WorldWideScience

Sample records for radiation protective effects

  1. Effective dose: a radiation protection quantity

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, H G

    2012-01-01

    Modern radiation protection is based on the principles of justification, limitation, and optimisation. Assessment of radiation risks for individuals or groups of individuals is, however, not a primary objective of radiological protection. The implementation of the principles of limitation and optimisation requires an appropriate quantification of radiation exposure. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has introduced effective dose as the principal radiological protection quantity to be used for setting and controlling dose limits for stochastic effects in the regulatory context, and for the practical implementation of the optimisation principle. Effective dose is the tissue weighted sum of radiation weighted organ and tissue doses of a reference person from exposure to external irradiations and internal emitters. The specific normalised values of tissue weighting factors are defined by ICRP for individual tissues, and used as an approximate age- and sex-averaged representation of th...

  2. Research on radiation effect and radiation protection at JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kimiaki

    2007-01-01

    Researches on radiation effect and radiation protection at JAEA have been carried out in different sections. In recent years, the organizations were rearranged to attain better research circumstances, and new research programs started. At present, radiation effect studies focus on radiation effect mechanisms at atomic, molecular and cellular levels including simulation studies, and protection studies focus on dosimetry for conditions difficult to cover with currently used methods and data as well as the related basic studies. The outlines of the whole studies and also some descriptions on selected subjects will be given in this paper. (author)

  3. Gonad protective effect of radiation protective apron in chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Masatoshi; Kato, Hideyuki; Fujibuchi, Toshiou; Ochi, Shigehiro; Morita, Fuminori

    2004-01-01

    Depending on the facility, a radiation protective apron (protector) is used to protect the gonad from radiation exposure in chest radiography. To determine the necessity of using a protector during chest radiography, we measured the effect of the protector on the gonad in this study. First, using a human body phantom, we measured the absorbed dose of the female gonad with and without the protector, using a thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD), and confirmed its protective effect. Using the protector, the absorbed dose was reduced to 28±2% and 39±4% for field sizes of 14 x 17 inch and 14 x 14 inch, respectively. Next, we used Monte Carlo simulation and confirmed, not only the validity of the actual measurement values, but also the fact that the influence of radiation on the absorbed dose of the gonad was mostly from scattered radiation from inside the body for the 14 x 17 inch field size, and also from the X-ray tube for the 14 x 14 inch field size. Although a certain protective effect is achieved by using the protector, the radiation dose to the gonad is only a few μGy even without a protector. Thus, the risk of a genetic effect would be as small as 10 -8 . Given that acceptable risk is below 10 -6 , we conclude the use of a radiation protective apron is not necessary for diagnostic chest radiography. (author)

  4. [Gonad protective effect of radiation protective apron in chest radiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masatoshi; Kato, Hideyuki; Fujibuchi, Toshiou; Ochi, Shigehiro; Morita, Fuminori

    2004-12-01

    Depending on the facility, a radiation protective apron (protector) is used to protect the gonad from radiation exposure in chest radiography. To determine the necessity of using a protector during chest radiography, we measured the effect of the protector on the gonad in this study. First, using a human body phantom, we measured the absorbed dose of the female gonad with and without the protector, using a thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD), and confirmed its protective effect. Using the protector, the absorbed dose was reduced to 28+/-2% and 39+/-4% for field sizes of 14 x 17 inch and 14 x 14 inch, respectively. Next, we used Monte Carlo simulation and confirmed, not only the validity of the actual measurement values, but also the fact that the influence of radiation on the absorbed dose of the gonad was mostly from scattered radiation from inside the body for the 14 x 17 inch field size, and also from the X-ray tube for the 14 x 14 inch field size. Although a certain protective effect is achieved by using the protector, the radiation dose to the gonad is only a few microGy even without a protector. Thus, the risk of a genetic effect would be as small as 10(-8). Given that acceptable risk is below 10(-6), we conclude the use of a radiation protective apron is not necessary for diagnostic chest radiography.

  5. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1975-01-01

    Physical and radiological terms, quantities, and units. Basic principles of radiation protection (ICRP, IAEA, EURATOM, FRG). Biological effects of ionizing radiation. Objectives of practical radiation protection. (HP) [de

  6. Radiation protection standards: a summary of the biological effects of ionising radiation and principles of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This leaflet in the NRPB At-a-Glance-Series briefly summarises the biological effects of radiation, harm and sensitivity to radiation, radiation protection principles, acceptability of risk and the control of doses to workers, the public and in medical procedures in the UK. (UK)

  7. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A NRPB leaflet in the 'At-a-Glance' series explains in a simple but scientifically accurate way what radiation is, the biological effects and the relative sensitivity of different parts of the human body. The leaflet then discusses radiation protection principles, radiation protection in the UK and finally the effectiveness of this radiation protection as judged by a breakdown of the total dose received by an average person in the UK, a heavy consumer of Cumbrian seafood, an average nuclear industry worker and an average person in Cornwall. (UK)

  8. Atoms, radiation, and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes basic atomic and nuclear structure, the physical processes that result in the emission of ionizing radiations, and external and internal radiation protection criteria, standards, and practices from the standpoint of their underlying physical and biological basis. The sources and properties of ionizing radiation-charged particles, photons, and neutrons-and their interactions with matter are discussed in detail. The underlying physical principles of radiation detection and systems for radiation dosimetry are presented. Topics considered include atomic physics and radiation; atomic structure and radiation; the nucleus and nuclear radiation; interaction of heavy charged particles with matter; interaction of beta particles with matter; phenomena associated with charged-particle tracks; interaction of photons with matter; neutrons, fission and criticality; methods of radiation detection; radiation dosimetry; chemical and biological effects of radiation; radiation protection criteria and standards; external radiation protection; and internal dosimetry and radiation protection

  9. Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, James E

    2007-01-01

    Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based. The work covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data. The procedures that are used to protect man and the environment from the potential harmful effects of

  10. [Optimizing staff radiation protection in radiology by minimizing the effective dose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Boetticher, H; Lachmund, J; Hoffmann, W; Luska, G

    2006-03-01

    In the present study the optimization of radiation protection devices is achieved by minimizing the effective dose of the staff members since the stochastic radiation effects correlate to the effective dose. Radiation exposure dosimetry was performed with TLD measurements using one Alderson Phantom in the patient position and a second phantom in the typical position of the personnel. Various types of protective clothing as well as fixed shields were considered in the calculations. It was shown that the doses of the unshielded organs (thyroid, parts of the active bone marrow) contribute significantly to the effective dose of the staff. Therefore, there is no linear relationship between the shielding factors for protective garments and the effective dose. An additional thyroid protection collar reduces the effective dose by a factor of 1.7 - 3.0. X-ray protective clothing with a 0.35 mm lead equivalent and an additional thyroid protection collar provides better protection against radiation than an apron with a 0.5 mm lead equivalent but no collar. The use of thyroid protection collars is an effective preventive measure against exceeding occupational organ dose limits, and a thyroid shield also considerably reduces the effective dose. Therefore, thyroid protection collars should be a required component of anti-X protection.

  11. Effectiveness of eye drops protective against ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daxer, A; Blumthaler, M; Schreder, J; Ettl, A

    1998-01-01

    To test the effectiveness of commercially available ultraviolet (UV)-protective eye drops (8-hydroxy-1-methylchinolinium methylsulphate) which are recommended for protection against both solar and artificial UV radiation. The spectral transmission in the wavelength range from 250 to 500 nm was investigated in 1-nm steps using a high-resolution double monochromator with holographic gratings of 2,400 lines/mm and a 1,000-watt halogen lamp as light source. The transmission spectrum was measured for different values of the layer thickness. The transmission of a liquid layer of about 10 microns, which corresponds to the thickness of the human tear film, shows a cut-off at 290 nm with a transmission of about 25-50% at shorter wavelengths. For wavelengths longer than 290 nm the transmission is higher than 90%. The threshold time ratio for keratitis formation with and without eye drops is above 0.93 considering solar radiation on the earth's surface and above 0.65 considering radiation from arc-welding, respectively. The transmission spectrum of the eye drops under realistic conditions does not show a protective effect against solar UV radiation. However, there exists reduction of UVC radiation in the spectral range typical of artificial UV sources such as arc-welding. We cannot recommend the application of these eye drops as an UV-protective aid against eye damage by solar UV radiation.

  12. Protective Effect of Chitin Urocanate Nanofibers against Ultraviolet Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuko Ito

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urocanic acid is a major ultraviolet (UV-absorbing chromophore. Chitins are highly crystalline structures that are found predominantly in crustacean shells. Alpha-chitin consists of microfibers that contain nanofibrils embedded in a protein matrix. Acid hydrolysis is a common method used to prepare chitin nanofibrils (NFs. We typically obtain NFs by hydrolyzing chitin with acetic acid. However, in the present study, we used urocanic acid to prepare urocanic acid chitin NFs (UNFs and examined its protective effect against UVB radiation. Hos: HR-1 mice coated with UNFs were UVB irradiated (302 nm, 150 mJ/cm2, and these mice showed markedly lower UVB radiation-induced cutaneous erythema than the control. Additionally, sunburn cells were rarely detected in the epidermis of UNFs-coated mice after UVB irradiation. Although the difference was not as significant as UNFs, the number of sunburn cells in mice treated with acetic acid chitin nanofibrils (ANFs tended to be lower than in control mice. These results demonstrate that ANFs have a protective effect against UVB and suggest that the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of NFs influence the protective effect of ANFs against UVB radiation. The combination of NFs with other substances that possess UV-protective effects, such as urocanic acid, may provide an enhanced protective effect against UVB radiation.

  13. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ures Pantazi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This work define procedures and controls about ionizing radiations. Between some definitions it found the following topics: radiation dose, risk, biological effects, international radioprotection bodies, workers exposure, accidental exposure, emergencies and radiation protection

  14. Health protection of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norwood, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    This textbook is addressed to all those concerned with the protection of radiation workers. It provides full coverage of the implications of radiation in exposed workers, and, after a chapter outlining, in simple terms, the basic facts about radiation, deals with measurement of ionising radiation; radiation dosimetry; effectiveness of absorbed dose; general biological effects of ionising radiation; somatic effects of radiation; the acute radiation syndrome; other somatic effects; hereditary effects; radiation protection standards and regulations; radiation protection; medical supervision of radiation workers; general methods of diagnosis and treatment; metabolism and health problems of some radioisotopes; plutonium and other transuranium elements; radiation accidents; emergency plans and medical care; atomic power plants; medico-legal problems

  15. Protective effect by EDTA in radiation inactivation of enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumakura, M; Kaetsu, I

    1985-11-05

    Protective effect by EDTA in radiation inactivation of enzymes such as glucoamylase, cellulase, and urease was studied. A remarkable protective effect by EDTA was observed and had a maximum at certain EDTA concentration. The protective effect was compared with other protective agents in the irradiation of urease, in which the protective ability of EDTA was greater than those of sulfhydryl compounds such as cysteine. (author).

  16. Evidence for radiation-induced Bystander effects and relevance to radiotherapy and to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: There are two major arms of radiation science in which Bystander effects (ByEff) could be of practical importance: radiotherapy and risk assessment. Basic biological principles, including dose-response relationships that have become dogma in the context of targeted effects of IR must now be reconsidered. The direct effects of radiation and the bystander components had to be reinvestigated to show the difference between them. It may be necessary to introduce a factor for ByEff's when calculating dose to both normal tissues and tumor. Presumably the relative effects on normal or tumor tissues could be different and that difference may not be always predictable. In relation to radiation protection, the existence of RIByEff's raises important questions for the way radiation dose is measured and modeled. The biological effect of exposure to low-doses radiation is likely to vary between individuals and between organs in one the same individual. Further studies on non-targeted effects should contribute to the establishment of adequate environmental and occupational radiation protection standards. This lecture looks at the history, the current data and controversies that are now beginning to resolve the questions concerning the mechanisms underlying the induction and transmission of ByEff. Especially, effects on radiotherapy and radiation protection are discussed

  17. The Radiation Protection Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1989-01-01

    The new Radiation Protection Act (1988:220) entered into force in Sweden on July 1st, 1988. This book presents the Act as well as certain regulations connected to it. As previously, the main responsibility for public radiation protection will rest with one central radiation protection authority. According to the 1988 Act, the general obligations with regard to radiation protection will place a greater responsibility than in the past on persons carrying out activities involving radiation. Under the act, it is possible to adjust the licensing and supervisory procedures to the level of danger of the radiation source and the need for adequate competence, etc. The Act recognises standardised approval procedures combined with technical regulations for areas where the risks are well known. The Act contains several rules providing for more effective supervision. The supervising authority may in particular decide on the necessary regulations and prohibitions for each individual case. The possibilities of using penal provisions have been extended and a rule on the mandatory execution of orders has been introduced. The Ordinance on Radiation Protection (1988:293) designates the National Institute of Radiation Protection (SSI) as the central authority referred to in the Radiation Protection Act. The book also gives a historic review of radiation protection laws in Sweden, lists regulations issued by SSI and presents explanations of radiation effects and international norms in the area. (author)

  18. Radiation protection in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ashkar, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Full text: People are exposed to ionizing radiation in many different forms: cosmic rays that penetrate earth atmosphere or radiation from soil and mineral resources are natural forms of ionizing radiation. Other forms are produced artificially using radioactive materials for various beneficial applications in medicine, industry and other fields. The greatest concerns about ionizing radiation are tied to its potential health effects and a system of radiation protection has been developed to protect people from harmful radiation. The promotion of radiation protection is one of the International Atomic Energy Agency main activities. Radiation protection concerns the protection of workers, members of public, and patients undergoing diagnosis and therapy against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The report covers the responsibility of radiation protection officer in Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2) in Inshas - Egypt, also presents the protection against ionizing radiation from external sources, including types of radiation, sources of radiation (natural - artificial), and measuring units of dose equivalent rate. Also covers the biological effects of ionizing radiation, personal monitoring and radiation survey instruments and safe transport of radioactive materials. The report describes the Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2), the survey instruments used, also presents the results obtained and gave a relations between different categories of data. (author)

  19. Radiation protection, 1975. Annual EPA review of radiation protection activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    The EPA, under its Federal Guidance authorities, is responsible for advising the President on all matters pertaining to radiation and, through this mechanism, to provide guidance to other Federal agencies on radiation protection matters. Highlights are presented of significant radiation protection activities of all Federal agencies which were completed in 1975, or in which noteworthy progress was made during that period, and those events affecting members of the public. State or local activities are also presented where the effects of those events may be more far-reaching. At the Federal level significant strides have been made in reducing unnecessary radiation exposure through the efforts of the responsible agencies. These efforts have resulted in the promulgation of certain standards, criteria and guides. Improved control technologies in many areas make it feasible to reduce emissions at a reasonable cost to levels below current standards and guides. This report provides information on the significant activities leading to the establishment of the necessary controls for protection of public health and the environment. Radiation protection activities have been undertaken in other areas such as medical, occupational and consumer product radiation. In the context of radiation protection, ancillary activities are included in this report in order to present a comprehensive overview of the events that took place in 1975 that could have an effect on public health, either directly or indirectly. Reports of routine or continuing radiation protection operations may be found in publications of the sponsoring Federal agencies, as can more detailed information about activities reported in this document. A list of some of these reports is included

  20. XXX. Days of Radiation Protection. Conference Proceedings of the 30-th Days of Radiation Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-11-15

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 107 papers are published. The Conference consists of following sections: Effects of ionizing radiation; Regulation of radiation protection; Dosimetry and Metrology of ionizing radiation; Radiation protection in nuclear Power plants; Medical exposure and radiation protection in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology; Natural radioactivity issues in radiation protection; Education, societal aspects and public involvement in radiation protection, trends and perspectives.

  1. XXX. Days of Radiation Protection. Conference Proceedings of the 30-th Days of Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 107 papers are published. The Conference consists of following sections: Effects of ionizing radiation; Regulation of radiation protection; Dosimetry and Metrology of ionizing radiation; Radiation protection in nuclear Power plants; Medical exposure and radiation protection in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology; Natural radioactivity issues in radiation protection; Education, societal aspects and public involvement in radiation protection, trends and perspectives

  2. Ionizing radiation biological effects and the proper protective measures against it's harmful effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hhalel, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    This book intrduces a good knowledge in specifications of ionizing radiation biological effects and the proper protective measures againest harmful effectes. The book is devided in to five main sections, the first one introduces the hostorical bachground of the contributions of a number of scietists in the basic knolwledge of radiation and its biological effects. The second section deals with the physical and chemical principles of radiation the third one talks about radiation detection. While the fourth section talks (via seven chapter) about the effectes of ionizing radiation on living organisms molecules cells, tissues organs systems and the living organism the fifth section talks about the uses of radiation sources, the probability of radiation accidents, protective measures, international recommendations related to doses and safe use of ionizing radiation. (Abed Al-wali Al-ajlouni). 53 refs., 107 figs., 13 tabs

  3. Protective effect of plant polysaccharides against radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bingji; Huang Shafei; Cheng Lurong

    1989-01-01

    A series of polysaccharides have been isolated from Chinese traditional medicinal herbs and tested in mice subjected to ionizing radiation for their protective action. The polysaccharides from different origins showed various degrees of radioprotection. Those isolated from Hericium erinaceus and Armillaria mellea showed a higher radioprotective effect than some other polysaccharides. They could increase the survival rate of irradiated mice to 60%. But the polysaccheride separated from Apocynum venetum has negligible effect. In general, most of these polysaccharides are effective only on administration before irradiation. No apparent protection was observed when given post irradiation. The polysaccharide isolated from Armillaria venetum could raise the survival rate of mice irradiated by lethal dose of γ-rays to 58%. It is effective even when administered after irradiation. Some work has been carried out to clarify the mechanism of radioprotective action of polysaccharides. Protection of hemapoietic organs, regulation of immunological system, induction of release of some endogeneous bioactive substances in the organism and reduction of oxygen tension in some vital tissues may be correlated with the protection of organism against radiation injury

  4. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1976-01-01

    The lecture is divided into five sections. The introduction deals with the physical and radiological terms, quantities and units. Then the basic principles of radiological protection are discussed. In the third section attention is paid to the biological effects of ionizing radiation. The fourth section deals with the objectives of practical radiological protection. Finally the emergency measures are discussed to be taken in radiation accidents. (HP) [de

  5. Operational radiation protection and radiation protection training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.

    1989-01-01

    The radiation protection system in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) is reviewed. The competent authority (the SAAS) and its systems of licensing and supervision are described. Discussion covers the role of the Radiation Protection Officer, the types of radiation monitoring, medical surveillance programs and the classification of workers and work areas. Unusual occurrences in the GDR, 1963-1976, are presented and the occupational radiation protection problems at some specific types of workplaces are discussed. The GDR's system of training in radiation protection and nuclear safety is described. 5 figs., 18 tabs

  6. The physics of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerschel, B.; Schuricht, V.; Steuer, J.

    1996-01-01

    The book is aimed at both practising specialists and scientists wishing to learn about the fundamental science of radiation protection. The first part of the book, 'Physical Fundamentals of Radiation Protection', presents a concise description of radiation sources and radiation fields, interaction of radiation with matter, radiation effects and radiation damage, basic concept of radiation protection, radiation exposure of man, radiation protection measuring techniques and physical fundamentals for limiting radiation exposure. The second part, 'Calculational Exercises for Radiation Protection' is intended to supplement the first part by carrying out relevant calculations, amending and adding special aspects and to give guidance in solving practical problems. The book is written for scientists as well as for students and staff working in nuclear facilities, hospitals and institutions responsible for radiation and environmental protection. (UK)

  7. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation - Implications for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisko Salomaa

    2006-01-01

    The universality of the target theory of radiation-induced effects is challenged by observations on non-targeted effects such as bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive response. Essential features of non-targeted effects are that they do not require direct nuclear exposure by radiation and they are particularly significant at low doses. This new evidence suggests a need for a new paradigm in radiation biology. The new paradigm should cover both the classical (targeted) and the non-targeted effects. New aspects include the role of cellular communication and tissue-level responses. A better understanding of non-targeted effects may have important consequences for health risk assessment and, consequently, on radiation protection. Non-targeted effects may contribute to the estimation of cancer risk from occupational, medical and environmental exposures. In particular, they may have implications for the applicability of the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) model in extrapolating radiation risk data into the low-dose region. This also means that the adequacy of the concept of dose to estimate risk is challenged by these findings. Moreover, these effects may provide new mechanistic explanations for the development of non-cancer diseases. Further research is required to determine if these effects, typically measured in cell cultures, are applicable in tissue level, whole animals, and ultimately in humans. (author)

  8. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation - Implications for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisko Salomaa [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    The universality of the target theory of radiation-induced effects is challenged by observations on non-targeted effects such as bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive response. Essential features of non-targeted effects are that they do not require direct nuclear exposure by radiation and they are particularly significant at low doses. This new evidence suggests a need for a new paradigm in radiation biology. The new paradigm should cover both the classical (targeted) and the non-targeted effects. New aspects include the role of cellular communication and tissue-level responses. A better understanding of non-targeted effects may have important consequences for health risk assessment and, consequently, on radiation protection. Non-targeted effects may contribute to the estimation of cancer risk from occupational, medical and environmental exposures. In particular, they may have implications for the applicability of the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) model in extrapolating radiation risk data into the low-dose region. This also means that the adequacy of the concept of dose to estimate risk is challenged by these findings. Moreover, these effects may provide new mechanistic explanations for the development of non-cancer diseases. Further research is required to determine if these effects, typically measured in cell cultures, are applicable in tissue level, whole animals, and ultimately in humans. (author)

  9. Radiation exposure and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuck, F.; Scherer, E.

    1985-01-01

    The present volume is devoted to the radiation hazards and the protective measures which can be taken. It describes the current state of knowledge on the changes which exposure to ionizing rays and other forms of physical energy can induce in organs and tissues, in the functional units and systems of the organism. Special attention is paid to general cellular radiation biology and radiation pathology and to general questions of the biological effects of densely ionizing particle radiation, in order to achieve a better all-round understanding of the effects of radiation on the living organism. Aside from the overviews dealing with the effects of radiation on the abdominal organs, urinary tract, lungs, cerebral and nervous tissue, bones, and skin, the discussion continues with the lymphatic system, the bone marrow as a bloodforming organ, and the various phases of reaction in the reproductive organs, including damage and subsequent regeneration. A special section deals with environmental radiation hazards, including exposure to natural radiation and the dangers of working with radioactive substances, and examines radiation catastrophes from the medical point of view. Not only reactor accidents are covered, but also nuclear explosions, with exhaustive discussion of possible damage and treatment. The state of knowledge on chemical protection against radiation is reviewed in detail. Finally, there is thorough treatment of the mechanism of the substances used for protection against radiation damage in man and of experience concerning this subject to date. In the final section of the book the problems of combined radiotherapy are discussed. The improvement in the efficacy of tumor radiotherapy by means of heavy particles is elucidated, and the significance of the efficacy of tumor therapy using electron-affinitive substances is explained. There is also discussion of the simultaneous use of radiation and pharmaceuticals in the treatment of tumors. (orig./MG) [de

  10. National congress of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The congress of radiation protection tackled different areas of radiation protection. The impact of ionizing radiations on environment coming from radioactive activities. The biological radiation effects, the dosimetry, the different ways of doing relative to radiation protection,the risks analysis and the communications with populations, information about accidents and the lessons learned from them are included in this congress. (N.C.)

  11. Foundations of radiation physics and radiation protection. 5. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieger, Hanno

    2017-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Types of radiation and radiation fields, the atomic structure, radioactive decays, decay law, natural and artificial radioactivity, interactions of ionizing photon radiation, attenuation of neutral-particle beams, interactions of neutron radiation, interactions of charged particles, ionization and energy transfer, radiation doses, radiation protection phantoms, foundations of the radiation biology of cells, effects and risks of ionizing radiation, radiation expositions of men with ionizing radiation, radiation protection law, practical radiation protection against ionizing radiations, radiation eposures in medical radiology. (HSI)

  12. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamalaksh Shenoy, K.

    2013-01-01

    Three main pillars underpin the IAEA's mission: Safety and Security - The IAEA helps countries to upgrade their infrastructure for nuclear and radiation safety and security, and to prepare for and respond to emergencies. Work is keyed to international conventions, the development of international standards and the application of these standards. The aim is to protect people and the environment from the harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Science and Technology - The IAEA is the world's focal point for mobilizing peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology for critical needs in developing countries. The work contributes to alleviating poverty, combating disease and pollution of the environment and to other goals of sustainable development. Safeguards and Verification - The IAEA is the nuclear inspectorate, with more than four decades of verification experience. Inspectors work to verify that nuclear material and activities are not diverted towards military purposes. Quantities and Units: Dose equivalent is the product of absorbed dose of radiation and quality factor (Q). For absorbed dose in rads, dose equivalent is in rems. If absorbed dose is in gray, the dose equivalent is in sievert. Quality factor is defined without reference to any particular biological end point. Quality factors are recommended by committees such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) or the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), based on experimental RBE values but with some judgment exercised. Effective Dose Equivalent: It is the sum of the weighted dose equivalents for all irradiated tissues, in which the weighting factors represent the different risks of each tissue to mortality from cancer and hereditary effects. Committed dose equivalent: It is the integral over 50 years of dose equivalent following the intake of a radionuclide. Collective effective dose equivalent: It is a quantity for a population and is

  13. Effects of ionizing radiation on plants and animals at levels implied by current radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The 1977 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection stated that the commission believes that if man is adequately protected from radiation, other organisms are also likely to be sufficiently protected. The present report examines this statement by considering the effects of ionizing radiation on animals and plants in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The conclusions are that chronic dose rates of IMGy.d -1 or less are unlikely to cause measurable deleterious effects in terrestrial populations, and that in the aquatic environment limiting chronic dose rates to 10MGy.d -1 to the maximally exposed individuals would provide adequate protection for the population. Thus specific radiation protection standards for non-human organisms are not needed. 193 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  14. Melatonin as Protection Against Radiation Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetner, D.; Andersen, L. P H; Rosenberg, J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Radiation is widely used in the treatment of various cancers and in radiological imaging procedures. Ionizing radiation causes adverse effects, leading to decreased quality of life in patients, by releasing free radicals that cause oxidative stress and tissue damage. The sleep......-hormone melatonin is a free radical scavenger, and induces several anti-oxidative enzymes. This review investigates the scientific literature on the protective effects of melatonin against exposure to ionizing radiation, and discusses the clinical potential of melatonin as prophylactic treatment against ionizing...... and protected against radiation enteritis. These protective effects were only documented when melatonin was administered prior to exposure to ionizing radiation. Discussion: This review documents that melatonin effectively protects animals against injury to healthy tissues from ionizing radiation. However...

  15. Radiation protection in radionuclide investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction; radiation and radioactivity; alpha particles; beta particles; neutrons; electromagnetic radiation; units of radioactivity and radiation; biological effects of radiation; the philosophy of radiation protection (ALARA principle); practical aspects of radiation protection; work with unsealed radiation sources; radionuclide studies in experimental animals; radiation safety during clinical investigations; legislative control of radiation work; radioactive waste disposal; emergency procedures; conclusion. (U.K.)

  16. Judgement in achieving protection against radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.S.

    1980-01-01

    This article includes the following topics: Ionizing radiation as a toxic agent; value judgement in establishing protection standards; origin of radiation protection standards; numerical radiation protection standards; exposure of populations; the proportional dose-effect relationship; assumptions involved in the proportional dose-effect relationship and a continued need for value judgement

  17. Strengthening Radiation Protection Infrastructures in Africa: Towards Establishing Effective and Sustainable Co-operations and Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    The third African IRPA 2010 conference on Strengthening Radiation Protection Infrastructures in Africa: Towards Establishing Effective and Sustainable Co-operations and Networks. IAEA's role in radiation protection with focus in Africa. The controlling of exposure to indoor Radon. And Measure of activities and calculation of effective dose of indoor 222 Rn in some dwelling and enclosed areas in Africa - capacity building for radiation protection. It had also address Patient Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy, challenges for advancing medical physic globally, Heath effects and medical applications of non-ionizing radiation, nuclear safety and radiation protection consideration in the design of research and development. The International radiation protection association (IRPA) 2010-2011 strategic plan that address among other issues educations and training activities (2000-2020) and the current UNSCLEAR activities

  18. Applied radiation biology and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granier, R.; Gambini, D.-J.

    1990-01-01

    This book grew out of a series of courses in radiobiology and radiation protection which were given to students in schools for radiology technicians, radiation safety officers and to medical students. Topics covered include the sources of ionizing radiation and their interactions with matter; the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; dosimetry; the biological effects of ionizing radiation; the effects of ionizing radiation on the human body; natural radioexposure; medical radio-exposure; industrial radioexposure of electronuclear origin; radioexposure due to experimental nuclear explosions; radiation protection; and accidents with external and/or internal radio-exposure. (UK)

  19. Radiation protection - Revision of French radiation protection regulations (1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayoux, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    This article analyses the recent amendments to the 1966 and 1975 Decrees on general radiation protection principles and radiation protection of workers in large nuclear installations respectively and also describes national radiation protection law. In particular, the amendments incorporate the revised EURATOM basic radiation protection standards and the new international units (sievert and becquerel replace rem and curie) in the Decrees. (NEA) [fr

  20. Radiation protection in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, E.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Fry, R.J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space.

  1. Radiation protection in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakely, E.A.; Fry, R.J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space

  2. 33. Days of Radiation Protection. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    The publication has been set up as presentations of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on the current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. On the web-page totally 103 presentations or posters are published. The Conference consists of the following sections: (I) Effects of ionizing radiation (radiology, health effects, risk factors); (II) General aspects of radiation protection (recommendations and legislative in radiation protection); (III): Dosimetry and metrology of ionizing radiation (metrology, instrumentation, use of computational methods); (IV) Radiation protection in nuclear power industry (working environment in the nuclear industry, the impact on the environment, nuclear power shutdown management); (V) Emergency management (emergencies, accidents, waste); (VI) Radiation load and protection in diagnostics, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology (burden on patients, staff, size of population exposure from medical sources of ionizing radiation, security, and quality control, optimization); (VII) Natural sources of radiation in workplaces and the environment (radon and other radionuclides, the risk estimation, optimization); (VIII) Education (new trends in education of radiation experts, medical physicists and stake-holders).

  3. Radiation protection programme progress report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The progress report of the radiation protection programme outlines the research work carried out in 1988 under contracts between the Commission of the European Communities and research groups in the Member States. Results of more than 350 projects are reported. They are grouped into six sectors: Radiation dosimetry and its interpretation; Behaviour and control of radionuclides in the environment; Nonstochastic effects of ionizing radiation; Radiation carcinogenesis; Genetic effects of ionizing radiation; Evaluation of radiation risks and optimization of protection. Within the framework programme, the aim of this scientific research is to improve the conditions of life with respect to work and protection of man and his environment and to assure a safe production of energy, i.e.: (i) to improve methods necessary to protect workers and the population by updating the scientific basis for appropriate standards; (ii) to prevent and counteract harmful effects of radiation; (iii) to assess radiation risks and provide methods to cope with the consequences of radiation accidents

  4. Focus radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebermann, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    The publication of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz on radiation protection covers the following issues: (i) exposure from natural sources: health hazard due to radon, radiation protection in residential homes, radon in Germany, natural raw materials in industrial processes; (ii) clearance of radioactive wastes: clearance in the frame of nuclear power plant dismantling, the situation in Germany and Europe; (iii) emergency management: principles of radiation protection, fictive sequence of accident events; (iiii) other actual radiation protection topics: more limits - more protection? radiation protection in medicine, occupational radiation protection.

  5. Radiation protection effect of selenium on the Rat's prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyung Seok; Choi, Jun Hyeok; Jung, Do Young; Kim, Jang Oh; Shin, Ji Hye; Kim, Joo Hee; Min, Byung In [Inje University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    High-tech medical equipment has increased the utilization of radiation in the medical field. As a result, research on radiation protection using natural materials has become an important social issue. Selenium is a natural substance that is highly expressed in prostate known that an essential role in prostate cells. Selenium was orally administered to Rat and irradiated with 10 Gy of radiation. Then, the prostate tissue was used as a target organ for 1 day, 7 days and 21 days to investigate the radiation protection effect of selenium through changes of blood components, Superoxide Dismutase and histological changes. As a result, there was a significant protective effect of hematopoietic immune system(hemoglobin concentration, neutrophil, platelet) in the group irradiated with selenium(p<0.05). The observation of tissue changes selenium is an effective component to increase Superoxide Dismutase activity, and it was confirmed that it has an effect of inhibiting the expression of hypertrophy of prostate by irradiation. Therefore, it is considered that selenium can be utilized as a radioprotective agent by inducing prevention of prostate-related diseases.

  6. Radiation risks and radiation protection at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation exposure is an occupational hazard at CRNL. The predicted health effects of low levels of radiation are described and compared with other hazards of living. Data related to the health of radiation workers are also considered. Special attention is given to the expected effects of radiation on the unborn child. Measures taken to protect CRNL employees against undue occupational exposure to radiation are noted

  7. Radiation protection of non-human species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leith, I.S.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of radiation on non-human species, both animals and plants, have long been investigated. In the disposal of radioactive wastes, the protection of non-human species has been investigated. Yet no radiation protection standard for exposure of animals and plants per se has been agreed. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has long taken the view that, if human beings are properly protected from radiation, other species will thereby be protected to the extent necessary for their preservation. However, the International Atomic Energy Agency has found it necessary to investigate the protection of non-human species where radioactivity is released to an environment unpopulated by human beings. It is proposed that the basis of such protection, and the knowledge of radiation effects on non-human species on which it is based, suggest a practical radiation protection standard for non-human species. (1 tab.)

  8. Plenary panel 1: The scientific bases of radiation protection. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation - Implications for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomaa, S.

    2006-01-01

    The universality of the target theory of radiation-induced effects is challenged by observations on non-targeted effects such as bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive response. Essential features of non-targeted effects are that they do not require direct nuclear exposure by radiation and they are particularly significant at low doses. This new evidence suggests a need for a new paradigm in radiation biology. The new paradigm should cover both the classical (targeted) and the non-targeted effects. New aspects include the role of cellular communication and tissue-level responses. A better understanding of non-targeted effects may have important consequences for health risk assessment and, consequently, on radiation protection. Non-targeted effects may contribute to the estimation of cancer risk from occupational, medical and environmental exposures. In particular, they may have implications for the applicability of the Linear-No-Threshold (L.N.T.) model in extrapolating radiation risk data into the low-dose region. This also means that the adequacy of the concept of dose to estimate risk is challenged by these findings. Moreover, these effects may provide new mechanistic explanations for the development of non-cancer diseases. Further research is required to determine if these effects, typically measured in cell cultures, are applicable in tissue level, whole animals, and ultimately in humans. (authors)

  9. Plenary panel 1: The scientific bases of radiation protection. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation - Implications for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomaa, S. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    The universality of the target theory of radiation-induced effects is challenged by observations on non-targeted effects such as bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive response. Essential features of non-targeted effects are that they do not require direct nuclear exposure by radiation and they are particularly significant at low doses. This new evidence suggests a need for a new paradigm in radiation biology. The new paradigm should cover both the classical (targeted) and the non-targeted effects. New aspects include the role of cellular communication and tissue-level responses. A better understanding of non-targeted effects may have important consequences for health risk assessment and, consequently, on radiation protection. Non-targeted effects may contribute to the estimation of cancer risk from occupational, medical and environmental exposures. In particular, they may have implications for the applicability of the Linear-No-Threshold (L.N.T.) model in extrapolating radiation risk data into the low-dose region. This also means that the adequacy of the concept of dose to estimate risk is challenged by these findings. Moreover, these effects may provide new mechanistic explanations for the development of non-cancer diseases. Further research is required to determine if these effects, typically measured in cell cultures, are applicable in tissue level, whole animals, and ultimately in humans. (authors)

  10. Radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, J.

    1983-11-01

    Topics covered include biological radiation effects, radiation protection principles, recommendations of the ICRP and the National Health and Medical Research Council, and dose limits for individuals, particularly the limit applied to the inhalation of radon daughters

  11. External dosimetry - Applications to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faussot, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Dosimetry is the essential component of radiation protection. It allows to determine by calculation and measurement the absorbed dose value, i.e. the energy amounts deposited in matter by ionizing radiations. It deals also with the irradiation effects on living organisms and with their biological consequences. This reference book gathers all the necessary information to understand and master the external dosimetry and the metrology of ionizing radiations, from the effects of radiations to the calibration of radiation protection devices. The first part is devoted to physical dosimetry and allows to obtain in a rigorous manner the mathematical formalisms leading to the absorbed dose for different ionizing radiation fields. The second part presents the biological effects of ionizing radiations on living matter and the determination of a set of specific radiation protection concepts and data to express the 'risk' to develop a radio-induced cancer. The third part deals with the metrology of ionizing radiations through the standardized study of the methods used for the calibration of radiation protection equipments. Some practical exercises with their corrections are proposed at the end of each chapter

  12. Radiation Protection. Chapter 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, D. [Ninewells Hospital, Dundee (United Kingdom); Collins, L. T. [Westmead Hospital, Sydney (Australia); Le Heron, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Chapter 21, in describing basic radiation biology and radiation effects, demonstrates the need to have a system of radiation protection that allows the many beneficial uses of radiation to be realized while ensuring detrimental radiation effects are either prevented or minimized. This can be achieved with the twin objectives of preventing the occurrence of deterministic effects and of limiting the probability of stochastic effects to a level that is considered acceptable. In a radiology facility, consideration needs to be given to the patient, the staff involved in performing the radiological procedures, members of the public and other staff that may be in the radiology facility, carers and comforters of patients undergoing procedures, and persons who may be undergoing a radiological procedure as part of a biomedical research project. This chapter discusses how the objectives given above are fulfilled through a system of radiation protection and how such a system should be applied practically in a radiology facility.

  13. Radiation protection, optimization and justification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordoliani, Y.S.; Brisse, H.; Foucart, J.M.; Clement, J.P.; Ribeiro, A.; Gomes, H.; Marcus, C.; Rehel, J.L.; Talbot, A.; Aubert, B.; Scanff, P.; Roudier, C.; Donadieu, J.; Pirard, P.; Bar, O.; Maccia, C.; Benedittini, M.; Bouziane, T.; Brat, H.; Bricoult, M; Heuga, O.; Hauger, O.; Bonnefoy, O.; Diard, F.; Chateil, J.F.; Schramm, R.; Reisman, J.; Aubert, B.

    2005-01-01

    Nine articles in the field of radiation protection relative to the medical examinations concern the new legislation in radiation protection, the optimization of this one in order to reduce the radiation doses delivered to the patients, the side effects induced by irradiation and to give an evaluation of the medical exposure of french population to ionizing radiations. (N.C.)

  14. Effects of the new radiation protection act on the radiation protection register and the monitoring of occupational radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasch, G.

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of DIRECTIVE 2013/59 / EURATOM (EURATOM Basic Safety Standards) is via the new radiation protection law and brings in the monitoring of occupational radiation among others two significant new features and changes: - Introduction of a unique personal identifier, - update of the occupational categories. Both require technical and organizational changes in the data transmission of the licensees to the dosimetry services and the radiation protection register.

  15. Radiation protection; Proteccion Radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ures Pantazi, M [Universidad de la Republica, Facultad de Quimica (Uruguay)

    1994-12-31

    This work define procedures and controls about ionizing radiations. Between some definitions it found the following topics: radiation dose, risk, biological effects, international radioprotection bodies, workers exposure, accidental exposure, emergencies and radiation protection.

  16. Proceedings of Asia congress on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    203 articles were collected in the proceedings. The contents of the proceedings included the principle and practices of radiation protection, biological effects of radiation, radiation monitoring, protection in medical and other fields, radiation dosimetry, nuclear energy and the environment, natural radiation, radioactive waste management, and other radiation protection issues

  17. Biological Research for Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Jung, Il Lae; Choi, Yong Ho; Kim, Jin Sik; Moon, Myung Sook; Byun, Hee Sun; Phyo, Ki Heon; Kim, Sung Keun

    2005-04-01

    The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about ornithine decarboxylase and its controlling proteins, thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin, S-adenosymethionine decarboxylase, and glutamate decarboxylase 67KD effect on the cell death triggered ionizing radiation and H 2 O 2 (toxic agents). In this study, to elucidate the role of these proteins in the ionizing radiation (or H 2 O 2 )-induced apoptotic cell death, we utilized sensesed (or antisensed) cells, which overexpress (or down-regulate) RNAs associated with these proteins biosynthesis, and investigated the effects of these genes on the cytotoxicity caused by ionizing radiation and H 2 O 2 (or paraquat). We also investigated whether genisteine(or thiamine) may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation (may enhance the preventing effect radiation or paraquat-induced damage) because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing or cell protecting effects. Based on the above result, we suggest that the express regulation of theses genes have potentially importance for sensitizing the efficiency of radiation therapy of cancer or for protecting the radiation-induced damage of normal cells

  18. E.S.R. studies of mechanisms of radiation protection effect by cysteine and cystine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue-Peng, L.; Tie-Cheng, T.; Nian-Yun, L.

    1981-01-01

    By means of E.S.R. the repair mechanism of radiation induced spin transfer from dTMP to cysteine in binary system dTMP-cysteine has been confirmed. Furthermore, a new marked radiation protection effect, exerted by cysteine or cystine on thymine irradiated and observed at low temperature, has been detected. Another sort of fast protection mechanism, including electron transfer and excitation transfer, has been proposed, based on recent advances of primary radiation process of pyrimidine bases and analysed by molecular orbital theory. This fast radiation protection mechanism provides the possibility to utilize electrophilic sulfhydryl protectors for realizing excellent protection effect. (author)

  19. New radiation protection legislation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jender, M.; Persson, Lars

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the new Act is to protect humans, animals and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing as well as non-ionizing radiation. As previously, the main responsibility for public radiation protection will rest with a single central radiation protection authority. According to the Act, the general obligations with regard to radiation protection will assign greater responsibility than in the past to persons carrying out activities involving radiation. Persons engaged in such activities will be responsible for the safe processing and storage of radioactive waste. The Act also contains rules governing decommissioning of technical equipment capable of generating radiation. The Act contains several rules providing for more effective supervision. The supervisory authority may, in particular, decide on the necessary regulations and prohibitions for each individual case. The scope for using penal provisions has been extended and a rule on the mandatory execution of orders regarding radiation protection measures has been introduced. (authors)

  20. Radiation Protection Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, H.M.; Schnuer, K.

    1992-01-01

    The contributions presented during the seminar provided clear evidence that radiation protection of the patient plays an increasingly important role for manufacturers of radiological equipment and for regulatory bodies, as well as for radiologists, doctors and assistants. The proceedings of this seminar reflect the activities and work in the field of radiation protection of the patient and initiate further action in order to harmonize dosimetric measurements and calculations, to ameliorate education and training, to improve the technical standards of the equipment and to give a push to a more effective use of ionising radiation in the medical sector

  1. Protective effect of Hongxue tea mixture against radiation injury in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Chun; Zhang Xuehui; Wang Qi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To develop health food of anti-radiation among biological source in Yunnan. Methods: Screening test was done of the health food of biological source of anti-radiation injury in mice. It is indicated that Hong-Xue Tea Mixture among the biological source has the effect against radiation injury, observing experiment of dose-effect of Hong-Xue Tea Mixture was done. Micronuclei in the bone marrow polychromatophilic erythrocytes in each dose group of mice were examined, leucocytes number and 30 day survival rate of mice following whole-body 5.0 Gy γ irradiation were also determined. Results: Research showed that Hong-Xue Tea Mixture and Spirulina Platensis Mixture among the biological source have protective effect against radiation injury in mice. Observing experiment of dose-effect of Hong-Xue Tea Mixture show that low, medium and high dose of Hong-Xue Tea Mixture can significantly decrease bone marrow PECMN rate of mice, increase leucocytes number and 30 day survival rate. Conclusion: Hong-Xue Tea Mixture has potent protective effects against radiation injury in mice. (authors)

  2. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Aman; Sharma, Shivam; Parasher, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Radiation dose measurement, field of radiobiology, is considered to be critical factor for optimizing radiation protection to the health care practitioners, patients and the public. This lead to equipment that has dose - area product meters permanently installed. In many countries and even institution, the range of equipment is vast and with the opportunity for radiation protection and dose recording varies considerably. Practitioners must move with the changed demands of radiation protection but in many cases without assistance of modern advancements in technology Keeping the three basic safety measures Time, Dose and Shielding we can say 'Optimum dose is safe dose' instead of 'No dose is safe dose'. The purpose enclosed within the title 'Radiation Protection'. The use of radiation is expanding widely everyday around the world and crossing boundaries of medical imaging, diagnostic and. The way to get the ''As low as reasonably achievable' is only achievable by using methodology of radiation protection and to bring the concern of general public and practitioners over the hazards of un-necessary radiation dose. Three basic principles of radiation protection are time, distance and shielding. By minimizing the exposure time increasing the distance and including the shielding we can reduce the optimum range of dose. The ability of shielding material to attenuate radiation is generally given as half value layer. This is the thickness of the material which will reduce the amount of radiation by 50%. Lab coat and gloves must be worn when handling radioactive material or when working in a labeled radiation work area. Safety glasses or other appropriate splash shields should be used when handling radioactive material. 1. Reached to low dose level to occupational workers, public as per prescribed dose limit. 2. By mean of ALARA principle we achieved the protection from radiation besides us using the radiation for our benefit

  3. 78 FR 59982 - Revisions to Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0268] Revisions to Radiation Protection AGENCY: Nuclear..., ``Radiation Sources,'' Section 12.3 -12.4, ``Radiation Protection Design Features,'' and Section 12.5, ``Operational Radiation Protection Program.'' DATES: The effective date of this Standard Review Plan update is...

  4. Occupational radiation protection. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Guides together reflect the current internationally accepted principles and recommended practices in occupational radiation protection, with account taken of the major changes that have occurred over the past decade. The three Safety Guides on occupational radiation protection are jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the International Labour Office. The present Safety Guide provides general guidance on the establishment of an effective radiation protection programme for occupational exposure, in accordance with the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards and appropriate for the sources of radiation likely to be encountered in the workplaces in question

  5. Occupational radiation protection. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Guides together reflect the current internationally accepted principles and recommended practices in occupational radiation protection, with account taken of the major changes that have occurred over the past decade. The three Safety Guides on occupational radiation protection are jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the International Labour Office. The present Safety Guide provides general guidance on the establishment of an effective radiation protection programme for occupational exposure, in accordance with the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards and appropriate for the sources of radiation likely to be encountered in the workplaces in question

  6. Occupational radiation protection. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Guides together reflect the current internationally accepted principles and recommended practices in occupational radiation protection, with account taken of the major changes that have occurred over the past decade. The three Safety Guides on occupational radiation protection are jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the International Labour Office. The present Safety Guide provides general guidance on the establishment of an effective radiation protection programme for occupational exposure, in accordance with the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards and appropriate for the sources of radiation likely to be encountered in the workplaces in question

  7. Occupational radiation protection. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Guides together reflect the current internationally accepted principles and recommended practices in occupational radiation protection, with account taken of the major changes that have occurred over the past decade. The three Safety Guides on occupational radiation protection are jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the International Labour Office. The present Safety Guide provides general guidance on the establishment of an effective radiation protection programme for occupational exposure, in accordance with the requirements of the Basic Safety Standards and appropriate for the sources of radiation likely to be encountered in the workplaces in question

  8. Concepts of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This seventh chapter presents the concepts and principles of safety and radiation protection, emergency situations; NORM and TENORM; radiation protection care; radiation protection plan; activities of the radiation protection service; practical rules of radiation protection and the radiation symbol

  9. Radiation protection programme for nuclear gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzongomerwa, A.

    2014-04-01

    Ionizing radiation including the use of nuclear gauges can be very hazardous to humans and steps must be taken to minimize the risks so as to prevent deterministic effects and limiting chances for stochastic effects. The availability of a Radiation Protection Programme and its effective implementation ensures appropriate safety and security provisions for sealed radiation sources and promotes a safety culture within a facility that utilizes these sources. This study aims at establishing a guide on the radiation protection programme in nuclear gauges that comply with national requirements derived from current international recommendations. Elements that form part of a radiation protection programme are covered in detail as well as recommendations. The overall objective is to protect people (operators and the public) and the environment from the harmful effects of these sources if they are not properly controlled. Nuclear gauges for well logging and X-ray based gauges are outside the scope of this study. (au)

  10. Radiation Protection Infrastructure In Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriambololona, R.; Ratovonjanahary, J.F.; Zafimanjato, J.L.R.; Randriantseheno, H.F.; Ramanandraibe, M.J.; Randriantsizafy, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation sources are widely used in medicine, industry, research and education in Madagascar. Safety and security of these sources are the main statutory functions of the Regulatory Authority as defined by the regulations in Radiation Protection in Madagascar. These functions are carried out through the system of notification, authorization and inspection, inventory of radiation source and emergency preparedness. The law no 97-041 on radiation protection and radioactive waste management in Madagascar was promulgated on 2nd January 1998. It governs all activities related to the peaceful use of nuclear energy in Madagascar in order to protect the public, the environment and for the safety of radiation sources. This law complies with the International Basic Safety Standards for protection against ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS, IAEA Safety Series no 115). Following the promulgation of the law, four decrees have been enacted by the Malagasy Government. With an effective implementation of these decrees, the ANPSR will be the Highest Administrative Authority in the Field of Radiation Protection and Waste Management in Madagascar. This Regulatory Authority is supported by an Executive Secretariat, assisted by the OTR for Radiation Protection and the OCGDR for Managing Radioactive Waste.The paper includes an overview of the regulatory infrastructure and the organizations of radiation protection in Madagascar

  11. Radiation protection at workplaces with increased natural radiation exposure in Greece: recording, monitoring and protection measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiriadis, C.; Koukoliou, V.

