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Sample records for radiation protection field

  1. Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Radiation Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Radiation Protection Document Library View and download EPA radiation ...

  2. Twelve years of cooperation in the field of radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grapengiesser, Sten; Bennerstedt, Torkel

    2005-06-01

    SSI has pursued an international cooperation program since 1992 within the field of radiation protection and emergency preparedness for radiation accidents with the three Baltic countries as main beneficiaries. As the Baltic countries are members of the EU since May 2004, this bilateral support will now be phased out and replaced with other forms of cooperation. During the years passed, a large number of activities have been launched with a total budget of some 14 million ECU. The Baltic radiation protection authorities have played a big role in the cooperation and Baltic ministries, universities, nuclear technology installations and other industries using radiation have also been engaged in the projects. SKI, SKB, Studsvik and the Swedish nuclear power plants should be mentioned as major cooperation partners on the Swedish side. During autumn 2004 when such a large coordinated work program was coming to an end, SSI decided to hold a seminar with the purpose to follow up experiences from the work and discuss coming forms of cooperation. The seminar took place on the 18 of November 2004 and gathered some 80 participants, 29 of which from the Baltic countries. It was opened by Lars-Erik Holm, the SSI Director General, and the three Baltic countries then presented their views and impressions from the passed years of cooperation. The seminar was concluded with a panel discussion on 'How to proceed from today's situation'. The result was that SSI invited to a new coordination meeting during autumn 2005 to follow up and discuss coordination of radiation protection around the Baltic Sea together with the other Nordic radiation protection authorities.

  3. Deficiencies of active electronic radiation protection dosimeters in pulsed fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankerhold, U; Hupe, O; Ambrosi, P

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays nearly all radiation fields used for X-ray diagnostics are pulsed. These fields are characterised by a high dose rate during the pulse and a short pulse duration in the range of a few milliseconds. The use of active electronic dosimeters has increased in the past few years, but these types of dosimeters might possibly not measure reliably in pulsed radiation fields. Not only personal dosimeters but also area dosimeters that are used mainly for dose rate measurements are concerned. These cannot be substituted by using passive dosimeter types. The characteristics of active electronic dosimeters determined in a continuous radiation field cannot be transferred to those in pulsed fields. Some provisional measurements with typical electronic dosimeters in pulsed radiation fields are presented to reveal this basic problem.

  4. Radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    This will be a simple explanation of the reasons why CERN has to be careful about radiation protections issues, a practical guide on how to recognize radiation dangers, the monitoring systems that make sure radiation levels are well tolerable norms, and a quick summary of what radiation levels mean in terms of personal risk.

  5. Radiation Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, M

    2001-04-01

    Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2000 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department remain neutron dosimetry and neutron activation analysis, safeguards information handling and non-destructive assay techniques. Further activities include low-level radioactivity measurements in environmental and biological samples and radiation protection research. Finally, achievements in decision strategy research and social sciences in nuclear research are reported.

  6. Intercomparison of radiation protection instrumentation in a pulsed neutron field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caresana, M., E-mail: marco.caresana@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, CESNEF, Dipartimento di Energia, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Denker, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Esposito, A. [IFNF-LNF, FISMEL, via E. Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Ferrarini, M. [CNAO, Via Privata Campeggi, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Golnik, N. [Institute of Metrology and Biomedical Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Sw. A. Boboli 8, 02-525 Warsaw (Poland); Hohmann, E. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Radiation Metrology Section, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Leuschner, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Luszik-Bhadra, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Manessi, G. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, L69 7ZE Liverpool (United Kingdom); Mayer, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Radiation Metrology Section, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ott, K. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, BESSYII, Albert-Einstein-Str.15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Röhrich, J. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Silari, M. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Trompier, F. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, F-92262 Fontenay aux Roses (France); Volnhals, M.; Wielunski, M. [Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2014-02-11

