tumors ranged from 6 to 64 years, with an average of 29.9 years. After surgical treatments of the lesions, no local recurrences were observed in all cases. Benign skin diseases had sometimes been treated with low-energy radiation before the 1960s. Considering the estimated latent period, the peak time point of developing risk of radiation-induced skin cancer by such treatment has been already passed, however, the danger of it should not be ignored in future. In association with multiplicity of radiation usage, occupational exposure of radiation may develop the risk of occurrence of skin cancer in future. Therefore, we should recognize that radiation-induced skin cancer is not in the past. In the cases of chronic skin diseases showing warty keratotic growth, erosion and ulcer, we should include chronic radio-dermatitis in the differential diagnosis. It is necessary to recall all patients about the history of radiotherapy or radiation exposure. Rapid histopathological examination is mandatory because of the suspicion of radiation-induced skin cancer. (author)

  6. Disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism in radiation sickness and its repair under the effect of therapeutic preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokshina, G.A.; Silaeva, T.Yu.; Yartsev, E.I.; Yakovlev, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of taurin (200mg/kg) in combination with insulin (0.2 IU/kg) on the repair of hormonal activity and of carbohydrate metabolism in an experimentally released radiation sickness was examined. White rats of both sexes weighting 180-200 g were irradiated with a gamma-unit GUM-Co-50 with 700 rad, that corresponds to LDsub(70/30). The preparations were simultaneously administered intraperitoneally every other day altogether 8 times from the 5th day after irradiation. Survival rate in the groups of treated animals was by about 27% higher than in the control. With the administration of therapeutic preparations a repair of the insulin-like plasma activity to the normal levels and a considerable inhibition of liver phosphorylase activity could be observed. Different from insulin action alone a combined use of insulin and taurin led to decrease in blood level of 11-oxycorticosteroids the metabolism of which being essentially impaired by irradiation to the normal value. The restoration of correlation between hormonal activity of adrenal cortex and of the insular apparatus favoured glycogen reproduction in the liver and the decrease in blood-sugar level. Experiments with intact animals as well as in vitro experiments reveal that taurin acts insulin-like

  7. Does self-efficacy predict return-to-work after sickness absence? A prospective study among 930 employees with sickness absence for three weeks or more

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas; Christensen, Karl B

    2007-01-01

    follows a cohort of 5357 working employees and 106 long-term sickness absent employees in Denmark. They were interviewed in 2000 regarding self-efficacy and various co-variates, and followed for 78 weeks in a national sickness absence register. Cox regression analysis was performed in order to assess...... or with Return-to-Work. CONCLUSION: The results may suggest that lower self-efficacy among employees with sickness absence is a result of the sickness absence itself rather than a precursor of it. This indicates a need to investigate the potential change in self-efficacy in relation to the employee's change......AIM: To compare levels of self-efficacy among the general working population and employees with sickness absence from work, and to examine if general self-efficacy measured before occurrence of sickness absence predicted subsequent onset of sickness absence and Return-to-Work. METHODS: The study...

  8. Delayed effects of radiation on enzymes in erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinying; Zhang Weiping; Liu Benti

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To study the delayed effects of radiation on the enzymes in erythrocytes. Methods: The activity of 8 enzymes, related glycolysis, hexose monophosphate shunt, nucleotide metabolism, redox reaction and esterase in erythrocytes of five patients with bone marrow form of acute radiation sickness (ARS) were assayed at 1,2,3 and 6 years after exposure to 60 Co radiation. Results: The decreased activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), pyruvate kinase (PK), NADH-methemoglobin reductase (MR) during the stage of crisis and of acetylcholinesterase (ACE) during the stage of convalescence were recovered to varying extent, whereas the lowered activities of the first three enzymes in some cases remained unchanged. There was no correlation between the enzyme activity and the radiation dose as well as the age of the patients. Conclusion: It is demonstrated that the delayed effects of radiation damage to erythrocyte enzymes are most significant in PK of glycolysis, G6PD of hexose monophosphate shunt and MR of redox reaction. It is suggested that the genes related to the synthesis of erythrocyte enzymes may be damaged by radiation

  9. Economy and job contract as contexts of sickness absence practices: revisiting locality and habitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, P; Vahtera, J; Nakari, R; Pentti, J; Kivimäki, M

    2004-04-01

    This study revisits two Finnish local governments-Raisio and Nokia-that in an earlier study showed different sickness absence rates in the early 1990s. The locality difference was interpreted sociologically, within a framework inspired by Bourdieu's theory of social field, habitus and practice. The same framework is applied in the present study, starting out from the hypothesis that a constant historical and cultural locality context tends to reproduce prevailing sickness absence practices. The hypothesis was tested by extending the context beyond the locality to the macroeconomic fluctuations that occurred during the 1990s and to the type of employment contract. In both localities a 30% rise was observed in levels of sickness absence from 1991-1993 to 1997-2000. At the beginning of the 1990s the absence rate among permanent employees was 1.86 times higher in Nokia than in Raisio; at the end of the decade the corresponding rate ratio was 1.88. The absence rates were significantly lower among fixed-term employees than permanent employees, but the locality difference was seen in their case, too. Both results support the hypothesis. In spite of major changes taking place in the national economy, the differences between the two towns' sickness absence rates persisted, which in this particular case probably reflects the persisting working-class character of Nokia and middle-class character of Raisio. The theory also applies to the difference between permanent and fixed-term employees: the peripheral power position of the latter on work related social fields leads to the observed practices, i.e. to the relatively low absence rate. The results of our revisit give reason to recapitulate and elaborate upon our theoretical interpretation with a view to deepening our understanding of the social origins of sickness absence practices in the post-industrial workplace, which is characterised by increasing atypical employment and growing job insecurity.

  10. Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals

  11. [Sickness absence associated with major life events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markussen, Simen; Røgeberg, Ole

    2012-05-29

    Sickness absence in the Norwegian workplace doubled in the period 1993-2003. However, the extent to which the driving factors were medical or non-medical remains unclear, as does the extent to which the cause may be found in the composition of the workforce. A differences-in-differences regression model was used to estimate the added sickness absence associated with major life events such as separation, death of spouse and pregnancy in the period 1993-2005. The data were obtained from administrative registers covering the entire Norwegian population, and include all absence periods of 16 days' duration or more reported by a doctor's medical certificate. The primary outcome measures were incidence (the proportion of absentees in a given time window) and absence (the proportion of sick days in a given time window). The level of absence among employees exposed to the specified life events was compared to control groups matched for gender, age, education and income. In 1993, people in each of the three groups exposed to major life events had more frequent and longer periods of absence than people in the control groups. This added sickness absence increased between 1993 and 2005. The changes in added sickness absence were at times significant, particularly for pregnant women. While sickness absence among pregnant women in 1993 was 15.4 percentage points higher than in the control group, the difference had increased to 24.8 percentage points in 2005. We find it improbable for the increase in added sickness absence to be caused by changes in the medical impact of life events or alterations in the workforce composition. We believe the increase is caused by changing attitudes among the working population and in the medical profession towards sickness absence on grounds that are not strictly medical, combined with improved social acceptance and diagnosis of mental health issues, and/or a medicalisation of natural health variations (pregnancy) and emotional distress (grief).

  12. Reducing sick leave of Dutch vocational school students: adaptation of a sick leave protocol using the intervention mapping process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kroon, Marlou L A; Bulthuis, Jozien; Mulder, Wico; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; Anema, Johannes R

    2016-12-01

    Since the extent of sick leave and the problems of vocational school students are relatively large, we aimed to tailor a sick leave protocol at Dutch lower secondary education schools to the particular context of vocational schools. Four steps of the iterative process of Intervention Mapping (IM) to adapt this protocol were carried out: (1) performing a needs assessment and defining a program objective, (2) determining the performance and change objectives, (3) identifying theory-based methods and practical strategies and (4) developing a program plan. Interviews with students using structured questionnaires, in-depth interviews with relevant stakeholders, a literature research and, finally, a pilot implementation were carried out. A sick leave protocol was developed that was feasible and acceptable for all stakeholders. The main barriers for widespread implementation are time constraints in both monitoring and acting upon sick leave by school and youth health care. The iterative process of IM has shown its merits in the adaptation of the manual 'A quick return to school is much better' to a sick leave protocol for vocational school students.

  13. Three cases of radiation-induced cancer in oral regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hiroshi; Shinoki, Kunihiko; Endo, Yoshitaka; Fujita, Yasushi; Hayashi, Susumu

    1985-01-01

    Three cases of radiation-induced cancer in the oral regions were reported with relation to radiation therapy. One was the general radiation-induced cancer following radiotherapy for the hemangioma. The other two cases, which belonged in the B-1 group of Sakai and his coworker's diagnostic criteria for radiation-induced cancer, were those occurring after radiotherapy for the malignant tumors. Due to the relatively high dosage exposure by the patient in the radiotherapy it is necessary to look out the latency of the radiation-induced cancer. After radiotherapy, careful and periodical observation is important for immediate treatment in an early stage for the radiation-induced cancer to have a favorable prognosis. In addition careful observation of the changes after radiotherapy helps in discovering the precancerous lesions from the therapy. For the radiation-induced cancer, surgical treatment would be the best, however, radiation therapy is also effective in certain cases. (author)

  14. Estimating and mapping the population at risk of sleeping sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere P Simarro

    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, also known as sleeping sickness, persists as a public health problem in several sub-Saharan countries. Evidence-based, spatially explicit estimates of population at risk are needed to inform planning and implementation of field interventions, monitor disease trends, raise awareness and support advocacy. Comprehensive, geo-referenced epidemiological records from HAT-affected countries were combined with human population layers to map five categories of risk, ranging from "very high" to "very low," and to estimate the corresponding at-risk population.Approximately 70 million people distributed over a surface of 1.55 million km(2 are estimated to be at different levels of risk of contracting HAT. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense accounts for 82.2% of the population at risk, the remaining 17.8% being at risk of infection from T. b. rhodesiense. Twenty-one million people live in areas classified as moderate to very high risk, where more than 1 HAT case per 10,000 inhabitants per annum is reported.Updated estimates of the population at risk of sleeping sickness were made, based on quantitative information on the reported cases and the geographic distribution of human population. Due to substantial methodological differences, it is not possible to make direct comparisons with previous figures for at-risk population. By contrast, it will be possible to explore trends in the future. The presented maps of different HAT risk levels will help to develop site-specific strategies for control and surveillance, and to monitor progress achieved by ongoing efforts aimed at the elimination of sleeping sickness.

  15. Three cases of radiation esophagitis controlled with proton pump inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Ryuji; Saito, Ryuichi; Miyazaki, Toshiyuki [Kumamoto Red Cross Hospital (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    Radiation esophagitis sometimes interrupts the radiation therapy due to swallowing pain and dysplasia. We experienced three cases of radiation-induced esophagitis controlled with proton pump inhibitor (PPI). These cases suggested etiologic relationship radiation esophagitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). We should consider PPI as treatment option for radiation esophagitis. (author)

  16. Self-reported and employer-recorded sickness absence in doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, I J

    2014-09-01

    Doctors' sickness absence reduces the quality and continuity of patient care and is financially costly. Doctors have lower rates of sickness absence than other healthcare workers. To compare self-reported with recorded sickness absence in doctors in a UK National Health Service hospital trust. A retrospective questionnaire study. The main outcome measures were self-reported and trust-recorded sickness absence episodes of 4 days or more in two consecutive 6-month periods. The response rate was 82% (607/736). Self-reported sickness absence rates were 1.2% compared with a rate of 0.6% from trust-recorded data. There were 38 matched pairs of self-reported (mean duration: 18 days, standard deviation: 22 days) and trust-recorded (mean duration: 10 days, standard deviation: 17 days) sickness absence episodes of 4 days or more in the 12 months studied. A matched pairs t-test determined that the difference between the two means was significant (t = 2.57, P sickness absence was significantly under-recorded in this study population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Various anti-motion sickness drugs and core body temperature changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Bob; Nakashima, Ann M; Hofer, Kevin D

    2011-04-01

    Blood flow changes and inactivity associated with motion sickness appear to exacerbate the rate of core temperature decrease during subsequent body cooling. We investigated the effects of various classes of anti-motion sickness drugs on core temperature changes. There were 12 healthy male and female subjects (20-35 yr old) who were given selected classes of anti-motion sickness drugs prior to vestibular Coriolis cross coupling induced by graded yaw rotation and periodic pitch-forward head movements in the sagittal plane. All subjects were then immersed in water at 18 degrees C for a maximum of 90 min or until their core temperature reached 35 degrees C. Double-blind randomized trials were administered, including a placebo, a non-immersion control with no drug, and six anti-motion sickness drugs: meclizine, dimenhydrinate, chlorpheniramine, promethazine + dexamphetamine, promethazine + caffeine, and scopolamine + dexamphetamine. A 7-d washout period was observed between trials. Core temperature and the severity of sickness were monitored throughout each trial. A repeated measures design was performed on the severity of sickness and core temperature changes prior to motion provocation, immediately after the motion sickness end point, and throughout the period of cold-water immersion. The most effective anti-motion sickness drugs, promethazine + dexamphetamine (with a sickness score/duration of 0.65 +/- 0.17) and scopolamine + dexamphetamine (with a sickness score/duration of 0.79 +/- 0.17), significantly attenuated the decrease in core temperature. The effect of this attenuation was lower in less effective drugs. Our results suggest that the two most effective anti-motion sickness drugs are also the most effective in attenuating the rate of core temperature decrease.

  18. Autogenic feedback training experiment: A preventative method for space motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.

    1993-01-01

    Space motion sickness is a disorder which produces symptoms similar to those of motion sickness on Earth. This syndrome has affected approximately 50 percent of all astronauts and cosmonauts exposed to microgravity in space, but it differs from what is commonly known as motion sickness in a number of critical ways. There is currently no ground-based method for predicting susceptibility to motion sickness in space. Antimotion sickness drugs have had limited success in preventing or counteracting symptoms in space, and frequently caused debilitating side effects. The objectives were: (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of Autogenic-Feedback Training as a countermeasure for space motion sickness; (2) to compare physiological data and in-flight symptom reports to ground-based motion sickness data; and (3) to predict susceptibility to space motion sickness based on pre-flight data of each treatment group crew member.

  19. Radiation enteritis. Evaluation of surgical cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Sano, M.; Minakuchi, N.; Narisawa, T.; Takahashi, T. (Akita Univ. (Japan))

    1981-09-01

    Radiation enteritis with severe complications including intestinal bleeding, fistula, and stenosis were treated surgically in 9 cases. These 9 cases included 7 cases of cancer of the uterine cervix and 2 single cases of seminoma and melanoma. The patients received /sup 60/Co or Linac x-ray external irradiation with or without intracavitary irradiation by a radium needle. Radiation injury began with melena, vaginorectal fistula, and intestinal obstruction 3 to 18 months after irradiation. One patient with melena underwent colostomy and survived 2 years. One of the three patients with vaginorectal fistula who had colostomy survived 1.5 years. In intestinal obstruction, one patients had bypass operation and three patients had resection of the intestine and the other had both. Leakage was noted in one patient, but the others had favorable prognosis.

  20. [Evaluation of the management of nonwork-related sick leave lasting more than 15 days in Catalonia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Fernando G; Torá, Isabel; Miguel Martínez, José; Jardí, Josefina; Manzanera, Rafael; Alberti, Constança; Delclós, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    To compare the length of nonwork-related sick leave among cases managed by an insurance company versus those managed by the National Institute of Social Security (NISS). We performed a retrospective cohort study of 289,686 cases of sick leave lasting for more than 15 days that began in 2005 after certification by a primary care physician in Catalonia, were reported to the Catalonian Institute of Medical Evaluations, and were followed to term. Of the total, 156,676 cases were managed by the NISS. To account for repeat episodes (approximately 25% of the total), the Wang-Chang estimator was used to calculate the median duration and percentiles; comparisons were made using log-logistic regression with shared gamma frailty models, with calculation of time ratios (TR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The median duration of sick leave was 43 days for cases managed by the NISS and 39 days for those managed by the insurance company. This difference was statistically significant both for men employed under contract (TR=0.87; 95% CI: 0.85-0.88) and for those who were self-employed (TR=0.78; 95% CI: 0.75-0.80) as well as for women under contract (TR=0.85; 95% CI: 0.84-0.87) and self-employed women (TR=0.84; 95% CI: 0.81-0.88). These differences persisted after adjustment was performed for age and health region. For sick leave lasting more than 15 days, these results confirm that cases managed by an insurance company ended earlier than for those managed by the NISS, both for contract and self-employed workers. Further research is needed to explore the reasons for these differences. Copyright 2009 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Hyperventilation in a motion sickness desensitization program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mert, A.; Bles, W.; Nooij, S.A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: In motion sickness desensitization programs, the motion sickness provocative stimulus is often a forward bending of the trunk on a rotating chair, inducing Coriolis effects. Since respiratory relaxation techniques are applied successfully in these courses, we investigated whether these

  2. Determinants of sick-leave duration : A tool for managers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, P.A.; Krol, B.; Groothoff, J.W.

    AIMS: To provide managers with tools to manage episodes of sick-leave of their employees, the influence of factors such as age, gender, duration of tenure, working full-time or part-time, cause and history of sick-leave, salary and education on sick-leave duration was studied. METHOD: In a

  3. Effectiveness of early part-time sick leave in musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martimo, Kari-Pekka; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Kausto, Johanna; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Ketola, Ritva; Riihimäki, Hilkka; Luukkonen, Ritva; Karppinen, Jaro; Miranda, Helena; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2008-02-25

    The importance of staying active instead of bed rest has been acknowledged in the management of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). This emphasizes the potential benefits of adjusting work to fit the employee's remaining work ability. Despite part-time sick leave being an official option in many countries, its effectiveness has not been studied yet. We have designed a randomized controlled study to assess the health effects of early part-time sick leave compared to conventional full-day sick leave. Our hypothesis is that if work time is temporarily reduced and work load adjusted at the early stages of disability, employees with MSDs will have less disability days and faster return to regular work duties than employees on a conventional sick leave. The study population will consist of 600 employees, who seek medical advice from an occupational physician due to musculoskeletal pain. The inclusion requires that they have not been on a sick leave for longer than 14 days prior to the visit. Based on the physician's judgement, the severity of the symptoms must indicate a need for conventional sick leave, but the employee is considered to be able to work part-time without any additional risk. Half of the employees are randomly allocated to part-time sick leave group and their work time is reduced by 40-60%, whereas in the control group work load is totally eliminated with conventional sick leave. The main outcomes are the number of days from the initial visit to return to regular work activities, and the total number of sick leave days during 12 and 24 months of follow-up. The costs and benefits as well as the feasibility of early part-time sick leave will also be evaluated. This is the first randomised trial to our knowledge on the effectiveness of early part-time sick leave compared to conventional full-time sick leave in the management of MSDs. The data collection continues until 2011, but preliminary results on the feasibility of part-time sick leave will be available

  4. Indoor air pollution and sick building syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, J P

    1997-12-31

    The topics discussed in this paper are accept that SBS (Sick building syndrome) is a reality ; understand the dimensions of the problem ; differentiate between sick building syndrome and building related illness ; introduce standards ; understanding the economics ; act pro-actively not re-actively.

  5. Job demands, health perception and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Koopmans, P.C.; de Graaf, J.H.; van Zandbergen, J.W.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background Investigation of the relations between job demands, health and sickness absence is required to design a strategy for the prevention of absence and disability. Aim To study the relationships between (physical and psychological) job demands, health perception and sickness absence. Methods

  6. Indoor air pollution and sick building syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The topics discussed in this paper are accept that SBS (Sick building syndrome) is a reality ; understand the dimensions of the problem ; differentiate between sick building syndrome and building related illness ; introduce standards ; understanding the economics ; act pro-actively not re-actively

  7. GPs' negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsen, Stein Tore; Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore general practitioners ’(GPs’) specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patientssuffering from subjective health complaints. Design: Focus-group study. Setting: Nine focus-group interviews in three citiesin different regions of Norway. Participants: 48...... GPs (31 men, 17 women; age 32–65), participating in a course dealing with diagnostic practice and assessment of sickness certifi cates related to patients with subjective health complaints. Results: TheGPs identified some specific strategies that they claimed to apply when dealing with the question...... to sick leave. Conclusions and implications: GPs seem to have a conscious approach to negotiations of sickness certification, as they report applying specific strategies to limit the duration of sick leave due to subjective health complaints. This give-and-take way of handling sick leave negotiations has...

  8. Redefining Lumpectomy Using a Modification of the Sick Lobe Hypothesis and Ductal Anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, W.; Bong, J.; Parker, J

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The Sick Lobe hypothesis states that breast cancers evolve from entire lobes or portions of lobes of the breast where initiation events have occurred early in development. The implication is that some cancers are isolated events and others are truly multi-focal but limited to single lobar-ductal units. Methods. This is a single surgeon retrospective review of early stage breast cancer lumpectomy patients treated from 1/2000 to 2/2005. Ductal endoscopy was used direct lumpectomy surgical margins by defining ductal anatomy and mapping proliferative changes within the sick lobe for complete excision. Results. Breast conservation surgery for stage 02 breast cancer with an attempt to perform endoscopy in association with therapeutic lumpectomy was performed in 554 patients (successful endoscopy in 465 cases). With an average followup of >5 years for the entire group, annual hazard rate for local failure in traditional lumpectomy without ductal mapping was 0.97%/yr. and for lumpectomy with ductal mapping and excision of entire sick lobe was 0.18%/yr. With endoscopy, 42% of patients were found to have extensive disease within their sick lobe. Conclusions. Targeting breast cancer lumpectomy using endoscopy and excision of regional associated proliferation seems associated with lower recurrence in this non-randomized series

  9. How Safe Is Measles Immunization Of Sick Children? | Ogbonna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective study to ascertain how safe is maeales immunization of sick children was carried out in Jos University Teaching Hospital, Family Health Centre. Out of 125 children who were vaccinated against measles 17(16%) were sick at the time of vaccination. Two (12%) of the sick children had post vaccination reaction.

  10. Are environmental characteristics in the municipal eldercare, more closely associated with frequent short sick leave spells among employees than with total sick leave: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that frequent-, short-term sick leave is associated with work environment factors, whereas long-term sick leave is associated mainly with health factors. However, studies of the hypothesis of an association between a poor working environment and frequent short spells of sick leave are few and results are inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to explore associations between self-reported psychosocial work factors and workplace-registered frequency and length of sick leave in the eldercare sector. Methods Employees from the municipal eldercare in Aarhus (N = 2,534) were included. In 2005, they responded to a work environment questionnaire. Sick leave records from 2005 were dichotomised into total sick leave days (0–14 and above 14 days) and into spell patterns (0–2 short, 3–9 short, and mixed spells and 1–3 long spells). Logistic regression models were used to analyse associations; adjusted for age, gender, occupation, and number of spells or sick leave length. Results The response rate was 76%; 96% of the respondents were women. Unfavourable mean scores in work pace, demands for hiding emotions, poor quality of leadership and bullying were best indicated by more than 14 sick leave days compared with 0–14 sick leave days. For work pace, the best indicator was a long-term sick leave pattern compared with a non-frequent short-term pattern. A frequent short-term sick leave pattern was a better indicator of emotional demands (1.62; 95% CI: 1.1-2.5) and role conflict (1.50; 95% CI: 1.2-1.9) than a short-term non-frequent pattern. Age (= 40 years) statistically significantly modified the association between the 1–3 long-term sick leave spell pattern and commitment to the workplace compared with the 3–9 frequent short-term pattern. Conclusions Total sick leave length and a long-term sick leave spell pattern were just as good or even better indicators of unfavourable work factor scores than a frequent short-term sick leave

  11. Explaining the social gradient in sickness absence: a study of a general working population in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löve, Jesper; Hensing, Gunnel; Holmgren, Kristina; Torén, Kjell

    2013-06-05

    Some previous studies have proposed potential explanatory factors for the social gradient in sickness absence. Yet, this research area is still in its infancy and in order to comprise the full range of socioeconomic positions there is a need for studies conducted on random population samples. The main aim of the present study was to investigate if somatic and mental symptoms, mental wellbeing, job strain, and physical work environment could explain the association between low socioeconomic position and belonging to a sample of new cases of sick-listed employees. This study was conducted on one random working population sample (n = 2763) and one sample of newly sick-listed cases of employees (n = 3044), drawn from the same random general population in western Sweden. Explanatory factors were self-rated 'Somatic and mental symptoms', 'Mental well-being', 'job strain', and 'physical work conditions' (i.e. heavy lifting and awkward work postures). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used. Somatic and mental symptoms, mental well-being, and job strain, could not explain the association between socioeconomic position and sickness absence in both women and men. However, physical work conditions explained the total association in women and much of this association in men. In men the gradient between Non-skilled manual OR 1.76 (1.24;2.48) and Skilled manual OR 1.59 (1.10;2.20), both in relation to Higher non-manual, remained unexplained. The present study strengthens the scientific evidence that social differences in physical work conditions seem to comprise a key element of the social gradient in sickness absence, particularly in women. Future studies should try to identify further predictors for this gradient in men.

  12. Effort-reward imbalance, overcommitment and their associations with all-cause and mental disorder long-term sick leave - A case-control study of the Swedish working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidwall, Ulrik

    2016-11-18

    To investigate if effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and overcommitment (OC) are associated with all-cause and mental disorder long-term sick leave (LS), and to identify differences in associations between genders, private versus public sector employees and socioeconomic status groups. The study uses a cross-sectional case-control design with a sample of 3477 persons on long-term sick leave of more than 59 days and a control group of 2078 in employment. Data on sick leave originate from social insurance registers, while data on health, working and living conditions were gathered through a survey. The binary logistic regression was used to test the multivariate associations. Effort-reward imbalance was associated with all-cause LS among the women (odds ratio (OR) = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.2-2.08), but not among the men. Associations for mental disorder LS were evident for both ERI and OC among both genders (ERI/OC: women OR = 2.76/2.82; men OR = 2.18/2.92). For the men these associations were driven by high effort, while for the women it was low job esteem in public sector and low job security in private sector. Among the highly educated women, ERI was strongly related to mental disorder LS (OR = 6.94, 95% CI: 3.2-15.04), while the highly educated men seemed to be strongly affected by OC for the same outcome (OR = 5.79, 95% CI: 1.48-22.57). The study confirmed the independent roles of ERI and OC for LS, with stronger associations among the women and for mental disorders. The ERI model is a promising tool that can contribute to understanding the prevailing gender gap in sick leave and increasing sick leave due to mental disorders. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6):973-989. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  13. Sick leave patterns as predictors of disability pension or long-term sick leave: a 6.75-year follow-up study in municipal eldercare workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapelfeldt, Christina Malmose; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Andersen, Niels Trolle; Krane, Line; Borg, Vilhelm; Fleten, Nils; Jensen, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to study whether a workplace-registered frequent short-term sick leave spell pattern was an early indicator of future disability pension or future long-term sick leave among municipal eldercare workers. Setting The municipal healthcare sector in the city of Aarhus, which is the second largest city in Denmark. Participants All elder care employees who worked the entire year of 2004 in the municipality of Aarhus, Denmark (N=2774). The employees’ sick leave days during 2004 were categorised into: 0–2 and 3–17 short (1–7 days) spells, 2–13 mixed short and long (8+ days) spells and long spells only. Student workers (n=180), employees who were absent due to maternal/paternal leave (n=536) and employees who did not work the entire year of 2004 (n=1218) were not included. Primary outcome Disability pension and long-term sick leave (≥8 weeks) were subsequently identified in a National register. The cumulative incidence proportion as a function of follow-up weeks was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier curve. The relative cumulative incidence (RR) of experiencing events within 352 weeks was analysed in a generalised linear regression model using the pseudo values method adjusted for age, occupation, unfavourable work factors and sick leave length. Results A frequent short-term and a mixed sick leave pattern showed RRs of being granted a disability pension of 2.08 (95% CI 1.00 to 4.35) and 2.61 (95% CI 1.33 to 5.12) compared with 0–2 short spells. The risk of long-term sick leave was significantly increased for all sick leave patterns compared with 0–2 short spells. Adding sick leave length to the models attenuated all RRs and they became non-significant. Conclusions Sick leave length was a better indicator of future workability than spell frequency. Preventive actions should target employees engaged in homecare. The more sick leave days the greater the preventive potential seems, irrespective of spell frequency. PMID:24508850

  14. Identifying the Subtle Presentation of Decompression Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alea, Kenneth

    2015-12-01

    Decompression sickness is an inherent occupational hazard that has the possibility to leave its victims with significant long-lasting effects that can potentially impact an aircrew's flight status. The relative infrequency of this hazard within the military flying community along with the potentially subtle presentation of decompression sickness (DCS) has the potential to result in delayed diagnosis and treatment, leading to residual deficits that can impact a patient's daily life or even lead to death. The patient presented in this work was diagnosed with a Type II DCS 21 h after a cabin decompression at 35,000 ft (10,668 m). The patient had been asymptomatic with a completely normal physical/neurological exam following his flight. The following day, he presented with excessive fatigue and on re-evaluation was recommended for hyperbaric therapy, during which his symptoms completely resolved. He was re-evaluated 14 d later and cleared to resume flight duties without further incident. The manifestation of this patient's decompression sickness was subtle and followed an evaluation that failed to identify any focal findings. A high index of suspicion with strict follow-up contributed to the identification of DCS in this case, resulting in definitive treatment and resolution of the patient's symptoms. Determination of the need for hyperbaric therapy following oxygen supplementation and a thorough history and physical is imperative. If the diagnosis is in question, consider preemptive hyperbaric therapy as the benefits of treatment in DCS outweigh the risks of treatment. Finally, this work introduces the future potential of neuropsychological testing for both the diagnosis of DCS as well as assessing the effectiveness of hyperbaric therapy in Type II DCS.

  15. Individual factors and GP approach as predictors for the outcome of rehabilitation among long-term sick listed cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kurt; Andersen, Johan H

    2005-01-01

    There appears to be a lack of evidence concerning the effect of rehabilitation programmes for the long-term sick. More focus in this area would supplement an approach that has been directed toward process evaluation of rehabilitation programmes. It was the purpose of this study to shed light...... on sick leave or social benefits at this time. Individual background variables, as well as psychological well-being, mental health, pain level, and pain coping, seemed to have little effect on the outcome of rehabilitation, whilst clients' own evaluations of competence and ability of the involved health...

  16. Acute mountain sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Acute mountain sickness URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...

  17. Case study on utilization of radiation in sludge treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Waichiro

    1984-01-01

    The utilization of radiation to sludge treatment has been studied as a case study of the utilization of radiation to environmental protection by the society for the utilization of radiation in Japan Atomic Industrial Forum Inc., and the result is presented in this paper. The examined radiation sources to sterilize sludge were γ-ray and electron beam, and sludge was irradiated in the forms of slurry or cake. Four treatment conditions by the combination of the radiation sources and the sludge conditions were examined. From the examined results, it was estimated that in the case one (γ-ray and slurry), the output of 25 kW or 1.6 million curie was required for the sludge treatment capacity of 250 tons/day, in the case two (electron beam and slurry), an accelerator of 20 mA or 60 mA was required for the capacity of 250 or 750 tons/day, respectively, in the case three (γ-ray and cake), a radiation source of 0.6 million curie was required for the capacity of 50 tons/day, and in the case four (electron beam and cake), an accelerator of 4 mA or 12 mA was required for the capacity of 50 tons/day or 150 tons/day. (Yoshitake, I.)

  18. Analyzing sickness absence with statistical models for survival data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang; Andersen, Per Kragh; Smith-Hansen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sickness absence is the outcome in many epidemiologic studies and is often based on summary measures such as the number of sickness absences per year. In this study the use of modern statistical methods was examined by making better use of the available information. Since sickness...... absence data deal with events occurring over time, the use of statistical models for survival data has been reviewed, and the use of frailty models has been proposed for the analysis of such data. METHODS: Three methods for analyzing data on sickness absences were compared using a simulation study...... involving the following: (i) Poisson regression using a single outcome variable (number of sickness absences), (ii) analysis of time to first event using the Cox proportional hazards model, and (iii) frailty models, which are random effects proportional hazards models. Data from a study of the relation...

  19. Tsetse elimination: its interest and feasibility in the historical sleeping sickness focus of Loos islands, Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kagbadouno M.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Guinea is the West African country which is currently the most prevalent for sleeping sickness. The littoral area is the region where most of the recent sleeping sickness cases have been described, especially the mangrove sleeping sickness foci of Dubreka and Boffa where Glossina palpalis gambiensis is the vector. Loos islands constitute a small archipelago 5 km apart from the capital, Conakry. Medical, animal, and entomological surveys were implemented in these islands in Oct-Nov 2006. No pathogenic trypanosomes were found in these surveys. The locally very high tsetse densities (up to more than 100 tsetse/trap/day linked to pig rearing, constitute a high potential risk for humans (taking into account populations movements with neighboring active sleeping sickness foci of the Guinea littoral, and the history of sleeping sickness on these islands, and for the economically important pig rearing, as well as a danger for tourism. This situation, associated to the possibility of elimination of these tsetse populations due to low possibility of reinvasion, led the National Control Program to launch a tsetse elimination project following an “area wide” strategy for the first time in West Africa, which participates in the global objective of the PATTEC (Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign.