    2002-01-01

    Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is the regulatory, advisory and competent authority on radiation protection matters. It is the authority responsible for the introduction of Radiation Protection regulations and monitoring of their implementation. In 1997, within the frame of its responsibilities the Board of the GAEC appointed a task group of experts to revise and bring the present Radiation Protection Regulations into line with the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) 96/29/Euratom Directive and the 97/43/Euratom Directive (on health protection of individuals against the dangers of ionising radiation in relation to medical exposure). Concerning the Title 7. of the new European BSS Directive, which refers to the Radiation Protection at work places with increased levels of natural radiation exposure, the Radiation Protection Regulations provides that the authority responsible for recording, monitoring and introducing protection measures at these places is the GAEC. Practices where effective doses to the workers due to increased natural radiation levels, may exceed 1mSv/y, have to be specified and authorised by the GAEC. The identification procedure is ongoing

  12. Radiation and radiation protection; Strahlung und Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomaeus, Melanie (comp.)

    2017-04-15

    The publication of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz covers the following issues: (i) Human beings in natural and artificial radiation fields; (ii) ionizing radiation: radioactivity and radiation, radiation exposure and doses; measurement of ionizing radiation, natural radiation sources, artificial radiation sources, ionizing radiation effects on human beings, applied radiation protection, radiation exposure of the German population, radiation doses in comparison; (iii) non-ionizing radiation; low-frequency electric and magnetic fields, high-frequency electromagnetic fields, optical radiation; (iiii) glossary, (iv) units and conversion.

  13. New radiation protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The structure of the existing legislation and its contents and aims are reconsidered. New rules which correspond to the present situation are to be established. Also the fundamental principles of the task and methods of radiation protection are to be changed. The main effort will be to create conditions so that all human beings will be protected against the harmful effects of radiation. The effects on plants, animals and on the environment should be considered as well. The legislation should include both ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. The main responsibility of protection should stay with the central authority. Licensing of apparatus, liability for medical applications and radioactive waste is discussed. Granting of permissions and control should be accomplished by the authority. Cooperation with other national and international authorities is dealt with. (G.B.)

  14. 100 years of ionizing radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltrukiewicz, Z.; Musialowicz, T.

    1999-01-01

    The development of radiation protection from the end of 19. century and evolution of opinion about injurious effect of ionizing radiation were presented. Observations of undesirable effects of ionizing radiation exposition, progress of radiobiology and dosimetry directed efforts toward radiation protection. These activities covered, at the beginning, limited number of persons and were subsequently extended to whole population. The current means, goals and regulations of radiological control have been discussed

  15. Education in Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodig, D.; Kasal, B.; Tezak, S.; Poropat, M.; Kubelka, D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: This paper discussed the problem of the education in radiation protection. All aspects of education are included started with primary school and lasted with very specialised courses for the experts. In the last few years the lack of interest for education in radiation protection was recognised by many agencies included also IAEA and EU commission. In this paper the reasons for this situation will be presented and the way how to promote this subject again. It is not possible to prevent effects of radiation on environment and population if qualified and well educated experts do not exist. The situation in the field of education in radiation protection in Croatia will be presented, according to the new regulations in this field. (author)

  16. Occupational radiation protection: Protecting workers against exposure to ionizing radiation. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, mining and milling; medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The term 'occupational exposure' refers to the radiation exposure incurred by a worker, which is attributable to the worker's occupation and committed during a period of work. According to the latest (2000) Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), an estimated 11 million workers are monitored for exposure to ionizing radiation. They incur radiation doses attributable to their occupation, which range from a small fraction of the global average background exposure to natural radiation up to several times that value. It should be noted that the UNSCEAR 2000 Report describes a downward trend in the exposure of several groups of workers, but it also indicates that occupational exposure is affecting an increasingly large group of people worldwide. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), which are co-sponsored by, inter alia, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO), establish a system of radiation protection which includes radiation dose limits for occupational exposure. Guidance supporting the requirements of the BSS for occupational protection is provided in three interrelated Safety Guides, jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the ILO. These Guides describe, for example, the implications for employers in discharging their main responsibilities (such as setting up appropriate radiation protection programmes) and similarly for workers (such as properly using the radiation monitoring devices provided to them). The IAEA i organized its first International Conference on Occupational Radiation Protection. The

  17. A new career path in radiation protection training. Certified power plant shift supervisor. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terbeek, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Apart from theoretical knowledge, effective day-to-day radiation protection operations also require a certain measure of practical experience. Therefore, the professional degree of 'Certified Radiation Worker', issued by the Chamber of Industry and Commerce (CIC) Aachen, Germany, established at an early stage. In order to provide experienced radiation protection specialists with an attractive career path, POWERTECH TRAINING CENTER e.V., in co-operation with VGB PowerTech. e.V., the Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland) and the Swiss Atomic Energy Agency (ENSI), has devised a new power plant shift supervisor training course specialising in radiation protection. The vocational training degree called 'Certified Power Plant Shift Supervisor - Radiation Protection' is awarded after successful completion of the advanced training examination conducted by the CIC in Essen, Germany. (orig.)

  18. Radiation protection principles applied to conventional industries producing deleterious environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.

    1980-01-01

    Comparison of the radiation protection standards, for the population at large, with the conventional pollutants ambient standards, reveals differences in basic principles which result in more relaxed ambient standards for conventional pollutants and consequently, the penalization of the nuclear industry, due to the increased cost of its safety measures. It is proposed that radiation protection principles should be used as a prototype for pollutants having harmful environmental effects and that radiation health physicists should be active in the application of these principles of population protection. A case study of atmospheric release of SO 2 , under different conditions, is analyzed, to emphasize the importance of consideration of the size of the exposed population. (H.K.)

  19. Radiation protection to firemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, E.S. de.

    1985-01-01

    The basic Knowledge about ionizing radiation oriented for firemen, are presented. The mainly damage and effects caused by radiation exposure as well as the method of radiation protection are described in simple words. The action to be taken in case of fire involving radiation such as vehicles transporting radioactive materials are emphasized. (author)

  20. Radiation protection - radiographer's role and responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popli, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    Ever since discovery of x-rays, radiographers has been the prime user of radiation. With the passage of time, the harmful effects of radiation were detected. Some of radiographers, radiologists and public were affected by radiation, but today with enough knowledge of radiation, the prime responsibility of radiation protection lies with the radiographers only. The radiologist and physicist are also associated with radiation protection to some extent

  1. European Radiation Protection Course - Basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massiot, Philippe; Ammerich, Marc; Viguier, Herve; Jimonet, Christine; Bruchet, Hugues; Vivier, Alain; Bodineau, Jean-Christophe; Etard, Cecile; Metivier, Henri; Moreau, Jean-Claude; Nourredine, Abdel-Mijd

    2014-01-01

    Radiation protection is a major challenge in the industrial applications of ionising radiation, both nuclear and non-nuclear, as well as in other areas such as the medical and research domains. The overall objective of this textbook is to participate to the development of European high-quality scheme and good practices for education and training in radiation protection (RP), coming from the new Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation. These ERPTS (European Radiation Protection Training Scheme) reflects the needs of the Radiation Protection Expert (RPE) and the Radiation Protection Officer (RPO), specifically with respect to the Directive 2013/59/Euratom in all sectors where ionising radiation are applied. To reflect the RPE training scheme, six chapters have been developed in this textbook: Radioactivity and nuclear physics; Interaction of ionising radiation with matter; Dosimetry; Biological effects of ionising radiation; Detection and measurement of ionising radiation; Uses of sources of ionising radiation. The result is a homogeneous textbook, dealing with the ERPTS learning outcomes suggested by ENETRAPII project (European Network on Education and Training in Radiological Protection II) from the 7. Framework Programme. A cyber-book is also part of the whole training material to develop the concept of 'learning more' (http://www.rpe-training.eu). The production of this first module 'basics' training material, in the combined form of a textbook plus a cyber-book as learning tools, will contribute to facilitate mutual recognition and enhanced mobility of these professionals across the European Union. (authors)

  2. A Model for Protective Behavior against the Harmful Effects of Radiation based on Medical Institution Classifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eun Ok; Kwon, Deok Mun; Dong, Kyung Rae; Han, Seung Moo

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed a total of 1,322 radiation technologist in health care institutions throughout Korea. This is a comparative study conducted on the levels of protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation in heath care institutions which indicated that university hospitals and general hospitals showed higher level of protective behavior than for medical practitioners. This study found university hospitals have the following 7 characteristics to manage protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation, protective environment, self-efficacy by distinction of task , self-efficacy, expectation of the protective behavior, the number of patients, level of the education related to the protection of the harmful effects of radiation and protective attitude. While general hospitals have the following 3 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior and protective attitude. Hospitals have the following 4 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior, protective attitude and self-efficacy and medical clinics have characteristics protective environment

  3. A Model for Protective Behavior against the Harmful Effects of Radiation based on Medical Institution Classifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok; Kwon, Deok Mun [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Gwangju Health College University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seung Moo [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    This study surveyed a total of 1,322 radiation technologist in health care institutions throughout Korea. This is a comparative study conducted on the levels of protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation in heath care institutions which indicated that university hospitals and general hospitals showed higher level of protective behavior than for medical practitioners. This study found university hospitals have the following 7 characteristics to manage protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation, protective environment, self-efficacy by distinction of task , self-efficacy, expectation of the protective behavior, the number of patients, level of the education related to the protection of the harmful effects of radiation and protective attitude. While general hospitals have the following 3 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior and protective attitude. Hospitals have the following 4 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior, protective attitude and self-efficacy and medical clinics have characteristics protective environment.

  4. Protective effects of ether, oxygen and their mixture for radiation in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megumi, Tsuneo; Tsujii, Yukio; Gamo, Sumiko

    1992-01-01

    Protective effects of ether mixed with air or oxygen against ionizing radiation damages were demonstrated in adult flies of Drosophila melanogaster. The protective effects against knock-down on the second day and lethality on the eighth day after irradiation were not affected by the radiation sensitivity and DNA repair capacity of the strains. Ether (4.2%) in oxygen was more effective than ether in air for both endpoints. The protective effects may be due to damages not involving cell division, since no mitotic cells are observed in adult flies except in gonadal glands. A change in the orderliness of the cell membrane by ether is suggested to be the cause of the protective effects. (author). 16 refs.; 3 tabs

  5. Photoprotection beyond ultraviolet radiation--effective sun protection has to include protection against infrared A radiation-induced skin damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, P; Calles, C; Benesova, T; Macaluso, F; Krutmann, J

    2010-01-01

    Solar radiation is well known to damage human skin, for example by causing premature skin ageing (i.e. photoageing). We have recently learned that this damage does not result from ultraviolet (UV) radiation alone, but also from longer wavelengths, in particular near-infrared radiation (IRA radiation, 760-1,440 nm). IRA radiation accounts for more than one third of the solar energy that reaches human skin. While infrared radiation of longer wavelengths (IRB and IRC) does not penetrate deeply into the skin, more than 65% of the shorter wavelength (IRA) reaches the dermis. IRA radiation has been demonstrated to alter the collagen equilibrium of the dermal extracellular matrix in at least two ways: (a) by leading to an increased expression of the collagen-degrading enzyme matrix metalloproteinase 1, and (b) by decreasing the de novo synthesis of the collagen itself. IRA radiation exposure therefore induces similar biological effects to UV radiation, but the underlying mechanisms are substantially different, specifically, the cellular response to IRA irradiation involves the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Effective sun protection requires specific strategies to prevent IRA radiation-induced skin damage. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Radiation protection. Basic concepts of ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Tsutomu; Hirata, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    The title subject is easily explained. Main international organizations for radiation protection are United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The UNSCEAR objectively summarizes and publishes scientific findings; ICRP, an NGO, takes part in recommending the radiological protection from the expertized aspect; and IAEA, a UN autonomy, aims at peaceful usage of atomic power. These organizations support the legal regulation and standard of nations. The purpose of the ICRP recommendation (Pub. 103, 2007) is to contribute to the appropriate protection of radiation hazardous effects, which are assumed to be linearly proportional (the model of linear no-threshold, LNT) that radiation risk exists even at the lowest dose. When a change in the single cell results in hazardous alteration, the causative effects are called stochastic effects, which include the mutation leading to cancer formation and genetic effect in offspring (not observed in man). ICRP says the validity of LNT for the stochastic effects essentially from the protective aspect, although epidemiological data support it at >100 mSv exposure. The deterministic effects are caused by loss of cell itself or of its function, where the threshold is defined to be the dose causing >1% of disorder or death. Radiation protective system against exposure is on the situation (programmed, emergent and natural), category (occupational, public and medical) and 3 principles of justification, optimization and application of dose limit. (T.T.)

  7. Legal and technical regulations in radiation protection and their effects on radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betz, B.

    1975-01-01

    During the last few years, new regulations and guidelines in the field of radiation protection have been issued which affect radiotherapy, too. On September 1st, 1973 the X-ray Ordinance became effective; a few weeks later, new guidelines for radiation protections when using radioactive substances in the field of medicine were published. Of particular topical interest is the appendix of these new guidelines, in which the principles of technical competence in radiation protection when handling radioactive substances in the field of medicine are laid down uniformly for the FRG. Amongst these more recent regulations, there is also the direction by the Minister of the Interior to put the operation of accelerators in the field of medicine according to section 19 of the Atomic Energy Act under the supervision of the state and to employ newly issued administrative guidelines. After a short survey on the radiation protection laws in force, a selection of important stipulations within the new legal regulations and guidelines is discussed with a view to their effects on radiotherapy. (orig./LN) [de

  8. The radiation protection effects of TMG to the embryonic effects on the organogenesis stage in ICR mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santokuya, Takumi; Gu, Yeunhwa; Suzuki, Ikukatsu; Hasegawa, Takeo; Yamamoto, Youichi; Iwasa, Toshihiro; Yanagisawa, Takaharu

    1999-01-01

    The Organogenesis stage is the most important from the viewpoint of ionizing protection. Many physical and chemical agents in the environment can effect an embryo. Fetal deaths were classified as Preimplantation, Embryonic and Fetal. We studied an excuse as a radio protective agent of the high malformation of the sensitivity most by using TMG to the radiation. This study aimed at obtaining the information to provide it for the fetus' protection to the various environmental radiations. As for Preimplantation death, there was a statistical difference the 2.0Gy Group in comparison with the control group (p<0.05). Embryonic death, a statistical difference was recognized as in all the treatment groups (p<0.001). But, as for the TMG+radiation group, Malformation rate decreased to 1/2. As for Fetal body weight, a statistical difference was recognized in radiation group, the radiation+TMG infusion group chisels for medical use (p<0.05). Therefore, TMG protecting effect to the radiation was made clear by this research

  9. Protective Effect of HSP25 on Radiation Induced Tissue Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hae-June; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kwon, Hee-Choong; Bae, Sang-Woo; Lee, Yun-Sil; Kim, Sung Ho

    2007-01-01

    Control of cancer by irradiation therapy alone or in conjunction with combination chemotherapy is often limited by organ specific toxicity. Ionizing irradiation toxicity is initiated by damage to normal tissue near the tumor target and within the transit volume of radiotherapy beams. Irradiation-induced cellular, tissue, and organ damage is mediated by acute effects, which can be dose limiting. A latent period follows recovery from the acute reaction, then chronic irradiation fibrosis (late effects) pose a second cause of organ failure. HSP25/27 has been suggested to protect cells against apoptotic cell death triggered by hyperthermia, ionizing radiation, oxidative stress, Fas ligand, and cytotoxic drugs. And several mechanisms have been proposed to account for HSP27-mediated apoptotic protection. However radioprotective effect of HSP25/27 in vivo system has not yet been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of exogenous HSP25 expression, as delivered by adenoviral vectors, to protect animal from radiation induced tissue damage

  10. Radiation. Protection. Health. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, Michael; Maringer, Franz Josef; Steurer, Andreas; Schwaiger, Martina; Timal, Guenter

    2015-01-01

    The topics of the meeting are the diagnostic and therapeutic application of ionizing radiations, the application of radiation in research, industry and engineering and radiation protection. The volume includes the following chapters: Radiation protection and society, radiation protection infrastructure, population and environment, metrology and measuring techniques, 1. Workshop on population and environment, NORM and radon, 2. Update: dose - extent of damage - limiting value definition, radiation protection for personnel (except medicine), radiation protection in medicine.

  11. Radiation protection principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Bahari

    2007-01-01

    The presentation outlines the aspects of radiation protection principles. It discussed the following subjects; radiation hazards and risk, the objectives of radiation protection, three principles of the system - justification of practice, optimization of protection and safety, dose limit

  12. Software for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graffunder, H.

    2002-01-01

    The software products presented are universally usable programs for radiation protection. The systems were designed in order to establish a comprehensive database specific to radiation protection and, on this basis, model in programs subjects of radiation protection. Development initially focused on the creation of the database. Each software product was to access the same nuclide-specific data; input errors and differences in spelling were to be excluded from the outset. This makes the products more compatible with each other and able to exchange data among each other. The software products are modular in design. Functions recurring in radiation protection are always treated the same way in different programs, and also represented the same way on the program surface. The recognition effect makes it easy for users to familiarize with the products quickly. All software products are written in German and are tailored to the administrative needs and codes and regulations in Germany and in Switzerland. (orig.) [de

  13. An outlook to radiation protection development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martincic, R.; Strohal, P.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation protection and safety have developed over many decades as the effects of ionizing radiation have been better and better understood. Some events in the last decade had essential impact on radiation protection policy/philosophy and related safety standards. Among them are available data of some long term radio-epidemiological studies of populations exposed to radiation. Investigations of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki illustrated that exposure to radiation has also a potential for the delayed induction of malignancies. They also showed that irradiation of pregnant women may result with certain mental damage in foetus. Several big radiation accidents which appeared in the last decade also had an impact on developments in radiation protection philosophy and practices. A well known Chernobyl accident showed that limited knowledge was available at the time of the accident on transfer of radionuclides in a specific environment, radioecological effects and pathways of highly radioactive atmospheric precipitation generated during the accident on various components of the environment. New scientific data indicated also that in some parts of human environment there are measurable effects of chronic exposure resulting from natural radiation. UNSCEAR is periodically publishing the most valuable set of data as compilation, and disseminates information on the health effects of radiation and on levels of radiation exposure due to different sources. These data are also the best guidelines for the necessary improvements and updating of radiation protection practices and philosophies. The latest ICRP-60 publication and recently issued International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources are reflecting many of the above mentioned findings. On the other hand the use of radiation sources is increasing day by day, and many new facilities applying radiation in radiotherapy

  14. New radiobiological, radiation risk and radiation protection paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodhead, Dudley T.

    2010-01-01

    The long-standing conventional paradigm for radiobiology has formed a logical basis for the standard paradigm for radiation risk of cancer and heritable effects and, from these paradigms, has developed the internationally applied system for radiation protection, but with many simplifications, assumptions and generalizations. A variety of additional radiobiological phenomena that do not conform to the standard paradigm for radiobiology may have potential implications for radiation risk and radiation protection. It is suggested, however, that the current state of knowledge is still insufficient for these phenomena, individually or collectively, to be formulated systematically into a new paradigm for radiobiology. Additionally, there is at present lack of direct evidence of their relevance to risk for human health, despite attractive hypotheses as to how they might be involved. Finally, it remains to be shown how incorporation of such phenomena into the paradigm for radiation protection would provide sufficient added value to offset disruption to the present widely applied system. Further research should aim for better mechanistic understanding of processes such as radiation-induced genomic instability (for all radiation types) and bystander effects (particularly for low-fluence high-LET particles) and also priority should be given to confirmation, or negation, of the relevance of the processes to human health risks from radiation.

  15. The study of the radiation protection of propolis to the radiation effects in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Y.H.; Suzuki, Ikukatsu; Hasegawa, Takeo; Muto, H. [Suzuka Univ. of Medical Science, Mie (Japan); Yanagisawa, Takaharu; Iwasa, Toshihiro; Bamen, K.

    2000-05-01

    The profit which radiation brought to the Homo sapiens is very big. But, radiation has even harmful parameter for the human besides one case. After effect on man to the radiation is thought about, the individual of which sensibility is the highest is a fetus. Therefore, even an effects to this fetus is grasped precisely, and protection criterion and resource are decided from the viewpoint of the protection of radiation as well. If it does so, a child and maturitas aren't so difficult as in the protection of radiation and the managerial side. It was examined about control group, propolis administration chisels for medical use group, 1.5 Gy independent exposure group and propolis pluse 1.5 Gy group in this study. It was examined about the protection of radiation of propolis which to malformation, fetal death, arrested development, and so on in the organogenesis (8 days post conception) being done when sensibility is the highest against the teratogenesis. Preimplantation death rate was compared with the control group and the sham control group, and statistical significant difference wasn't recognized by a 1.5 Gy radiation independent exposure group, propolis administration 1.5 Gy radiation exposure group. As for the embryonic death rate, propolis was administered, and obviously embryonic death rate was poorer than the 1.5 Gy independent exposure group, and significant difference was recognized by a 1.5 Gy radiation exposure group (p<0.001). It has a 1.5 Gy radiation exposure group made clear by this research fetal death rate propolis administer more only 1.5 Gy exposure fetal death rate development low (p<0.001). Fetal death rate wasn't recognized by propolis administration group (Sham control). As for the teratogenesis rate, propolis was administered, and the teratogenesis rate of the 1.5 Gy radiation exposure group was higher than the 1.5 Gy radiation independent exposure group. But, this is thought anamorphosis appear by propolis administration so

  16. The study of the radiation protection of propolis to the radiation effects in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Y.H.; Suzuki, Ikukatsu; Hasegawa, Takeo; Muto, H.; Yanagisawa, Takaharu; Iwasa, Toshihiro; Bamen, K.

    2000-01-01

    The profit which radiation brought to the Homo sapiens is very big. But, radiation has even harmful parameter for the human besides one case. After effect on man to the radiation is thought about, the individual of which sensibility is the highest is a fetus. Therefore, even an effects to this fetus is grasped precisely, and protection criterion and resource are decided from the viewpoint of the protection of radiation as well. If it does so, a child and maturitas aren't so difficult as in the protection of radiation and the managerial side. It was examined about control group, propolis administration chisels for medical use group, 1.5 Gy independent exposure group and propolis pluse 1.5 Gy group in this study. It was examined about the protection of radiation of propolis which to malformation, fetal death, arrested development, and so on in the organogenesis (8 days post conception) being done when sensibility is the highest against the teratogenesis. Preimplantation death rate was compared with the control group and the sham control group, and statistical significant difference wasn't recognized by a 1.5 Gy radiation independent exposure group, propolis administration 1.5 Gy radiation exposure group. As for the embryonic death rate, propolis was administered, and obviously embryonic death rate was poorer than the 1.5 Gy independent exposure group, and significant difference was recognized by a 1.5 Gy radiation exposure group (p<0.001). It has a 1.5 Gy radiation exposure group made clear by this research fetal death rate propolis administer more only 1.5 Gy exposure fetal death rate development low (p<0.001). Fetal death rate wasn't recognized by propolis administration group (Sham control). As for the teratogenesis rate, propolis was administered, and the teratogenesis rate of the 1.5 Gy radiation exposure group was higher than the 1.5 Gy radiation independent exposure group. But, this is thought anamorphosis appear by propolis administration so long as there was

  17. Future development of biological understanding of radiation protection: implications of nonstochastic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; McClellan, R.O.; Boecker, B.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation-protection standards are based on minimizing or preventing biological effects in exposed populations. Radiation-induced biological effects can be classified as stochastic--malignant and hereditary diseases for which the probability of an effect occurring is a function of dose without threshold--and nonstochastic--inflammatory and degenerative diseases for which the severity and frequency of the effect varies with the dose and for which a threshold is present. The current International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) approach for setting limits for intakes of radionuclides by workers, which accounts for doses to significantly exposed organs of the body, is based on limitation of stochastic effects in most situations. When setting exposure limits, nonstochastic effects are generally considered to be unlikely at the limits for stochastic effects. In some situations, limits based on prevention of nonstochastic effects are lower than for stochastic effects. This review considers the threshold radiation doses for thyroid, bone, liver and lung and their relationship to the limits recommended by the ICRP and the cancer risks at the limits. This review indicates that the threshold dose for nonstochastic effects in thyroid and lung is much above the dose limit as advocated by ICRP. The threshold dose for nonstochastic effects in bone and liver is much closer to the dose limit, but protection from nonstochastic effects should still be afforded by the dose limits

  18. Safety Culture on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sollet, E.

    1996-01-01

    It can be defined radiation protection culture as the set of technical and social standards applied to the management of the operation of a nuclear facility concerning the reduction of the exposure to radiation of workers and members of the public, together with the behaviour and attitudes of the individuals from the organization towards that objective. Because the basic principles of radiation protection are self-evident and are totally justified, and the thesis drawn from the article is that no effective radiation protection culture yet exists within the organization, it must be concluded that what is wrong from the system are the attitudes and behavior of the individuals. In this article some factors and elements needed to motivate all persons within the organization towards the creation of a radiation protection culture are delineated and presented. (Author)

  19. Operational radiation protection: A guide to optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide practical guidance on the application of the dose limitation system contained in the Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection to operational situations both in large nuclear installations and in much smaller facilities. It is anticipated that this Guide will be useful to both the management and radiation protection staff of operations in which there is a potential for occupational radiation exposures and to the competent authorities with responsibilities for providing a programme of regulatory control. Contents: Dose limitation system; Optimization and its practical application to operational radiation protection; Major elements of an effective operational radiation protection programme; Review of selected parts of the basic safety standards with special reference to operational radiation protection; Optimization of radiation protection; Techniques for the systematic appraisal of operational radiation protection programmes. Refs and figs

  20. Radiation Protection Ordinance. Preventive Radiation Protection Act. 3. rev. and enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.; Zerlett, G.

    1990-01-01

    This 3rd edition presents the official explanations of the legislative intent behind the Radiation Protection Ordinance of 1976 and the 2nd amending ordinance, and the commentaries which as usual refer to the legal aspects and the related medical, scientific, and technical aspects. As a consequence of the reactor accident at Chernobyl, the existing radiation protection law has been extended by the Act for Preventive Measures for Pretection of the Population Against the Hazards of Ionizing Radiation (Preventive Radiation Protection Act), establishing preventive legal provisions and measures, so that this new edition has likewise been extended by commentaries on the Protective Radiation Protection Act and an introduction to the new area of law. The material also includes the Act for Establishment of a Federal Office for Radiation Protection, of October 9, 1989, which amended the Atomic Energy Act and the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. The correction of the Radiation Protection Ordinance of October 16, 1989 (BGBl. I p. 1926) has been incorporated into the text of the amended version of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. Court decisions and literature referred to cover material published up to the first months of 1989. (orig.) [de

  1. Management information system on radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Souza, Leonardo Soares de; Figueiredo, Geraldo Magela, E-mail: pabloag@cdtn.b, E-mail: lss@cdtn.b, E-mail: gmf@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Considering the flux complexity and the multi source information of all radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations, an effective management information system based on technology, information and people is necessary to improve the safety on all processes and operations subjected to radiation risks. An effective management information system is an essential tool to highlight the strengths and weaknesses and identify behaviors and trends on the activities requiring radiation protection programs. Such kind of distinct knowledge is useful to reach an effective management and support the human decision-making on nuclear organization. This paper presents a management information system based on Brazilian directives and regulations on radiation protection. Due to its generic characteristics, this radiation protection control system can be implemented on any nuclear organization by reediting the non restricted parameters which could differ considering all facilities and laboratories expected on-site with diverse technologies applications. This system can be considered as a powerful tool applied on the continuous management of radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations and research institutes as well as for long term planning, not only indicating how the safety activities are going, but why they are not going as well as planned where that is the case. (author)

  2. Management information system on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Souza, Leonardo Soares de; Figueiredo, Geraldo Magela

    2011-01-01

    Considering the flux complexity and the multi source information of all radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations, an effective management information system based on technology, information and people is necessary to improve the safety on all processes and operations subjected to radiation risks. An effective management information system is an essential tool to highlight the strengths and weaknesses and identify behaviors and trends on the activities requiring radiation protection programs. Such kind of distinct knowledge is useful to reach an effective management and support the human decision-making on nuclear organization. This paper presents a management information system based on Brazilian directives and regulations on radiation protection. Due to its generic characteristics, this radiation protection control system can be implemented on any nuclear organization by reediting the non restricted parameters which could differ considering all facilities and laboratories expected on-site with diverse technologies applications. This system can be considered as a powerful tool applied on the continuous management of radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations and research institutes as well as for long term planning, not only indicating how the safety activities are going, but why they are not going as well as planned where that is the case. (author)

  3. Strengthening the radiation protection culture: a priority of EDF radiation protection policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcier, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In order to improve the management of radiation protection at EDF nuclear power plants, the Human Factors Group of the Research and Development Division of EDF has performed some studies on the appropriation process of the radiation protection requirements. These studies have notably shown that an efficient application of the radiation protection requirements lies on a comprehension by all workers of the meaning of these requirements. Furthermore, they should not be applied under the constraint or because of the fear of a sanction, but the workers need to perceive and understand the benefits in terms of protection associated with the radiation protection requirements. The strengthening of the radiation protection culture is therefore a key element of the radiation protection policy developed by EDF. This culture lies on an awareness of the health risks potentially associated with low levels of ionising radiations, as well as on the knowledge of tools, techniques and good practices developed to control the level of exposures and improve the radiation protection. Various type of actions have been undertaken to reinforce among the relevant players (exposed and non-exposed workers, contractors, all levels of management,... ) an awareness of radiation protection in order to integrate it in their day to day work: elaboration of a 'radiation protection system of reference' explaining how the radiation protection regulatory requirements are applied at EDF, publication of a 'radiation protection handbook' available for all workers (including contractors), training sessions, creation of networks of specialists from the various nuclear power plants on specific radiation protection issues, organisation of feed-back experience forum, etc. Beyond these specific actions, i t is also important to ensure a support and an assistance on the field by dedicated specialists. In this perspective, the health physicists have to play a key role in order to

  4. Research priorities for occupational radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Subpanel on Occupational Radiation Protection Research concludes that the most urgently needed research is that leading to the resolution of the potential effects of low-level ionizing radiation. This is the primary driving force in setting appropriate radiation protection standards and in directing the emphasis of radiation protection efforts. Much has already been done in collecting data that represents a compendium of knowledge that should be fully reviewed and understood. It is imperative that health physics researchers more effectively use that data and apply the findings to enhance understanding of the potential health effects of low-level ionizing radiation and improve the risk estimates upon which current occupational radiation protection procedures and requirements depend. Research must be focused to best serve needs in the immediate years ahead. Only then will we get the most out of what is accomplished. Beyond the above fundamental need, a number of applied research areas also have been identified as national priority issues. If effective governmental focus is achieved on several of the most important national priority issues, important occupational radiation protection research will be enhanced, more effectively coordinated, and more quickly applied to the work environment. Response in the near term will be enhanced and costs will be reduced by: developing microprocessor-aided open-quotes smartclose quotes instruments to simplify the use and processing of radiation data; developing more sensitive, energy-independent, and tissue-equivalent dosimeters to more accurately quantify personnel dose; and developing an improved risk assessment technology base. This can lead to savings of millions of dollars in current efforts needed to ensure personnel safety and to meet new, more stringent occupational guidelines

  5. Radiation Protection in PET-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-10-01

    The presentation is based on the following areas: radiological monitoring installations in the production of PET radiopharmaceuticals, personal dose, dosage advertising, nuclear medicine, PET, radiation protection of patients, requirements for medical practice, regulatory aspects, dose calculation, shields, quantities, center Cudim, cyclotron and synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals, biological effects of radiation protection practices.

  6. The effect of moisture content within multilayer protective clothing on protection from radiation and steam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yun; Li, Jun; Song, Guowen

    2018-06-01

    The moisture from skin sweat and atmospheric water affects the thermal protective performance provided by multilayer protective clothing. Four levels of moisture content were selected to evaluate the impact of moisture on thermal protection under dry (thermal radiation) and wet (thermal radiation and low-pressure steam) heat exposure. Also, the role of moisture and its relationship with exposure time were analyzed based on skin heat flux and Henriques integral value. The addition of moisture to a fabric system was found to result in differences in second-degree and third-degree skin burn times. When moisture is added to a fabric system, it both acts as a thermal conductor to present a negative effect and provides a positive effect owing to thermal storage of water and evaporative heat loss. The positive or negative effects of moisture are mainly dependent on the thermal exposure time, the moisture content and the presence of hot steam.

  7. Health protection of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norwood, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    Essential information on the health protection of radiation workers which has accumulated since the advent of nuclear fission thirty years ago is presented in simple terms. Basic facts on ionizing radiation, its measurement, and dosimetry are presented. Acute and chronic somatic and genetic effects are discussed with emphasis on prevention. Radiation protection standards and regulations are outlined, and methods for maintaining these standards are described. Diagnosis and treatment of radiation injury from external radiation and/or internally deposited radionuclides is considered generally as well as specifically for each radioisotope. The medical supervision of radiation workers, radiation accidents, atomic power plants, and medicolegal problems is also covered. (853 references) (U.S.)

  8. Radiation protecting clothing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mio, Kotaro; Ijiri, Yasuo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To provide radiation protecting clothing materials excellent in mechanical strength, corrosion resistance, flexibility and flexing strength. Constitution: The radiation protecting clothing materials according to this invention has pure lead sheets comprising a thin pure lead foil of 50 to 150 μm and radiation resistant organic materials, for example, polyethylene with high neutron shielding effect disposed to one or both surfaces thereof. The material are excellent in the repeating bending fatigue and mechanical strength, corrosion resistance and flexibility and, accordingly, radiation protecting clothings prepared by using them along or laminating them also possess these excellent characteristics. Further, they are excellent in the handlability, particularly, durability to the repeated holding and extension, as well as are preferable in the physical movability and feeling upon putting. The clothing materials may be cut into an appropriate size, or stitched into clothings made by radiation-resistant materials. In this case, pure lead sheets are used in lamination. (Horiuchi, T.)

  9. Regulations for radiation protection in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    These Regulations specify that responsibility for applying radiation protection regulations in industrial radiography rests with the owner of the establishment who will designate a radiation protection officer to this effect. They provide for the organisation of radiation protection, including the measures to be observed, exposure limits, etc. The competent authority for these questions is the State Institute of Radiation Hygiene [fr

  10. Radiation protection in the age of accountability - measuring our effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    Effectiveness and accountability were catch-words of the 1980s for public and private enterprises. This mood has persisted into the current decade and radiation protection authorities have not escaped the organisational microscope. But whereas simple models and measures of effectiveness can be applied to most private companies and government agencies, organisations in the regulatory and preventative health areas cannot be assessed by the same criteria. These organisations are fundamentally different because their primary objective is one of minimisation. This paper looks at options for measuring and reporting the effectiveness of radiation protection organisations. Some performance indicators are proposed and evaluated. The intention is not, however, to present a 'solution' to this apparently vexing problem. Indeed, the answer may be that there is none. 11 refs., 4 figs

  11. Non-targeted effects of radiation: applications for radiation protection and contribution to LNT discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyakov, O.V.; Folkard, M.; Prise, K.M.; Michael, B.D.; Mothersill, C.

    2002-01-01

    According to the target theory of radiation induced effects (Lea, 1946), which forms a central core of radiation biology, DNA damage occurs during or very shortly after irradiation of the nuclei in targeted cells and the potential for biological consequences can be expressed within one or two cell generations. A range of evidence has now emerged that challenges the classical effects resulting from targeted damage to DNA. These effects have also been termed non-(DNA)-targeted (Ward, 1999) and include radiation-induced bystander effects (Iyer and Lehnert, 2000a), genomic instability (Wright, 2000), adaptive response (Wolff, 1998), low dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) (Joiner, et al., 2001), delayed reproductive death (Seymour, et al., 1986) and induction of genes by radiation (Hickman, et al., 1994). An essential feature of non-targeted effects is that they do not require a direct nuclear exposure by irradiation to be expressed and they are particularly significant at low doses. This new evidence suggests a new paradigm for radiation biology that challenges the universality of target theory. In this paper we will concentrate on the radiation-induced bystander effects because of its particular importance for radiation protection

  12. Environmental radiation protection - a brief history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapantis, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of ionising radiation on man has been studied intensely for decades, and the system of radiation protection for man has been continually refined in the light of those studies. That system assumes that if man is protected, non-human biota at the species level will also be adequately protected. However, an increasing recognition of the need to protect the environment, and international agreements signed in 1992, have resulted in that paradigm being questioned, with the onus shifting slowly towards demonstrating that the environment is protected. Further, radiation protection agencies and environmental protection agencies around the world have now started considering the issue of developing a system of radiation protection for the environment. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are also active in this area. The purpose of this paper is to briefly outline some of the issues confronting environmental and radiation protection specialists, and to mention some of the initiatives being taken by the international community to resolve those issues

  13. Application of radioprotectors in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kljajic, R.R.; Masic, Z.S.

    2000-01-01

    Application of the ionizing radiation in almost all the fields of human activities enlarged the knowledge of their harming influence on the living beings. At the same time there have been many investigations of different chemical means that could successfully be used in protection from radiation. Until today several hundreds of different chemical compounds have been considered to be a potential chemical radioprotector. Analyzing the results of investigating great number of potential radioprotective compounds, it can be said that those containing sulfur provide the most effective protection. That are aminothiols, aminodisulphides, derivatives of thiourea, thiosulphuric and thiophosphate acid, dithiocarbamates, thiazolines, some of biogen amines and their derivates. Among the investigated compounds there is a certain number that, under some circumstances, has shown a protective effect on the experimental animals. In the work comparative investigation of the protective effect of cistaphosa (WR-638) and gamaphosa (WR-2721) have been researched on the big experimental animals, radiated with a high level of X-radiation. Well protective influence of both radioprotectors has been proven but gamafos showed higher efficiency. (author)

  14. Concepts in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oncescu, M.

    1996-01-01

    This monograph provides basic notions and principles in dosimetry and radiation protection in compliance with two fundamental works: IAEA Safety Series No.115 - International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources - and Publication no. 60 of International Commission on Radiological Protection. After the review of quantities and units necessary in radiation protection, the book presents the new values of dose limits as well as the values of 'radiation weighting factor', 'tissue weighting factor' and 'conversion factor intake-dose' (committed effective dose per unit intake) by ingestion and inhalation for 30 most important radionuclides. The new values of dose limits, lower than the old values, are a challenge for the radiation protection, especially of the 'public' where the dose limit diminished by a factor of five relative to the earlier edition. The new value of dose limit for public, 1 mSv per year (obviously over the natural exposure of 2.4 mSv per year), imposes new action ways and levels in radiation protection, especially in some cases of exacerbated natural radioactivity. The book provides the calculus of external exposure with the Gamma constant expressed in adequate units, to make the calculation easier. In the calculus of protection shield for gamma sources one uses a method, which while approximate helps save time. The calculus of internal exposure is made using the conversion factor intake-dose. Finally, the 'dosimetric watch' of the natural and artificial radioactivity of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere is intended to comply with the International Basic Safety Standards. Each chapter ends with a set of illustrative problems which enhances the reader's understanding of underlying concepts and current methods used in the field

  15. Radiation protection in the field of environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yamin

    2003-01-01

    The relationship of radiation protection with environmental protection, the sources that may give rise to the environmental radiation contamination, and the system of radiation protection and the fundamental principles and requirements for radiation environmental management are introduced. Some special radiation protection problems faced with in the radiation environmental management are discussed. (author)

  16. The protective effect of lycopene against radiation injury to the small intestine of abdominally radiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Youko; Kurabe, Teruhisa; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo

    2004-01-01

    To reduce the side effects of radiotherapy, radioprotective effects of lycopene on villi and crypts in the small intestine of abdominally radiated mice (15 Gy) were examined with administration pre-, continuous and post-radiation. In the lycopene group, the ratio of the villus length to the crypt was significantly increased in comparison with the radiation only group at 2 days after radiation. At 7 days after radiation, the ratio of necrotic cells in crypt/total was significantly decreased and the ratio of necrotic cells in villus/total was significantly increased by lycopene administration, which indicated an acceleration of the recovery from the radiation injury with lycopene. Each lycopene administered group showed a significant radioprotective effect, with the pre-radiation administration inducing a smaller effect than that of continuous and post-radiation administration. Radiation induced apoptosis was also decreased by lycopene administration. It is concluded that pre-, continuous and post-radiation administration of lycopene protects against radiation injury of the small intestine and accelerate the recovery. (author)

  17. Training in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, F.

    1998-01-01

    Persons who are exposed to ionizing radiation at their workplace have to be trained in radiation protection. According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance the person with responsibility in radiation protection has to guarantee that the training is performed twice a year. Our training material was created especially for the persons defined in the Radiation Protection Ordinance and the X-ray Ordinance. It enables persons who teach (generally the radiation protection officer) to perform the training without tedious study and preparation of the documents. Our material is not just another textbook for radiation protection but rather a folder with colour transparencies and explanatory texts which make a difference in volume and price in comparison to other existing materials. (orig.) [de

  18. Radiation protection seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Seminar, was organized by the Argentina Association of Biology and Nuclear Medicine, and Bacon Laboratory, the 20 june 2012, in the Buenos Aires city of Argentina. In this event were presented some papers on the following topics: methods of decontamination, radiation protection of patients; concepts of radiation protection and dosimetry.

  19. Regulatory requirements for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, E.A.; Cunningham, R.E.; Hard, J.E.; Mattson, R.J.; Smith, R.D.; Peterson, H.T. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Regulatory requirements for radiation protection have evolved and matured over several decades. Due to the wide adoption of recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), there exists international agreement on the principles to be followed for radiation protection. This foundation will be increasingly important due to the growing need for international agreements and standards for radiation protection and radioactive materials management. During the infancy of the commercial nuclear industry, primary reliance was placed on the protection of the individual, both in the work force and as a member of the public. With the growth of nuclear power in the 1960's and 1970's, environmental impact assessments and expert reviews of bio-effects data have focused attention on statistical risks to large population groups and the use of the collective dose commitment concept to estimate potential effects. The potential release of long-lived radionuclides from the nuclear fuel cycle requires further consideration of radionuclide accumulation in the biosphere and calls for controls conceived and implemented at the international level. The initial development efforts for addressing these concerns already have been instituted by the ICRP and the IAEA. However, formal international agreements and a unified set of international standards may be required to implement the recommendations of these groups. Further international efforts in the field of radiation protection are also called for in developing waste management practices and radioactive effluent control technology, in site selection for fuel reprocessing plants and waste dispersal facilities, and for ensuring safe transport of high-level wastes in various forms. Since the regulation of very low dose rates and doses will be involved, it will be useful to reexamine dose-effect relationships and societal goals for health protection. Improved criteria and methodologies for ''as low as readily

  20. Course of radiation protection: technical level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The course handbook on radiation protection and nuclear safety, technical level prepared by scientists of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina Republic, describes the subjects in 19 chapters and 2 annexes. These topics detailed in the text have the following aspects: radioactivity elements, interaction of the radiation and the matter, radio dosimetry, internal contamination dosimetry, principles of radiation detection, biological radiation effects, fundamentals of radiation protection, dose limits, optimization, occupational exposure, radiation shielding, radioactive waste management, criticality accidents, safe transport of radioactive materials, regulatory aspects

  1. XXXVI. Days of Radiation Protection. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-11-01

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 93 abstracts are published. The Conference consists of following sections: (I) General aspects and new trends of radiation protection); (II) Radiation protection in medicine; (III): Dosimetry and metrology of external and internal radiation exposure; (IV) Regulation of radiation exposure to natural sources and control of radon exposure; (V) Radiation protection in nuclear power plants, their decommissioning and waste management; (VI) Application of radiation protection standards in the emergency management; (VII) Biological effects of ionizing radiation and risk estimation; (VIII) Education and training in radiation protection in the light of new recommendations of EU, ICRP and IAEA.

  2. Radiation protection in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology is an essential part of present-day veterinary practice. The need for radiation protection exists because occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can result in deleterious effects that may manifest themselves not only in exposed individuals but in their descendants as well. These are respectively called somatic and genetic effects. Somatic effects are characterized by observable changes occurring in the body organs of the exposed individual. These changes may appear from within a few hours to many years later, depending on the amount and duration of exposure of the individual. In veterinary medicine, the possibility that anyone may be exposed to enough radiation to create somatic effect is extremely remote. Genetic effects are more a cause for concern at the lower doses used in veterinary radiology. Although the radiation doses may be small and appear to cause no observable damage, the probability of chromosomal damage in the germ cells, with the consequence of mutations, does exist. These mutations may give rise to genetic defects and therefore make these doses significant when applied to a large number of individuals. There are two main aspects of the problem to be considered. First, personnel working with X-ray equipment must be protected from excessive exposure to radiation during their work. Secondly, personnel in the vicinity of veterinary X-ray facilities and the general public require adequate protection

  3. A system of dose-effects relationships for the Northern wildlife: radiation protection criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazykina, T.G.

    2004-01-01

    The key issue in the assessment system for radiation protection of wildlife is the establishment of a set of dose-effects relationships for reference representatives of natural biota, based on scientific data from a range of doses and a range of radiation effects. Risks to natural populations in particular habitats can be evaluated from a comparison of estimated doses to biota with the scale of dose-effects relationships for different types of biota. Within the frame of the EC Project EPIC 'Environmental Protection from Ionizing Contaminants' 2000-2003), a database has been created, which include the published and unpublished data relating to dose effects relationships for flora and fauna in the Northern and Arctic areas. The EPIC database contains information based exclusively on Russian/FSU experimental and field studies; chronic/lifetime exposures were the focus of the work, owing to the fact that such exposures are the most typical in radiological assessments for biota. In total, the EPIC database radiation effects on biota contains about 1600 records from 440 publications, including datasets on terrestrial and aquatic animals, plants, soil fauna and microorganisms. The EPIC database information cover a very wide range of radiation dose rates to wild flora and fauna: from below 10 -5 Gy d -1 up to more than 1 Gy d -1 . A great variety of radiation effects are registered in the EPIC database, from stimulation at low doses up to death from acute radiation syndrome at high doses. From data, compiled in the EPIC database, the dose-effects relationships were derived for different types of northern organisms. The system of dose-effects relationships forms the scale of severity of radiation effects at increasing levels of chronic radiation exposure. With its focus on the effects of low-to-moderate chronic exposure, the system of dose effects relationships provides a useful tool for scientists and decision-makers to establish safety standards for protecting the

  4. Nuclear analysis methods. Rudiments of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear analysis methods are generally used to analyse radioactive elements but they can be used also for chemical analysis, with fields such analysis and characterization of traces. The principles of radiation protection are explained (ALARA), the biological effects of ionizing radiations are given, elements and units used in radiation protection are reminded in tables. A part of this article is devoted to how to use radiation protection in a nuclear analysis laboratory. (N.C.)