    In the framework of the EURADOS working group 11, an intercomparison of active neutron survey meters was performed in a pulsed neutron field (PNF). The aim of the exercise was to evaluate the performances of various neutron instruments, including commercially available rem-counters, personal dosemeters and instrument prototypes. The measurements took place at the cyclotron of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH. The cyclotron is routinely used for proton therapy of ocular tumours, but an experimental area is also available. For the therapy the machine accelerates protons to 68 MeV. The interaction of the proton beam with a thick tungsten target produces a neutron field with energy up to about 60 MeV. One interesting feature of the cyclotron is that the beam can be delivered in bursts, with the possibility to modify in a simple and flexible way the burst length and the ion current. Through this possibility one can obtain radiation bursts of variable duration and intensity. All instruments were placed in a reference position and irradiated with neutrons delivered in bursts of different intensity. The analysis of the instrument response as a function of the burst charge (the total electric charge of the protons in the burst shot onto the tungsten target) permitted to assess for each device the dose underestimation due to the time structure of the radiation field. The personal neutron dosemeters were exposed on a standard PMMA slab phantom and the response linearity was evaluated.

  7. Intercomparison of radiation protection instrumentation in a pulsed neutron field

    CERN Document Server

    Caresana, M; Esposito, A; Ferrarini, M; Golnik, N; Hohmann, E; Leuschner, A; Luszik-Bhadra, M; Manessi, G; Mayer, S; Ott, K; Röhrich, J; Silari, M; Trompier, F; Volnhals, M; Wielunski, M

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the EURADOS working group 11, an intercomparison of active neutron survey meters was performed in a pulsed neutron field (PNF). The aim of the exercise was to evaluate the performances of various neutron instruments, including commercially available rem-counters, personal dosemeters and instrument prototypes. The measurements took place at the cyclotron of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH. The cyclotron is routinely used for proton therapy of ocular tumours, but an experimental area is also available. For the therapy the machine accelerates protons to 68 MeV. The interaction of the proton beam with a thick tungsten target produces a neutron field with energy up to about 60 MeV. One interesting feature of the cyclotron is that the beam can be delivered in bursts, with the possibility to modify in a simple and flexible way the burst length and the ion current. Through this possibility one can obtain radiation bursts of variable duration and intensity. All instru...

  8. Radiation protection

    CERN Multimedia

    Radioactive Shipping Service

    2005-01-01

    The section of the radiation protection group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Tél. 73171

  9. Radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The section of the Radiation Protection Group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Tel. 73171

  10. Radiation protection

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The section of the Radiation Protection Group in charge of shipping radioactive material would like to remind users that all radioactive material leaving CERN must be checked for radioactivity and must be shipped according to the procedure given at http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Do not hesitate to contact us for any question or control. Radioactive Shipping Service: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Tél. 73171

  11. Investigation of the behavior of protection elements against field radiated line coupled UWB-pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Krzikalla

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To protect electronic systems against electromagnetic interferences in general nonlinear protection circuits are used. These protection circuits are optimized mostly against special transient interferences such as lightning electromagnetic pulses (LEMP or electromagnetic pulses caused by nuclear explosions (NEMP. Previous investigations have shown that these protection elements could be undermined by so-called ultra wideband (UWB pulses. Thereby a direct charge of the UWB-pulse to the elements has been assumed. This assumption was a worst case approximation because in practice UWB-pulses only get into systems by coupling effects. In this investigation the behavior of typical nonlinear protection elements has been tested with field radiated line coupled UWB-pulses. For that line coupled UWB-pulses have been defined depending on the coupling behavior of typical electronic systems and a possibility of generation of this kind of pulses is presented. After it typical nonlinear protection elements such as spark gaps, varistors and protection diodes have been tested with the previously defined test pulses. Finally the measured behavior of the elements has been compared with the behavior by direct charged UWB-pulses and the protection effect of the elements against field radiated line coupled UWB-pulses is re-evaluated.