  20. Decompression sickness in breath-hold divers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaitre, Frederic; Fahlman, Andreas; Gardette, Bernard; Kohshi, Kiyotaka

    2009-12-01

    Although it has been generally assumed that the risk of decompression sickness is virtually zero during a single breath-hold dive in humans, repeated dives may result in a cumulative increase in the tissue and blood nitrogen tension. Many species of marine mammals perform extensive foraging bouts with deep and long dives interspersed by a short surface interval, and some human divers regularly perform repeated dives to 30-40 m or a single dive to more than 200 m, all of which may result in nitrogen concentrations that elicit symptoms of decompression sickness. Neurological problems have been reported in humans after single or repeated dives and recent necropsy reports in stranded marine mammals were suggestive of decompression sickness-like symptoms. Modelling attempts have suggested that marine mammals may live permanently with elevated nitrogen concentrations and may be at risk when altering their dive behaviour. In humans, non-pathogenic bubbles have been recorded and symptoms of decompression sickness have been reported after repeated dives to modest depths. The mechanisms implicated in these accidents indicate that repeated breath-hold dives with short surface intervals are factors that predispose to decompression sickness. During deep diving, the effect of pulmonary shunts and/or lung collapse may play a major role in reducing the incidence of decompression sickness in humans and marine mammals.

  1. Radiation-induced camptocormia and dropped head syndrome. Review and case report of radiation-induced movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, Clemens; Kuhnt, Thomas; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Hering, Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, camptocormia and dropped head syndrome (DHS) have gained attention as particular forms of movement disorders. Camptocormia presents with involuntary forward flexion of the thoracolumbar spine that typically increases during walking or standing and may severely impede walking ability. DHS is characterized by weakness of the neck extensors and a consecutive inability to extend the neck; in severe cases the head is fixed in a ''chin to chest position.'' Many diseases may underlie these conditions, and there have been some reports about radiation-induced camptocormia and DHS. A PubMed search with the keywords ''camptocormia,'' ''dropped head syndrome,'' ''radiation-induced myopathy,'' ''radiation-induced neuropathy,'' and ''radiation-induced movement disorder'' was carried out to better characterize radiation-induced movement disorders and the radiation techniques involved. In addition, the case of a patient developing camptocormia 23 years after radiation therapy of a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the abdomen is described. In total, nine case series of radiation-induced DHS (n = 45 patients) and - including our case - three case reports (n = 3 patients) about radiogenic camptocormia were retrieved. Most cases (40/45 patients) occurred less than 15 years after radiotherapy involving extended fields for Hodgkin's disease. The use of wide radiation fields including many spinal segments with paraspinal muscles may lead to radiation-induced movement disorders. If paraspinal muscles and the thoracolumbar spine are involved, the clinical presentation can be that of camptocormia. DHS may result if there is involvement of the cervical spine. To prevent these disorders, sparing of the spine and paraspinal muscles is desirable. (orig.) [de

  2. Associations between work stress, alcohol consumption and sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasse, R M; Nijhuis, F J; Kok, G

    1998-02-01

    To test an interactional model on the associations between work stressors, perceived stress, alcohol consumption and sickness absence. Cross-sectional survey. The study was part of a Worksite Health Project including an Employee Assistance Programme and a Health Promotion Programme in the Netherlands. Participants were blue-collar workers from two Municipal Garbage Collecting Departments and white-collar workers from a Pharmaceutical Company (N = 471). Measurements included socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, education, marital status), work stressors, perceived stress, alcohol consumption and sickness absence. Type of work-site (blue- or white-collar) and smoking behaviour were used as covariates. Regression analyses resulted in three major findings. First, in the presence of stress, abstinence increased the risk of sickness absence compared with moderate drinking. We failed to find a significant relationship between excessive drinking and sickness absence. Secondly, stress mediated the associations between stressor and alcohol consumption, and between stressor and sickness absence, although stressors also directly predicted sickness absence. The association between abstinence and sickness absence could reflect medical problems of abstainers or a lack of skills for coping with stress. The failure to find a significant detrimental effect of excessive drinking may have been due to use of a low threshold for excessive drinking and/or low power. Prospective studies are needed to gain insight in causal relationships between the variables concerned.

  3. Effectiveness of early part-time sick leave in musculoskeletal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karppinen Jaro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of staying active instead of bed rest has been acknowledged in the management of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs. This emphasizes the potential benefits of adjusting work to fit the employee's remaining work ability. Despite part-time sick leave being an official option in many countries, its effectiveness has not been studied yet. We have designed a randomized controlled study to assess the health effects of early part-time sick leave compared to conventional full-day sick leave. Our hypothesis is that if work time is temporarily reduced and work load adjusted at the early stages of disability, employees with MSDs will have less disability days and faster return to regular work duties than employees on a conventional sick leave. Methods/Design The study population will consist of 600 employees, who seek medical advice from an occupational physician due to musculoskeletal pain. The inclusion requires that they have not been on a sick leave for longer than 14 days prior to the visit. Based on the physician's judgement, the severity of the symptoms must indicate a need for conventional sick leave, but the employee is considered to be able to work part-time without any additional risk. Half of the employees are randomly allocated to part-time sick leave group and their work time is reduced by 40–60%, whereas in the control group work load is totally eliminated with conventional sick leave. The main outcomes are the number of days from the initial visit to return to regular work activities, and the total number of sick leave days during 12 and 24 months of follow-up. The costs and benefits as well as the feasibility of early part-time sick leave will also be evaluated. Conclusion This is the first randomised trial to our knowledge on the effectiveness of early part-time sick leave compared to conventional full-time sick leave in the management of MSDs. The data collection continues until 2011, but preliminary

  4. Sick leave and depression - determining factors and clinical effect in outpatient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Isaac; Kriston, Levente; Schneider, Frank; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Hegerl, Ulrich; Berger, Mathias; Härter, Martin

    2010-12-30

    Sickness leave is a major source of societal costs in depression treatment. However, very little is known about the rationale behind sick leave and their effects on depressive symptoms. Aim of the paper is to evaluate the effect of sick leave on treatment outcome and the association of sick leave with patient, depression and treatment-related factors. For this we compared patients with sick leave and non-sick leave regarding symptom reduction following 6 weeks of treatment. A total of 118 patients of 41 physicians in a controlled clinical trial with a naturalistic prospective design were analysed. After 8 weeks of treatment no significant differences were found between patients who had or did not have sick leave, in terms of improvement of depressive symptoms. The analyses of physician, patient and illness-related variables regarding their predictive value showed no significant effect. No systematic effect of sick leave and no clear criteria were found that were related to receiving a sick leave certificate. It can be assumed that physicians do not only base the decision of whether to sign a depressive patient off sick on illness-specific factors. For a targeted implementation of sick leave as therapeutic measure predictors for effectiveness should be defined. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Three cases of extracapsular cataract extraction for radiation cataract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirokane, Kenji; Kosaka, Toshiya; Nii, Hiroki; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Nakano, Kensuke; Choshi, Kanji

    1996-01-01

    Extracapsular cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation was performed on 4 eyes of 3 patients with radiation cataract. Case 1 was a 60-year-old man who was exposed to the ionizing radiation of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima 730 meters from the center of the explosion. He developed atomic bomb radiation senile cataracts in both eyes. Despite cataract surgery, a central plaque remained on the posterior capsule in the region corresponding to the central dense opacity in both eyes. Case 2 was an 81-year-old man who was in a streetcar 1,000 meters from the center of the explosion at the time of the atomic bombing. Senile and radiation-induced cataract decreased the visual acuity in both eyes. After extracapsular cataract extraction in his right eye, central opacification and a fibrous white membrane remained on the posterior capsule. These were removed by Nd-YAG laser capsulotomy six days after surgery. Case 3 was a 56-year-old man who developed radiation cataract after radiation therapy to a malignant lymphoma in the right orbit. Phacoemulsification and aspiration could not remove the fibrous white membrane from the posterior capsule in this case. Central opacities and fibrous white membranes on the posterior capsule after cataract surgery appears to be a characteristic of radiation cataract. (author)

  6. GENETIC PREDICTORS OF IDIOPATHIC SICK SINUS SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Chernova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Published data demonstrating genetic determination of sick sinus syndrome is presented. The definition of this pathology is presented; the main symptoms are described, as well as genes that influence the development of idiopathic sick sinus syndrome, their polymorphisms and role in disorders of the cardiovascular system.

  7. Go to work or report sick? A focus group study on decisions of sickness presence among offshore catering section workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohne, Kariann; Magnussen, Liv Heide

    2011-03-18

    To identify and explore the factors promoting sickness presenteeism among offshore catering section workers. Twenty men and women, working in the offshore catering section onboard three offshore oil and gas production platforms on the Norwegian Continental Shelf, participated in three focus groups. Data from the focus groups were analysed according to a phenomenological approach, and supported by theories on presenteeism. The results show that the decision to attend work despite illness, first and foremost, was based on the severity of the health complaint. Other factors identified were; the individual's location once the health complaint occurred, job satisfaction, the norms of the team, and experiences of how company policies on sickness absenteeism were implemented by the catering section leaders. Offshore working conditions may promote sickness presenteeism. The factors promoting sickness presenteeism onboard the platforms reflected experiences of a healthy work environment.

  8. The effect of part-time sick leave for employees with mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders

    reduces the duration until employees with mental disorders end their sick leave by reporting ready for returning to regular working hours. The programme allows fully sick-listed employees to resume work at reduced hours. When the sick-listed employee’s health improves, working hours are increased until...... the employee is able to work regular hours. We use combined survey and register data about 226 long-term sick-listed employees with mental disorders and 638 employees with physical disorders. Our analyses show that part-time sick-listing significantly reduces the duration until returning to regular working...... hours for employees with physical disorders. In contrast, we find that part-time sick-listing does not reduce durations for employees with mental disorders. The analyses also illustrate the importance of adjusting for unobserved differences between part-time sick-listed and full-time sick...

  9. Clinical effect of Cystenosine on leukocytopenia at the time of therapy with radiation and antineoplastic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kazuhide; Usui, Ryu; Inoue, Hiroshi; Mihashi, Norio; Niibe, Hideo.

    1977-01-01

    Out of 62 cases, 25 cases received only radiotherapy, 11 cases received both radiotherapy and antineoplastic agents, and 26 cases received only antineoplastic agents. Total dose of x-ray ranges from 3000 to 6200 rad in 18 of 36 cases of the former two groups, and 2600 to 6260 rad of 60 Co dose were irradiated to 18 cases of the rest. This agent was administered 9 tablets per a day (one tablet contains 200 mg of inosine and 20 mg of cystine) for 19 to 142 days. Its effects on leukocytopenia showed marked effectiveness in 9 out of 25 cases treated with only radiation, effectiveness in 8 cases, and ineffectiveness in 3 cases. Its effective rate was 72.8%. The effective rate was 65.4% in the cases treated with only antineoplastic agents, and was 67.7% in all cases. A certain relationship between dose and the effective rate was not recognized. Radiation sickness, such as loss of appetite general fatigue and mausea, decreased gradually by using this agent. Side effect was not recognized particularly. (Kanao. N.)

  10. Effectiveness of an exposure-based return-to-work program for workers on sick leave due to common mental disorders: a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordik, E.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; Geskus, R.B.; de Boer, M.R.; van Dijk, F.J.; Nieuwenhuijsen, K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In case of long-term sick leave, gradually increasing workload appears to be an effective component of work-directed interventions to reduce sick leave due to common mental disorders (CMD). CMD are defined as stress-related, adjustment, anxiety, or depressive disorders. We developed an

  11. Part-time sick leave as a treatment method for individuals with musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrén, Daniela; Svensson, Mikael

    2012-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that staying active is an important part of a recovery process for individuals on sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). It has been suggested that using part-time sick-leave rather than full-time sick leave will enhance the possibility of full recovery to the workforce, and several countries actively favor this policy. The aim of this paper is to examine if it is beneficial for individuals on sick leave due to MSDs to be on part-time sick leave compared to full-time sick leave. A sample of 1,170 employees from the RFV-LS (register) database of the Social Insurance Agency of Sweden is used. The effect of being on part-time sick leave compared to full-time sick leave is estimated for the probability of returning to work with full recovery of lost work capacity. A two-stage recursive bivariate probit model is used to deal with the endogeneity problem. The results indicate that employees assigned to part-time sick leave do recover to full work capacity with a higher probability than those assigned to full-time sick leave. The average treatment effect of part-time sick leave is 25 percentage points. Considering that part-time sick leave may also be less expensive than assigning individuals to full-time sick leave, this would imply efficiency improvements from assigning individuals, when possible, to part-time sick leave.

  12. Effort–reward imbalance, overcommitment and their associations with all-cause and mental disorder long-term sick leave – A case-control study of the Swedish working population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrik Lidwall

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate if effort–reward imbalance (ERI and overcommitment (OC are associated with all-cause and mental disorder long-term sick leave (LS, and to identify differences in associations between genders, private versus public sector employees and socioeconomic status groups. Material and Methods: The study uses a cross-sectional case-control design with a sample of 3477 persons on long-term sick leave of more than 59 days and a control group of 2078 in employment. Data on sick leave originate from social insurance registers, while data on health, working and living conditions were gathered through a survey. The binary logistic regression was used to test the multivariate associations. Results: Effort–reward imbalance was associated with all-cause LS among the women (odds ratio (OR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.2–2.08, but not among the men. Associations for mental disorder LS were evident for both ERI and OC among both genders (ERI/OC: women OR = 2.76/2.82; men OR = 2.18/2.92. For the men these associations were driven by high effort, while for the women it was low job esteem in public sector and low job security in private sector. Among the highly educated women, ERI was strongly related to mental disorder LS (OR = 6.94, 95% CI: 3.2–15.04, while the highly educated men seemed to be strongly affected by OC for the same outcome (OR = 5.79, 95% CI: 1.48–22.57. Conclusions: The study confirmed the independent roles of ERI and OC for LS, with stronger associations among the women and for mental disorders. The ERI model is a promising tool that can contribute to understanding the prevailing gender gap in sick leave and increasing sick leave due to mental disorders. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6:973–989

  13. Go to work or report sick? A focus group study on decisions of sickness presence among offshore catering section workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krohne Kariann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify and explore the factors promoting sickness presenteeism among offshore catering section workers. Methods Twenty men and women, working in the offshore catering section onboard three offshore oil and gas production platforms on the Norwegian Continental Shelf, participated in three focus groups. Data from the focus groups were analysed according to a phenomenological approach, and supported by theories on presenteeism. Results The results show that the decision to attend work despite illness, first and foremost, was based on the severity of the health complaint. Other factors identified were; the individual's location once the health complaint occurred, job satisfaction, the norms of the team, and experiences of how company policies on sickness absenteeism were implemented by the catering section leaders. Conclusions Offshore working conditions may promote sickness presenteeism. The factors promoting sickness presenteeism onboard the platforms reflected experiences of a healthy work environment.

  14. Two cases of rectal cancer accompanied with radiation colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazaki, Takayuki; Tobinaga, Koji; Taketomi, Katsuro; Kimino, Koji; Nakasone, Tomonari; Kishikawa, Masao.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents two cases of rectal cancer accompanied with radiation colitis. Case 1 was a 53-year-old woman, who had a history of undergoing radiation therapy for a uterine cervical cancer 11 years before. She was seen at the hospital because of constipation and pointed out a IIa-like lesion on the rectum by colonoscopy. Abdominoperineal resection was performed. The surgical specimen showed the IIa-like lesion on the rectum. Pathological findings revealed well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining of p53 showed positive cells in atrophic glands. Case 2 was a 62-year-old woman complaining of diarrhea. There was a previous history of receiving radiation therapy for a uterine cancer 20 years before. Colonoscopy showed a Borrmann type 2 cancer on the rectum. Abdominoperineal resection was performed. Histological findings revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma invading to the propria muscle. The features of radiation colitis were observed around the cancer in the two cases which provided a clue to diagnose the lesions with radiation-induced cancer. (author)

  15. Entitlement to Sickness Benefits in Sweden: The Social Insurance Officers Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Müssener

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social insurance offices (SIOs handle a wide range of complex assessments of the entitlement to sickness benefits for an increasing number of clients on sick leave and consequently, the demands on the SIOs have increased considerably.Aim: To gain deeper knowledge of the problems experienced by the SIOs in their work associated with entitlement to sickness benefits.Method: A descriptive and explorative qualitative approach was used to analyse data from two focus-group interviews, including six participants in each group.Results: The participants discussed different dilemmas in regard to; physicians’ responsibility for issuing sickness certificates, interactions with the insured individuals, disclosure of decisions, communications with medical consultants, documentation of sickness benefit claims, threats in the workplace, as well as their own competence. The SIOs regarded incomplete information on sickness certificates as a main problem, because they frequently had to contact the client and the physicians who issued the certificates in order to obtain further details, leading to delays in the decision-making whether to grant sickness benefits.Conclusions: More knowledge regarding SIOs work is required to improve the methods used in the sickness insurance system and to ensure adequate training of new staff members.

  16. GPs' negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Stein; Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L; Maeland, Silje; Magnussen, Liv Heide

    2015-03-01

    To explore general practitioners' (GPs') specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patients suffering from subjective health complaints. Focus-group study. Nine focus-group interviews in three cities in different regions of Norway. 48 GPs (31 men, 17 women; age 32-65), participating in a course dealing with diagnostic practice and assessment of sickness certificates related to patients with subjective health complaints. The GPs identified some specific strategies that they claimed to apply when dealing with the question of sick leave for patients with subjective health complaints. The first step would be to build an alliance with the patient by complying with the wish for sick leave, and at the same time searching for information to acquire the patient's perspective. This position would become the basis for the main goal: motivating the patient for a rapid return to work by pointing out the positive effects of staying at work, making legal and moral arguments, and warning against long-term sick leave. Additional solutions might also be applied, such as involving other stakeholders in this process to provide alternatives to sick leave. GPs seem to have a conscious approach to negotiations of sickness certification, as they report applying specific strategies to limit the duration of sick leave due to subjective health complaints. This give-and-take way of handling sick-leave negotiations has been suggested by others to enhance return to work, and should be further encouraged. However, specific effectiveness of this strategy is yet to be proven, and further investigation into the actual dealings between doctor and patients in these complex encounters is needed.

  17. A prospective study of psychosocial work characteristics and long sick leave of Japanese male employees in multiple workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Masao; Kawakami, Norito; Honda, Ryumon; Yamada, Yuichi; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Morikawa, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial work characteristics associated with long sick leave in a large population of male Japanese employees in multiple workplaces. We examined various psychosocial work characteristics (job overload, job control, supervisor support, coworker support, support by family and friends, role ambiguity, role conflict, intragroup conflict and intergroup conflict) of employees in six factories at the base line. We then conducted a follow-up survey on the recorded long sick leaves of ≥ 30 continuous days taken by the employees due to any medical condition. We found 574 cases of long sick leave out of 15,531 subjects during an average 5.07-yr follow-up. The results showed that high supervisor support was significantly associated with a decrease in the hazard ratio (HR) of long sick leave after adjustment for several confounding factors (95%CI; 0.69-0.97). High role ambiguity also tended to increase HR, but without reaching significance (95%CI; 0.99-1.41). The results suggest that supervisor support in the workplace may be important to reduce long sick leave in Japanese male employees.

  18. Systematic review of active workplace interventions to reduce sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeen, M; Magnussen, L H; Maeland, S; Larun, L; Eriksen, H R; Tveito, T H

    2013-01-01

    The workplace is used as a setting for interventions to prevent and reduce sickness absence, regardless of the specific medical conditions and diagnoses. To give an overview of the general effectiveness of active workplace interventions aimed at preventing and reducing sickness absence. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Psych-info, and ISI web of knowledge on 27 December 2011. Inclusion criteria were (i) participants over 18 years old with an active role in the intervention, (ii) intervention done partly or fully at the workplace or at the initiative of the workplace and (iii) sickness absence reported. Two reviewers independently screened articles, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. A narrative synthesis was used. We identified 2036 articles of which, 93 were assessed in full text. Seventeen articles were included (2 with low and 15 with medium risk of bias), with a total of 24 comparisons. Five interventions from four articles significantly reduced sickness absence. We found moderate evidence that graded activity reduced sickness absence and limited evidence that the Sheerbrooke model (a comprehensive multidisciplinary intervention) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) reduced sickness absence. There was moderate evidence that workplace education and physical exercise did not reduce sickness absence. For other interventions, the evidence was insufficient to draw conclusions. The review found limited evidence that active workplace interventions were not generally effective in reducing sickness absence, but there was moderate evidence of effect for graded activity and limited evidence for the effectiveness of the Sheerbrooke model and CBT.

  19. Ventilation in day-care centres and sick leave among nursery children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Ibfelt, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    ventilation in DCCs and sick leave among nursery children. Data on child sick leave within an 11 week period was obtained for 635 children attending 20 DCCs. Ventilation measurements included three proxies of ventilation: air exchange rate (ACR) measured with the decay method, ACR measured...... inverse relationship between the number of sick days and ACR measured with the decay method was found for crude and adjusted analysis, with a 12% decrease in number of sick days per 1 h(-1) increase in ACR measured with the decay method. This study suggests a relationship between sick leave among nursery...

  20. Does hospital discharge policy influence sick-leave patterns in the case of female breast cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, Rikard; Stenbeck, Magnus; Diderichsen, Finn

    2005-01-01

    in 2000 were selected from the National Cancer Register and combined with data from the sick-leave database of the National Social Insurance Board and the National Hospital Discharge Register (N = 1834). A multi-factorial model was fitted to the data to investigate how differences in hospital care...

  1. Vector-borne diseases and the basic reproduction number: a case study of African horse sickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lord, C.C.; Woolhouse, M.E.J.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Mellor, P.S.

    1996-01-01

    The basic reproduction number, R0, can be used to determine factors important in the ability of a disease to invade or persist. We show how this number can be derived or estimated for vector-borne diseases with different complicating factors. African horse sickness is a viral disease transmitted

  2. Acute Radiation Syndrome Severity Score System in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossetrova, Natalia I; Ney, Patrick H; Condliffe, Donald P; Krasnopolsky, Katya; Hieber, Kevin P

    2016-08-01

    Radiation accidents or terrorist attacks can result in serious consequences for the civilian population and for military personnel responding to such emergencies. The early medical management situation requires quantitative indications for early initiation of cytokine therapy in individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and effective triage tools for first responders in mass-casualty radiological incidents. Previously established animal (Mus musculus, Macaca mulatta) total-body irradiation (γ-exposure) models have evaluated a panel of radiation-responsive proteins that, together with peripheral blood cell counts, create a multiparametic dose-predictive algorithm with a threshold for detection of ~1 Gy from 1 to 7 d after exposure as well as demonstrate the acute radiation syndrome severity score systems created similar to the Medical Treatment Protocols for Radiation Accident Victims developed by Fliedner and colleagues. The authors present a further demonstration of the acute radiation sickness severity score system in a mouse (CD2F1, males) TBI model (1-14 Gy, Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min) based on multiple biodosimetric endpoints. This includes the acute radiation sickness severity Observational Grading System, survival rate, weight changes, temperature, peripheral blood cell counts and radiation-responsive protein expression profile: Flt-3 ligand, interleukin 6, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, thrombopoietin, erythropoietin, and serum amyloid A. Results show that use of the multiple-parameter severity score system facilitates identification of animals requiring enhanced monitoring after irradiation and that proteomics are a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposure, enhancing accuracy and discrimination index for acute radiation sickness response categories and early prediction of outcome.

  3. Sick building syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baechler, M.C.; Hadley, D.L.; Marseille, T.J.; Stenner, R.D.; Peterson, M.R.; Naugle, D.F.; Berry, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses the aspect of indoor air pollution referred to as sick building syndrome. Covered are sources and health effects of various indoor air pollutants, and methods for mitigation of the problem, plus suggested analytical methods for environmental carcinogens found in indoor air

  4. Stroboscopic Goggles for Reduction of Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Somers, Jeffrey T.

    2005-01-01

    A device built around a pair of electronic shutters has been demonstrated to be effective as a prototype of stroboscopic goggles or eyeglasses for preventing or reducing motion sickness. The momentary opening of the shutters helps to suppress a phenomenon that is known in the art as retinal slip and is described more fully below. While a number of different environmental factors can induce motion sickness, a common factor associated with every known motion environment is sensory confusion or sensory mismatch. Motion sickness is a product of misinformation arriving at a central point in the nervous system from the senses from which one determines one s spatial orientation. When information from the eyes, ears, joints, and pressure receptors are all in agreement as to one s orientation, there is no motion sickness. When one or more sensory input(s) to the brain is not expected, or conflicts with what is anticipated, the end product is motion sickness. Normally, an observer s eye moves, compensating for the anticipated effect of motion, in such a manner that the image of an object moving relatively to an observer is held stationary on the retina. In almost every known environment that induces motion sickness, a change in the gain (in the signal-processing sense of gain ) of the vestibular system causes the motion of the eye to fail to hold images stationary on the retina, and the resulting motion of the images is termed retinal slip. The present concept of stroboscopic goggles or eyeglasses (see figure) is based on the proposition that prevention of retinal slip, and hence, the prevention of sensory mismatch, can be expected to reduce the tendency toward motion sickness. A device according to this concept helps to prevent retinal slip by providing snapshots of the visual environment through electronic shutters that are brief enough that each snapshot freezes the image on each retina. The exposure time for each snapshot is less than 5 ms. In the event that a higher

  5. Job mismatching, unequal opportunities and long-term sickness absence in female white-collar workers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmark, Hélène

    2009-01-01

    To investigate associations between long-term sick-listing and factors at work and in family life. Associations were investigated in a cross-sectional case-referent study. The study base included women in white-collar jobs, aged 30-55 years, living in three urban areas in Sweden between February 2004 and October 2004. A postal questionnaire was constructed with questions on occupational and family circumstances, and sent to 513 randomly selected female white-collar workers, of whom 233 had ongoing sick-leave of 90 days or more. The response rate was 81% (n = 413). Most of the women in this study were in managerial positions. The unadjusted associations showed that sick-listed women with children showed the highest estimates regarding reported long working hours, bullying, high mental strain, low control and low influence at work, and work-family imbalance. In a regression model, the strongest associations were: experiencing too high mental strain in work tasks (odds ratio (OR) = 2.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.09-3.15) and low control and influence at work (OR=2.17, 95% CI= 1.60-2.94). Sick-listed women reported an overall higher dissatisfaction with their workplace and working life. There seems to be a greater tendency for the sick-listed women in this study to experience low control and too high mental strain at work and to live in traditional family relationships with unequal opportunities. The women who were sick-listed were probably less able to cope with work stress and to find a balance between work and family life.

  6. [Costs and sick leave due to chikungunya in the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Guerrero, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Cruz, Irene; Juanico-Morales, Guillermina; Sánchez-Ramos, Apolinar; Morales-Sánchez, Ofelia de Jesúis

    2018-01-01

    Chikungunya fever (CHIK) generally causes temporary sick leave, affecting groups of productive age, which represents a significant economic impact from the labor point of view. The objective was to estimate costs of disability due to chikungunya in the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) in Guerrero, Mexico. Cost assessment of working population from IMSS in Guerrero who met the definition of case for CHIK and took sick leave, which was registered in the Original Disability Certificates (OCI, according to its initials in Spanish) processed from January to April, 2015. Paid sick days were multiplied by the current minimum wage of the municipality of Acapulco (geographical area A, general = $ 70.10: seventy pesos with 10 cents per day]). Of all the OCIs, 31.5% (38 271/12 062) met the criteria for CHIK with a total of 41 197 prescribed days and 14 941 paid sick days with an estimated cost of 2 397 393.40 pesos (two million, three hundred and ninety seven thousand, three hundred and ninety three dollars and forty cents). Sick leaves increase the costs in health systems. These costs increase as increases the number of days granted. The average number of days granted is consistent with the information published in different articles.

  7. Effect of neonatal administration of mono-sodium glutamate in rats on adult body weight and some blood lipids during acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Moneim, A.E.; Shousha, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    When a single dose of 4.0 mg MSG/g body weight was administered subcutaneously in new rats, they showed increased body weight (P< 0.01) than vehicle-injected control animals of the same strain at 1,2 and 3 months post-natal. This syndrome was most remarkable during the suckling period. At various time intervals of the trial, a marked sex difference (P< 0.01) was also observed. Experimental males were greater in weight than females. Two days following irradiation of one half the treated animals, serum triglycerides (T G) and total. cholesterol (Ch) in MSG-irradiated rats were significantly (P 0.01)) higher by comparison with MSG-treated and saline injected groups of their own sex. Although, sex has no significant effect on serum T G and Ch, MSG-irradiated males (the heavier in body weight) showed lower levels of these lipid fractions than females during the period of acute radiation sickness. 2 tabs

  8. Delayed treatment of decompression sickness with short, no-air-break tables: review of 140 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianci, Paul; Slade, John B

    2006-10-01

    Most cases of decompression sickness (DCS) in the U.S. are treated with hyperbaric oxygen using U.S. Navy Treatment Tables 5 and 6, although detailed analysis shows that those tables were based on limited data. We reviewed the development of these protocols and offer an alternative treatment table more suitable for monoplace chambers that has proven effective in the treatment of DCS in patients presenting to our facility. We reviewed the outcomes for 140 cases of DCS in civilian divers treated with the shorter tables at our facility from January 1983 through December 2002. Onset of symptoms averaged 9.3 h after surfacing. At presentation, 44% of the patients demonstrated mental aberration. The average delay from onset of symptoms to treatment was 93.5 h; median delay was 48 h. Complete recovery in the total group of 140 patients was 87%. When 30 patients with low probability of DCS were excluded, the recovery rate was 98%. All patients with cerebral symptoms recovered. Patients with the highest severity scores showed a high rate of complete recovery (97.5%). Short oxygen treatment tables as originally described by Hart are effective in the treatment of DCS, even with long delays to definitive recompression that often occur among civilian divers presenting to a major Divers Alert Network referral center.

  9. Using administrative sickness absence data as a marker of future disability pension: the prospective DREAM study of Danish private sector employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T.; Kivimaki, M.; Labriola, M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine duration of sickness absence as a risk marker for future disability pension among all private sector employees in Denmark 1998-2004. METHODS: All private sector employees receiving sickness absence compensation from the municipality in 1998, a total......: The findings suggest that administratively collected data on sickness absence compensation are an important predictor of disability pension among private sector employees. The use of information on sick leave may improve the effectiveness of early interventions by policy makers, case managing authorities...... duration as an early risk marker. RESULTS: 5694 persons (2.5%) received disability pension during follow-up, more men (53.4%) than women (46.6%). There was a strong graded association between increasing length of absence and increasing risk of future disability pension. Significant differences were found...

  10. Avoidable sickness absence in a dutch working population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, A.M.; Steenbeek, R.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Sickness absence has an important impact on employers (e.g. reduced productivity, high costs) and employees (e.g. replacement, job loss). Therefore, we investigated possible reduction by exploring avoidable sickness absence. Methods A questionnaire was filled out by 2,954 Dutch workers

  11. Sick leave among home-care personnel: a longitudinal study of risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmström Eva B

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sick leave due to neck, shoulder and back disorders (NSBD is higher among health-care workers, especially nursing aides/assistant nurses, compared with employees in other occupations. More information is needed about predictors of sick leave among health care workers. The aim of the study was to assess whether self-reported factors related to health, work and leisure time could predict: 1 future certified sick leave due to any cause, in nursing aides/assistant nurses (Study group I and 2 future self-reported sick leave due to NSBD in nursing aides/assistant nurses (Study group II. Methods Study group I, comprised 443 female nursing aides/assistant nurses, not on sick leave at baseline when a questionnaire was completed. Data on certified sick leave were collected after 18 months. Study group II comprised 274 of the women, who at baseline reported no sick leave during the preceding year due to NSBD and who participated at the 18 month follow-up. Data on sick leave due to NSBD were collected from the questionnaire at 18 months. The associations between future sick leave and factors related to health, work and leisure time were tested by logistic regression analyses. Results Health-related factors such as previous low back disorders (OR: 1.89; 95% CI 1.20–2.97 and previous sick leave (OR 6.40; 95%CI 3.97–10.31, were associated with a higher risk of future sick leave due to any cause. Factors related to health, work and leisure time, i.e. previous low back disorders (OR: 4.45; 95% CI 1.27–15.77 previous sick leave, not due to NSBD (OR 3.30; 95%CI 1.33–8.17, high strain work (OR 2.34; 95%CI 1.05–5.23 and high perceived physical exertion in domestic work (OR 2.56; 95%CI 1.12–5.86 were associated with a higher risk of future sick leave due to NSBD. In the final analyses, previous low back disorders and previous sick leave remained significant in both study groups. Conclusion The results suggest a focus on previous low

  12. Sickness absence, moral hazard, and the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The procyclical nature of sickness absence has been documented by many scholars in literature. So far, explanations have been based on labor force composition and reduced moral hazard caused by fear of job loss during recessions. In this paper, we propose and test a third mechanism caused by reduced moral hazard during booms and infections. We suggest that the workload is higher during economic booms and thus employees have to go to work despite being sick. In a theoretical model focusing on infectious diseases, we show that this will provoke infections of coworkers leading to overall higher sickness absence during economic upturns. Using state-level aggregated data from 112 German public health insurance funds (out of 145 in total), we find that sickness absence due to infectious diseases shows the largest procyclical pattern, as predicted by our theoretical model. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Motion control, motion sickness, and the postural dynamics of mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffregen, Thomas A; Chen, Yi-Chou; Koslucher, Frank C

    2014-04-01

    Drivers are less likely than passengers to experience motion sickness, an effect that is important for any theoretical account of motion sickness etiology. We asked whether different types of control would affect the incidence of motion sickness, and whether any such effects would be related to participants' control of their own bodies. Participants played a video game on a tablet computer. In the Touch condition, the device was stationary and participants controlled the game exclusively through fingertip inputs via the device's touch screen. In the Tilt condition, participants held the device in their hands and moved the device to control some game functions. Results revealed that the incidence of motion sickness was greater in the Touch condition than in the Tilt condition. During game play, movement of the head and torso differed as a function of the type of game control. Before the onset of subjective symptoms of motion sickness, movement of the head and torso differed between participants who later reported motion sickness and those that did not. We discuss implications of these results for theories of motion sickness etiology.