  5. Summary of radiation protection in exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcier, Yves; Guers, Rene; Bidard, Francoise; Colson, Philippe; Gonin, Michele; Delabre, Herve; Hemidy, Pierre-Yves; Corgnet, Bruno; Perrin, Marie-Claire; Phan Hoang, Long; Abela, Gonzague; Crepieux, Virginie; Guyot, Pierre; Haranger, Didier; Warembourg, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    This document proposes a large and detailed overview of notions and practices regarding radiation protection in relationship with an NPP exploitation framework. It presents the main notions: matter structure, radioactivity, interactions between matter and radiations, types of ionizing radiation, magnitudes and measurement units, exposure modes, main principles of radiation protection, means of protection against internal and external exposures. The second part proposes an overview of the origin of radiological risks in a nuclear power plant. This origin can be found in fission products, activation products, actinides, designed protections, or circuit contaminations. These radiological risks are more precisely identified and described in terms of detection and prevention (internal exposure risk, contamination risk, iodine-related risk, alpha radiation-related risk, access to the reactor building). The next part addresses the medical and radiological follow-up of exposed workers by a special medical control, by an individual exposure control, by a specific control of female personnel, and by attention to exceptional exposures. Measurement means are presented (detection principles, installation continuous control, workspaces control, personnel contamination control, follow-up of individual dose) as well as collective and individual protection means. The management of radiation protection is addressed through a presentation of decision and management structures for radiation protection, and of EDF objectives and ambitions in this domain. The organization of radiation protection during exploitation is described: responsibilities for radiation protection in a nuclear power station, requirements for workers, preparation of interventions in controlled zone, work execution in controlled zone, zone controls and radiological cleanness of installations. The two last chapters address issues and practices of radiation protection in the case of deconstruction or dismantling, and

  6. Study on radiation protective effect of resveratrol and its molecular mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Qiujun; Wen Liqing; Zhang Min; Guo Shaoming; Chen Yuanyuan; Wu Zuze

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate radiation-protective effect of resveratrol and its molecular mechanism. Methods: Kunming mice were administered with resveratrol before 60 Co γ-irradiation. Thirty-day survival rate and the average life span of dead mice post-irradiation were observed. The apoptosis of spleen from irradiated mice was detected by FACS and in situ terminal labeling method. The effect of resveratrol on the activities of Caspase-3 and Caspase-8, and the expression levels of Bcl-2 and Fas were examined. Results: Administration with resveratrol resulted in increases of 30-day survival rate and prolongation of average life span of the dead mice. Apoptotic rate of spleen cells decreased, expression level of bcl-2 increased, the expression of Fas did not change, and the activities of Caspase-3 and Caspase-8 increased in spleen cells of irradiation groups. Conclusion: The results indicate that resveratrol has radiation-protective effect and its mechanism might be related with its suppression of apoptosis of radiation-sensitive cells

  7. Radiation protection philosophy alters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firmin, G.

    1977-01-01

    Two significant events that have taken place this year in the field of radiation protection are reported. New SI units have been proposed (and effectively adopted), and the ICRP has revised its recommendations. Changes of emphasis in the latest recommendations (ICRP Publication 26) imply an altered radiation protection philosophy, in particular the relation of dose limits to estimates of average risk, an altered view of the critical organ approach and a new attitude to genetic dose to the population. (author)

  8. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The original recommendations for radiation protection guidelines were made by the National Academy of Sciences in 1970. Since that time the US crews have become more diverse in their makeup and much has been learned about both radiation-induced cancer and other late effects. While far from adequate there is now some understanding of the risks that high-Z and -energy (HZE) particles pose. For these reasons it was time to reconsider the radiation protection guidelines for space workers. This task was undertaken recently by National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). 42 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs

  9. Foundations for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Full text; In 1996, the IAEA published the latest edition of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (Basic Safety Standards or BSS) comprising basic requirements to be filled in all activities involving radiation exposure. The standards define internationally harmonized requirements and provide practical guidance for public authorities and services, employers and workers, specialized radiation protection bodies, enterprises and health and safety communities. In the same year, the IAEA, through the technical cooperation programme, launched the Model Project on Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure, a global initiative designed to help Member States establish the infrastructure needed to adhere to the BSS. To address the complexity of this task, the radiation protection team identified key elements, known as Thematic Safety Areas. These are: 1. Legislative Framework and Regulatory Infrastructure, Draft and put into effect radiation protection laws and regulations and establish and empower a national regulatory authority. 2. Occupational Exposure Control Protect the health and safety of each individual who faces the risk of radiation exposure in the workplace through individual and workplace monitoring programmes, including dose assessment, record keeping of doses and quality management. 3. Medical Exposure Control: Develop procedures and activities to control the exposure of patients undergoing diagnosis and/or treatment via diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine or radiotherapy through staff training, provision of basic quality control equipment, and the establishment of quality assurance programmes. 4. Public and Environmental Exposure Control: Develop means to protect both the public and the environment including: a) programmes to register, inventory and provide safe storage of unused radioactive sources and material; b) procedures to control and safely

  10. Principles of radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamourtzounis, J. N. [World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1969-05-15

    In the rapidly developing areas of occupational and public health devoted to the protection of people from both immediate and delayed harmful (and sometimes Irreversible) effects of radiation exposure, industrial hygienists, radiological physicists and radiologists must now assume the additional responsibility of protection against radiation. Everyone during his life will have had one or more X-rays taken for diagnostic purposes. The doses received, depending upon the site, are not harmful to the individual, from the genetic aspect, however, the increasing use of X-ray examinations does present a danger,since almost the whole population is involved. Rapid progress in the development of nuclear energy and the practical extension of its use in medicine, agriculture and industry are steadily increasing the potential danger of large groups of the population being exposed to radiation, and radiation hazards are becoming an important aspect of industrial and public hygiene. WHO is concerned with the overall evaluation of population exposure from peaceful uses of atomic energy and through medical practice, the evaluation of radiation risks,and the control of medical radiation exposure. WHO stimulates and provides technical assistance for the development of appropriate programs of radiation protection with respect to the agricultural, industrial and medical applications of radioisotopes. X-rays and radium. (author)

  11. The development of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.

    1981-01-01

    The harm that might be caused by radiation exposure was recognised within months of Rontgen's discovery of X-rays, and recommendations for protection of patients and workers with radiation were formulated first in 1928. In the light of increasing radiobiological, genetic and human epidemiological evidence, it became clear that there might be no threshold, below which harmful effects did not occur. Recommendation and practice in radiation protection reflected this opinion from the early 1950's, and emphasised the consequent need for minimising exposures, quantifying risks and revising the dose limits appropriate for internal radiation of body organs. (author)

  12. Ecological radiation protection criteria for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.

    1993-01-01

    By now a large quantity of radioactive hazards of all sizes and shapes has accumulated in Russia. They include RBMK, VVER, and BN (fast-neutron) nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel processing plants, radioactive waste dumps, ships with nuclear power units, etc. In order to evaluate the radioecological situation correctly, the characteristics of the radioactive contamination must be compiled in these areas with some system of criteria which will provide an acceptable level of ecological safety. Currently health criteria for radiation protection are, which are oriented to man's radiation protection, predominate. Here the concept of a thresholdless linear dose-response dependence, which has been confirmed experimentally only at rather high doses (above 1 Gy), is taken as the theoretical basis for evaluating and normalizing radiation effects. According to one opinion, protecting people against radiation is sufficient to protect other types of organisms, although they are not necessarily of the same species. However, from the viewpoint of ecology, this approach is incorrect, because it does not consider radiation dose differences between man and other living organisms. The article discusses dose-response dependences for various organisms, biological effects of ionizing radiation, and appropriate radiation protection criteria

  13. Radiation protection in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elamin, O.I.; Hajmusa, E.A.; Shaddad, I.A.

    2001-01-01

    The regulatory framework as established by the Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC) Act, promulgated in 1996, is described in the report. Three levels of responsibility in meeting radiation protection requirements are established: the Board, the Radiation Protection Technical Committee as the competent authority in the field of radiation protection, and the SAEC Department of Radiation Protection and Environmental Monitoring as the implementing technical body. The report also refers to environmental activities, patient doses in diagnostic radiology, the management of disused sources, emergency preparedness and orphan sources, and the national training activities in the radiation protection field. (author)

  14. Protective effect of corticosteroids on radiation pneumonitis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, N.J.; Narine, K.R.; Wade, R.

    1988-01-01

    We explored the protective effect of corticosteroids on the mortality of mice that received thoracic irradiation. Methylprednisolone, 100 mg/kg/week, given from 11 weeks after gamma irradiation of the thorax resulted in an increase in the LD50 (11-26 weeks) from 14.3 +/- 0.3 (mean +/- SE) Gy to 17.6 +/- 0.4 Gy, P less than 0.001, a protection factor of 1.2. Withdrawal of steroids at various times during the period of radiation pneumonitis resulted in accelerated mortality in the next 2-4 weeks, so that the cumulative mortality caught up with that of control animals by 4 weeks after steroid withdrawal. However, after the end of the usual period of pneumonitis withdrawal of steroids did not result in accelerated mortality, suggesting that the time when steroids are protective corresponds to the duration of pneumonitis. A smaller dose of steroids, 25 mg/kg/week, was found to be as protective as the larger dose used in the above experiments. The possibility that corticosteroids reduce mortality, even when given many weeks after radiation, may have important practical and theoretical implications

  15. Focus radiation protection; Schwerpunkt Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebermann, Lutz (comp.)

    2016-07-01

    The publication of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz on radiation protection covers the following issues: (i) exposure from natural sources: health hazard due to radon, radiation protection in residential homes, radon in Germany, natural raw materials in industrial processes; (ii) clearance of radioactive wastes: clearance in the frame of nuclear power plant dismantling, the situation in Germany and Europe; (iii) emergency management: principles of radiation protection, fictive sequence of accident events; (iiii) other actual radiation protection topics: more limits - more protection? radiation protection in medicine, occupational radiation protection.

  16. The case against protecting the environment from ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.T.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the (rarely heard) argument in favour of retention of the present system of radiation protection of the environment. There has been a recent trend in the radioecological and radiation protection community towards greater regulation of the effects of ionising radiations on biota. In particular, the often quoted International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) hypothesis that: If humans are protected from the effects of ionising radiation, then flora and fauna are also adequately protected has been criticised as being too anthropocentric and not adequate for protection of the environment. In this paper I will challenge this view, arguing firstly that this statement is almost always quoted out of its proper context, and secondly that the ICRP hypothesis does adequately protect the environment from the effects of ionising radiations. In view of the relatively insignificant effect of regulated releases of ionising radiation on the environment, the economic cost of further regulation will not result in a significant environmental benefit. Whilst empirical research to test the ICRP hypothesis should continue, until there is clear evidence against it, this simple and cost-effective approach should be retained. This would benefit the environment by directing scarce resources to more urgent environmental problems. (author)

  17. Encouraging the radiation protection practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Natanael O.; Cunha, Paulo C.N.; Junior, Jose N.S.; Silva, Jessyca B.

    2013-01-01

    The radiological protection of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation (X-ray diagnoses, Nuclear Medicine, Radiotherapy and Dental) is essential to minimize the appearance of radiation effects. The ways to reduce the potential for exposure of workers are: Time, Distance , and Shielding. The most important purpose of radiation protection is to provide safe conditions for activities involving ionizing radiation, basic safety conditions that must be observed in professional practice. The professional must have full knowledge of the subject and deepen in the revision of norms and guidelines related to radiation protection establish by the Vigilancia Sanitaria - ANVISA, and Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, Brazil. The study was conducted in a technical school for the Technical Training Course in Radiology, where the students are invited to think deeply about the radiation protection of themselves, the patients and the environment. Developed since July 2012, with the participation of 30 students, with a leading class -three teachers assisting in the development of the project . With this project there was an awareness of both students, as instructors stage accompanying the daily lives of students and their own colleagues. Following the same objective in 2013 the project continues with more adept at radioprotection

  18. Radiation Protection at Light Water Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Prince, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This book is aimed at Health Physicists wishing to gain a better understanding of the principles and practices associated with a light water reactor (LWR) radiation protection program. The role of key program elements is presented in sufficient detail to assist practicing radiation protection professionals in improving and strengthening their current program. Details related to daily operation and discipline areas vital to maintaining an effective LWR radiation protection program are presented. Programmatic areas and functions important in preventing, responding to, and minimizing radiological incidents and the importance of performing effective incident evaluations and investigations are described. Elements that are integral in ensuring continuous program improvements are emphasized throughout the text.

  19. New trends in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.

    1977-10-01

    The introduction of new concepts such as the effective dose equivalent, the collective dose and the dose commitment, and the application of the basic principles of justification, optimization and individual dose limitation has had a major impact on the planning and implementation of radiation protection during the last few years. The basic principles are summarized in ICRP Publication 26. It is a chalenge to research in radiobiology, genetics and health physics to explore the scientific foundation of the current principles of radiation protection. The most interesting trend to-day, however, is the observation that the principles applied in radiation protection have now been generally recognized and accepted to the extent that they become utilized in the protection of man against non-radioactive carcinogenic substances and environmental pollutants. (author)

  20. Radiation Effects on PP/PS Blends as a Model of Protection Effects by Aromatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluszewski, W.

    2006-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is the most popular polymer for the application in construction of medical devices, due to the hardness and temperature resistance. Unfortunately, the virgin PP is of low resistance towards ionizing radiation, already to sterilization doses and cannot be applied without additives. Another option is a blend with a second polymer, especially aromatic, and therefore polystyrene (PS) was applied. The classic case of protection in the aliphatic/aromatic system (benzene/cyclohexane in liquid or solid state) shows that the surface area and structure of the interphase is crucial for the effectiveness of energy transfer. Our blends of PP (virgin, F401 from Orlen-Olefins) with PS were prepared in a variety of ways, from mechanical blending, to radiation induced grafting. Two linac accelerators (10 MeV, 6-9 kW) were applied, with different shapes of electron beam, formed according to particular methods used for the investigation of effects; doses were 10-600 kGy. As in the classic case, the protection effect was quantisized from the curve of the effect vs 0-100% PP, 100-0 % PS. Main recognition of the protection effect has been done by the diffused reflection spectroscopy (DRS) developed in our Laboratory for the application to irradiated polymers. The dependence of intensity of bands in the DRS spectrum, attributed to keton groups, which are final products of oxidation, shows clearly the protection effect of PP, executed by PS. The second method of observation of radiation effects is gas chromatography (GC), applied for irradiation products analysis. The maximum sensitivity has been achieved using the instrument type GC 2014 by Shimadzu, with thermal conductivity detector, column packed with molecular sieves 5A. Radiation induced formation of gaseous produced at ambient and lower temperatures is unique in the field of chemistry of polymers. There is no form of energy, except ionizing radiation, to cause chemical reactions to produce a wide spectrum of low

  1. Bystander effects and biota: implications of radiation-induced bystander effects for protection of the environment from ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mothersill, C.E.; Seymour, C.B.

    2003-01-01

    Bystander effects are now known to be induced by both high and low LET in a variety of cells in culture. They have been proven to occur in vivo in mice following 0.5Gy total body irradiation and in blood from humans being treated for cancer by radiotherapy. Effects have also been detected in fish, crustacea and molluscs. The important questions now are not whether bystander effects occur but why and what implications they have, if any, for radiation protection. Different species and different genetic backgrounds within a species produce different types of bystander effect, different organs also produce different effects. This paper will review the data in this field and will discuss likely implications for protection of man and non-human biota. In particular it will look at the potential long-term outcomes for different organisational levels, from cell to ecosystem, of bystander mechanisms. In view of new concerns about the effects of low level radiation on non-human biota, emphasis will be placed on considering how bystander effects might operate at chronic low doses versus acute accidental low doses. Problems of radiation interaction with chemicals, whether chemicals can also induce 'bystander effects' , and how regulators might handle these situations which occur all the time in real environments, will be presented for discussion. Finally the paper will discuss likely implications of these mechanisms for evolutionary biology

  2. XXXIX Days of Radiation Protection. Proceedings of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 91 abstracts are published. The Conference consists of following sections: (I) Radiation protection, consequences of implementation of the EU2013 / 59 directive in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic); (II) Radiation protection in the application of ionizing radiation in medicine; (III) Dosimetry and metrology of external and internal irradiation; (IV) Natural sources of ionizing radiation, national radon programs; (V) Nuclear energy, the concept of decommissioning of nuclear power plants in terms of radiation protection; (VI) Use of standards of radiation protection in emergency management; (VII) Biological effects of radiation and estimation of irradiation risk.

  3. Radiation protection research and training programme review radiation protection programme 1960-89 synopsis of results 1985-89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This document aims to trace the evolution of the CEC radiation protection programme over its 30 years of existence. During this time, research carried out in the framework of the Community programme has made major contributions to the scientific understanding of the action of ionizing radiation and the protection of man and his environment. This information was crucial for developing better radiation protection management for existing and new technologies and for providing the scientific basis for the regulatory activities of the Commission. One important feature of the programme was the success of bringing together scientists from different Member States to cooperate in the various fields of radiation protection and to integrate different areas of radiation protection research into a coherent approach. The structures thus developed within the programme have enabled research in radiation protection to be conducted in a cost-effective manner on behalf of the Member States. This document aims also to give a synopsis of the most important results of the 1985-89 radiation protection programme. This period was characterized by two challenges, the integration of two Member States into Community research and the impact of the Chernobyl accident. The programme has, in spite of reduced funding, continued to provide a high degree of expertise for the Community in the context of the needs in radiation protection. This has been explicity acknowledged in the evaluation of the 1980-89 programmes carried out by an independent panel

  4. Manual for medical problems of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The manual deals comprehensively and topically with the theoretical and practical fundamentals of radiation protection of the population considering the present knowledge in the fields of radiobiology and radiation protection medicine. The subject is covered under the following headings: (1) physics of ionizing radiations, (2) biological radiation effects, (3) the acute radiation syndrome, (4) medical treatment of the acute radiation syndrome, (5) combined radiation injuries, and (6) prophylaxis and therapy of injuries caused by fission products of nuclear explosions. The book is of interest to medical doctors, medical scientists, and students in medicine who have to acquire special knowledge in the field of radiation protection and it is of value as a reference book in daily routine

  5. Training aspects contributing to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation Protection assumes special significance with increasing use of radioactive materials and processes. Scientific and industrial organisations dealing with radioactive materials have prime responsibility of ensuring effective control of all activities which may lead to radiation exposure. Training of all the persons involved in the work associated with radioactivity is absolutely necessary to develop radiation protection skill, radiation measurement proficiency and special precautions to be taken in abnormal situations. NPCIL having responsibility for design, construction, operation and de-commissioning of nuclear power plants, employs about 10,000 workers on several project/station sites all over the country. NPCIL has developed a good training system to accurately control the exposure of workers to radiation. This paper covers the system and other relevant details of radiation protection training organised by NPCIL. (author)

  6. Radiation and heredity: genetic aspects of protection against radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosseh, I.B.

    1990-01-01

    Primary radiogenetic effects and delayed genetic radiation effects are considered. Experimental and published data on possibility to protect organisms and populations against single and long-term (during life of several generations) effect of ionizing radiation are given. Problem concerning population adaptation to low dose irradiation is discussed. 490 refs., 28 figs., 43 tabs

  7. Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, M.

    2002-01-01

    Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2001 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department are enviromnental remediation, emergency planning, radiation protection research, low-level radioactvity measurements, safeguards and physics measurements, decision strategy research and policy support and social sciences in nuclear research. Main achievements for 2001 in these areas are reported

  8. The national radiation protection infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastauskas, A.

    1999-01-01

    The state system of radiation protection is still being created after Lithuania regained its independancy and in connection with recommendations laid in the ICRP-60 publication and requirements of legislation of European Community. A new regulation institutions was established and a number of laws and regulations related to radiation protection was prepared. The Radiation Protection Centre of Ministry of Health is the regulatory authority responsible for radiation protection of public and of workers using sources of ionizing radiation in Lithuania. A new Radiation Protection Law, Nuclear Energy Law, Radioactive Waste Management Law and different regulations was approved. Preparation of legislation, creation of state system of radiation protection and its upgrading allow to presume that the necessary level of radiation protection is to be achieved. (au)

  9. The principles of dose limitation in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, A.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of radiation protection is to protect individuals, their offspring and the population as a whole against harmful effects from ionizing radiation and radioactive substances. Harmful effects may be either somatic, i.e. occurring in the exposed person himself/herself, or hereditary, i.e. occurring in the exposed person's offspring. Successful radiation protection involves (a) protective measures based on the results of research into the biological and biophysical effects of radiation and (b) ensuring that activities necessitating exposure are justified and that the degree of exposure is minimal. This benefit/risk principle ceases to apply if a radiation source is out of control, since the main aim is then to introduce risk limitation measures, provided that these are of positive net benefit to the individual and the population as a whole. This paper discusses the principles of dose limitation as a function of exposure conditions, i.e. controlled or uncontrolled exposure to a source of radiation

  10. Radiation protection medical care of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walt, H.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation protection medical care for radiation workers is part of the extensive programme protecting people against dangers emanating from the peaceful application of ionizing radiation. Thus it is a special field of occupational health care and emergency medicine in case of radiation accidents. It has proved helpful in preventing radiation damage as well as in early detection, treatment, after-care, and expert assessment. The medical checks include pre-employment and follow-up examinations, continued long-range medical care as well as specific monitoring of individuals and defined groups of workers. Three levels of action are involved: works medical officers specialized in radiation protection, the Institute of Medicine at the National Board for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection, and a network of clinical departments specialized in handling cases of acute radiation damage. An account is given of categories, types, and methods of examinations for radiation workers and operators. (author)

  11. Radiation protection in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda Cuadros, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation protection in Bolivia has gone through a number of stages. Initially, in the 1970s, the focus was mainly on the analysis of environmental sources resulting from the nuclear tests carried out by France in the Pacific Ocean. Subsequently, the focus switched somewhat to radiation protection in connection with the mining of uranium and in the area of public health. During the third stage, radiation protection in other areas became important as the use of radiation sources was introduced. Finally, during the present -- fourth -- stage, radiation protection regulations are being introduced and mechanisms for the control of radiation sources are being established. (author)

  12. Evolution of Radiation Protection System in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maina, J. A. W.

    2004-01-01

    Promulgation of radiation protection legislation in Kenya dates back to 1982, was revised in 1985 and became operational in 1986. This law, the Radiation Protection Act, establishes the Radiation Protection Board as the National Regulatory Authority, with an executive Inspectorate headed by the Secretary to the Board. Subsidiary legislation on radiological practices and standards were subsequently published. The Inspectorate carries out the National programme for notification, authorization, inspection and enforcement. Nuclear applications for peaceful purposes in Kenya are on the increase in all major fields of socio-economic development. Provision of regulatory services, guidance and enforcement procedures, has had a net growth over the last fifteen years. However, staff retention has been declining over the years in a market where job opportunities, with relatively high incentives, are high either inside or outside the country. Human and equipment resource development has therefore not kept pace and this has hampered effective and efficient provision of services. The poor status of the economy has had its impact on delivery of quality, effective and efficient radiation protection services. Provision of radiation services and acquisition of radiation detection and measurement equipment in the country has been generally lacking dating as far back as 1995. During the period 1989 to present, Kenya's Regulatory Authority, the Radiation Protection Board, undertook to provide personal monitoring, quality assurance, radioanalysis, and equipment calibration. Over the years these services have stalled due to outdated equipment most of which have broken down. A maintenance and calibration service for nuclear equipment is an expensive cross-boarder issue. Budgetary constraints, insufficient human and equipment resources, and a perennial 'brain drain' has placed limitations to the effectiveness and efficiency of implementation of the National programmes and slowed the

  13. Radiation protection textbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, D.J.; Granier, R.

    2007-01-01

    This textbook of radiation protection presents the scientific bases, legal and statutory measures and technical means of implementation of the radioprotection in the medical and industrial sectors, research and nuclear installations. It collects the practical information (organization, analysis of post, prevention, evaluation and risks management, the controls, the training and the information) usually scattered and the theoretical knowledge allowing every person using ionizing radiation: To analyze jobs in controlled areas, to watch the respect for the current regulations, to participate in the training and in the information of the staffs exposed to intervene in accidental situation. This third edition is widely updated and enriched by the most recent scientific and legal data concerning, notably, the human exposure, the dosimetry, the optimization of the radiation protection and the epidemiological inquiries. The contents is as follows: physics of ionizing radiation, ionizing radiation: origin and interaction with matter, dosimetry and protection against ionizing radiation, detection and measurement of ionizing radiation, radiobiology, legal measures relative to radiation protection, human exposure of natural origin, human exposure of artificial origin, medical, dental and veterinarian radiology, radiotherapy, utilization of unsealed sources in medicine and research, electronuclear industry, non nuclear industrial and aeronautical activities exposing to ionizing radiation, accidental exposures. (N.C.)

  14. Radiation protection forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, W.

    2010-01-01

    The National Director of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and Radiation Protection of Uruguay in the first forum for radiation protection set out the following themes: activity of regulatory body, radiation safety, physical security, safeguards, legal framework, committed substantive program, use of radiation, risks and benefits, major sources of radiation, the national regulatory framework, national inventory of sources, inspections, licensing, import and export of sources control , radioactive transport, materials safety, agreements, information and teaching, radiological emergencies and prompt response.

  15. Radiation protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, J.

    1981-01-01

    This article first reviews the general radiation protection law at international and national level, with particular reference to the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) which, although not mandatory, are nevertheless taken into consideration by international organisations establishing basic radiation protection standards such as the UN, IAEA, NEA and Euratom, at Community level, and by national legislation. These standards are therefore remarkably harmonized. Radiation protection rule applied in France for the different activities and uses of radioactive substances are then described, and finally, a description is given of the regulations governing artificial radioisotopes and radioactive effluents. (NEA) [fr

  16. Radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper deals with: Objectives and basic concepts of radiation protection, basic radiobiological considerations, the ICRP system of dose limitation and with operational radiation protection (limits, reference levels, occupational exposure). (RW)

  17. The new operational quantities for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellerer, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Philosophies and quantities for radiation protection have often been subjected to changes, and some of the developments are traced which ultimately led to recent proposals by ICRU. Development in the past has largely been towards clarification and generalisation of definitions. The present changes, however, reflect a more fundamental issue, the transition from the limitation system to the assessment system in radiation protection. The index quantities were suitable tools to ascertain compliance with the limitation system of radiation protection. The new quantities proposed by ICRU are suitable estimators for effective dose equivalent, which is an essential quantity in the assessment system of radiation protection. A synopsis of the definitions is given. (author)

  18. Radiation Protection Research Needs Workshop: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewji, Shaheen A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davis, Jason [Oak Ridge Associated Univ., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hertel, Nolan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abelquist, Eric [Oak Ridge Associated Univ., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    In order to protect humans and the environment when using ionizing radiation for the advancement and benefit of society, accurately quantifying radiation and its potential effects remains the driver for ensuring the safety and secure use of nuclear and radiological applications of technology. In the realm of radiation protection and its various applications with the nuclear fuel cycle, (nuclear) medicine, emergency response, national defense, and space exploration, the scientific and research needs to support state and federal radiation protection needs in the United States in each of these areas are still deficient.

  19. 6. national congress of radiation protection S.F.R.P. 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This congress tackles the following subjects: individual dosimetry for external irradiation, update of arrangements in the public health code relative to the radiation protection, implementation of zoning decree, regulation, radiation protection in professional area, radiation protection in ITER, non ionizing radiation, radiation protection in accident situation, biological radiation effects, radiation protection for patients, dosimetry, environmental exposure, radiation protection and radioactive waste management. (N.C.)

  20. Protective Effect of Pyruvate Against Radiation-Induced Damage in Collagenized Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griko, Y. V.; Yan, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation produces both acute and late effects on the collagenized tissues and have profound effects on wound healing. Because of the crucial practical importance for new radioprotective agents, our study has been focused on evaluation of the efficacy of non-toxic naturally occurring compounds to protect tissue integrity against high-dose gamma radiation. Here, we demonstrate that molecular integrity of collagen may serve as a sensitive biological marker for quantitative evaluation of molecular damage to collagenized tissue and efficacy of radioprotective agents. Increasing doses of gamma radiation (0-50kGy) result in progressive destruction of the native collagen fibrils, which provide a structural framework, strength, and proper milieu for the regenerating tissue. The strategy used in this study involved the thermodynamic specification of all structural changes in collagenized matrix of skin, aortic heart valve, and bone tissue induced by different doses and conditions of g-irradiation. This study describes a simple biophysical approach utilizing the Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) to characterize the structural resistance of the aortic valve matrix exposed to different doses of g-irradiation. It allows us to identify the specific response of each constituent as well as to determine the influence of the different treatments on the characteristic parameters of protein structure. We found that pyruvate, a substance that naturally occurs in the body, provide significant protection (up to 80%) from biochemical and biomechanical damage to the collagenized tissue through the effective targeting of reactive oxygen species. The recently discovered role of pyruvate in the cell antioxidant defense to O2 oxidation, and its essential constituency in the daily human diet, indicate that the administration of pyruvate-based radioprotective formulations may provide safe and effective protection from deleterious effects of ionizing

  1. National congress of radiation protection; Congres national de radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The congress of radiation protection tackled different areas of radiation protection. The impact of ionizing radiations on environment coming from radioactive activities. The biological radiation effects, the dosimetry, the different ways of doing relative to radiation protection,the risks analysis and the communications with populations, information about accidents and the lessons learned from them are included in this congress. (N.C.)

  2. Advances on radiation protection dosimetry research, development and services at AEOI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry is the main counterpart of an effective national radiation protection program to protect radiation workers, public and the environment against harmful effects of radiation. Research and development on radiation dosimetry are of vital needs to support national dosimetry services. The National Radiation Protection Department (NRPD) of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) being a National Authority on radiation protection is also responsible for radiation dosimetry research, development and services. Some highlights of such activities at NRPD are reviewed and discussed

  3. Radiation protection day - Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    This document brings together the abstracts of all presentations given at the Radiation protection day organised in May 2000 by the French association for radiation protection techniques and sciences (ATSR) on the topic of the new European and French radiation protection regulations and their conditions of application in hospitals. Content: 1 - Presentation of the Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations (O.P.R.I.), status of texts and evolution, practical implementation of operational dosimetry (Alain Valero, O.P.R.I.); 2 - Presentation of the Radiation Protection Service of the Army (S.P.R.A.) and its role in French army's hospitals (Jean-Baptiste Fleutot, S.P.R.A.); 3 - 96/29 European directive and water quality - transposition in French law (Daniel Robeau, I.P.S.N. Fontenay-Aux-Roses); 4 - Presentation of an automatized active dosimetry system (Michel Deron, G.E.M. System); 5 - Euratom 97/43 Directive from June 30, 1997 - assessment of the existing framework for patients protection in medical environment (Pierre Muglioni, APAVE Nord Ouest); 6 - Specificities of the ionising radiations risk in medical environment - presentation of a ionising radiations risk assessment grid (Marie-Christine Soula, Labour regional direction Ile de France); 7 - Low dose effects (B. Le Guen, E.D.F. G.D.F.); 8 - Operational dosimetry in the medical domain - the Saphydose dosemeter (Frederico Felix - Saphymo); 9 - Positrons and radiation protection (Luc Cinotti - C.E.R.M.E.P.); 10 - Workplace studies in medical environment - areas and personnel classification (Jean-Claude Houy, Sandrine Laugle, Eugene Marquis Cancer Centre Rennes); 11 - Experience feedback after 4 years of active dosimetry in a nuclear medicine service (Albert Lisbona, Centre Rene Gauducheau Nantes/Saint-Herblain); 12 - Operational dosimetry as it is performed today in CNRS laboratories (Helene Dossier - C.N.R.S. Orsay); 13 - Radiation protection in submarine naval forces (Pierre Laroche, Army's health service

  4. 7th Expert meeting radiation protection. International developments, waste management, challenges for the radiation protection in aging nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The proceedings of the 7th Expert meeting on radiation protection include contributions to the following topics: nuclear power and public opinion, IAEA safety standards, ISOE - information system on occupational exposure, European harmonization of the radiation protection education, WANO - challenges and results, CTBTO's global radiation measurement network, state of final radioactive waste disposal in Germany and worldwide, radioactive waste management and disposal in French NPPs, preparedness for final waste disposal in Schacht Konrad, actualization of the transport study Konrad, transport of NPPs' operational radioactive waste and waste from decommissioned reactor demolition to the final repository Konrad, qualification of radioactive waste casks for the final repository Konrad, radioactive waste disposal management concept in Switzerland, aging management and radiation protection, decontamination as effective measure for dose rate reduction - long-term and sustainable dose rate reduction by primary circuit decontamination, system and component decontamination for individual and collective dose reduction - practical examples, radiation protection map - electronic assistance for work planning, EPR dismantling already today? radiation protection register 2002-2010 - knowledge based on a decade of radiation monitoring, actual information on radiation protection in medicine, mobile telecommunication - actual research results.

  5. The revised German radiation protection ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, M.

    2002-01-01

    Since August 2001, German radiation protection law is governed by a new Radiation Protection Ordinance, implementing two new Euratom Directives and taking into account new scientific developments, which provides a comprehensive basis for the protection of man and the environment. The Ordinance has been completely restructured; however, it is still a very complex piece of legislation comprising 118 provisions and 14 annexes, some of them highly technical. Reduced dose limits for occupationally exposed persons and members of the public, a detailed provision on clearance of radioactive substances, a new part aiming at the protection of man and the environment against ionising radiation emanating from natural sources, and regulations dealing with the protection of consumers in connection with the addition of radioactive substances to consumer goods are some of the centre pieces of the new legislation which shall contribute significantly to the further prevention or at least minimisation of the adverse effects of radiation exposure. (orig.) [de

  6. Proposals for software analysis of cost effectiveness and cost-benefit for optimisation of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Lombard, J.; Lefaure, C.

    1990-06-01

    The objective of this report is to present the principles of decision making software for radiation protection option, applying ALARA principle. The choice of optimum options is performed by applying the models of cost effectiveness and cost-benefit. Options of radiation protection are described by two indicators: a simple economic indicator: cost of radiation protection; and dosimetry indicator: collective dose related to protection. For both analyses the software enables sensitivity analysis. It would be possible to complete the software by integrating a module which would take into account combinations of two options since they are not independent

  7. Foundations of radiation physics and radiation protection. 5. ed.; Grundlagen der Strahlungsphysik und des Strahlenschutzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieger, Hanno

    2017-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Types of radiation and radiation fields, the atomic structure, radioactive decays, decay law, natural and artificial radioactivity, interactions of ionizing photon radiation, attenuation of neutral-particle beams, interactions of neutron radiation, interactions of charged particles, ionization and energy transfer, radiation doses, radiation protection phantoms, foundations of the radiation biology of cells, effects and risks of ionizing radiation, radiation expositions of men with ionizing radiation, radiation protection law, practical radiation protection against ionizing radiations, radiation eposures in medical radiology. (HSI)

  8. Comments to the German society's for radiation protection (Gesellschaft fur Strahlenschutz) proposed principles for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    2002-01-01

    The German Society for Radiation Protection (in German Gesellschaft fur Strahlenschutz) is a separate society for radiation protection in Germany in addition to the leading society named Association of German and Swiss Radiation Protection Specialists (in German Fachverband fur Strahlenschutz). The Society is an international professional society. There are several hundreds members of the German Society for Radiation Protection. The German Society for Radiation Protection is not a member of IRPA (the International Radiation Protection Society). The IRPA member is the Association of German and Swiss Radiation Protection Specialists. According to information given on the web site of the Society for Radiation Protection (www.gfstrahlenschutz.de) the Society was founded in 1990 because in the opinion of the founding members the older professional societies and associations have not adequately considered and implemented the present knowledge of radiation risks and radiation protection. In accordance with its statutes the society pursues besides other aims the best possible protection of humans and the environment from the detrimental action of ionising and non-ionising radiation. The dealing with ionising and non-ionising radiation can according to the Society only be justified on the basis of biological and medical state of the art knowledge

  9. What is good radiation protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, B.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation protection is based on the ICRP-System with its pillars justification, limitation and optimization. From this radiation protection should be the same irrespective of the application of radiation. But radiation protection in the nuclear industry is much different from the use of radiation sources or X-ray units. This is by far not due to the different technologies. It originates from the different interpretation of the system. For one person good radiation protection would mean to have no radiation exposures, to avoid radiation at all as best option and to use it only if there are no alternatives. For another person the best radiation protection would be the one which does not produce much efforts and costs. So what is reasonable? In reality the first interpretation prevails, at least in Germany. A change is needed. If we continue to exercise radiation protection as we do it today the beneficial application of radiation will be restricted unduly and might become impossible at all. A stronger orientation towards the naturally occurring radiation would help instead to regulate natural radiation in the same way as it is done for artificial radiation. The system of ICRP has to be changed fundamentally.

  10. Radiation protection programme progress report 1985-89. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The final report of the 1985-89 radiation protection programme outlines the research work carried out during the whole contractual period under all contracts between the Commission of the European Communities and research groups in the Member States. More than 700 scientists collaborated on this programme. Results of more than 440 projects are reported. They are grouped into six sectors: radiation dosimetry and its interpretation; behaviour and control of radionuclides in the environment; non-stochastic effects of ionizing radiation; radiation carcinogenesis; genetic effects of ionizing radiation; evaluation of radiation risks and optimization of protection. Within the framework programme, the aim of this scientific research is to improve the conditions of life with respect to work and protection of man and his environment and to assure safe production of energy, i.e.: (i) to improve methods necessary to protect workers and the population by updating the scientific basis for appropriate standards; (ii) to prevent and counteract harmful effects of radiation; (iii) to assess radiation risks and provide methods to cope with the consequences of radiation accidents

  11. Radiation protection programme progress report 1985-89. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The final report of the 1985-89 radiation protection programme outlines the research work carried out during the whole contractual period under all contracts between the Commission of the European Communities and research groups in the Member States. More than 700 scientists collaborated on this programme. Results of more than 440 projects are reported. They are grouped into six sectors: radiation dosimetry and its interpretation; behaviour and control of radionuclides in the environment; non-stochastic effects of ionizing radiation; radiation carcinogenesis; genetic effects of ionizing radiation; evaluation of radiation risks and optimization of protection. Within the framework programme, the aim of this scientific research is to improve the conditions of life with respect to work and protection of man and his environment and to assure safe production of energy, i.e.: (i) to improve methods necessary to protect workers and the population by updating the scientific basis for appropriate standards; (ii) to prevent and counteract harmful effects of radiation; (iii) to assess radiation risks and provide methods to cope with the consequences of radiation accidents

  12. Radiation protection programme progress report 1985-89. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The final report of the 1985-89 radiation protection programme outlines the research work carried out during the whole contractual period under all contracts between the Commission of the European Communities and research groups in the Member States. More than 700 scientists collaborated on this programme. Results of more than 440 projects are reported. They are grouped into six sectors: radiation dosimetry and its interpretation; behaviour and control of radionuclides in the environment; non-stochastic effects of ionizing radiation; radiation carcinogenesis; genetic effects of ionizing radiation; evaluation of radiation risks and optimization of protection. Within the framework programme, the aim of this scientific research is to improve the conditions of life with respect to work and protection of man and his environment and to assure safe production of energy, i.e.: (i) to improve methods necessary to protect workers and the population by updating the scientific basis for appropriate standards; (ii) to prevent and counteract harmful effects of radiation; (iii) to assess radiation risks and provide methods to cope with the consequences of radiation accidents

  13. The principles of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The aim of radiation protection is to avoid or to reduce the risks linked to ionizing radiation. In order to reduce these risks, the radiation protection uses three great principles: justification, optimization and limitation of radiation doses. to apply these principles, the radiation protection has regulatory and technical means adapted to three different categories of people: public, patients and workers. The nuclear safety authority elaborates the regulation, and carries out monitoring of the reliable application of radiation protection system. (N.C.)

  14. Principles of Radiation Protection Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli

    2004-01-01

    The contents of this chapter are follows - Radiation Protection Concepts: justification, dose limitation, optimisation, potential exposures, situation requiring intervention; Special Considerations. Protection from Radiation Hazards, Remove the Hazard, Prevent the Hazard, Guard the Worker, Implementation of Radiation Protection and Safety Measures, Distance, Shielding, Time, Monitoring Programme, Safety System. Radiation Protection in Radiological Service: Specific Requirement in Diagnostic Radiological Service

  15. Lectures on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachsmann, F.; Consentius, K.

    1981-01-01

    All important subjects of radiation protection are presented in concise form; the explanations may serve as lecture manuscripts. The lectures are divided into 16 to 19 teaching units. Each teaching unit is supplemented by a slide to be projected on a screen while the text is read. This method of visual teaching has already been tried with good results in medicine and medical engineering. Pictures of the slides are given in the text so that the book may also be used for self-studies. The main facts are summarized at the end of each lesson. The finished book will consist of 8 lessons; the first three of these discuss 1. Radiation effects and hazards 2. Dose definitions and units and their role in radiology and radiation protection 3. Dose limits and legal specifications. (orig.) [de

  16. Fundamentals of pracical radiation protection. 4. upd. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, H.G.

    2007-01-01

    Humans have no means of sensing high-energy radiation from radioactive materials and other radiation sources. Health effects may occur after a delay of several days to several years, until it is too late to take protective measures. This book does not focus on the medical aspect but on the prevention of radiation damage by appropriate preventive and technical measures. It is based on scientific investigations of radiation effects and long years of experience with radiation sources. For a better understanding, fundamental concepts of radiation physics and biology are explained, followed by chapters on radiation metering, protective measures and legal regulations. Only radiation sources with a radiation energy below about 100 MeV are considered. (orig.)

  17. Radiation Protection Training in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankauskiene, D.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation Protection Training is an important component of Radiation Protection and serves for human radiation safety. According to the Lithuanian Law on Radiation Protection the legal persons and enterprises without the status of legal persons to conduct practices with sources or which workers work under exposure must organize at their own expenses a compulsory training and assessment of knowledge of the workers engaging in activities with the sources and radiation protection officers. Such training has been started in 1999. In Lithuania there are few institutions executing Radiation Protection training. Under requirements of legal act On Frequency and Procedure of Compulsory Training and Assessment Knowledge of the Workers Engage in Activities with the Sources of Ionising Radiation and Radiation Protection Officers these institutions have to prepare and coordinate training programs with the Radiation Protection Center. There are adopted different educating programs for Radiation Protection Training to the Workers and Radiation Protection Officers depending on character of work and danger of sources. The duration of Training is from 30 to 270 hours. The Training shall be renewed every five years passing 30 hors course. To ensure the adequate quality of training a great deal of attention is paid to qualifying the lectures. For this purpose, it was established an Evaluation commission to estimate the adequacy of lecturer's knowledge to requirements of Training programs. After passing exams the lectures get the qualification confirming certificates. The main task of our days is to establish and arrange the National Training Centre on Radiation Protection Training that would satisfy requirements and recommendations of legal documents of IAEA and EU for such kind of institutions of institutions. (Author)

  18. Epistemological basis of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouailhetas, Yannick; Acar, Maria E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Regarding natural phenomena understood or not, the absolute truth must be somewhere. In fact, there is no evidence that neither nature nor the phenomena that it includes were 'created' to be understood. Except for the fact that Man appeared through the same process, with his curiosity, capacity to perceive and manipulate, his greed for power and fears. In general, the attitude towards questions for which the absolute truth has not been reached varies from ignorance/indifference to the search of knowledge through scientific methodology, and may even be based on beliefs. The fact that the interaction between ionizing radiations and living beings results in biological effect is true. That the biological effect of high doses of radiation, absorbed outside the context of medicine, is hazardous for the irradiated individuals also seems to be true. That any dose is dangerous, or not, is debatable: the available information and knowledge are not consistent enough to end the question; and so, the absolute truth remains hidden. Radiological Protection is founded on the principle that any increase of dose results in an increase in the risk of cancer, and that this risk must be kept as low as possible. It is therefore based on this 'belief' that the international organisms of radiological protection emit recommendations aiming the protection of people and the environment. What is interesting about this question is that because of restrictions imposed by regulating agencies, populations, members of the public and the environment are properly protected against harmful effects of ionizing radiations, which makes the truth no longer interesting. Radiological Protection is a requirement associated to all activities involving nuclear energy. It satisfies several interests and opposes others. The greater the opposed interests and the perception that the absolute truth can represent dialectic advantage to one of the parts, the greater the perception of the importance of its

  19. Practical radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, G.; Van den Eijnde, J.H.G.M.

    1997-01-01

    This textbook aims at providing sufficient knowledge and insight to carry out correctly radiation protection activities and operations. The subjects are appropriate for the training of radiation protection experts for the levels 5A (encapsulated sources, X rays) and 5B (open sources, laboratory activities)

  20. Laser radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelic, D.; Muric, B.; Vasiljevic, D.

    2011-01-01

    We have presented the effects of laser radiation on human organism, with special emphasize on eye as the most sensitive organ. It was pointed-out that there are many parameters that should be taken into account when determining the level of protection from laser light. In that respect it is important to be aware of international standards that regulate this area. In addition, we have described a new material which efficiently protects human eye, by formation of microlens and carbonization. [sr

  1. Perspectives for environmental radiation protection in EU radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, A.

    2000-01-01

    The basis of EU radiation protection legislation is the EURATOM Trealy. It is discussed whether the Treaty offers a legal basis for the protection of the natural environment. The incorporation of provisions pertaining to the nuclear fuel cycle or to radioactive substances in general environmental legislation is explained, as well as the possible implications of international conventions subscribed by the European Union. The European Commission is in the process of developing an overall approach to risk analysis for the protection of health, consumer interests, and the environment. It is examined to what extent the consideration of the impact of radiation on the natural environment fits in the overall framework and whether the principles underlying classical radiation protection are applicable to biota. Specific attention is given to situations where high levels of environmental radioactivity would require intervention. (Author)

  2. Biological research for the radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Chan Kug; Shim, Hae Won; Jung, Il Lae; Byun, Hee Sun; Moon, Myung Sook; Cho, Hye Jeong; Kim, Jin Sik

    2003-04-01

    The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about polyamine effect on cell death triggered ionizing radiation, H 2 O 2 and toxic agents. In this paper, to elucidate the role of polyamines as mediator in lysosomal damage and stress(H 2 O 2 )- induced apoptosis, we utilized α-DiFluoroMethylOrnithine (DFMO), which inhibited ornithine decarboxylase and depleted intracellular putrescine, and investigated the effects of polyamine on the apoptosis caused by H 2 O 2 , ionizing radiation and paraquat. We also showed that MGBG, inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis, treatment affected intracellular redox steady states, intracellular ROS levels and protein oxidation. Thereafter we also investigated whether MGBG may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation or H 2 O 2 because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing effects. In addition, ceruloplasmin and thioredoxin, possible antioxidant proteins, were shown to have protective effect on radiation- or H 2 O 2 (or chemicals)-induced macromolecular damage or cell death

  3. IRPA Regional Congress on Radiation Protection in Central Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Congress proceedings included 93 papers. The IRPA Congress materials deals with progress the various IRPA initiatives to implement new radiation protection concepts. In accordance to this actual trends the main topics of the congress are 'Clearance levels and material release' and 'Environmental impact assessment of workplaces resp. facilities with radiation sources'. Papers and posters in all traditional radiation protection subjects (general aspects, biological effects of radiation, radiation protection in medicine, dosimetry, instrumentation, quality assurance)

  4. IRPA Regional Congress on Radiation Protection in Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The Congress proceedings included 93 papers. The IRPA Congress materials deals with progress the various IRPA initiatives to implement new radiation protection concepts. In accordance to this actual trends the main topics of the congress are 'Clearance levels and material release' and 'Environmental impact assessment of workplaces resp. facilities with radiation sources'. Papers and posters in all traditional radiation protection subjects (general aspects, biological effects of radiation, radiation protection in medicine, dosimetry, instrumentation, quality assurance)

  5. Ultraviolet radiation, measurements and safety evaluations for radiation protection purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witew, B.; Fischer, P.G.

    1983-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of ultraviolet radiation, one has to study that photobiologically effective radiation which induces a just measurable threshold reaction. For practical radiation protection, one has to determine the permissible duration of exposure at the end of which the threshold reaction is induced. This time limit is derived by means of spectral measurements and determination of radiation intensity. Detrimental photobiological effects can be avoided, and favourable effects optimized, by observing the time limit. Thus these measurements are used to determine the threshold at which the desired effects of ultraviolet radiation will be accompanied by unwanted effects or damage to persons, as for instance in the use of ultraviolet radiation for operating room sterilization, arc welding work, or cosmetic purposes. (orig.) [de

  6. Epidemiology and Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiology aims at providing direct evidence of the long term health effects in humans due to potentially dangerous exposures to various nuisance agents, including ionising radiation. Inappropriate interpretation and use of the results of epidemiological studies may result in inaccurate assessments of the risks associated with radiation exposure. This report presents the proceedings of a Workshop organised by the NEA to create an opportunity for epidemiologists and radiation protection specialists to exchange their experiences and views on the problems of methodology in epidemiological research and on the application of its results to the assessment of radiation risks

  7. Philosophy of radiological protection and radiation hazard protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Michiaki; Kawano, Takao

    2013-01-01

    The radiation protection and the human safety in radiation facilities are strictly controlled by law. There are rules on the radiation measurement, too. In the present review, philosophy of the radiological protection and the radiation hazard protection law is outlined with reference to ICRP recommendations. (J.P.N.)

  8. Ethical considerations in protecting the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation. A report for discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    In recent years awareness of the vulnerability of the environment has increased and the need to protect it against the effects of industrial pollutants has been recognized. This trend is reflected in new and developing international policies for environmental protection. In the context of protection of the environment against ionizing radiation, the existing international approach is based on providing for the protection of humans. The current recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) include the statement that {sup t}he standard of environmental control needed to protect man to the degree currently thought desirable will ensure that other species are not put at risk... {sup .} In the light of the new focus of concern for the environment, this statement is being critically reviewed in several international fora. The IAEA has, over many years, sponsored studies of the effects of ionizing radiation on species other than humans. Most recently it published a discussion report as IAEA-TECDOC-1091 (1999) in which the need for developing a system for protecting the environment against the effects of ionizing radiation was elaborated and in which various related technical and philosophical issues for resolution were discussed. The current report explores the ethical principles that could underlie a system of environmental protection. It is intended as one step in the development of a framework for the protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation, and is being published in order to promote awareness of the current developments in this field as well as to encourage discussion amongst those involved.