  12. Study of magnetic field expansion using a plasma generator for space radiation active protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Xiang-Hong; JIA Shao-Xia; XU Feng; BAI Yan-Qiang; WAN Jun; LIU Hong-Tao; JIANG Rui

    2013-01-01

    There are many active protecting methods including Electrostatic Fields,Confined Magnetic Field,Unconfined Magnetic Field and Plasma Shielding etc.for defending the high-energy solar particle events (SPE) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) in deep space exploration.The concept of using cold plasma to expand a magnetic field is the best one of all possible methods so far.The magnetic field expansion caused by plasma can improve its protective efficiency of space particles.One kind of plasma generator has been developed and installed into the cylindrical permanent magnet in the eccentric.A plasma stream is produced using a helical-shaped antenna driven by a radio-frequency (RF) power supply of 13.56 MHz,which exits from both sides of the magnet and makes the magnetic field expand on one side.The discharging belts phenomenon is similar to the Earth's radiation belt,but the mechanism has yet to be understood.A magnetic probe is used to measure the magnetic field expansion distributions,and the results indicate that the magnetic field intensity increases under higher increments of the discharge power.

  13. Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, James E

    2007-01-01

    Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based. The work covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data. The procedures that are used to protect man and the environment from the potential harmful effects of

  14. General Principles of Radiation Protection in Fields of Diagnostic Medical Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Kyung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    After the rapid development of medical equipment including CT or PET-CT, radiation doses from medical exposure are now the largest source of man-made radiation exposure. General principles of radiation protection from the hazard of ionizing radiation are summarized as three key words; justification, optimization, and dose limit. Because medical exposure of radiation has unique considerations, diagnostic reference level is generally used as a reference value, instead of dose limits. In Korea, ...

  15. An introduction to radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Alan; Beach, Karen; Cole, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The sixth edition of this established text takes the reader through the general background to the subject, the technical principles underlying the control of radiation hazards, radiation detection and measurement and the biological effects of radiation. These are followed by a consideration of radiation protection issues in the nuclear industry, the non-nuclear sector and the medical field. Further specialised topics include risk assessment, waste management and decommissioning, radiological incidents and emergencies, relevant legislation and organizational issues.

  16. Radiation protection research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanmarcke, H

    2002-04-01

    The objectives of the research in the field of radiation protection research performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to elaborate and to improve methods and guidelines for the evaluation of restoration options for radioactively contaminated sites; (2) to develop, test and improve biosphere models for the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal in near-surface or geological repositories; (3) to asses the impact of releases from nuclear or industrial installations; (4) to increase capabilities in mapping and surveying sites possibly or likely contaminated with enhanced levels of natural radiation; (5) to identify non nuclear industries producing NORM waste, to make an inventory of occurring problems and to propose feasible solutions or actions when required; (6) to maintain the know-how of retrospective radon measurements in real conditions and to assess radon decay product exposure by combining these techniques. Main achievements in these areas for 2001 are summarised.

  17. Obligations and responsibilities in radiation protection in the medical field; Obligations et responsabilites en radioprotection dans le domaine medical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This document briefly presents the various obligations and responsibilities of the various actors involved in or concerned by radiation protection in the medical field: the hospital administration (with respect to workers and patients), the physician (authorization and declaration, justification, optimization), the medical electro-radiology operator, the person with expertise in medical radio-physics (PSRPM), the radio-pharmacist (he is required in nuclear medicine with internal use of pharmaceutical product), the personnel with expertise in radiation protection (PCR), and other health professionals

  18. Ethics and radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Sven Ove [Department of Philosophy and the History of Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 78 B, 2tr, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-06-01

    Some of the major problems in radiation protection are closely connected to issues that have a long, independent tradition in moral philosophy. This contribution focuses on two of these issues. One is the relationship between the protection of individuals and optimisation on the collective level, and the other is the relative valuation of future versus immediate damage. Some of the intellectual tools that have been developed by philosophers can be useful in radiation protection. On the other hand, philosophers have much to learn from radiation protectors, not least when it comes to finding pragmatic solutions to problems that may be intractable in principle.