  14. Four cases of bowel perforation following radiation therapy for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kobo; Take, Suguru; Suzuki, Ryoto [Yokosuka City Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Kurosu, Yasuhiko; Tsuzuki, Hideshi; Amano, Sadao; Iwata, Mitsumasa; Morita, Ken

    1984-10-01

    External radiation dose exceeded 5,000 rad in three cases, and intravaginal radiation dose was 5,000 rad in one case. Radiation damage including perforation was seen in the end of ileus in one case, in the sigmoid and rectum in two cases, and in the end of ileus, sigmoid and rectum in the last case. Satisfactory results were obtained by the removal of the ileocecum in the case of the damage in the end of the ileus. However, only colostomy was performed for the damage in the sigmoid and rectum.

  15. Models of hemapoietic changes on the basis of systematically collected case histories of radiation accident victims as well as pathophysiologically evaluated patients after chronic radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    The research project ''Models of Hematopoietic Changes on the Basis of Systematically Collected Case Histories of Radiation Accident Victims as well as Pathophysiologically Evaluated Patients after Chronic Radiation Exposure'' required the investigation of four major research problem areas. First of all, biomathematical models were improved or newly developed allowing the simulation of the radiation induced response patterns of granulocytes, lymphocytes and blood platelets. The compartment model approach allowed the establishment of the correlation of such blood cell changes to the extent of damage at the level of hemopoietic stem cells distributed throughout the skeleton. The utilization of neural-network techniques resulted in a ''synergetic'' model that enables the medical doctor - using blood cell changes within the first 5-6 days after exposure - to predict the further course of illness and to allow a rational approach to clinical management. Secondly, available information on the clinical consequences of radiation exposure on more than 800 accident victims enabled the team to develop an entirely new concept to recognize and treat such persons. For this approach the biomathematical models were used to identify ''response categories'' (rather than dosimetrically defined ''exposure categories'') with an organ specific grading code of the severity of radiation-induced damage. This grading allowed the semi-quantitative damage assessment of the hemopoiesis, the neurovascular system, the gastrointestinal as well as the cutaneous system. It forms the basis for a ''weighted'' prognosis and for the logistics of radiation accident medical management. In the third project domain, models were developed to understand pathophysiological mechanisms of biological consequences of chronic radiation in human beings (former USSR) as well as in a preclinical dog study (USA). From a large group of patients with the diagnosis of ''Chronic Radiation Sickness'' more than 80 were

  16. [Pregnancy-related and work-related sick leave of pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tophøj, A; Mortensen, J T

    1999-09-06

    Pregnant women are allowed sick leave (SL) due to obstetrical or occupational risk factors. The aim was to describe reasons for SL during pregnancy. Pregnant women in a Danish county applying for SL were consecutively included in the study during 12 months in 1991-92. Data were obtained by questionnaires mailed to the women and their medical doctors. Of 1483 pregnant women on SL, 994 participated. Approximately 96% were on SL due to obstetrical risk factors. Occupational factors contributed to SL in at least 50% of the cases, mainly when working in a standing or walking position or when lifting. The women were rarely replaced in other jobs before leaving work. On average the women were absent for 83 days before official pregnancy leave started. Although SL during pregnancy is overwhelmingly due to obstetrical risk factors, occupational factors often contribute. Occupational Health and Safety Organizations are rarely involved at the workplace before issuing a sick leave certificate.

  17. Health effects of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Human and animal studies have shown an increased incidence of cancer and malformation due to radioactive materials and external radiation. The biological effects of radiation on tissues are the occurrence of morphological and functional changes in the body. The critical parts of the body are those tissues or organs which when irradiated, are likely to influence the health of the individual or its offspring. The probability of these changes depends on the radiation dose. There are two main types of damage due to radiation dose. Radiation Sickness with well-defined symptoms like cancer and inherited disorders which can appear after several years. A second type of damage, namely Acute Radiation Sickness results after exposure of the whole or parts of the body to high doses of radiation greater than 1 Gy. There are safety standards for the amount of dose equivalent that is taken as acceptable. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has given norms in which natural and medical causes were not included. These are given as recommended values (1966) and proposed values (2000), both in mSv/yr: population at large: 1.7 and 0.4; members of the public: 5 and 2; and radiologic workers: 50 and 20, respectively. Taking into account the increased number of reactor accidents, the question is how safe is our safety standards? Even when one is able to connect a quantitative risk with a radiation dose, there are three fundamental principles which we should obey in dealing with risks from radiation. These are: (1) Avoid any risk. (2) The risk should be related to the possible benefit. (3) Any dose below the politically agreed limits is acceptable

  18. Subjective health complaints in relation to sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The Dutch population is healthy in terms of living and working conditions, but the levels of subjective health complaints (SHC) and sickness absence are high in the Dutch workforce. Are SHC related to sickness absence? Participants: The study population included the personnel of four

  19. Pharmacological and neurophysiological aspects of space/motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucot, James B.; Crampton, George H.

    1991-01-01

    A motorized motion testing device modeled after a Ferris wheel was constructed to perform motion sickness tests on cats. Details of the testing are presented, and some of the topics covered include the following: xylazine-induced emesis; analysis of the constituents of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during motion sickness; evaluation of serotonin-1A (5-HT sub 1A) agonists; other 5HT receptors; antimuscarinic mechanisms; and antihistaminergic mechanisms. The ability of the following drugs to reduce motion sickness in the cats was examined: amphetamines, adenosinergic drugs, opioid antagonists, peptides, cannabinoids, cognitive enhancers (nootropics), dextromethorphan/sigma ligands, scopolamine, and diphenhydramine.

  20. Motion Sickness: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... com. Accessed July 29, 2017. Priesol AJ. Motion sickness. https://www.uptodate.com/content/search. Accessed July 29, 2017. Brunette GW, et al. CDC Health Information for International Travel 2018. New York, N. ...

  1. The work ability index and single-item question: associations with sick leave, symptoms, and health--a prospective study of women on long-term sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Linda; Grimby-Ekman, Anna; Hagberg, Mats; Dellve, Lotta

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated the association between the work ability index (WAI) and the single-item question on work ability among women working in human service organizations (HSO) currently on long-term sick leave. It also examined the association between the WAI and the single-item question in relation to sick leave, symptoms, and health. Predictive values of the WAI, the changed WAI, the single-item question and the changed single-item question were investigated for degree of sick leave, symptoms, and health. This cohort study comprised 324 HSO female workers on long-term (>60 days) sick leave, with follow-ups at 6 and 12 months. Participants responded to questionnaires. Data on work ability, sick leave, health, and symptoms were analyzed with regard to associations and predictability. Spearman correlation and mixed-model analysis were performed for repeated measurements over time. The study showed a very strong association between the WAI and the single-item question among all participants. Both the WAI and the single-item question showed similar patterns of associations with sick leave, health, and symptoms. The predictive value for the degree of sick leave and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was strong for both the WAI and the single-item question, and slightly less strong for vitality, neck pain, both self-rated general and mental health, and behavioral and current stress. This study suggests that the single-item question on work ability could be used as a simple indicator for assessing the status and progress of work ability among women on long-term sick leave.

  2. Associations of work ability with frequent and long-term sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notenbomer, A.; Groothoff, J. W.; van Rhenen, W.; Roelen, C. A. M.

    Background Reduced work ability is related to long-term sickness absence. The relationship between work ability and frequent sickness absence has not previously been investigated. It is important to distinguish between frequent and long-term sickness absence as they are outcomes of different

  3. Legislative change enabling use of early part-time sick leave enhanced return to work and work participation in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Virta, Lauri J; Kausto, Johanna; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Martimo, Kari-Pekka; Laaksonen, Mikko; Leinonen, Taina; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Burdorf, Alex; Solovieva, Svetlana

    2017-09-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the use of part-time sick leave at the early (first 12 weeks) stage of work disability due to mental disorder or musculoskeletal disease on sustained return to work (RTW) and overall work participation. Methods In a nation-wide register-based quasi-experimental study, we compared sustained RTW (ie, ≥28 consecutive days at work) and 2-year work participation between the part- and full-time sickness absence (SA) benefit groups (N=1878 in each group) using propensity-score matching. Persons who received partial or full SA benefit due to musculoskeletal diseases or mental disorders between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011 were eligible as cases or controls, respectively. Results A higher proportion showed sustained RTW after part- compared to full-time sick leave [absolute risk difference 8.0%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.3-10.9]. Moreover, the proportion of time at work was at a 10.5% higher level in the part- compared to full-time sick leave group. The prevalence of full disability retirement was almost three-fold among the full- compared to part-time sick leave group, whereas partial disability retirement was 4.5-fold more prevalent in the part- compared to full-time sick leave group. Conclusions The use of part-time sick leave during the first three months of SA enhances RTW and overall work participation during two years among persons with mental disorders and musculoskeletal diseases. The prescription of part-time sick leave can be recommended at an early stage of work disability.

  4. Sickness absence indicating depressive symptoms of working population in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Cheolmin; Ko, Young-Hoon; Yoon, Seoyoung; Jeon, Sang Won; Pae, Chi-Un; Kim, Yong-Ku; Patkar, Ashwin A; Han, Changsu

    2018-02-01

    Sickness absence has been regarded as an important indicator of workers' health and work productivity. This study is aimed to evaluate the association between depressive symptoms and sickness absence in workers of South Korea. We used nationwide cross-sectional survey data from 2889 individuals in the working population aged over 19 years in South Korea. Depressive symptoms were measured using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Those respondents who scored above 10 on PHQ-9 were regarded as having depressive symptoms. Sickness absence was considered a binary variable with an absence of at least 1 day in the past month. The survey instrument contained questions about sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, work-related factors, and chronic illnesses. Logistic regression models were used to find odds ratios and confidence intervals. The prevalence of sickness absence was found to be overall 4.6%. The adjusted odds ratio of sickness absence with depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score ≥ 10) was 3.63 (Confidence Interval: 2.13-6.20) after controlling of possible confounders. Compared to minimal depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 sickness absences were more significant. The sickness absence based on the memory of the respondent in this study may result in a recall bias. Incidence of at least 1 day of sickness absence per month increased the risk of depressive symptoms after controlling for the possible confounding factors in general working population. It may be necessary to consider strategies for assessing depression in the workers who take sick leaves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Travelers' Health: Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sickness, especially when pregnant, menstruating, or on hormones. Race/ethnicity—Asians may be more susceptible to motion ... it, sitting in the front seat of a car or bus, sitting over the wing of an ...

  6. Console video games, postural activity, and motion sickness during passive restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hui; Pan, Wu-Wen; Chen, Fu-Chen; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2013-08-01

    We examined the influence of passive restraint on postural activity and motion sickness in individuals who actively controlled a potentially nauseogenic visual motion stimulus (a driving video game). Twenty-four adults (20.09 ± 1.56 years; 167.80 ± 7.94 cm; 59.02 ± 9.18 kg) were recruited as participants. Using elastic bands, standing participants were passively restrained at the head, shoulders, hips, and knees. During restraint, participants played (i.e., controlled) a driving video game (a motorcycle race), for 50 min. During game play, we recorded the movement of the head and torso, using a magnetic tracking system. Following game play, participants answered a forced choice, yes/no question about whether they were motion sick, and were assigned to sick and well groups on this basis. In addition, before and after game play, participants completed the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire, which provided numerical ratings of the severity of individual symptoms. Five of 24 participants (20.83 %) reported motion sickness. Participants moved despite being passively restrained. Both the magnitude and the temporal dynamics of movement differed between the sick and well groups. The results show that passive restraint of the body can reduce motion sickness when the nauseogenic visual stimulus is under participants' active control and confirm that motion sickness is preceded by distinct patterns of postural activity even during passive restraint.

  7. Tight or sick building syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, P; Shanmuganadan, S [Madurai Kamaraj Univ. (India). Dept. of Geography; Uma, A [Madurai Medical Coll. (India). Dept. of Medicine and Microbiology

    1991-01-01

    Modern buildings are designed with the usual heating, air-conditioning and ventilation equipment. In most of these buildings, air is continuously recirculated and, as a result, workers suffer from tight or sick building syndrome. This syndrome is discussed with reference to symptoms of air contamination, ventilation system standards and research needs. The most common symptoms of tight building syndrome are eye, nose and throat irritation, headache, fatigue, sneezing, difficulty in wearing contact lenses, chest tightness, nausea, dizziness and dermatitis. Symptoms experienced by 50 doctors and 50 paramedical personnel working in an air-conditioned intensive care unit and operating theatres of the Government Rajaji Hospital, Madurai in India were studied by means of a questionnaire survey. In the present study, respiratory and ocular symptoms were observed more in those working in operating theatres and were believed to be due to excessive use of formaldehyde used for sterilization. Various suggestions were made to prevent sick building syndrome. Moreover, the physicians treating sick individuals should be aware of the symptoms caused by indoor air pollutants as sufferers invariably require a change of environment rather than drugs. (orig.).

  8. Social inequalities in "sickness"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Wel, Kjetil A; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    In comparative studies of health inequalities, public health researchers have usually studied only disease and illness. Recent studies have also examined the sickness dimension of health, that is, the extent to which ill health is accompanied by joblessness, and how this association varies...... consistent results. They analyze data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC); health was measured by limiting longstanding illness (LLSI). Results show that for both men and women reporting LLSI in combination with low educational level, the probabilities of non......-employment were particularly high in the Anglo-Saxon and Eastern welfare regimes, and lowest in the Scandinavian regime. For men, absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness were lowest in the Southern regime; for women, inequalities were lowest in the Scandinavian regime. The authors conclude...

  9. Diagnosis of 20 cases with chronic radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongshou; Shen, Zhezhong; Wen Zhigen; Xie, Xiaoping; Ni, Jinxian

    1984-01-01

    Twenty cases with chronic radiation syndrome were diagnosed in our department during 1957-1980. All except one were radiologists, and eight of them had worked in radiological departments for over 20 years. Owing to the use of out-dated x-ray machines as well as radium sources without adequate protection, all these cases were apparently overexposed to radiation. They presented following signs and symptoms of chronic radiation syndrome: excitability, palpitation, fatigue, general weakness, loss of weight, oversweating accompanied by tendency of lowered metabolism, peripheral blood cell changes, and chromosome aberrations. The diagnosis of this syndrome was based on definitive professional and over-exposure history, clinical picture and abnormal laboratory findings. (author)

  10. Sick leave analysis among self-employed Dutch farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Oude Vrielink, H.H.E.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Background Agriculture is one of the most physically demanding and risky industries. Aim The objective of this study was to provide baseline data on the diagnoses, occurrence and duration of sick leave of self-employed Dutch farmers. Method A database of 22807 sick leave claims of 12627 farmers

  11. Sickness Behaviour: Causes and Effects | Viljoen | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses sickness behaviour as a central motivational state. It deals with the adaptational value and underlying mechanisms of sickness behaviour and with the consequences of the body's failure to terminate the activity of the symptoms-producing cytokines. SA Fam Pract 2003;45(10):15-18 ...

  12. The effect on length of sickness absence by recognition of undetected psychiatric disorder in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    of return to work. METHODS: Over one year all 2,414 incident persons on LSA in a well-defined population were within one week after eight weeks of continuous sickness absence posted the Common Mental Disorders Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ) to screen for mental disorders. In a randomized controlled trial...... (RCT), of 1,121 responding participants, persons with a minimum level of psychiatric symptoms 420 were allocated to the intervention group and 416 to the control group. The intervention was a psychiatric examination including diagnostics with Present State Examination and feedback regarding treatment...... to work. RESULTS: The rate of return to work was non-significantly lower for the intervention group than for the control group, except for persons without a psychiatric sick-leave diagnosis who were sick-listed from full time work, who showed a significantly higher rate of return to work...

  13. Does evening work predict sickness absence among female carers of the elderly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to predict the risk ratio of sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks due to shift work among Danish workers caring for the elderly during the evening and at night. METHODS: A sample of Danish carers of the elderly were interviewed in 2005. The response...... rate was 78%. A cohort of 5627 shift and day workers was followed for sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks and for sickness absence lasting > or = 8 weeks in a sickness compensation register covering all social transfer payments in Denmark. RESULTS: Among the evening workers, the rate ratio (RR......) of sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks was 1.29 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.10-1.52). The rate ratio for sickness absence lasting > or = 8 weeks was 1.24 (95% CI 0.99-1.56). CONCLUSIONS: Evening work may cause long-term sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks....

  14. Exposed persons at the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station accident: acute radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gus'kova, A.K.; Baranov, A.E.; Barabanova, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    Observation made over 115 patients with acute radiation sickness due to exposure external γ- and β-rays confirmed high efficiency of the earlier proposed principles of prognostication of the degree of severity by clinical manifestations of the primary disease response and those of separate syndromes, using the methods of hematological and cytogenetic analyses. Out of 115 victims, 56 persons had radiation burns (RB), 17 intestinal syndrome (IS), 80 - oropharengeal syndrome (ORS), 7 - interstitial radiation pneumonitis (IRP). In thanatogenesis, of prime importance were: RB (more than 40% of the body surface) - 19 persons and IRP - 7 persons. A severe course of intestinal and oropharengeal syndromes was combined with other fatal manifestations of radiation injury. Early isolation of patients (2-4 stages), selective decontamination of the intestine, prescription of a wide spectrum antibiotics, antimycotic and antiviral drugs, as well as γ-globulin could practically remove the risk of the development of fatal infectious complications during a medullary andtransitory forms of radiation sickness

  15. The differential role of pain, work characteristics and pain and sick leave in occupational settings

    OpenAIRE

    GHELDOF, Els; VINCK, Jan; Vlaeyen, J.; Hidding, A.; Crombez, G.

    2005-01-01

    This cross-sectional questionnaire study investigated the role of pain (pain severity, radiating pain), work characteristics (physical workload, job stressors, job satisfaction), negative affect and pain-related fear in accounting for low back pain (LBP) and sick leave (SL) in 1294 employees from 10 companies in Belgium and the Netherlands. An increased risk for short-term LBP (1–30 days during the last year) was observed for workers reporting high physical workload (OR=2.39), high task exert...

  16. Differences in predictors of return to work among long-term sick-listed employees with different self-reported reasons for sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, J.J.J.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Taris, T.W.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The present study aimed to gain insight in the predictors of full return to work (RTW) among employees on long-term sick leave due to three different self-reported reasons for sick leave: physical, mental or comorbid physical and mental problems. This knowledge can be used to develop

  17. Radiation dermatitis after spinal arteriovenous malformation embolization: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carstens, G.J.; Horowitz, M.B.; Purdy, P.D.; Pandya, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    Few cases of radiation injury related to lengthy interventional neuroradiologic procedures have been reported, although concern has been heightened, as evidenced by a 1994 FDA Public Health Advisory. We report a case of radiation-induced dermatitis in a patient undergoing multiple diagnostic and embolization procedures for treatment of a spinal arteriovenous malformation. (orig.). With 2 figs

  18. Dizziness and Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that extends into the inner ear can completely destroy both the hearing and equilibrium function of that ... motion sickness: •Do not read while traveling •Avoid sitting in the rear seat •Do not sit in ...

  19. Acute radiation sickness - morphology of CNS syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarad, V.

    1989-01-01

    The effect was studied of supralethal doses of 60 Co gamma radiation on morphological changes in the brains of laboratory animals. For experiments, female rats irradiated with doses of 15 to 960 Gy, female mice irradiated with doses of 50 to 300 Gy and dogs irradiated with 6 to 500 Gy were used. For evaluation of the changes, light microscopy, electron microscopy and histochemistry were employed. The findings generally agreed with the results by other authors whose numerous studies are reviewed in detail. They included brain edema, alterations in enzyme activities, dystrophic changes and hemorrhages in nerve cells, marked structural changes in blood capillaries, damage of endothelial cells, etc. The observed changes in the activities of blood-brain barrier enzymes, increased pinocytotic activity and the formation of endothelial tunnels accompanied with necrosis of part of endothelial cells are clear morphological manifestations of marked alterations in the function of the blood-brain barrier that result in brain edema development. The increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier significantly worsens primary changes induced by radiation, especially in nerve cels, and adversely affects possible repair processes. (L.O.). 146 figs., 8 tabs., 352 refs

  20. SICKNESS PRESENCE AND STRESSFUL LIFE EVENTS OF HEALTH CARE WORKERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škerjanc, Alenka; Fikfak, Metoda Dodič

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between sickness presence and stressful life events among health care workers. Data were gathered from all health care workers at the University Medical Centre Ljubljana employed there in the period between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2010. Each employee obtained a questionnaire composed of two standardized international questionnaires. There were 57% of sickness present health care workers among the participants. The sickness present reported to have more diseases of family member than the non-sickness present (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.2-2.0), loan (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1-1.6), their partner lost job (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0-1.8), or they changed the place of living (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0-2.0). The results of the study indicate that stressful life events with economic consequences might have an important influence on sickness presence.

  1. Undetected common mental disorders in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Background. Undetected Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) amongst people on sick leave complicate rehabilitation and return to work because appropriate treatments are not initiated. Aims. The aim of this study is to estimate (1) the frequencies of CMD, (2) the predictors of undetected CMD, and (3...... individuals registered on LSA who were sick-listed without a psychiatric sick leave diagnosis. In this respect, Phase 1 included 831 individuals, who were screened for mental disorders. In Phase 2, following the screening of Phase 1, 227 individuals were thoroughly examined by a psychiatrist applying Present...... State Examination. The analyses of the study were carried out based on the 227 individuals from Phase 2 and, subsequently, weighted to be representative of the 831 individuals in Phase 1. Results. The frequencies of undetected mental disorders among all sick-listed individuals were for any psychiatric...

  2. Trends in sickness absence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kristina; Bihrmann, Kristine; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2009-01-01

    's Authority, and the Labor Force Survey indicated a stable and largely unaltered pattern of sickness absence during the last 20 years. Findings from Statistics Denmark showed an increase in the cumulative incidence proportion from 6.6 to 7.5% among employed people between 2000 and 2007. CONCLUSION: Our data...... a linear regression analysis to analyze time trends in sickness absence based on datasets from the Danish Employers Confederation, the State Employer's Authority, the Labour Force Survey, and Statistics Denmark. RESULTS: The findings from the Confederation of Danish Employers, the State Employer...

  3. A Kink that Makes you Sick: the Effect of Sick Pay on Absence in a Social Insurance System

    OpenAIRE

    Petri Bockerman; Ohto Kanninen; Ilpo Suoniemi

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effect of the replacement rule of a social insurance system on sickness absence. The elasticity of absence with respect to the benefit level is a critical parameter in defining the optimal sickness insurance scheme. A pre-determined, piecewise linear policy rule in which the replacement rate is determined by past earnings allows identification of the causal effect using a regression kink design. Using a large administrative dataset, we find a substantial and robust behavioral r...

  4. Demonstrating the potential for dynamic auditory stimulation to contribute to motion sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrang Keshavarz

    Full Text Available Auditory cues can create the illusion of self-motion (vection in the absence of visual or physical stimulation. The present study aimed to determine whether auditory cues alone can also elicit motion sickness and how auditory cues contribute to motion sickness when added to visual motion stimuli. Twenty participants were seated in front of a curved projection display and were exposed to a virtual scene that constantly rotated around the participant's vertical axis. The virtual scene contained either visual-only, auditory-only, or a combination of corresponding visual and auditory cues. All participants performed all three conditions in a counterbalanced order. Participants tilted their heads alternately towards the right or left shoulder in all conditions during stimulus exposure in order to create pseudo-Coriolis effects and to maximize the likelihood for motion sickness. Measurements of motion sickness (onset, severity, vection (latency, strength, duration, and postural steadiness (center of pressure were recorded. Results showed that adding auditory cues to the visual stimuli did not, on average, affect motion sickness and postural steadiness, but it did reduce vection onset times and increased vection strength compared to pure visual or pure auditory stimulation. Eighteen of the 20 participants reported at least slight motion sickness in the two conditions including visual stimuli. More interestingly, six participants also reported slight motion sickness during pure auditory stimulation and two of the six participants stopped the pure auditory test session due to motion sickness. The present study is the first to demonstrate that motion sickness may be caused by pure auditory stimulation, which we refer to as "auditorily induced motion sickness".

  5. Standing body sway in women with and without morning sickness in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yawen; Chung, Hyun Chae; Hemingway, Lauren; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Morning sickness typically is attributed to hormonal changes in pregnancy. We asked whether morning sickness is associated with changes in standing postural equilibrium, as occurs in research on visually induced motion sickness. Twenty-one pregnant women (mean age=30 years, mean height=163cm; mean weight=63kg) were tested during the first trimester. Laboratory-based balance measures were collected, along with perceived postural stability, the presence of morning sickness, and the severity of subjective symptoms. We varied the distance between the feet and the visual task performed during stance. Participants were classified as either experiencing (Sick, n=12) or not experiencing (Well, n=9) morning sickness. Perceived balance stability was lower for Sick than for Well women. The positional variability of sway was reduced for the Sick group, relative to the Well group. Positional variability decreased with wider stance width, and was reduced during performance of a more demanding visual task. Stance width and visual task also influenced the temporal dynamics of sway. Effects of stance width and visual task on postural sway were similar to effects in non-pregnant adults, suggesting that sensitive tuning of posture is maintained during the first trimester. The findings suggest that women with morning sickness may attempt to stabilize their bodies by reducing overall body sway. It may be useful to recommend that women adopt wider stance early in pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Part-time sick leave as a treatment method for individuals with musculoskeletal disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén, Daniela; Svensson, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that staying active is an important part of a recovery process for individuals on sick leave due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). It has been suggested that using part-time sick-leave rather than full-time sick leave will enhance the possibility of full recovery to the workforce, and several countries actively favor this policy. However, to date only few studies have estimated the effect of using part-time sick leave in contrast to full-time sick leave. In thi...

  7. Identifying workers at risk of sickness absence by questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; van der Pol, Tjepke R.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2006-01-01

    Background Sickness absence is an important economic problem, because of high costs and lost productivity. Determining factors associated with increased risk of sickness absence may lead to the development of preventive measures. Aims To determine whether self-report questionnaires can identify

  8. Sickness absence frequency among women working in hospital care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Schreuder, Jolanda A. H.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Moen, Bente E.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Frequent short sickness absences result in understaffing and interfere with work processes. We need more knowledge about factors associated with this type of absence. Aims To investigate associations between the frequency of previous sickness absence and self-reported perceptions of

  9. Chemical and radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugo, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The paper is a discussion of radiation injuries and the treatment thereof. Radiation injuries are mainly caused as a result of nuclear leaks or nuclear bomb explosions. Such an explosion is usually accompanied by a light flash, noise, heat radiation and nuclear radiation which can all caurse various types of injuries. The general effect of radioactive radiation is discussed. The seriousness of the situation where the whole body was exposed to nuclear radiation, depends on the total radiation dose received and varies from person to person. The progress of radiation sickness is described. Mention is also made of long term radiation effects. The emergency treatment of the injured before specialised aid is available, is discussed. The primary aim of treatment is to save life and to prevent further injuries and complications. Injured people must be removed as far as possible from the point of maximum radiation. Attention must also be given to decontamination

  10. Control of a virtual ambulation influences body movement and motion sickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagstrom Jens

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Drivers typically are less susceptible to motion sickness than passengers. The influence of vehicle control has theoretical implications for the etiology of motion sickness, and has practical implications for the design of virtual environments. In the present study, participants either controlled or did not control a nonvehicular virtual avatar (i.e., an ambulatory character in a console video game. We examined the incidence of motion sickness and patterns of movement of the head and torso as participants either played or watched the game. Motion sickness incidence was lower when controlling the virutal avatar than when watching an avatar that was controlled by someone else. Patterns of head and torso movement differed between particpants who did and did not control the avatar. Indepenently, patterns of movement differed between participants who reported motion sickness and those who did not. The results suggest that motion sickness is influenced by control of stimulus motion, whether that motion arises from a vehicle or from any other source. We consider implications for the design of humancomputer interfaces.

  11. Effect of single lithium doses on haemopoiesis regeneration after radiation exposure in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajewski, K.

    1988-01-01

    The reported experiment failed to demonstrate any effect of single doses of lithium carbonate on haemopoiesis regeneration in experimental haematological syndrome of acute radiation sickness. The effects of gamma radiation on blood formation are shown. 3 figs., 6 refs. (author)

  12. [Estimating non work-related sickness leave absences related to a previous occupational injury in Catalonia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinero-Ruiz, Emilia; Navarro, Albert; Moriña, David; Albertí-Casas, Constança; Jardí-Lliberia, Josefina; de Montserrat-Nonó, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the frequency of non-work sickness absence (ITcc) related to previous occupational injuries with (ATB) or without (ATSB) sick leave. Prospective longitudinal study. Workers with ATB or ATSB notified to the Occupational Accident Registry of Catalonia were selected in the last term of 2009. They were followed-up for six months after returning to work (ATB) or after the accident (ATSB), by sex and occupation. Official labor and health authority registries were used as information sources. An "injury-associated ITcc" was defined when the sick leave occurred in the following six months and within the same diagnosis group. The absolute and relative frequency were calculated according to time elapsed and its duration (cumulated days, measures of central trend and dispersion), by diagnosis group or affected body area, as compared to all of Catalonia. 2,9%of ATB (n=627) had an injury-associated ITcc, with differences by diagnosis, sex and occupation; this was also the case for 2,1% of ATSB (n=496).With the same diagnosis, duration of ITcc was longer among those who had an associated injury, and with respect to all of Catalonia. Some of the under-reporting of occupational pathology corresponds to episodes initially recognized as being work-related. Duration of sickness absence depends not only on diagnosis and clinical course, but also on criteria established by the entities managing the case. This could imply that more complicated injuries are referred to the national health system, resulting in personal, legal, healthcare and economic cost consequences for all involved stakeholders. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.

  13. A case-control study evaluating relative risk factors for decompression sickness: a research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Naoko; Yagishita, Kazuyosi; Togawa, Seiichiro; Okazaki, Fumihiro; Shibayama, Masaharu; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Mano, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Factors contributing to the pathogenesis of decompression sickness (DCS) in divers have been described in many studies. However, relative importance of these factors has not been reported. In this case-control study, we compared the diving profiles of divers experiencing DCS with those of a control group. The DCS group comprised 35 recreational scuba divers who were diagnosed by physicians as having DCS. The control group consisted of 324 apparently healthy recreational divers. All divers conducted their dives from 2009 to 2011. The questionnaire consisted of 33 items about an individual's diving profile, physical condition and activities before, during and just after the dive. To simplify dive parameters, the dive site was limited to Izu Osezaki. Odds ratios and multiple logistic regression were used for the analysis. Odds ratios revealed several items as dive and health factors associated with DCS. The major items were as follows: shortness of breath after heavy exercise during the dive (OR = 12.12), dehydration (OR = 10.63), and maximum dive depth > 30 msw (OR = 7.18). Results of logistic regression were similar to those by odds ratio analysis. We assessed the relative weights of the surveyed dive and health factors associated with DCS. Because results of several factors conflict with previous studies, future studies are needed.