  9. Ethical considerations in protecting the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation. A report for discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-02-01

    In recent years awareness of the vulnerability of the environment has increased and the need to protect it against the effects of industrial pollutants has been recognized. This trend is reflected in new and developing international policies for environmental protection. In the context of protection of the environment against ionizing radiation, the existing international approach is based on providing for the protection of humans. The current recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) include the statement that t he standard of environmental control needed to protect man to the degree currently thought desirable will ensure that other species are not put at risk... . In the light of the new focus of concern for the environment, this statement is being critically reviewed in several international fora. The IAEA has, over many years, sponsored studies of the effects of ionizing radiation on species other than humans. Most recently it published a discussion report as IAEA-TECDOC-1091 (1999) in which the need for developing a system for protecting the environment against the effects of ionizing radiation was elaborated and in which various related technical and philosophical issues for resolution were discussed. The current report explores the ethical principles that could underlie a system of environmental protection. It is intended as one step in the development of a framework for the protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation, and is being published in order to promote awareness of the current developments in this field as well as to encourage discussion amongst those involved

  10. Protective Effect of Anthocyanins from Lingonberry on Radiation-induced Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang-Qi Tian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern about the serious harm of radioactive materials, which are widely used in energy production, scientific research, medicine, industry and other areas. In recent years, owing to the great side effects of anti-radiation drugs, research on the radiation protectants has gradually expanded from the previous chemicals to the use of natural anti-radiation drugs and functional foods. Some reports have confirmed that anthocyanins are good antioxidants, which can effectively eliminate free radicals, but studies on the immunoregulatory and anti-radiation effects of anthocyanins from lingonberry (ALB are less reported. In this experiment, mice were given orally once daily for 14 consecutive days before exposure to 6 Gy of gamma-radiation and were sacrificed on the 7th day post-irradiation. The results showed that the selected dose of extract did not lead to acute toxicity in mice; while groups given anthocyanins orally were significantly better than radiation control group according to blood analysis; pretreatment of anthocyanins significantly (p < 0.05 enhanced the thymus and spleen indices and spleen cell survival compared to the irradiation control group. Pretreatment with anthocyanins before irradiation significantly reduced the numbers of micronuclei (MN in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs. These findings indicate that anthocyanins have immunostimulatory potential against immunosuppression induced by the radiation.

  11. Radiation Protection Proclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A proclamation of the Government of Ethiopia, cited as the radiation protection proclamation number 79/1993 was prepared with the objective to establish a national radiation protection authority that formulates policies, controls and supervises activities involving all sources of radiation and lay down laws governing such activities in order to ensure public safety against associated hazards while allowing radiation related activities to be carried out for the benefit of the public . The Authority is guided by an inter-ministerial board and is accountable to the Ethiopian Science and Technology Commission

  12. Establish radiation protection programme for diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mboya, G.

    2014-01-01

    Mammography is an effective method used for breast diagnostics and screening. The aim of this project is to review the literature on how to establish radiation protection programme for mammography in order to protect the patients, the occupationally exposed workers and the members of the public from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. It reviews some of the trends in mammography doses and dosimetric principles such as average glandular dose in the glandular tissue which is used for description of radiation risk, also the factors affecting patient doses are discussed. However, the average glandular dose should not be used directly to estimate the radiation risk from mammography. Risk is calculated under certain assumptions from determined entrance surface air kerma. Given the increase in population dose, emphasis is placed on the justification and optimization of the mammographic procedures. Protection is optimized by the radiation dose being appropriate with the purpose of the mammographic examination. The need to establish diagnostic reference levels as an optimization is also discussed. In order to obtain high quality mammograms at low dose to the breast, it is necessary to use the correct equipment and perform periodic quality control tests on mammography equipment. It is noted that in order to achieve the goal of this project, the application of radiation protection should begin at the time of requesting for mammography examination, positioning of the patient, irradiation, image processing and interpretation of mammogram. It is recommended that close cooperation between radiology technologists, radiologist, medical physicists, regulatory authority and other support workers be required and established to obtain a consistent and effective level of radiation protection in a mammography facility. (author)

  13. Instructed officers Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This law contains instructions on the prevention of radiological and contains 4 articles Article I: describe the responsibilities of the institutions that operate within the scope of radiological protection in terms of the number of radiation protection officers and personal Supervisors who available in the practices radiation field. Article II: talking about the conditions of radiation protection officers that must be available in the main officers and working field in larg institutions and thecondition of specific requirements for large enterprises of work permits in the field of radiological work that issued by the Council. Article III: the functions and duties of officers in the prevention of radiological oversee the development of radiation protection programmes in the planning stages, construction and preparing the rules of local labour and what it lead of such tasks.Article IV: radiation protection officers powers: to modify and approve the programme of prevention and radiation safety at the company, stop any unsafe steps, amend the steps of the usage, operation of materials, devices and so on

  14. Experimental and theoretical studies on radiation protective effect of a lighter non-lead protective apron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Yoshihisa; Ono, Koji; Okazaki, Keiichiro

    2005-01-01

    Non-lead aprons using composite materials are often used for radiation protective aprons instead of heavy lead aprons. However, the protective effect of the lighter, non-lead aprons has not been well evaluated, and it is not yet clear how they compare with lead aprons. Therefore, we investigated the protective performance of non-lead aprons theoretically and experimentally by comparing them with lead aprons under clinical conditions. We measured the energy spectra for direct and scattered-rays passing through protective aprons or not, and measured doses with glass dosimeters for validation of theoretical calculations based on the energy spectra. We found that the protective effect of non-lead aprons was higher than that of lead aprons at X-ray of tube voltages of 70-100 kV, which are often used for radiography and fluorography. This demonstrated that the non-lead aprons are more useful in many situations than heavy lead aprons. (author)

  15. Radiation protection guidelines for the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of radiation protection standards for the skin with particular reference to past recommendations of the ICRP concerning dose limits to the skin and the work of the ICRP Task Group appointed in 1987. Data are also presented on the effect of radiation on Langerhans cells in the skin, and the effect of interaction of ultraviolet radiation and x-rays and of protraction of radiation on skin cancer induction in mice. (UK)

  16. Phosphorus-32: practical radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballance, P.E.; Morgan, J.

    1987-01-01

    This monograph offers practical advice to Radiation Protection Advisors, Radiation Protection Supervisors and Research Supervisors, together with research workers, particularly those in the field of molecular biological research. The subject is dealt with under the following headings: physical properties, radiation and measurement methods, radiation units, phosphorus metabolism and health risks, protection standards and practical radiation protection, administrative arrangements, accidents, decontamination, emergency procedures, a basic written system for radiochemical work, with specialised recommendations for 32 P, and guidance notes of accident situations involving 32 P. (U.K.)

  17. Optimisation of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Optimisation of radiation protection is one of the key elements in the current radiation protection philosophy. The present system of dose limitation was issued in 1977 by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and includes, in addition to the requirements of justification of practices and limitation of individual doses, the requirement that all exposures be kept as low as is reasonably achievable, taking social and economic factors into account. This last principle is usually referred to as optimisation of radiation protection, or the ALARA principle. The NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) organised an ad hoc meeting, in liaison with the NEA committees on the safety of nuclear installations and radioactive waste management. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual papers presented at the meeting

  18. Radiation protection and antitumor effects in Hatakeshimeji (Lyophyllum decastes sing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukawa, Yuuichi; Gu, Yeunhwa; Suzuki, Ikukatsu; Park, Sangrae; Hasegawa, Takeo; Tsukada, Sekihito; Terai, Kaoru; Tawaraya, Hitoshi

    2002-01-01

    The effect on an anti-tumor is admitted in the lyophyllum decastes sing extraction thing, and it has the action mechanism cleared to depend on the immunity action. The existence of the synergistic effect in effect on an anti-tumor radiation irradiation, an individual with the medication of lyophyllum decastes sing and effect on combination and the effect on protection of the leukocyte decrease by the radiation was examined by this research. After about 2x10 6 inoculated sarcoma 180 on the ICR mice, a lyophyllum decastes sing extraction thing gave 100mg/kg for 2 weeks in endoceliac at the every other day. After that, the radiation irradiation of 2 Gy was done three times, and it went to the sutra time target the number of the leukocytes, the lymph node ball some prizes of measurement. And, weight and tumor size were measured after the cancer cell inoculation two weeks. The decrease of the clear tumor size was recognized by the group that only a cancer cell was inoculated by the radiation independent irradiation group, lyophyllum decastes sing and the radiation combination group though tumor size increased as it passed. It faced by the group that only a cancer cell was inoculated after the irradiation 15 days though it died the precedent, and a half existed by lyophyllum decastes sing and the radiation combination group. And, the numbers of the leukocytes, the number of the lymphocyte were on the increase regardless of the existence of the radiation irradiation by the medication of lyophyllum decastes sing. It thinks with the thing that the effect is shown for the effect on immunity recovery in the radiotherapy and the prevention of a side effect of the radiation from this result. Showing the effect for not only effect on prevention of the cancer and effect on healing but also the effect on immunity recovery in the radiotherapy, the prevention of a side effect by taking lyophyllum decastes sing is considered

  19. Radiation protection instrument 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Radiation Protection Instrument, 1993 (Legislative Instrument 1559) prescribes the powers and functions of the Radiation Protection Board established under the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission by the Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993 (P.N.D.C. Law 308). Also included in the Legislative Instrument are schedules on control and use of ionising radiation and radiation sources as well as procedures for notification, licensing and inspection of ionising radiation facilities. (EAA)

  20. Deficiencies in radiation protection record systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.B.; Lyon, M.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation protection records are a fundamental part of any program for protecting radiation workers. Records are essential to epidemiological studies of radiation workers and are becoming increasingly important as the number of radiation exposure litigation cases increases. Ready retrievability of comprehensive records is also essential to the adequate defense of a radiation protection program. Appraisals of numerous radiation protection programs have revealed that few record-keeping systems comply with American National Standards Institute, Standard Practice N13.6-1972. Record-keeping requirements and types of deficiencies in radiation protection records systems are presented in this paper, followed by general recommendations for implementing a comprehensive radiation protection records system

  1. Deficiencies in radiation protection record systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.B.; Lyon, M.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation protection records are a fundamental part of any program for protecting radiation workers. Records are essential to epidemiological studies of radiation workers and are becoming increasingly important as the number of radiation exposure litigation cases increases. Ready retrievability of comprehensive records is also essential to the adequate defense of a radiation protection program. Appraisals of numerous radiation protection programs have revealed that few record-keeping systems comply with American National Standards Institute, Standard Practice N13.6-1972. Record-keeping requirements and types of deficiencies in radiation protection records systems are presented in this paper, followed by general recommendations for implementing a comprehensive radiation protection records system. 8 refs

  2. Importance of plants in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, Shalini

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive substances from nuclear programme structures are one of the major toxicant causing serious health hazards. These manmade radiations include X-ray machines radioactive fall-outs, nuclear reactor waste, TV, computers etc. Effect of radiation may be somatic and genetic. Most genetic effects are brought by manmade radiations. Plants on one hand using the electromagnetic radiation from sun for one of the most important vital activity of earth called Photosynthesis and on the other hand protecting us from harmful radiations. There are however, many natural compounds with radio-protective activity. Such compounds include sulfhydryl-containing compounds and anti-oxidant nutrients such as vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, N-acetylcysteine and selenium, along with a range of phytochemicals found in plants such as Ginkgo biloba, Vitis vinifera (Grape), Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi or holy basil). Some plants have capacity to absorb harmful radiation of computers like Aloe, Cactus, etc. Such study can be helpful in minimizing radiation pollution. Present review paper emphasizing Botanical, Ecological and Economic aspects of some plants. (author)

  3. Radiation Protection Officer certification scheme. Malaysian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pungut, Noraishah; Razali, Noraini; Mod Ali, Noriah

    2011-01-01

    In Malaysia, the need for maintaining competency in radiation protection is emerging, focusing on the qualification of Radiation Protection Officers (RPO). Regulation 23 of Malaysian Radiation Protection (Basic Safety Standards) Regulations 1988, requires the applicant to employ an RPO, with the necessary knowledge, skill and training, enabling effective protection of individuals and minimizing danger to life, property and the environment for all activities sought to be licensed. An RPO must demonstrate the knowledge required, by attending RPO courses organised by an accredited agency and pass the RPO certification examination. Maintaining a high level of competency is crucial for future development of safe applications of ionising radiation. The major goal of training is to provide essential knowledge and skills and to foster correct attitudes on radiation protection and safe use of radiation sources. Assessment of the competency is through theoretical and practical examination. A standard criterion on the performance of the individuals evaluated has been established and only those who meet this criterion can be accepted as certified RPO. The National Committee for the Certification of Radiation Protection Officer (NCCRPO), comprising experts in various fields, is responsible to review and update requirements on competency of a certified RPO. With increasing number of candidates (i.e. 701 in 2008) and the international requirement for radioactive source security, it is incumbent upon the NCCRPO to improve the syllabus of the certification scheme. The introduction of a Radiation Protection Advisor (RPA) to provide service and advice to the radiation industry in Malaysia is also seriously considered. (author)

  4. Radiation protection in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOuld, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    A book on radiation protection in hospitals has been written to cater for readers with different backgrounds, training and needs by providing an elementary radiation physics text in Part I and an advanced, comprehensive Part II relating to specific medical applications of X-rays and of radioactivity. Part I includes information on basic radiation physics, radiation risk, radiation absorption and attenuation, radiation measurement, radiation shielding and classification of radiation workers. Part II includes information on radiation protection in external beam radiotherapy, interstitial source radiotherapy, intracavitary radiotherapy, radioactive iodine-131 radiotherapy, nuclear medicine diagnostics and diagnostic radiology. (U.K.)

  5. Radiation protection training in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    An increasing number of radiation protection experts and of professionally exposed workers is temporarily or permanently working in a country other than the one where they received their radiation protection education or training. They all face the problem and the difficulties of recognition of radiation protection training programs by other countries. For this reason the German-Swiss Radiation Protection Association (Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz; FS) made a proposal to IRPA for an action on the mutual recognition of radiation protection education in Europe. In a first step contacts were made with two other European Associations of France and UK in order to establish a joint working group. (orig.) [de

  6. Radiation protection - thirty years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper is discussed some questions in the field of Radiation Protection as like: historical prologue of radiations discovery and it's systematics; radiation and radiation protection; ALARA principle and 'de minimis' approach; radiation risks and dose limits and radiation and chemicals a risk comparison (author)

  7. Radiation protection - thirty years after

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninkovic, M M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1989-07-01

    In this paper is discussed some questions in the field of Radiation Protection as like: historical prologue of radiations discovery and it's systematics; radiation and radiation protection; ALARA principle and 'de minimis' approach; radiation risks and dose limits and radiation and chemicals a risk comparison (author)

  8. Developing a Radiation Protection Hub

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, Nolan E [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    The WARP report issued by the NCRP study committee estimates that in ten years there will be a human capital crisis across the radiation safety community. The ability to respond to this shortage will be amplified by the fact that many radiation protection (health physics) academic programs will find it difficult to justify their continued existence since they are low volume programs, both in terms of enrollment and research funding, compared to the research funding return and visibility of more highly subscribed and highly funded academic disciplines. In addition, across the national laboratory complex, radiation protection research groups have been disbanded or dramatically reduced in size. The loss of both of these national resources is being accelerated by low and uncertain government funding priorities. The most effective solution to this problem would be to form a consortium that would bring together the radiation protection research, academic and training communities. The goal of such a consortium would be to engage in research, education and training of the next generation of radiation protection professionals. Furthermore the consortium could bring together the strengths of different universities, national laboratory programs and other entities in a strategic manner to accomplish a multifaceted research, educational and training agenda. This vision would forge a working and funded relationship between major research universities, national labs, four-year degree institutes, technical colleges and other partners.

  9. ISO radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.; West, N.

    1981-01-01

    After a brief description of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and its Technical Committee (TC) 85 ''Nuclear Energy'', the work of its Sub-Committee (SC) 2 ''Radiation Protection'' is described in some detail. Several international standards on subjects closely related to radiation protection have already been published, for example ISO-361 (Basic radiation protection symbol), ISO-1757 (Photographic dosimeters), ISO-1758 and 1759 (Direct and indirect-reading pocket exposure meters), ISO-2889 (Sampling of airborne radioactive materials), ISO-4037 (X and gamma reference radiations for calibration) and ISO-4071 (Testing of exposure meters and dosimeters). TC 85/SC 2 has currently eight active Working Groups (WG) dealing with 14 standards projects, mostly in advanced stages, in such fields as neutron and beta reference radiations, and X and gamma radiations of high and low dose-rates and high energies for calibration purposes, reference radiations for surface contamination apparatus, ejection systems for gamma radiography apparatus, industrial and laboratory irradiators, lead shielding units, protective clothing, thermoluminescence dosemeters, radioelement gauges, and surface contamination and decontamination. (author)

  10. VI Congress of Spanish Radiation Protection Society, Cordoba, 24-27 Set 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This special issue of the journal Radioprotection compiles the sessions of VI Congress of Spanish Radiation Protection Society. The sessions were: 1.- Radiation protection and the environment. 2.- Radiation protection of the workers. 3.- Natural radiation. 4.- Biological effects of the radiations. 5.- Radiation protection of patients. 6.- Dosimetry. 7.- Quality control. 8.- Training on radiation protection. 9.- Legislation. (Author)

  11. Radiation protection. Scientific fundamentals, legal regulations, practical applications. Compendium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchert, Guido; Gay, Juergen; Kirchner, Gerald; Michel, Rolf; Niggemann, Guenter; Schumann, Joerg; Wust, Peter; Jaehnert, Susanne; Strilek, Ralf; Martini, Ekkehard

    2011-06-01

    The compendium on radiation protection, scientific fundamentals, legal regulations and practical applications includes contributions to the following issues: (1) Effects and risk of ionizing radiation: fundamentals on effects and risk of ionizing radiation, news in radiation biology, advantages and disadvantages of screening investigations; (2) trends and legal regulations concerning radiation protection: development of European and national radiation protection laws, new regulations concerning X-rays, culture and ethics of radiation protection; (3) dosimetry and radiation measuring techniques: personal scanning using GHz radiation, new ''dose characteristics'' in practice, measuring techniques for the nuclear danger prevention and emergency hazard control; (4) radiation exposure in medicine: radiation exposure of modern medical techniques, heavy ion radiotherapy, deterministic and stochastic risks of the high-conformal photon radiotherapy, STEMO project - mobile CT for apoplectic stroke patients; (5) radiation exposure in technology: legal control of high-level radioactive sources, technical and public safety using enclosed radioactive sources for materials testing, radiation exposure in aviation, radon in Bavaria, NPP Fukushima-Daiichi - a status report; (6) radiation exposure in nuclear engineering: The Chernobyl accident - historical experiences or sustaining problem? European standards for radioactive waste disposal, radioactive material disposal in Germany risk assessment of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation (7) Case studies.

  12. Problematic radiation protective devices for X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, A.; Nanko, N.; Bruggmoser, G.; Eble, M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report experimental test results of radiation safety glasses with a lead equivalence of 0.5 mm Pb. The glasses were tested on a phantom, with various radiation projections, for their shielding effect with regard to the eye lens. The protective effect at AP projection was 90%, which corresponds to the data given by the manufacturer. But in most cases of interventional radiology, the examiner's eyes are exposed to lateral radiation, due to the positioning of the monitor. In these cases, reflected radiation at the side of the glasses facing the eye may induce a dose to the lens that can be fourfold the dose received without wearing the glasses, so that wearing these glasses may enhance the hazard. Another protective device tested was lead-coated gloves. The manufacturer promises a protective effect of 50% at 100 kV. The experimental test data, obtained by taking into account technical characteristics of angiographic components, confirm a radiation shielding of about 20%. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Assessment of the international meeting of radiation protection professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodemova, Denisa; Cabanekova, Helena

    2012-01-01

    The conclusions from and main agenda of the conference are summarized. The conference was divided into 8 sections, dealing with biological effects of ionizing radiation, general aspects of radiation protection, dosimetry and metrology of ionizing radiation, radiation protection problems in nuclear power plants, management of nuclear radiation emergencies, radiation load of patients and staff during medical applications of ionizing radiation (radiodiagnosis, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology), control of exposure to radiation from natural sources in the environment and at workplaces, and education in radiation protection. The programme included round-table discussions devoted to the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, optimization of the radiation load of children in radiology, and recent advances in the radon risk countermeasures area. (orig.)

  14. The protective effect of Transhinone II A in radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guanghu; Li Zhiping; Xu Yong; Xu Feng; Wang Jin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective effect and it's possible mechanism of Tanshinone II A in radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Methods: Having the right hemithorax of female Wistar rats irradiated 30 Gy in 10 fractions within 14 days by 6 MV photons, the radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis animal model was established. In the treatment group, sodium Tanshinone II A sulfonate (15 mg/kg) was given by intraperitoneal injection 1 hour before each fraction of irradiation. Five months after irradiation, the difference of the histopathological changes, the hyckoxyproline content and expression of TGF-β1 between the radiation alone group, tanshinone plus radiation and control group were analyzed by HE stain, Massion stain, immunohistochemical methor and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) method. Results: The histopathological comparison revealed the protective effect of Tanshinone II A. The content of hydroxyproline was (21.99±3.96), (38.25± 7.18), (28.94±4.29) μg/g in the control group, radiation alone group and radiation plus Tanshinone II A. The expression of TGF-β1 (mRNA and protein) was reduced by Tanshinone II A. Pathological changes of the pulmonary fibrosis was reduced by Tanshinone II A yet. Conclusions: Our study shows that Tanshinone II A can inhibit radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and the possible mechanism of its may be made possible through down-regulating the expression of TGF-β1 in the irritated lung tissue. (authors)

  15. Radiation protection housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, A

    1975-04-10

    The radiation protection housing consists of a foot rim with castor swivel wheels, a tubular frame tapering off at the top, and a crown. In the upper part of the tubular frame a lead glass window is permanently installed. The sides are covered with radiation attenuating curtains of leaded rubber. The housing has the shape of a truncated pyramid which can be dismantled into its constituent parts. It is used for protection from radiation encountered in X-ray facilities in dental radiology.

  16. Physics for radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, James E

    2013-01-01

    A much-needed working resource for health physicists and other radiation protection professionals, this volume presents clear, thorough, up-to-date explanations of the basic physics necessary to address real-world problems in radiation protection. Designed for readers with limited as well as basic science backgrounds, Physics for Radiation Protection emphasizes applied concepts and carefully illustrates all topics through examples as well as practice problems. Physics for Radiation Protection draws substantially on current resource data available for health physics use, providing decay schemes and emission energies for approximately 100 of the most common radionuclides encountered by practitioners. Excerpts of the Chart of the Nuclides, activation cross sections, fission yields, fission-product chains, photon attenuation coefficients, and nuclear masses are also provided.

  17. Management information system applied to radiation protection services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Souza, Leonardo Soares de; Figueiredo, Geraldo Magela; Figueiredo, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    An effective management information system based on technology, information and people is necessary to improve the safety on all processes and operations subjected to radiation risks. The complex and multisource information flux from all radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations requires a robust tool/system to highlight the strengths and weaknesses and identify behaviors and trends on the activities requiring radiation protection programs. Those organized and processed data are useful to reach a successful management and to support the human decision-making on nuclear organization. This paper presents recent improvements on a management information system based on the radiation protection directives and regulations from Brazilian regulatory body. This radiation protection control system is applied to any radiation protection services and research institutes subjected to Brazilian nuclear regulation and is a powerful tool for continuous management, not only indicating how the health and safety activities are going, but why they are not going as well as planned showing up the critical points. (author)

  18. Management information system applied to radiation protection services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Souza, Leonardo Soares de; Figueiredo, Geraldo Magela; Figueiredo, Arthur, E-mail: pabloag@cdtn.br, E-mail: lss@cdtn.br, E-mail: gmf@cdtn.br, E-mail: arthurqof@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    An effective management information system based on technology, information and people is necessary to improve the safety on all processes and operations subjected to radiation risks. The complex and multisource information flux from all radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations requires a robust tool/system to highlight the strengths and weaknesses and identify behaviors and trends on the activities requiring radiation protection programs. Those organized and processed data are useful to reach a successful management and to support the human decision-making on nuclear organization. This paper presents recent improvements on a management information system based on the radiation protection directives and regulations from Brazilian regulatory body. This radiation protection control system is applied to any radiation protection services and research institutes subjected to Brazilian nuclear regulation and is a powerful tool for continuous management, not only indicating how the health and safety activities are going, but why they are not going as well as planned showing up the critical points. (author)

  19. Chemical protection from high LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Koichi; Koike, Sachiko; Matsushita, Satoru; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Ohara, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    Radioprotection by WR151327 from high LET fast neutrons was investigated and compared with that from low LET radiation. Radiation damage in bone marrow, intestine, skin and leg length were all protected by a pretreatment with 400 mg/kg WR151327. Most prominent protection was observed for bone marrow, which gave a Dose Modifying Factor (DMF) of 2.2 against γ rays. Identical protection was observed between early and late radiation damage. WR151327 protected fast neutrons less efficiently than γ rays; 40% for bone marrow and 80% for skin leg. Pathological findings indicated that hyperplastic change in both dermis and epidermis associated with late skin shrinkage. Laser doppler flow-metry showed a good relationship between reduction of blood flow and late skin shrinkage. Irradiation of skin by heavy particle Carbon-12 indicated that skin shrinkage was modified by unirradiated surrounding normal tissues, which proposed a significant role of 'Volume Effect' in radiation damage. Tumor tissues were less protected by WR151327 than normal tissues. Dependence of radioprotection by WR151327 on tissue oxygen concentration is a probable reason to explain the difference between normal and tumor tissues. (author)

  20. Protection in handling ionizing radiation sources in national economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The collection of study texts is divided into 13 chapters giving an explanation of the structure of the atom, the properties of ionizing radiation and its interactions, quantities and units used, basic dosimetric methods, biological radiation effects, the sources of population exposure, the principles of radiation protection, technological applications of ionizing radiation, the monitoring of personnel and environment, the method of recording and filing, the method of protection from external radiation and internal contamination, health care, and requirements for protection in handling nonsealed sources. (M.D.)

  1. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Lars

    2000-03-01

    Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report

  2. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Lars (ed.)

    2000-03-15

    Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report.

  3. Is radiation protection for the unborn child guaranteed by radiation protection for female workers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosske, C.; Karcher, K.

    2003-01-01

    ICRP Publication 88 recommends doses to embryo and fetus from intakes of radionuclides by the mother for various intake scenarios. Mainly by answering the question 'Is radiation protection for the unborn child guaranteed by radiation protection for female workers?' it has been assessed if the intake scenarios given in ICRP Publication 88 are adequate for radiation protection purposes. This is generally the case, but the consideration of an additional chronic intake scenario for early pregnancy would be helpful. It is demonstrated that following chronic intake by inhalation, for most radionuclides radiation protection for (female) workers is also adequate for protection of the unborn child, considered as a member of the public. However, there are a number of radionuclides for which possible intakes in routine operations should be more restricted (up to 1% of the annual limits on intake for workers in the case of nickel isotopes) to ensure radiation protection for the unborn child. (author)

  4. Radiation protection programme for LEU miniature source reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beinpuo, Ernest Sanyare Warmann

    2015-02-01

    A radiation protection program has been developed to promote radiation dose reduction. It emphasize radiological protection fundamentals geared at reducing radiation from the application of the research reactor at the reactor center of the National Nuclear Research Institute (NNRI) of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. The objectives of the radiation safety program are both to ensure that nuclear scientists and technicians are exposed to a minimum of ionizing radiation and to protect employees and facility users and surrounding community from any potentially harmful effects of nuclear research reactor at GAEC. The primary purpose of the radiation control program is to assure radiological safety of all personnel and the public to guarantee that ionizing radiation arising out of the operations of the Research Reactor at the Reactor Center does not adversely affect personnel, the general public or the environment. This program sets forth polices, regulations, and procedures approved by the Centers Radiation Control Committee. The regulations and procedures outlined in this program are intended to protect all individuals with a minimum of interference in their activities and are consistent with regulations of the Radiation Protection Board (RPB) applicable to ionizing radioactive producing devices. (au)

  5. Radiation in perspective applications, risks and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Everyone on earth is exposed to natural radiation. Radiation produced artificially is no different, either in kind or in effect, from that originating naturally. Although radiation has many beneficial applications, throughout medicine, industry and research, it can be harmful to human beings who must be adequately protected from unnecessary or excessive exposures. For this purpose, a thorough system of international principles and standards and stringent national legislations have been put in place. Yet radiation continues to be the subject of much public fear and controversy. This clearly written report, intended for the nonspecialist reader, aims to contribute to an enlightened debate on this subject by presenting the most up-to-date and authoritative material on sources, uses and affects of radiation, and ways in which people are protected from its risks. It discusses the development of radiation protection measures, its internationally agreed principles, and also addresses social and economic issues such as ethical questions, risk perceptions, risk comparisons, public participation in decision-making and the cost of protection. (author)

  6. Optimization and radiation protection culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, In Young; Shin, Hyeong Ki; Lee, Chan Mi

    2013-01-01

    Safety culture or radiation protection culture is based in common on the term, 'culture'. Culture is defined as the learned, shared set of symbols and patterns of basic assumptions, which is invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problem of external adaptation and internal integration. Safety culture generally refers to the attitude and behaviors affecting safety performance. The concept of 'Safety Culture' was introduced after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. For the accident, nuclear society reached the conclusion that the cause was the wrong management attitude of the NPP, that is, deficient 'Safety Culture'. Recently, 'Radiation Protection Culture' was introduced as the core concept of nuclear safety culture. There have been many efforts to establish definition and develop assessment tool for radiation protection culture in international level such as ICRP and IRPA as well as NRC. In the same context with the safety culture, radiation protection culture is defined as 'the core values and behaviors resulting from a collective commitment by leaders and individual's to emphasize safety over competing goals to ensure protection of people and the environment.' It is worthwhile to recognize that regulatory enforcement in establishing healthy radiation protection culture of operators should be minimized because culture is not in the domain of regulatory enforcement. However, as 'ALARA', the most important concept in radiation protection, may be successfully achieved only in well established radiation protection culture, the least regulatory intervention would be needed in promoting and nurturing radiation protection culture in licensee. In addition, the concept of radiation protection culture should be addressed in plant operational policy to achieve the goals of ALARA. The pre-condition of the successful radiation protection culture is a healthy organizational

  7. Optimization and radiation protection culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, In Young; Shin, Hyeong Ki; Lee, Chan Mi [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Safety culture or radiation protection culture is based in common on the term, 'culture'. Culture is defined as the learned, shared set of symbols and patterns of basic assumptions, which is invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problem of external adaptation and internal integration. Safety culture generally refers to the attitude and behaviors affecting safety performance. The concept of 'Safety Culture' was introduced after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. For the accident, nuclear society reached the conclusion that the cause was the wrong management attitude of the NPP, that is, deficient 'Safety Culture'. Recently, 'Radiation Protection Culture' was introduced as the core concept of nuclear safety culture. There have been many efforts to establish definition and develop assessment tool for radiation protection culture in international level such as ICRP and IRPA as well as NRC. In the same context with the safety culture, radiation protection culture is defined as 'the core values and behaviors resulting from a collective commitment by leaders and individual's to emphasize safety over competing goals to ensure protection of people and the environment.' It is worthwhile to recognize that regulatory enforcement in establishing healthy radiation protection culture of operators should be minimized because culture is not in the domain of regulatory enforcement. However, as 'ALARA', the most important concept in radiation protection, may be successfully achieved only in well established radiation protection culture, the least regulatory intervention would be needed in promoting and nurturing radiation protection culture in licensee. In addition, the concept of radiation protection culture should be addressed in plant operational policy to achieve the goals of ALARA. The pre-condition of the successful radiation protection culture is a healthy organizational

  8. Report on the BWR owners group radiation protection/ALARA Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, L.R.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation protection programs at U.S. boiling water reactor (BWR) stations have evolved during the 1980s and early 1990s from a regulatory adherence-based endeavor to a proactive, risk-based radiation protection and prevention mission. The objectives are no longer to merely monitor and document exposure to radiation and radioactive materials. The focus of the current programs is the optimization of radiation protection of occupational workers consistent with the purpose of producing cost-effective electric power. The newly revised 10 CFR 20 defines the term ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) to take into account the state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to the state of the technology, and the benefits to the public health and safety. The BWR Owners Group (BWROG) initially formed the Radiation Protection/ALARA Committee in January 1990 to evaluate methods of reducing occupational radiation exposure during refueling outages. Currently, twenty U.S. BWR owner/operators (representing 36 of the operational 37 domestic BWR units), as well as three foreign BWR operators (associate members), have broadened the scope to promote information exchange between BWR radiation protection professionals and develop good practices which will affect optimization of their radiation protection programs. In search of excellence and the challenge of becoming open-quotes World Classclose quotes performers in radiation protection, the BWROG Radiation Protection/ALARA Committee has recently accepted a role in assisting the member utilities in improving radiation protection performance in a cost-effective manner. This paper will summarize the recent activities of this Committee undertaken to execute their role of exchanging information in pursuit of optimizing the improvement of their collective radiation protection performance

  9. Report on the BWR owners group radiation protection/ALARA Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, L.R. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Radiation protection programs at U.S. boiling water reactor (BWR) stations have evolved during the 1980s and early 1990s from a regulatory adherence-based endeavor to a proactive, risk-based radiation protection and prevention mission. The objectives are no longer to merely monitor and document exposure to radiation and radioactive materials. The focus of the current programs is the optimization of radiation protection of occupational workers consistent with the purpose of producing cost-effective electric power. The newly revised 10 CFR 20 defines the term ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) to take into account the state of technology, the economics of improvements in relation to the state of the technology, and the benefits to the public health and safety. The BWR Owners Group (BWROG) initially formed the Radiation Protection/ALARA Committee in January 1990 to evaluate methods of reducing occupational radiation exposure during refueling outages. Currently, twenty U.S. BWR owner/operators (representing 36 of the operational 37 domestic BWR units), as well as three foreign BWR operators (associate members), have broadened the scope to promote information exchange between BWR radiation protection professionals and develop good practices which will affect optimization of their radiation protection programs. In search of excellence and the challenge of becoming {open_quotes}World Class{close_quotes} performers in radiation protection, the BWROG Radiation Protection/ALARA Committee has recently accepted a role in assisting the member utilities in improving radiation protection performance in a cost-effective manner. This paper will summarize the recent activities of this Committee undertaken to execute their role of exchanging information in pursuit of optimizing the improvement of their collective radiation protection performance.

  10. Manual on radiation protection in hospital and general practice. Volume 4. Radiation protection in dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koren, K; Wuehrmann, A H

    1977-01-01

    The nine chapters of this manual on radiation protection in dentistry discuss the following topics: the need for radiation protection; delegation of responsibility; radiographic equipment; radiographic film; radiographic techniques; film processing and handling; patient doses; general radiation protection and monitoring; and educational standards. (HLW)

  11. Radiation Protection Ordinance 1989. Supplement with Radiation Protection Register Ordinance, general administration regulation pursuant to Sect. 45 Radiation Protection Ordinance, general administration regulation pursuant to Sect. 62 sub-sect. radiation passport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veith, H.M.

    1990-01-01

    The addendum contains regulations issued supplementary to the Radiation Protection Ordinance: The Radiation Protection Register as of April 3, 1990 including the law on the setting up of a Federal Office on Radiation Protection; the general administration regulation pursuant to Sect. 45 Radiation Protection Ordinance as of February 21, 1990; the general administration regulation pursuant to Sect. 62 sub-sect. 2 Radiation Protection Ordinance as of May 3, 1990 (AVV Radiation passport). The volume contains, apart from the legal texts, the appropriate decision by the Bundesrat, the official explanation from the Bundestag Publications as well as a comprehensive introduction into the new legal matter. (orig.) [de

  12. Medical students' knowledge of ionizing radiation and radiation protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagi, Sarah K; Khafaji, Mawya A

    2011-05-01

    To assess the knowledge of fourth-year medical students in ionizing radiation, and to study the effect of a 3-hour lecture in correcting their misconceptions. A cohort study was conducted on fourth-year medical students at King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the academic year 2009-2010. A 7-question multiple choice test-type questionnaire administered before, and after a 3-hour didactic lecture was used to assess their knowledge. The data was collected from December 2009 to February 2010. The lecture was given to 333 (72%) participants, out of the total of 459 fourth-year medical students. It covered topics in ionizing radiation and radiation protection. The questionnaire was validated and analyzed by 6 content experts. Of the 333 who attended the lecture, only 253 (76%) students completed the pre- and post questionnaire, and were included in this study. The average student score improved from 47-78% representing a gain of 31% in knowledge (p=0.01). The results indicated that the fourth-year medical students' knowledge regarding ionizing radiation and radiation protection is inadequate. Additional lectures in radiation protection significantly improved their knowledge of the topic, and correct their current misunderstanding. This study has shown that even with one dedicated lecture, students can learn, and absorb general principles regarding ionizing radiation.

  13. Radiation protection in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volodin, V; Hanson, G P

    1993-12-31

    The goal of this Chapter is to give a general outline of the essential principles and procedures for radiation protection in a nuclear medicine department where radionuclides are used for diagnosis and therapy. More detailed recommendations regarding radiation protection in nuclear medicine are given in the publications of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP, publications 25, 57, 60) and in ILO/IAEA/WHO Manual on Radiation Protection in Hospitals and General Practice (Volume 2: Unsealed Sources, WHO, Geneva, 1975), on which this Chapter is based. This chapter is not intended to replace the above-mentioned international recommendations on radiation protection, as well as existing national regulations on this subject, but intended only to provide guidance for implementing these recommendations in clinical practice

  14. Radiation protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volodin, V.; Hanson, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this Chapter is to give a general outline of the essential principles and procedures for radiation protection in a nuclear medicine department where radionuclides are used for diagnosis and therapy. More detailed recommendations regarding radiation protection in nuclear medicine are given in the publications of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP, publications 25, 57, 60) and in ILO/IAEA/WHO Manual on Radiation Protection in Hospitals and General Practice (Volume 2: Unsealed Sources, WHO, Geneva, 1975), on which this Chapter is based. This chapter is not intended to replace the above-mentioned international recommendations on radiation protection, as well as existing national regulations on this subject, but intended only to provide guidance for implementing these recommendations in clinical practice

  15. Knowledge of outdoor workers on the effects of natural UV radiation and methods of protection against exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hault, K; Rönsch, H; Beissert, S; Knuschke, P; Bauer, A

    2016-04-01

    The most important but influenceable risk factor in the development of skin cancer is the unprotected exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. In order to assure adequate and effective protection against UV exposure, a level of knowledge about solar radiation and its effects is required. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of workers in outdoor professions on the effects of natural UV radiation and methods of protection against exposure. Forty outdoor workers were given a standardized questionnaire designed to ascertain their level of knowledge. The majority of participants knew exposure to solar radiation can be detrimental depending on exposure time. Eighty-three percentage recognized that people working regularly in an outdoor environment may be at risk due to high exposure. Long-sleeved clothing plus headgear and sunscreen containing sun-protecting substances were deemed adequate methods of protection by 83% and 85% respectively. Seventy percentage of the outdoor workers were familiar with the definition of the sun protection factor (SPF), yet only 25% correctly identified the amount of sunscreen needed to achieve the SPF as indicated on the product. A mere 8% of participants knew that symptoms of a sunburn first became apparent 3 h after sun exposure and only 18% were able to accurately gauge the amount of time they could spend in the sun before developing one. Although 30% had heard of the ultraviolet index (UVI), only 13% understood that protecting your skin using additional measures is recommended as of UVI 3. Overall, 30% of the outdoor workers thought themselves sufficiently protected against the harmful effects of the sun. While the participants of this study had a basic fundamental understanding of the effects of solar radiation and methods of protection against exposure, there remains an urgent need for further clarification across all demographic groups. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  16. Radiation protection, optimization and justification; Radioprotection, optimisation et justification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordoliani, Y.S.; Brisse, H.; Foucart, J.M. [75 - Paris (France); Clement, J.P.; Ribeiro, A.; Gomes, H.; Marcus, C. [51 - Reims (France); Rehel, J.L.; Talbot, A.; Aubert, B.; Scanff, P. [92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Roudier, C.; Donadieu, J.; Pirard, P. [Saint Maurice (France); Bar, O. [37 - Tours (France); Maccia, C.; Benedittini, M. [92 - Bourg la Reine (France); Bouziane, T. [Tournai (Belgium); Brat, H. [Hornuy (Belgium); Bricoult, M [Bruxelles (Belgium); Heuga, O.; Hauger, O.; Bonnefoy, O.; Diard, F.; Chateil, J.F. [33 - Bordeaux (France); Schramm, R. [Forcheim (Germany); Reisman, J. [Princeton (United States); Aubert, B

    2005-10-15

    Nine articles in the field of radiation protection relative to the medical examinations concern the new legislation in radiation protection, the optimization of this one in order to reduce the radiation doses delivered to the patients, the side effects induced by irradiation and to give an evaluation of the medical exposure of french population to ionizing radiations. (N.C.)

  17. Understanding of radiation protection in medicine. Pt. 2. Occupational exposure and system of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Hiroji; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Shimada, Yasuhiro

    1997-01-01

    Using a questionnaire we investigated whether radiation protection is correctly understood by medical doctors (n=140) and nurses (n=496). Although medical exposure is usually understood by medical doctors and dentists, their knowledge was found to be insufficient. Sixty-eight percent of medical doctors and 50% of dentists did not know about the system of radiation protection. Dose monitoring was not correctly carried out by approximately 20% of medical staff members, and medical personnel generally complained of anxiety about occupational exposure rather than medical exposure. They did not receive sufficient education on radiation exposure and protection in school. In conclusion, the results of this questionnaire suggested that they do not have adequate knowledge about radiation exposure and protection. The lack of knowledge about protection results in anxiety about exposure. To protect oneself from occupational exposure, individual radiation doses must be monitored, and medical practice should be reconsidered based on the results of monitoring. To eliminate unnecessary medical and occupational exposure and to justify practices such as radiological examinations, radiation protection should be well understood and appropriately carried out by medical doctors and dentists. Therefore, the education of medical students on the subject of radiation protection is required as is postgraduate education for medical doctors, dentists and nurses. (author)

  18. Lack of radiation protective effect of orgotein in normal and malignant mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overgaard, J.; Nielsen, O.S.; Overgaard, M.; Steenholdt, S.; Jakobsen, A.; Sell, A.

    1979-01-01

    The potential radiation protective effect of orgotein, a metalloprotein with superoxide dismutase activity, was investigated in L 1 A 2 tumour cells in vitro, jejunal crypt cells and C 3 H mouse mammary carcinoma in vivo. No effect of orgotein, given either 2 hours before irradiation or 30 min after, was observed compared to the effect of irradiation alone. Thus, it was concluded that orgotein did not influence the primary radiation response in air in mammalian cells. (Auth.)

  19. Recent advances in radiation protection instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, D.A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation protection instrumentation plays very important role in radiation protection and surveillance programme. Radiation detector, which appears at the frontal end of the instrument, is an essential component of these instruments. The instrumental requirement of protection level radiation monitoring is different from conventional radiation measuring instruments. Present paper discusses the new type of nuclear radiation detectors, new protection level instruments and associated electronic modules for various applications. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, such as nuclear power plants; mining and milling; medical institutions; educational and research establishments; and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection to workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radioactive materials for different applications. The radiation exposures to the individual radiation workers and records of their cumulative radiation doses need to be routinely monitored and recorded

  20. Radiation protection in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, H.

    1990-01-01

    Switzerland's present radiation protection regulations are based on only two paragraphs of the atomic law but have been very successful in practice. A new radiation protection law, separated from nuclear legislation and valid for all application of ionizing radiation and radioctive materials, was proposed and drafted by the Federal Commission on Radiation Protection and has now been accepted by parliament with only minor modifications. The draft of the revised regulations which also will cover all applications, should be ready for consultations next year. Both the law (which contains principles but no figures such as limits) and the regulations incorporate the latest state of ICRP recommendations and are formulated in such a way as to allow application of or quick adaptation to the new basic ICRP recommendation expected for 1991. The legislation is flexible, with a relatively low regulation density and leaves sufficient room for professional judgement on a case by case basis both for authorities and for the specialists responsible for radiation protection in practice. (orig./HSCH)

  1. Report on the PWR-radiation protection/ALARA Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, D.J. [Consumers Power Co., Covert, MI (United States)

    1995-03-01

    In 1992, representatives from several utilities with operational Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) formed the PWR-Radiation Protection/ALARA Committee. The mission of the Committee is to facilitate open communications between member utilities relative to radiation protection and ALARA issues such that cost effective dose reduction and radiation protection measures may be instituted. While industry deregulation appears inevitable and inter-utility competition is on the rise, Committee members are fully committed to sharing both positive and negative experiences for the benefit of the health and safety of the radiation worker. Committee meetings provide current operational experiences through members providing Plant status reports, and information relative to programmatic improvements through member presentations and topic specific workshops. The most recent Committee workshop was facilitated to provide members with defined experiences that provide cost effective ALARA performance.

  2. UV light induced DNA damages and the radiation protection effects of Lingzi mushroom extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Thi Thuong Lan; Dinh Ba Tuan; Ta Bich Thuan; Tran Bang Diep; Tran Minh Quynh

    2016-01-01

    UV light has strongly influenced on the growth of E. coli as well as caused DNA damages. Configurations of both genomic DNA and pUC 19 plasmids extracted from E. coli were significantly changed by the exposure to UV light of 254 nm and DLT, an extract of Ganoderma lucidum Lingzi mushroom. The results also revealed the radio-protective effects of DLT to UV radiation. By adding 2% DLT to its culturing suspension, the growth of E. coli was significantly decreased, whereas a low DLT amount of about 0.5% slightly improved its growth, indicated that the DLT extract can be used as a promising protective substance against UV radiation. At the molecular level, the radio-protective effects of DLT were observed for both UV treated DNA and protein. Thus, DLT can protect DNA in vivo, but not in vitro. This effect was also observed for Taq polymerase, suggested that the radioprotection effect of DLT may due to it accelerated the degradation of radicals or species that produced in the suspensions during UV exposure. (author)

  3. Radiation protection in medical imaging and radiation oncology

    CERN Document Server

    Stoeva, Magdalena S

    2016-01-01

    Radiation Protection in Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology focuses on the professional, operational, and regulatory aspects of radiation protection. Advances in radiation medicine have resulted in new modalities and procedures, some of which have significant potential to cause serious harm. Examples include radiologic procedures that require very long fluoroscopy times, radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, and intravascular brachytherapy. This book summarizes evidence supporting changes in consensus recommendations, regulations, and health physics practices associated with these recent advances in radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiation oncology. It supports intelligent and practical methods for protection of personnel, the public, and patients. The book is based on current recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and is complemented by detailed practical sections and professional discussions by the world’s leading medical and health physics professionals. It also ...

  4. Radiation protection glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The glossary is intended to be used as a terminology standard for IAEA documentation on radiation protection. An effort has been made to use definitions contained in internationally accepted publications such as recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), reports of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), with only slight modifications in order to tailor them more closely to IAEA needs. The glossary is restricted to ionizing radiation

  5. Radiation protection guidelines for radiation emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessard, E.T.; Meinhold, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    The system of dose limitation and present guidance for emergency workers and guidance for intervention on behalf of the public are discussed. There are three elements for the system of dose limitation: justification, optimization and dose limits. The first element is basically a political process in this country. Justification is based on a risk-benefit analysis, and justification of the use of radioactive materials or radiation is generally not within the authority of radiation protection managers. Radiation protection managers typically assess detriments or harm caused by radiation exposure and have very little expertise in assessing the benefits of a particular practice involving nuclear material

  6. Basis for radiation protection of the nuclear worker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevara, F.A.

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of the standards for protection of persons who work in areas that have a potential for radiation exposure. A review is given of the units of radiation exposure and dose equivalent and of the value of the maximum permissible dose limits for occupational exposure. Federal Regulations and Regulatory Guides for radiation protection are discussed. Average occupational equivalent doses experienced in several operations typical of the United States Nuclear Industry are presented and shown to be significantly lower than the maximum permissible. The concept of maintaining radiation doses to As-Low-As-Reasonably-Achievable is discussed and the practice of imposing engineering and administrative controls to provide effective radiation protection for the nuclear worker is described

  7. Radiation protection and dosimetry issues in the medical applications of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The technological advances that occurred during the last few decades paved the way to the dissemination of CT-based procedures in radiology, to an increasing number of procedures in interventional radiology and cardiology as well as to new techniques and hybrid modalities in nuclear medicine and in radiotherapy. These technological advances encompass the exposure of patients and medical staff to unprecedentedly high dose values that are a cause for concern due to the potential detrimental effects of ionizing radiation to the human health. As a consequence, new issues and challenges in radiological protection and dosimetry in the medical applications of ionizing radiation have emerged. The scientific knowledge of the radiosensitivity of individuals as a function of age, gender and other factors has also contributed to raising the awareness of scientists, medical staff, regulators, decision makers and other stakeholders (including the patients and the public) for the need to correctly and accurately assess the radiation induced long-term health effects after medical exposure. Pediatric exposures and their late effects became a cause of great concern. The scientific communities of experts involved in the study of the biological effects of ionizing radiation have made a strong case about the need to undertake low dose radiation research and the International System of Radiological Protection is being challenged to address and incorporate issues such as the individual sensitivities, the shape of dose–response relationship and tissue sensitivity for cancer and non-cancer effects. Some of the answers to the radiation protection and dosimetry issues and challenges in the medical applications of ionizing radiation lie in computational studies using Monte Carlo or hybrid methods to model and simulate particle transport in the organs and tissues of the human body. The development of sophisticated Monte Carlo computer programs and voxel phantoms paves the way to an accurate

  8. Radiation protection in the application of ionizing radiation in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Yusof Mohamad Ali

    1987-01-01

    There is a substantial increase in the use of ionizing radiation in industry throughout the country especially in the last five years or so. With this growth in the number of users and activity of sources used, and together with the introduction of the new Atomic Energy Licensing Act (AELA) in 1984, the question of radiation safety and protection of workers and members of the public in general, can no longer be taken lightly. It has to be dealt with effectively. In this paper, a general discussion and clarification on certain practical aspects of radiation protection as recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is presented. Amongst the topics chosen are those on area monitoring, personnel monitoring, leak testing of sealed sources and training of personnel. Also presented in the paper is a brief discussion about UTN's experience in giving out radiation protection services to various agencies throughout the country. (author)

  9. Radiation Protection: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, M.

    2007-01-01

    As a federal research Centre, SCK-CEN has the statutory assignment to give priority to research related to safety, radioactive waste management, protection of man and environment, management of fissile and other strategic materials and social implications as part of the pursuit of sustainable development and to develop and gather the necessary knowledge and spread this knowledge through formation and communication. At the Division of Radiation Protection at SCK-CEN we are therefore active to maintain and enhance knowledge and expertise in each aspect of radiation protection: we study the risk of exposure - the way that radioactive materials spread in the environment and the potential for human contact - and the risk from exposure - how radiation affects human health; we perform health physics measurements; we are involved in emergency planning and preparedness and support to risk governance and decision taking. These activities are supported by radiation specific analysis and measurement techniques. These activities are not performed in isolation but in context of national and international collaborations or demands

  10. XXXIX Days of Radiation Protection. Proceedings of Presentations and Posters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of presented presentations and posters on the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 55 presentations and posters are included. The Conference consists of following sections: (I) Radiation protection, consequences of implementation of the EU2013/59 directive in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic); (II) Radiation protection in the application of ionizing radiation in medicine; (III) Dosimetry and metrology of external and internal irradiation; (IV) Natural sources of ionizing radiation, national radon programs; (V) Nuclear energy, the concept of decommissioning of nuclear power plants in terms of radiation protection; (VI) Use of standards of radiation protection in emergency management; (VII) Biological effects of radiation and estimation of irradiation risk.