  19. Physics for radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, James E

    2013-01-01

    A much-needed working resource for health physicists and other radiation protection professionals, this volume presents clear, thorough, up-to-date explanations of the basic physics necessary to address real-world problems in radiation protection. Designed for readers with limited as well as basic science backgrounds, Physics for Radiation Protection emphasizes applied concepts and carefully illustrates all topics through examples as well as practice problems. Physics for Radiation Protection draws substantially on current resource data available for health physics use, providing decay schemes and emission energies for approximately 100 of the most common radionuclides encountered by practitioners. Excerpts of the Chart of the Nuclides, activation cross sections, fission yields, fission-product chains, photon attenuation coefficients, and nuclear masses are also provided.

  20. Radiation protection in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vano, E.; Holmberg, O.; Perez, M. R.; Ortiz, P.

    2016-08-01

    Diagnostic, interventional and therapeutic used of ionizing radiation are beneficial for hundreds of millions of people each year by improving health care and saving lives. In March 2001, the first International Conference on the Radiological Protection of Patients was held in Malaga, Spain, which led to an international action plan for the radiation protection of patients. Ten years after establishing the international action plan, the International Conference on Radiation Protection in Medicine: Setting the Scene for the Next Decade was held in Bonn, Germany, in December 2012. the main outcome of this conference was the so called Bonn Call for Action that identifies then priority actions to enhance radiation protection in medicine for the next decade. The IAEA and WHO are currently working in close cooperation to foster and support the implementation of these ten priority actions in Member States, but their implementation requires collaboration of national governments, international agencies, researchers, educators, institutions and professional associations. (Author)

  1. Radiation Protection Group

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Section of the Radiation Protection Group wishes to inform you that the Radioactive Waste Treatment Centre will be closed on the afternoon of Tuesday 19 December 2006. Thank-you for your understanding.

  2. The role of Swedish Radiation Protection Authority in the field of public health; SSI:s roll i folkhaelsoarbetet - redovisning av regeringsuppdrag inom folkhaelsoomraadet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederlund, Torsten; Finck, Robert; Mjoenes, Lars; Moberg, Leif; Soederman, Ann-Louis; Wiklund, Aasa; Yuen Katarina; Oelander Guer, Hanna

    2004-09-01

    The Swedish Government has requested the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) to make an account of the authority's role in the field of public health. Radiation Protection consists largely of preventive actions in order to protect man and the environment against harmful effects of radiation. The SSI thus considers most of the authority's activities to be public health related. The report describes a number of radiation protection areas from a health perspective. The measures taken by the authority in these areas are also described along with planned activities. In some areas the authority also points out additional measures.

  3. The role of Swedish Radiation Protection Authority in the field of public health 2008; SSI:s roll i folkhaelsoarbetet 2008 - redovisning av regeringsuppdrag inom folkhaelsoomraadet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyrke, Lena; Almen, Anja; Blixt, Anders; Brewitz, Erica; Mjoenes, Lars; Moberg, Leif; Skeppstroem, Kirlna; Wester, Ulf

    2008-04-15

    The Swedish Government has requested that the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) to make an account of the authority's role in the field of public health. Radiation Protection consists largely of preventive actions in order to protect man and the environment against harmful effects of radiation. The SSI thus considers most of the authority's activities to be public health related. The report describes a number of radiation protection areas from a health perspective. The measures taken by the authority in these areas are also described along with planned activities. In some areas the authority also points out additional measures

  4. 1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database.

  5. CERN Radiation Protection (RP) calibration facilities

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082069; Macián-Juan, Rafael

    Radiation protection calibration facilities are essential to ensure the correct operation of radiation protection instrumentation. Calibrations are performed in specific radiation fields according to the type of instrument to be calibrated: neutrons, photons, X-rays, beta and alpha particles. Some of the instruments are also tested in mixed radiation fields as often encountered close to high-energy particle accelerators. Moreover, calibration facilities are of great importance to evaluate the performance of prototype detectors; testing and measuring the response of a prototype detector to well-known and -characterized radiation fields contributes to improving and optimizing its design and capabilities. The CERN Radiation Protection group is in charge of performing the regular calibrations of all CERN radiation protection devices; these include operational and passive dosimeters, neutron and photon survey-meters, and fixed radiation detectors to monitor the ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), inside CERN accelera...