  14. Long working hours and sickness absence-a fixed effects design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstrøm, Vilde Hoff

    2018-05-02

    While long working hours seem to lead to impaired health, several studies have also shown that long working hours are related to lower levels of sickness absence. Previous studies on the relationship between long working hours and sickness absence have compared those who work long hours to those who do not, looking only at between-individual correlations. Those results might therefore reflect relatively stable differences between employees who typically work long hours and employees who typically do not. The aim of the present study is to examine within-individual correlations between long working hours and sickness absence. Records from the Human Resources department in a large Norwegian hospital from 2012 to 2015 provided objective data on both working hours and sickness absence. Two analyses were performed: a prospective cohort analysis to replicate the results from previous between-individual analyses and a second analysis of within-individual correlations using a fixed effect design. In line with existing research, both between-individual and within-individual analyses showed a negative relationship between long working hours (> 48 h/week) and short-term sickness absence (1-8 days) and no significant difference in incidence of long-term sickness absence (> 8 days). The results indicate that the negative relationship between long working hours and sickness absence is not due only to relatively stable individual differences between those who typically work long hours and those who do not. The results from both analyses therefore still contrast with previous research showing a negative relationship between long working hours and other health indicators.

  15. Nuclear radiation in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, H.L.

    1989-01-01

    The manifestations of acute radiation sickness in the post-nuclear attack period must be recognized and understood in order to apply therapeutic measure appropriately. The syndromes observed-hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, central nervous system-are dose dependent and vary in the degree of patient impairment and lethality. Estimates of mortality and morbidity following a massive exchange vary profoundly, depending on the targeting scenarios, the modes employed, and the meteorologic conditions anticipated. Even the LD-50 dose remain the subject of controversy. Using a US Government model of such an exchange, an estimated 23 million survivors would have radiation sickness, frequently complicated by trauma and burns. Among these survivors, an overriding consideration will be the presence and extent of infection, associated with alterations in the immune system, malnutrition, dehydration, exposure and hardship. Triage and treatment will be extraordinarily complex, requiring patient relocation, massive fluid replacement, antibiotics, a sterile environment , and many other measures. Massive disparities between supply and demand for physicians, nurses, other health workers, hospital beds, supplies and equipment, antibiotics, and other pharmaceutical agents will render a coherent physician response virtually impossible. Such disparities will be compounded by the destruction of transport systems and intolerably high radiation levels in many areas. If it is true that the meliorative efforts of physicians in post-attack radiation damage will be incapable of addressing this massive health care problem meaningfully, then clearly their most effective role is to prevent the threat from materializing. (authors)

  16. Pregnancy-related sickness absence among employed women in a Swedish county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanderson, K; Hensing, G; Carstensen, J; Bjurulf, P

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the variation of pregnancy-related sickness absence among employed women according to age, occupation, and degree of male-female domination within occupations. Data from a prospective study of all new sick-leave spells exceeding 7 d in 1985 and 1986 in the county of Ostergötland, Sweden, were related to the population at risk, through the Swedish Medical Birth Register. The subjects included in the analysis were all 7000 employed women that gave birth in 1985 and 1986, of which some 3000 were sick-listed at least once with pregnancy-related diagnoses. There was little difference in the pregnancy-related sickness absence between the age groups. The age-standardized rate for sick leaves involving pregnancy-related diagnoses differed substantially between occupations. Women in the metal industry had the highest rates; those employed in administration, banking, and insurance had the lowest. White-collar occupations generally had lower rates and blue-collar occupations higher rates, with some exceptions (eg, in saw mills, farming, and the chemical industry). Gender-integrated occupations had the lowest sick-leave rate, while extremely male-dominated jobs had the highest. The latter association remained after adjustment for occupational area. There were considerable differences between occupational groups in the rates of sick leaves involving pregnancy-related diagnoses. Some differences were related to physical load of the jobs being done, but not all. It seems important to consider also male-female domination within a job with respect to such sick leaves.

  17. Mechanism of Action for Anti-radiation Vaccine in Reducing the Biological Impact of High-dose Gamma Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliev, Vladislav; Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Casey, Rachael C.

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a major health risk of long-term space travel, the biological consequences of which include genetic and oxidative damage. In this study, we propose an original mechanism by which high doses of ionizing radiation induce acute toxicity. We identified biological components that appear in the lymphatic vessels shortly after gamma irradiation. These radiation-induced toxins, which we have named specific radiation determinants (SRD), were generated in the irradiated tissues and then collected and circulated throughout the body via the lymph circulation and bloodstream. Depending on the type of SRD elicited, different syndromes of acute radiation sickness (ARS) were expressed. The SRDs were developed into a vaccine used to confer active immunity against acute radiation toxicity in immunologically naive animals. Animals that were pretreated with SRDs exhibited resistance to lethal doses of gamma radiation, as measured by increased survival times and survival rates. In comparison, untreated animals that were exposed to similar large doses of gamma radiation developed acute radiation sickness and died within days. This phenomenon was observed in a number of mammalian species. Initial analysis of the biochemical characteristics indicated that the SRDs were large molecular weight (200-250 kDa) molecules that were comprised of a mixture of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and mineral. Further analysis is required to further identify the SRD molecules and the biological mechanism by which the mediate the toxicity associated with acute radiation sickness. By doing so, we may develop an effective specific immunoprophylaxis as a countermeasure against the acute effects of ionizing radiation.

  18. Mechanism of action for anti-radiation vaccine in reducing the biological impact of high-dose gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliev, Vladislav; Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Casey, Rachael C.

    Ionizing radiation is a major health risk of long-term space travel, the biological consequences of which include genetic and oxidative damage. In this study, we propose an original mechanism by which high doses of ionizing radiation induce acute toxicity. We identified biological components that appear in the lymphatic vessels shortly after high-dose gamma irradiation. These radiation-induced toxins, which we have named specific radiation determinants (SRD), were generated in the irradiated tissues and then circulated throughout the body via the lymph circulation and bloodstream. Depending on the type of SRD elicited, different syndromes of acute radiation sickness (ARS) were expressed. The SRDs were developed into a vaccine used to confer active immunity against acute radiation toxicity in immunologically naïve animals. Animals that were pretreated with SRDs exhibited resistance to lethal doses of gamma radiation, as measured by increased survival times and survival rates. In comparison, untreated animals that were exposed to similar large doses of gamma radiation developed acute radiation sickness and died within days. This phenomenon was observed in a number of mammalian species. Initial analysis of the biochemical characteristics indicated that the SRDs were large molecular weight (200-250 kDa) molecules that were comprised of a mixture of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and mineral. Further analysis is required to further identify the SRD molecules and the biological mechanism by which they mediate the toxicity associated with acute radiation sickness. By doing so, we may develop an effective specific immunoprophylaxis as a countermeasure against the acute effects of ionizing radiation.

  19. Determinants for return to work among sickness certified patients in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Celsing Anna-Sophia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term sickness absence is one of the main risk factors for permanent exit out of the labour market. Early identification of the condition is essential to facilitate return to work. The aim of this study was to analyse possible determinants of return to work and their relative impact. Methods All 943 subjects aged 18 to 63 years, sickness certified at a Primary Health Care Centre in Sweden from 1 January until 31 August 2004, were followed up for three years. Baseline information on sex, age, sick leave diagnosis, employment status, extent of sick leave, and sickness absence during the year before baseline was obtained, as was information on all compensated days of sick leave, disability pension and death during follow-up. Results Slightly more than half the subjects were women, mean age was 39 years. Half of the study population returned to work within 14 days after baseline, and after three years only 15 subjects were still on sick leave. In multivariate proportional hazards regression analysis the extent of previous sick leave, age, being on part-time sick leave, and having a psychiatric, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, nervous disease, digestive system, or injury or poisoning diagnosis decreased the return to work rate, while being employed increased it. Marital status, sex, being born in Sweden, citizenship, and annual salary had no influence. In logistic regression analyses across follow-up time these variables altogether explained 88-90% of return to work variation. Conclusions Return to work was positively or negatively associated by a number of variables easily accessible in the GP’s office. Track record data in the form of previous sick leave was the most influential variable.

  20. Sickness absence in a municipal public service of Goiânia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Ana Lúcia de Melo; Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh; Rassi Neto, Elias; Ribeiro, Cristina Aparecida Neves; Turchi, Marília Dalva

    2015-01-01

    Sickness absence, as work absenteeism justified by medical certificate, is an important health status indicator of the employees and, overall, sociodemographic and occupational characteristics are among the main factors associated with sickness absence. Public administration accounts for 21.8% of the formal job positions in Brazil. This population allows the study of a wide range of professional categories. To assess the profile and indicators of sickness absence among public workers from the municipality of Goiania, in the State of Goiás, Brazil. A cross-sectional study on certified sick leaves, lasting longer than three days, of all civil servants from January 2005 to December 2010. Prevalence rates were calculated using as main criteria the number of individuals, episodes and sick days. 40,578 certified sick leaves were granted for health treatment among 13,408 public workers, in an annual average population of 17,270 people, which resulted in 944,722 days of absenteeism. The cumulative prevalence of sick leave for the period was of 143.7%, with annual average of 39.2% and duration of 23 days per episode. The cumulative prevalence of sickness absence was higher among women (52.0%), older than 40 years old (55.9%), with a partner (49.9%), low schooling (54.4%), education professionals (54.7%), > 10 years of service (61.9%), and with multiple work contracts (53.7%). Diagnoses groups (ICD-10) with higher cumulative prevalence of sick leaves were those with mental disorders (26.5%), musculoskeletal diseases (25.1%), and injuries (23.6%). Indicators of sickness absence express the magnitude of this phenomenon in the public sector and can assist in planning health actions for the worker, prioritizing the most vulnerable occupational groups.

  1. The dimensional structure of the functional abilities in cases of long-term sickness absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulders Henny PG

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health problems that working people suffer can affect their functional abilities and, consequently, can cause a mismatch between those abilities and the demands of the work, leading to sickness absence. A lasting decrease in functional abilities can lead to long-term sickness absence and work disability, with negative consequences for both the worker and the larger society. The objective of this study was to identify common disability characteristics among large groups of long-term sick-listed and disabled employees. Methods As part of the disability benefit entitlement procedure in the Netherlands, an insurance physician assesses the functional abilities of the claimant in a standardised form, known as the List of Functional Abilities (LFA, which consists of six sections containing a total of 106 items. For the purposes of this study, we compiled data from 50,931 assessments. These data were used in an exploratory factor analyses, and the results were then used to construct scales. The stability of dimensional structure of the LFA and of the internal consistency of the scales was studied using data from 80,968 assessments carried out earlier, under a slightly different legislation. Results Three separate factor analyses carried out on the functional abilities of five sections of the LFA resulted in 14 scale variables, and one extra scale variable was based on the items from the sixth section. The resulting scale variables showed Cronbach's Alphas ranging from 0.59 to 0.97, with the exception of one of 0.54. The dimensional structure of the LFA in the verification population differed in some aspects. The Cronbach's Alphas of the verification population ranged from 0.58 to 0.97, again with the exception of the same scale: Alpha = 0.49. Conclusion The differences between the dimensional structures of the primary data and the earlier data we found in this study restrict the possibilities to generalise the results. The scales

  2. Development of delayed radiation necrosis. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohara, ShigFeki; Takagi, Terumasa [Meitetsu Hospital, Nagoya (Japan); Shibata, Taichiro; Nagai, Hajime

    1983-04-01

    The authors discussed the developing process of delayed radiation necrosis of the brain from the case of a 42-year-old female who developed intracranial hypertension and left hemiparesis 5 and a half years after radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma. The initial sign of radiation necrosis was from a CT scan taken 3 and a half years after radiotherapy showing an irregular low density lesion in the right temporal lobe. CT scan 2 years later demonstrated displacement of the midline structures to the left and a larger low density lesion with partially high density in the right MCA territory that was enhanced with intravenous contrast medium. Recovery after a right temporal lobectomy and administration of steroid hormone were uneventful. Eight months later there were no signs of raised intracranial pressure nor of neurological deficits. Tissues obtained from the right temporal lobe at lobectomy revealed the characteristic changes of delayed radiation necrosis; a mixture of fresh, recent, and old vascular lesions in the same specimen. From these findings, it was speculated that delayed radiation necrosis might initially occur within several years after radiotherapy and might gradually take a progressive and extended course, even in cases whose clinical symptoms develop much later.

  3. Radiation-induced chondrosarcomas: A case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta G

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy has become an important component of various cancer treatments. The development of second malignancy as a result of radiation therapy is a well-known sinister complication. However, radiation-induced sarcomas (RIS are rare complications of radiation therapy. The timescale between completion of the radiotherapy and the development of a second malignancy, known as the latent period, can vary widely from as little as 5 years to 50 years later. Radiation-induced sarcomas per se are very rare and those with histomorphology of chondrosarcomas are even rarer. We report a rare case of RIS of left iliac bone in a 62-year-old lady after combined chemotherapy and external beam radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma (stage IIb. This case is being reported for its extreme rarity, vivid histology and clinical presentation.

  4. [Assistance and care of the sick in early Christianity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritano, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Christianity presents a new vision of man (personalistic anthropology) and refers to the example and words of Jesus, highlighting the inseparable relationship between the love of God and the love of man. The article describes the assistance and care of the sick in the East and West in the early Christian centuries; the 'places of care'- nosokomia for the sicks, gerontokomia for the olders, brephotropia for abandoned children, orphanage structures; the managers of hospitals, ecclesistical dignitaries, lay personnel, monks, operators and employees. Christianity gave dignity to the sick and opportunity to serve humanity to the healthy.

  5. WORRIED SICK? WORKER RESPONSES TO ORGANIZATIONAL TURMOIL

    OpenAIRE

    Bratberg, Espen; Monstad, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Sickness absence has risen over the past years in Norway. One explanation put forward is that a tougher labor market represents a health hazard, while a competing hypothesis predicts that loss of job security works as a disciplinary device. In this analysis we aim to trace a causal impact of organizational turmoil or job insecurity on sickness absence, applying a difference-in-difference approach. Utilizing a negative financial shock that hit specific employers and workplaces, we find that si...

  6. Pleasant music as a countermeasure against visually induced motion sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Behrang; Hecht, Heiko

    2014-05-01

    Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a well-known side-effect in virtual environments or simulators. However, effective behavioral countermeasures against VIMS are still sparse. In this study, we tested whether music can reduce the severity of VIMS. Ninety-three volunteers were immersed in an approximately 14-minute-long video taken during a bicycle ride. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups, either including relaxing music, neutral music, stressful music, or no music. Sickness scores were collected using the Fast Motion Sickness Scale and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. Results showed an overall trend for relaxing music to reduce the severity of VIMS. When factoring in the subjective pleasantness of the music, a significant reduction of VIMS occurred only when the presented music was perceived as pleasant, regardless of the music type. In addition, we found a gender effect with women reporting more sickness than men. We assume that the presentation of pleasant music can be an effective, low-cost, and easy-to-administer method to reduce VIMS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Occupational exposures and sick leave during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women. METHODS: Data from 51 874 pregnancies...... in the Danish National Birth Cohort collected between 1996-2002 were linked to the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization. Exposure information was based on telephone interviews. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by Cox regression analysis, using time of first...... episode of sick leave as the primary outcome. RESULTS: We found statistically significant associations between all the predictors and risk of sick leave; for non-sitting work postures (HRrange 1.55-2.79), cumulative lifting HRtrend 1.29, 95% CI 1.26-1.31, shift work (HRevening 1.90, 95% CI 1...

  8. Reliability of provocative tests of motion sickness susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, D. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Kennedy, R. S.; Dunlop, W. P.

    1987-01-01

    Test-retest reliability values were derived from motion sickness susceptibility scores obtained from two successive exposures to each of three tests: (1) Coriolis sickness sensitivity test; (2) staircase velocity movement test; and (3) parabolic flight static chair test. The reliability of the three tests ranged from 0.70 to 0.88. Normalizing values from predictors with skewed distributions improved the reliability.

  9. Interaction of Physical Exposures and Occupational Factors on Sickness Absence in Automotive Industry Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valirad, Fateme; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Abdi, Alireza; Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Mircheraghi, Seyed Farzin; Mohammadi, Saber

    2015-04-23

    Increased sickness absence in recent years has been a trouble making issue in industrial society. Identify the causes of sickness absence and its influencing factors, is an important step to control and reduce its associated complications and costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate main factors associated with the incidence of sickness absence. In 2012, a cross-sectional study on 758 employees of a car accessories producing company was applied and relevant information about the number of days and episodes of sickness absence, Disease resulting in absence from work, personal features, occupational factors and physical exposures were collected. To determine risk factors associated with sickness absence, Logistic regression analysis was used. The most common diseases leading to sickness absence in order of frequency were Respiratory diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, gastrointestinal diseases and injuries at work. Musculoskeletal disorders increased the danger of long term absence by 4/33 times. Blue collar and shift works were the most important occupational factors associated with the incidence of sickness absence. The main physical factors that affect incidence of sickness absence were frequent bending-twisting and heavy lifting. Identifying controllable factors of sickness absence and trying to prevent and modify them such as compliance of ergonomic principals to decrease physical can be effective in reducing sickness absence.

  10. Radiation-associated ischemic coloproctitis. Report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomori, Hirofumi; Yasuda, Takashi; Shiraishi, Masayuki; Isa, Tsutomu; Muto, Yoshihiro; Egawa, Haruhiko [Ryukyus Univ., Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1999-10-01

    Radiation-associated ischemic coloproctitis is a rare clinical entity caused by vascular insufficiency to the rectosigmoid colon. It most commonly occurs after radiotherapy for gynecological cancer. We present herein the cases of two patients who developed radiation-associated coloproctitis with transmural necrosis and eventual perforation. Perforation of the rectosigmoid colon occurred 3.5 years after radiotherapy in case 1, a 46-year-old woman, and presented as a well-defined small area of transmural necrosis. Conversely, in case 2, a 55-year-old woman, it occurred 1.5 years after radiotherapy, and presented as segmental, diffuse transmural necrosis. The lesion in case 1 had been caused by intramural vascular obliteration due to marked fibrosis of the bowel wall, while that in case 2 had been caused by occlusion of the mesenteric artery with thrombosis. Both patients underwent Hartmann's resection without rectal excision, and survived the perforative event. (author)

  11. Radiation-associated ischemic coloproctitis. Report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomori, Hirofumi; Yasuda, Takashi; Shiraishi, Masayuki; Isa, Tsutomu; Muto, Yoshihiro; Egawa, Haruhiko

    1999-01-01

    Radiation-associated ischemic coloproctitis is a rare clinical entity caused by vascular insufficiency to the rectosigmoid colon. It most commonly occurs after radiotherapy for gynecological cancer. We present herein the cases of two patients who developed radiation-associated coloproctitis with transmural necrosis and eventual perforation. Perforation of the rectosigmoid colon occurred 3.5 years after radiotherapy in case 1, a 46-year-old woman, and presented as a well-defined small area of transmural necrosis. Conversely, in case 2, a 55-year-old woman, it occurred 1.5 years after radiotherapy, and presented as segmental, diffuse transmural necrosis. The lesion in case 1 had been caused by intramural vascular obliteration due to marked fibrosis of the bowel wall, while that in case 2 had been caused by occlusion of the mesenteric artery with thrombosis. Both patients underwent Hartmann's resection without rectal excision, and survived the perforative event. (author)

  12. The impact of effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation on teachers' sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derycke, Hanne; Vlerick, Peter; Van de Ven, Bart; Rots, Isabel; Clays, Els

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of the effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation on sickness absence duration and sickness absence frequency among beginning teachers in Flanders (Belgium). A total of 603 teachers, who recently graduated, participated in this study. Effort-reward imbalance and learning motivation were assessed by means of self-administered questionnaires. Prospective data of registered sickness absence during 12 months follow-up were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. An imbalance between high efforts and low rewards (extrinsic hypothesis) was associated with longer sickness absence duration and more frequent absences. A low level of learning motivation (intrinsic hypothesis) was not associated with longer sickness absence duration but was significantly positively associated with sickness absence frequency. No significant results were obtained for the interaction hypothesis between imbalance and learning motivation. Further research is needed to deepen our understanding of the impact of psychosocial work conditions and personal resources on both sickness absence duration and frequency. Specifically, attention could be given to optimizing or reducing efforts spent at work, increasing rewards and stimulating learning motivation to influence sickness absence. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Associations between partial sickness benefit and disability pensions: initial findings of a Finnish nationwide register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausto, Johanna; Virta, Lauri; Luukkonen, Ritva; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2010-06-23

    Timely return to work after longterm sickness absence and the increased use of flexible work arrangements together with partial health-related benefits are tools intended to increase participation in work life. Although partial sickness benefit and partial disability pension are used in many countries, prospective studies on their use are largely lacking. Partial sickness benefit was introduced in Finland in 2007. This register study aimed to investigate the use of health-related benefits by subjects with prolonged sickness absence, initially on either partial or full sick leave. Representative population data (13 375 men and 16 052 women either on partial or full sick leave in 2007) were drawn from national registers and followed over an average of 18 months. The registers provided information on the study outcomes: diagnoses and days of payment for compensated sick leaves, and the occurrence of disability pension. Survival analysis and multinomial regression were carried out using sociodemographic variables and prior sickness absence as covariates. Approximately 60% of subjects on partial sick leave and 30% of those on full sick leave had at least one recurrent sick leave over the follow up. A larger proportion of those on partial sick leave (16%) compared to those on full sick leave (1%) had their first recurrent sick leave during the first month of follow up. The adjusted risks of the first recurrent sick leave were 1.8 and 1.7 for men and women, respectively, when subjects on partial sick leave were compared with those on full sick leave. There was no increased risk when those with their first recurrent sick leave in the first month were excluded from the analyses. The risks of a full disability pension were smaller and risks of a partial disability pension approximately two-fold among men and women initially on partial sick leave, compared to subjects on full sick leave. This is the first follow up study of the newly adopted partial sickness benefit in

  14. Associations between partial sickness benefit and disability pensions: initial findings of a Finnish nationwide register study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luukkonen Ritva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Timely return to work after longterm sickness absence and the increased use of flexible work arrangements together with partial health-related benefits are tools intended to increase participation in work life. Although partial sickness benefit and partial disability pension are used in many countries, prospective studies on their use are largely lacking. Partial sickness benefit was introduced in Finland in 2007. This register study aimed to investigate the use of health-related benefits by subjects with prolonged sickness absence, initially on either partial or full sick leave. Methods Representative population data (13 375 men and 16 052 women either on partial or full sick leave in 2007 were drawn from national registers and followed over an average of 18 months. The registers provided information on the study outcomes: diagnoses and days of payment for compensated sick leaves, and the occurrence of disability pension. Survival analysis and multinomial regression were carried out using sociodemographic variables and prior sickness absence as covariates. Results Approximately 60% of subjects on partial sick leave and 30% of those on full sick leave had at least one recurrent sick leave over the follow up. A larger proportion of those on partial sick leave (16% compared to those on full sick leave (1% had their first recurrent sick leave during the first month of follow up. The adjusted risks of the first recurrent sick leave were 1.8 and 1.7 for men and women, respectively, when subjects on partial sick leave were compared with those on full sick leave. There was no increased risk when those with their first recurrent sick leave in the first month were excluded from the analyses. The risks of a full disability pension were smaller and risks of a partial disability pension approximately two-fold among men and women initially on partial sick leave, compared to subjects on full sick leave. Conclusions This is the first follow

  15. The effect of mild motion sickness and sopite syndrome on multitasking cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsangas, Panagiotis; McCauley, Michael E; Becker, William

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of mild motion sickness and sopite syndrome on multitasking cognitive performance. Despite knowledge on general motion sickness, little is known about the effect of motion sickness and sopite syndrome on multitasking cognitive performance. Specifically, there is a gap in existing knowledge in the gray area of mild motion sickness. Fifty-one healthy individuals performed a multitasking battery. Three independent groups of participants were exposed to two experimental sessions. Two groups received motion only in the first or the second session, whereas the control group did not receive motion. Measurements of motion sickness, sopite syndrome, alertness, and performance were collected during the experiment Only during the second session, motion sickness and sopite syndrome had a significant negative association with cognitive performance. Significant performance differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic participants in the second session were identified in composite (9.43%), memory (31.7%), and arithmetic (14.7%) task scores. The results suggest that performance retention between sessions was not affected by mild motion sickness. Multitasking cognitive performance declined even when motion sickness and soporific symptoms were mild. The results also show an order effect. We postulate that the differential effect of session on the association between symptomatology and multitasking performance may be related to the attentional resources allocated to performing the multiple tasks. Results suggest an inverse relationship between motion sickness effects on performance and the cognitive effort focused on performing a task. Even mild motion sickness has potential implications for multitasking operational performance.

  16. Sickness absence among municipal workers in a Brazilian municipality: a secondary data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leao, Ana Lucia M; Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh; Turchi, Marília D; Steenstra, Ivan A; Cole, Donald C

    2017-12-28

    Sickness absence, work disability associated with illness or injury, is a major public health problem worldwide. Some studies have investigated determinants of sickness absence among workers with shorter job tenure, but have only focused on certain diagnostic groups. Although it is well established that job tenure has an inverse relationship with work injury rate, less is known about its association with sickness absence for other disorders. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the risk factors for incidence and duration of sickness absence according to diagnosis over a 7-year period. A dynamic cohort consisting of all permanent civil servants hired from 2005 to 2011 by the Goiania municipality-Brazil. Data of certified sickness absences longer than 3 days were analyzed. The incidence density was calculated per 1000 person-years in each ICD-10 category. The association between sickness absence and socio-demographic and occupational characteristics was examined using negative binomial regression models. 18,450 workers, mean age of 32 years, accumulated 14,909 episodes of sickness absence. Overall, the incidence density was 234.6 episodes per 1000 person years. Diagnostic groups with the highest incidence density of sickness absences were injuries (49.1), musculoskeletal disorders (31.3) and mental disorders (29.2). Factors predicting any sickness absence were female gender, older age, low education, being a health professional, multiple jobs and full-time employment. Mental health disorders were more common among education professionals, musculoskeletal disorders among blue collar workers and injuries among inspection workers. Prolonged time on sick leave was associated with male gender, older age groups, low education and income, blue-collar workers, more than one job contract and full time employment. These findings demonstrate a substantial sickness absentee burden and they provide relevant information for targeting prevention and health promotion

  17. Health care management of sickness certification tasks: results from two surveys to physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Christina; von Knorring, Mia; Arrelöv, Britt; Nilsson, Gunnar; Hinas, Elin; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2013-05-23

    Health care in general and physicians in particular, play an important role in patients' sickness certification processes. However, a lack of management within health care regarding how sickness certification is carried out has been identified in Sweden. A variety of interventions to increase the quality of sickness certification were introduced by the government and County Councils. Some of these measures were specifically aimed at strengthening health care management of sickness certification; e.g. policy making and management support. The aim was to describe to what extent physicians in different medical specialties had access to a joint policy regarding sickness certification in their clinical settings and experienced management support in carrying out sickness certification. A descriptive study, based on data from two cross-sectional questionnaires sent to all physicians in the Stockholm County regarding their sickness certification practice. Criteria for inclusion in this study were working in a clinical setting, being a board-certified specialist, sickness certification consultations at least a few times a year. These criteria were met by 2497 physicians in 2004 and 2204 physicians in 2008. Proportions were calculated regarding access to policy and management support, stratified according to medical specialty. The proportions of physicians working in clinical settings with a well-established policy regarding sickness certification were generally low both in 2004 and 2008, but varied greatly between different types of medical specialties (from 6.1% to 46.9%). Also, reports of access to substantial management support regarding sickness certification varied greatly between medical specialties (from 10.5% to 48.8%). More than one third of the physicians reported having no such management support. Most physicians did not work in a clinical setting with a well-established policy on sickness certification tasks, nor did they experience substantial support from

  18. The associations between workplace bullying, salivary cortisol, and long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Lange, Theis

    2017-01-01

    two Danish cohort studies, the "Psychosocial RIsk factors for Stress and MEntal disease" (PRISME) cohort and the "Workplace Bullying and Harassment" (WBH) cohort (n = 5418). Information about exposure to workplace bullying and morning and evening salivary cortisol was collected at three time points......BACKGROUND: Workplace stressors, such as bullying, are strongly related to subsequent long-term sickness absence, but little is known of the possible physiological mechanisms linking workplace stressors and sickness absence. The primary aim of this study was to investigate to what extent cortisol...... levels were associated with subsequent sickness absence and if cortisol mediated the association between workplace bullying and sickness absence. We additionally investigated possible bidirectional associations between bullying, cortisol, and long-term sickness absence. METHODS: Participants came from...

  19. Separate and combined associations of pain and emotional exhaustion with sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saastamoinen, Peppiina; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2016-01-01

    Pain and emotional exhaustion are prevalent conditions with consequences for sickness absence. Although they often co-occur, their combined associations with sickness absence are poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the separate and combined associations of pain and emotional exhaustion with subsequent sickness absence. The data were derived from a cross-sectional questionnaire survey sent to 40 to 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki in 2000 to 2002 (n = 6457) linked with the City of Helsinki personnel register information on sickness absence (3 years on from the survey). Self-certified (1-3 days) and medically certified sickness absence spells (4-14 days, more than 14 days) were used as outcomes. Acute and chronic pain and emotional exhaustion were measured in a questionnaire survey. For the purposes of this study, sickness absence and pain variables were merged to form a new variable with 6 mutually exclusive categories. The main statistical method was negative binomial regression analysis. The synergy index was used to estimate the interaction. Among women, acute and chronic pain with and without emotional exhaustion predicted sickness absence, particularly absence lasting for more than 2 weeks, whereas emotional exhaustion alone did not. The associations persisted when further adjusted for socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviors, and somatic and mental health. A synergistic interaction effect was found for co-occurring pain and emotional exhaustion on medically certified sickness absence. The results for men were mainly similar, but less stable. In order to tackle sickness absence, special attention should be paid to the prevention and treatment of employees with co-occurring pain and emotional exhaustion.

  20. How to avoid simulation sickness in virtual environments during user displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemeny, A.; Colombet, F.; Denoual, T.

    2015-03-01

    Driving simulation (DS) and Virtual Reality (VR) share the same technologies for visualization and 3D vision and may use the same technics for head movement tracking. They experience also similar difficulties when rendering the displacements of the observer in virtual environments, especially when these displacements are carried out using driver commands, including steering wheels, joysticks and nomad devices. High values for transport delay, the time lag between the action and the corresponding rendering cues and/or visual-vestibular conflict, due to the discrepancies perceived by the human visual and vestibular systems when driving or displacing using a control device, induces the so-called simulation sickness. While the visual transport delay can be efficiently reduced using high frequency frame rate, the visual-vestibular conflict is inherent to VR, when not using motion platforms. In order to study the impact of displacements on simulation sickness, we have tested various driving scenarios in Renault's 5-sided ultra-high resolution CAVE. First results indicate that low speed displacements with longitudinal and lateral accelerations under a given perception thresholds are well accepted by a large number of users and relatively high values are only accepted by experienced users and induce VR induced symptoms and effects (VRISE) for novice users, with a worst case scenario corresponding to rotational displacements. These results will be used for optimization technics at Arts et Métiers ParisTech for motion sickness reduction in virtual environments for industrial, research, educational or gaming applications.

  1. Quality of sickness certification in primary health care: a retrospective database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skånér, Ylva; Arrelöv, Britt; Backlund, Lars G; Fresk, Magdalena; Aström, Amanda Waleh; Nilsson, Gunnar H

    2013-04-12

    In the period 2004-2009, national and regional initiatives were developed in Sweden to improve the quality of sickness certificates. Parameters for assessing the quality of sickness certificates in primary health care have been proposed. The aim of this study was to measure the quality of sickness certification in primary health care by means of assessing sickness certificates issued between 2004 and 2009 in Stockholm. This was a retrospective study using data retrieved from sickness certificates contained in the electronic patient records of 21 primary health care centres in Stockholm County covering six consecutive years. A total number of 236 441 certificates were used in the current study. Seven quality parameters were chosen as outcome measures. Descriptive statistics and regression models with time, sex and age group as explanatory variables were used. During the study period, the quality of the sickness certification practice improved as the number of days on first certification decreased and the proportion of duly completely and acceptable certificates increased. Assessment of need for vocational rehabilitation and giving a prognosis for return to work were not significantly improved during the same period. Time was the most influential variable. The quality of sickness certification practice improved for most of the parameters, although additional efforts to improve the quality of sickness certificates are needed. Measures, such as reminders, compulsory certificate fields and structured guidance, could be useful tools to achieve this objective.