  11. Actual global problems of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.

    1995-01-01

    Personal views on some actual problems in radiation protection are given in this paper. Among these problems are: evolution methodology used in radiation protection regulations; radiation protection, nuclear energy and safety, and new approaches to the process of the hazardous substances management. An interesting fact relating to the X-ray, radiation protection and Nikola Tesla are given also. (author)

  12. Study on radiation-induced deactivation and post-deactivation of some oxidoreductases in dilute aqueous solution and protective effect: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yiqing; Ha Hongfei

    1993-01-01

    In this work the radiation-induced deactivation of catalase in dilute aqueous solution was reported. The effects of irradiation atmosphere, temperature and original concentration of catalase in dilute aqueous solutions on the deactivation of catalase were investigated. The protective effect by some additives (CH 3 CH 2 OH, HCOONa and EDTA) to radiation deactivation in dilute aqueous solutions was also studied. Remarkable protective effect by those additives was observed. The mechanism of radiation deactivation and protective effect have been discussed

  13. Radiation protection for human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdevich, I.M.; Kenigsberg, Ya.Eh.; Minenko, V.F.; Mrochek, A.G.; Rolevich, I.V.; Skurat, V.V.; Sharovarov, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of researches is development of methods and means of reduction of radiation risk caused by the Chernobyl accident consequences by means of decrease of both individual and collective dozes by realization of special protective measures. The reconstruction of average collective accumulated irradiation dozes of the inhabitants of the contaminated populated localities of Belarus is carried out; the forecast of development of radiation induced oncologic diseases is given. The laws of formation of annual irradiation dozes are investigated; the prevailing role of internal irradiation dozes in formation of total dose loadings is detected. On this basis a number of practical projects directed on creation of effective land tenure and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production, as well as decontamination technologies and radioactive waste management are executed. Are given the results of researches carried out in Belarus in 1997 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, treatment and burial of radioactive wastes; development and ground of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories

  14. Future issues in radiation protection: a Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation protection has always been a key effectiveness area in Ontario Hydro's nuclear power program. The overall collective and individual dose performance continues to be amongst the best in the world. However, several important issues are emerging and will continue to impact the way in which the radiation protection program is managed. These include proposed reductions in regulatory dose limits based on ICRP 60, worker and public perception of an increased level of radiation risk, an increased presence of organised labour in the formulation of radiation protection policy, our philosophy of self protection coming under challenge and the impact of heavily audited radiation protection practices and programs. Each of these issues will be discussed further in this paper. The Ontario Hydro ALARA program is briefly covered although it is considered not to be a future issue but rather a principle which has been incorporated into the design and operation of our stations for many years. (author). 10 figs

  15. Personal radiation protection in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol'dshtejn, D.S.; Koshcheev, V.S.

    1983-01-01

    Specific peculiarities of organization of personal radiation protection at various nuclear industry enterprises when dealing with radioactive and other toxic substances are illuminated. Effect of heatin.g and cooling microclimate is discussed. Medical and technical requirements for personal protection means and tasks of personal protection in the field of nuclear industry are considered in short along with some peculiarities of application of different kinds of personal protection means and psychological aspects of personnel protection

  16. Lack of radiation protective effect of orgotein in normal and malignant mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overgaard, J; Nielsen, O S; Overgaard, M; Steenholdt, S; Jakobsen, A; Sell, A [Institute of Cancer Research and The Department of Radiation Therapy and Oncology, The Radium Centre, Aarhus, Denmark

    1979-01-01

    The potential radiation protective effect of orgotein, a metalloprotein with superoxide dismutase activity, was investigated in L/sub 1/A/sub 2/ tumour cells in vitro, jejunal crypt cells and C/sub 3/H mouse mammary carcinoma in vivo. No effect of orgotein, given either 2 hours before irradiation or 30 min after, was observed compared to the effect of irradiation alone. Thus, it was concluded that orgotein did not influence the primary radiation response in air in mammalian cells.

  17. Some perspectives on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, W.K.

    1979-01-01

    A brief review of the history and organizational structure of the NCRP is given. Summaries are given of a number of NCRP radiation protection guides dealing with hazards from 85 Kr, radiation exposures from consumer products, basic radiation protection criteria, and doses from natural background radiation

  18. Radiation protection, measurements and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The introductory lectures discuss subjects such as radiation protection principles and appropriate measuring techniques; methods, quantities and units in radiation protection measurement; technical equipment; national and international radiation protection standards. The papers presented at the various sessions deal with: Dosimetry of external radiation (27 papers); Working environment monitoring and emission monitoring (21 contributions); Environmental monitoring (19 papers); Incorporation monitoring (9 papers); Detection limits (4 papers); Non-ionizing radiation, measurement of body dose and biological dosimetry (10 papers). All 94 contributions (lectures, compacts and posters) are retrievable as separate records. (HP) [de

  19. Radiation Protection Act promulgated on May 19, 1988, SFS 1988: 220

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Act entered into force on 1 July 1988 and supersedes the previous Radiation Protection Act (SFS 1958: 110). The objective of the new Act is to protect humans, animals and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing as well as non-ionizing radiation. As previously, the main responsibility for public radiation protection will rest with one central radiation protection authority. The general obligations with regard to radiation protection place a greater responsibility than in the past on persons carrying out activities involving radiation. The Act also contains rules governing decommissioning of technical equipment which could generate radiation. Basically, the same requirements still apply regarding licensing of activities involving ionizing radiation, with certain extensions covering, inter alia, also production and transportation of radioactive material. Under the Act, it is now possible to adjust the licensing and supervisory procedures to the level of danger of the radiation source and the need for adequate competence, etc., and finally, more effective supervision is provided for. (NEA) [fr

  20. Using computer-based training to facilitate radiation protection review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abercrombie, J.S.; Copenhaver, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    In a national laboratory setting, it is necessary to provide radiation protection overview and training to diverse parts of the laboratory population. This includes employees at research reactors, accelerators, waste facilities, radiochemical isotope processing, and analytical laboratories, among others. In addition, our own radiation protection and monitoring staffs must be trained. To assist in the implementation of this full range of training, ORNL has purchased prepackaged computer-based training in health physics and technical mathematics with training modules that can be selected from many topics. By selection of specific modules, appropriate radiation protection review packages can be determined to meet many individual program needs. Because our radiation protection personnel must have some previous radiation protection experience or the equivalent of an associate's degree in radiation protection for entry level, the computer-based training will serve primarily as review of major principles. Others may need very specific prior training to make the computer-based training effective in their work situations. 4 refs

  1. Radiation protection zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Radiation being not visible, the zoning of an area containing radioactive sources is important in terms of safety. Concerning radiation protection, 2 work zones are defined by regulations: the monitored zone and the controlled zone. The ministerial order of 15 may 2006 settles the frontier between the 2 zones in terms of radiation dose rates, the rules for access and the safety standards in both zones. Radioprotection rules and the name of the person responsible for radiation protection must be displayed. The frontier between the 2 zones must be materialized and marked with adequate equipment (specific danger signs and tapes). Both zones are submitted to selective entrance, the access for the controlled zone is limited because of the radiation risk and of the necessity of confining radioactive contamination while the limitation of the access to the monitored zone is due to radiation risk only. (A.C.)

  2. The protective effects of vitamin C on hepatotoxicity induced by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Ki Jung; Park, Sung Kwang; Cho, Heung Lae; Kang, Ki Mun; Chai, Gyu Young; Chung, Duck Wha; Kang, Jin Soon

    2004-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the protective effects of vitamin C on the hepatotoxicity induced by radiation. The Spraque Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups; the control group, the radiation exposed group, and the radiation and vitamin C-treated group. SOD activity catalase, malondialdehyde and liver enzymes were analyzed to assess the antioxidant effects of vitamin C. The increased level of malondialdehyde and the decreased catalase activity that were induced by radiation were improved after vitamin C but were was no statistical significance among three groups. The superoxide dismutase activity of the liver was increased by vitamin C, but there were no statistically significant differences between the vitamin C-treated group and the non vitamin C-treated group. The level of liver enzymes in sera such as glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, lactate dehyrogenase and alkaline phosphatase were remarkably elevated by radiation. The levels of those enzymes were decreased in the vitamin C-treated group and statistical significance was noted for the GPT level (ρ < 0.01). On the electromicrographic findings, the hepatic cell destruction was considerably decreased in the vitamin C-treated group. Vitamin C is thought to be an effective antioxidant against the hepatotoxicity induced by radiation

  3. On the use of age-specific effective dose coefficients in radiation protection of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1998-01-01

    Current radiation protection standards for the public include a limit on effective dose in any year for individuals in critical groups. This paper considers the question of how the annual dose limit should be applied in controlling routine exposures of populations consisting of individuals of all ages. We assume that the fundamental objective of radiation protection is limitation of lifetime risk and, therefore, that standards for controlling routine exposures of the public should provide a reasonable correspondence with lifetime risk, taking into account the age dependence of intakes and doses and the variety of radionuclides and exposure pathways of concern. Using new calculations of the per capita (population-averaged) risk of cancer mortality per unit activity inhaled or ingested in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Federal Guidance Report No. 13, we show that applying a limit on annual effective dose only to adults, which was the usual practice in radiation protection of the public before the development of age-specific effective dose coefficients, provides a considerably better correspondence with lifetime risk that applying the annual dose limit to the critical group of any age. (author)

  4. On the use of age-specific effective dose coefficients in radiation protection of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1998-01-01

    Current radiation protection standards for the public include a limit on effective dose in any year for individuals in critical groups. This paper considers the question of how the annual dose limit should be applied in controlling routine exposures of populations consisting of individuals of all ages. The authors assume that the fundamental objective of radiation protection is limitation of lifetime risk and, therefore, that standards for controlling routine exposures of the public should provide a reasonable correspondence with lifetime risk, taking into account the age dependence of intakes and doses and the variety of radionuclides and exposure pathways of concern. Using new calculations of the per capita (population-averaged) risk of cancer mortality per unit activity inhaled or ingested in the US Environmental Protection Agency's Federal Guidance Report No. 13, the authors show that applying a limit on annual effective dose only to adults, which was the usual practice in radiation protection of the public before the development of age-specific effective dose coefficients, provides a considerably better correspondence with lifetime risk than applying the annual dose limit to the critical group of any age

  5. Radiation protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corstens, F.

    1989-01-01

    Aspects of radiation protection in nuclear medicine and the role of the Dutch Society for Nuclear Medicine in these are discussed. With an effective dose-equivalence of averaged 3 mSv per year per nuclear medical examination and about 200.000 examinations per year in the Netherlands, nuclear medicine contributes only to a small degree to the total averaged radiation dose by medical treating. Nevertheless from the beginning, besides to protection of environment and personnel, much attention has been spent by nuclear physicians to dose reduction with patients. Replacing of relatively long living radionuclides like 131 I by short living radionuclides like 99m Tc is an example. In her education and acknowledgement policy the Dutch Society for Nuclear Medicine spends much attention to aspects of radiation reduction. (author). 3 tabs

  6. Squares of the natural numbers in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, H.M.

    1977-01-01

    An informal history of radiation protection is given. The following topics are included: the discovery of x rays and their effects, the formation of the International Committee on X-ray and Radium Protection, the Manhattan Project and its plutonium aspects, dose limits and their origin, the increase in antinuclear writings, the publication of reports on radiation levels and effects, the role of the EPA in medical radiation, and the Oklo phenomenon. Recommendations for NCRP and ICRP actions are given. The publication also contains brief biographies of Lauriston S. Taylor and Herbert M. Parker

  7. National congress of radiation protection - Book of presentations (slides)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    This document brings together all the available presentations (slides) of the 9. French national congress of radiation protection. The congress comprised 9 tutorial sessions and 13 ordinary sessions. The tutorial sessions covered the following topics: T1 - Fukushima accident's consequences on terrestrial environment; T2 - The efficient dose: use and limitations in the industrial and medical domains; T3 - Revision of the NFC 15-160 standard relative to radiological facilities; T4 - Medical implants and low frequency electromagnetic fields; T5 - Report from the working group on radiological zoning; T6 - Incidents in medical environment; T7 - ADR: European agreement about the international road transport of dangerous goods; T8 - Cigeo project: industrial geologic disposal facility; T9 - Dose control in medical imaging: what progress since 2010? The ordinary sessions gathered fifty-nine presentations dealing with the following subjects: 1 - effects of ionising radiations on man and ecosystems; 2 - radiation protection regulation and standards; 3 - radiation protection in incident, accident and post-accident situation; 4 - radiation protection of populations and ecosystems; 5 - Radiation protection and society; 6/11 - Radiation protection of patients; 7/8 - Eye lens irradiation and dosimetry; 9 - Non-ionising radiations; 10/12 - Radiation protection in professional environments; 13 - advances in dosimetry and metrology

  8. International conference on the protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation. Contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    An International Conference on the Protection of the Environment from the Effects of Ionizing Radiation, organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in co-operation with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the European Commission (EC) and the International Union of Radioecology (IUR), will be held in Stockholm, Sweden, from 6-10 October 2003. This Conference will be hosted by the Government of Sweden through the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). This publication contains contributed papers submitted on issues within the scope of the conference, which were accepted following a review by the Conference Programme Committee. The primary objective of this Conference is to foster information exchange, with the aim of promoting the development of a coherent international policy on the protection of the environment from effects attributable to ionizing radiation. This Conference is one in a series of meetings organized by, or held in co-operation with, the IAEA on this subject. It will include a review of recent developments in this area, and consideration of their implications for future work at national and international levels. The topics on which contributed papers were requested are as follows: Existing environmental protection approaches; Development of an international assessment framework; The scientific basis for environmental radiation assessment; Development of management approaches.

  9. Manual of Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, D.J.; Granier, R.; Boisserie, G.

    1992-01-01

    This manual explains the principles and practice of radiation protection for those whose work in research, in the field of medicine or in the industry requires the use of radiation sources. It provides the information radiation users need to protect themselves and others and to understand and comply with international recommendations, regulations and legislation regarding the use of radionuclides and radiation machines. It is designed to teach a wide audience of doctors, biologists, research scientists, technicians, engineers, students and others

  10. Guideline for radiation protection in veterinary medicine. Guideline relating to the Ordinance for Protection Against Damage Through Ionising Radiation (Radiation Protection Ordinance - StrlSchV) and the Ordinance for Protection Against X-Ray Radiation (X-Ray Ordinance - RoeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalczak, H.

    2005-05-01

    The Guideline on ''Radiation Protection in Veterinary Medicine'' primarily addresses the supreme Land authorities that are responsible for radiation protection. Its purpose is to harmonise the radiation protection procedures employed by the Laender, thus establishing a nationwide uniform system for monitoring the handling of radioactive substances and ionising radiation applications in veterinary medicine on the basis of the legal regulations in force. In addition the guideline is intended to serve veterinary staff as a source of practical information which explains the radiation protection requirements stipulated by the legal regulations and technical rules. This concerns in particular the rules for the acquisition of the necessary radiation protection skills or the necessary knowledge of radiation protection by the veterinary surgeon performing the application or the staff cooperation in the application

  11. Radiation protection optimization of workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.

    1994-11-01

    This report presents the contribution of CEPN (study center on protection evaluation in nuclear area) to the Days of the French Radiation Protection Society (SFRP) on optimization of workers radiation protection in electronuclear, industrial and medical areas

  12. Excellence through radiation protection practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.A.; Armitage, G.; Popple, R.T.; Carrigan, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear generation program at Ontario Hydro was initiated in the early 1960s. Over the last two decades the program has expanded to a planned capacity of ∼ 14,000 MW(electric) by 1992. Each of the nuclear stations consists of four identical reactor units and they range in size from 520 to 880 MW(electric). The overall objectives of Ontario Hydro's radiation protection program are stated as follows: (1) to prevent detrimental nonstochastic health effects to employees and the public; (2) to limit detrimental stochastic health effects occurring in employees or the public to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), social and economic factors being taken into account; and (3) to provide a level of health and safety that is as good as, or better than, comparable safe industries. Although many elements of the radiation protection program are similar to those adopted by other electrical utilities around the world, there are some unique features that have played an important part in the improvements achieved. These include: management commitment, design responsibility, radiation protection training, operations control, and work planning. The issues that need to be addressed in striving for overall excellence in radiological safety over the next decade are summarized

  13. On ethical issues in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1996-01-01

    From an ethical viewpoint the author surveys existing international radiation protection recommendations and standards. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the author discusses ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. (author)

  14. Radiation protection research and training programme 1990-91 Catalogue of contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This catalogue contains summaries of contacts included in the 1990-91 radiation protection research and training programme, which is divided into three sectors: (a) human exposure to radiation and radioactivity: (i) measurement of radiation dose and its interpretation, (ii) transfer and behaviour of radionuclides in the environment; (b) consequences of radiation exposure to man; their assessment, prevention and treatment: (i) stochastic effects of radiation, (ii) non-stochastic effects of radiation, (iii) radiation effects on the developing organism; (c) risks and management of radiation exposure: (i) assessment of human exposure and risks, (ii) optimization and management of radiation protection

  15. Code of practice of radiation protection in fixed nuclear gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltayeb, M. A. M.

    2012-09-01

    The present work aims at developing and updating a code of practice of radiation protection in fixed nuclear gauges that comply with current international recommendations. The work also intended to evaluate the current radiation protection situation in two selected companies using nuclear gauges in Sudan. A draft of the code is proposed which includes the basic principle of protection such as source construction and gauges radiation monitoring, storage maintenance and leak testing as well as specific issues related to nuclear gauges. The practical part of this study included investigation of radiation protection in the comparisons using nuclear gauges for level detection, to evaluate the level of radiation protection and the compliance to the regulatory authority regulations. The result revealed that the two companies do not have an effective radiation protection program and that can lead to exposure of workers to unnecessary doses. Some recommendations were stated, if implemented they could improve the status of radiation protection in those companies. (Author)

  16. Radiation protection programme for uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbeye, M.J.

    2014-04-01

    The Radiation Protection Programme (RPP) was developed to ensure that measures are in place for the occupational protection and safety in uranium mining facility. This work has established a number of protective measures that should be taken by the individual miners, licensee and all staff. It is not known whether Kayerekera Uranium mine has the technical and administrative capability for an effective radiation protection programme. The key in the mining facility is the control of dust through various means to prevent the escape of radon gas. Personal hygiene and local operating rules have been discovered to be very important for the protection and safety of the workers. The following components have also been discovered to be vital in ensuring safety culture in the mining facility: classification of working areas, monitoring of individuals and workplace, assignment of responsibilities, emergency preparedness, education and training and health surveillance. The regulatory body (Environmental Affairs Department of Malawi) should examine the major areas outlined in the RPP for Kayerekera uranium mine to find out the effectiveness of the RPP that is in place. (au)

  17. Advances in radiation protection monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The requirement to keep radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable, linked with the growing number of workers whose exposure to radiation must be strictly controlled, requires intensified efforts directed towards the provision of adequate radiation monitoring programmes. This symposium was intended to review the advances that have been made in methods, techniques and instrumentation for radiation protection monitoring. Thus the symposium complemented the detailed consideration that had already been given to two closely related topics, that of environmental monitoring and of monitoring radioactive airborne and liquid discharges from nuclear facilities. The first topic had been dealt with in detail in an Agency symposium held in November 1973 in Warsaw and the second was treated in an Agency symposium held in September 1977 in Portoroz. The present symposium covered a broad range of topics under the following main headings: Monitoring of external exposure (three sessions),Contamination monitoring (three sessions), Radiation monitoring programmes (one session), Calibration, and use of computers (two sessions). An introductory paper described the purpose of radiation protection monitoring and its historical development. It drew attention to the gradual change from the threshold dose hypothesis to the hypothesis of direct proportionality between dose and effect and discussed practical implications of the recommendations recently issued by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). It became apparent that guidance on the application of these recommendations is urgently needed. This guidance is presently being prepared by ICRP

  18. Ethics and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, Sven Ove

    2007-01-01

    Some of the major problems in radiation protection are closely connected to issues that have a long, independent tradition in moral philosophy. This contribution focuses on two of these issues. One is the relationship between the protection of individuals and optimisation on the collective level, and the other is the relative valuation of future versus immediate damage. Some of the intellectual tools that have been developed by philosophers can be useful in radiation protection. On the other hand, philosophers have much to learn from radiation protectors, not least when it comes to finding pragmatic solutions to problems that may be intractable in principle

  19. Ethics and radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Sven Ove [Department of Philosophy and the History of Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 78 B, 2tr, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-06-01

    Some of the major problems in radiation protection are closely connected to issues that have a long, independent tradition in moral philosophy. This contribution focuses on two of these issues. One is the relationship between the protection of individuals and optimisation on the collective level, and the other is the relative valuation of future versus immediate damage. Some of the intellectual tools that have been developed by philosophers can be useful in radiation protection. On the other hand, philosophers have much to learn from radiation protectors, not least when it comes to finding pragmatic solutions to problems that may be intractable in principle.

  20. Screening of new substances for radiation protection and technology development of efficacy improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Byung Sun; Park, Sun Young; Jang, Eun Jung [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    To evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of candidate compounds, we examined the effects of selenium compounds, melatonin, and propolis on the colony forming efficiency (CFE) of gamma-irradiated CHO cells. - Protective effects of selenium compounds against radiation-induced cytotoxicity Sodium selenite showed protective effects at low concentrations against radiation-induced toxicity in CHO cells, whereas its effects were weak at higher concentrations. Selenomethionine also reduced the radiation-induced cytotoxicity. Both of these compounds showed highest protective effects at the concentration of 1 uM. - Protective effects of melatonin against radiation-induced cytotoxicity Melatonin showed the protective effects against radiation-induced cytotoxicity, and the protection was highest at 1 mM concentration. - Protective effects of selenium compounds against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity Propolis showed dose-dependent inhibition of hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity. In particular, the highest inhibition was observed when propolis were treated at 0.3 and 1 ng/ml 24h prior to the hydrogen peroxide treatment. The protective effects of propolis was observed only when it was pretreated at least 8 hours before hydrogen peroxide treatment.

  1. Screening of new substances for radiation protection and technology development of efficacy improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Byung Sun; Park, Sun Young; Jang, Eun Jung

    2005-03-01

    To evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of candidate compounds, we examined the effects of selenium compounds, melatonin, and propolis on the colony forming efficiency (CFE) of gamma-irradiated CHO cells. - Protective effects of selenium compounds against radiation-induced cytotoxicity Sodium selenite showed protective effects at low concentrations against radiation-induced toxicity in CHO cells, whereas its effects were weak at higher concentrations. Selenomethionine also reduced the radiation-induced cytotoxicity. Both of these compounds showed highest protective effects at the concentration of 1 uM. - Protective effects of melatonin against radiation-induced cytotoxicity Melatonin showed the protective effects against radiation-induced cytotoxicity, and the protection was highest at 1 mM concentration. - Protective effects of selenium compounds against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity Propolis showed dose-dependent inhibition of hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity. In particular, the highest inhibition was observed when propolis were treated at 0.3 and 1 ng/ml 24h prior to the hydrogen peroxide treatment. The protective effects of propolis was observed only when it was pretreated at least 8 hours before hydrogen peroxide treatment

  2. Adaptation of the present concept of dosimetric radiation protection quantities for external radiation to radiation protection practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, J.; Thompson, I. M. G.

    2004-01-01

    The present concept of dosimetric radiation protection quantities for external radiation is reviewed. For everyday application of the concept some adaptations are recommended. The check of the compliance with dose limits should be performed either by the comparison with values of the respective operational quantities directly or by the calculation of the protection quantity by means of the operational quantity, the appertaining conversion coefficient and additional information of the radiation field. Only four operational quantities are regarded to be sufficient for most applications in radiation protection practice. The term equivalent should be used in the connection dose equivalent only. Proposals are made for names of frequently used operational quantities which are denoted up to now by symbols only. (authors)

  3. The philosophy, past and present of radiation protection in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaercher, K.H.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation protection in radiotherapy can be effected not only by legal provisions, regulations and a sophisticated supervisory apparatus but also by a high level of radiation protection awareness among medical doctors and staff who are responsible for patient radiation protection, too. This awareness will have to be promoted by imparting knowledge and experience to and by those involved with therapeutical measures. However, any exaggeration when doing so will result in causing doctors to become irritated with legal supervision and will cause radiation protection practice to deteriorate. Positive implementation of radiation protection does not only involve the handling of lead and baryte but also the joy in doing something meaningful. (orig./HSCH) [de

  4. Federal radiation protection regulations: An industry viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harward, E.D.

    1987-01-01

    Regulations and standards to protect the public and workers from ionizing radiation have been in transition for a number of years, although most of the basic limits in use have remained essentially unchanged over the past 25 years or so. Legislation, political changes, new scientific data, advances in scientific concepts, and finally, public perception and resulting pressures have all been factors in the modifications that have been implemented or considered for radiation protection regulations in recent years. During this period, radiation exposures to both the public and the work force have been reduced through program management and improved technology. Based on activities of the AIF Subcommittee on Radiation Protection, this paper reviews pertinent NRC and EPA regulations, standards and guidance as well as NCRP recommendations and provide some analyses of these in terms of their potential effect on nuclear industry operations. Comments include suggestions where minor changes in Federal agency approaches to radiation regulation might be made for the public benefit

  5. Radiation protection in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vano, E.; Holmberg, O.; Perez, M. R.; Ortiz, P.

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic, interventional and therapeutic used of ionizing radiation are beneficial for hundreds of millions of people each year by improving health care and saving lives. In March 2001, the first International Conference on the Radiological Protection of Patients was held in Malaga, Spain, which led to an international action plan for the radiation protection of patients. Ten years after establishing the international action plan, the International Conference on Radiation Protection in Medicine: Setting the Scene for the Next Decade was held in Bonn, Germany, in December 2012. the main outcome of this conference was the so called Bonn Call for Action that identifies then priority actions to enhance radiation protection in medicine for the next decade. The IAEA and WHO are currently working in close cooperation to foster and support the implementation of these ten priority actions in Member States, but their implementation requires collaboration of national governments, international agencies, researchers, educators, institutions and professional associations. (Author)

  6. Radiation protection in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vano, E.; Holmberg, O.; Perez, M. R.; Ortiz, P.

    2016-08-01

    Diagnostic, interventional and therapeutic used of ionizing radiation are beneficial for hundreds of millions of people each year by improving health care and saving lives. In March 2001, the first International Conference on the Radiological Protection of Patients was held in Malaga, Spain, which led to an international action plan for the radiation protection of patients. Ten years after establishing the international action plan, the International Conference on Radiation Protection in Medicine: Setting the Scene for the Next Decade was held in Bonn, Germany, in December 2012. the main outcome of this conference was the so called Bonn Call for Action that identifies then priority actions to enhance radiation protection in medicine for the next decade. The IAEA and WHO are currently working in close cooperation to foster and support the implementation of these ten priority actions in Member States, but their implementation requires collaboration of national governments, international agencies, researchers, educators, institutions and professional associations. (Author)

  7. Procedure and methodology of Radiation Protection optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hengde

    1995-01-01

    Optimization of Radiation Protection is one of the most important principles in the system of radiation protection. The paper introduces the basic principles of radiation protection optimization in general, and the procedure of implementing radiation protection optimization and methods of selecting the optimized radiation protection option in details, in accordance with ICRP 55. Finally, some economic concepts relating to estimation of costs are discussed briefly

  8. Second Ordinance amending the Radiation Protection Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The amendment of the Radiation Protection Ordinance brings about the following changes: (1) Introduction of the concept of effective dose, reduction of limits for partial body dose, adoption of the radiotoxicity values of radionuclides as established by the EC Basis Standards; (2) introduction of a working-life-related dose limit of 400 mSv; (3) supplementing provisions for the protection of the population, particularly by the standard procedure for radioecological impact assessment and determination of dose factors; (4) supplementing provisions on the use of radioactive substances in medicine and medical research; (5) supplementing provisions on health physics monitoring; (6) provisions for improving the supervision and controls in the transport of radioactive substances; (7) definition of activities and their assignment to the provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance; (8) revision of the waste management provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (HP) [de

  9. Common strategic research agenda for radiation protection in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Reflecting the change in funding strategies for European research projects, and the goal to jointly improve medical radiation protection through sustainable research efforts, five medical societies involved in the application of ionising radiation (European Association of Nuclear Medicine, EANM; European Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics. EFOMP; European Federation of Radiographer Societies, EFRS; European Society of Radiology, ESR; European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology, ESTRO) have identified research areas of common interest and developed this first edition of the Common Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) for medical radiation protection. The research topics considered necessary and most urgent for effective medical care and efficient in terms of radiation protection are summarised in five main themes: 1. Measurement and quantification in the field of medical applications of ionising radiation 2. Normal tissue reactions, radiation-induced morbidity and long-term health problems 3. Optimisation of radiation exposure and harmonisation of practices 4. Justification of the use of ionising radiation in medical practice 5. Infrastructures for quality assurance The SRA is a living document; thus comments and suggestions by all stakeholders in medical radiation protection are welcome and will be dealt with by the European Alliance for Medical Radiation Protection Research (EURAMED) established by the above-mentioned societies. • Overcome the fragmentation of medical radiation protection research in Europe • Identify research areas of joint interest in the field of medical radiation protection • Improve the use of ionising radiation in medicine • Collect stakeholder feedback and seek consensus • Emphasise importance of clinical translation and evaluation of research results.

  10. Agencies revise standards for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The article deals with a guideline, compiled by the IAEA, for radiation protection. The guidelines aim at the control of individual risk through specified limits, optimisation of protection and the justification of all practices involving exposure to radiation. The guideline is a revision of the 1967 publication of the IAEA, Basic safety standards for radiation protection. According to the document the main resposibility for radiation protection lies with the employer. The workers should be responsible for observing protection procedures and regulations for their own as well as others' safety

  11. Radiation protection technology. Specific course for authorized radiation protection representatives according the qualification guidelines technology for the radiation protection regulations (StrlSchV) and X-ray regulation (RoeV). 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahn, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    The specific course for authorized radiation protection representatives according the qualification guidelines technology for the radiation protection regulations (StrlSchV) and X-ray regulation (RoeV). Covers the following issues: radiation protection - generally; licenses and notifications; scientific fundamentals; dosimetry, surveillance, control, documentation; technical radiation protection; radiation protection calculations.

  12. Proceedings of 11th Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radolic, V.; Poje Sovilj, M.; Krajcar Bronic, I.

    2017-01-01

    The 11th symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association discussed the following topics: ethics and culture in radiation protection; general topics; radiation protection and dosimetry in medicine; biological effects of radiation; instrumentation and measuring techniques; radioecology; public exposure; radon; non-ionising radiation. For each subject many investigations, experiments, examples and results are presented. International character of this symposium shows importance of these topics not only in region but world wide.

  13. Evaluation of radiation protection in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Ezzeldien Mohammed Nour

    2013-05-01

    officer (RPO) should be appointed to lie down and oversee a radiation protection in the nuclear medicine department. The (RPO) must be given the full authority and the adequate time to enable him to do his duties effectively.(Author)

  14. Radiation Protection and Architecture Utilizing High Temperature Superconducting Magnets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study will explore the effectiveness of using electromagnets to protect a habitat from radiation through active radiation shielding.Active radiation shielding...

  15. Some nonscientific influences on radiation protection standards and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.S.

    1980-01-01

    The theme of this lecture is that we have sufficient knowledge about the biomedical effects of ionizing radiation for adequate radiation protection but the problem of controlling radiation uses is complicated by philosophical, sociological, political, economic and moral considerations. The scientific problem of 'thresholds' and some nonscientific factors which may influence protection practices and hence influence the setting of numerical protection standards are discussed. The influence of the media on public opinion and the need for public education is stressed. (U.K.)

  16. Occupational safety meets radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severitt, S.; Oehm, J.; Sobetzko, T.; Kloth, M.

    2012-01-01

    The cooperation circle ''Synergies in operational Security'' is a joint working group of the Association of German Safety Engineers (VDSI) and the German-Swiss Professional Association for Radiation Protection (FS). The tasks of the KKSyS are arising from the written agreement of the two associations. This includes work on technical issues. In this regard, the KKSyS currently is dealing with the description of the interface Occupational Safety / Radiation Protection. ''Ignorance is no defense'' - the KKSyS creates a brochure with the working title ''Occupational Safety meets radiation protection - practical guides for assessing the hazards of ionizing radiation.'' The target groups are entrepreneurs and by them instructed persons to carry out the hazard assessment. Our aim is to create practical guides, simple to understand. The practical guides should assist those, who have to decide, whether an existing hazard potential through ionizing radiation requires special radiation protection measures or whether the usual measures of occupational safety are sufficient. (orig.)

  17. Days of Radiation Protection 2001. Conference Proceedings of the 24th Days of Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohunice NPP

    2001-11-01

    Already the 24 th annual international conference 'Days of Protection from Radiation' was taking place in Jan Sverma Hotel in Demaenova dolina on 26-29 November 2001. More than 180 participants from the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic participated in the meetings of experts on protection from radiation. Representative of IAEA Division for Protection from Radiation and the representatives of several European companies securing the project, advisory and supplier's activities in dosimetry of ionising radiation also participated in the conference. The participants discussed in 7 expert panels the issue of protection from radiation in the legislative field, in the nuclear facilities operation and in medicine. The expert part of the other panels concerned the issues of ionising radiation impact on the environment and working environment, natural radio-nuclides, including radon and biologic impacts of radiation. One separate panel was dedicated to device techniques and methods of dosimetry of ionising radiation. More than 45 expert lectures and more than 40 poster presentations were presented at the conference during 3 days. The exhibition and presentation of measuring technique products and devices and of materials used in the area of radiation protection and nuclear medicine was prepared during the course of the conference. Participation in the conference showed that a great interest in problems of protection from radiation persists. This was proved by rich lecturing activity and wide discussions on the floor and during the poster presentations. Participants were satisfied since the organisers of the event prepared a worthy event with the rich expert themes at a good organisational and social level in a beautiful environment of Low Tatras

  18. VI Congress of the Radiation Protection Spanish Society: Cordoba, 24-27 Sep 1996: lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This special issue of journal ''Radioproteccion'' complies the lectures presented at the VI Congress of the Radiation Protection Spanish Society. The sessions were: 1.- Radiation protection of people and environment 2.- Radiation protection workers. 3.- Natural radiation 4.- Biological effects of radiations 5.- Radiation protection of patients. 6.- Measurement of radiations 7.- Legislation 8.- Quality Control 9.- Training in radiation protection

  19. Radiation in dental practice: awareness, protection and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, B N; Shubhasini, A R; Bhanushree, R; Sumsum, P S; Sushma, C N

    2013-01-01

    Radiation is the transmission of energy through space and matter. There are several forms of radiation, including ionizing and nonionizing. X-rays are the ionizing radiation used extensively in medical and dental practice. Even though they provide useful information and aid in diagnosis, they also have the potential to cause harmful effects. In dentistry, it is mainly used for diagnostic purposes and in a dental set-up usually the practicing dentist exposes, processes and interprets the radiograph. Even though such exposure is less, it is critical to reduce the exposure to the dental personnel and patients in order to prevent the harmful effects of radiation. Several radiation protection measures have been advocated to ameliorate these effects. A survey conducted in the Bengaluru among practicing dentists revealed that radiation protection awareness was very low and the necessary measures taken to reduce the exposure were not adequate. The aim of the article is to review important parameters that must be taken into consideration in the clinical set-up to reduce radiation exposure to patients and dental personnel.

  20. A proposal how to take into account inhomogeneous radiation fields in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschurlovits, M.

    1996-01-01

    External radiation fields exposing the human body inhomogenously are not considered neither in radiation protection standards nor in recent ICRU recommendations, but appear frequently in practical radiation protection. A proposal to solve this question is given taking into account both a conceptual and a metrological approach. The proposal suggests that a mean over an area of about 100 cm 2 can be taken as reference area for compliance with limits in terms of effective dose. (author)

  1. Consequences of the new radiation protection law on the radiation protection register and the occupational radiation protection; Auswirkungen des neuen Strahlenschutzgesetzes auf das Strahlenschutzregister und die berufliche Strahlenueberwachung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frasch, Gerhard

    2017-08-01

    The implementation of the guideline 2013/59/EURATOM has been performed in the new radiation protection law. The most important consequences of the new radiation protection law for the occupational radiation protection are the following: the introduction of an explicit personal indicator and the actualization of occupational categories for employees. These facts require technical and administrative reorganization in data transmission of the licensee to the regulatory monitoring executive and the radiation protection register.

  2. State Radiation Protection Supervision and Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Radiation Protection Centre is carrying state supervision and control of radiation protection. The main objective of state supervision and control of radiation protection is assessing how licensees comply with requirements of the appropriate legislation and enforcement. Summary of inspections conducted in 2002 is presented

  3. State Radiation Protection Supervision and Control

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Radiation Protection Centre is carrying state supervision and control of radiation protection. The main objective of state supervision and control of radiation protection is assessing how licensees comply with requirements of the appropriate legislation and enforcement. Summary of inspections conducted in 2002 is presented.

  4. Project Radiation protection, Annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.M.

    1994-12-01

    According to the action plan for the period 1991-1995, the main objective of this project during 1994 was to provide operational basis, methods and procedures for solving the radiation protection problems that might appear under routine working conditions and handling of radiation sources. The aim was also to provide special methods for action in case of accidents that could affect the employed staff and the population. Overall activity was directed to maintaining and providing personnel, instrumentation, and methods for the following special radiation protection measures: operational control of the radiation field and contamination; calibration of the radiation and dosimetry instruments-secondary dosimetry metrology laboratory; instrumentation and measuring systems for radiation protection; control of environmental transfer of radioactive material; medical radiation protection [sr

  5. Occupational radiation protection legislation in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.; Schlesinger, T.; Lemesch, C.

    1980-01-01

    Various governmental agencies, including the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Labor and the Israel AEC are responsible for the control of the use of radioactive materials and medical X-ray machines in Israel. Present legislation deals mainly with the legal aspects of the purchase, transport and possession of radioactive materials and the purchase and operation of medical X-ray machines. No legislation refers explicitly to the protection of the worker from ionizing (and non-ionizing) radiation. A special group of experts appointed by the Minister of Labor recently worked out a comprehensive draft law concerning all legal aspects of occupational radiation protection in Israel. Among the main chapters of the draft are: general radiation protection principles, national radiation protection standards, medical supervision of radiation workers, personal monitoring requirements. The present situation with regard to radiation hazard control in Israel and details of the proposed radiation protection law is discussed. (Author)

  6. Protection criteria from the non-ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, Rodolfo E.

    2004-01-01

    The first objective of the protection philosophy is to determinate the relation reason-effect in order to establish the exposition thresholds to acceptable values. To establish the radioprotection criteria is important to considerate the following: a-) The damage and effects of the non-ionizing radiation; b-) The physical aspects of the fields exposition; and c-) The dosimetry of the involucrate tissues. The non-ionizing radiation includes the optics radiations (ultraviolet, visible, infrared and laser), and the electromagnetic radiations (microwave, radars, magnetic and electrostatics fields)

  7. Recommendations of International Commission of Radiation Protection 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The book summarizes the recommendations on radiation protection of International of Radiation Protection. The main chapters are: 1.- Rates in radiation protection 2.- Biological aspects of radiation protection 3.- Framework of radiation protection. 4.- System of protection. 5.- Implantation of commission's recommendations. 6.- Summary of recommendations

  8. Regulations in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    On the occasion of the twenty fifth anniversary of the Dutch Society for Radiation Protection, a symposium was held about Regulations in Radiation Protection. The program consisted of six contributions of which four are included in this publication. The posters presented are published in NVS-nieuws, 1985, vol. 11(5). (G.J.P.)

  9. National congress of radiation protection - SFRP 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagroye, I.; Gonzague, A.; Ammerich, M.; Blanc, D.; Lecomte, J.F.; Boucher, D.; Boucher, D.; Averbeck, D.; Gourmelon, P.; Barbey, P.; Bourguignon, M.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Dutrillaux, B.; Radecki, J.J.; Schieber, C.; Cosset, J.M.; Lecomte, J.F.; Lochard, J.; Metivier, H.; Sugier, A.; Tirmarche, M.; Aurengo, A.; Lamartine, J.; Martin, M.; Mallard, C.; Malfoy, B.; Ugolin, N.; Chevillard, S.; Schlumberger, M.; Laurier, D.; White-Koning, M.L.; Hemon, D.; Tirmarche, M.; Jougla, E.; Clavel, J.; Miccoli, L.; Barber, R.; Angulo, J.F.; Dubrova, Y.E.; Le Gall, B.; Phan, G.; Grillon, G.; Rouit, E.; Benech, H.; Fattal, E.; Deverre, J.R.; Legros, A.; Beuter, A.; Verrier, A.; Magne, I.; Souques, M.; Lambrozo, J.; Schmitt, P.; Roth, P.; Nadi, M.; Joly, L.; Chapel, C.; Burgain, A.; Marliot, F.; Cordier, E.; Courant, D.; Elabbassi, E.B.; Seze, R. de

    2005-01-01

    The nine tutorial sessions are: first one, the new recommendations of the ICRP; second one, effects on health of ionizing radiations with the following subjects ( the dose-response relationship and the estimation of carcinogen effects of ionizing radiation low doses; effect of dose rate on the induction and repair of radioinduced DNA double strand break; interest of global approach in radiation protection; molecular signature of the radioinduction in the thyroid tumors: example of radioinduced thyroid tumors after radiotherapy; incidence of child leukemia near the nuclear facilities: results of a multi sites study in France; genome instability and mutations induction after ionizing irradiation: consequences for the progeny; D.T.P.A encapsulation, an efficient strategy for the plutonium decorporation among the rat); the third one, non-ionizing radiation with the following subjects (can the exposure to a magnetic field of 100 μ T at 50 Hz be detected in the human physiological shiver; evaluation of the population exposure to the magnetic fields of 50 Hz: what indicators to choose; experimental study of the immunity of implantable defibrillators to the low frequencies electro-magnetic perturbations; DNA damages induced by the Ar F laser; dosimetry with a phantom in gel of human head); fourth session concerns the regulatory aspects; the fifth one presents the radiation protection and the radioactive waste management; the sixth session concerns the public and patients radiation protection; the seventh one treats the radiation protection in professional area with the following subjects ( optimization of radiation protection in the underground uranium mine of Cominak in Niger; revealing by multi parameters capillaroscopy, of micro vascular alterations of fingers among interventional radiologists; use of radioactive and chemical probes in biological research; uncertainties on doses and D.P.U.I.; monitoring of work areas. Evaluation of workers exposure towards a particular

  10. Radiation protection in radio-oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartz, Juliane Marie; Joost, Sophie; Hildebrandt, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Based on the high technical status of radiation protection the occupational exposure of radiological personnel is no more of predominant importance. No defined dose limits exist for patients in the frame of therapeutic applications in contrary to the radiological personnel. As a consequence walk-downs radiotherapeutic institutions twice the year have been initiated in order to guarantee a maximum of radiation protection for patient's treatment. An actualization of radiation protection knowledge of the radiological personnel is required.

  11. CERN Radiation Protection (RP) calibration facilities

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082069; Macián-Juan, Rafael

    Radiation protection calibration facilities are essential to ensure the correct operation of radiation protection instrumentation. Calibrations are performed in specific radiation fields according to the type of instrument to be calibrated: neutrons, photons, X-rays, beta and alpha particles. Some of the instruments are also tested in mixed radiation fields as often encountered close to high-energy particle accelerators. Moreover, calibration facilities are of great importance to evaluate the performance of prototype detectors; testing and measuring the response of a prototype detector to well-known and -characterized radiation fields contributes to improving and optimizing its design and capabilities. The CERN Radiation Protection group is in charge of performing the regular calibrations of all CERN radiation protection devices; these include operational and passive dosimeters, neutron and photon survey-meters, and fixed radiation detectors to monitor the ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), inside CERN accelera...

  12. Setting new protection standards for radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    The new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for dose limits will be published this spring. The recommendations represent a comprehensive review of the state of knowledge of the effects of ionizing radiation, and incorporate this knowledge into a conceptual framework for radiological protection. The background to the recommendations is discussed. (author)

  13. Ordinance on the Implementation of Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    In execution of the new Atomic Energy Act the Ordinance on the Implementation of Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection was put into force on 1 February 1985. It takes into account all forms of peaceful nuclear energy and ionizing radiation uses in nuclear installations, irradiation facilities and devices in research, industries, and health services, and in radioactive isotope production and laboratories. It covers all aspects of safety and protection and defines atomic safety as nuclear safety and nuclear safeguards and physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities, whereas radiation protection includes the total of requirements, measures, means and methods necessary to protect man and the environment from the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation. It has been based on ICRP Recommendation No. 26 and the IAEA's Basic Safety Standards and supersedes the Radiation Protection Ordinance of 1969

  14. New radiation protection concept as important safety factor of industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, R.; Pavlovic, S.

    1998-01-01

    Industrial radiography is a method for non destructive testing of homogeneity of various materials based on different absorption of radiation in different material. X and γ radiation are the most often used. Detrimental effects of radiation are observed since its discovery. In order to prevent harmful effects of radiation without unduly limitations of its use, International Commission on Radiological Protection in collaboration with International Atomic Energy Agency have developed International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, Safety Series No 115, adopted in 1996. based on ICRP recommendations from 1991. Besides a lot of changes in radiation protection concept and philosophy, decrement of annual dose limits for occupational exposure from 50 to 20 mSv. (author)

  15. Animal experiment studies on biological and chemical radiation protection - the combined effects of serotonin and erythropoletin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasse, U.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of a prophylactic combination treatment with serotonin and erythropoietin on the inhibited erythropoiesis of whole-body irradiated mice (500 R) was studied. Both erythropoietin and serotonin turned out to compensate the radiation-induced inhibition of the formation rate for erythrocytes to a small extent. However, only the enhancement of erythropoiesis due to serotonin indicated significant values. Yet the combined application of the named substances yielded a distinct and significant effect in radiation protection which even exceeded the simple addition of the protective effect yielded by serotonin and erythropoietin alone. But despite of this considerable success the radiation damage in the erythropoietic system was not even half compensated for. (orig./MG) [de

  16. [Pulse-modulated Electromagnetic Radiation of Extremely High Frequencies Protects Cellular DNA against Damaging Effect of Physico-Chemical Factors in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapeyev, A B; Lukyanova, N A

    2015-01-01

    Using a comet assay technique, we investigated protective effects of. extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation in combination with the damaging effect of X-ray irradiation, the effect of damaging agents hydrogen peroxide and methyl methanesulfonate on DNA in mouse whole blood leukocytes. It was shown that the preliminary exposure of the cells to low intensity pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation (42.2 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm2, 20-min exposure, modulation frequencies of 1 and 16 Hz) caused protective effects decreasing the DNA damage by 20-45%. The efficacy of pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation depended on the type of genotoxic agent and increased in a row methyl methanesulfonate--X-rays--hydrogen peroxide. Continuous electromagnetic radiation was ineffective. The mechanisms of protective effects may be connected with an induction of the adaptive response by nanomolar concentrations of reactive oxygen species formed by pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation.

  17. Justification, optimization and classification of exposure situations in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrabalek, P.