  6. Assessment of the situation of centres of competence in the fields of nuclear fission and radiation protection. Final report

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfert, K; Glaeser, H; Klener, V; Métivier, H; Richard, P; Riebold, W L; Vasa, I; Zimmermann, M

    2003-01-01

    An assessment of the present situation concerning centres of competence in the fields of Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection has been carried out with the intention to draw strategic conclusions as regards further needs in these fields, based on the actual situation and perceived future developments. This study was initiated by the programme committee for the Euratom research and training programme in the field of Nuclear Energy (1998 - 2002). To carry out this exercise, a Panel of four independent experts had been set up. The Panel had prepared a questionnaire comprising a comprehensive set of questions aiming at the acquisition of the information needed to carry out the assessment exercise. The questionnaire consisted in ten different form sheets and had been put on the Internet in order to ease the access and offer a comfortable way of filling in the form sheets. Out of 420 organisations invited to participate in the exercise, 293 organisations from EU member states, Central and Eastern European Acces...

  7. Space radiation protection issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Amy; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2012-11-01

    The complex charged particle environments in space pose considerable challenges with regard to potential health consequences that can impact mission design and crew selection. The lack of knowledge of the biological effects of different ions in isolation and in combination is a particular concern because the risk uncertainties are very high for both cancer and non-cancer late effects. Reducing the uncertainties is of high priority. Two principal components of space radiation each raise different concerns. Solar particle events (SPE) occur sporadically and are comprised primarily of low- to moderate-energy protons. Galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) is isotropic and relatively invariant in dose rate. GCR is also dominated by protons, but the energy range is wider than in SPE. In addition, the contribution of other light and heavy ions to the health risks from GCR must be addressed. This paper will introduce the principal issues under consideration for space radiation protection.

  8. Radiation Protection Research: Radiobiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desaintes, C

    2000-07-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of radiobiology and epidemiology performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality in nuclear workers in Belgium; to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (2) to participate in the IARC study; (3) to elucidate the molecular basis of the effects of ionising radiation in the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (4) to assess the genetic risk of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation; (5) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (6) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas in 1999 are reported.

  9. Radiation protection considerations

    CERN Document Server

    Adorisio, C; Urscheler, C; Vincke, H

    2015-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the legal Radiation Protection (RP) framework to be considered in the design of HiLumi LHC. It details design limits and constraints, dose objectives and explains how the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) approach is formalized at CERN. Furthermore, features of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code are summarized that are of relevance for RP studies. Results of FLUKA simulations for residual dose rates during Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) are compared to measurements demonstrating good agreement and providing proof for the accuracy of FLUKA predictions for future shutdowns. Finally, an outlook for the residual dose rate evolution until LS3 is given.

  10. Space radiation protection: Destination Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Marco

    2014-04-01

    National space agencies are planning a human mission to Mars in the XXI century. Space radiation is generally acknowledged as a potential showstopper for this mission for two reasons: a) high uncertainty on the risk of radiation-induced morbidity, and b) lack of simple countermeasures to reduce the exposure. The need for radiation exposure mitigation tools in a mission to Mars is supported by the recent measurements of the radiation field on the Mars Science Laboratory. Shielding is the simplest physical countermeasure, but the current materials provide poor reduction of the dose deposited by high-energy cosmic rays. Accelerator-based tests of new materials can be used to assess additional protection in the spacecraft. Active shielding is very promising, but as yet not applicable in practical cases. Several studies are developing technologies based on superconducting magnetic fields in space. Reducing the transit time to Mars is arguably the best solution but novel nuclear thermal-electric propulsion systems also seem to be far from practical realization. It is likely that the first mission to Mars will employ a combination of these options to reduce radiation exposure.