  2. Decompression sickness in caisson workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawabi, Samir H. El; Mansour, Mohamed B.; Youssef, Fatma L.; Ghawabi, Mohamed H. El; Latif, Mohamed M. Abd El

    1971-01-01

    El Ghawabi, S. H., Mansour, M. B., Youssef, F. L., El Ghawabi, M. H., and Abd El Latif, M. M. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 323-329. Decompression sickness in caisson workers. An investigation of 55 bridge construction workers is reported. The overall bends rate was 0·97%. (The term `bends' as used in this study is defined in the paper.) Chokes were encountered in 67·27% of workers. A clinical, haematological, and radiological study was performed. Definite bony changes were found in 43·6% of all workers; 91·6% of these had lesions around the elbow. The presence of dense areas in the neck of the scapula is reported in two cases for the first time. The relatively high haematocrit value is thought to play a part in the pathogenesis of bone infarction through its relation with blood viscosity. Images PMID:5124832

  3. Cumulative exposure to shift work and sickness absence: associations in a five-year historic cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwin van Drongelen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to shift work has been associated with negative health consequences, although the association between shift work and sickness absence remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between cumulative exposure to shift work and sickness absence among ground staff employees of an airline company. Methods This study used data from the MORE (Monitoring Occupational Health Risks in Employees cohort, which is a 5-year historic cohort. The population of the present study consisted of 7562 ground staff employees. For each employee, work schedules and sickness absence days between 2005 and 2009 were obtained from company records. For the exposure to different shift schedule types and to the cumulative number of night shifts, the association with long-term sickness absence (>7 consecutive sickness absence days and the number of sickness absence episodes during 2009, was calculated using logistic and Poisson regression analyses. Socio-demographic variables, work-related variables, job classification variables, and previous sickness absence days were regarded as confounders. Results After adjusting for previous sickness absence and job classification variables, only the group of employees that switched into working in a three-shift schedule, showed a significantly increased risk for long-term sickness absence (OR = 1.31, 95%CI 1.02–1.69. Night shift exposure was not significantly associated with long-term sickness absence. Exposure to shift work was negatively associated with more sickness absence episodes. Employees who were exposed to more than 46 night shifts also showed a lower risk for more sickness absence episodes. Subgroup analyses showed that single employees and employees without children had an increased risk for long-term sickness absence when exposed to a three-shift schedule, and when they had changed between shift schedule types. Conclusions Cumulative exposure to shift work proved to

  4. Cumulative exposure to shift work and sickness absence: associations in a five-year historic cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drongelen, Alwin; Boot, Cécile R L; Hlobil, Hynek; van der Beek, Allard J; Smid, Tjabe

    2017-01-11

    Exposure to shift work has been associated with negative health consequences, although the association between shift work and sickness absence remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between cumulative exposure to shift work and sickness absence among ground staff employees of an airline company. This study used data from the MORE (Monitoring Occupational Health Risks in Employees) cohort, which is a 5-year historic cohort. The population of the present study consisted of 7562 ground staff employees. For each employee, work schedules and sickness absence days between 2005 and 2009 were obtained from company records. For the exposure to different shift schedule types and to the cumulative number of night shifts, the association with long-term sickness absence (>7 consecutive sickness absence days) and the number of sickness absence episodes during 2009, was calculated using logistic and Poisson regression analyses. Socio-demographic variables, work-related variables, job classification variables, and previous sickness absence days were regarded as confounders. After adjusting for previous sickness absence and job classification variables, only the group of employees that switched into working in a three-shift schedule, showed a significantly increased risk for long-term sickness absence (OR = 1.31, 95%CI 1.02-1.69). Night shift exposure was not significantly associated with long-term sickness absence. Exposure to shift work was negatively associated with more sickness absence episodes. Employees who were exposed to more than 46 night shifts also showed a lower risk for more sickness absence episodes. Subgroup analyses showed that single employees and employees without children had an increased risk for long-term sickness absence when exposed to a three-shift schedule, and when they had changed between shift schedule types. Cumulative exposure to shift work proved to be negatively associated with more sickness absence episodes, and

  5. Stress-related sickness absence and return to labour market in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Lars-Gunnar; Janson, Staffan

    2007-03-15

    To analyse factors influencing chances of returning to work after long-term sickness absence with a stress-related psychiatric diagnosis. Primary focus is on employer- and occupational categories as explanatory variables. Data was collected from the regional social insurance office in the county of Värmland for 911 individuals, all with stress-related sickness absences during November in the year 2000. Logistic regressions were carried out on outcome states from long-term sickness absence on two follow-up occasions after two and three years. The results indicate that the employer- and occupational categories only had a minor effect on return to work after the long-term sickness absence. Age and health-related factors together with time factors seem to be more relevant in explaining return to work. The findings suggest that individual labour market position, as occupation, employer, branch etc, seems to be less important than expected in explaining return to work from sickness absence due to stress-related psychiatric disorders.

  6. Biological dose assessment of 15 victims in Haerbin radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jian-xiang; Huang, Min-yan; Ruan, Jian-lei; Bai, Yu-shu; Xu, Su

    2008-01-01

    Full text: a) On July 5 and 8, 2005, Two patients with bone marrow suppression were successively hospitalized by the First Affiliated Hospital of Haerbin Medical University. Examination results showed that the patients seemed to get suspicious radiation disease. On July 13, 2005, a radioactive source was found in the patients' dwelling. The radiation source is Iridium-192 with 0.5 Ci(1.85 x 10 10 Bq) radioactivity. The radiation source is a metal bar which is a kind of radioactive industrial detection source for welding. The source is currently stored in the urban radioactive waste storehouse of Heilongjiang province. After finding the radioactive source on July 13, The Haerbin municipal government initiated an emergency response plan and developed medical rescue, radioactive source examination and case detection through organizing ministries involving health, environmental protection and public security. After receiving a report at 17:00 on July 14, 2005, Chinese Ministry of Health immediately sent experts to the spot for investigation, dose estimation and direction of patients' rescue. Health authority carried out physical examination twice on 113 residents within 30 meters to the source, among which 4 got radiation sickness, 5 showed abnormal hemotogram, and others showed no abnormal response. Of 4 patients with radiation sickness, one 81 year old patient has died of severe bone marrow form of sub acute radiation sickness coupled with lung infection and prostrate apparatus at 13:00 on Oct., 20. Two children have been treated in Beitaiping Road Hospital in Beijing, another patient has been treated in local hospital. b) Biological dosimetry using conventional chromosome aberration analysis in human peripheral blood lymphocytes has been shown as a reliable and useful tool in medical management of radiation accident victims. Peripheral blood lymphocytes of the victims were cultured using conventional culture medium with colchicine added at the beginning. Chromosome

  7. Three cases of lumbo-sacral neuropathy due to radiation for uterine cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Yoshikazu; Hokezu, Yoichi; Kanehisa, Yoshihide; Nagamatsu, Keiji; Onishi, Akio

    1985-01-01

    Case 1: The 61-year-old woman developed uterine cancer at age 50. Radiation therapy was initiated to the pelvic lumen from both anterior and posterior sides with a total dose of 21,000 rads. Radiation ulcerative enterocolitis and dermatitis revealed at the end of the therapy. At age 52 (2 years after radiation), she noticed muscle weakness and dysesthesia of the lower legs. These symptoms progressed and amyotrophy of the legs appeared. At age 54 (4 years after radiation), she became unable to walk. Case 2: The 51-year-old woman developed uterine cancer at age 40. Postoperative radiation was initiated by the same dose and the same way as in Case 1 and she suffered from radiation dermatitis. At age 49 (9 years after radiation), she noticed dysesthesia of the right toe, which gradually spread to another side. Ten years after radiation, she began to note weakness in dorsiflexion of feet. Case 3: The 69-year-old woman developed uterine cancer at age 67. Radiation (Linac 4,000 rads, Ralstron 2,000 rads) was performed for 3 months into the pelvic lumen. Two years later, she noted dysesthesia and weakness of her legs. These symptoms progressed gradually. In these 3 cases, EMG showed neurogenic changes, suggesting peripheral nerve lesions. Nerve conduction velocities were decreased. Nerve and muscle biopsies revealed neurogenic changes. No abnormal findings were detected by spinal X-rays and myelography. The neurological findings of these patients were compatible with the lumbo-sacrol plexus injuries apparently due to late radiation effect. (J.P.N.).

  8. Three cases of lumbo-sacral neuropathy due to radiation for uterine cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Yoshikazu; Hokezu, Yoichi; Kanehisa, Yoshihide; Nagamatsu, Keiji; Onishi, Akio.

    1985-01-01

    Case 1: The 61-year-old woman developed uterine cancer at age 50. Radiation therapy was initiated to the pelvic lumen from both anterior and posterior sides with a total dose of 21,000 rads. Radiation ulcerative neterocolitis and dermatitis revealed at the end of the therapy. At age 52 (2 years after radiation), she noticed muscle weakness and dysesthesia of the lower legs. These symptoms progressed and amyotrophy of the legs appeared. At age 54 (4 years after radiation), she became unable to walk. Case 2: The 51-year-old woman developed uterine cancer at age 40. Postoperative radiation was initiated by the same dose and the same way as in Case 1 and she suffered from radiation dermatitis. At age 49 (9 years after radiation), she noticed dysesthesia of the right toe, which gradually spread to another side. Ten years after radiation, she began to note weakness in dorsiflexion of feet. Case 3: The 69-year-old woman developed uterine cancer at age 67. Radiation (Linac 4,000 rads, Ralstron 2,000 rads) was performed for 3 months into the pelvic lumen. Two years later, she noted dysesthesia and weakness of her legs. These symptoms progressed gradually. In these 3 cases, EMG showed neurogenic changes, suggesting peripheral nerve lesions. Nerve conduction velocities were decreased. Nerve and muscle biopsies revealed neurogenic changes. No abnormal findings were detected by spinal X-rays and myelography. The neurological findings of these patients were compatible with the lumbo-sacrol plexus injuries apparently due to late radiation effect. (J.P.N.)

  9. Factors associated with work-related accidents and sickness among maquiladora workers: the case of Nogales, Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcazar, H; Denman, C; Lara, F

    1995-01-01

    The health problems of maquiladora workers were explored in a sample of 497 workers of Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. The workers were interviewed using a structured questionnaire containing four sections: a sociodemographic profile, occupational history, working conditions, and a health profile. Overall, 12.6 percent of the workers reported having an accident while working in the maquila, more than 40 percent of these requiring at least one day of disability, and 18.3 percent of workers reported having an episode of sickness/disease. More than 60 percent perceived health-related risks associated with working conditions. The presence of a doctor or nurse in the plant (odds ratio = 0.30), a perception of risk associated with working conditions (odds ratio = 1.85), and the plant offering information about work-related risks (odds ratio = 0.39) were among the significant predictors of work-related accidents and disease/sickness. The authors discuss the implications of these results for programs and policies to improve safety conditions in the maquiladora industry.

  10. Sickness absence among health workers in belo horizonte, brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Iara; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Pimenta, Adriano Marçal; Benavides, Fernando G; Ubalde-Lopez, Monica

    2016-05-25

    To describe the prevalence of sickness absence and to analyze factors associated with the outcome according to gender in a sample of healthcare workers at the Belo Horizonte Health Department. This study was based on a Belo Horizonte Health Department survey carried out between September 2008 and January 2009. From a randomly selected sample of 2,205 workers, 1,808 agreed to participate. Workers were classified into Health Staff or Health Care. Other explanatory variables were social and demographic data, work characteristics, and personal health. The Poisson regression was applied to analyze factors associated with sickness absence by the prevalence ratio (PR). The overall prevalence of sickness absence was 31.5% (23.8% for men and 34.6% for women). In the final model, we found higher rates of sickness absence in both male and female workers involved in tasks with high psychosocial demands (PR=1.86 men; PR=1.38 women) and in those that reported using medication for treating chronic diseases (PR=1.96 men; PR=1.50 women). Women having a permanent job contract had a higher prevalence of sickness absence than those having a temporary job contract (PR=1.71). Our findings suggest a paradox in how healthcare is organized: good results in terms of its global objective of providing healthcare for citizens contrast with lack of effective measures for protecting healthcare workers.

  11. Severe occupational hand eczema, job stress and cumulative sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, D; Stock Gissendanner, S; Finkeldey, F; John, S M; Werfel, T; Diepgen, T L; Breuer, K

    2014-10-01

    Stress is known to activate or exacerbate dermatoses, but the relationships between chronic stress, job-related stress and sickness absence among occupational hand eczema (OHE) patients are inadequately understood. To see whether chronic stress or burnout symptoms were associated with cumulative sickness absence in patients with OHE and to determine which factors predicted sickness absence in a model including measures of job-related and chronic stress. We investigated correlations of these factors in employed adult inpatients with a history of sickness absence due to OHE in a retrospective cross-sectional explorative study, which assessed chronic stress (Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress), burnout (Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure), clinical symptom severity (Osnabrück Hand Eczema Severity Index), perceived symptom severity, demographic characteristics and cumulative days of sickness absence. The study group consisted of 122 patients. OHE symptoms were not more severe among patients experiencing greater stress and burnout. Women reported higher levels of chronic stress on some measures. Cumulative days of sickness absence correlated with individual dimensions of job-related stress and, in multiple regression analysis, with an overall measure of chronic stress. Chronic stress is an additional factor predicting cumulative sickness absence among severely affected OHE patients. Other relevant factors for this study sample included the 'cognitive weariness' subscale of the Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure and the physical component summary score of the SF-36, a measure of health-related life quality. Prevention and rehabilitation should take job stress into consideration in multidisciplinary treatment strategies for severely affected OHE patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. sick: The Spectroscopic Inference Crank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Andrew R.

    2016-03-01

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives that remain severely under-utilized. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analyzing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick is agnostic to the wavelength coverage, resolving power, or general data format, allowing any user to easily construct a generative model for their data, regardless of its source. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbor estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimized point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalize on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-dimensional interpolation, or a Cannon-based model. Additional phenomena that transform the data (e.g., redshift, rotational broadening, continuum, spectral resolution) are incorporated as free parameters and can be marginalized away. Outlier pixels (e.g., cosmic rays or poorly modeled regimes) can be treated with a Gaussian mixture model, and a noise model is included to account for systematically underestimated variance. Combining these phenomena into a scalar-justified, quantitative model permits precise inferences with credible uncertainties on noisy data. I describe the common model features, the implementation details, and the default behavior, which is balanced to be suitable for most astronomical applications. Using a forward model on low-resolution, high signal

  13. SICK: THE SPECTROSCOPIC INFERENCE CRANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Andrew R., E-mail: arc@ast.cam.ac.uk [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambdridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives that remain severely under-utilized. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analyzing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick is agnostic to the wavelength coverage, resolving power, or general data format, allowing any user to easily construct a generative model for their data, regardless of its source. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbor estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimized point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalize on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-dimensional interpolation, or a Cannon-based model. Additional phenomena that transform the data (e.g., redshift, rotational broadening, continuum, spectral resolution) are incorporated as free parameters and can be marginalized away. Outlier pixels (e.g., cosmic rays or poorly modeled regimes) can be treated with a Gaussian mixture model, and a noise model is included to account for systematically underestimated variance. Combining these phenomena into a scalar-justified, quantitative model permits precise inferences with credible uncertainties on noisy data. I describe the common model features, the implementation details, and the default behavior, which is balanced to be suitable for most astronomical applications. Using a forward model on low-resolution, high signal

  14. SICK: THE SPECTROSCOPIC INFERENCE CRANK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives that remain severely under-utilized. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analyzing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick is agnostic to the wavelength coverage, resolving power, or general data format, allowing any user to easily construct a generative model for their data, regardless of its source. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbor estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimized point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalize on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-dimensional interpolation, or a Cannon-based model. Additional phenomena that transform the data (e.g., redshift, rotational broadening, continuum, spectral resolution) are incorporated as free parameters and can be marginalized away. Outlier pixels (e.g., cosmic rays or poorly modeled regimes) can be treated with a Gaussian mixture model, and a noise model is included to account for systematically underestimated variance. Combining these phenomena into a scalar-justified, quantitative model permits precise inferences with credible uncertainties on noisy data. I describe the common model features, the implementation details, and the default behavior, which is balanced to be suitable for most astronomical applications. Using a forward model on low-resolution, high signal

  15. Does paternity leave affect mothers’ sickness absence

    OpenAIRE

    Bratberg, Espen; Naz, Ghazala

    2009-01-01

    Female labour force participation is high in Norway but sickness absence rates are higher for women than for men. This may be partly a result of unequal sharing of childcare in the family. In this paper, we consider the effect of paternity leave on sickness absence among women who have recently given birth. We draw on a six-year panel taken from full population data from administrative sources. We find that in the 6% of families where fathers take out leave more than the standard quota (gende...

  16. Job demands, job resources, and behavior in times of sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Daniel; Winter, Vera; Schreyögg, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The concept of presenteeism, that is, employees coming to work despite being sick, has recently received more attention in the literature. Presenteeism not only threatens employees' health but also substantially drains productivity and drives considerable costs. When they are sick......, employees have the choice of whether to go to work or to stay at home. Therefore, determinants of (sickness) absenteeism and presenteeism should be examined simultaneously. Nursing homes are faced with a particularly high prevalence of both absenteeism and presenteeism and are therefore a relevant object...... of investigation. PURPOSE: The aim of our study is to analyze the effect of job demands and job resources on absenteeism, presenteeism, and the tendency to choose one behavior (being absent or being present in times of sickness) rather than the other over the last 12 months. To do so, we identify the determinants...

  17. Psychosocial work conditions associated with sickness absence among hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P; Olesen, K; Bonde, J P

    2014-01-01

    's salary database. RESULTS: A total of 1809 hospital employees took part with a response rate of 65%. The mean age was 43 (range: 20-69) and 75% were female. Totally, 363 study participants (20%) had at least 14 days sickness absence (defined as high absence) during the preceding year. Associations between...... essential covariates of sickness absence. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study of hospital employees which sought information on elements of the psychosocial work environment, general health status, life style, age, gender and profession. Data on sickness absence were obtained from the employer...

  18. Does muscle strength predict future musculoskeletal disorders and sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, A; Sell, L; Hansen, J V

    2012-01-01

    High muscle strength is considered relevant for preventing musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence. However, prospective studies on the association between muscle strength and future musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence are few and show contrasting results....

  19. Early coordinated multidisciplinary intervention to prevent sickness absence and labour market exclusion in patients with low back pain: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisker, Annette; Langberg, Henning; Petersen, Tom; Mortensen, Ole Steen

    2013-03-13

    Musculoskeletal disorders account for one third of the long-term absenteeism in Denmark and the number of individuals sick listed for more than four weeks is increasing. Compared to other diagnoses, patients with musculoskeletal diseases, including low back pain, are less likely to return to work after a period of sick leave. It seems that a multidisciplinary intervention, including cooperation between the health sector, the social sector and in the work place, has a positive effect on days off work due to musculoskeletal disorders and particularly low back pain. It is a challenge to coordinate this type of intervention, and the implementation of a return-to-work (RTW)-coordinator is suggested as an effective strategy in this process. The purpose of this paper is to describe the study protocol and present a new type of intervention, where the physiotherapist both has the role as RTW-coordinator and treating the patient. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is currently on-going. The RCT includes 770 patients with low back pain of minimum four weeks who are referred to an outpatient back centre. The study population consists of patients, who are sick-listed or at risk of sick-leave due to LBP. The control group is treated with usual care in a team of a physiotherapist, a chiropractor, a rheumatologist and a social worker employed at the centre. The Intervention group is treated with usual care and in addition intervention of a psychologist, an occupational physician, an ergonomist, a case manager from the municipal sickness benefit office, who has the authority in the actual case concerning sickness benefit payment and contact to the patients employer/work place. The treating physiotherapist is the RTW-coordinator. Outcome will be reported at the end of treatment as well as 6 and 12 months follow up. The primary outcome is number of days off work. Secondary outcomes are disability, pain, and quality of life. The study will follow the recommendations in CONSORT

  20. Does computer use pose a hazard for future long-term sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, JH; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate if weekly duration of computer use predicted sickness absence for more than two weeks at a later time.A cohort of 2146 frequent computer users filled in a questionnaire at baseline and was followed for one year with continuously recording of the duration of...... and upper limb, and it seems that computer use neither predicts future long-term sickness absence of all causes.......The aim of the study was to investigate if weekly duration of computer use predicted sickness absence for more than two weeks at a later time.A cohort of 2146 frequent computer users filled in a questionnaire at baseline and was followed for one year with continuously recording of the duration...... of computer use and furthermore followed for 300 weeks in a central register of sickness absence for more than 2 weeks.147 participants of the 2,146 (6.9%) became first time sick listed in the follow-up period. Overall, mean weekly computer use did not turn out to be a risk factor for later sickness absence...

  1. Radiation-induced cerebellar chondrosarcoma. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, M.; Perrin, R.G.; Platts, M.E.; Simpson, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    The authors report a case of chondrosarcoma arising in the cerebellum 16 years after treatment of a cerebellar malignant astrocytoma by subtotal resection and irradiation. It is thought that the chondrosarcoma arising within the intracranial cavity was a probable consequence of previous ionizing radiation

  2. Identifying employees at risk for job loss during sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, Peter A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Bultmann, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the associations between medical, work-related, organizational and sociodemographic factors and job loss during sick leave in a Dutch population of 4132 employees on sick leave. Methods: Data were assessed by occupational health physicians (OHPs) on sociodemographic, medical,

  3. Return to work following sickness absence due to infectious mononucleosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P.C.; Bakhtali, R.; Katan, A.A.; Groothoff, J.W.; Roelen, C.A.

    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis among adults is notorious because of the prolonged incapacitating fatigue it causes. AIMS: To investigate the duration of sickness absence and return to work following infectious mononucleosis. METHODS: Episodes of sickness absence due to

  4. Psychosocial work factors and sickness absence in 31 countries in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedhammer, Isabelle; Chastang, Jean-François; Sultan-Taïeb, Hélène; Vermeylen, Greet; Parent-Thirion, Agnès

    2013-08-01

    The studies on the associations between psychosocial work factors and sickness absence have rarely included a large number of factors and European data. The objective was to examine the associations between a large set of psychosocial work factors following well-known and emergent concepts and sickness absence in Europe. The study population consisted of 14,881 male and 14,799 female workers in 31 countries from the 2005 European Working Conditions Survey. Psychosocial work factors included the following: decision latitude, psychological demands, social support, physical violence, sexual harassment, discrimination, bullying, long working hours, shift and night work, job insecurity, job promotion and work-life imbalance. Covariates were as follows: age, occupation, economic activity, employee/self-employed status and physical, chemical, biological and biomechanical exposures. Statistical analysis was performed using multilevel negative binomial hurdle models to study the occurrence and duration of sickness absence. In the models, including all psychosocial work factors together and adjustment for covariates, high psychological demands, discrimination, bullying, low-job promotion and work-life imbalance for both genders and physical violence for women were observed as risk factors of the occurrence of sickness absence. Bullying and shift work increased the duration of absence among women. Bullying had the strongest association with sickness absence. Various psychosocial work factors were found to be associated with sickness absence. A less conservative analysis exploring each factor separately provided a still higher number of risk factors. Preventive measures should take psychosocial work environment more comprehensively into account to reduce sickness absence and improve health at work at European level.

  5. Management of radiation injuries of 10 cases of gastrointestinal tracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomida, Takashi; Yano, Takashi; Hidaka, Naoaki; Okada, Yoshikatsu; Iwasaki, Makoto; Goshima, Hiromichi

    1984-11-01

    Ten cases of delayed radiation injuries of the gastrointestinal tracts (consisting of 2 with peptic ulcer, 4 with intestinal obstruction, and 4 with rectal bleeding) are reported. Although conservative therapy or artificial colostomy was undertaken in all cases, satisfactory results were not obtained. In four cases in which subsequent resection of the gastrointestinal tracts was performed, the prognosis was favorable, but various symptoms still continued in the other non-resected cases. Delayed radiation injuries are progressive lesions involving the vasculo-connective tissue, so that cure can not be achieved. Resection of the damaged gastrointestinal tract is recommended, however, this is difficult to do in many cases. (Namekawa, K.).

  6. Management of radiation injuries of 10 cases of gastrointestinal tracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomida, Takashi; Yano, Takashi; Hidaka, Naoaki; Okada, Yoshikatsu; Iwasaki, Makoto; Goshima, Hiromichi.

    1984-01-01

    Ten cases of delayed radiation injuries of the gastrointestinal tracts (consisting of 2 with peptic ulcer, 4 with intestinal obstruction, and 4 with rectal bleeding) are reported. Although conservative therapy or artificial colostomy was undertaken in all cases, satisfactory results were not obtained. In four cases in which subsequent resection of the gastrointestinal tracts was performed, the prognosis was favorable, but various symptoms still continued in the other non-resected cases. Delayed radiation injuries are progressive lesions involving the vasculo-connective tissue, so that cure can not be achieved. Resection of the damaged gastrointestinal tract is recommended, however, this is difficult to do in many cases. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. [Sick teachers? --Analysis of disability data from Mecklenburg-Vorpommern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierjürgen, R; Paulus, P

    2002-11-01

    Based on a review of the latest research results on teachers' health, the review shows the extent as well as the structure of sick-leave of people working in schools in the Bundesland Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Data concerning diseases of more than 7,000 employees who are insured by the Barmer Ersatzkasse were analysed. The results show that teachers are more often sick than all the persons insured by the Barmer Ersatzkasse. Differences between sexes show disadvantages for women. The sick-leave rates increase with age. Dominant diseases reflect very well the job routine of people working in schools: The most frequent diseases concern the respiratory organs, the skeleton, muscles and the connective tissue and mental illness issues; mental illnesses cause the longest periods of disablement. The conclusion refers to the restrictions of sick-leave statistics. It is argued that it is necessary to combine different data sources (e. g. work-place health reports) in order to get a more differentiated picture of factors of demand and strain on teachers' health.

  8. Leadership styles of nurse managers and registered sickness absence among their nursing staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Jolanda A H; Roelen, Corné A M; van Zweeden, Nely F; Jongsma, Dianne; van der Klink, Jac J L; Groothoff, Johan W

    2011-01-01

    Sickness absence leads to understaffing and interferes with nursing efficiency and quality. It has been reported in literature that managerial leadership is associated with self-reported sickness absence in the working population. This study investigated the relationship between managerial leadership and sickness absence in health care by associating nurse managers' leadership styles with registered sickness absence among their nursing staff. The cross-sectional study included 699 nurses working in six wards (staff range = 91-140 employees) of a Dutch somatic hospital employing a total of 1,153 persons. The nurse managers heading the wards were asked to complete the Leadership Effectiveness and Adaptability Description questionnaire for situational leadership. The Leadership Effectiveness and Adaptability Description scores were linked to employer-registered nursing staff sickness absence. High relationship-high task behavior (odds ratio [OR] = 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.65-0.85) and high relationship-low task behavior (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.14 -0.98) were inversely related to the number of short (one to seven consecutive days) episodes of sickness absence among the staff. Low relationship-high task styles (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.14-5.22) as well as low relationship-low task styles (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.26-4.71) were positively associated with the number of short episodes of sickness absence. However, the leadership styles only explained 10% of the variance in short episodes of sickness absence. Leadership styles are associated with registered sickness absence. The nursing staff of relationship-oriented nurse managers has fewer short episodes of sickness absence than the staff of task-oriented managers. Training nurse managers in relational leadership styles may reduce understaffing and improve nursing efficiency and quality.

  9. A case of radiation-induced cancer of the hypopharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Kouji; Shimizu, Yukio; Yura, Jirou; Itoh, Yasufumi; Ikeda, Tsuneko; Outsubo, Toshio; Saitou, Hitoshi

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of radiation-induced cancer of the hypopharynx in a 65-year-old woman. The patient had received radiation treatment for Basedow's disease for several years starting at the age of 10 years. On June 26, 1993, she was examined at our hospital because of hoarseness and dysphagia. On July 22, right lobectomy was performed for suspected thyroid cancer. During this operation, endoscopy revealed hypopharyngeal cancer. Twenty-two days after surgery, total pharyngolaryngectomy and total esophagectomy were performed and a pharyngogastrostomy and a permanent tracheostomy were created. Histologic examination revealed moderately differentiated squamous cell cancer. This case was diagnosed as radiation-induced caner according to the diagnostic criteria of Sakai. (author)

  10. A case of radiation-induced cancer of the hypopharynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Kouji; Shimizu, Yukio; Yura, Jirou; Itoh, Yasufumi; Ikeda, Tsuneko [Matsunami General Hospital, Kasamatsu, Gifu (Japan); Outsubo, Toshio; Saitou, Hitoshi

    2001-06-01

    We report a case of radiation-induced cancer of the hypopharynx in a 65-year-old woman. The patient had received radiation treatment for Basedow's disease for several years starting at the age of 10 years. On June 26, 1993, she was examined at our hospital because of hoarseness and dysphagia. On July 22, right lobectomy was performed for suspected thyroid cancer. During this operation, endoscopy revealed hypopharyngeal cancer. Twenty-two days after surgery, total pharyngolaryngectomy and total esophagectomy were performed and a pharyngogastrostomy and a permanent tracheostomy were created. Histologic examination revealed moderately differentiated squamous cell cancer. This case was diagnosed as radiation-induced caner according to the diagnostic criteria of Sakai. (author)

  11. Workplace bullying and sickness absence: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the research literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Indregard, Anne-Marthe Rustad; Øverland, Simon

    2016-09-01

    The association between workplace bullying and sickness absence remains unclear. This paper presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of research on the association. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published primary studies on workplace bullying and sickness absence. Studies based on prospective design or registry data on sickness absence were included. Cross-sectional studies with self-reported sickness absence were excluded. Seventeen primary studies were included in the review, sixteen originated from the Nordic countries and fifteen included registry data on sickness absence. All but one study found that exposure to workplace bullying was associated with increased risk of sickness absence. A meta-analysis of ten independent studies showed that exposure to bullying increased the risk of sickness absence (odds ratio 1.58, 95% CI 1.39-1.79). Five studies included variables that moderated the association between bullying and absenteeism. None of the studies included mediating variables. No studies examined sickness absence as a risk factor for later exposure to bullying. Following the GRADE guidelines, the evidence for an association between bullying and sickness absence is moderate. Workplace bullying is a risk factor for sickness absence, but the mechanisms to explain this relationship are not sufficiently described. It is unclear whether sickness absence predicts later exposure to bullying. While, the methodological quality of the reviewed studies was high, the knowledge base is small. There is a need for more research on how and when bullying is related to sickness absence and the possible bidirectional relationships involved.

  12. Radiation-induced hondrosarcoma - a clinical case from our practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinova, L.; Georgiev, R.; Mihaylova, I.

    2013-01-01

    We present a clinical case of radiation - induced occipital extracerebral chondrosarcoma in 36 years old young man. The patient had undergone two brain operations 8 years ago due to oligodendroglioma in the left temporo - parietal area. These surgical interventions were partial and subtotal tumor extirpation, followed by local radiotherapy to the brain to a total dose of 56Gy. The necessity of immunohistochemistry (IHH) analysis for pathologic differential diagnosis in high grade brain and peripheral tumors was discussed. In this particular case a precise differential diagnosis between peripheral chondrosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma/pPNET is needed. important risk factors for the development of radiation-induced brain tumors and chondrosarcoma, extremely rarely diagnosed, was discussed. A very accurate precising of the treatment radiation dose is needed in young patients with malignant brain tumors, not only in the surrounding healthy brain tissues, but also in other tissues, such as skin, subcutaneous layer and bone. The exceeding of the radiation dose in the bone above 45-50 Gy, increases the risk of radiation - induced sarcoma with latent period over 8 years. Key words: Hondrosarcoma. Radiotherapy. Radiation-induced Sarcoma. Complex Treatment. Immunohistochemistry

  13. Short-term and long-term sick-leave in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, N; Diderichsen, Finn

    1995-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to analyse similarities and differences between repeated spells of short-term sick-leave (more than 3 spells of less than 7 days' duration in a 12-month period) and long-term absence through sickness (at least 1 spell of more than 59 days' duration in a 12-month p...

  14. The ''Cobalt 60 Case'' in Taiwan. Conclusions; Das Kobalt-60 Ereignis von Taiwan. Und was ist daraus zu schliessen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Lutz

    2017-08-15

    The ''Cobalt 60 Case'' in Taiwan gives an opportunity for check of the thesis of radiation hormesis. Apartment residents have been exposed to cobalt-60 contaminated steel buildings. The results of a study strongly suggest that whole-body chronic irradiation, in the dose rate range that the apartment residents received, caused no symptomatic adverse health effects, such as radiation sickness, or the increased cancer or increased congenital disease that are predicted by ICRP theories. On the contrary, those who were exposed had lower incidences of cancer mortality and congenital malformations.

  15. Does Perceived Stress Mediate the Association Between Workplace Bullying and Long-Term Sickness Absence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynderup, Matias Brdsgaard; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Lange, Theis; Conway, Paul Maurice; Bonde, Jens Peter; Francioli, Laura; Garde, Anne Helene; Kaerlev, Linda; Rugulies, Reiner; Vammen, Marianne Agergaard; Hgh, Annie; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2016-06-01

    To examine if perceived stress mediated the association between workplace bullying and subsequent long-term sickness absence. The PRISME cohort was established in 2007 and re-examined in 2009. Questionnaire data about workplace bullying and perceived stress were obtained from 4114 individuals. Participants were followed in registers on long-term sickness absence (≥30 consecutive days of sickness absence). Workplace bullying was associated with subsequent sickness absence (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.57 to 2.65) and concurrent high perceived stress levels (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.86 to 2.96). A high perceived stress level was also associated with subsequent sickness absence (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.56). Perceived stress explained 13% (95% CI: 6 to 23%) of the total association between bullying and sickness absence. The association between workplace bullying and subsequent long-term sickness absence may be partially mediated by perceived stress.