    2017-01-01

    Inspiration to this brief information was the experience of studying the draft Radiation Protection Act submitted by the Ministry of Health to the Interdepartmental Annotation Procedure (IAP) on July 20, 2017 and of the IRP itself. The bill was drafted by officials from the Public Health Service. People who are expected to be well aware of the issue because they form national safety standards and laws, and manage and direct treatment of ionizing radiation sources, and oversee observing rules of protecting humans from the hazardous effects of ionizing radiation sources. Rules on the handling and protection of radiation sources for dangerous effects are recommended by multinational organizations. They are headed by ICRP International Radiological Protection Committee, which periodically issues updated radiation protection guidelines around the 10-year period. In line with ICRP recommendations, other professional organizations, such as the IAEA, WHO, EURATOM, and, ultimately, national governments, update their basic safety standards, translating recommendations into the national legal system. Most of interested know that ICRP 103 (2007) has brought some changes to the radiation protection system. In particular, there was an increased emphasis on the comprehensive optimization of radiation protection, and in the context of the recitals principle, the meaning of the word 'harm' was broadened. In addition to health damage, in the sense of which we have long been accustomed, it includes all economic and social losses to which comes from the introduction of the radiation source and introduction of protective measures around it. To simplify access to protect people from the effects of radiation and radiation sources, three basic models of human irradiation - exposure situations: - Exposure scenarios are the result of the optimization of human irradiation due to the operation of the radiation source or the performance of activities where the risk of irradiation is not

  18. Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    New Croatian Act on ionizing radiation protection is in a final stage of genesis. Ministry of Health is responsible to the Government of the Republic of Croatia, closely collaborating with the Croatian Radiation Protection Institute and the Croatian Institute for the Occupational Health. Responsibilities include all aspects relating sources of ionizing radiation in Croatia: practices, licenses, users, transport, in medicine and industry as well, workers with sources of ionizing radiation, emergency preparedness in radiological accidents, storage of radioactive wastes, x-ray machines and other machines producing ionizing radiation and radioactive materials in the environment. Papers from the Fourth Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association are presented in seven sessions: 1. General Topics of Interest for Radiation Protection 2. Biological Effects of Radiation 3. Radioactive Waste Management 4. Radioecology 5. Dosimetry and Instrumentation 6. Radiation Protection in Medicine 7. Radon

  19. ICRP 2015. International symposium on the radiation protection system. Report and reflection on a significant symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The ICRP international symposium on the radiation protection system provides always extensive information on new developments in radiation protection. The ICRP 2105 discussed the following issues: radiation effects of low dose irradiation, dose coefficients for internal and external exposures, radiation protection in nuclear medicine, application of ICRP recommendations, environmental protection, studies on existing exposure situations, medical radiation protection today, science behind radiation doses, new developments in radiation effects, and ethics in radiation protection.

  20. Contribution to developing the environment radiation protection methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudalova, A. [Institute of Atomic Power Engineering NRNU MEPhI (Russian Federation); Alexakhin, R.; Dubynina, M. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The environment sustainable development and biota protection, including the environment radiation protection are issues of nowadays interest in the society. An activity is ongoing on the development of a system of radiation protection for non-human biota. Anthropocentric and eco-centric principles are widely discussed. ICRP Publications 103, 108, 114 and many other reports and articles refer to the topic of environmental protection, reference animals and plants set, corresponding transfer parameters, dose models and derived consideration reference levels. There is still an open field for discussion of methods and approaches to get well-established procedure to assess environmental risks of radiation impacts to different organisms, populations and ecosystems. A huge work has been done by the ICRP and other organizations and research groups to develop and systematize approaches for this difficult subject. This activity, however, is not everywhere well-known and perceived, and more efforts are needed to bring ideas of eco-centric strategy in the environment radiation protection not only to public but to specialists in many countries as well. One of the main points of interest is an assessment of critical doses and doses rates for flora and fauna species. Some aspects of a possible procedure to find their estimates are studied in this work, including criteria for datasets of good quality, models of dose dependence, sensitivity of different umbrella endpoints and methods of original massive datasets treatment. Estimates are done based on information gathered in a database on radiation-induced effects in plants. Data on biological effects in plants (umbrella endpoints of reproductive potential, survival, morbidity, morphological, biochemical, and genetic effects) in dependence on dose and dose rates of ionizing radiation have been collected from reviewed publications and maintained in MS Access format. The database now contains about 7000 datasets and 25000 records

  1. History of radiation protection in the Czech Republic. Ten years of the National Radiation Protection Institute, 1995-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabkova, A.

    2006-01-01

    The first part of the publication, highlighting the history of radiation protection in the country which today is the Czech Republic, is divided into the following sections: Inception of the field of science and applications 'Protection from ionizing radiation'; Beginnings of work with ionizing radiation in the Czech lands; Formulation of the first health physics and radiation protection requirements in the Czech lands; Beginnings of institutionalization of radiation protection in Czechoslovakia after World War II; The Clinic and Institute of Occupational Medicine in Prague; Institute of Occupational Hygiene and Occupational Diseases in Prague and the regional Institute of Occupational Hygiene and Occupational Diseases in Bratislava; Peaceful uses of atomic energy in Czechoslovakia; First man-made radioisotopes in Czechoslovakia; Health rules and standards applicable to work with ionizing radiation; The responsibilities of the Ministry of Health in the area of health physics and radiation protection within peaceful uses of atomic energy in the Czech Socialist Republic; Research Institute of Health Physics; Institute of Occupational Hygiene and Prevention of Occupational Diseases in the Mining and Processing of Radioactive Raw Materials; Health physics and radiation protection in sectorial and national research plans; Health Physics Centre, Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology; National Radiation Protection Institute (as a subsidiary of the State Office for Nuclear Safety). The second part of the publication gives details of the recent history of the National Radiation Protection Institute. (P.A.)

  2. Experimental study of the protective effects of Zhongfei decoction on radiation-induced pneumonia in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuezhen; Ma Shenglin; Zhang Aiqin; Feng Jianguo; Fang Xianhua; Sun Xiaojiang; Bao Yejiang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective effect and its possible mechanism of ZhongFei Decoction on radiation-induced pneumonia in rats. Methods: Single irradiation was given at two thorax of female Wistar rats with 30 Gy of 6 MV X irradiation. Sixty rats were randomly divided into the control group, radiation group, radiation plus DXM and ZhongFei Decoction plus radiation group. On days 14 and 28 after treatment, 5 rats of each group were sacrificed, and their lungs were harvested for measurement of the lung index, the difference of the histopathology change, the concentration of hydroxyproline (hyp), and expression of transforming growth factor-β1 in lungs were analyzed by HE stain, biochemical method and immunohistochemical method, respectively. Results: The pathological study showed marked lung injury in the radiation group while only slight hyperemia hemorrhage, exudation and thickness of alveolar walls in the lungs of ZhongFei Decoction plus radiation group, the concentration of hydroxyproline and expression of TGF-β1 in the radiation lungs increased compared with that in the control group and reduced in the ZhongFei Decoction plus radiation group compared with that in the radiation group. Conclusions: ZhongFei Decoction could have protective effects on the radiation-induced pneumonia and the mechanism of its may be related with down-regulating the expression of TGF-β1 in the irritated lung tissue. (authors)

  3. Protection of the environment from ionising radiation. The development and application of a system of radiation protection for the environment. Proceedings of the third international symposium on the protection of the environment from ionising radiation (SPEIR 3). Unedited papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    In recent years, awareness of the vulnerability of the environment has increased, as evidenced by new and developing international policies for environmental protection, starting with the Rio Declaration of 1992. In the context of ionizing radiation, the existing international approach is largely based on providing for the protection of humans, but this is being critically reviewed in several international fora. It is in this context that the Third International Symposium on Protection of the Environment from Ionising Radiation (SPEIR 3) was held between 22 and 26 July 2002, in Darwin, Australia. The symposium focused on issues related to the development and application of a system of radiation protection for the environment. The symposium programme included sessions dedicated to: ongoing research on the effects, responses and mechanisms of the interactions of ionizing radiation with biota; policy and ethical dimensions of the development of a framework for environmental radiation protection; and the development and use of methods and models for evaluating radiation as a stressor to the environment. Three workshops were held to allow for detailed discussion of each of these subjects. This symposium was the third in a series. The first International Symposium on Ionising Radiation: Protection of the Natural Environment, was held in Stockholm, Sweden, 20-24 May 1996. This symposium was organized jointly by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) and the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) of Canada, and the proceedings were published by the Akademitryck AB, Edsbruk, Sweden in 1996. The second International Symposium on Ionizing Radiation: Environmental Protection Approaches for Nuclear Facilities, was held in Ottawa, Canada, 10-14 May 1999, and was organized by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), the Supervising Scientists Group of Environment Australia, and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI). The proceedings were published in April

  4. Protection of the environment from ionising radiation. The development and application of a system of radiation protection for the environment. Proceedings of the third international symposium on the protection of the environment from ionising radiation (SPEIR 3). Unedited papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, awareness of the vulnerability of the environment has increased, as evidenced by new and developing international policies for environmental protection, starting with the Rio Declaration of 1992. In the context of ionizing radiation, the existing international approach is largely based on providing for the protection of humans, but this is being critically reviewed in several international fora. It is in this context that the Third International Symposium on Protection of the Environment from Ionising Radiation (SPEIR 3) was held between 22 and 26 July 2002, in Darwin, Australia. The symposium focused on issues related to the development and application of a system of radiation protection for the environment. The symposium programme included sessions dedicated to: ongoing research on the effects, responses and mechanisms of the interactions of ionizing radiation with biota; policy and ethical dimensions of the development of a framework for environmental radiation protection; and the development and use of methods and models for evaluating radiation as a stressor to the environment. Three workshops were held to allow for detailed discussion of each of these subjects. This symposium was the third in a series. The first International Symposium on Ionising Radiation: Protection of the Natural Environment, was held in Stockholm, Sweden, 20-24 May 1996. This symposium was organized jointly by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) and the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) of Canada, and the proceedings were published by the Akademitryck AB, Edsbruk, Sweden in 1996. The second International Symposium on Ionizing Radiation: Environmental Protection Approaches for Nuclear Facilities, was held in Ottawa, Canada, 10-14 May 1999, and was organized by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), the Supervising Scientists Group of Environment Australia, and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI). The proceedings were published in April

  5. Anti-apoptotic peptides protect against radiation-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, Kevin W.; Muenzer, Jared T.; Chang, Kathy C.; Davis, Chris G.; McDunn, Jonathan E.; Coopersmith, Craig M.; Hilliard, Carolyn A.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Grigsby, Perry W.; Hunt, Clayton R.

    2007-01-01

    The risk of terrorist attacks utilizing either nuclear or radiological weapons has raised concerns about the current lack of effective radioprotectants. Here it is demonstrated that the BH4 peptide domain of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL can be delivered to cells by covalent attachment to the TAT peptide transduction domain (TAT-BH4) and provide protection in vitro and in vivo from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Isolated human lymphocytes treated with TAT-BH4 were protected against apoptosis following exposure to 15 Gy radiation. In mice exposed to 5 Gy radiation, TAT-BH4 treatment protected splenocytes and thymocytes from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Most importantly, in vivo radiation protection was observed in mice whether TAT-BH4 treatment was given prior to or after irradiation. Thus, by targeting steps within the apoptosis signaling pathway it is possible to develop post-exposure treatments to protect radio-sensitive tissues

  6. Critical Issues in Radiation Protection Knowledge Management for Preserving Radiation Protection Research and Development Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewji, Shaheen Azim

    2017-02-01

    As a hub of domestic radiation protection capabilities, Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Radiation Protection Knowledge has a mandate to develop and actuate a formal knowledge management (KM) effort. This KM approach exceeds recruitment and training efforts but focuses on formalized strategies for knowledge transfer from outgoing subject matter experts in radiation protection to incoming generations. It is envisioned that such an effort will provide one avenue for preserving domestic capabilities to support stakeholder needs in the federal government and the nuclear industry while continuing to lead and innovate in research and development on a global scale. However, in the absence of broader coordination within the United States, preservation of radiation protection knowledge continues to be in jeopardy in the absence of a dedicated KM effort.

  7. Precautionary radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2006-01-01

    The German federal government annually reports about the development of radioactivity in the environment, providing the most important data and changes in environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure. These reports are based on the Act on Precautionary Protection of the Public against Radiation Exposure (Radiation Protection Provisions Act) of December 19, 1986 as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident. The purpose of the Act is protection of the public from health hazards arising from a nuclear accident or any other event with comparable radiological consequences, and to create the foundations for correct evaluation of the risks resulting from specific radiation exposures. After 1986, the Act was soon given concrete shape by legal ordinances, which made it a workable tool. The following points, among others, can be summarized form the report for 2004: - The calculated natural and manmade overall exposure is 4.0 mSv/a, as in the previous year, and happens to be exactly the same figure as in the report for 1994. - The contribution to radiation exposure by nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities is less than 0.01 mSv/a. Over a period of nearly twenty years, the Act and the annual reporting regime have proved to work. Standardized criteria prevent data abuse and misinterpretation, respectively. Definitions of limits have contributed to more transparency and more objectivity. (orig.)

  8. Assessment of radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Cletus Uche; Abonyi, Livinus Chibuzo; Njoku, Jerome; Irurhe, Nicholas Kayode; Olowu, Oluwabola

    2013-11-01

    Use of ionising radiation in diagnostic radiography could lead to hazards such as somatic and genetic damages. Compliance to safe work and radiation protection practices could mitigate such risks. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria. The study was a prospective cross sectional survey. Convenience sampling technique was used to select four x-ray diagnostic centres in four tertiary hospitals in Lagos metropolis. Data were analysed with Epi- info software, version 3.5.1. Average score on assessment of knowledge was 73%. Most modern radiation protection instruments were lacking in all the centres studied. Application of shielding devices such as gonad shield for protection was neglected mostly in government hospitals. Most x-ray machines were quite old and evidence of quality assurance tests performed on such machines were lacking. Radiographers within Lagos metropolis showed an excellent knowledge of radiation protection within the study period. Adherence to radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos metropolis during the period studied was, however, poor. Radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria should embrace current trends in radiation protection and make more concerted efforts to apply their knowledge in protecting themselves and patients from harmful effects of ionising radiation.

  9. National Sessions of Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sociedad Argentina de Radioproteccion

    2012-01-01

    The Radioprotection Argentine Society (SAR) was organized the National Sessions on Radiation Protection 2012 in order to continue the exchange in the radiation protection community in the country, on work areas that present a challenge to the profession. The new recommendations of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Standards (2011), among others, includes several topics that are necessary to develop. The SAR wants to encourage different organizations from Argentina, to submit projects that are developing in order to strengthen radiation protection.

  10. Proceedings of the Eigth Radiation Physics and Protection Conference (RPC-2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    The publication's has been set up in 487 papers and also as electronic of the conference of Radiation Physics and Protection, it consists of the following session (1) nuclear physics; (2) neutron physics, shielding and applications; (3) radiation detection and dosimetry; (4) environmental and protection; (5) nuclear physics; (6) radiation effects; (7) medical physics and biophysics; (8) atmospheric dispersion, atomic physics; (9) radiation physics and protection awarded contribution.

  11. Proceedings of the Eigth Radiation Physics and Protection Conference (RPC-2006)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    The publication's has been set up in 487 papers and also as electronic of the conference of Radiation Physics and Protection, it consists of the following session (1) nuclear physics; (2) neutron physics, shielding and applications; (3) radiation detection and dosimetry; (4) environmental and protection; (5) nuclear physics; (6) radiation effects; (7) medical physics and biophysics; (8) atmospheric dispersion, atomic physics; (9) radiation physics and protection awarded contribution

  12. Cathodic protection of carbon steel in natural seawater: Effect of sunlight radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedetti, Alessandro [Istituto per l' Energetica e le Interfasi, IENI - CNR, Milano, via Roberto Cozzi 53 20125 Milano (Italy)], E-mail: alessandro.benedetti@cnr.it; Magagnin, Luca [Dip. Chimica, Materiali e Ing. Chimica G. Natta, Politecnico di Milano, via Mancinelli 7, 20131 Milano (Italy); Passaretti, Francesca [Istituto per l' Energetica e le Interfasi IENI - CNR, Lecco, c.so Promessi Sposi 29, 23900 Lecco (Italy); Chelossi, Elisabetta; Faimali, Marco [Istituto di Scienze Marine, ISMAR- CNR - Via De Marini 6, 16149, Genova (Italy); Montesperelli, Giampiero [Universita di Roma - Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 00133, Roma (Italy)

    2009-11-01

    Cathodic protection of metals in seawater is known to be influenced by chemical-physical parameters affecting cathodic processes (oxygen discharge, hydrogen evolution and calcareous deposit precipitation). In shallow seawater, these parameters are influenced by sunlight photoperiod and photosynthetic activity. The results presented here represent the first step in studies dedicated to cathodic protection in shallow photic seawater. This paper reports on carbon steel protected at -850 mV vs. Ag/AgCl (oxygen limiting current regime) in the presence of sunlight radiation but in the absence of biological and photosynthetic activity, the role of which deserves future research. Comparison of results obtained by exposing electrochemical cells to daylight cycles in both biologically inactivated natural seawater and in NaCl 3.5 wt.% solutions showed that sunlight affects current densities and that calcareous deposit interfere with light-currents effects. Sunlight radiation and induced heating of the solution have been separated, highlighting results not otherwise obvious: (1) observed current waves concomitant with sunlight radiation depend fundamentally on solar radiation, (2) solar radiation can determine current enhancements from early to late phases of aragonite crystal growth, (3) a three-day-old CaCO{sub 3} layer reduces but does not eliminate the amplitude of the current waves. Theoretical calculations for oxygen limiting currents and additional field tests showed that sunlight, rather than bulk solution heating, is the main cause of daily current enhancements. This was confirmed by polarizations performed at -850 and -1000 mV vs. Ag/AgCl (constant bulk temperature), during which the electrode was irradiated with artificial lighting. This test also confirmed O{sub 2} discharge to be the cathodic process involved. A mechanism of radiation conversion to heat in the oxygen diffusion layer region is proposed.

  13. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

    2007-08-09

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

  14. Radiation protection in Qatar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Maadheed, Khalid; Al Khatibeh, Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The State of Qatar has become a member State of IAEA since 1974. Later the Department of Industrial Development (DID) beam the focal point and the competent authority regarding all aspects of the peaceful application of Nuclear Technology. In July, 2000 the Supreme Council was established and charged with all matters related to environmental protection. The Supreme Council joined the IAEA Projects on upgrading protection infrastructure in West Asia region. A preliminary research was initiated to discover where radiation sources are being used, and the legal framework, if any, to regulate their use. The research indicated that radiation sources were being used in the industrial practices (well logging, industrial radiography and nuclear gauges) and in medical practices (mainly diagnostic radiology). The research also indicated that there was virtually no legal framework to regulate them. In less than five years, the State of Qatar was able to issue the radiation protection law, three sets of regulations, namely: Radiation Protection Regulations, Radioactive Waste Management Regulations and the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials Regulations. In addition, several specific regulation work, dose limits and radiation protection officers were issued. A radiation Protection Department, comprising three sections was established. We are providing individual exposure monitoring for most of the radiation workers in the public sector and some in the private sector. We have set up a proper licensing and inspections procedures, where our inspectors are enforcing the law. More recently, we established an early warning network for nuclear of radiological emergencies, consisting of 6 transplantable stations, five mobile stations and two navigating stations. This year, the network was augmented with five fixed station and an advanced early warning centre, which provides early warning via multiple means (MMS, Fax, E-mail and audio alarms). Last year we signed a nuclear

  15. New general radiation protection training course

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Some members of CERN personnel, users included, may have to work in supervised or controlled radiation areas, or may be concerned with activities involving the use of radioactive sources. According to CERN Safety rules all persons whose work may encounter ionising radiation risk must be adequately trained. This training must ensure that workers are informed about the potential health risks which could result from radiation exposure, about the basic principles of radiation protection and of the relevant radiation protection regulations as well as about safe working methods and techniques in radiation zones. Therefore the Organization organises mandatory general and work-specific radiation protection (RP) courses addressed to its personnel. These courses are also open to contractors’ personnel, in addition to the RP training they must receive from their employers. Based on the results of a pilot project, an improved general radiation protection course has been prepared. This...

  16. New general radiation protection training course

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Some members of CERN personnel, including users, may have to work in supervised or controlled radiation areas, or may be involved in activities involving the use of radioactive sources. According to CERN Safety Rules all persons whose work may be associated with ionising radiation risk must be adequately trained. This training must ensure that workers are informed about the potential health risks which could result from radiation exposure, the basic principles of radiation protection and the relevant radiation protection regulations as well as safe working methods and techniques in radiation zones. Therefore the Organization organises mandatory general and work-specific radiation protection (RP) courses for its personnel. These courses are also open to contractors’ personnel, in addition to the RP training they must receive from their employers. Based on the results of a pilot project, an improved general radiation protection course has been prepared. This new ½ day cours...

  17. Radiation protection: Principles, recommendations and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitan, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation protection is a highly international dicipline with a high degree of international harmonization. Especially within the Nordic countries there is general agreement upon principles and standards, despite the actual practice may differ slightly. The basic recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) are accepted by the regulatory bodies and should be followed by all users of radiation. The users are in principle responsible for the radiation protection standard and activities themselves. Because most companies or hospitals lack sufficient expertise by themselves, they must rely upon recommendations from others. Primarily they should contact the national radiation protection agency. However, due to the international harmonization of radiation protection, information from other national or international agencies may be used with confidence. All users of radiation in the Nordic countries are obliged to act according to recognition and assessment of both risks and benefits, and they are responsible for updating their knowledge

  18. Ethical problems in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars

    2001-05-01

    In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards.

  19. Ethical problems in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars

    2001-05-01

    In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards

  20. Management in the protection from ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radunovic, Miodrag; Nikolic, Krsto; Rakic, Goran

    2008-01-01

    There are numerous types and forms of endangering working and living environment, ranging from natural disasters to nuclear accidents. Challenges of the New Age determined that most of the countries reviewed its strategic decisions in the system of protection from ionizing radiation and nuclear safety and defined in a new way the threats, which could considerably imperil health of the population and national interests as well. Excessive radiation of the population became a serious and actual problem in the era of increasingly mass application of ionizing radiation, especially in medicine. The goal of this work is to reduce the risk through using knowledge and existing experiences, in particular when it comes to ionizing radiation in medicine. Optimization of the protection in radiology actually means an effort to find the compromise between quality information provided by diagnostics procedure and quality effects of therapy procedure on one side and dose of radiation received by patients on the other. Criteria for the quality management in the protection from ionizing radiation used in diagnostic radiology was given by the European Commission: European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Diagnostic Radiographic Images, EUR, 16260. (author)

  1. Radiation protection enrollments and degrees, 1979 and 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gove, R.M.; Little, J.R.; Shirley, D.L.

    1981-07-01

    Public concern over the effects of low-level radiation and other aspects of the use of nuclear energy has grown in recent years, and the demand for radiation protection has continued to increase. Radiation Protection Enrollments and Degrees presents the results of the latest survey of institutions offering degree programs in this field. Students obtaining such degrees are vital to the development of industry, medicine, research, power production, construction, and agriculture. These surveys assist state and federal governments in their search for such personnel

  2. Threat of ultraviolet radiation to the eye--how to protect against it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effects of exposure of the eye to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and to provide information from which protective criteria and standards may be established. To accomplish this purpose, the article discusses ultraviolet radiation, absorption of UV radiation by the eye, the effects of ocular exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and how to protect the eye against exposure to UV radiation

  3. Effects of sodium chloride on radiation protection and modification of gamma-ray treated rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Zhao Kongnan; Shen Mei; Xu Gang; Chen Qiufang

    1992-11-01

    The radiation protection effect of sodium chloride on dormant and germinating rice seeds treated with gamma-rays, and modification effect of sodium chloride on mutation were studied. Results show that the radiation-damage effect on seedling growth, percentage of seedling growth, percentage of seedling growth and fertility in M 1 generation is significantly enhanced with the increasing of dose. However, the seedling growth, percentage of seedling growth and fertility can be improved if the irradiated seeds are pre-treated with sodium chloride solution having concentrations of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 mol/L. The difference between treated group and control group is very significant. Results also show that pre-treatment and post-treatment by sodium chloride can raise the mutation frequencies of chlorophyll deficient seedlings, especially, the mutation frequency of early heading date and height is more considerably. The conclusion is that the sodium chloride, as a radiation protection agent, combined with gamma-ray treatment could reduce the effect of radiation-damage on M 1 generation and raise the mutation frequency in M 2 generation, and this result will be helpful in rice breeding

  4. Introduction to radiation protection practical knowledge for handling radioactive sources

    CERN Document Server

    Grupen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    The book presents an accessible account of the sources of ionising radiation and the methods of radiation protection. The basics of nuclear physics which are directly related to radiation protection are briefly discussed. The book describes the units of radiation protection, the measurement techniques, biological effects of radiation, environmental radiation, and many applications of radiation. For each chapter there is a problem section with full solutions. A detailed glossary and many useful information in appendixes complete the book. The author has addressed the issue of internationality to make sure that the text and, in particular, the complicated regulations can be easily interpreted not only in Europe and the United States but also in other countries. The subject of radiation protection requires a certain amount of mathematics. For those who have forgotten the basic rules of calculus a short refresher course in the form of a mathematical appendix is added.

  5. Nutritional supplementation with arginine protects radiation-induced effects: an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Flavia Cristina Morone, E-mail: fcmorone@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Campos-Silva, Pamella; Souza, Diogo Benchimol de; Costa, Waldemar Silva; Sampaio, Francisco Jose Barcellos [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    Purpose: To investigate the protective effect of L-arginine on the prostate (nonneoplasic) of rats with radiation-induced injury. Methods: Twenty-nine Wistar rats, male adult, allocated into three groups: Control group (C) was not exposed to irradiation (n=10); Radiated group (R) had undergone pelvic irradiation (n=10); Supplemented and radiated group (R+S) had undergone pelvic irradiation plus L-arginine supplementation (n=9). The animals were observed for signs of toxicity. After euthanization, the prostate was dissected under magnification and stained by hematoxylin and eosin to study acinar structures and stained with Picrosirius red for collagen analysis. Results: After radiation exposure, all animals presented diarrhea, but supplementation with L-arginine reduced this effect. The weight gain in the R+S group was significantly higher than in the C and R groups. In the R+S group the collagen density and the prostate acinar area was similar to the R and C groups. Epithelial height was significantly reduced in group R compared with group C (p<0.0001). When comparing the group R+S with R, a statistical difference was observed to be present (p<0.0001). Conclusions: Pelvic radiation promotes systemic effects and some structural modifications in the ventral prostate of rats. These modifications can be prevented by oral supplementation with L-arginine. (author)

  6. Radiation protection technologist training and certification program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The purpose of this program is to establish training requirements and methods for certifying the technical competence of Radiation Protection Technologists. This manual delineates general requirements as well as academic training, on-the-job training, area of facility training, and examination or evaluation requirements for Radiation Protection Trainees (Trainees), Junior Radiation Protection Technologists (JRPT), Radiation Protection Technologists (RPT), and Senior Radiation Protection Technologists (SRPT). This document also includes recertification requirements for SRPTs. The appendices include training course outlines, on-the-job training outlines, and training certification record forms

  7. Radiation protection of aviation personnel at exposure by cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicanova, M.; Pinter, I.; Liskova, A.

    2008-01-01

    For determination of radiation dose of aviation personnel we used the software EPCARD (European Program Package for the Calculation of Aviation Route Doses) developed by National Research Center for Environmental Health - Institute of Radiation Protection (Neuherberg, Germany) and the software CARI 6, developed by the FAA's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (USA). Both codes are accomplished by the Joint Aviation Authorities. Experimental measurement and estimation of radiation doses of aviation personnel at exposure by cosmic radiation were realised in the period of lowered solar activity. All-year effective dose of pilots, which worked off at least 11 months exceeds the value 1 mSv in 2007. The mean all-year effective dose of member of aviation personnel at exposure by cosmic radiation is 2.5 mSv and maximal all-year effective dose, which we measured in 2007 was 4 mSv. We assumed that in the period of increased solar activity the all-year effective doses may by higher

  8. Patient Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Role of Radiotherapy is treatment modalities for cancer which is generally assumed that 50 to 60% of cancer patients will benefit from radiotherapy. It constitutes a peaceful application of ionizing radiation and an essential part of cancer management. The two aims of radiation protection Prevention is of deterministic effect and Reduction of the probability of stochastic effects. The Shielding fundamentals is to limit radiation exposure of staff, patients, visitors and the public to acceptable levels it also optimize protection of patients, staff and the public. Diagnosis is important for target design and the dose required for cure or palliation while Simulator is often used twice in the radiotherapy process where Patient data acquisition - target localization, contours, outlines and Verification. The Prescription is the responsibility of individual clinicians, depending on the patient’s condition, equipment available, experience and training. An ultimate check of the actual treatment given can only be made by using in vivo dosimetry. Treatment records must be kept of all relevant aspects of the treatment – including Session and Summary Record information, Records all treatment parameters, Dose Calculations and Dose Measurements

  9. Dose evaluation and protection of cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Satoshi; Takagi, Toshiharu

    2004-01-01

    This paper explained the effects of cosmic radiation on aircraft crews and astronauts, as well as related regulations. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends the practice of radiation exposure management for the handling/storage of radon and materials containing natural radioactive substances, as well as for boarding jet aircraft and space flight. Common aircraft crew members are not subject to radiation exposure management in the USA and Japan. In the EU, the limit value is 6 mSv per year, and for the crew group exceeding this value, it is recommended to keep records containing appropriate medical examination results. Pregnant female crewmembers are required to keep an abdominal surface dose within 1 mSv. For astronauts, ICRP is in the stage of thinking about exposure management. In the USA, National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement has set dose limits for 30 days, 1 year, and lifetime, and recommends lifetime effective dose limits against carcinogenic risk for each gender and age group. This is the setting of the dose limits so that the risk of carcinogenesis, to which space radiation exposure is considered to contribute, will reach 3%. For cosmic radiation environments at spacecraft inside and aircraft altitude, radiation doses can be calculated for astronauts and crew members, using the calculation methods for effective dose and dose equivalent for tissue. (A.O.)

  10. Critical issues in radiation protection knowledge management for preserving radiation protection research and development capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewji, Shaheen Azim

    2017-01-01

    As a hub of domestic radiation protection capabilities, Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Center for Radiation Protection Knowledge has a mandate to develop and actuate a formal knowledge management (KM) effort. This KM approach exceeds recruitment and training efforts but focuses on formalized strategies for knowledge transfer from outgoing subject matter experts in radiation protection to incoming generations. It is envisioned that such an effort will provide one avenue for preserving domestic capabilities to support stakeholder needs in the federal government and the nuclear industry while continuing to lead and innovate in research and development on a global scale. Furthermore, in the absence of broader coordination within the United States, preservation of radiation protection knowledge continues to be in jeopardy in the absence of a dedicated KM effort.

  11. The study of the radiation protection effects of TMG to the fetus on the organogenesis stage in ICR mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Yeunhwa; Santokuya, Takumi; Suzuki, Ikukatsu; Hasegawa, Takeo; Yamamoto, Youichi; Bamen, K.; Yanagisawa, Takaharu; Iwasa, Toshihiro

    2000-01-01

    Experimental studies on mice have made it clear that embryos are more sensitive to radiation during Organogenesis than other prenatal periods. However, the radiation protection of TMG at Organogenesis in mice has yet to be described. The Organogenesis stage is the most important from the viewpoint of ionizing protection. Many physical and chemical agents in the environment can affect an embryo. Fetal deaths were classified as Preimplantation, Embryonic and Fetal. The sensitivity of the fetus is high in comparison with the maturates and the child to the various environmental agent. It is the individium, which should pay attention to it specially when a fetus' safety is thought about. Because it isn't noticed, the fetus of the organogenesis can't avoid fetus' existence regardless of the individium of which sensibility is high in the intention target. Therefore, protection resource and others must be studied after the fetus' effects of the organogenesis are studied fully. It paid attention to radiation in the environmental agent, and it was examined about the radiation protection effect of TMG to fetus' teratogenesis by this study. We studied an excuse as a radioprotective agent of the high malformation of the sensitivity most by using TMG to the radiation. This study aimed at obtaining the information to provide it for the fetus' protection to the various environmental radiations. As for Preimplantation death, there was a statistical difference the 2.0 Gy Group in comparison with the control group (p<0.05). Embryonic death, a statistical difference was recognized as in all the treatment groups (p<0.001). But, as for the TMG+radiation group, Embryonic death decreased to 1/4. As for Malformation rate, a statistical difference was recognized as in all treatment group (p<0.001). But, as for the TMG+radiation group, Malformation rate decreased to 1/2. As for Fetal body weight, a statistical difference was recognized in radiation group, the radiation+TMG infusion group

  12. Proceedings of 8th Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajcar Bronic, I; Kopjar, N; Milic, M; Branica, G

    2011-07-01

    The 8th symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association discussed the following topics: general topics; radiation dosimetry and instrumentation; public exposure; biological effects of radiation; radiation protection in medicine; radioecology and non-ionizing radiation. For each subject many investigations, experiments, examples and results are presented. International character of this symposium shows importance of these topics not only in region but world wide.

  13. Proceedings of 8th Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajcar Bronic, I.; Kopjar, N.; Milic, M.; Branica, G.

    2011-01-01

    The 8th symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association discussed the following topics: general topics; radiation dosimetry and instrumentation; public exposure; biological effects of radiation; radiation protection in medicine; radioecology and non-ionizing radiation. For each subject many investigations, experiments, examples and results are presented. International character of this symposium shows importance of these topics not only in region but world wide.

  14. Radiation protection in the Brazilian universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, K.C.S.; Borges, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    A research covering 91 institutions was undertaken in order to elucidate how radiation protection were indeed fulfilled. A questionary including technical administrative and legal subjects was sent by mail and 36% of which were answered propitiating substantial data for analysis. Only in few cases universities have knowledge of basic procedures in radiation protection, claiming for the elaboration of a plan that could guide supervisors and workers in radiation protection in these institution. Based on the tree analysis technique proposed by IAEA, a Reference Radiation protection Program has been elaborated and proposed for Brazilian universities. (author). 14 refs, 1 figs

  15. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, L.

    1997-01-01

    In this note the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection and risk assessment/management, the authors review ethical thinking on five key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these five issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) Equity vs. Efficiency, (2) Health vs. Economics, (3) Individual Rights vs. Societal Benefits, (4) Due Process vs. Necessary Sacrifice, and (5) Stakeholder Consent vs. Management Decisions (authors)

  16. Radiation effects and radioprotectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, R.K., E-mail: dr_rajendra_purohit@yahoo.co.in [Radiation Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Govt. Dungar College, Bikaner (India); Bugalia, Saroj [Department of Zoology, S.K. Kalyan College, Sikar (India); Dakshene, Monika [Department of Chemistry, Govt. College, Kota (India)

    2012-07-01

    Radiation exposure causes damage to biological systems and these damages are mediated by the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species targeting vital cellular components such as DNA and membranes. DNA repair systems and the endogenous cellular biochemical defense mechanisms against reactive oxygen species and antioxidants enzymes like reduced Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase catalase etc. fail upon exposures to higher as well as chronic radiation doses leading to alterations in cell functions, cell death or mutations. Radioprotectors prevent these alterations and protect cells and tissues from the deleterious effects of radiations. Radioprotectors are of great importance due to their possible and potential application during planned radiation exposures such as radiotherapy, diagnostic scanning, clean up operations in nuclear accidents, space expeditions etc. and Unplanned radiations exposures such as accidents in nuclear industry, nuclear terrorism, natural background radiation etc. Many of the available synthetic radioprotectors are toxic to mammalian system at doses required to be effective as radioprotector. Increasing uses of ionizing radiation have drawn the attention of many radiobiologists towards their undesired side effects produced in various tissues and for modifying them to facilitate the beneficial uses of radiation. Modification of radiation response is obtained by means of chemical substances that can significantly decrease the magnitude of response when present in a biological system during irradiation. Radioprotectors are chemicals that modify a cell's response to radiation. Radioprotectors are drugs that protect normal (non cancerous) cells from the damage caused by radiation therapy. These agents promote the repair of normal cells that are exposed to radiation. Various chemicals, like Cysteamine, MPG , WR-2721 have been tested for the protection against harmful effects of radiation. These radio-protective

  17. Radiation effects and radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.K.; Bugalia, Saroj; Dakshene, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure causes damage to biological systems and these damages are mediated by the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species targeting vital cellular components such as DNA and membranes. DNA repair systems and the endogenous cellular biochemical defense mechanisms against reactive oxygen species and antioxidants enzymes like reduced Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase catalase etc. fail upon exposures to higher as well as chronic radiation doses leading to alterations in cell functions, cell death or mutations. Radioprotectors prevent these alterations and protect cells and tissues from the deleterious effects of radiations. Radioprotectors are of great importance due to their possible and potential application during planned radiation exposures such as radiotherapy, diagnostic scanning, clean up operations in nuclear accidents, space expeditions etc. and Unplanned radiations exposures such as accidents in nuclear industry, nuclear terrorism, natural background radiation etc. Many of the available synthetic radioprotectors are toxic to mammalian system at doses required to be effective as radioprotector. Increasing uses of ionizing radiation have drawn the attention of many radiobiologists towards their undesired side effects produced in various tissues and for modifying them to facilitate the beneficial uses of radiation. Modification of radiation response is obtained by means of chemical substances that can significantly decrease the magnitude of response when present in a biological system during irradiation. Radioprotectors are chemicals that modify a cell's response to radiation. Radioprotectors are drugs that protect normal (non cancerous) cells from the damage caused by radiation therapy. These agents promote the repair of normal cells that are exposed to radiation. Various chemicals, like Cysteamine, MPG , WR-2721 have been tested for the protection against harmful effects of radiation. These radio-protective

  18. Expert knowledge in radiation protection. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spang, A.

    1990-01-01

    This revised version of the first edition, which was published in 1983, incorporates the full scale of developments and changes made since then, as e.g.: the new Radiation Protection Ordinance, which introduces the concept and definition of effective dose, ED, and limits the maximum permissible occupational exposure to 400 mSv. Changes have become effective for instance in the transport regulations, in the regulations for radioactive waste delivery and collection, in the field of health physics, and with regard to activities under outside contract; b) the EURATOM basic standards and the new SI units: Becquerel and Sievert have replaced Curie and Rem; c) a number of ICRP recommendations, events and scientific results, which frequently make radiation protection more plausible, or sometimes even necessary; d) the new DIN standards and BMU regulations, which also are a valuable source of reference for the radiation protection officer. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Education in Radiation Protection. What are the future needs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodig, D.; Kasal, B.; Tezak, S.; Poropat, M.; Kubelka, D.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the problem of the education in radiation protection. All aspects of education are included started with primary school and lasted with very specialized courses for the experts. In the last few years the lack of interest for education in radiation protection was recognized by many agencies included also IAEA and EU commission. In this paper the reasons for this situation will be presented and the way how to promote this subject again. It is not possible to prevent effects of radiation on environment and population if qualified and well educated experts don't exists. The situation in the field of education in radiation protection in Croatia will be also presented. (author)

  20. Radiation protection in medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado M, H.

    2008-12-01

    The justification of the practices is the fundamental principle on which rests the peaceful use of ionizing radiations. They actually contain as aspirations to improve the quality of people's lives, contributing to sustainable development through environmental protection, so that the sources security and the individuals protection will be conditions which are not and should can not be operated. For medical applications is a highly illustrative example of this, since both for the diagnosis and therapy, the goal is to achieve what is sought for the white tissue, secured the least possible damage to the neighboring tissues so that in turn reduce the negative effects for the patient. As a basis for achieving the above, it is essential to have qualified personnel in all areas incidents, for example users, workers, officials and staff members. There are a variety of specialists in the field of medical applications as, nuclear chemistry, nuclear engineering, radiation protection, medical physics, radiation physics and others. Among the human resource in the country must make up the majority are medical radiologists, highlighting gaps in the number of radiotherapy and nuclear medicine but specially in the medical physics, who is in some way from a special viewpoint of the formal school, new to the country. This is true for the number of facilities which are in the country. The radiation protection responsibilities in medical applications focus primarily on two figures: the radiology safety manager, who is primarily dedicated to the protection of occupationally exposed personnel and the public, and the medical physicist whose functions are geared towards the radiological protection of the patient. The principal legislation in the medical applications area has been enacted and is monitored by the Health Secretary and National Commission on Nuclear Safety and Safeguards, entities that have reached agreements to avoid overlap and over-regulation. Medical applications in the

  1. Proceedings of 7th Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barisic, D; Grahek, Z; Krajcar Bronic, I; Miljanic, S

    2008-07-01

    The 7th symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association discussed the following topics: general topics; radiation dosimetry and instrumentation; biological effects of radiation; radiation protection in medicine; radioecology and radon. For each subject many investigations, experiments, examples and results are presented. International character of this symposium shows importance of these topics not only in region but world wide.

  2. Proceedings of 7th Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, D.; Grahek, Z.; Krajcar Bronic, I.; Miljanic, S.

    2008-01-01

    The 7th symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association discussed the following topics: general topics; radiation dosimetry and instrumentation; biological effects of radiation; radiation protection in medicine; radioecology and radon. For each subject many investigations, experiments, examples and results are presented. International character of this symposium shows importance of these topics not only in region but world wide

  3. Basic principles of radiation protection in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The major goal of radiation protection in Canada is to ensure that individuals are adequately protected against the harm that might arise from unwarranted exposure to ionizing radiation. This report deals with the basic principles and organizations involved in protection against ionizing radiation. Three basic principles of radiation protection are: 1) that no practice shall be adopted unless its introduction produces a positive net benefit for society, 2) that all exposures shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable, relevant economic and social factors being taken into account, and 3) that doses to individuals should not exceed specified annual limits. The limit for radiation workers is currently 50 mSv per year, and exposures of the general public should not exceed a small fraction of that of radiation workers. Other specific areas in radiation protection which have received considerable attention in Canada include limitations on collective dose (the sum of the individual doses for all exposed individuals), exemption rules for extremely small radiation doses or amounts of radioactive materials, occupational hazards in uranium mining, and special rules for protection of the foetus in pregnant female radiation workers. Implementation of radiation protection principles in Canada devolves upon the Atomic Energy Control Board, the Department of National Health and Welfare, provincial authorities, licensees and radiation workers. A brief description is given of the roles of each of these groups

  4. Radiation protection and safety infrastructures in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paci, Rustem; Ylli, Fatos

    2008-01-01

    The paper intends to present the evolution and actual situation of radiation protection and safety infrastructure in Albania, focusing in its establishing and functioning in accordance with BBS and other important documents of specialized international organizations. There are described the legal framework of radiation safety, the regulatory authority, the services as well the practice of their functioning. The issue of the establishing and functioning of the radiation safety infrastructure in Albania was considered as a prerequisite for a good practices development in the peaceful uses of radiation sources . The existence of the adequate legislation and the regulatory authority, functioning based in the Basic Safety Standards (BSS), are the necessary condition providing the fulfilment of the most important issues in the mentioned field. The first document on radiation protection in Albania stated that 'for the safe use of radiation sources it is mandatory that the legal person should have a valid permission issued by Radiation Protection Commission'. A special organ was established in the Ministry of Health to supervise providing of the radiation protection measures. This organization of radiation protection showed many lacks as result of the low efficiency . The personnel monitoring, import, transport, waste management and training of workers were in charge of Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP). In 1992 an IAEA RAPAT mission visited Albania and proposed some recommendations for radiation protection improvements. The mission concluded that 'the legislation of the radiation protection should be developed'. In 1995 Albania was involved in the IAEA Model Project 'Upgrading of Radiation Protection Infrastructure'. This project, which is still in course, intended to establish the modern radiation safety infrastructures in the countries with low efficiency ones and to update and upgrade all aspects related with radiation safety: legislation and regulations, regulatory

  5. Effects of the new radiation protection act on the radiation protection register and the monitoring of occupational radiation exposure; Auswirkungen des neuen Strahlenschutzgesetzes auf das Strahlenschutzregister und die berufliche Strahlenueberwachung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frasch, G. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The implementation of DIRECTIVE 2013/59 / EURATOM (EURATOM Basic Safety Standards) is via the new radiation protection law and brings in the monitoring of occupational radiation among others two significant new features and changes: - Introduction of a unique personal identifier, - update of the occupational categories. Both require technical and organizational changes in the data transmission of the licensees to the dosimetry services and the radiation protection register.

  6. Radiation Protection Group annual report (1997)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1997. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

  7. Radiation Protection Group annual report (1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1996. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

  8. Radiation Protection Group annual report (1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1998. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

  9. Radiation Protection Group annual report (1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefert, M [ed.

    1997-03-25

    The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1996. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group.

  10. Radiation Protection Group annual report (1998)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefert, M [ed.

    1999-04-15

    The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1998. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group.

  11. Radiation Protection Group annual report (1997)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefert, M [ed.

    1998-04-10

    The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1997. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group.

  12. Radiation Protection Group annual report (1995)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1995. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

  13. Radiation protection training for users of ionizing radiation in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellet, S.; Giczi, F.; Elek, R.; Temesi, A.; Csizmadia, H.; Sera, E.

    2012-01-01

    According to the current and previous regulation related to the safety use of ionizing radiation, the personnel involved must obtain special qualification in radiation protection. In Hungary the radiation protection training are performed by appropriately certified training centers on basic, advanced and comprehensive levels. Certification of the training centers is given by the competent radiological health/radiation protection authority. The office of the Chief Medical Officer is the certifying authority for advanced and comprehensive levels training, as well as competent Regional Radiological Health Authority is responsible for basic level courses. The content and length of courses are specified in the regulation for all three levels of industrial, laboratory and medical users, in general. Some of the universities, technical and medical oriented are certified for advanced training for students as gradual course. Recently in Hungary there are 47 certified training centers for advanced and comprehensive courses, where the trainers should have a five years job experience in radiation protection and successful completion of comprehensive level course in radiation protection. (authors)

  14. Training for Radiation Protection in Interventional Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartal, G.; Sapoval, M.; Ben-Shlomo, A.

    1999-01-01

    Program in radiological equipment has incorporated more powerful x-ray sources into the standard Fluoroscopy and CT systems. Expanding use of interventional procedures carries extensive use of fluoroscopy and CT which are both associated with excessive radiation exposure to the patient and personnel. During cases of Intravenous CT Angiography and direct Intraarterial CT Angiography, one may substitute a substantial number of diagnostic angiography checks. Basic training in interventional radiology hardly includes some of the fundamentals of radiation protection. Radiation Protection in Interventional Radiology must be implemented in daily practice and become an integral part of procedure planning strategy in each and every case. Interventional radiological most master all modern imaging modalities in order to choose the most effective, but least hazardous one. In addition, one must be able to use various imaging techniques (Fluoroscopy, CTA, MM and US) as a stand-alone method, as well as combine two techniques or more. Training programs for fellows: K-based simulation of procedures and radiation protection. Special attention should be taken in the training institutions and a basic training in radiation protection is advised before the trainee is involved in the practical work. Amendment of techniques for balloon and stent deployment with minimal use of fluoroscopy. Attention to the differences between radiation protection in cardiovascular and nonvascular radiology with special measures that must be taken for each one of them (i.e., peripheral angiography vs. stenting, Endo luminal Aortic Stent Graft, or nonvascular procedures such as biliary or endo urological stenting or biliary intervention). A special emphasis should be put on the training techniques of Interventional Radiologists, both beginners and experienced. Patient dose monitoring by maintaining records of fluoroscopic time is better with non-reset timer, but is optional. Lee of automated systems that

  15. Proceedings of the Ninth Radiation Physics and Protection Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The publication has been set up as proceedings of the Radiation Physics and Protection conference, the conference contains of the following subjects: Radiation Sources and Radioactive Waste; Theoretical Radiation Physics; Experimental Radiation Physics; Radiation and Nuclear Emergency; Non Ionizing Radiation; Medical Physics; Environment; Natural Radioactivity; Radiation Effect; Dosimetry; Elemental Analysis; Radiation Instruments. This conference consists of one volume and 459 pages., figs., tabs., refs

  16. Protection of persons occupationally exposed to radiation and of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieve, F.E.

    1976-01-01

    The experiences of the last ten years have shown that the measures of the First Radiation Protection Ordinance generally proved to be sufficient for the protection of the employed or of the patients. They had to be amended in so far as the exposure to radiation for those occupationally exposed can be reduced. This results in changes to the regulations so that certain groups of persons can also be effectively controlled. The recognition that medical supervision for radiation protection reasons is reasonable only if exposure has occurred should be additionally utilized in the regulations if the Euratom standards make this possible. The protection of patients attains some new rules which can be derived from handling and from therapeutical use. In this case too experience resulted in a more reasonable application of ionizing radiation and radioactive materials than was expected when the First Radiation Protection Ordinance was issued. (orig.) [de

  17. The development of radiation protection in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisztray-Balku, S.; Bozoky, L.; Koblinger, L.

    1982-01-01

    This book contains the short history, development and present status of radiation protection and health physics in Hungary. The first chapter discusses the radiation protection standards and practices used in scientific, technical and medical radiology in this country, with their development history. The next chapter is devoted to the radiation protection techniques applied for medical uses of radioisotopes and accelerators including the organizational and management problems. The last chapter presents a review on radiation protection and health physics aspects of the Hungarian industry and agriculture, on radiation protection research and management, on instruments and dosimeters. A national bibliography on the subject up to 1979 is included. (Sz.J.)