  11. Pregnancy and Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerogiannis, J.; Stefanoyiannis, A. P.

    2010-01-01

    Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating

  12. Applied physics of external radiation exposure dosimetry and radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Antoni, Rodolphe

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the interaction of living matter with photons, neutrons, charged particles, electrons and ions. The authors are specialists in the field of radiation protection. The book synthesizes many years of experiments with external radiation exposure in the fields of dosimetry and radiation shielding in medical, industrial and research fields. It presents the basic physical concepts including dosimetry and offers a number of tools to be used by students, engineers and technicians to assess the radiological risk and the means to avoid them by calculating the appropriate shields. The theory of radiation interaction in matter is presented together with empirical formulas and abacus. Numerous numerical applications are treated to illustrate the different topics. The state of the art in radiation protection and dosimetry is presented in detail, especially in the field of simulation codes for external exposure to radiation, medical projects and advanced research. Moreover, important data spread in differ...

  13. Intercomparison of radiation protection devices in a high-energy stray neutron field. Part III: Instrument response

    CERN Document Server

    Silari, M; Beck, P; Bedogni, R; Cale, E; Caresana, M; Domingo, C; Donadille, L; Dubourg, N; Esposito, A; Fehrenbacher, G; Fernández, F; Ferrarini, M; Fiechtner, A; Fuchs, A; García, M J; Golnik, N; Gutermuth, F; Khurana, S; Klages, Th; Latocha, M; Mares, V; Mayer, S; Radon, T; Reithmeier, H; Rollet, S; Roos, H; Rühm, W; Sandri, S; Schardt, D; Simmer, G; Spurný, F; Trompier, F; Villa-Grasa, C; Weitzenegger, E; Wiegel, B; Wielunski, M; Wissmann, F; Zechner, A; Zielczyński, M

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission has funded within its 6th Framework Programme a three-year project (2005–2007) called CONRAD, COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry. The organizational framework for this project was provided by the European radiation Dosimetry Group EURADOS. Work Package 6 of CONRAD dealt with “complex mixed radiation fields at workplaces” and in this context it organised a benchmark exercise, which included both measurements and calculations, in a stray radiation field at a high-energy particle accelerator at GSI, Germany. The aim was to intercompare the response of several types of active detectors and passive dosemeters in a well-characterised workplace field. The Monte Carlo simulations of the radiation field and the experimental determination of the neutron spectra with various Bonner Sphere Spectrometers are discussed in Rollet et al. (2008) and in Wiegel et al. (2008). This paper focuses on the intercomparison of the response of the dosemeters in terms of ambient dose equivalent. Th...

  14. Ethical issues in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Lars (ed.)

    2000-03-15

    Ethical theories are relevant to the current recommendations and standards for radiation protection. Radiation protection is not only a matter for science. It is also a problem of philosophy. In order for protection regulations to be respected, it must correspond to widely accepted ethical values among those who are affected by the regulations. The workshop covered the following issues: Problems in Present Protection Policy, ICRP Protection Policy - A Historical Perspective, Radiation Risk - What we know and what we believe, Present ICRP Recommendations, Ethical Values in the Context of ICRP Recommendations, Collective Responsibility for Invisible Harm, Environmental Protection - Ethical Issues, The Global Change of Values, and Procedural justice and Radiation Protection. Six workshop contributions and a workshop summary are presented in this report.