  16. [Regulations of sickness certification as a factor for increased health care utilization in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Wolfram J; Haarmann, Alexander; Bærheim, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In Germany, utilization of ambulatory health care is high compared to other countries. Classical models of health care utilization cannot sufficiently explain these differences. The aim of this study was to explore relevant factors which can explain the higher health care utilization in Germany. In this article, we focus on regulations regarding sickness certification as a potential factor. An explorative qualitative study design. We conducted episodic interviews with 20 patients in Germany and 20 patients in Norway and participant observation in four primary care practices each. Additionally, we conducted a context analysis of relevant health care system related factors which emerged during the study. Qualitative data analysis was done by thematic coding in the framework of grounded theory. The need for a sickness certificate was an important reason for encounter in Germany, especially regarding minor illnesses. Sickness certification is a societal topic. GPs play a double role regarding sickness certification, both as the patients' advocate and as an expert witness for social security services. In Norway, longer periods of self-administered sickness certification and more differentiated possibilities of sickness certification have been introduced successfully. Our results point to regulations regarding sickness certification as a relevant factor for higher health care utilization in Germany. In pilot studies, the effect of extended self-certification of sickness and part-time sickness certification should be further assessed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. Sensory conflict in motion sickness: An observer theory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Charles M.

    1989-01-01

    Motion sickness is the general term describing a group of common nausea syndromes originally attributed to motion-induced cerebral ischemia, stimulation of abdominal organ afferent, or overstimulation of the vestibular organs of the inner ear. Sea-, car-, and airsicknesses are the most commonly experienced examples. However, the discovery of other variants such as Cinerama-, flight simulator-, spectacle-, and space sickness in which the physical motion of the head and body is normal or absent has led to a succession of sensory conflict theories which offer a more comprehensive etiologic perspective. Implicit in the conflict theory is the hypothesis that neutral and/or humoral signals originate in regions of the brain subversing spatial orientation, and that these signals somehow traverse to other centers mediating sickness symptoms. Unfortunately, the present understanding of the neurophysiological basis of motion sickness is far from complete. No sensory conflict neuron or process has yet been physiologically identified. To what extent can the existing theory be reconciled with current knowledge of the physiology and pharmacology of nausea and vomiting. The stimuli which causes sickness, synthesizes a contemporary Observer Theory view of the Sensory Conflict hypothesis are reviewed, and a revised model for the dynamic coupling between the putative conflict signals and nausea magnitude estimates is presented. The use of quantitative models for sensory conflict offers a possible new approach to improving the design of visual and motion systems for flight simulators and other virtual environment display systems.

  18. The association between health and sickness absence among Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Isabella G; Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Jørgensen, Marie B; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Olesen, Kasper; Madeleine, Pascal; Ekner, Dorte; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the association between health and sickness absence among Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners in Denmark. This study is based on a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 2007 to 2008. The study population includes 276 cleaners, 144 Danish and 132 non-Western immigrant cleaners. Cumulative sickness absences during a 6-month period from administrative records were subdivided into no sickness absence (0 days), low occurrence of sickness absence (1-10 days) and high occurrence of sickness absence (over 10 days). Measures of health consisted of self-report and objective assessments. The relationship between sickness absence and health was analyzed through multinomial logistic regression, stratified by immigrant status. For both Danish and non-Western immigrant cleaners, poor self-reported health was significantly related to high occurrence of sickness absence. Among Danish cleaners, high blood pressure was related to high occurrence of sickness absence. Among non-Western immigrant cleaners, total body pain and having one or more diagnosed chronic disease were related to high occurrence of sickness absence. No association between health and low occurrence of sickness absence was found. The findings confirm the importance of health for high occurrence of sickness absence, in both ethnic groups. Moreover, low occurrence of sickness absence was not related to the health conditions investigated.

  19. Long-term sick leave and its risk factors during pregnancy among Danish hospital employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaerlev, Linda; Jacobsen, Lene B; Olsen, Jørn; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2004-01-01

    The authors sought to describe risk indicators of long-term sick leave during pregnancy among hospital employees. A register-based study was undertaken of 4,852 female hospital employees aged 20-45 years from the second largest hospital in Denmark during 1995-99 based on job titles, working time, sick leave, and births combined with a survey among a total of 773 women who had been pregnant during their employment (response rate 85%). Altogether 236 (31%) were on sick leave for at least 10% of their scheduled work time during their latest pregnancy and 169 (22%) had been absent at least 20% of the time. The pregnant women had an average sickness absence of 6.1 days per month, non-pregnant women 0.95 days per month. Sick leave was more frequent in late than in early gestation. Women employed as nursing aides or hospital orderlies, launderers, and nurses had more sick leave days than other hospital employees. Part-time work, previous sickness absence not related to pregnancy, and previous chronic back pain were risk factors for long-term sick leave as were much walking or standing, long working days, high work level, little practical support from supervisors and colleagues, low job control, much lifting and night or shift work. Sick leave was unrelated to family size, support from the family and number of working years. Long-term sick leave during pregnancy was frequent and to some extent predictable. Efforts should be made to organize work for pregnant women in a manner that optimizes their health and well-being.

  20. Predictors of short- and long-term sickness absence in female post office workers in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Szubert

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to highlight major predictors of the frequency of sickness absence in a group of workers directly involved in customer service. Material and Methods: The study was carried out on a random sample of 229 women employed as assistants and clerks in post offices. The survey was based on the Subjective Work, Health Status and Life Style Characteristics Questionnaire, and sickness absence data for the years 2004–2006. Results: The negative binominal regression model of sickness absence risk revealed the following significant predictors of short-term absence spells (1–29 days: 1 marital status, sickness absence risk for single women was (rate ratio (RR = 1.56 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.01–2.39 vs. married women; 2 post offices employing 7 workers had a rate ratio of sickness absence of 1.6 (95% CI: 1.04–2.42; 13–25 workers – RR = 2.03 (95% CI: 1.41–2.93; > 25 workers – RR = 1.82 (95% CI: 1.15–2.88 compared with an average number of 8–12 workers; 3 shift work, RR = 1.57 (95% CI: 1.14–2.14; 4 breaks from work – the risk of absence in the case of any breaks amounted to RR = 1.5 (95% CI: 1.07–2.07 in comparison with the statutory breaks; 5 self-rated health reported as moderate relative to good health, RR = 1.71 (95% CI: 1.26–2.32; and 6 occurrence of respiratory diseases resulted in the risk of RR = 1.51 (95% CI: 1.08–2.08. The Poisson regression model of long-term sickness absence spells (≥ 30 days revealed the following significant predictors: 1 number of clients per shift: 51–100 clients, RR = 3.62 (95% CI: 1.07–22.6 compared with a lower number of clients; 2 self-rated health, assessed as moderate, RR = 1.97 (95% CI: 1.06–3.78 and 3 household chores performed for at least 4 h a day, RR = 0.4 (95% CI: 0.18–0.79. Conclusions: Association between sickness absence and workload as well as work organization indicates directions of corrective actions, which could reduce the

  1. Occupational class differences in diagnostic-specific sickness absence: a register-based study in the Finnish population, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkala, Johanna; Blomgren, Jenni; Pietiläinen, Olli; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2017-08-22

    Musculoskeletal diseases and mental disorders are major causes of long-term sickness absence in Western countries. Although sickness absence is generally more common in lower occupational classes, little is known about class differences in diagnostic-specific absence over time. Focusing on Finland during 2005-2014, we therefore set out to examine the magnitude of and changes in absolute and relative occupational class differences in long-term sickness absence due to major diagnostic causes. A 70-per-cent random sample of Finns aged 25-64 linked to register data on medically certified sickness absence (of over 10 working days) in 2005-2014 was retrieved from the Social Insurance Institution of Finland. Information on occupational class was obtained from Statistics Finland and linked to the data. The study focused on female (n = 658,148-694,142) and male (n = 604,715-642,922) upper and lower non-manual employees and manual workers. The age-standardised prevalence, the Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and the Relative Index of Inequality (RII) were calculated for each study year to facilitate examination of the class differences. The prevalence of each diagnostic cause of sickness absence declined during the study period, the most common causes being musculoskeletal diseases, mental disorders and injuries. The prevalence of other causes under scrutiny was less than 1 % annually. By far the largest absolute and relative differences were in musculoskeletal diseases among both women and men. Moreover, the absolute differences in both genders (p class differences in mental disorders. In the case of injuries, no major changes occurred in absolute differences but relative differences narrowed over time in men (p Class differences in the other studied diagnostic causes under scrutiny appeared negligible. By far the largest occupational class differences in long-term sickness absence concerned musculoskeletal diseases, followed by injuries. The results highlight

  2. Case management interviews and the return to work of disabled employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders

    In response to an increasing number of sickness and disability beneficiaries, many countries have launched policies that emphasize the role of case management. This study measures the effect of case-management interview (CMI) on long-term sick-listed employees’ probability of returning to work...

  3. [Influence of the working conditions on sickness absence due to common diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero-Álvarez, Manuel; Álvarez-Theurer, Esther; Romero Saldaña, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    To estimate the importance of the working environment in sickness absence, as well as to show possible relationships with clinical-work variables. A descriptive observational study. SITE: Medical Inspection of an Andalusian province. A total of 1016 workers on certified sick leave due to a common illness. A self-report questionnaire was used to collect demographic data, profession, activity, risk assessment, and perceived occupational cause, on patients who voluntarily gave their consent when they were reviewed during 2015. The illness that caused certified sickness absences was verified in the computerised medical records. Using criteria applied by experts, the role of working conditions in each episode of certified sick leave was assessed. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine any relationships between the variables. An inadequate work environment was found in 17.1% of the sickness processes. Health and hospitality services activities have a significant association with working conditions as a cause of sick leave (P<.001). With respect to diagnosis, anxiety-depressive disorders (P<.01) and low back pain (P<.05) were associated with working conditions. The factors related to certified sickness absence and work environment were: residence (OR=0.34, 0.21-0.6), normal/higher education (OR=1.7, 1.2-2.4), (OR=2.0 1.3-3.1), large companies (OR=1.97, 1.3-2.9), and job (OR=2.7, 1.6-3, 2). Sickness absence is affected by factors related to the work environment. Specific preventive actions for workers at their workplace could reduce work related diseases classified as a common illness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) and its harmful effects on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanam, Yasmin; Singh, Yogender

    2012-01-01

    After radiation exposure a series of many clinical syndromes appear that is called as Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS). ARS also known as radiation toxicology or radiation sickness. Both low and higher doses radiation exposure on human body cause different types of radiation syndromes. These radiations may be ionizing radiations. X-rays and gamma rays etc. some times neutrons or radionuclides may also be deposited in human body and their effective doses cause major injuries or abnormalities even sometimes death also. ARS consist of a sequence of phased symptoms. These symptoms appear after the radiation exposure for several days to several months or sometimes for a long period or years. ARS depends on the quantity of absorbed radiation dose (rad0). ARS is characterized by an initial prodromal stage of malaise, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Critical effects of ARS are Hematologic, that results infections to low white blood cells (WBC), bleeding due to low platelets and anemia due to low red blood cells (RBC), Gastrointestinal results nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and abdominal pain (exposure doses of 600-1000 rad) and Neurovascular depending on the exposure dose. Neurovascular syndrome typically occurs at exposure doses greater than 1000 rad. It presents with neurological symptoms such as dizziness, headache, or decreased level of consciousness with an absence of vomiting. The clinical course of radiation sickness following a single intensive exposure to whole body radiation is characterized by three successive phases; a prodromal phase, which develops within minutes or hours after exposure, an ensuring latent period, which is relatively asymptomatic; and the main phase of the illness. Complete Blood Count (CBC) are helpful for the diagnosis for ARS. ARS may cause skin damage or loss of epidermis. Person suffering from nausea, vomiting, diarrhea should be admitted to well equipped hospitals or clinics. High exposured persons should be analysed CBC. Their

  5. Cytological and histological changes in lymphocytes influence of ionizing radiation on health workers

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgieva, Pale; Nedeljkovik, Bojana; Velickova, Nevenka

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Ionizing radiation can originate from natural and artificial sources and ionization may be direct or indirect. Depending on the dose and intensity of radiation radiobiological effect may be different. Acute radiation sickness occurs as a result of irradiation of the whole body with large doses of radiation in a short time. While chronic radiation damages arise in professional workers due to exposure to small doses over a long time. Depending on the type of tissue and cell proper...

  6. Predictors of return to work in employees sick-listed with mental health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D.Nielsen, Maj Britt; Madsen, Ida E.H.; Bültmann, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Sickness absence due to mental health problems (MHPs) is increasing in several European countries. However, little is known about return to work (RTW) for employees with MHPs. This prospective study aimed to identify predictors for RTW in employees sick-listed with MHPs.......Sickness absence due to mental health problems (MHPs) is increasing in several European countries. However, little is known about return to work (RTW) for employees with MHPs. This prospective study aimed to identify predictors for RTW in employees sick-listed with MHPs....

  7. Radiation-associated colon cancer: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kazuhito; Ishihara, Soichiro; Hata, Keisuke; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Otani, Kensuke; Yasuda, Koji; Kaneko, Manabu; Murono, Koji; Abe, Hiroyuki; Morikawa, Teppei; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2017-06-01

    Radiation-associated colon cancer is a rare clinical entity. We herein describe the case of a patient with radiation-associated colon cancer who had undergone low anterior resection for rectal cancer following preoperative radiotherapy. Certain characteristics of radiation-associated colon cancer are highlighted. The patient was a 48-year-old man who had undergone low anterior resection for rectal cancer following preoperative radiotherapy at a total dose of 50 Gy, at the age of 29 years. When the patient presented at the University of Tokyo Hospital, 19 years after the surgery, he complained of severe anal pain and frequent defecation. Colonoscopy revealed two flat tumors in the sigmoid colon, located 10 cm to the oral side of the anastomosis site, which were diagnosed as well-differentiated adenocarcinomas. In addition, colonoscopy identified five flat polyps near the tumors, which were resected endoscopically. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass in the sigmoid colon and no evidence of distant metastasis. Laparoscopic-assisted intersphincteric resection of the rectum and sigmoid colon with diverting ileostomy was performed. There were no specific postoperative complications and the patient was discharged from the hospital on the 20th postoperative day. On pathological examination, the resected rectum and sigmoid colon contained two separate tumors and six flat polyps. The two tumors were diagnosed as well-differentiated adenocarcinomas with invasion of the subserosa and submucosa, respectively. A total of 17 regional lymph nodes without metastasis were resected. The six flat polyps were diagnosed as tubular adenomas. We herein present a case of a radiation-associated colon cancer in a patient who had undergone low anterior resection for rectal cancer following preoperative radiotherapy 19 years prior. Colonoscopic surveillance of radiation-associated colon cancer may be indicated for rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative

  8. Long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders is associated with individual features and psychosocial work conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Junior, João Silvestre da; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2014-01-01

    Sickness absence is a socioeconomic global burden. In Brazil, mental disorders are the third leading cause of social security benefits payments. The aim of the present study was to compare factors associated with long-term sickness absence between workers who claimed social benefits due to mental disorders or by other causes. We investigated individual features and occupational characteristics. In addition, we evaluated psychosocial factors at work assessed by the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models, and whether they were associated with long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders (LTSA-MD). The present case-control study was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil. The sample (n = 385) included workers on sick leave for more than 15 days. Cases were the participants with disabling psychiatric illnesses, and controls were the ones with other disabling diseases. Interviews were conducted to assess individual features (sociodemographic data, health habits/lifestyle, health conditions) and occupational characteristics. The participants' perception of exposure to dimensions of the DCS and ERI models was also recorded. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the association between independent variables and LTSA-MD. All the regression analyses showed that LTSA-MD was associated with female sex, self-reported white skin color, higher education level, high tobacco consumption, high alcohol intake, two or more comorbidities, exposure to violence at work, high job strain and low social support at work, effort-reward imbalance and high overcommitment to work. LTSA-MD was associated with separate and combined DCS and ERI stress models. Individual features and work conditions were associated with LTSA-MD. Combined analysis of stress models showed that psychosocial factors at work were significantly associated with LTSA-MD. Resourceful use of this information may contribute to the implementation of preventive actions and

  9. Long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders is associated with individual features and psychosocial work conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Silvestre da Silva-Junior

    Full Text Available Sickness absence is a socioeconomic global burden. In Brazil, mental disorders are the third leading cause of social security benefits payments. The aim of the present study was to compare factors associated with long-term sickness absence between workers who claimed social benefits due to mental disorders or by other causes. We investigated individual features and occupational characteristics. In addition, we evaluated psychosocial factors at work assessed by the Demand-Control-Support (DCS and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI models, and whether they were associated with long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders (LTSA-MD.The present case-control study was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil. The sample (n = 385 included workers on sick leave for more than 15 days. Cases were the participants with disabling psychiatric illnesses, and controls were the ones with other disabling diseases. Interviews were conducted to assess individual features (sociodemographic data, health habits/lifestyle, health conditions and occupational characteristics. The participants' perception of exposure to dimensions of the DCS and ERI models was also recorded. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the association between independent variables and LTSA-MD.All the regression analyses showed that LTSA-MD was associated with female sex, self-reported white skin color, higher education level, high tobacco consumption, high alcohol intake, two or more comorbidities, exposure to violence at work, high job strain and low social support at work, effort-reward imbalance and high overcommitment to work. LTSA-MD was associated with separate and combined DCS and ERI stress models.Individual features and work conditions were associated with LTSA-MD. Combined analysis of stress models showed that psychosocial factors at work were significantly associated with LTSA-MD. Resourceful use of this information may contribute to the implementation of preventive

  10. Radiation-induced camptocormia and dropped head syndrome. Review and case report of radiation-induced movement disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Clemens; Kuhnt, Thomas; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Hering, Kathrin [Leipzig University, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    In recent years, camptocormia and dropped head syndrome (DHS) have gained attention as particular forms of movement disorders. Camptocormia presents with involuntary forward flexion of the thoracolumbar spine that typically increases during walking or standing and may severely impede walking ability. DHS is characterized by weakness of the neck extensors and a consecutive inability to extend the neck; in severe cases the head is fixed in a ''chin to chest position.'' Many diseases may underlie these conditions, and there have been some reports about radiation-induced camptocormia and DHS. A PubMed search with the keywords ''camptocormia,'' ''dropped head syndrome,'' ''radiation-induced myopathy,'' ''radiation-induced neuropathy,'' and ''radiation-induced movement disorder'' was carried out to better characterize radiation-induced movement disorders and the radiation techniques involved. In addition, the case of a patient developing camptocormia 23 years after radiation therapy of a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the abdomen is described. In total, nine case series of radiation-induced DHS (n = 45 patients) and - including our case - three case reports (n = 3 patients) about radiogenic camptocormia were retrieved. Most cases (40/45 patients) occurred less than 15 years after radiotherapy involving extended fields for Hodgkin's disease. The use of wide radiation fields including many spinal segments with paraspinal muscles may lead to radiation-induced movement disorders. If paraspinal muscles and the thoracolumbar spine are involved, the clinical presentation can be that of camptocormia. DHS may result if there is involvement of the cervical spine. To prevent these disorders, sparing of the spine and paraspinal muscles is desirable. (orig.) [German] In den letzten Jahren haben Bewegungsstoerungen von Wirbelsaeule und paraspinaler Muskulatur in

  11. Reliability of psychophysiological responses across multiple motion sickness stimulation tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, C. S.; Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.

    1995-01-01

    Although there is general agreement that a high degree of variability exists between subjects in their autonomic nervous system responses to motion sickness stimulation, very little evidence exists that examines the reproducibility of autonomic responses within subjects during motion sickness stimulation. Our objectives were to examine the reliability of autonomic responses and symptom levels across five testing occasions using the (1) final minute of testing, (2) change in autonomic response and the change in symptom level, and (3) strength of the relationship between the change in symptom level and the change in autonomic responses across the entire motion sickness test. The results indicate that, based on the final minute of testing, the autonomic responses of heart rate, blood volume pulse, and respiration rate are moderately stable across multiple tests. Changes in heart rate, blood volume pulse, respiration rate, and symptoms throughout the test duration are less stable across the tests. Finally, autonomic responses and symptom levels are significantly related across the entire motion sickness test.

  12. Radiation myelopathy (case presentation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangheli, M.; Lisnic, V.; Plesca, S.; Odainic, O.; Chetrari, L.

    2009-01-01

    The radiotherapy is one of the most widely spread and commonly used method in treating tumors of different localization. A detailed analysis of benefits and possible side effects along with evaluation of the risk factors allows preventing one of the most difficult complication, and namely the radiation myelopathy. The delayed form of such a disease is distinguished by a pronounced unfavorable prognosis. The presented case provoked the discussion of difficulties in performing differential diagnosis, as well as the importance of determining the localization of vulnerable tissues as regards the target organ exposed to radiotherapy. (authors)

  13. Mood, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders and later cause-specific sick leave in young adult employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torvik, Fartein Ask; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Gjerde, Line C; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Ystrom, Eivind; Tambs, Kristian; Røysamb, Espen; Østby, Kristian; Ørstavik, Ragnhild

    2016-08-03

    Mental disorders strongly influence work capability in young adults, but it is not clear which disorders that are most strongly associated with sick leave, and which diagnoses that are stated on the sick leave certificates. Better knowledge of the impairments associated with different mental disorders is needed for optimal planning of interventions and prioritization of health services. In the current study, we investigate the prospective associations between eight mood, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders, and later sick leave granted for mental, somatic, or any disorder. Lifetime mental disorders were assessed by structured diagnostic interviews in 2,178 young adults followed for eight years with registry data on sick leave. Relative risk ratios were estimated for the associations between each mental disorder and the different forms of sick leave. All included diagnoses were associated with later sick leave. In adjusted analyses, major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder were the strongest predictors of sick leave granted for mental disorders, whereas social anxiety disorder and specific phobia were the strongest predictors of sick leave granted for somatic disorders. Specific phobia and major depressive disorder had the highest attributable fractions for all-cause sick leave. Mood and anxiety disorders constituted independent risk factors for all cause sick leave, whereas alcohol use disorders seemed to be of less importance in young adulthood. Disorders characterised by distress were most strongly associated with sick leave granted for mental disorders, whereas disorders characterised by fear primarily predicted sick leave granted for somatic conditions. A large part of all sick leave is related to specific phobia, due to the high prevalence of this disorder. The impairment associated with this common disorder may be under-acknowledged, and it could decrease work capacity among individuals with somatic disorders. This disorder has good treatment

  14. Local mandate improves equity of paid sick leave coverage: Seattle’s experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Romich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paid sick leave allows workers to take time off work for personal or family health needs, improving health and potentially limiting infectious diseases. The U.S. has no national sick leave mandate, and many American workers - particularly those at lower income levels - have no right to paid time off for their own or family members’ health needs. This article reports on outcomes of a local mandate, the City of Seattle Paid Sick and Safe Time Ordinance, which requires certain employers to provide paid sick leave to eligible workers. Methods Survey collectors contacted a stratified random sample of Seattle employers before the Ordinance went into effect and one year later. Pre- and post- analysis draws on responses to survey items by 345 employers who were subject to the paid sick leave mandate. Results Awareness of the policy and provision of paid leave grew significantly over the year after the Ordinance was enacted. More employers offered leave to full-time workers (80.8 to 93.9%, p < .001 and part-time workers (47.1 to 66.7%, p < .001 with particularly large increases in the hospitality sector, which includes food workers (coverage of any hospitality employee: 27.5 to 85.0%, p < .001. Conclusions Absent a federal policy, local paid sick time mandates can increase paid sick leave coverage, an important social determinant of health.

  15. A prediction rule for shoulder pain related sick leave: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Heijden Geert JMG

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder pain is common in primary care, and has an unfavourable outcome in many patients. Information about predictors of shoulder pain related sick leave in workers is scarce and inconsistent. The objective was to develop a clinical prediction rule for calculating the risk of shoulder pain related sick leave for individual workers, during the 6 months following first consultation in general practice. Methods A prospective cohort study with 6 months follow-up was conducted among 350 workers with a new episode of shoulder pain. Potential predictors included the results of a physical examination, sociodemographic variables, disease characteristics (duration of symptoms, sick leave in the 2 months prior to consultation, pain intensity, disability, comorbidity, physical activity, physical work load, psychological factors, and the psychosocial work environment. The main outcome measure was sick leave during 6 months following first consultation in general practice. Results Response rate to the follow-up questionnaire at 6 months was 85%. During the 6 months after first consultation 30% (89/298 of the workers reported sick leave. 16% (47 reported 10 days sick leave or more. Sick leave during this period was predicted in a multivariable model by a longer duration of sick leave prior to consultation, more shoulder pain, a perceived cause of strain or overuse during regular activities, and co-existing psychological complaints. The discriminative ability of the prediction model was satisfactory with an area under the curve of 0.70 (95% CI 0.64–0.76. Conclusion Although 30% of all workers with shoulder pain reported sick leave during follow-up, the duration of sick leave was limited to a few days in most workers. We developed a prediction rule and a score chart that can be used by general practitioners and occupational health care providers to calculate the absolute risk of sick leave in individual workers with shoulder pain, which

  16. Diagnostic value of (1, 3)-β-D-glucan assay and galactomannan test for invasive fungal infection in patients of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing; Jiang Hongmei; Wang Jijun; Liu Yan; Zhao Wei; Ning Yongzhong; Zhang Jie; Ke Xiaoyan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic values of (1, 3)-β-D-glucan (G) and galactomannan (GM) for invasive fungal infection (IFI) in patients of acute radiation sickness (ARS). Methods: Samples of periogeral blood, pharyngeal secretion, urine, and feces were collected from 316 patients with ARS and suspected to suffer from IFI, 192 males and 124 females, aged 60.50 (1-96), with the underlying diseases of blood or respiration systems. Platelia Aspergillus EIA kit was used to detect the plasma BG (G test), and ELISA was used to detect the serum GM (GM test). Fungal culture and bacterial culture were performed. Results: The positive rates of G test, GM test, and fungal culture were 36.33%, 35.84%, and 34.18% respectively, but the positive rate of fungal culture of blood sample was 1-316 only. Pearson correlation analysis showed that G test, GM test and fungal culture test were positively correlated with IFI clinical diagnosis respectively (χ 2 =0.564, 0.357, 0.727, P<0.05). Conclusions: Easy to operate, rapid, and highly sencitive, G test and GM test can be used as adjunctive methods for early IFI diagnosis in ARS patients. (authors)

  17. The Prognostic Value of the Work Ability Index for Sickness Absence among Office Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeuwijk, Kerstin G; Robroek, Suzan J W; Niessen, Maurice A J; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A; Vergouwe, Yvonne; Burdorf, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The work ability index (WAI) is a frequently used tool in occupational health to identify workers at risk for a reduced work performance and for work-related disability. However, information about the prognostic value of the WAI to identify workers at risk for sickness absence is scarce. To investigate the prognostic value of the WAI for sickness absence, and whether the discriminative ability differs across demographic subgroups. At baseline, the WAI (score 7-49) was assessed among 1,331 office workers from a Dutch financial service company. Sickness absence was registered during 12-months follow-up and categorised as 0 days, 0performed for separate WAI dimensions, and subgroup analyses for demographic groups. A lower WAI was associated with sickness absence (≥15 days vs. 0 days: per point lower WAI score OR=1.27; 95%CI 1.21-1.33). The WAI showed reasonable ability to discriminate between categories of sickness absence (ORC=0.65; 95%CI 0.63-0.68). Highest discrimination was found for comparing workers with ≥15 sick days with 0 sick days (AUC=0.77) or with 1-5 sick days (AUC=0.69). At the cut-off for poor work ability (WAI≤27) the sensitivity to identify workers at risk for ≥15 sick days was 7.5%, the specificity 99.6%, and the positive predictive value 82%. The performance was similar across demographic subgroups. The WAI could be used to identify workers at high risk for prolonged sickness absence. However, due to low sensitivity many workers will be missed. Hence, additional factors are required to better identify workers at highest risk.

  18. Radiation osteomyelitis of the mandible. Report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molla, M.R.; Nishio, Juntaro; Matsuya, Tokuzo; Miyazaki, Tadashi (Osaka Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1982-12-01

    Radiation therapy for the head and neck malignant tumor may often cause osteoradionecrosis of the mandible, leading to radiation osteomyelitis with a source of infection. The present study demonstrates two cases with radiation osteomyelitis of the mandible to discuss the etiology, radiological findings and preventive measure for this type of bone disease. The results indicate that, 1) A higher dose in external radiotherapy may claimed to be a potent factor to cause osteoradionecrosis and post irradiation periodontitis of the tooth associated with pain, may be preliminary symptom of leading radiation osteomyelitis, where a delayed healing of tooth extraction is an accelerating factor responsible for rapid progress of osteomyelitic changes. 2) Once infection sets in post irradiated bone, radio-osteomyelitic change is quite progressive even after various conservative measure. 3) Only radiological change in those cases is a slow formation of sequestrum time ranging from 7 to 10 months, with a gradual separation of dead bone as a large mass.

  19. Sickness absence in the private sector of Greece: comparing shipyard industry and national insurance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Merekoulias, Georgios; Tanagra, Dimitra; Konstantinou, Eleni C; Mikelatou, Efi; Jelastopulu, Eleni

    2012-04-01

    Approximately 3% of employees are absent from work due to illness daily in Europe, while in some countries sickness absence exceeds 20 days per year. Based on a limited body of reliable studies, Greek employees in the private sector seem to be absent far less frequently (industrialized world. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece, using shipyard and national insurance data. Detailed data on absenteeism of employees in a large shipyard company during the period 1999-2006 were utilized. National data on compensated days due to sickness absence concerning all employees (around 2 million) insured by the Social Insurance Institute (IKA, the largest insurance scheme in Greece) were retrieved from the Institute's annual statistical reports for the period 1987-2006. Sick-leave days per employee and sick-leave rate (%) were calculated, among other indicators. In the shipyard cohort, the employment time loss due to sick leave was 1%. The mean number of sick-leave days per employee in shipyards ranged between 4.6 and 8.7 and sick-leave rate (sickness absenteeism rate) varied among 2% and 3.7%. The corresponding indicators for IKA were estimated between 5 and 6.3 sick-leave days per insured employee (median 5.8), and 2.14-2.72% (median 2.49%), respectively. Short sick-leave spells (industrialized world. In the 20-years national data, the results also showed a 7-year wave in sickness absence indexes (a decrease during the period 1991-1997 and an increase in 1998-2004) combined with a small yet significant decline as a general trend. These observations deserve detailed monitoring and could only partly be attributed to the compensation and unemployment rates in Greece so other possible reasons should be explored.

  20. Pattern and predictors of sick leave among users of antidepressants: a Danish retrospective register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasse, Christiane; Petersen, Liselotte; Chollet, Julien; Saragoussi, Delphine

    2013-12-01

    Depression is associated with work absenteeism, reduced productivity, and significant personal and societal economic burden. We describe patterns and determinants of sick leave among working Danish antidepressant users. Persons starting antidepressant treatment (January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2005) were identified from a representative 25% sample of the Danish population by linking Danish national registries. Inclusion criteria were age 18-64 years, being in the workforce the week prior to the first antidepressant prescription (index prescription, IP), and no antidepressant prescription in the year prior to the IP. Only sick leaves >2 weeks are centrally registered in Denmark and could be assessed. Cox regression analyses identified predictors of sick leave during the year following the IP, based on previous history of sick leave and clinical and socio-demographic baseline characteristics. In the cohort of 25,908 (59.7% women), sick leave prevalence increased from 37.5% (year prior to IP) to 45.3% (year after the IP); 30.7% were on sick leave for >8 weeks. Incidence peaked (35.5% of individuals) the week after the IP. Of persons with sick leave in the year before the IP, 62.7% were on sick leave the first week after the IP, vs 5.7% of those without previous sick leave. Predictors associated with increased risk of sick leave among those without previous sick leave were unemployment, female gender, age 25-54 years, couples with children, and vocational and higher intermediate education (including e.g. teachers and nurses). Reasons for sick leave, sick leaves of less than 14 days and the indications for antidepressant treatment were unknown. Sick leave was prevalent in persons starting new antidepressant use, often lasting >8 weeks. Previous sick leave was the strongest predictor of subsequent sick leave. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychosocial work factors and long sickness absence in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slany, Corinna; Schütte, Stefanie; Chastang, Jean-François; Parent-Thirion, Agnès; Vermeylen, Greet; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Studies exploring a wide range of psychosocial work factors separately and together in association with long sickness absence are still lacking. The objective of this study was to explore the associations between psychosocial work factors measured following a comprehensive instrument (Copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire, COPSOQ) and long sickness absence (> 7 days/year) in European employees of 34 countries. An additional objective was to study the differences in these associations according to gender and countries. The study population consisted of 16 120 male and 16 588 female employees from the 2010 European working conditions survey. Twenty-five psychosocial work factors were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using multilevel logistic regression models and interaction testing. When studied together in the same model, factors related to job demands (quantitative demands and demands for hiding emotions), possibilities for development, social relationships (role conflicts, quality of leadership, social support, and sense of community), workplace violence (physical violence, bullying, and discrimination), shift work, and job promotion were associated with long sickness absence. Almost no difference was observed according to gender and country. Comprehensive prevention policies oriented to psychosocial work factors may be useful to prevent long sickness absence at European level.