  18. Radiation protection in pediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fendel, H.; Stieve, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Because of the high growth rate of cell systems in phases of radiation exposure radiological investigations on children should not be considered unless there is a strong indication. The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements has worked out recommendations on radiation protection which have been published as an NCRP report. This report is most important even outside the USA. The present translation is aimed to contribute to better understanding of the bases and aims of radiation protection during radiological investigations on children. It addresses not only those physicians who carry out radiological investigations on children themselves but also all physicians requiring such investigations. For these physicians, but also for parents who are worried about the radiation risk to their children the report should be a useful source of information and decision aid ensuring, on the one hand, that necessary radiological investigations are not shunned for unjustified fear of radiation and that, on the other hand, all unnecessary exposure of children to radiation is avoided. Thus, it is to be hoped, the quality of pediatric radiological diagnostics will be improved. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Establishing a Radiation Protection Programme for a Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, M. M.

    2014-04-01

    The nature and intensity of radiation from the operation of a research reactor depend on the type of reactor, its design features and its operational history. The protection of workers from the harmful effect of radiation must therefore be of paramount importance to any operating organization of a research reactor. This project report attempts to establish an operational radiation protection programme for a research reactor using the Ghana Research Reactor-1 as a case study. (au)

  20. Nuclear technology in materials testing and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neider, R.

    1975-01-01

    A report of the 1974 activities of the laboratories for physical and measuring technical fundamentals, radiation effects and radiation protection, application of radionuclides and testing of radioactive materials of the Bundesanstalt fuer Materialpruefung (BAM) is given. (RW/LH) [de

  1. Sense and purpose of radiation protection training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malasek, A.

    1992-04-01

    Training in radiation protection is of great significance in connection with the activities of the executive, the federal army and emergency organizations in emergency operations for the protection of the population in the case of large-scale radioactive contamination due to diverse causes. The presently valid legal situation of radiation protection training is presented in connection with the expected modification in the amendment to the SSVO. The special situation of radiation protection training for the executive, the federal army and emergency organizations is described and discussed in connection with the new aspects outlined in the draft of the new radiation protection regulation. In conclusion, problems arising in the conveyance of basic knowledge in radiation protection are illustrated by means of a concrete example. (author)

  2. Radiation protection safety in Uganda -- Experience and prospects of the National Radiation Protection Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisolo, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Uganda National Radiation Protection Service (NRPS) is a technical body under the Atomic Energy Control Board, established by Law - the Atomic Energy Decree of 1972, Decree No. 12, to oversee and enforce safety of radiation sources, practices and workers; and to protect the patients, members of the public and the environment from the dangers of ionizing radiation and radioactive wastes. The Ionizing Radiation Regulations (Standards) - Statutory Instruments Supplement No. 21 of 1996 -- back up the Law. The Law requires all users, importers and operators of radiation sources and radioactive materials to notify the NRPS for registration and licensing. The NRPS is responsible for licensing and for the regulatory enforcement of compliance to the requirements for the safety of radiation sources and practices. There are about 200 diagnostic X-ray units, two radiotherapy centres, one nuclear medicine unit, several neutron probes, about three level gauges and two non-destructive testing sources and a number of small sealed sources in teaching and research institutions. About 50% of these sources have been entered in our inventory using the RAIS software provided by the IAEA. There are about 500 radiation workers and 250 underground miners. The NRPS covers about 50% of the radiation workers. It is planned that by June 2001, all occupational workers will be monitored, bringing coverage to 100%. The Government of Uganda is making the necessary legal, administrative and technical arrangements aimed at establishing the National Radiation Protection Commission as an autonomous regulatory authority. The Atomic Energy Decree of 1972 and Regulations of 1996 are being revised to provide for the National Radiation Protection Commission and to make it comply with the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards Safety Series No. 115. (author)

  3. Activities of Moroccan Radiation Protection Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choukri, A.

    2010-01-01

    Encourage activities and information exchange in the field of radiation protection and related areas; Assist in informing both the public and the professionals on the problems and requirements related to radiation protection for the protection of man and the environment; Promote professional training in radiation protection. The use of nuclear technology in medicine, agriculture and industry is very advanced in Morocco. This technological progress has been accompanied by fairly detailed legislation and significant involvement on the part of Morocco in international conventions and agreements

  4. Training in radiation protection and the safe use of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The need for education and training in the various disciplines of radiation protection has long been recognized by the IAEA, the International Labour Organization (ILO), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). This need has been partially met through the many training courses undertaken by these organizations, either individually or in collaboration. The IAEA has assisted developing Member States in the training of specialists in radiation protection and safety through its organized educational and specialized training courses, workshops, seminars, fellowships and scientific visits. Training is an important means of promoting safety culture and enhancing the level of competence of personnel involved in radiation protection activities, and has acquired a place in the IAEA's programme accordingly. For example, the IAEA Post-graduate Educational Course in Radiation Protection and the Safe Use of Radiation Sources is regularly offered in countries around the world, and has been provided in Arabic, English, French, Spanish and Russian. The training provided by the IAEA is primarily aimed at regulators, professionals working in radiation protection and those responsible for the development of training programmes in their own countries. The importance of adequate and appropriate training for all those working with ionizing radiation has been highlighted by the results of the IAEA's investigations of radiological accidents. A significant contributory factor in a number of the accidents has been a lack of adequate training, which gave rise to errors with serious consequences. This report provides assistance in organizing training and complying with the requirements on training of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS). The previous version of this report. Technical Reports

  5. Proceedings. Protection of the natural environment. International symposium on ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.; Johansson, Gunnar; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Luening, M.

    1996-01-01

    The symposium was organised jointly by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute and the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada. The programme was organised around six major topics: Biological effects of ionising radiation; Ecological effects of ionising radiation; Behaviour and transport of radionuclides in the natural environment; Criteria for environmental protection; Assessment methodology; and Social and economic aspects. All 86 contributions (excluding the opening addresses) have been separately indexed

  6. Proceedings of 9th Symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knezevic, Z.; Krajcar Bronic, I.; Majer, M.

    2013-01-01

    The 9th symposium of the Croatian Radiation Protection Association discussed the following topics: general topics; radiation dosimetry; public exposure; biological effects of radiation; radiation protection in medicine; radioecology and instrumentation and measuring techniques. For each subject many investigations, experiments, examples and results are presented. International character of this symposium shows importance of these topics not only in region but world wide.

  7. Protective effect study of polysaccharides from tremella fuciformis on hematopoietic function in radiation-injured mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Wenqing; Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Tianjin; Gao Wenyuan; Shen Xiu; Wang Yueying; Liu Peixun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the protective effects of polysaccharides of Tremella fuciformis on hematopoietic function in radiation-injured mice. Methods; Colony-forming unit of spleen (CFU-S), number of nucleated cells in bone marrow (BMNC) and spleen index were used to investigated the effect of polysacharides from tremella fuciformis at 6 mg/kg, 12 mg/kg, 24 mg/kg on hematopoietic function of mice irradiated with 7.5 Gy 137 Cs γ-rays. Results: On the 9 the day after irradiation compared with the negative control group number of nucleated cells in bone marrow, colony-forming unit of spleen and spleen index of mice have treated with polysaccharides from Tremella fuciformis intraperitoneally for three days prior to irradiation increased markedly. Conclusion: Polysaccharides of tremella fuciformis have protective effect on hematopoietic function of radiation-injured mice. (authors)

  8. Bioassay programs for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report discusses the rationale for the establishment of bioassay programs as a means of protection for radiation workers in the nuclear industry. The bioassay program of the Radiation Protection Bureau is described for the years 1966-1978 and plans for future changes are outlined. (auth)

  9. Knowledge plus Attitude in Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velez, G. R.; Sanchez, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Basic Safety Standards recommendations, the scope of the radiation protection was broadening. On behalf of the incorporation of radiation protection of the patient in medical exposures, the different groups of professionals involved: physicians, medical physicists, radiation protection officers, regulators, etc., have to work together. The objective of radiation protection, that is, to reduces doses from practices, to prevent potential exposures, to detect its occurrence as well as to evaluate and spread such abnormal situations, will be obtained only if it were possible to joint two basic conditions: knowledge and attitude. It should be well known the differences between the backgrounds needed to be for example, a medical physicist or an R.P.O., However, their attitude to solve an eventual problem involving radiation protection should be the same; as well as the behavior of the specialized physician and regulators, in order to add towards common goals. In this work, we show as an example the curricula contents about radiation protection of the cancer of medical physics in the Universidad Nacional de San Martin (UNSAM), and the corresponding module on medical exposures from the Post-Graduate course on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, held since the 80s in Buenos Aires by the National Commission of Atomic Energy, ARN, IAEA, and the Universidad de Buenos Aires. On the other hand, we describe different attitudes which leads or could start major radiological accidents, regardless the level of knowledge in radiation protection. We conclude that the larger numbers of accidents are due to problems in the attitude than in the level of knowledge of the person involved. Consequently; we suggest emphasizing the discussion on how to generate positive attitudes in every professional involucrated, independently of its cognitive profile or level. (Author) 2 refs

  10. Radiation safety and radiation protection problems on the TESLA Accelerator Installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, R.; Pavlovic, S.; Orlic, M.

    1997-01-01

    As we can see from the examples of many accelerator facilities installed throughout the world with ion beam energy, mass and charge characteristics and design similar to the TESLA Accelerator Installation, there is a great diversity among them, and each radiation protection and safety programme must be designed to facilitate the safe and effective operation of the accelerator according to the needs of the operating installation. Although there is no standard radiation protection and safety organization suitable for all institutions, experience suggests some general principles that should be integrated with all the disciplines involved in a comprehensive safety programme. (author)

  11. Development and application of the basic principles of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyskens, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    The basic philosophy of radiation protection, i.e. to prevent non-stochastic effects and to reduce stochastic effects to an acceptable level, is realized in the internationally accepted three-stage system of dose reduction, viz. justification, ALARA and dose limits. Historical development of this three-stage system is described and the three components are worked out further. The application and applicability of the system is considered for radiation sources and accidents. Attention is also given to regulations, national policy and practice of radiation protection. (G.J.P.)

  12. Radiation protection course for physicians. 3. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieve, F.E.

    1979-01-01

    The regulations of the Radiation Protection Ordinance and the X-ray Ordinance concerning the expert training of radiological safety officers and health physicists working in hospitals and general practice require expert knowledge in radiation protection of these persons. Expert knowledge includes knowledge of radiation protection itself but also experience in the medical application of ionizing radiation and radioactive materials and experience required for judging the state of health of persons occupationally exposed to radiation. The discussions between lectures and participants of the radiation protection courses made it necessary to update the textbooks with regard to the latest state of knowledge in radiobiology, radiation hygiene, radiation protection, and legislation. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Medical aspects of radiation protection law contribution to Austrian radiation protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, B.

    1977-01-01

    Some medical aspects of the radiation protection law, esp. in conjunction with medical surveillance of persons exposed to radiation, are dealt with. The discussion refers to the countries of the European Community and Austria and Switzerland. (VJ) [de

  14. Coastal sea radiation environment and biodiversity protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Senming; Shang Zhaorong

    2009-01-01

    This paper characterizes the types, trend and the potential of radiation contamination in the sea against the development of nuclear power stations. Combined with the present status of radioactive contamination and marine biodiversity in China seas, it is pointed out that non-human radiation protection should be considered on the bases of marine biodiversity protection. Besides, the reference species for marine radiation protection and some viewpoints on the work of marine radiation protection in China are pro- posed. (authors)

  15. Usefulness of non-lead aprons in radiation protection for physicians performing interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuguchi, M.; Chida, K.; Taura, M.; Inaba, Y.; Ebata, A.; Yamada, S.

    2008-01-01

    At present, interventional radiology (IVR) tends to involve long procedures (long radiation duration), and physicians are near to the source of scattered radiation. Hence, shielding is critical in protecting physicians from radiation. Protective aprons and additional lead-shielding devices, such as table-side lead drapes, are important means of protecting the physician from scattered radiation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether non-lead aprons are effective in protecting physicians from radiation during IVR procedures. In this study, the radiation protection effects of commercially available protective lead and non-lead aprons, when exposed to diagnostic X rays, are compared. The performance of these non-lead and lead aprons was similar for scattered X rays at tube voltages of 60-120 kV. Properly designed non-lead aprons are thus more suitable for physicians because they weigh ∼20% less than the lead aprons, and are non-toxic. (authors)

  16. Abstracts of 20. International Symposium Radiation Protection Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    51 papers are presented as titles with abstracts which are processed individually for the INIS data base. They deal with general aspects of radiation protection physics, international activities in radiation protection, solid state dosimetry, models and calculation methods in radiation protection, and measuring techniques in radiation protection

  17. Protective role of plants against harmful radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Shreesh Kumar; Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Abhishek; Kumar, Vikas; Bharti, Navaldey [Department of Applied Plant Science-Horticulture, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow (India)

    2012-07-01

    The rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. Ionizing radiations produces deleterious effects in the living organisms. Widespread use of radiation in diagnosis therapy, industry, energy sector and inadvertent exposure during air and space travel, nuclear accidents and nuclear terror attacks requires safeguard against human exposures. Lead shielding and other physical measures can be used in such situations but with difficulty to manage; thus pharmacological intervention could be the most prudent strategy to protect humans against the harmful effect of ionizing radiations. These pharmacological agents are radioprotectives; The development of radioprotective agents has been the subject of intense research in view of their potential for use within a radiation environment. However, no ideal, safe synthetic radio protectors are available to date, so the search for alternative sources including plants has been ongoing. In Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine, several plants have been used to treat free radical-mediated ailments and, therefore, it is logical to expect that such plants may also render some protection against radiation damage. This all is due to antioxidant enzymes, nitroxides, and melatonin, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory. haemopoitic and immunostimulant compounds. Some of the plants which are found to be radioprotective are Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Podophyllurn hexandrum, Tinospora cordifolia, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, etc. So there is an urgent need to identify and characterize the many of the plants in relation to the radioprotection. Besides these medicinal plants there are also some fruits and vegetables which are having good response against harmful radiations such as Kiwifruit Actinidia deliciosa (Actinidaceae), Cape Gooseberry Physalis peruviana (Solanaceae). They protect against the radiation-induced damage by

  18. Protective role of plants against harmful radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Shreesh Kumar; Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Abhishek; Kumar, Vikas; Bharti, Navaldey

    2012-01-01

    The rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. Ionizing radiations produces deleterious effects in the living organisms. Widespread use of radiation in diagnosis therapy, industry, energy sector and inadvertent exposure during air and space travel, nuclear accidents and nuclear terror attacks requires safeguard against human exposures. Lead shielding and other physical measures can be used in such situations but with difficulty to manage; thus pharmacological intervention could be the most prudent strategy to protect humans against the harmful effect of ionizing radiations. These pharmacological agents are radioprotectives; The development of radioprotective agents has been the subject of intense research in view of their potential for use within a radiation environment. However, no ideal, safe synthetic radio protectors are available to date, so the search for alternative sources including plants has been ongoing. In Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine, several plants have been used to treat free radical-mediated ailments and, therefore, it is logical to expect that such plants may also render some protection against radiation damage. This all is due to antioxidant enzymes, nitroxides, and melatonin, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory. haemopoitic and immunostimulant compounds. Some of the plants which are found to be radioprotective are Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Podophyllurn hexandrum, Tinospora cordifolia, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, etc. So there is an urgent need to identify and characterize the many of the plants in relation to the radioprotection. Besides these medicinal plants there are also some fruits and vegetables which are having good response against harmful radiations such as Kiwifruit Actinidia deliciosa (Actinidaceae), Cape Gooseberry Physalis peruviana (Solanaceae). They protect against the radiation-induced damage by

  19. Code of practice for radiation protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamed, M. I.

    2010-05-01

    In aim of this study was to develop a draft for a new code practice for radiation protection in nuclear medicine that meets the current relevant international recommendation. The draft includes the following main fields: methods of radiation protection for workers, patients and public. Also, the principles of safe design of nuclear medicine departments, quality assurance program, proper manipulation of radiation sources including radioactive waste and emergency preparedness and response. The practical part of this study includes inspections of three nuclear medicine departments available in Sudan so as to assess the degree of compliance of those departments with what is stated in this code. The inspection missions have been conducted using a checklist that addresses all items that may affect radiation raincoat issues in addition to per formin area radiation monitoring around the installation of the radioactive sources. The results of this revealed that most of the departments do not have effective radiation protection program which in turn could lead to unnecessary exposure to patients, public and workers. Finally, some recommendations are given that - if implemented - could improve the status of radiation protection in nuclear medicine department. (Author)

  20. History of radiation protection agencies and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritenour, E.R.

    1984-01-01

    The history of radiation protection and standards has shown a decrease of recommended exposure limits over the years. There are two reasons for this decrease. First there has been an increased awareness of the biological effects of radiation. Second, advances in technology have made it possible to use radiation more efficiently while decreasing unnecessary dose to workers and the public. Thus it is now possible to maintain much smaller dose limits than in the early years. Current radiation protection philosophy is based on the assumption that there is no completely ''safe'' amount of radiation. In practical terms, however, there is certainly a level below which the measurement of biologic effects becomes meaningless. The important operational concept as put forth by the ICRP in 1977 is that exposure of an individual should be kept As Low as Reasonably Achievable (the ALARA principle) below recommended limits. In other words, recognizing that there are many situations in which it is impossible to reduce exposure to zero, one must weigh the cost of designing equipment and structures that reduce exposure below the recommended limits against the perceived benefits of doing so

  1. First Asian regional congress on radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Library and Technical Information Section

    1975-12-01

    Due to the rapid progress in the development of nuclear energy and its applications in medicine, agriculture and industry, the potential danger to targe groups of population due to radiation hazards has increased. Thus, radiation protection has become an important aspects of industrial and public hygiene. The article reviews the deliberations of the First Asian Regional Congress on Radiation Protection which was held during 15-20 December 1974 at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. 190 papers were presented on the following broad subjects: (1) organization of radiation protection services on a countrywide scale and significant problems and experiences; (2) research and cooperation, mutual assistance, education and training; (3) personnel monitoring; (4) nuclear industry risks and benefits; (5) radiation protection legislation and (6) panel discussions and regional international cooperation in the field of radiation protection.

  2. Radiation protection and personnel safety in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Alok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Due to availability of a variety of radioisotopes from BRIT, a considerable number of industrial organizations have come up in India which employ radiation sources in one form or the other. More such organizations may come up in the near future due to the 'Make in India' policy of the Government. All ionizing radiations, whether electromagnetic (gamma- ã ) or corpuscular (particles of alpha-á, or beta-â-), and neutrons (0n1) are harmful to the human body. The damage done by radiations is sinister as human senses are not capable of detecting even lethal doses of radiation. The dose of radiations absorbed by human body which take into account the biological effectiveness of different types of radiations as noted above. The overall outcome of exposure to radiation is initiated by damage to the cells of the organism. The effects of radiation may be deterministic or stochastic, early or late, of somatic or genetic type. The somatic effects (physical) can either be immediate or delayed when the whole body is acutely irradiated with radiation doses. All countries including India have brought their national laws/standards on ionizing radiation in line with the ICRP codes. The conditions for registration, transport, storage, protection and use of radiation sources have been laid down in regulations. The purpose of practical protection against radiation is to prevent any individual receiving a harmful dose. Radiation measurement Instruments like dose meter, pocket dosimeter, NaI(Tl) scintillation detector and recording instruments such as film/TLD badge have been briefly described

  3. State Supervision and Control of Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Radiation Protection Centre is carrying state supervision and control of radiation protection. The main objective of state supervision and control of radiation protection is assessing how licensees comply with requirements of the appropriate legislation and enforcement. Summary of inspections conducted in 1999-2001 is presented.

  4. The study of the radiation protection effects of TMG to the fetus on the organogenesis stage in ICR mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Yeunhwa; Santokuya, Takumi; Suzuki, Ikukatsu; Hasegawa, Takeo; Yamamoto, Youichi [Suzuka Univ. of Medical Science, Mie (Japan); Bamen, K.; Yanagisawa, Takaharu; Iwasa, Toshihiro

    2000-05-01

    Experimental studies on mice have made it clear that embryos are more sensitive to radiation during Organogenesis than other prenatal periods. However, the radiation protection of TMG at Organogenesis in mice has yet to be described. The Organogenesis stage is the most important from the viewpoint of ionizing protection. Many physical and chemical agents in the environment can affect an embryo. Fetal deaths were classified as Preimplantation, Embryonic and Fetal. The sensitivity of the fetus is high in comparison with the maturates and the child to the various environmental agent. It is the individium, which should pay attention to it specially when a fetus' safety is thought about. Because it isn't noticed, the fetus of the organogenesis can't avoid fetus' existence regardless of the individium of which sensibility is high in the intention target. Therefore, protection resource and others must be studied after the fetus' effects of the organogenesis are studied fully. It paid attention to radiation in the environmental agent, and it was examined about the radiation protection effect of TMG to fetus' teratogenesis by this study. We studied an excuse as a radioprotective agent of the high malformation of the sensitivity most by using TMG to the radiation. This study aimed at obtaining the information to provide it for the fetus' protection to the various environmental radiations. As for Preimplantation death, there was a statistical difference the 2.0 Gy Group in comparison with the control group (p<0.05). Embryonic death, a statistical difference was recognized as in all the treatment groups (p<0.001). But, as for the TMG+radiation group, Embryonic death decreased to 1/4. As for Malformation rate, a statistical difference was recognized as in all treatment group (p<0.001). But, as for the TMG+radiation group, Malformation rate decreased to 1/2. As for Fetal body weight, a statistical difference was recognized in radiation group

  5. Political problems in the system of radiation protection laws of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Haruo

    2008-01-01

    The lack of hierarchy and multiple restrictions by the radiation protection laws in Japan, causes multiple dose records of individual and scattering dose records. To solve the problem, the National Radiation Dose Registration Systems was proposed already by Atomic Energy Commission about 40 years ago. But only one radiation dose registration system is partly effective, which was applied for workers in nuclear plants. This paper reports political problems in the system of radiation protection laws of Japan, and proposes the new national radiation dose registration systems which will be able to have a function of supplementation of quality assurance of radiation protection laws. (author)

  6. Sucralfate protects intestinal epithelial cells from radiation-induced apoptosis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuu-Matsuyama, Mutsumi; Shichijo, Kazuko; Okaichi, Kumio

    2006-01-01

    Radiotherapy for malignant pelvic disease is often followed by acute radiation colitis (ARC). It has been reported that sucralfate treatment has a protective effect against ARC, though the mechanisms of action are unknown. The effects of sucralfate on X-ray radiation-induced apoptosis was studied at 4 Gy in the colonic crypt cells of rats. Sucralfate enemas given prior to radiation resulted in the following: reduction in number of apoptotic colonic crypt cells; reduction in number of caspase-3 positive cells; decreases in p53 accumulation and p21 expression; decreases of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. The protective effects of sucralfate against ARC may be partially due to the suppression of radiation-induced apoptosis by way of p53 in the colon and the protection of the colonic epithelial stem cell region. (author)

  7. The primary study on protective effects of vallinin derivative on cell injury induced by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hong; Wang Siying; Yan Yuqian; Wang Lin; Xu Qinzhi; Cong Jianbo; Zhou Pingkun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the protective effects of vallinin derivative VND3207 on cell injury induced by radiation were studied by the methods of methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium colorimetric assay (MTT) and electron spin resonance (ESR). At first, MTF method was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of vallinin derivatives (VND3202-VND3209) in HFS cells. Then, MTT method was used to measure the proliferation activity of HeLa cells with 2 Gy irradiation treated with vallinin derivatives and measure the proliferation of AHH-1 cells treated with VND3207 before exposed to 4 Gy irradiation. And ESR detected the antioxidation activity of vallinin and VND3207. The results showed that VND3207 and VND3206 presented no toxin within 50 panol/L, and VND3207 and VND3209 had no proliferous effects on HeLa cells while VND3206 could expedite the tumor cell proliferation at 30 μmol/L, and by comrades VND3208 showed increased radiosensitivity of the HeLa cells. For the AHH1 cells exposed to 4 Gy irradiation, VND3207 presented the protective effects against radiation injury. ESR results also suggested that VND3207 could clean out free radicals. Its effect was far more potent than that of vanillin. From this study we primarily screened out the vallinin derivative VND3207 which has protective effects on cell injury induced by radiation and provided data for future research work. (authors)

  8. Greetings from Austrian Radiation Protection Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, M.; Brandl, A.

    2015-01-01

    Austrian Radiation Protection Association (OVS) share with others a long-standing tradition of common endeavours and close collaboration. We have been and are able to influence the European radiation protection environment and IRPA initiatives and policies. We are intrigued by the breadth and comprehensive nature of the symposium programme, covering the most important sub-fields in our profession, and spanning topics from radiation dosimetry to radiobiology, from instrumentation and measurement to radioecology, and from radiation protection for workers and in medicine to our professional responsibilities towards the general public. These topics are timeless and current, providing testimony to the fact that the science of radiation protection is not exhausted. Novel applications of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, including new modalities in the fields of medical therapy and diagnosis, a resurgence of nuclear energy generation in some parts of the globe, combined with increased efforts for decontamination and decommissioning of existing sites and facilities, they are all attest to the continued need for further research and our professional input and discussion. The national radiation protection associations will have a role to play in both, the advocacy of increased efforts to educate and train our future professionals and the retention of those professionals in our field.

  9. Radiation biology and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    For protection purposes, the biological effects of radiation are separated into stochastic effects (cancer, hereditary effects) presumed to be unicellular in origin, and tissue reactions due to injury in populations of cells. The latter are deterministic effects, renamed ‘tissue reactions’ in the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection because of the increasing evidence of the ability to modify responses after irradiation. Tissue reactions become manifest either early or late after doses above a threshold dose, which is the basis for recommended dose limits for avoiding such effects. Latency time before manifestation is related to cell turnover rates, and tissue proliferative and structural organisation. Threshold doses have been defined for practical purposes at 1% incidence of an effect. In general, threshold doses are lower for longer follow-up times because of the slow progression of injury before manifestation. Radiosensitive individuals in the population may contribute to low threshold doses, and in the future, threshold doses may be increased by the use of various biological response modifiers post irradiation for reducing injury. Threshold doses would be expected to be higher for fractionated or protracted doses, unless doses below the threshold dose only cause single-hit-type events that are not modified by repair/recovery phenomena, or if different mechanisms of injury are involved at low and high doses.

  10. Procedures for the systematic appraisal of operational radiation protection programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to give guidance to management and regulators of organisations using ionizing radiations on a technique for systematically appraising their operational radiation protection programme in order that its adequacy and effectiveness can be objectively determined. The appraisal technique is based on analytical trees and can be used to examine either a whole programme, to determine its completion and adequacy or to examine one component of a programme in considerable detail. This document will not develop technical recommendations on particular radiation protection programmes. These will be found in the appropriate Safety Series document on operational radiation protection. 8 refs, figs

  11. Non controlled effect of ionizing radiations : involvement for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, J. B.

    2005-01-01

    It is widely accepted that damage to DNA is the critical event on irradiated cells, and that double strand breaks are the primary DNA lesions responsible for the biological effects of ionizing radiation. This has lead to the long standing paradigm that these effects, be they cytotoxicity, mutagenesis or malignant transformation, occur in irradiated cells as a consequences of the DNA damage they incur. Evidence has been accumulating over the past decade, however, to indicate that radiation may induce effects that ar not targeted to the irradiated cells itself. Two non-targeted effects will be described in this review. The first, radiation-induced genomic instability, is a phenomenon whereby signals are transmitted to the progeny of the irradiated cell over many generations, leading to the occurrence of genetic effects such as mutations and chromosomal aberrations arising in the distant descendants of the irradiated cell. Second, the bystander effect, is a phenomenon whereby irradiated cells transmit damage signals to non-irradiated cells in a mixed population, leading to genetic effects arising in these bystander cells that received no radiation exposure. the model system described in this review involves dense monolayer cultures exposed to very low fluences of alpha particles. The potential implications of these two phenomena for the analysis of the risk to the human population of exposure to low levels of ionising radiation is discussed. (Author) 111 refs

  12. Radiation protection in education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viragh, Elemer

    1985-01-01

    The education of secondary school students in the fields of nuclear sciences was strictly limited according to the 9th recommendations of the ICRP issued in 1966 saying that people under age 18 are not allowed to deal with ionizing radiations. Due to the changes concerning the concept of radiation protection, new opportunities for teaching nuclear technology even in the secondary schools were opened. The 36th recommendations of the ICRP published in 1983 dealing with the maximum permissible doses and the measures taken for radiation protection should be kept in mind while organizing the education of the pupils between age 16 and 18. (V.N.)

  13. Leadership and management for an effective radiation protection programme: A study on open cast diamond mining in Lesotho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thetha, Pakeng

    2016-04-01

    Leadership and Management system commitment to safety is recognised as a fundamental component of an organisation's safety culture. This study focuses on how organisations can integrate leadership and management in achieving an effective radiation protection programme (RPP), in Lesotho's diamond mining industry. The study made a comparative analysis of relevant studies made on similar open pit mines and industries around the world. The findings suggest that, leaders and managers should ensure that prior radiological assessment is done in order to streamline the radiation protection programme to satisfy the needs of the individual mining companies thus making it more effective. Furthermore there is a need to ensure that leadership and management are integrated at every level of the organization in the implementation of the RPP. Lesotho Diamond Mining industry has no radiation protection programme in place thus its effectiveness could not be assessed. Leaders and managers should be involved at all levels of the organization from site specific radiological evaluation, design, funding, training and implementation of the RPP. Senior managers, supervisors and workers have the responsibility to ensure the protection of those occupationally exposed the public, the environment and future generations by implementing the RPP effectively and efficiently. (au)

  14. Protective effects of seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils against radiation-induced acute intestinal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Jing; Wang, Lan; Lu, Yan; Ji, Yue; Wang, Yaqing; Dong, Ke; Kong, Xiangqing; Sun, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome, including nausea, diarrhea and dehydration, contributes to morbidity and mortality after medical or industrial radiation exposure. No safe and effective radiation countermeasure has been approved for clinical therapy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils against radiation-induced acute intestinal injury. C57/BL6 mice were orally administered seabuckthorn pulp oil, seed oil and control olive oil once per day for 7 days before exposure to total-body X-ray irradiation of 7.5 Gy. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used for the measurement of apoptotic cells and proteins, inflammation factors and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Seabuckthorn oil pretreatment increased the post-radiation survival rate and reduced the damage area of the small intestine villi. Both the pulp and seed oil treatment significantly decreased the apoptotic cell numbers and cleaved caspase 3 expression. Seabuckthorn oil downregulated the mRNA level of inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. Both the pulp and seed oils elevated the level of phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase and reduced the levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38. Palmitoleic acid (PLA) and alpha linolenic acid (ALA) are the predominant components of pulp oil and seed oil, respectively. Pretreatment with PLA and ALA increased the post-radiation survival time. In conclusion, seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils protect against mouse intestinal injury from high-dose radiation by reducing cell apoptosis and inflammation. ALA and PLA are promising natural radiation countermeasure candidates.

  15. Protective effects of acemannan against radiation induced damage in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sumit; Tiku, Ashu Bhan

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera is one of the well known medicinal plant and posses a large no. of beneficial bioactive components like Anthraquinone, C-glycosides, anthrones, emodin, acemannan etc. Acemannan (poly-acetylated mannose) is one of the active component present in aloe vera gel and has anticancerous and antimicrobial properties. It has also been reported to have wound healing properties and has role as immunomodulator. The objective of the present study was to evaluate protective efficacy of acemannan against radiation induced damage in in-vitro and in in-vivo using murine splenocytes and Swiss albino mice as a model system. In vitro studies were done using primary mouse splenocytes cultures and effect of radiation on cell proliferation, viability, ROS, DNA damage and apoptosis were studies using MTT, trypan blue, DCFDA, single cell gel electrophoresis and ladder assay respectively. For in-vivo studies mice were pretreated with different doses of drug for 7 days followed by irradiation (5 Gy). Twenty four hours post-irradiation mice was sacrificed to observe the activity of antioxidant enzymes and level of protein expression. Acemannan showed a significant induction of proliferation of splenocytes in radiation treated groups both in in-vitro and in in-vivo. Beside a decrease in radiation induced ROS and DNA damage was observed in in-vitro system. Acemannan treatment was able to reduce the radiation induced apoptosis by about 50% both in in-vitro and in in-vivo. In in-vivo acemannan helps in the restoration of the antioxidant enzyme level (catalase, SOD, DTD and GST) besides maintaining the proper redox status via GSH, in irradiated mice. In our studies a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt of acemannan showed the best protective effects. On the basis of the above results it could be concluded that acemannan may have radioprotective potential. (author)

  16. First Asian regional congress on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.K.

    1975-01-01

    Due to the rapid progress in the development of nuclear energy and its applications in medicine, agriculture and industry, the potential danger to targe groups of population due to radiation hazards has increased. Thus, radiation protection has become an important aspects of industrial and public hygiene. The article reviews the deliberations of the First Asian Regional Congress on Radiation Protection which was held during 15-20 December 1974 at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. 190 papers were presented on the following broad subjects: (1) organization of radiation protection services on a countrywide scale and significant problems and experiences; (2) research and cooperation, mutual assistance, education and training; (3) personnel monitoring; (4) nuclear industry risks and benefits; (5) radiation protection legislation and (6) panel discussions and regional international cooperation in the field of radiation protection. (S.K.K.)

  17. New methodologies for decision-making in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, Henri

    1996-01-01

    System of radiological protection is evolved over the years to protect occupational workers and the public from harmful effects of radiation. The system is based mainly on the principle of justification, optimisation and dose minimisation. This paper discusses the importance of evaluation of the effectiveness of the system with regard to the uncertainties associated with the health effects of low-level irradiation. The modalities of precaution-optimisation are discussed in order to establish rational decisions covering protective actions to be envisaged. (author)

  18. Protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation. A report for discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    The acceptability of practices which involve the release of radionuclides into the environment, and of situations where residual radionuclides from accidents or improperly controlled practices exist in the environment, are generally assessed on the basis of implied radiation doses to humans. This approach is consistent with the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which include the statement that 'the standard of environmental control needed to protect man to the degree currently thought desirable will ensure that other species are not put at risk'. The general applicability of this statement has been explored in previous IAEA and other publications. These concluded that the statement is generally valid but that reliance upon human based radiological protection criteria may not be adequate for all possible space or time scales. In recent years awareness of the vulnerability of the environment has increased and the need to protect it against the effects of industrial pollutants has been recognized. This trend is reflected in new and developing international policies for environmental protection. In the context of protection of the environment against ionizing radiation, the existing international approach is being challenged in some IAEA Member States and proposals are being made for strategies which provide for explicit protection of the environment. The present publication represents a first step towards establishing an internationally accepted philosophy and associated methodology for protecting the environment against ionizing radiations. The report reviews the various related issues and examines possible approaches to establishing criteria. It is intended for use in stimulating discussion on the subject in Member States. For its part, the IAEA intends to continue a programme of work in this area with the long term objective of providing specific recommendations on primary protection criteria and methods for

  19. Radiation protection. The past and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    After a short summary of the history of radiation protection and its scientific basis a survey is given on the actual state of radiation protection, thereby entering into open questions like risk perception and communication with the general public. Finally, the future tasks of radiation protection are described.

  20. Radiation protection for human spaceflight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, M.

    2009-01-01

    Cosmic radiation exposure is one of the most significant risks associated with human space exploration. Except for the principles of justification and optimization (ALARA), the concepts of terrestrial radiation protection are of limited applicability to human spaceflight, as until now only few experimentally verified data on the biological effectiveness of heavy ions and the dose distribution within the human body exist. Instead of applying the annual dose limits for workers on ground also to astronauts, whose careers are of comparatively short duration, the overall lifetime risk is used as a measure. For long-term missions outside Earth's magnetic field, the acceptable level of risk has not yet been defined, since there is not enough information available to estimate the risk of effects to the central nervous system and of potential non-cancer radiation health hazards. (orig.)

  1. Ionizing radiation protection regulation in Canada: the role of the Federal Provincial Territorial Radiation Protection Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, Christopher H.

    2008-01-01

    Canada has one of the broadest and most mature nuclear industries in the world, and is a world leader in uranium mining, and in the production of medical radioisotopes. The Canadian nuclear industry also includes: uranium milling, refining, and fuel fabrication facilities; nuclear generating stations; research reactors and related facilities; waste management facilities; and the use of radioactive materials in medicine and industry. Regulation of this broad and dynamic industry is a complex and challenging task. Canada has a cooperative system for the regulation of ionizing radiation protection covering federal, provincial, territorial, and military jurisdictions. A Federal/Provincial/Territorial Radiation Protection Committee (FPTRPC) exists to aid in cooperation between the various agencies. Their mandate encompasses regulation and guidance on all aspects of radiation protection: federal and provincial; NORM and anthropogenic; ionizing and non-ionizing. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is the federal nuclear regulator whose mandate includes radiation protection regulation of most occupational and public exposures. The CNSC does not regulate medical (patient) exposures, some aspects of NORM, or military applications. Provincial authorities are the primary regulators with respect to doses to patients and occupational doses arising from X-rays. Health Canada plays a role in X-ray device certification, development of national guidance (e.g. on radon) and direct regulation of certain federal facilities. NORM is regulated provincially, with varying regulatory mechanisms across the provinces and territories. Radiation protection regulation for National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces is performed by the Director General Nuclear Safety. This paper gives an overview of the structure of the regulation of ionizing radiation protection in Canada, and shares lessons learned, particularly with respect to the usefulness of the FPTRPC in helping coordinate and

  2. Regional radiation protection initiatives by Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grey, J.

    1993-01-01

    Australia both through the auspices of the IAEA and from Government Aid Grants has contributed to the improvement of radiation protection throughout the Asia/Pacific region. The assistance has been in the form of training and improvement to radiation protection infrastructures. The presentation describes the objectives, scope and diversity of the radiation protection infrastructure program and the benefits to the large number of persons included in the program. An outline of the current IAEA program is also discussed together with an explanation of how the program will assist national regulators in the education of radiation workers, in hazardous operations such as industrial radiography

  3. 6. Regional Congress on Radiation Protection and Safety; 3. Iberian and Latin American Congress on Radiological Protection Societies; Regional IRPA Congress. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    The 6th Regional Congress on Radiation Protection and Safety was organized by the Peruvian Radiation Protection Society and the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy, held in Lima, Peru, between 9 and 13 of november of 2003. In this event, were presented 227 papers that were articulated in the following sessions: radiation natural exposure, biological effects of ionizing radiation, instruments and dosimetry, radiological emergency and accidents, occupational radiation protection, radiological protection in medical exposure, radiological environmental protection, legal aspects, standards and regulations, training, education and communication, radioactive waste management, radioactive material transport, nuclear safety and biological effects of non-ionizing radiation. (APC)

  4. Radiation protection education and training for physicians. Technical qualification for radiation protection and radiation protection instruction for physicians. More important than ever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loecker, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    The medical application of ionizing radiation - especially X-ray diagnostics - is contributing most of the civilizing radiation exposure of the population. More than 80 percent of occupationally exposed persons work in nuclear medicine. Therefore radiation protection in medicine and instruction and training of physicians is more important than ever.

  5. New legislative regulations for ensuring radiation protection using ionizing radiation sources in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, K.

    2018-01-01

    European Commission Directive No. 2013/59 / EURATOM laying down basic safety requirements for the provision of radiation protection regulates the provision of radiation protection for workers with radiation sources and residents in all areas of use of ionizing radiation sources. This Directive also addresses radiation protection in the use of ionizing radiation sources in medicine. The European Commission Directive regulates the requirements for radiation protection but also extends to its scope and provisions on the use of medical radiation sources (so-called m edical exposure ) in the scope of further legislation in the field of health care, which has to be amended and modified or possibly issued new. It was necessary in the preparation of the new act on radiation protection to amend simultaneously Act no. 576/2004 on the provision of health care and services related to provision of health care and Act no. 578/2004 on Health care Providers, Health care Professionals and Organizations in Health Care and to prepare a series of implementing regulations not only to the Law on Radiation Protection but also to the Laws governing the Provision of Health Care. The paper presents changes to existing legislation on radiation protection in medical radiation and new requirements for the construction and operation of health workplaces with radiation sources, the protection of the health of patients, the requirements for instrumentation used for medical radiation and radiological instrumentation tests. (authors)

  6. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany in 2006. Report of the radiation protection register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasch, G.; Fritzsche, E.; Kammerer, L.; Karofsky, R.; Spiesl, J.; Stegemann, R.

    2008-06-01

    In Germany, persons occupationally exposed to radiation are monitored by several official dosimetric services who transmit their records about individual radiation doses to the Radiation Protection Register of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The number of dose recordings reported to the Radiation Protection Register has annually increased to more than three million records per year and thus accumulated to more than 34 million dose records at the end of 2006. The purpose of the Radiation Protection Register is to supervise the keeping of the dose limits by each radiation worker and to monitor the compliance with the radiation protection principle ''optimisation'' by performing detailed annual statistical analyses of the monitored persons and their radiation exposure. Amongst others, the annual report of the Radiation Protection Register provides information about status and development of occupational radiation exposure in Germany. In 2006, about 312,000 workers were monitored with dosimeters for occupational radiation exposure. About 18 % of the monitored persons received a measurable personal dose. The average annual dose of these exposed workers was 0.75 mSv. This value is the lowest average annual dose since dose monitoring for occupational worker was introduced. It remains below the dose limit of 1 mSv for the general public and amounts only 4 % of the annual dose limit of 20 mSv for radiation workers. Since 2003 aircraft crew personnel is subject to dose monitoring if it is employed in accordance with the German employment act and likely to receive an effective dose of at least 1 mSv per year from cosmic radiation during flight operation. This accounts for about 33.000 pilots and flight attendants. 45 airlines report the monthly accumulated dose values of their personnel via the Federal Office for Civil Aviation (''Luftfahrt-Bundesamt, LBA'') to the BfS. The collective dose of the aircraft crew personnel is 71 Person-Sv and thus

  7. Light scattering on PHA granules protects bacterial cells against the harmful effects of UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaninova, Eva; Sedlacek, Petr; Mravec, Filip; Mullerova, Lucie; Samek, Ota; Koller, Martin; Hesko, Ondrej; Kucera, Dan; Marova, Ivana; Obruca, Stanislav

    2018-02-01

    Numerous prokaryotes accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in the form of intracellular granules. The primary function of PHA is the storage of carbon and energy. Nevertheless, there are numerous reports that the presence of PHA granules in microbial cells enhances their stress resistance and fitness when exposed to various stress factors. In this work, we studied the protective mechanism of PHA granules against UV irradiation employing Cupriavidus necator as a model bacterial strain. The PHA-accumulating wild type strain showed substantially higher UV radiation resistance than the PHA non-accumulating mutant. Furthermore, the differences in UV-Vis radiation interactions with both cell types were studied using various spectroscopic approaches (turbidimetry, absorption spectroscopy, and nephelometry). Our results clearly demonstrate that intracellular PHA granules efficiently scatter UV radiation, which provides a substantial UV-protective effect for bacterial cells and, moreover, decreases the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species in UV-challenged cells. The protective properties of the PHA granules are enhanced by the fact that granules specifically bind to DNA, which in turn provides shield-like protection of DNA as the most UV-sensitive molecule. To conclude, the UV-protective action of PHA granules adds considerable value to their primary storage function, which can be beneficial in numerous environments.

  8. Radiation and man. From radiology to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    Man first became aware of the invisible radiation surrounding him in 1895, when Wilhelm Roentgen showed that a photographic plate could be affected by an invisible radiation capable of passing through matter. He called this radiation 'X-rays' from X, the unknown. Doctors immediately saw the usefulness of this type of radiation and began to use it in medical research. This was the birth of radiology. 'Mankind has been exposed to radiation since his first appearance on Earth. We first became aware of this at the end of the 19. century'. However, it was not long before some of the doctors and radiologists treating their patients with X-rays began to fall ill. It began to be understood that exposure to high doses of radiation was dangerous and protective measures were necessary. From the 1920's onwards, international commissions were established to specify regulations for the use of radiation and for the radiological protection of personnel. (authors)

  9. Occupational radiation protection legislation in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.; Schlesinger, T.; Lemesch, C.

    1980-01-01

    A committee of experts appointed by the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs has proposed a comprehensive draft regulation, concerning the legal aspects of occupational radiation protection in Israel. The first section of the proposed regulation sets forth guidelines for control in facilities where workers handle radioactive materials or radiation equipment. This includes the duties of the managers of such places to ensure adequate radiation protection and also the maximum recommended doses (whole body and individual organs) for radiation workers. The second section deals with the monitoring regulations for radiation workers who may be exposed to doses in excess of 500 mRem/y. The third section outlines the nature of the mechanical supervision required, i.e. routine and special examinations. Finally the committee also proposed six miscellaneous recommendations for radiation protection. (UK)

  10. Triphala, a formulation of traditional Ayurvedic medicine, shows protective effect against X-radiation in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takauji, Yuki; Miki, Kensuke; Mita, Juma; Hossain, Mohammad Nazir; Yamauchi, Masatake; Kioi, Mitomu; Ayusawa, Dai; Fujii, Michihiko

    2016-12-01

    Ayurveda is a holistic medical system of traditional medicine, and Triphala is one of the most popular formulations in Ayurveda. Triphala is composed of three kinds of herb, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica, and Emblica officinalis. Since Triphala is shown to exhibit a protective activity against ionizing radiation in mice, we investigated its activity in HeLa cells. We found that Triphala showed the protective effects against X-radiation and bleomycin, both of which generate DNA strand breaks, in HeLa cells. Further, Triphala efficiently eliminated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HeLa cells. Thus, the antioxidant activity of Triphala would likely play a role in its protective actions against X-radiation and bleomycin because both agents damage DNA through the generation of ROS. These observations suggested that the radioprotective activity of Triphala can be, at least partly, studied with the cells cultured in vitro. The simple bioassay system with human cultured cells would facilitate the understanding of the molecular basis for the beneficial effects of Triphala.

  11. Computer Based Radiation Protection- A New Cd-Rom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geringer, T.; Bammer, M.; Ablber, M.

    2004-01-01

    Within the next few years, there'll be a lot of new challenges required from radiation protection. According to EU regulation[1] and the new austrian radiation protection law [2] regular additional training are requested. Patients protection in diagnostic and therapeutic usage of ionising radiation gains also more and more importance.[3] Not really surprisingly, the general population is definitely highly aware of the risks coming with the usage of radionuclides and x-rays in medicine. Furthermore, the nuclear power plant in Temelin, near the austrian border initiated a lively discussion about risks, necessity and use of ionising radiation in medicine and industry. It turned out to be a really hard job handling these topics in public. A brilliant didactics based on independent information and viewpoints was required. ARC Seibersdorf Research GmbH, represented by the department of medical technical applications and the radiation protection academy, developed an interactive CD-ROM covering several applications: Basics on radiation protection for medical and technical personnel ; preparation for a radiation protection training. Repetition of the main topics for graduates of a radiation protection training. Basics on radiation protection and emergency management for medical staff as well as for the general public. (Author)

  12. Medical Physics expert and competence in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vano, E.; Lamn, I. N.; Guerra, A. del; Van Kleffens, H. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Council Directive 97/43/EURATOM on health protection of individuals against the dangers of ionizing radiation in relation to medical exposure, defines the Medical Physical Expert as an expert in radiation physics or radiation technology applied to exposure, within the scope of the Directive, whose training and competence to act is recognized by the competent authorities; and who, as appropriate, acts or gives advice on patient dosimetry, on the development and use of complex techniques and equipment, on optimization, on quality assurance, including quality control, and on other matters relating to radiation protection, concerning exposure within the scope of this Directive. As a consequence, it might be implied that his competence in radiation protection should also cover the staff and the public. In fact, the training programmes of medical physics experts include all the aspects concerning these topics. Some confusion could arise in the medical area when the Qualified Expert defined in the Council Directive 96/29/Euratom laying down basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation is considered. The Qualified Expert is defined as a person having the knowledge and training needed to carry out physical, technical or radiochemical tests enabling doses to be assessed, and to give advice in order to ensure effective protection of individuals and the correct operation of protective equipment, whose capacity to act a qualified expert is recognized by the competent authorities. A qualified expert may be assigned the technical responsibility for the tasks of radiation protection of workers and members of the public. In Europe, the Qualified Expert is acting at present in the Medical Area in countries where there are not enough Medical Physics Experts or in countries where this role was established before the publication of the Council Directive 97/43/EURATOM. Now, the coherent

  13. Addressing ecological effects of radiation on populations and ecosystems to improve protection of the environment against radiation: Agreed statements from a Consensus Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bréchignac, François; Oughton, Deborah; Mays, Claire; Barnthouse, Lawrence; Beasley, James C.; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Bradshaw, Clare; Brown, Justin; Dray, Stéphane; Geras'kin, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the output of a consensus symposium organized by the International Union of Radioecology in November 2015. The symposium gathered an academically diverse group of 30 scientists to consider the still debated ecological impact of radiation on populations and ecosystems. Stimulated by the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters' accidental contamination of the environment, there is increasing interest in developing environmental radiation protection frameworks. Scientific research conducted in a variety of laboratory and field settings has improved our knowledge of the effects of ionizing radiation on the environment. However, the results from such studies sometimes appear contradictory and there is disagreement about the implications for risk assessment. The Symposium discussions therefore focused on issues that might lead to different interpretations of the results, such as laboratory versus field approaches, organism versus population and ecosystemic inference strategies, dose estimation approaches and their significance under chronic exposure conditions. The participating scientists, from across the spectrum of disciplines and research areas, extending also beyond the traditional radioecology community, successfully developed a constructive spirit directed at understanding discrepancies. From the discussions, the group has derived seven consensus statements related to environmental protection against radiation, which are supplemented with some recommendations. Each of these statements is contextualized and discussed in view of contributing to the orientation and integration of future research, the results of which should yield better consensus on the ecological impact of radiation and consolidate suitable approaches for efficient radiological protection of the environment. - Highlights: • IUR built better scientific consensus on the ecological effects of radiation. • Laboratory versus field approaches have been addressed. • Organism versus

  14. Public understanding of radiation protection concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident in April 1986 clearly showed that communication with the public was one of the areas where there was a strong need for improvement, particularly concerning the nature and extent of the information provided by national authorities. The countermeasures adopted by public health authorities also raised difficulties in terms of public understanding and acceptance due, in part, to the perception of discrepancies in national, regional or local response to the accident, but also to a more basic lack of comprehension of the complex radiation protection considerations involved. In an attempt to help improve the situation, the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health decided to organise a Workshop on public communication in the event of a nuclear accident, centered on radiation protection issues. The purpose of this Workshop was to analyse appropriate methods and language to be used when explaining to the public the scientific concepts underlying radiation risks and radiation protection, and the technical rationale for the choice of protective actions in an emergency. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual papers presented at the meeting

  15. Radiation protection planning and management during revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gewehr, K.