  15. Optimization and radiation protection culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, In Young; Shin, Hyeong Ki; Lee, Chan Mi [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Safety culture or radiation protection culture is based in common on the term, 'culture'. Culture is defined as the learned, shared set of symbols and patterns of basic assumptions, which is invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problem of external adaptation and internal integration. Safety culture generally refers to the attitude and behaviors affecting safety performance. The concept of 'Safety Culture' was introduced after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. For the accident, nuclear society reached the conclusion that the cause was the wrong management attitude of the NPP, that is, deficient 'Safety Culture'. Recently, 'Radiation Protection Culture' was introduced as the core concept of nuclear safety culture. There have been many efforts to establish definition and develop assessment tool for radiation protection culture in international level such as ICRP and IRPA as well as NRC. In the same context with the safety culture, radiation protection culture is defined as 'the core values and behaviors resulting from a collective commitment by leaders and individual's to emphasize safety over competing goals to ensure protection of people and the environment.' It is worthwhile to recognize that regulatory enforcement in establishing healthy radiation protection culture of operators should be minimized because culture is not in the domain of regulatory enforcement. However, as 'ALARA', the most important concept in radiation protection, may be successfully achieved only in well established radiation protection culture, the least regulatory intervention would be needed in promoting and nurturing radiation protection culture in licensee. In addition, the concept of radiation protection culture should be addressed in plant operational policy to achieve the goals of ALARA. The pre-condition of the successful radiation protection culture is a healthy organizational

  16. Nanocomposites for electromagnetic radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrunin, V. F., E-mail: VFPetrunin@mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Specific features that characterize nanoparticles and which are due to their small size and allow one to enhance the interaction between the electromagnetic radiation and nanostructured materials and to develop the effective protection of man and equipment against harmful uncontrolled radiation are reported. Examples of the development of nanocomposite radar absorbing materials that can be used for protection of man and equipment are presented.

  17. Ethical problems in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars

    2001-05-01

    In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards.

  18. Obligatory Radiation Protection Course

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Since February 2008, participation in the radiation protection course has been a prerequisite for obtaining a CERN personal dosimeter for all Staff Members and Users. All Staff and Users holding a personal dosimeter were informed by the Bulletin and by a personal e-mail sent in February 2008 that they were required to participate in the course before the annual exchange of their dosimeter. Many people had not done so by that time and the Dosimetry Service exceptionally classified them for 2 months as short-term visitors (VCT), a category of monitored personnel to whom the training requirement does not presently apply. As all personnel concerned have since had time to participate in an RP course, this "grace period" will no longer be granted as of 1 October 2008 and the RP course must be completed before the personal dosimeter is exchanged. For newcomers to CERN, and for those returning to CERN after an absence of more than 1 year, one registration as a VCT for two months ...

  19. New approaches to radiation protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot Michael Rosen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radioprotectors are compounds that protect against radiation injury when given prior to radiation exposure. Mitigators can protect against radiation injury when given after exposure but before symptoms appear. Radioprotectors and mitigators can potentially improve the outcomes of radiotherapy for cancer treatment by allowing higher doses of radiation and/or reduced damage to normal tissues. Such compounds can also potentially counteract the effects of accidental exposure to radiation or deliberate exposure (eg., nuclear reactor meltdown, dirty bomb, or nuclear bomb explosion; hence the are called radiation countermeasures. Here we will review the general principles of radiation injury and protection and describe selected examples of radioprotectors/mitigators ranging from small molecules to proteins to cell-based treatments. We will emphasize agents that are in more advanced stages of development.

  20. Radiation protection policies to protect public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muckerheide, J. [Commonwealth Massachusetts, Needham, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Scientific data from plant, animal, and human populations more strongly find radiation essential to life, i.e., suppressing background radiation is debilitating and that moderately enhanced radiation doses have positive effects, than that low-moderate radiation dose has adverse effects. {close_quote} Federal radiation protection policy will be in the public interest and save hundreds of billions of dollars at no public health cost when known dose effects to exposed populations are applied to ensure no adverse health effects, with safety margins, and when appropriate research is funded (and public benefits from new radiation and nuclear science and technology applications are enabled) at the sole cost of reduced federal power and influence.