  2. A novel approach to early sickness absence management: The EASY (Early Access to Support for You) way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demou, Evangelia; Brown, Judith; Sanati, Kaveh; Kennedy, Mark; Murray, Keith; Macdonald, Ewan B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sickness absence (SA) is multi-causal and remains a significant problem for employees, employers and society. This makes it necessary to concurrently manage a particular disabling condition and consider the working environment and employee-employer relationship. OBJECTIVE: To describe and examine the components of a novel SA management service Early Access to Support for You (EASY) and discuss their potential influence on the intervention. METHODS: A new sickness absence model, starting from day one of absence, was created called EASY. EASY is planned to support both employees and managers and comprises elements already found to be associated with reduction of SA, such as maintaining regular contact; early biopsychosocial case-management; physiotherapy; mental-health counselling; work modification; phased return-to-work; and health promotion activities. RESULTS: During the EASY implementation period, the SA rate at a health board reversed its trend of being one of the highest rates in the Scottish National Health Service (NHS) and EASY was considered helpful by both managers and employees. CONCLUSIONS: This paper describes an innovative occupational health intervention to sickness absence management based on the bio-psychosocial model to provide early intervention, and discusses the pros and cons of applying cognitive behavioural principles at an early stage in sickness-absence events, in order to improve return-to-work outcomes. PMID:26409380

  3. Age differences in the association between stressful work and sickness absence among full-time employed workers: evidence from the German socio-economic panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Simon; Hoven, Hanno; Müller, Andreas; Dragano, Nico; Wahrendorf, Morten

    2018-05-01

    We aim to extend current knowledge on associations between stressful work and sickness absence, first, by studying associations between ERI and sickness absence among full-time employees from various occupations, and second, by investigating if associations vary by age. We use data from four waves of the German socio-economic panel (GSOEP), collected among men and women between 2006 and 2012, with 9418 observations. Stressful work is measured with a short form of the ERI questionnaire. We investigate an imbalance between effort and reward (ER ratio) as well as the two main components ("high effort" and "low reward"). Sickness absence is measured by self-reported number of sickness days (assessed the following year). After descriptive analyses, we estimate a series of multivariable regressions, including tests for interactions between age and work stress. Each of the three indicators of stressful work is related to higher number of sickness days, with except of "high effort" in case of men. Findings remain significant after adjusting for social position (income, education and occupational class) and health. In addition, for both men and women, associations were slightly higher among older workers, though interactions did not reach statistical significance. Our findings support that stressful work is linked to sickness absence across a wide spectrum of jobs with varying incomes and educational levels, and also that associations are slightly more pronounced among older workers.

  4. Radiation therapy for head and neck cancers a case-based review

    CERN Document Server

    Beyzadeoglu, Murat; Selek, Ugur

    2014-01-01

    This evidence-based guide to the current management of cancer cases at all head and neck sites will assist in the appropriate selection and delineation of tumor volumes/fields for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), including volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Each tumor site-related chapter presents, from the perspective of an academic expert, several actual cases at different stages in order to clarify specific clinical concepts. The coverage includes case presentation, a case-related literature review, patient preparation, simulation, contouring, treatment planning, treatment delivery, and follow-up. The text is accompanied by illustrations ranging from slice-by-slice delineations on planning CT images to finalized plan evaluations based on detailed acceptance criteria. The book will be of value for residents, fellows, practicing radiation oncologists, and medical physicists interested in clinical radiation oncology.

  5. Sickness Absence in the Private Sector of Greece: Comparing Shipyard Industry and National Insurance Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Jelastopulu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 3% of employees are absent from work due to illness daily in Europe, while in some countries sickness absence exceeds 20 days per year. Based on a limited body of reliable studies, Greek employees in the private sector seem to be absent far less frequently ( < 5 days/year compared to most of the industrialized world. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece, using shipyard and national insurance data. Detailed data on absenteeism of employees in a large shipyard company during the period 1999–2006 were utilized. National data on compensated days due to sickness absence concerning all employees (around 2 million insured by the Social Insurance Institute (IKA, the largest insurance scheme in Greece were retrieved from the Institute’s annual statistical reports for the period 1987–2006. Sick-leave days per employee and sick-leave rate (% were calculated, among other indicators. In the shipyard cohort, the employment time loss due to sick leave was 1%. The mean number of sick-leave days per employee in shipyards ranged between 4.6 and 8.7 and sick-leave rate (sickness absenteeism rate varied among 2% and 3.7%. The corresponding indicators for IKA were estimated between 5 and 6.3 sick-leave days per insured employee (median 5.8, and 2.14–2.72% (median 2.49%, respectively. Short sick-leave spells ( < 4 days may account at least for the 25% of the total number of sick-leave days, currently not recorded in national statistics. The level of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece was found to be higher than the suggested by previous reports and international comparative studies, but still remains one of the lowest in the industrialized world. In the 20-years national data, the results also showed a 7-year wave in sickness absence indexes (a decrease during the period 1991–1997 and an increase in 1998–2004 combined with a small yet significant decline as a

  6. [Duration of sick-leave and the moment of recovery in the hotel industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folgerø, I S; Larsen, S

    1991-09-10

    The paper addresses the problem of sick leave in the hotel industry. It was hypothesized that there would be a tendency for granted sick leaves to include weekends, thus imposing an additional financial burden on the hotel in question. A total of 401 medical certificates from a large city hotel were reviewed. According to these certificates one third of the patients regained their health between Sunday and Monday. Of the patients with "short" sick leaves (less than a fortnight), 40% recovered between Sunday and Monday. The average duration of the sick leave for this group was 1.3 days longer than that of the patients whose sick leaves ended on other days of the week. The results are discussed in terms of the ambiguous position of the medical practitioner.

  7. Sewage sterilization through gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, D.V.; Teixeira, W.M.S.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    Lack of sewage treatment and adequate sanitation conditions can contribute to the proliferation of numerous parasitic and infectious diseases in addition to water degradation. Approximately fifty types of infections can be transmitted from a sick to a healthy person through different pathways involving human excreta. Untreated sewage can contaminate water, food, hands, soil, etc. Epidemics of certain diseases such as typhoid, cholera, dysenteries, etc., and countless cases of worms are responsible for high mortality rates in third world countries. In the work the different techniques of sewage treatment by disinfestation and sterilization were analyzed, highlighting the use and the advantages of the gamma radiation as well as the aspects of the radiological protection involved. The technique of sewage sterilization using gamma radiation is a method of controlling bacteria and microorganisms. It is estimated that more than 200 large irradiators are in operation worldwide, of which 5 are in Brazil, for general sterilization use. These facilities use a large amount of radioactive material, in the order of millions of Becquerel, for sterilization with high doses of radiation, which can generate lethal doses in a few minutes. These industrial facilities use Cobalt-60, being classified by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA as Category 1 of high risk, and must possess a high level of radiological protection to carry out the sterilization, standing out the defense in depth. Specific legislation on radiological protection should be drafted for safe work and avoid future radiation accidents

  8. Worried sick? Worker Responses to a Financial Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Bratberg, Espen; Monstad, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Excessive sickness absence may hurt productivity and put a strain on public finances. One explanation put forward for increasing absence rates is that a tougher labour market represents a health hazard. A competing hypothesis is that loss of job security works as a disciplinary device. We use a financial shock that hit the public sector in Norway in 2007 in some, but not all, municipalities to identify the effect of reduced job security on sickness absence. Public sector workers i...

  9. The effect of autogenic training and biofeedback on motion sickness tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozsvai, E E; Pigeau, R A

    1996-10-01

    Motion sickness is characterized by symptoms of vomiting, drowsiness, fatigue and idiosyncratic changes in autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses such as heart rate (HR) and skin temperature (ST). Previous studies found that symptoms of motion sickness are controllable through self-regulation of ANS responses and the best method to teach such control is autogenic-feedback (biofeedback) training. Recent experiments indicated that biofeedback training is ineffective in reducing symptoms of motion sickness or in increasing tolerance to motion. If biofeedback facilitates learning of ANS self-regulation then autogenic training with true feedback (TFB) should lead to better control over ANS responses and better motion tolerance than autogenic training with false feedback (FFB). If there is a relationship between ANS self-regulation and coping with motion stress, a significant correlation should be found between amounts of control over ANS responses and measures of motion tolerance and/or symptoms of motion sickness. There were 3 groups of 6 subjects exposed for 6 weeks to weekly sessions of Coriolis stimulation to induce motion sickness. Between the first and second Coriolis sessions, subjects in the experimental groups received five episodes of autogenic training with either true (group TFB) or false (group FFB) feedback on their HR and ST. The control group (CTL) received no treatment. Subjects learned to control their HR and ST independent of whether they received true or false feedback. Learned control of ST and HR was not related to severity of motion sickness or subject's ability to withstand Coriolis stimulation following treatment. A lack of significant correlation between these variables suggested that subjects were not able to apply their skills of ANS self-regulation in the motion environment, and/ or such skills had little value in reducing symptoms of motion sickness or enhancing their ability to withstand rotations.

  10. Changes in the dark focus of accommodation associated with simulator sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowlkes, Jennifer E.; Kennedy, Robert S.; Hettinger, Lawrence J.; Harm, Deborah L.

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between the dark focus of accommodation and simulator sickness, a form of motion sickness, was examined in three experiments. In Experiment 1, dark focus was measured in 18 college students in a laboratory setting before and after they viewed a projected motion scene depicting low altitude helicopter flight. In Experiments 2 and 3, dark focus was measured in pilots (N = 16 and 23, respectively) before and after they 'flew' in moving-base helicopter flight simulators with optical infinity CRT visual systems. The results showed that individuals who experienced simulator sickness had either an inward (myopic) change in dark focus (Experiments 1 and 3) or attenuated outward shifts in dark focus (Experiment 2) relative to participants who did not get sick. These results are consonant with the hypothesis that parasympathetic activity, which may be associated with simulator sickness, should result in changes in dark focus that are in a myopic direction. Night vision goggles, virtual environments, extended periods in microgravity, and heads-up displays all produce related visual symptomatology. Changes in dark focus may occur in these conditions, as well, and should be measured.

  11. The Prognostic Value of the Work Ability Index for Sickness Absence among Office Workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin G Reeuwijk

    Full Text Available The work ability index (WAI is a frequently used tool in occupational health to identify workers at risk for a reduced work performance and for work-related disability. However, information about the prognostic value of the WAI to identify workers at risk for sickness absence is scarce.To investigate the prognostic value of the WAI for sickness absence, and whether the discriminative ability differs across demographic subgroups.At baseline, the WAI (score 7-49 was assessed among 1,331 office workers from a Dutch financial service company. Sickness absence was registered during 12-months follow-up and categorised as 0 days, 0sickness absence were estimated by multinomial regression analyses. Discriminative ability of the WAI was assessed by the Area Under the Curve (AUC and Ordinal c-index (ORC. Test characteristics were determined for dichotomised outcomes. Additional analyses were performed for separate WAI dimensions, and subgroup analyses for demographic groups.A lower WAI was associated with sickness absence (≥15 days vs. 0 days: per point lower WAI score OR=1.27; 95%CI 1.21-1.33. The WAI showed reasonable ability to discriminate between categories of sickness absence (ORC=0.65; 95%CI 0.63-0.68. Highest discrimination was found for comparing workers with ≥15 sick days with 0 sick days (AUC=0.77 or with 1-5 sick days (AUC=0.69. At the cut-off for poor work ability (WAI≤27 the sensitivity to identify workers at risk for ≥15 sick days was 7.5%, the specificity 99.6%, and the positive predictive value 82%. The performance was similar across demographic subgroups.The WAI could be used to identify workers at high risk for prolonged sickness absence. However, due to low sensitivity many workers will be missed. Hence, additional factors are required to better identify workers at highest risk.

  12. Sickness presenteeism among health care providers in an academic tertiary care center in Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al Nuhait

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The term sickness presenteeism (SP has been described as the act of going to work despite having a state of health that may be regarded as poor enough to justify sick leave. SP has been observed to be prevalent among three-quarters of health care providers (HCPs. Working while sick not only puts patients at risk but also decreases productivity and increases the probability of medical errors. Moreover, SP has been identified as a risk factor for many negative health outcomes among the HCPs themselves, such as depression, burnout, and serious cardiac events. The aim of this study was to identify the reasons for and prevalence of SP and perceptions of the impact of this practice on patient safety among HCPs. A cross-sectional study was conducted, including 279 purposively selected healthcare professionals (doctors, nurses, dentists, pharmacists and other health care professionals working at the Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs—King Abdulaziz Medical City (MNGHA-KAMC. While nearly all of the participants (91% believed that working while sick exposed patients to risk, the rate of SP during the past year was reported as 74%, and one fourth of respondents reported working while sick 3–4 times during the past year. More than half of the participants were not aware of the existence of a departmental policy regarding sick leave. The most common reasons reported for working while sick were not wanting to burden co-workers (71%, feelings of duty toward patients (67%, and avoiding an increased future workload caused by absence (59%. A lack of awareness regarding the existing rules and polices related to sick leave was reported by more than half of the participants. Several predisposing and enabling factors were reported as determinants influencing SP, e.g., observation of the practice of SP by peers and feelings of sympathy towards coworkers, including not wanting to overburden them, were reported to be determinants informing the decision of

  13. The effect on length of sickness absence by recognition of undetected psychiatric disorder in long-term sickness absence. A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    of return to work. METHODS: Over one year all 2,414 incident persons on LSA in a well-defined population were within one week after eight weeks of continuous sickness absence posted the Common Mental Disorders Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ) to screen for mental disorders. In a randomized controlled trial...... (RCT), of 1,121 responding participants, persons with a minimum level of psychiatric symptoms 420 were allocated to the intervention group and 416 to the control group. The intervention was a psychiatric examination including diagnostics with Present State Examination and feedback regarding treatment...... to work. RESULTS: The rate of return to work was non-significantly lower for the intervention group than for the control group, except for persons without a psychiatric sick-leave diagnosis who were sick-listed from full time work, who showed a significantly higher rate of return to work...

  14. Some determinants of sick leave for respiratory disease : Occupation, asthma, obesity, smoking and rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Nathell, Lennart

    2002-01-01

    The cost to society of sick leave and disability pensions is currently the most urgent economic problem in Sweden. The availability of a large sick-listing database, Collective Group Health Insurance, AGS (in Swedish: Avtalsgruppsjukförsäkring) provides a rare opportunity to study sick leave in Sweden. Periods of sick leave exceeding 14 days are recorded together with a mandatory diagnosis by a physician, gender, age, residential area, name of the employer, and occupation. ...

  15. Does Perceived Stress Mediate the Association Between Workplace Bullying and Long-Term Sickness Absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grynderup, Matias Brdsgaard; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if perceived stress mediated the association between workplace bullying and subsequent long-term sickness absence. METHODS: The PRISME cohort was established in 2007 and re-examined in 2009. Questionnaire data about workplace bullying and perceived stress were obtained from...... 4114 individuals. Participants were followed in registers on long-term sickness absence (≥30 consecutive days of sickness absence). RESULTS: Workplace bullying was associated with subsequent sickness absence (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.57 to 2.65) and concurrent high...... perceived stress levels (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.86 to 2.96). A high perceived stress level was also associated with subsequent sickness absence (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.56). Perceived stress explained 13% (95% CI: 6 to 23%) of the total association between bullying and sickness absence. CONCLUSIONS...

  16. Role of endogenous opioid peptides in the pathogenesis of motion sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasnetsov, V.V.; Il'ina, S.L.; Karsanova, S.K.; Medvedev, O.S.; Mokrousova, A.V.; Sabaev, V.V.; Shashkov, V.A.; Tigranyan, R.A.; Vakulina, O.P

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines the pathogenesis of motion sickness and the role of the various neurochemical systems of the body in the genesis of the condition. It has been shown that the endogenous opioid system participates in the genesis of several pathological processes; this was the motivation for the study. The plasma beta-endorphin level was determined in samples from 19 clinically healthy males. Considering the positive prophylactic and therapeutic effect of naloxone against motion sickness it can be postulated that endogenous opioid peptides participate in the genesis of the vestibulo-autonomic disorders in motion sickness

  17. Role of endogenous opioid peptides in the pathogenesis of motion sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasnetsov, V.V.; Il' ina, S.L.; Karsanova, S.K.; Medvedev, O.S.; Mokrousova, A.V.; Sabaev, V.V.; Shashkov, V.A.; Tigranyan, R.A.; Vakulina, O.P

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines the pathogenesis of motion sickness and the role of the various neurochemical systems of the body in the genesis of the condition. It has been shown that the endogenous opioid system participates in the genesis of several pathological processes; this was the motivation for the study. The plasma beta-endorphin level was determined in samples from 19 clinically healthy males. Considering the positive prophylactic and therapeutic effect of naloxone against motion sickness it can be postulated that endogenous opioid peptides participate in the genesis of the vestibulo-autonomic disorders in motion sickness.

  18. Multidimensional intervention and sickness absence in assistant nursing students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Annemarie Lyng; Strøyer, Jesper; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When handling patients, nursing assistant (NA) students and nurse students are frequently exposed to risk factors for low back pain (LBP) including sudden loads and twisting and bending of the spine. Furthermore, LBP is a major cause of sickness absence. AIMS: To ascertain...... if a multidimensional prevention programme combining physical training, patient transfer technique and stress management prevents sickness absence and LBP in NA students. METHODS: The study was a 14-month cluster randomized controlled study. The participants were NA students from 37 randomly selected classes located...... at two schools of health and social care in Copenhagen, Denmark. The participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire regarding sickness absence, LBP and psychosocial factors on commencement and after completion of the study. RESULTS: Of 766 female NA students, 668 (87%) completed the baseline...

  19. Subjective Vertical Conflict Theory and Space Motion Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Chao, Jian-Gang; Wang, Jin-Kun; Chen, Xue-Wen; Tan, Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Space motion sickness (SMS) remains a troublesome problem during spaceflight. The subjective vertical (SV) conflict theory postulates that all motion sickness provoking situations are characterized by a condition in which the SV sensed from gravity and visual and idiotropic cues differs from the expected vertical. This theory has been successfully used to predict motion sickness in different vehicles on Earth. We have summarized the most outstanding and recent studies on the illusions and characteristics associated with spatial disorientation and SMS during weightlessness, such as cognitive map and mental rotation, the visual reorientation and inversion illusions, and orientation preferences between visual scenes and the internal z-axis of the body. The relationships between the SV and the incidence of and susceptibility to SMS as well as spatial disorientation were addressed. A consistent framework was presented to understand and explain SMS characteristics in more detail on the basis of the SV conflict theory, which is expected to be more advantageous in SMS prediction, prevention, and training.

  20. Dynamics of proteolytic activity of blood enzymes in combined burn and radiation injury and in its treatment with local cryoeffect and with wound closing preparation RZP-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertman, V.Z.

    1982-01-01

    The proteolytic activity of trypsine-like proteases of blood at acute injury period doesn't increase as in animals with mere burn and in animals with nure irradiation as well. It can be explained by the absence of adequate stress reaction of the organism due to the sharp decrease of organism reactivity in case of combined burn and radiation injury. Application of low temperatures and combination of cryogenic effect and RZP-3 preparation promotes proteolytic activity increase in animals with combined burn and radiation injury in the climax of radiation sickness. The normalization of the factor was observed at late periods of the investigation. It can be regarded as recovery of the organism reactivity

  1. Does computer use pose a hazard for future long-term sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Johan Hviid; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2010-01-01

    . The hazard ratio for sickness absence with weekly increase of one hour in computer use was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.99 to 1.00). Low satisfaction with work place arrangements and female gender both doubled the risk of sickness absence.We have earlier found that computer use did not predict persistent pain in the neck...... and upper limb, and it seems that computer use neither predicts future long-term sickness absence of all causes....

  2. The early effects of ionizing radiation on pancreatic endocrine cells in mouse: an immunocytochemistry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosanlavit, Rachian; McCullough, Stephen

    2003-06-01

    Prodromal radiation sickness can occur within 30 minutes following irradiation. The early sign is a fatigue, accompanied by other symptoms including diarrhoea, intestinal cramps, nausea and vomiting. This event is often very significant. The contribution of pancreatic damage towards these post-irradiation symptoms is not clear. This study is to assess the volume density, by using the point counting method, of insulin-, glucagon-, somatostatin-, and pancreatic polypeptide-containing cells of mouse pancreas following X-irradiation with doses of 5 and 10 Gy. It uses an in vitro system sampled at 30 minutes, 1 and 3 hours. A radiation dose of 10 Gy significantly decreased the volume density of glucagon-containing cells at 1 hour incubation time and radiation doses of 5 and 10 Gy slightly decreased the volume density of somatostatin-containing cells at all time points. These changes may result in disturbances in metabolism of nutrients, which possibly lead to several symptoms (e.g. fatigue and weight loss) associated with prodromal radiation sickness

  3. First aid in the case of increased exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    Describes first aid measures for persons who have been exposed to increased radiation, especially certain steps to be taken in the case of external exposure of the whole and/or the partial body, in the case of contamination and incorporation. The pamphlet not only includes definition of terms but also a list of regional radiation protection centres. (RW) [de

  4. The understanding of Norwegian women’s sickness absence: towards a holistic approach?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Johanne Solheim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Vanlig tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: In Norway men's sickness absence from work has been stable or reduced over the last decades while women's sickness-absence ratio has increased, but the reasons for these developments are complex and unclear. There have been considerable efforts introduced and implemented to reduce sickness absence, but they have not succeeded. One reason for this may be the insufficient knowledge about the reasons for sick leave, and especially for women's sick leave. The aim: This article aims to examine how social factors influence sickness absence and how long-term absentees interpret and explain their ill health and sickness absence. Method: In one Norwegian county in 2010 we performed individual in-depth interviews with 20 women and ten men between the ages of 25-60 years who had been or were sick-listed for more than 30 days during the last year with a mental illness or musculoskeletal diagnoses. Results: The study illustrates how social factors influence sickness absence in different ways. The women indicated complex causes for their sickness absence, and often described an interaction between work-related and domestic-related aspects. Some accounts illustrate that their ill health might have roots in life occurrences from childhood

  5. A case of radiation overdose in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flatby, J.; Reitan, J.B.; Bjerke, H.; Olerud, H.

    1985-01-01

    The report describes a case of radiation overdose in the radiotherapeutic treatment of plantar warts. The treatment which caused necrosis and ostemyelitis in a big toe, implied a skin dose of 20 Gy to each of five partly overlapping treatment fields. A phantom test carried out by the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene, indicates doses to periosteum of appr. 70 Gy. It seems that the overdose mainly has been caused by high absorption in bone tissue and high photo emission from bone tissue. It is pointed out that most of the radiation treatment of benign diseases in Norway is carried out by roentgen diagnosticians. If the treatment of these diseases shall be maintained in the future, the educational consequenses should be thoroughly discussed

  6. Effective panphotocoagulation in a case of radiation retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Tatsuhiko; Tochikubo, Tetsuo; Shinohara, Atsuko; Komoto, Michiji; Tabata, Toshifumi.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports a case of radiation retinopathy caused by 60 Co and Ra radiation therapy following surgery for carcinoma of the maxillary sinus in a 42-year-old male. The retinopathy was found at onset of vitreous hemorrhage; the proliferative retinopathy was disclosed by fluorescein angiography (FAG). The retinopathy was treated a total of five times with both argon and krypton laser photocoagulation (PHC). As a result, both the subjective and objective symptoms improved. When radiation retinopathy is suspected, FAG must be conducted as soon as possible, to decide whether PHC is needed or not. (author)

  7. “Children get sick all the time”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lise Rosendal; Juul Bjertrup, Pia; Samuelsen, Helle

    2016-01-01

    In Burkina Faso, the government has implemented various health sector reforms in order to overcome financial and geographical barriers to citizens’ access to primary healthcare throughout the country. Despite these efforts, morbidity and mortality rates among children remain high and the utilizat......In Burkina Faso, the government has implemented various health sector reforms in order to overcome financial and geographical barriers to citizens’ access to primary healthcare throughout the country. Despite these efforts, morbidity and mortality rates among children remain high...... and the utilization of public healthcare services low. This study explores the relationship between mothers’ intentions to use public health services in cases of child sickness, their social strategies and cultural practices to act on these intentions and the actual services provided at the primary health care...

  8. Mood, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders and later cause-specific sick leave in young adult employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fartein Ask Torvik

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental disorders strongly influence work capability in young adults, but it is not clear which disorders that are most strongly associated with sick leave, and which diagnoses that are stated on the sick leave certificates. Better knowledge of the impairments associated with different mental disorders is needed for optimal planning of interventions and prioritization of health services. In the current study, we investigate the prospective associations between eight mood, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders, and later sick leave granted for mental, somatic, or any disorder. Methods Lifetime mental disorders were assessed by structured diagnostic interviews in 2,178 young adults followed for eight years with registry data on sick leave. Relative risk ratios were estimated for the associations between each mental disorder and the different forms of sick leave. Results All included diagnoses were associated with later sick leave. In adjusted analyses, major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder were the strongest predictors of sick leave granted for mental disorders, whereas social anxiety disorder and specific phobia were the strongest predictors of sick leave granted for somatic disorders. Specific phobia and major depressive disorder had the highest attributable fractions for all-cause sick leave. Conclusions Mood and anxiety disorders constituted independent risk factors for all cause sick leave, whereas alcohol use disorders seemed to be of less importance in young adulthood. Disorders characterised by distress were most strongly associated with sick leave granted for mental disorders, whereas disorders characterised by fear primarily predicted sick leave granted for somatic conditions. A large part of all sick leave is related to specific phobia, due to the high prevalence of this disorder. The impairment associated with this common disorder may be under-acknowledged, and it could decrease work capacity among

  9. Alcohol use disorder-related sick leave and mortality: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedegaertner, Felix; Geyer, Siegfried; Arnhold-Kerri, Sonja; Sittaro, Nicola-Alexander; te Wildt, Bert

    2013-01-30

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are associated with the highest all-cause mortality rates of all mental disorders. The majority of patients with AUDs never receive inpatient treatment for their AUD, and there is lack of data about their mortality risks despite their constituting the majority of those affected. Absenteeism from work (sick leave) due to an AUD likely signals worsening. In this study, we assessed whether AUD-related sick leave was associated with mortality in a cohort of workers in Germany. 128,001 workers with health insurance were followed for a mean of 6.4 years. We examined the associations between 1) AUD-related sick leave managed on an outpatient basis and 2) AUD-related psychiatric inpatient treatment, and mortality using survival analysis, and Cox proportional hazard regression models (separately by sex) adjusted for age, education, and job code classification. We also stratified analyses by sick leave related to three groups of alcohol-related conditions (all determined by International Classification of Diseases 9th ed. (ICD-9) codes): alcohol abuse and dependence; alcohol-induced mental disorder; and alcohol-induced medical conditions. Outpatient-managed AUD-related sick leave was significantly associated with higher mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 2.90 (95% Confidence interval (CI) 2.24-3.75) for men, HR 5.83 (CI 2.90-11.75) for women). The magnitude of the association was similar for receipt of AUD-related psychiatric inpatient treatment (HR 3.2 (CI 2.76-3.78) for men, HR 6.5 (CI 4.41-9.47) for women). Compared to those without the conditions, higher mortality was observed consistently for outpatients and inpatients across the three groups of alcohol-related conditions. Those with alcohol-related medical conditions who had AUD-related psychiatric inpatient treatment appeared to have the highest mortality. Alcohol use disorder-related sick leave as documented in health insurance records is associated with higher mortality. Such sick leave does

  10. Degree and therapy of acute radiation syndromes. Introduction of a suggestion on acute radiation sickness therapy made by strategic national stockpile radiation working group of USA. part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Rui; Pan Zhen; Li Yu

    2005-01-01

    Recommendations based on radiation dose and physiologic response are made for treatment of the hematopoietic syndrome. Therapy includes treatment with hematopoietic cytokines, blood transfusion, and stem-cell transplantation in selected cases. Additional medical management based on the evolution of clinical signs and symptoms includes the use of antimicrobial agents (quinolones, antiviral therapy, and antifungal agents), antiemetic agents, and analgesic agents. Because of the strong psychological impact of a possible radiation exposure, psychosocial support will be required for those exposed, regardless of the dose, as well as for family and friends. Treatment of pregnant women must account for risk to the fetus. For terrorist or accidental events involving exposure to radioiodines, prophylaxis against malignant disease of the thyroid is also recommended, particularly for children and adolescents. (authors)

  11. Workplace levels of psychosocial factors as prospective predictors of registered sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang; Nielsen, Martin L; Rugulies, Reiner

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate whether workplace levels of psychosocial work environment factors predict individual sickness absence. METHODS: Data were collected in a prospective study in 52 Danish workplaces in three organizations: municipal care, technical services, and a pharmaceutical...... company. Psychosocial factors were aggregated as workplace means. We used multilevel Poisson regression models with psychosocial factors as predictors and individual level sickness absence from absence registries as outcome. RESULTS: High workplace levels of decision authority predicted low sickness...... absence in the technical services (rate ratio = 0.66, 95% confidence interval = 0.51-0.86) and high workplace levels of skill discretion predicted low sickness absence in the pharmaceutical company (rate ratio = 0.74, 95% confidence interval = 0.62-0.88) after control for relevant confounders. Workplaces...

  12. Development of a neural net paradigm that predicts simulator sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.

    1993-03-01

    A disease exists that affects pilots and aircrew members who use Navy Operational Flight Training Systems. This malady, commonly referred to as simulator sickness and whose symptomatology closely aligns with that of motion sickness, can compromise the use of these systems because of a reduced utilization factor, negative transfer of training, and reduction in combat readiness. A report is submitted that develops an artificial neural network (ANN) and behavioral model that predicts the onset and level of simulator sickness in the pilots and aircrews who sue these systems. It is proposed that the paradigm could be implemented in real time as a biofeedback monitor to reduce the risk to users of these systems. The model captures the neurophysiological impact of use (human-machine interaction) by developing a structure that maps the associative and nonassociative behavioral patterns (learned expectations) and vestibular (otolith and semicircular canals of the inner ear) and tactile interaction, derived from system acceleration profiles, onto an abstract space that predicts simulator sickness for a given training flight.

  13. Physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors relative to sickness absence: a study based on Sweden Post

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work—physical, psychosocial, and organisational.
METHODS—The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sickness (sick leave events and person-days at risk). Information on explanatory factors was obtained by a postal questionnaire, and incidence of sickness was based on administrative files of the company.
RESULTS—Complaints about heavy lifting and monotonous movements were associated with increased risk of high incidence of sickness among both women and men. For heavy lifting, an odds ratio (OR) of 1.70 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.22 to 2.39) among women, and OR 1.70 (1.20 to 2.41) among men was found. For monotonous movements the risk estimates were OR 1.42 (1.03 to 1.97) and OR 1.45 (1.08 to 1.95) for women and men, respectively. Working instead of taking sick leave when ill, was more prevalent in the group with a high incidence of sickness (OR 1.74 (1.30 to 2.33) for women, OR 1.60 (1.22 to 2.10) for men). Overtime work of more than 50 hours a year was linked with low incidence of sickness for women and men. Among women, 16% reported bullying at the workplace, which was linked with a doubled risk of high incidence of sickness (OR 1.91 (1.31 to 2.77)). For men, the strongest association was found for those reporting anxiety about reorganisation of the workplace (OR 1.93 (1.34 to 2.77)).
CONCLUSIONS—Certain physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors were important determinants of incidence of sickness, independently of each other. Some of the associations were sex specific.