    1984-01-01

    During the operation of nuclear power plants it is normally possible for the in-house personnel to take care of arising radiation protection problems. However, in the comparatively short revision phases, the duties of radiation protection become much more varied. Additional trained radiation protection crews are needed at short notice. This is also the time in which the largest contributions are made to the annual cumulated doses of the personnel. Recent guidelines and rules trying to reduce the radiation exposure of personnel concentrate on this very point. The article outlines the radiation protection activities performed by the service personnel in the course of a steam generator check. (orig.) [de

  16. Teaching effective problem solving skills to radiation protection students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Problem solving skills are essential for all radiation protection personnel. Although some students have more natural problem solving skills than others, all students require practice to become comfortable using these skills. At the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), a unique one-semester course was developed as part of the core curriculum to teach students problem solving skills and elements of modelling and simulation. The underlying emphasis of the course was to allow students to develop their own problem solving strategies, both individually and in groups. Direction was provided on how to examine problems from different perspectives, and how to determine the proper root problem statement. A five-point problem solving strategy was presented as: 1) Problem definition; 2) Solution generation; 3) Decision; 4) Implementation; 5) Evaluation. Within the strategy, problem solving techniques were integrated from diverse areas such as: De Bono 's six thinking hats, Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, Covey's seven habits of highly effective people, Reason's swiss cheese theory of complex failure, and Howlett's common failure modes. As part of the evaluation step, students critically explore areas such as ethics and environmental responsibility. In addition to exploring problem solving methods, students learn the usefulness of simulation methods, and how to model and simulate complex phenomena of relevance to radiation protection. Computational aspects of problem solving are explored using the commercially available MATLAB computer code. A number of case studies are presented as both examples and problems to the students. Emphasis was placed on solutions to problems of interest to radiation protection, health physics and nuclear engineering. A group project, pertaining to an accident or event related to the nuclear industry is a course requirement. Students learn to utilize common time and project management tools such as flowcharting, Pareto

  17. Radiation protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeburrun, V.

    2013-04-01

    Radiation protection in nuclear medicine in this project is concerned with the reduction of doses to workers, patients and members of the public. Protection of workers is achieved by adopting good personal habits, good housekeeping, proper use of personal protective devices and equipment, attend training and have continuous education. Exposure to radiation of workers and the members of the public are minimised by proper management of radioactive waste and safe transport of radioactive material. The design and shielding of a nuclear medicine department shall further provide for the protection of the worker, the patient and the general public. Protection of patient is achieved by justifying the procedure, delivering the minimum radiation dose possible to the patient while obtaining the best image quality and applying guidance levels. Special considerations shall be given to pregnant and breast-feeding patients. Quality assurance programme through image quality, radiopharmaceutical quality and patient records on nuclear medicine procedures shall provide assurance to the patient. (au)

  18. The philosophy of German radiation protection legislation and supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, H.

    1976-01-01

    It is the objective of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance to protect life, health and property from the harmful effects of ionizing radiations and to ensure compensation for damage caused by ionizing radiations. This scope is already fixed in section 1 of the Atomic Law of the FRG and in accord with the comparable regulation or decrees of other countries all over the world. To reach this objective, by the Radiation Protection Ordinance: 1) the handling of radioactive material is subjected to an extensive control by the state or his organisations (part of this control are the licensing prcedures for handling, carriage, import and exprot, and transactions of radioactive materials as well as the direct supervision by the concerned authorities), 2) dose limits and limits of activity and concentrations are defined, 3) safety provisions are fixed which are legally binding the holder of a license and other persons appointed by him, responsible for radiation protection, 4) statutory offences are listed so that any person who wilfully or negligently contravenes the prescriptions shall be punished. (orig./RW) [de

  19. Radiobiological input to radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    A brief review of the radiobiological data relevant to radiation protection standards is given. In particular the nature of the dose-response relationships for mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in animals and man is discussed with reference to the BEIR 1 1972, the NRC75, the UNSCEAR 77 and the NCRP80 Reports. It was concluded that the linear-no-threshold relationship for mutagenesis and carcinogenesis is too simple and that the relationship is best described by curves of varying slopes depending on the dose rate. By examining the data on the incidence of actual tumour systems in animals and man in relation to radiation dose, it was shown that the relationships developed in the simple Tradescantia single-cell system appear to hold widely throughout radiobiology. In developing radiation protection standards, first animal and human radiobiological data were used in determining an appropriate risk coefficient for late and genetic effects for the human being, and second an appropriate comparison of radiation and other more common risks was used as a basis for setting limits of incidence in the exposed population/individual. (U.K.)

  20. Enhancing radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    When a new radiotherapy center in Gezira, Sudan, delivers its first therapeutic dose to a cancer patient, two things happen: A young man begins to regain his health and looks forward to being better able to support his family and contribute to his community; and a developing nation realizes an important step toward deriving the social and economic benefits of nuclear science. The strategic application of nuclear technology in particular fields- human health, industry, food and agriculture, energy, water resources and environmental protection - has enormous potential to help shape the future of developing countries. But past radiological incidents, several of which involved high levels of exposure or death (Bolivia, Brazil, Cost Rica, Georgia, Ghana, Morocco, Panama and Thailand), underscore the inherent and very serious risks. For this reason, the IAEA's Departments of Technical Cooperation and Nuclear Safety and Security partner closely, particularly in the area of radiation protection. They strive to consider every minute detail in the equation that brings together radiation sources, modern technologies, people and the environment. Launched in 1996, the Model Project on Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure (the Model Project) aimed to help Member States: achieve capacities that underpin the safe and secure application of nuclear technologies; establish a legislative framework and regulatory infrastructure; develop exposure control mechanisms to protect workers, medical patients, the public and the environment; and achieve preparedness and planned response to radiological emergencies. In fact, the hospital scenario above typically marks several years of intense collaboration amongst scientists, legislators, regulators, politicians and administrators from both Member States and the IAEA, orchestrated and aided by regional managers and technical experts from the IAEA. As radiation protection team members can attest, every application of nuclear technology

  1. From regulations towards radiation protection culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehler, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    Compliance with the technical standards and specifications is a necessary but not sufficient condition for quality in radiation protection. Reaching this quality objective is not a matter of forcing improvements by a regulatory policy of reducing dose limits, but of promoting a real radiation protection culture. The spread of such a radiological protection culture encourages the deliberate adoption in everyday practice of behaviour likely to reduce exposure to ionizing radiation as loser as reasonably achievable. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that the need to diffuse a radiological protection culture is inspired by the philosophy behind the system recommended by ICPR Publication 60 on the management of residual radiological risk and, in particular by the behavioural and incentive approach implied by the optimization principle. Special attention will be given to the fundamentals likely to contribute in a definition of radiation protection culture. (author)

  2. Radiation protection activities and status in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohal, P.

    1993-01-01

    The status of radiation protection practices in Asian countries is monitored by different means, e.g. the IAEA technical cooperation activities, by an overall assessment of conditions in a country by RAPAT missions, and on the basis of data collected through various regional activities. The radiation protection situation in Asia is very heterogeneous. There is a group of countries with very well developed radiation protection practices and advanced in the application of the Basic Safety Standards, but the majority of Asian member states still need improvement, several lacking the necessary fundamental infrastructure for radiation protection

  3. The radiation protection programme activities of the World Health Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, E.; Suess, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation protection activities of the World Health Organization are reviewed. They include studies of radiation protection standards and guidelines, and public health aspects of nuclear power. WHO also provides member states with world data on radioactivity in air, water and food, and assessments of population exposure and health effects. (H.K.)

  4. Radiation protective agents possessing anti-oxidative properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ueno, Emi; Yoshida, Akira; Furuse, Masako; Ikota, Nobuo [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Research Center for Radiation Safety, Chiba, Chiba (Japan)

    2005-11-15

    The purpose of studies is to see mechanisms of radiation protection of agents possessing anti-oxidative properties because the initial step resulting in radiation hazard is the formation of radicals by water radiolysis. Agents were commercially available or synthesized proxyl derivatives (spin prove agents), commercially available spin-trapping agents, edaravone and TMG (a tocopherol glycoside). Mice and cultured cells were X-irradiated by Shimadzu Pantak HF-320 or 320S. Survivals of cells were determined by colony assay and of mice, to which the agents were given intraperitoneally before or after X-irradiation, within 30 days post irradiation. Plasma and marrow concentrations of proxyls were estimated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. Mechanisms of their radiation protective effects were shown different from agent to agent. TMG was found effective even post irradiation, which suggests a possibility for a new drug development. Some (spin trapping agents and TMG), virtually ineffective at the cell level, were found effective in the whole body, suggesting the necessity of studies on their disposition and metabolism. (S.I.)

  5. Radiation protective agents possessing anti-oxidative properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ueno, Emi; Yoshida, Akira; Furuse, Masako; Ikota, Nobuo

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of studies is to see mechanisms of radiation protection of agents possessing anti-oxidative properties because the initial step resulting in radiation hazard is the formation of radicals by water radiolysis. Agents were commercially available or synthesized proxyl derivatives (spin prove agents), commercially available spin-trapping agents, edaravone and TMG (a tocopherol glycoside). Mice and cultured cells were X-irradiated by Shimadzu Pantak HF-320 or 320S. Survivals of cells were determined by colony assay and of mice, to which the agents were given intraperitoneally before or after X-irradiation, within 30 days post irradiation. Plasma and marrow concentrations of proxyls were estimated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. Mechanisms of their radiation protective effects were shown different from agent to agent. TMG was found effective even post irradiation, which suggests a possibility for a new drug development. Some (spin trapping agents and TMG), virtually ineffective at the cell level, were found effective in the whole body, suggesting the necessity of studies on their disposition and metabolism. (S.I.)

  6. Ionizing radiation exposure in interventional cardiology: current radiation protection practice of invasive cardiology operators in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valuckiene, Zivile; Jurenas, Martynas; Cibulskaite, Inga

    2016-09-01

    Ionizing radiation management is among the most important safety issues in interventional cardiology. Multiple radiation protection measures allow the minimization of x-ray exposure during interventional procedures. Our purpose was to assess the utilization and effectiveness of radiation protection and optimization techniques among interventional cardiologists in Lithuania. Interventional cardiologists of five cardiac centres were interviewed by anonymized questionnaire, addressing personal use of protective garments, shielding, table/detector positioning, frame rate (FR), resolution, field of view adjustment and collimation. Effective patient doses were compared between operators who work with and without x-ray optimization. Thirty one (68.9%) out of 45 Lithuanian interventional cardiologists participated in the survey. Protective aprons were universally used, but not the thyroid collars; 35.5% (n  =  11) operators use protective eyewear and 12.9% (n  =  4) wear radio-protective caps; 83.9% (n  =  26) use overhanging shields, 58.1% (n  =  18)-portable barriers; 12.9% (n  =  4)-abdominal patient's shielding; 35.5% (n  =  11) work at a high table position; 87.1% (n  =  27) keep an image intensifier/receiver close to the patient; 58.1% (n  =  18) reduce the fluoroscopy FR; 6.5% (n  =  2) reduce the fluoro image detail resolution; 83.9% (n  =  26) use a 'store fluoro' option; 41.9% (N  =  13) reduce magnification for catheter transit; 51.6% (n  =  16) limit image magnification; and 35.5% (n  =  11) use image collimation. Median effective patient doses were significantly lower with x-ray optimization techniques in both diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Many of the ionizing radiation exposure reduction tools and techniques are underused by a considerable proportion of interventional cardiology operators. The application of basic radiation protection tools and

  7. Radiation protection medicine - a special field of health care and industrial safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, D.

    1988-01-01

    The definition of the term radiation protection medicine is followed by a brief account of the pathophysiology of radiation effects. Developments in the special field of general and occupational health are also described together with relevant GDR regulations. Information is provided on what is done at present at various levels in the GDR, in the context of peaceful use of nuclear energy, to provide adequate services in radiation protection medicine for all radiation workers and the population, with reference to the scope of activities of the Institute of Medicine attached to the National Board for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection, the network of works medical officers in charge of radiation protection and the system for clinical treatment of acute radiation damage. (author)

  8. Some methodologies for the optimization of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudiz, A.; Uzzan, G.

    1979-01-01

    Optimization of radiation protection in the nuclear power sector calls for decision-making studies with a view to elucidating the balance between expenditure on protection and health risks. The quantitative methods used for reaching such decisions are numerous and the cost-benefit analysis suggested by the ICRP is only one example. Others are cost-effectiveness analysis, multi-attribute analysis, utility functions and so on. The paper summarizes the principles of these different methods and describes the different aspects of a decision study as well as the manner in which they are interrelated. It emerges that optimization, or rather rationalization, of radiation protection options can be approached via many different quantitative methods, some of which differ appreciably from cost-benefit analysis. An exploratory investigation of these methods in particular decision-making contexts may in the future show some to be superior to others and better suited to general use in radiation protection. (author)

  9. Chemical protection against ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livesey, J.C.; Reed, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Over 40 years have passed since the research of the Manhattan Project suggested the possibility of chemical protection against ionizing radiation. During that time, much has been learned about the nature of radiation-induced injury and the factors governing the expression of that injury. Thousands of compounds have been tested for radioprotective efficacy, and numerous theories have been proposed to account for these actions. The literature on chemical radioprotection is large. In this article, the authors consider several of the mechanisms by which chemicals may protect against radiation injury. They have chosen to accent this view of radioprotector research as opposed to that research geared toward developing specific molecules as protective agents because they feel that such an approach is more beneficial in stimulating research of general applicability. This paper describes the matrix of biological factors upon which an exogenous radioprotector is superimposed, and examines evidence for and against various mechanisms by which these agents may protect biological systems against ionizing radiation. It concludes with a brief outlook for research in chemical radioprotection

  10. About the training on radiation protection in health environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Armas, J.

    2007-01-01

    Paper education on Radiation Protection in health environments is essential to optimise the use of radiation for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. The continuous increment in the number of available radiation emitting equipment in health environments and the generalisation of procedures, which imply important radiation exposures to patients, are expected to increase the overall doses to patients. A consequence of this will be the increment of harmful effects, especially, radiation induced cancer. General concern towards this respect has produced a generalisation of the requirements considered to be needed in a proper Radiation Protection education. Norms have been created for this purpose at both national and European level. here, the European and Spanish norms are reviewed. the applications of these norms are, also reviewed. Furthermore, the objectives of various platforms and European projects, aimed at improving the formation of health personnel on Radiation Protection, are presented. A conclusion of the review is that there exist significant differences in the syllabuses proposed for various professionals at different levels. Moreover, all the legislation collected in the norms has not been implemented in common practice. (Author) 24 refs

  11. Application of microprocessors to radiation protection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zappe, D.; Meldes, C.

    1982-01-01

    In radiation protection measurements signals from radiation detectors or dosemeters have to be transformed into quantities relevant to radiation protection. In most cases this can only be done by taking into account various parameters (e.g. the quality factor). Moreover, the characteristics of the statistical laws of nuclear radiation emission have to be considered. These problems can properly be solved by microprocessors. After reviewing the main properties of microprocessors, some typical examples of applying them to problems of radiation protection measurement are given. (author)

  12. Development of an education and training programme for radiation protection officers in facilities and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutwamezi, Tekla

    2015-02-01

    Education and training is a crucial matter in radiation protection and it is considered a regulatory requirement. For this reason, this project work focused on developing an education and training programme for Radiation Protection Officers whose overall function is to oversee radiation protection and safety at the work place. The developed education and training programme has adopted both the class room based and on the job training methods. Additionally, the programme is organized into 6 modules and focuses on fundamentals of radioactivity; biological effects; legislation; principles of radiation protection; assessment and protection against occupational exposure; medical exposure (only applicable to Radiation Protection Officers in the medical sector) and emergency preparedness and response. The purpose of the programme is to provide Radiation Protection Officers with the basic knowledge and skills to function effectively to meet radiation safety and regulatory requirements. (au)

  13. Radiation protection on nuclear medicine services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a sector of the medicine that studies and applies radionuclide in diagnosis and therapy. Nuclear medicine is a very specific area of the medicine, making use of non-sealed radioactive sources which are prescribed to the patient orally or are injected. Special procedures in radiation protection are required in nuclear medicine to manipulate these kind of sources and to produce technetium-99m through molybdenum generator. The present paper addresses the them radiation protection in a Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD), showing the main requirements of the CNEN- National Commission of Nuclear Energy and the Public Health. Radiation protection procedures adopted in assembling a NMD, as well the daily techniques for monitoring and for individual dosimetry are discussed. Past and present analyses in a level of radiation protection are presented. (author)

  14. A policy study in strengthening the national infrastructure for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Il [Korean Association for Radiation Protection, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jai Ki; Chang, Jaik Won; Lee, Choon Sik [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Whang, Joo Ho; Kim, Ki Ho [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    Public attitude declined further toward against the nuclear technology and eventually caused undue societal costs. Since the general public are aware of, or even afraid of, effects of radiation, it is hard to expect successful nuclear program without making them ease about radiation. In order to make the public feel easy and think that they get adequate protection, the infrastructure for radiation protection should be strengthened to the level corresponding to the utilization of nuclear/radiation technologies in the country. Public confidence in the role of the regulatory body is utmost important. The objectives of this study are to figure out a good model of regulatory body for radiation protection in Korea and to promulgate a draft legislations including provisions on the competent authority, the national policy and programs for upgraded infrastructure for radiation protection. As an appropriate form for the regulatory body in Korea, 'board of nuclear and radiation regulation', an independent and specialized organization under the direction of the prime minister, was proposed. It is expected that disadvantages dominate if the organization for radiation protection is separated from one for nuclear regulation. The proposed draft radiation protection acts consist of 8 chapters and 55 articles and some supplementary provisions. Copious footnotes provide explanations of the articles including the basis, considerations. justification.

  15. Interventionalists’ perceptions on a culture of radiation protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rose

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational exposure to ionising radiation poses potential health risks to radiation workers unless adequate protection is in place. The catheterisation laboratory is a highly contextualised workplace with a distinctive organisational and workplace culture.   Objective: This study was conducted to understand the culture of radiation protection (CRP.   Methods: This study was a qualitative study and data were collected through 30 in-depth and 6 group interviews with 54 purposively selected South African interventionalists (interventional radiologists and cardiologists. The participants included a diversity of interventionalists who varied in sex, geographic location and years of experience with fluoroscopy. The transcribed data were analysed thematically using a deductive and inductive approach.   Results: ‘Culture of radiation protection’ emerged as a complex theme that intersected with other themes: ‘knowledge and awareness of radiation’, ‘radiation safety practice’, ‘personal protective equipment (PPE utilisation’ and ‘education and training’.   Conclusion: Establishing and sustaining a CRP provides an opportunity to mitigate the potentially detrimental health effects of occupational radiation exposure. Education and training are pivotal to establishing a CRP. The time to establish a culture of radiation in the catheterisation laboratory is now.

  16. Protection against ionizing radiation by antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Joseph F.; Landauer, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    The potential of antioxidants to reduce the cellular damage induced by ionizing radiation has been studied in animal models for more than 50 years. The application of antioxidant radioprotectors to various human exposure situations has not been extensive although it is generally accepted that endogenous antioxidants, such as cellular non-protein thiols and antioxidant enzymes, provide some degree of protection. This review focuses on the radioprotective efficacy of naturally occurring antioxidants, specifically antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals, and how they might influence various endpoints of radiation damage. Results from animal experiments indicate that antioxidant nutrients, such as vitamin E and selenium compounds, are protective against lethality and other radiation effects but to a lesser degree than most synthetic protectors. Some antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals have the advantage of low toxicity although they are generally protective when administered at pharmacological doses. Naturally occurring antioxidants also may provide an extended window of protection against low-dose, low-dose-rate irradiation, including therapeutic potential when administered after irradiation. A number of phytochemicals, including caffeine, genistein, and melatonin, have multiple physiological effects, as well as antioxidant activity, which result in radioprotection in vivo. Many antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals have antimutagenic properties, and their modulation of long-term radiation effects, such as cancer, needs further examination. In addition, further studies are required to determine the potential value of specific antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals during radiotherapy for cancer

  17. Radiation protection manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spang, A.

    1983-01-01

    According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance, radiation protection experts directing or supervising the handling of radioactive materials must have expert knowledge. The concept of expert knowledge has been clearly defined by the Fachverband e.V. in a catalogue of instruction goals. The manual follows the principles of this catalogue; it presents the expert knowledge required in a total of 15 subject groups. There is an index which helps the reader to find his specific subject group and the knowledge required of him in this subject group. However, the manual gives only an outline of the subject matter in many instances and should therefore not be regarded as a textbook in the proper sense. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Sunscreens: topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against harmful effects of solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    This review deals with topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against the harmful effects of solar radiation. Two concerns about the deleterious effects of sun exposure involve: (1) acute effects (e.g., sunburn and drug-induced phototoxicity) and (2) potential long-term risks of repeated sun exposures leading to development of solar elastosis, keratoses, induction of both nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancer, and alteration of immune responses and functions. Action spectra of normal and abnormal reactions of human skin to acute and chronic effects of solar radiation are presented with a view to helping the physician prescribe the appropriate sunscreens. Factors that influence acute effects of sunburn are reviewed. Various artificial methods effective in minimizing or preventing harmful effects of solar radiation, both in normal individuals and in patients with photosensitivity-related problems, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the commercially available chemical sunscreens and their properties. Sun protection factor (SPF) values of several brand-name formulations determined with a solar simulator under indoor conditions (laboratory) and with solar radiation under natural, field conditions are presented. Factors responsible for variations of SPF values observed under indoor and outdoor conditions are reviewed. Systemic photoprotective agents and their limitations are outlined. The photobiology of melanin pigmentation (the tanning reaction) is briefly discussed, with emphasis on the dangers of using quick-tanning lotions for stimulation of the tanning reaction

  19. Preventive radiation protection in Hamburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boikat, U.; Lauer, R.; Plath, S.; Sachde, Z.G.

    2001-01-01

    Monitoring of environmental radioactivity as well as complex investigations for precautionary radiation protection are carried out in Hamburg by two radiation monitoring labs. The spectrum of their tasks is specified by the media to be investigated. The tasks are originating from the Federal Precautionary Radiation Protection Act and from local needs. Mostly since a lot of years all interesting materials are analysed for their radioactivity content, as a safe and precautionary radiation protection demands. Until today samples show the influence of global nuclear weapon fallout of the period until 1964. Partly they show the radioactivity of Caesium originating from the Chernobyl accident. Since ten years the radioactivity contents in the material investigated are decreasing. Mostly the activity reached levels as at the end of 1985. The basic food stuff investigated in Hamburg can be considered as to be uncontaminated by radioactivity. With the introduction of the Federal Precautionary Radiation Protection Act, a series of new investigation programs and investigation methods were developed. This allows a better preparedness for extraordinary situations of increased radioactivity in the environment as 12 years ago. Thus a precise assessment of situations of increased radioactivity levels can be given together with coordinated and solid information to the public concerning provisions and actions. (orig.) [de

  20. State and tendencies of chemical protection against ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, G.; Tapp, E.; Haehn, J.; Hannig, H.; Dlaske, R.; Martinek, K.

    1977-01-01

    Papers published in 1976 in the field of chemical protection against ionizing radiation are reviewed. Protection studies in vitro and in vivo, the biochemical, pharmacological and toxic effects, the mechanisms of protection of radioprotective agents and the trends in this field of research are described. (author)

  1. State and tendencies of chemical protection against ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, G.; Tapp, E.; Haehn, J.; Hannig, H.; Dlaske, R.

    1976-03-01

    Papers published in 1974 in the field of chemical protection against ionizing radiation are reviewed. Protection studies in vitro and in vivo, the biochemical, pharmacological and toxic effects, the mechanisms of protection of radioprotective agents and the trends in this field of research are described. (author)

  2. State and tendencies of chemical protection against ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, G.; Tapp, E.; Haehn, J.; Hannig, H.; Dlaske, R.; Martinek, K.

    1977-01-01

    Papers published in 1975 in the field of chemical protection against ionizing radiation are reviewed. Protection studies in vitro and in vivo, the biochemical, pharmacological and toxic effects, the mechanisms of protection of radioprotective agents and the trends in this field of research are described. (author)

  3. Radiation protection legislation in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1992-01-01

    A close collaboration exists in the Nordic countries in the field of radiation protection. The radiation protection authorities attach major importance to a uniform interpretation of the international recommendations. The legal situation of the Nordic countries in the radiation protection field will be reviewed with the main emphasis on the new Swedish and Finnish laws. (author)

  4. The state of radiation protection in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.

    1988-01-01

    Historically, radiation protection in Iran can be related to when the first x-ray machine was applied for medical diagnosis. However, organized activities were started with the establishment of the Tehran University Nuclear Center (TUNC) in 1959, and within a broader scope when AEOI research reactor went into operation in 1967. In 1974, the Atomic Energy Organization Law of Iran was ascribed the responsibility for radiological safety and protection to the AEOI. Then this responsibility was assigned by AEOI to the Radiation Protection Department (RPD), as the national authority. The RPD's organization and functions have been divided into three main RPD divisions: Radiation Protection Control; Radiation Dosimetry Research and Development and Services; and Radiological Protection of the Environment

  5. Radiation Protection in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carazo, N.

    1979-01-01

    The tasks connected with radiation protection are allocated to the National Institute for Nuclear Energy in Guatemala. Regulatory measures are further needed to identify the responsibilities of various authorities to ensure that all radiation workers are provided with personal dosemeters. (author)

  6. CONCERT-'European Joint Programme for the Integration at Radiation Protection Research'; CONCERT-''European Joint Programme for the Integration at Radiation Protection Research''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birschwilks, Mandy; Schmitt-Hannig, Annemarie [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Internationale und Nationale Zusammenarbeit im Strahlenschutz; Jung, Thomas [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Strahlenschutz und Gesundheit

    2016-08-01

    In 2009 the High Level Expert Group (HLEG) on low dose research recommended the development of a scientific platform for low dose radiation research. The foundation of MELODI (Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative) occurred in 2010. In 2015 a new project on radiation protection research was established: CONCERT (European Joint Programme for the Integration at Radiation Protection Research). The aim is the coordination of the already existing scientific platforms MELODI (radiation effects and interactions), ALLIANCE (radioecology), NERIS (nuclear and radiological emergency protection) and EURADOS (radiation dosimetry). With CONCERT an efficient use of this infrastructure for research cooperation and transparency is intended.

  7. New infrastructures for training in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco, M.; Rodriguez, M.; Van der Steen, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, an analysis of the new infrastructure used in the radiation protection training and professional education, which is developed nowadays, is carried out. CIEMAT has been making many efforts in the education and training of professionals at all levels, for years. At present CIEMAT is developing educational activities in radiation protection general courses and professionals updating courses. The newest strategies for the radiation protection learning are developing in collaboration with professional societies. These try to encourage the technology transference, the collaboration between the actors involved with the radiation protection and the new information technology implementation. (Author) 11 refs

  8. The Law on Precautionary Radiation Protection prevents public health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, A.

    1986-01-01

    On the occasion of the discussion by the German Bundesrat of the bill on Precautionary Radiation Protection, the Hessian Minister of Social Affairs denied his approval of the bill on the grounds that there are serious and numerous flaws. He considered the bill to be a more dummy put up for election propaganda, as he could not find any substantive provisions in it. The Minister in his speech explained this opinion, saying that the bill does not provide for the protection of public health, nor create the necessary conditions for an effective and coordinated emergency control in case of a radiation accident. He declared the bill to be just an instrument of warding off danger that in essence curtails important rights of participation of the Laender. (HSCH) [de

  9. The new radiation protection ordinance and its consequences in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wucherer, M.; Schmidt, T.

    2002-01-01

    The new radiation protection ordinance (StrlSchV) entails a number of additional or changed instructions. They require that personnel exposed to radiation at work be reclassified, or that personnel not exposed to radiation at work be classified as personnel exposed to radiation at work, that local dosage measurements be taken particularly in radiation therapy, in order to insure that the radiation protection areas prevailing to date can be maintained, that generally accessible areas be examined to determine whether with persons not exposed to radiation in the course of work, in the case of their prolonged presence there, 1 mSv per year is not exceeded, that instructions be put in writing, that at regular 5-year intervals the proficiency of physicians, specialists in medical physics and MTRAs be brought up to date and, that medical positions for radiooncologists be established. The stricter requirements in radiation protection are inevitably connected with greater expenditures and higher costs. These results of the new radiation protection ordinance are in direct opposition to the financial possibilities that are being restricted through budgeting and pressure on hospitals and practices to reduce costs. (orig.) [de

  10. CEC radiation protection research and training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Program (RPP), initiated as a consequence of the Euratom Treaty aims to promote: scientific knowledge to evaluate possible risks from low doses of natural, medical and man-made radiation; development of methods to assess radiological risks; incentive and support for cooperation between scientists of Member States; expertise in radiation protection by training scientists and the scientific basis for continual updating of the 'Basic Safety Standards', and the evolution of radiation protection concepts and practices. 3 refs

  11. Recommendations of the Strahlenschutzkommission (Radiation Protection Commission), 1985/1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The recommendations are presented in full text. The subjects referred to are the following: Radiation protection aspects of ultimate radioactive waste disposal in geologic formations - Radiation exposure of the population and the carcinogenic impact (lung cancer) of radon in room air - Radioactivity and forest decline - BMI programme for radiation protection research, further developments - Dismantling of the Niederaichbach reactor and the pertinent waste management acivitites - Radiation exposure of the population as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident, exposure pathways: (1) Contamination of milk and meat after the winter feeding period; (2) Consumption of forest mushrooms; (3) Consumption of freshwater fish; (4) Consumption of game. Annex: Radioecology of the deep sea. Knowledge currently available for evaluating the effects of deep-sea dumping of solid, low-level radioactive waste. Summarizing outline of the results of a meeting of the committee for discussion of the proposed amendment of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. With 2 figs., 27 tabs [de

  12. Protective Effect of Curcumin on γ - radiation Induced Chromosome Aberrations in Human Blood Lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlSuhaibani, E.S

    2008-01-01

    The present work is aimed at evaluating the radioprotective effect of curcumin on γ radiation induced genetic toxicity. The DNA damage was analyzed by the frequencies of chromosome aberrations assay. Human lymphocytes were treated in vitro with 5.0 γg/ml of curcumin for 30 min at 37 degree C then exposed to 1, 2 and 4 Gy gamma-radiation. The lymphocytes which were pre-treated with curcumin exhibited a significant decrease in the frequency of chromosome aberration at 1 and 2 Gy radiation-induced chromosome damage as compared with the irradiated cells which did not receive the curcumin pretreatment. Thus, pretreatment with curcumin gives protection to lymphocytes against γ-radiation induced chromosome aberration at certain doses. (author)

  13. The new German radiation protection ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeffer, W.; Weimer, G.

    2003-01-01

    According to European law, the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) published by the European Council in 1996 and the Council Directive on health protection of individuals against dangers of ionising radiation in relation to medical exposure had to be transferred into national law within due time. In 2001 the new Ordinance for the Implementation of the Euratom Guidelines on Radiation Protection] was published, which replaces the old Radiation Protection Ordinance. The new German Ordinance adapts the European Directive to German law, covering the general principles but even giving more details in many fields of radiation protection. The BSS scope certainly is much broader than the prescriptions important for the field of radiation protection in nuclear power plants. According to the scope of this workshop on occupational exposure in nuclear power plants - and as the BSS most probably will be quite familiar to all of you - after a short general overview on relevant contents of the German Ordinance, this presentation will focus on the main issues important in the operation of NPP and especially on some areas which may give rise to necessary changes caused by the new Ordinance. (A.L.B.)

  14. Deviating measurements in radiation protection. Legal assessment of deviations in radiation protection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegl, A.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates how, from a legal point of view, deviations in radiation protection measurements should be treated in comparisons between measured results and limits stipulated by nuclear legislation or goods transport regulations. A case-by-case distinction is proposed which is based on the legal concequences of the respective measurement. Commentaries on nuclear law contain no references to the legal assessment of deviating measurements in radiation protection. The examples quoted in legal commentaries on civil and criminal proceedings of the way in which errors made in measurements for speed control and determinations of the alcohol content in the blood are to be taken into account, and a commentary on ozone legislation, are examined for analogies with radiation protection measurements. Leading cases in the nuclear field are evaluated in the light of the requirements applying in case of deviations in measurements. The final section summarizes the most important findings and conclusions. (orig.) [de

  15. The competent person in radiation protection: practical radiation protection for industry and research - unsealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruchet, H.

    2009-01-01

    The mission of the competent person in radiation protection has been broadly developed these last years to take an essential function in firm:study of working place, delimitation of regulated areas, monitoring of exposure, relations with authorities. The competent person in radiation protection must follow a training, defined by decree and shared in two parts: a theoretical part used as compulsory subjects and a practical part specific to the different sectors of activity (research, industry, medical centers, nuclear facilities) as well as the radiation use type. This volume corresponds to the practical module devoted to the industrial and research facilities concerned by the possession of management of sealed or unsealed sources. In accordance with the regulations stipulating that this module must allow to apply the theoretical knowledge to concrete situations in work. It includes eight chapters as following: radiation protection in industrial and research facilities, use of sources and associated risks, fitting out professional premises, evaluation of exposure, control of radiation protection; use of detection equipment and radioactive contamination and exposure measurement equipment, associated to methods and calculation tools; radioactive waste management; accidental or damaged situations management; methodology of working place analysis completed by the application to practical cases found in laboratories. (N.C.)

  16. Natural radiation, protection against its effects and maintaining safe natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhassan, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to naturally occurring radioactivity and its consequences is an issue that needs the global concern, as practices bringing such radioactive materials closer to human environment through mining, building, industrial applications and food production and preservation is continuously increasing, in addition to the daily consumption in foods such as banana, carrot, potato and drinking water. Although it has direct and indirect impacts affecting human health that in some cases lead to the loss of lives and polluting natural environment, it is an inevitable task that necessitates devising some means of its minimization and protection against its hazardous effects. This could be achieved by the use of expertise ideas and by the creation of awareness and sharing related information with the people concerned and the general public. This paper gives an overview on the radiation present in natural environment, its sources, mechanism of its effects. The paper compares the radiation dose limits with the average doses from these sources in order to raise the challenges facing researchers, governments and the general individuals with regard to this issue. The paper also proposed applicable solutions to reduce the risks due to the exposure to natural radiation to ground level. (author)

  17. Providing Radiation Protection Experts in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partington, C.; Owen, D.

    2004-01-01

    The EEC Directive on Qualified Experts in Radiation Protection has been implemented in the United Kingdom by the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (IRR99). These Regulations require Radiation Employers to appoint suitable Radiation Protection Advisers (RPA) who must be consulted in certain circumstances when starting work with, or using ionising radiations. Radiation Protection Advisers have to have a current certificate of competence and, to gain one of these, must have demonstrated their competence in one of two ways either by achieving a National Vocational Qualification in Radiation Protection Practice or by being Certificated by an Assessing Body. Assessing Bodies have to be recognised by the Health and Safety Executive, who undertake a rigorous assessment process to determine whether the proposed Assessing Body is fit to undertake RPA Assessments. By July 2003, only two such Assessing Bodies had been approved in the UK. These two Assessing Bodies are ? RPA 2000 a company established by the four leading Radiation Protection Professional Societies in the UK for assessing anyone in the UK as Radiation Protection Advisers, And ? BNFL established by BNFL to assess the competence of BNFL's own Radiation Protection Advisers. This paper will describe the standards against which Radiation Protection Advisers are assessed, the manner in which each of these two Assessing Bodies carry out the assessment process and their experience to date. The way in which Radiation Employers carry out the appointment process will also be described. Potential future developments of the Assessment Process and standards will also be discussed. (Author)

  18. Radiation protection - quality and metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broutin, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    The radiation protection gathers three occupations: radiation protection agents; environment agents ( control and monitoring); metrology agents ( activities measurement and calibration). The quality and the metrology constitute a contribution in the technique competence and the guarantee of the service quality. This article, after a historical aspect of quality and metrology in France explains the advantages of such a policy. (N.C.)

  19. Activities of Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimety/Brazil as Technical and Scientific Support Organization on Occupational Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, F.C.A.; Ferreira, P.R.; Matta, L.E.C.; Peres, M.A.L.; Godoy, J.M.; Alencar, M.A.V.; Carlos, M.T.; Souza-Santos, D.; Leocadio, J.C.; Oliveira, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    There are, in Brazil, about 126,000 workers registered on National Dose Registry System (SRD/IRD) as occupationally exposed. They work on 4,000 radioactive installations, 20 nuclear fuel cycle installations and with 90,000 x-ray diagnostic devices. There are two main Regulatory Authorities to license and control these installations on nuclear and radioactive areas, and another Regulatory Authority that is responsible for safety and health protection of workers on their labour activities. Belonging to structure of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN-Brazil) there is an Institute dedicated to radiation protection, dosimetry and metrology of ionizing radiation, that is the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). This paper presents two main IRD activities related to occupational radiation protection that can be seen as example of technical and scientific support to Regulatory Authorities: the Radiation Overexposure Analysis that is performed by the Radiation Overexposure Analysis Group (GADE) and the Approval of Individual Monitoring Services and Calibration Laboratory of Equipment used in Radiation Protection that is performed by the Committee for the Evaluation of Essay and Calibration Services (CASEC). (author)

  20. Justification and optimization in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beninson, D.

    1980-01-01

    Two requirements of the system recommended by the ICRP for radiation protection are discussed: 1) justification of practices involving radiation exposures and 2) optimization of the level of protection for such practices. The ICRP recommended the use of cost-benefit analysis in justification and optimization. The application of cost-benefit analysis and the quantification of the radiation detriment are also discussed. (H.K.)

  1. Postgraduate educational course in radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources. Standard syllabus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the Postgraduate Educational Course in Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources is to meet the needs of professionals at graduate level, or the equivalent, for initial training to acquire a sound basis in radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources. The course also aims to provide the necessary basic tools for those who will become trainers in radiation protection and in the safe use of radiation sources in their countries. It is designed to provide both theoretical and practical training in the multidisciplinary scientific and/or technical bases of international recommendations and standards on radiation protection and their implementation. The participants should have had a formal education to a level equivalent to a university degree in the physical, chemical or life sciences or engineering and should have been selected to work in the field of radiation protection and the safe use of radiation sources in their countries. The present revision of the Standard Syllabus takes into account the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), IAEA Safety Series No. 115 (1996) and recommendations of related Safety Guides, as well as experience gained from the Postgraduate Educational Course on Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources held in several regions in recent years. The general aim of the course, as mentioned, is the same. Some of the improvements in the present version are as follows: The learning objective of each part is specified. The prerequisites for each part are specified. The structure of the syllabus has been changed: the parts on Principles of Radiation Protection and on Regulatory Control were moved ahead of Dose Assessment and after Biological Effects of Radiation. The part on the interface with nuclear safety was dropped and a module on radiation protection in nuclear power plants has been included. A

  2. Postgraduate educational course in radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources. Standard syllabus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Postgraduate Educational Course in Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources is to meet the needs of professionals at graduate level, or the equivalent, for initial training to acquire a sound basis in radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources. The course also aims to provide the necessary basic tools for those who will become trainers in radiation protection and in the safe use of radiation sources in their countries. It is designed to provide both theoretical and practical training in the multidisciplinary scientific and/or technical bases of international recommendations and standards on radiation protection and their implementation. The participants should have had a formal education to a level equivalent to a university degree in the physical, chemical or life sciences or engineering and should have been selected to work in the field of radiation protection and the safe use of radiation sources in their countries. The present revision of the Standard Syllabus takes into account the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), IAEA Safety Series No. 115 (1996) and recommendations of related Safety Guides, as well as experience gained from the Postgraduate Educational Course on Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources held in several regions in recent years. The general aim of the course, as mentioned, is the same. Some of the improvements in the present version are as follows: The learning objective of each part is specified. The prerequisites for each part are specified. The structure of the syllabus has been changed: the parts on Principles of Radiation Protection and on Regulatory Control were moved ahead of Dose Assessment and after Biological Effects of Radiation. The part on the interface with nuclear safety was dropped and a module on radiation protection in nuclear power plants has been included. A

  3. Radiation Protection of Patients program (Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, R.; Perez, M. R.; Buzzi, A.; Andisco, D.

    2006-01-01

    After an initial period of conviction for installing an active discussion on Radiation Protection of Patients inside the medical community, there were organized working groups in Radiodiagnosis, Radiotherapy, Nuclear Medicine and on radiation protection of pregnant women. These groups began systematical activities, which received a strong institutional support of the Argentine Society of Radiology, toward the implementation of a Program of RPP that is being put nowadays into practice. This program has three aims and a series of targets to be fulfilled in successive stages: Basic aims and short term targets: 1) To guarantee the Justification. First goal: Development of the Prescription Guide (achieve) 2) To optimize the radioprotection: First goal: Development of a Manual of Procedures (achieved) 3) To prevent potential exposures. First goal: Design of a Basic Quality System in Health (achieved) The effective participation of the professional's and technician's associations in the development of the program of radiological protection of the patient is a key aspect for the success. (Author)

  4. Blended learning specialists in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, P.; Campayo, J. M.; Verdu, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a blended learning Radiation Protection Technician through an approved degree from the Polytechnic University of Valencia, which covers the knowledge and skills of functions relating to operators and supervisors in various areas and skilled workers to be to perform their work in technical units or Radiation Protection Radiation Protection Services. The benefits of this work are those related to achieving quality training flexible and adapted to follow the check off the person conducting the course, adapted to internal and external training of the applicant companies.

  5. Radiation protection and the female worker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folsom, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    An influx of young women into industrial occupations has resulted in a reexamination of policy regarding fetal protection. Each of the Environmental Protection Agency's four alternatives, as listed in Federal Radiation Protection Guidance for Occupational Exposures, is examined and given a critique: voluntary limitation of radiation exposure to the unborn, voluntary sterilization by women, exclusion of child-bearing-age women from occupational tasks resulting in possible fetal exposure, and limiting the mandatory exposure limit for all workers. The author lists employers and women employees responsibilities in considering occupations with radiation risks. 1 reference

  6. Overview of radiation protection programme in nuclear medicine facility for diagnostic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Ezzeldein Mohammed Nour Mohammed

    2015-02-01

    This project was conducted to review Radiation Protection Program in Nuclear Medicine facility for diagnostic procedures which will provide guide for meeting the standard and regulatory requirements in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The main objective of this project is to keep dose to staff, patient and public as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). The specific objectives were to review the Radiation Protection Program (RPP) in diagnostic nuclear medicine and to make some recommendation for improving the level of radiation protection in diagnostic nuclear medicine that will help to control normal exposure and prevent or mitigate potential exposure. The methodology used is review of various documents. The review showed that if the Radiation Protection Program is inadequate it leads to unjustified exposure to radiation. Finally, this study stated some recommendations that if implemented could improve the level of radiation protection in nuclear medicine department. One of the most important recommendations is that a qualified Radiation Protection Officer (RPO) should be appointed to lay down and oversee a radiation protection in the nuclear medicine department. The RPO must be given the full authority and the adequate time to enable him to perform his duties effectively. (au)

  7. Non-ionizing radiation and health protection problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, Henri.

    1979-01-01

    Wavelength and frequency are two closely related properties which determine the characteristics of any particular type of electromagnetic radiation and which can be used interchangeably to describe it. For protection purposes the determination of the energy absorbed (absorbed dose) and of its distribution within living systems, whatever the radiation concerned, is still one of the chief problems to be solved. Therefore, although thermal effects are often prevailing, no appropriate dose-effect relationships could be established in most cases and more particularly as far as non-thermal effects are concerned. The problems associated with the different types of NIR are briefly reviewed. An increasing number of countries is promulgating regulatory measures for limiting exposure to NIR of occupationally exposed individuals and of the general population. Harmonization of basic concepts and internationally acceptable protection standards are therefore urgently needed. IRPA is probably the only international, non-governmental scientific organization able to promote wide international and interdisciplinary cooperation in the field of health protection against NIR. Therefore, after having carefully considered the situation, IRPA felt that it was its responsibility to produce guidance on basic protection criteria and standards and created the International NIR-Committee with the objective of developing background documents and internationally accepted recommendations

  8. Radiation protection training courses for physicians. 5. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieve, F.E.

    1994-01-01

    The material for the basic course has been reviewed and updated in response to the 1987 amendment of the X-ray Ordinance and the 1989 amendment of the Radiation Protection Ordinance, and also takes into account the related directives and recommendations, including the ICRP recommendations published in 1990. The main subjects covered by the basic course are: (1) Fundamentals of radiation physics. (2) Fundamentals of radiobiology, genetic effects. (3) Basic principles of radiation protection. (4) Principles and concepts of dosimetry. (5) Natural and man-made radiation exposure. (6) Radiation accident management. (7) International and national legislation and sub-ordinate legislation. (8) Quality assurance and quality testing. (9) Tasks of the radiological safety officer. (10) Exercises and new units and quantities. (HP) [de

  9. Utilization of information communication technology (ICT) - Based training / learning for capacity building in radiation protection framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oluyemi, I.O.D.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radiation protection is the science of protecting people and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation, which includes both particle radiation and high energy electromagnetic radiation. It includes occupational radiation protection, which is the protection of workers; medical radiation protection, which is the protection of patients; and public radiation protection, which is about protection of individual members of the public, and of the population as a whole. ICT has made possible the development of e-learning and several Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) which can support a wide range of capacity building requirements, ranging from under-graduate and post-graduate programmes, continuing professional development courses, right through to short subject specific and research courses, thereby eliminating the problems of conventional forms of training / learning, some of which are: limited access, cost effectiveness and language / cultural barriers. This paper focuses on the utilization of these ICT-based training / learning for capacity building in radiation protection framework and concludes with suggestions on implementation strategies. (author)

  10. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Composition of Accelerator Radiation Fields; Shielding of Electrons and Photons at Accelerators; Shielding of Hadrons at Accelerators; Low Energy Prompt Radiation Phenomena; Induced Radioactivity at Accelerators; Topics in Radiation Protection Instrumentation at Accelerators; and Accelerator Radiation Protection Program Elements

  11. Questions concerning radiation protection in the field of radiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, W.; Quednau, F.; Wels, Ch.

    1987-01-01

    Based on legal regulations, guidelines, and standards valid in the German Democratic Republic 105 questions concerning radiation protection are answered covering subjects indicated by the following key words and headings: radiometric gages, radiation protection measures, working within protected areas, legal provisions, responsible staff member, radiation protection officer, operating personnel, radiation protection instructions, safe keeping of radiation sources, leak testing, unusual occurrence, transport of radioactive materials, and ceasing of operation

  12. New Croatian Act on Ionizing Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grgic, S.

    1998-01-01

    According to the new Croatian Act on ionizing radiation protection which is in a final stage of genesis, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Croatia is the governmental body responsible for all aspects relating sources of ionizing radiation in Croatia: practices, licenses, users, transport, in medicine and industry as well, workers with sources of ionizing radiation, emergency preparedness in radiological accidents, storage of radioactive wastes, x-ray machines and other machines producing ionizing radiation and radioactive materials in the environment. Ministry of Health is responsible to the Government of the Republic of Croatia, closely collaborating with the Croatian Radiation Protection Institute, health institution for the performance of scientific and investigation activities in the field of radiation protection. Ministry of Health is also working together with the Croatian Institute for the Occupational Health. More emphasis has been laid on recent discussion among the world leading radiation protection experts on justification of the last recommendations of the ICRP 60 publication. (author)

  13. The German radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Klaus; Neider, Rudolf

    1977-01-01

    The German Standards Institute (DIN Deutsches Institut fuer Normung, Berlin) is engaged in health physics standards development in the following committees. The Nuclear Standards Committee (NKe), which deals mainly with nuclear science and technology, the fuel cycle, and radiation protection techniques. The Radiology Standards Committee (FNR), whose responsibilities