Keywords: incidence of sickness; work environment; sex PMID:11171931

  14. Care for Sick Children as a Proxy for Gender Equality in the Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Rickard; Nermo, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Swedish parents are entitled to government paid benefits to take care of sick children. In this paper we show that the gender distribution of paid care for sick children is a good proxy for the gender division of household work. Using two examples we show that registry data on care for sick children is a useful data source for studies on gender…

  15. Sickness absence and disability pension following breast cancer - A population-based matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Marie Høyer; Lampic, Claudia; Nordin, Karin; Ahlgren, Johan; Bergkvist, Leif; Lambe, Mats; Berglund, Anders; Johansson, Birgitta

    2014-12-01

    To compare sickness absence and disability pension in a population-based cohort of women with breast cancer (n = 463) from 1 year pre-diagnosis until 3 years post-diagnosis with a matched control group (n = 2310), and to investigate predictors of sickness absence during the 2nd and 3rd year post-diagnosis. Following breast cancer, the proportion of disease-free women with sickness absence decreased post-diagnosis (1st-3rd year; 78%-31%-19%), but did not reach the pre-diagnostic level (14%; P pension post-diagnosis (P > 0.05). Among patients, chemotherapy, baseline fatigue and pre-diagnosis sick days predicted sickness absence during the 2nd, 3rd, and 2nd and 3rd year post-diagnosis, respectively (P < 0.05). Breast cancer is associated with increased sickness absence 3 years post-diagnosis. In a clinical setting, prevention and treatment of side effects are important in reducing long-term consequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. General practitioners' experiences with sickness certification: a comparison of survey data from Sweden and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winde Lee D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most countries with sickness insurance systems, general practitioners (GPs play a key role in the sickness-absence process. Previous studies have indicated that GPs experience several tasks and situations related to sickness certification consultations as problematic. The fact that the organization of primary health care and social insurance systems differ between countries may influence both GPs' experiences and certification. The aim of the present study was to gain more knowledge of GPs' experiences of sickness certification, by comparing data from Sweden and Norway, regarding frequencies and aspects of sickness certification found to be problematic. Methods Statistical analyses of cross-sectional survey data of sickness certification by GPs in Sweden and Norway. In Sweden, all GPs were included, with 3949 (60.6% responding. In Norway, a representative sample of GPs was included, with 221 (66.5% responding. Results Most GPs reported having consultations involving sickness certification at least once a week; 95% of the GPs in Sweden and 99% of the GPs in Norway. A majority found such tasks problematic; 60% of the GPs in Sweden and 53% in Norway. In a logistic regression, having a higher frequency of sickness certification consultations was associated with a higher risk of experiencing them as problematic, in both countries. A higher rate of GPs in Sweden than in Norway reported meeting patients wanting a sickness certification without a medical reason. GPs in Sweden found it more problematic to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of sick leave with patients and to issue a prolongation of a sick-leave period initiated by another physician. GPs in Norway more often worried that patients would go to another physician if they did not issue a certificate, and a higher proportion of Norwegian GPs found it problematic to handle situations where they and their patient disagreed on the need for sick leave. Conclusions The

  17. Labour Market Segregation and Gender Differences in Sickness Absence: Trends in 2005-2013 in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Taina; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Virta, Lauri J; Laaksonen, Mikko; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Solovieva, Svetlana

    2018-04-18

    Women have higher sickness absence rate than men, but less is known of changes in this difference over time. We examined gender differences in sickness absence trends focusing on gender segregation in the labour market. We used large nationwide register data on Finnish wage earners aged 25-59 and generalized estimation equations based on repeated logistic regression to estimate the annual risk of sickness absence lasting at least 2 weeks. Between 2005 and 2013, the age-adjusted proportion (%) of employees with all-cause sickness absence decreased from the initial levels of 10.6 among men and 15.1 among women by 16.7 and 13.6%, respectively. Among both genders, the largest decrease in sickness absence coincided with the peak of the economic recession in 2009. In sickness absence due to all causes and musculoskeletal diseases, also the excess decrease among men mainly occurred in 2009, and in sickness absence due to mental disorders 2 years later. In sickness absence due to all causes and musculoskeletal diseases, the increasing gender difference was mainly attributable to a larger decrease in sickness absence at the time of the recession in male-dominated groups, such as in manual and manufacturing work, than in other sectors and occupational classes. In mental disorders, the increasing gender difference was partly attributable to a later smaller decrease in sickness absence among female-dominated lower non-manual and lower income employment groups. The increasing gender differences did not result from differential distributional changes in employment or sociodemographic factors among the employed male and female populations. In fact, widening of the gender gap in sickness absence due to all causes and musculoskeletal diseases would have been even larger without faster increase among women in the educational level and in non-manual employment. Sickness absence decreased especially in male-dominated employment groups, resulting in a larger decrease in absences among

  18. Special investigations of hemoglobin in the dynamics of acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdravko, B.J.; Panasyuk, E.N.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of penetrating radiation into the UV, visible and IR spectra of hemoglobin obtained from guinea-pigs being irradiated by the 300 and 600 cGy doses is studied. The change of the absorption intensity in the range of 275 nm of aqueous hemoglobin solutions depending on the stage and duration of the radiation pathology is revealed. The displacement of amide absorption bands into a shorter area of hemoglobin fluctuations frequencies of irradiated animals in the period from the 1 to 19-th day after the irradiation by the 300 cGy dose and during the whole period of the acute radiation pathology after the irradiation by the 600 cGy dose is established by the use of the IR-spectroscopy method. For the relative quantitative estimation of the denaturized hemoglobins by radiation, radiotoxins and by other physical and chemical factors, one suggests to use the formulas of the hem optical density relation coefficient to the globin optical density

  19. Vection and visually induced motion sickness: How are they related?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrang eKeshavarz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of visually induced motion sickness has been frequently linked to the sensation of illusory self-motion (so-called vection, however, the precise nature of this relationship is still not fully understood. To date, it is still a matter of debate whether or not vection is a necessary prerequisite for visually induced motion sickness (VIMS. That is, can there be visually induced motion sickness without any sensation of self-motion? In this paper, we will describe the possible nature of this relationship, review the literature that may speak to this relationship (including theoretical accounts of vection and VIMS, and offer suggestions with respect to operationally defining and reporting these phenomena in future.

  20. Mental disorder sick leave in Sweden: A population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidwall, Ulrik; Bill, Sofia; Palmer, Edward; Olsson Bohlin, Christina

    2018-01-01

    The inability to perform productive work due to mental disorders is a growing concern in advanced societies. To investigate medically certified mental disorder and all-cause sick leave in a working population using demographic, socioeconomic and occupational predictors. The study population was the entire Swedish work force aged 16-64 years in December 31st 2011. The outcome was sick leave exceeding 14 days in 2012 with adjustment for 13 confounders. The risk of sick leave with a mental disorder is higher among women compared to men, among persons aged 30-39 and among parents in families with underage children. Employees in welfare service occupations within health care, education and social services have an elevated risk of mental disorder sick leave and constitute a large proportion of the workforce. The results support the need for improving early detection and prevention of mental disorders in the workforce. Improvements in psychosocial work environments are essential, where the higher risk in female dominated welfare occupations particularly, have repercussions on the quality of the welfare services provided for vulnerable groups in society. Better work-life balance in families with younger children could also mitigate the effects of a high total workload in that particular phase of life.

  1. Dexmedetomidine reduces lipopolysaccharide induced neuroinflammation, sickness behavior, and anhedonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hua Yeh

    Full Text Available Peripheral innate immune response may induce sickness behavior through activating microglia, excessive cytokines production, and neuroinflammation. Dexmedetomidine (Dex has anti-inflammatory effect. We investigated the effects of Dex on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced neuroinflammation and sickness behavior in mice.BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally (i.p. injected with Dex (50 ug/kg or vehicle. One hour later, the mice were injected (i.p. with Escherichia coli LPS (0.33 mg/kg or saline (n = 6 in each group. We analyzed the food and water intake, body weight loss, and sucrose preference of the mice for 24h. We also determined microglia activation and cytokines expression in the brains of the mice. In vitro, we determine cytokines expression in LPS-treated BV-2 microglial cells with or without Dex treatment.In the Dex-pretreated mice, LPS-induced sickness behavior (anorexia, weight loss, and social withdrawal were attenuated and microglial activation was lower than vehicle control. The mRNA expression of TNF-α, MCP-1, indoleamine 2, 3 dioxygenase (IDO, caspase-3, and iNOS were increased in the brain of LPS-challenged mice, which were reduced by Dex but not vehicle.Dexmedetomidine diminished LPS-induced neuroinflammation in the mouse brain and modulated the cytokine-associated changes in sickness behavior.

  2. Medical effects and risks of exposure to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, Fred A

    2012-01-01

    Effects and risk from exposure to ionising radiation depend upon the absorbed dose, dose rate, quality of radiation, specifics of the tissue irradiated and other factors such as the age of the individual. Effects may be apparent almost immediately or may take decades to be manifest. Cancer is the most important stochastic effect at absorbed doses of less than 1 Gy. The risk of cancer induction varies widely across different tissues; however, the risk of fatal radiation-induced cancer for a general population following chronic exposure is about 5% Sv −1 . Quantification of cancer risk at doses of less than 0.1 Gy remains problematic. Hereditary risks from irradiation that might result in effects to offspring of humans appear to be much lower and any such potential risks can only be estimated from animal models. At high doses (over 1 Gy) cell killing and modification causes deterministic effects such as skin burns, and bone marrow depression, in which case immunosuppression becomes a critical issue. Acute whole body penetrating gamma irradiation at doses in excess of 2 Gy results in varying degrees of acute radiation sickness and doses over 10 Gy are usually lethal as a result of combined organ injury. (note)

  3. Space sickness on earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooij, S. A. E.; Bos, J. E.; Groen, E. L.; Bles, W.; Ockels, W. J.

    2007-09-01

    During the first days in space, i.e., after a transition from 1G to 0G, more than 50% of the astro- (and cosmonauts) suffer from the Space Adaptation Syndrome (SAS).The symptoms of SAS, like nausea and dizziness, are especially provoked by head movements. Astronauts have mentioned close similarities between the symptoms of SAS and the symptoms they experienced after a 1 hour centrifuge run on Earth, i.e., after a transition from 3G to 1G (denoted by Sickness Induced by Centrifugation, SIC). During several space missions, we related susceptibility to SAS and to SIC in 11 astronauts and found 4 of them being susceptible to both SIC and SAS, and 7 being not susceptible to SIC nor to SAS. This correspondence in susceptibility suggests that SIC and SAS share the same underlying mechanism. To further study this mechanism, several vestibular parameters have been investigated (e.g. postural stability, vestibularly driven eye movements, subjective vertical). We found some striking changes in individual cases that are possibly due to the centrifuge run. However, the variability between subjects generally is very large, making physiological links to SIC and SAS still hard to find.

  4. Reliability of Autonomic Responses and Malaise Across Multiple Motion Sickness Stimulation Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Cynthia S.; Toscano, William B.; Cowings, Patricia S.

    1993-01-01

    There is general agreement that a high degree of variability exists between subjects in their autonomic nervous system responses to motion sickness stimulation. Additionally, a paucity of data exists that examines the variability within an individual across repeated motion sickness tests. Investigators have also examined the relationship of autonomic responses to motion sickness development. These investigations have used analyses at discrete points in time to describe this relationship. This approach fails to address the time course of autonomic responses and malaise development throughout the motion sickness test. Our objectives were to examine the reliability of autonomic responses and malaise using the final minute of the motion sickness test across five testing occasions, to examine the reliability of the change in autonomic responses and the change in malaise across five testing occasions, and to examine the relationship between changes in autonomic responses and changes in malaise level across the entire motion sickness test. Our results indicate that, based on the final minute of testing, the autonomic responses of heart rate, blood volume pulse, and respiration rate are moderately stable across multiple tests. Changes in heart rate, blood volume pulse, respiration rate, and malaise throughout the test duration were less stable across the tests. We attribute this instability to variations in individual susceptibility and the error associated with estimating a measure of autonomic gain.

  5. Therapeutic radiation and hyperparathyroidism. A case-control study in Rochester, Minn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, C.M.; Heath, H. III; O'Fallon, W.M.; Anderson, J.A.; Earle, J.D.; Melton, L.J. III

    1989-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted among residents of Rochester, Minn, to assess the influence of prior therapeutic radiation on the risk of primary hyperparathyroidism. Fifty-one cases of surgically proven primary hyperparathyroidism diagnosed from 1975 through 1983 were each matched by age and gender to two control subjects, with radiation exposure documented through preexisting medical records. The overall odds ratio for any prior therapeutic radiation therapy was 1.9 (95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 4.4) and it was 2.3 (95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 5.7) when limited to those with prior head and neck radiation. Among women, the figures were 2.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 7.5) for any prior therapeutic radiation and 3.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 10.2) for head and neck exposure. This study confirms the association between primary hyperparathyroidism and prior therapeutic radiation exposure, at least for women in this population

  6. Autogenic Feedback Training Exercise: Controlling Physiological Responses to Mitigate Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Nia; Spencer, Telissa; Cowings, Patricia; Toscano, William B.

    2018-01-01

    During space travel approximately 50 of the crew experience symptoms of motion sickness that can range from mild forms of nausea or dizziness to severe malaise and vomiting1. Developing an effective treatment for these symptoms has become a priority of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) is a nonpharmacological countermeasure for mitigating motion sickness. It involves training subjects to control physiological responses in high stress environments2. The primary goal of this experiment is to evaluate the effectiveness of AFTE for increasing tolerance to motion sickness in high stress environments.

  7. Sickness certification for common mental disorders and GP return-to-work advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, Mark; Shiels, Chris; Hillage, Jim

    2016-09-01

    Aim To report the types and duration of sickness certification for different common mental disorders (CMDs) and the prevalence of GP advice aimed at returning the patient to work. In the United Kingdom, common mental health problems, such and depression and stress, have become the main reasons for patients requesting a sickness certificate to abstain from usual employment. Increasing attention is being paid to mental health and its impact on employability and work capacity in all parts of the welfare system. However, relatively little is known about the extent to which different mental health diagnoses impact upon sickness certification outcomes, and how the GP has used the new fit note (introduced in 2010) to support a return to work for patients with mental health diagnoses. Sickness certification data was collected from 68 UK-based general practices for a period of 12 months. Findings The study found a large part of all sickness absence certified by GPs was due to CMDs (29% of all sickness absence episodes). Females, younger patients and those living in deprived areas were more likely to receive a fit note for a CMD (compared with one for a physical health problem). The highest proportion of CMD fit notes were issued for 'stress'. However, sickness certification for depression contributed nearly half of all weeks certified for mental health problems. Only 7% of CMD fit notes included any 'may be fit' advice from the GP, with type of advice varying by mental health diagnostic category. Patients living in the most socially deprived neighbourhoods were less likely to receive 'may be fit' advice on their CMD fit notes.

  8. Autogenic-feedback training exercise is superior to promethazine for control of motion sickness symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, P. S.; Toscano, W. B.

    2000-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms affect approximately 50% of the crew during space travel and are commonly treated with intramuscular injections of promethazine. The purpose of this paper is to compare the effectiveness of three treatments for motion sickness: intramuscular injections (i.m.) of promethazine, a physiological training method (autogenic-feedback training exercise [AFTE]), and a no-treatment control. An earlier study tested the effects of promethazine on cognitive and psychomotor performance and motion sickness tolerance in a rotating chair. For the present paper, motion sickness tolerance, symptom reports, and physiological responses of these subjects were compared to matched subjects selected from an existing database who received either AFTE or no treatment. Three groups of 11 men, between the ages of 33 and 40 years, were matched on the number of rotations tolerated during their initial rotating-chair motion sickness test. The motion sickness test procedures and the 7-day interval between tests were the same for all subjects. The drug group was tested under four treatment conditions: baseline (no injections), a 25 mg dose of promethazine, a 50 mg dose of promethazine, and a placebo of sterile saline. AFTE subjects were given four 30-minute AFTE sessions before their second, third, and fourth motion sickness tests (6 hours total). The no-treatment control subjects were only given the four rotating-chair tests. Motion sickness tolerance was significantly increased after 4 hours of AFTE when compared to either 25 mg (p training.

  9. The consequences of sickness presenteeism on health and wellbeing over time: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Kristian; Collins, Alison M

    2016-07-01

    The association between sickness presenteeism, defined as going to work despite illness, and different health outcomes is increasingly being recognized as a significant and relevant area of research. However, the long term effects on future employee health are less well understood, and to date there has been no review of the empirical evidence. The aim of this systematic review was to present a summary of the sickness presenteeism evidence so far in relation to health and wellbeing over time. Eight databases were searched for longitudinal studies that investigated the consequences of workplace sickness presenteeism, had a baseline and at least one follow-up point, and included at least one specific measure of sickness presenteeism. Of the 453 papers identified, 12 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. We adopted a thematic approach to the analysis because of the heterogeneous nature of the sickness presenteeism research. The majority of studies found that sickness presenteeism at baseline is a risk factor for future sickness absence and decreased self-rated health. However, our findings highlight that a consensus has not yet been reached in terms of physical and mental health. This is because the longitudinal studies included in this review adopt a wide variety of approaches including the definition of sickness presenteeism, recall periods, measures used and different statistical approaches which is problematic if this research area is to advance. Future research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors relative to sickness absence: a study based on Sweden Post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    .95) for women and men, respectively. Working instead of taking sick leave when ill, was more prevalent in the group with a high incidence of sickness (OR 1.74 (1.30 to 2.33) for women, OR 1.60 (1.22 to 2.10) for men). Overtime work of more than 50 hours a year was linked with low incidence of sickness for women......OBJECTIVE: To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work-physical, psychosocial, and organisational. METHODS: The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sickness...... incidence of sickness among both women and men. For heavy lifting, an odds ratio (OR) of 1.70 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.22 to 2.39) among women, and OR 1.70 (1.20 to 2.41) among men was found. For monotonous movements the risk estimates were OR 1.42 (1.03 to 1.97) and OR 1.45 (1.08 to 1...

  11. Leisure Sickness : A pilot study on its Prevalence, Phenomenology, and Background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; van Huijgevoort, M.; van Heck, G.L.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To explore the prevalence, phenomenology, and background of leisure sickness, i.e., the condition of people developing symptoms of sickness during weekends and/or vacations. Method: In order to obtain an estimate of its prevalence, a representative Dutch sample consisting of 1,128 men and 765

  12. A qualitative exploration of care-seeking pathways for sick children in the rural Oromia region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Bryan; Amouzou, Agbessi; Miller, Nathan P; Bryce, Jennifer; Surkan, Pamela J

    2017-03-09

    Ethiopia has experienced rapid improvements in its healthcare infrastructure, such as through the recent scale up of integrated community case management (iCCM) delivered by community-based health extension workers (HEWs) targeting children under the age of five. Despite notable improvements in child outcomes, the use of HEWs delivering iCCM remains very low. The aim of our study was to explain this phenomenon by examining care-seeking practices and treatment for sick children in two rural districts in the Oromia Region of Ethiopia. Using qualitative methods, we explored perceptions of child illness, influences on decision-making processes occurring over the course of a child's illness and caregiver perceptions of available community-based sources of child illness care. Sixteen focus group discussions (FGDs) and 40 in-depth interviews (IDIs) were held with mothers of children under age five. For additional perspective, 16 IDIs were conducted fathers and 22 IDIs with health extension workers and community health volunteers. Caregivers often described the act of care-seeking for a sick child as a time of considerable uncertainty. In particular, mothers of sick children described the cultural, social and community-based resources available to minimize this uncertainty as well as constraints and strategies for accessing these resources in order to receive treatment for a sick child. The level of trust and familiarity were the most common dynamics noted as influencing care-seeking strategies; trust in biomedical and government providers was often low. Overall, our research highlights the multiple and dynamic influences on care-seeking for sick children in rural Ethiopia. An understanding of these influences is critical for the success of existing and future health interventions and continued improvement of child health in Ethiopia.

  13. Sickness Absence and Precarious Employment: A Comparative Cross-National Study of Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, A; Braithwaite, P; Antai, D

    2016-07-01

    Precarious employment is a major social determinant of health and health inequalities with effects beyond the health of workers. To investigate the association between precarious employment and sickness absence in 4 Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each country on data from 4186 respondents aged 15-65 years in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden derived from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. Sickness absence was based on self-reports and defined as absence of seven or more day per year. Precarious employment was operationalized as a multidimensional construct of indicators. Analyses were also conducted separately for men and women. The prevalence of sickness absence was lowest in Sweden (18%), and highest in Finland (28%). 3 precarious employment indicators were positively associated with sickness absence; the pattern being largely similar in the total sample. In the sex-disaggregated sample, 5 precarious employment indicators increased the likelihood of sickness absence; the pattern was heterogeneous, with women generally having significantly higher odds of sickness absence than men. "Low household income" and "sickness presenteeism" were strong predictors of sickness absence among both sexes in most of the 4 studied countries. Sickness absence varied between the Nordic countries in the sex-disaggregated analyses. Precarious employment indicators predicted sickness absence in the Nordic countries. Findings emphasize the need to prioritize informed and monitored collective bargaining for all workers, increase working time flexibility, and improving work conditions.

  14. Sickness presenteeism: The prevalence of coming to work while ill among paediatric resident physicians in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kevin J; Vayalumkal, Joseph V

    2017-05-01

    Sickness presenteeism is defined as the act of attending one's job despite ill-health. Recently, physicians and other health care workers have become the focus of sickness presenteeism research, because presenteeism in this population can put patients at risk of infection. There are currently no data on this topic among physicians in Canada. The aim of this study was to investigate sickness presenteeism in paediatric resident physicians in Canada. We conducted an anonymous, online, cross-sectional survey study in which all paediatric residents in Canada were eligible. Outcomes of interest included prevalences of sickness presenteeism, sickness during the study period and voluntary self-appointed personal protective equipment use when engaging in sickness presenteeism. Response rate was 56.5% (N=323). During the previous 2 months, 61% (95% confidence interval [CI] 55.7 to 66.3) of respondents reported having experienced an illness and 59% (95% CI 53.7 to 64.5) of respondents had come to work sick. Of those who reported becoming ill during the study period, 97.0% (95% CI 94.6 to 99.4) reported coming to work while sick. There was no difference in prevalence when comparing across post-graduate year training levels. Extra personal protective equipment was used by 86% (95% CI 82.1 to 91.7) when engaging in sickness presenteeism. Sickness presenteeism is a common phenomenon among paediatric resident physicians. Our results should influence residents and supervising staff physicians to encourage appropriate self-care at home, rather than presenteeism.

  15. Child-to-Teacher Ratio and Day-Care Teacher Sickness Absenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Elvira; Gørtz, Mette

    2013-01-01

    -to-teacher ratio, i.e. the number of children per teacher in an institution, affects teacher sickness absenteeism. We control for individual teacher characteristics, workplace characteristics, and family background characteristics of the children in the day-care institutions. Our estimation results indicate...... that the child-to-teacher ratio is positively related to sickness absence for 2005-2006, but not for 2002-2004....

  16. Effects of organizational justice on depressive symptoms and sickness absence: a longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybema, Jan F; van den Bos, Kees

    2010-05-01

    A longitudinal three-wave study among a large representative sample of 1519 employees of various companies in The Netherlands examined how organizational justice (as measured by distributive and procedural justice) was related to depressive symptoms and sickness absence. It was predicted that perceived justice would contribute to lower depressive symptoms and sickness absence, whereas depressive symptoms and absenteeism in turn would contribute to lower perceptions of organizational justice. In line with the predictions, we found that both distributive and procedural justice contributed to lower depressive symptoms, and distributive justice contributed to lower sickness absence in the following year. With regard to reversed effects, sickness absence contributed to lower perceptions of distributive justice to some extent. Moreover, sickness absence was related to higher depressive symptoms a year later. This research shows the importance of justice in organizations as a means to enhance the wellbeing of people at work and to prevent absenteeism. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Motion sickness and otolith sensitivity - A pilot study of habituation to linear acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, A. R.; Sadoff, M.; Billingham, J.

    1977-01-01

    Astronauts, particularly in Skylab flights, experienced varying degrees of motion sickness lasting 3-5 days. One possible mechanism for this motion sickness adaptation is believed to be a reduction in otolith sensitivity with an attendant reduction in sensory conflict. In an attempt to determine if this hypothesis is valid, a ground-based pilot study was conducted on a vertical linear accelerator. The extent of habituation to accelerations which initially produced motion sickness was evaluated, along with the possible value of habituation training to minimize the space motion sickness problem. Results showed that habituation occurred for 6 of the 8 subjects tested. However, in tests designed to measure dynamic and static otolith function, no significant differences between pre- and post-habituation tests were observed. Cross habituation effects to a standard Coriolis acceleration test were not significant. It is unlikely that ground-based pre-habituation to linear accelerations of the type examined would alter susceptibility to space motion sickness.

  18. Absenteeism due to sickness in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymczykiewicz, K.

    1980-01-01

    During two consecutive years sickness absence of 8005 miners from two pit coal mines (A and B) of different geological structure and mechanization degree was analysed. It was found that in mine ''A'' 37% had no sick leaves, whereas in mine ''B''--28%. Absence rate was similar in both mines (though the miners' work and living conditions differed), i.e. 5.21% in mine ''A'', and 5.98% in mine ''B''. Thus work and living conditions do not determine general sickness absence rate. The highest absence in both mines was that of miners frequently falling ill for a long time (approx. 5.5% miners). For the group the number of work disablement days was 28.8 and 26.7, respectively. Underground miners' sickness absence was higher than that of surface workers, the rate being 3.8 and 4.0 and 1.1 and 2.1, respectively. The highest absence was that of miners travelling to work on motor cycles (7.1 and 7.3) and bicycles (6.4 and 6.7). Those working regularly in the first shift were more frequently absent from work than those working in different shifts. Miners living in worse conditions had higher absence rate than those living in flats of a higher standard. Also elderly employees and those having children represented a higher absence rate. The highest absence rate was that of workers having four children, the lowest--that of single persons. In addition, specific absence rate of men, especially due to respiratory and circulatory system diseases, was found to be enhanced by smoking. Absence rate of smokers was 2--3 times higher than that of non-smokers.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Breath-Hold Divers with Cerebral Decompression Sickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryu Matsuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of cerebral decompression sickness (DCS is still unclear. We report 2 cases of breath-hold divers with cerebral DCS in whom magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated distinctive characteristics. One case presented right hemiparesthesia, diplopia, and gait disturbance after breath-hold diving into the sea at a depth of 20 m. Brain MRI with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR sequence revealed multiple hyperintense lesions in the right frontal lobe, bilateral thalamus, pons, and right cerebellar hemisphere. The second case presented visual and gait disturbance after repetitive breath-hold diving into the sea. FLAIR imaging showed hyperintense areas in the bilateral occipito-parietal lobes. In both cases, diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient mapping revealed hyperintense areas in the lesions identified by FLAIR. Moreover, follow-up MRI showed attenuation of the FLAIR signal abnormalities. These findings are suggestive of transient hyperpermeability in the microvasculature as a possible cause of cerebral DCS.

  20. Partial sick leave--review of its use, effects and feasibility in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausto, Johanna; Miranda, Helena; Martimo, Kari-Pekka; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2008-08-01

    Partial sick leave and partial sickness benefits are currently available in Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland. The literature was reviewed to determine their use, describe their recipients, find evidence of their effects, and explore attitudes towards and experiences with their use. Eight databases were searched. National sickness absence statistics and other relevant sources were also reviewed. Of the sickness benefits, partial benefits accounted for approximately one-fifth in Norway, less than 10% in Denmark, and over a third in Sweden. In Finland, partial sick leave was seldom used during the first year (2007) of benefit availability. Few peer-reviewed studies on its effects were identified, and scientific evidence was scarce. Its acceptance was good in all four countries. Most of the recipients were women and over 45 years of age. Studies of its feasibility seem congruent in reporting hindrances due to inflexible work arrangements and poor collaboration between actors. More research and more rigorous study designs are needed to determine whether partial sick leave is feasible and beneficial in keeping those with reduced work ability in worklife.

  1. Sickness Absence and Disability Pension After Breast Cancer Diagnosis: A 5-Year Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvillemo, Pia; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Bränström, Richard; Nilsson, Kerstin; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2017-06-20

    Purpose To explore future diagnosis-specific sickness absence and disability pension among women with breast cancer compared with women without breast cancer. Also, to examine associations with disease-related and sociodemographic factors among those with breast cancer. Methods Longitudinal register data on 3,547 women living in Sweden (age 20 to 65 years) who were first diagnosed with breast cancer in 2005, and a matched comparison cohort (n = 14,188), were analyzed for the annual prevalence of diagnosis-specific sickness absence and disability pension over 5 years. Logistic regressions were used to explore associations of disease-related and sociodemographic factors with future sickness absence and disability pension among women with breast cancer. Results Immediately after being diagnosed with breast cancer, the proportion of women with sickness absence was high but decreased continuously from the 1st through 5th year after diagnosis (71%, 40%, 30%, 22%, and 19%, respectively). In comparison, the range for women without breast cancer was 17% to 11%, respectively. The higher prevalence of sickness absence after breast cancer was mainly a result of breast cancer diagnosis, not a mental diagnosis, or other somatic diagnoses. Advanced cancer at diagnosis, > 90 days sickness absence before diagnosis, low education, and being born outside Sweden were associated with higher odds ratios for sickness absence and disability pension (odds ratio range, 1.40 to 6.45). Conclusion The level of sickness absence increased substantially in women with breast cancer during the first year after diagnosis and approached the level of breast cancer-free women in the following years; however, even in the first year, most women were not on sickness absence for a substantial time, and even in high-risk groups, many were not on sickness absence or disability pension in the following years. Information about relatively low future sickness absence and disability pension levels can be used by

  2. Two cases of colorectal cancer developed more than 30 years after pelvic radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Mituaki; Aoki, Youzou; Uesaka, Kazunobu; Enomoto, Katuhiko; Shimamoto, Tetuya; Hirabayashi, Naoki [Hashimoto Municipal Hospital, Wakayama (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    We experienced two cases of advanced colorectal cancer developed after radiation therapy. One case was a 66-year old female who had received irradiation for her uterine cancer 35 years before. She was treated for a radiation colitis and a radiation dermatitis 6 years ago. Sigmoid colon cancer was pointed out by barium enema and colonoscopy, and Hartmann's operation was performed. The other case was a 68-year old man who had received irradiation for left malignant orchionous 30 years before. He had the radiation dermatitis in both inguinal region, and had received skin graft for the left inguinal dermatitis. He complained of anal bleeding, and rectal cancer was found out by the colonoscopy. Low anterior resection was performed. Their pathological findings showed mucinous adenocarcinoma. In a review of the Japanese literature, colorectal cancers developed more than 30 years after pelvic radiation therapy have been reported in only 8 cases including these two cases. (author)

  3. Two cases of colorectal cancer developed more than 30 years after pelvic radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Mituaki; Aoki, Youzou; Uesaka, Kazunobu; Enomoto, Katuhiko; Shimamoto, Tetuya; Hirabayashi, Naoki

    2000-01-01

    We experienced two cases of advanced colorectal cancer developed after radiation therapy. One case was a 66-year old female who had received irradiation for her uterine cancer 35 years before. She was treated for a radiation colitis and a radiation dermatitis 6 years ago. Sigmoid colon cancer was pointed out by barium enema and colonoscopy, and Hartmann's operation was performed. The other case was a 68-year old man who had received irradiation for left malignant orchionous 30 years before. He had the radiation dermatitis in both inguinal region, and had received skin graft for the left inguinal dermatitis. He complained of anal bleeding, and rectal cancer was found out by the colonoscopy. Low anterior resection was performed. Their pathological findings showed mucinous adenocarcinoma. In a review of the Japanese literature, colorectal cancers developed more than 30 years after pelvic radiation therapy have been reported in only 8 cases including these two cases. (author)

  4. Effective radiation therapy on two cases of primary Ewing's sarcoma of the rib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzen, Yoshio; Nakanishi, Kazue; Ajimu, Akira; Ishida, Yutaka; Fujimoto, Toshifumi; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Hombo, Zenichiro; Amamoto, Yuhei.

    1987-01-01

    Two cases of primary Ewing's sarcoma of the rib are reported, in which radiation therapy was quite effective. Case 1 was an 18-year-old female who had had an operation and radiation therapy for Ewing's sarcoma of the left 7th rib. She was referred to our hospital after a recurrent tumor was found. Radiation therapy (tumor dose 46.2 Gy) and chemotherapy were given. The tumor disappeared and there has been no relapse for 1 year and 3 months after the treatment. Case 2 was a 2-year-old-infant. Radiation therapy (tumor dose 74 Gy) was given for primary Ewing's sarcoma of the left 6th rib. The tumor became small and was successfully removed at operation. There has been no relapse or distant metastasis for 8 months following the operation. We emphasize the importance of multidisciplinary treatment in case 1 and the usefulness of preoperative radiotherapy in case 2. (author)

  5. Long-term sickness absence from work due to physical inactivity: A registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgsbro, Cecilie; Davidsen, Michael; Sørensen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between leisure-time physical inactivity and long-term sickness absence in a representative sample of individuals aged 16-54 years, within the labour market and in good health. It was hypothesised that physically inactive individuals have a higher risk of long-term sickness absence and longer duration of sickness absence. The study population was identified from the National Health and Morbidity Survey, 2010. Weekly data on long-term sickness absence were obtained from the National Register on Social Transfer Payments (the DREAM registry). The association of incidence and duration of long-term sickness absence with physical inactivity was explored using logistic and Poisson regression. Data were fitted to models with levels of physical activity, demographic, social and lifestyle characteristics as independent variables. A combined hurdle model was used to estimate the difference in mean number of absence weeks. Logistic regression showed that physically inactive individuals had a 27% higher incidence of long-term sickness absence compared with physically active individuals. The Poisson regression showed that long-term sickness absence was only slightly shorter (1 week less) for moderately active individuals compared with inactive individuals. The hurdle model estimated longer absence periods for inactive individuals (additional 2.5 weeks) in comparison with moderately and highly active individuals. The study showed that physically inactive individuals have a higher incidence of long-term absence and that physically inactive individuals have longer periods with sickness absence than moderately and highly active individuals. When adjustments for social and health behaviour were included, the estimated associations became statistically insignificant.

  6. The decision-making process of workers in using sick time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandal, C