  1. YoungRad-seminar. Proceedings. Seminar for young scientists in the fields of radiophysics, radiochemistry, radioecology, radiation protection and related fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straelberg, E.; Sidhu, R. [Institute for Energy Technology (Norway); Petersen, R. [Technological Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Salminen, S. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)

    2007-09-15

    To provide an inspiring working environment for young students and scientists, it is important that they at an early stage can take part in a network of scientists working in their fields of interest. However, within each of the five Nordic countries the network of people involved in the fields of radiophysics, radiochemistry, radioecology, radiation protection and other related fields is rather small. Educational networking is a key factor in keeping young researchers motivated to continue working within these fields, and to recruit new students. For that reason the first YoungRad-seminar was held in Helsinki 14-15 December 2006. 43 young participants including MSc and PhD students at universities, researchers at different institutes and personnel from Nordic authorities took part in the seminar. All Nordic countries except Iceland were represented. The seminar was divided into four sessions including oral and poster presentations. In addition two senior researchers were invited to speak about Nordic radioecology and NKS. This report contains the abstracts and presentations made at the seminar. (au)

  2. Radiation protection for veterinary practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelton, R.; McCaffery, A. (National Radiological Protection Board, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Scottish Centre)

    1993-01-01

    This brief article discusses radiation protection for diagnostic radiography in veterinary practices. It includes aspects such as a radiation protection adviser, personal dosimetry but in particular a Veterinary Monitoring Service, developed by the NRPB, which offers veterinary practitioners the convenience of making simple but essential measurements for themselves using photographic films contained in a 'vet pack' to determine the operating condition of their X-ray machine. (U.K.).

  3. Neutron field measurements of the CRNA OB26 irradiator using a Bonner sphere spectrometer for radiation protection purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazrou, H; Allab, M

    2012-08-01

    The present work deals with the Bonner sphere spectrometer (BSS) measurements performed, to support the authors' Monte-Carlo calculations, to estimate accurately the main characteristics of the neutron field of the (241)Am-Be-based OB26 irradiator acquired for radiation protection purposes by the Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers. The measurements were performed at a reference irradiation position selected at 150 cm from the geometrical centre of the neutron source. The spectrometric system in use is based on a central spherical (3)He thermal neutron proportional counter. The response matrix of the present spectrometer has been taken to be similar to the original Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) (Braunschweig, Germany) BSS's response matrix, with a five bins per decade energy group structure, as there is no significant difference in the BSS's physical characteristics. Thereafter, the authors' BSS measurements were used together with MCNP5 results to unfold the neutron spectrum by means of MAXED and GRAVEL computer codes from the U.M.G. 3.3 package, developed at PTB. Besides, sensitivity analysis has been performed to test the consistency of the unfolding procedure. It reveals that no significant discrepancy was observed in the total neutron fluence and total ambient dose values following the perturbation of some pertinent unfolding parameters except for the case where a 10 bins energy structure was assumed for the guess spectrum. In this latter case, a 5 % difference was observed in the ambient dose equivalent compared with the reference case. Finally, a comparative study performed between different counting systems together with MCNP5 and predictive formulas results shows that they were globally satisfactory, highlighting thereby the relevance of the unfolding procedure and the reliability of the obtained results.

  4. Development of radiation protection and measurement technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Si Young; Lee, T. Y.; Kim, J. L.; Kim, B. H.; Lee, B. J.; Chung, K. K.; Lee, K. C.; Chung, R. I.; Han, Y. D.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, C. K.; Yoon, K. S.; Jeong, D. Y.; Yoon, S. C.; Yoon, Y. C.; Lee, S. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, K. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. K.; Lee, J. K. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Reference X-, gamma, beta and neutron radiation fields complying with the ISO and ANSI standards have been established and evaluated to provide a basic technical support in national radiation protection dosimetry program and to provide calibration measurement devices. Personal dose evaluation algorithm has been developed with these reference radiation fields, which comply well with both domestic and the new ANSI N13.11, to evaluate accurate personal dose equivalents. A personal internal dosimetry algorithm which can estimate the intakes of radionuclides from the results of in vivo bioassay and the resulting internal doses has been developed and verified its performance. It was also evaluated to be equality excellent compared with those being used in foreign countries and used to make a computer code for internal dose evaluation which can be run with PC under the Windows environment. A BOMAB phantom for precise calibration of in vivo system has been also designed, fabricated and test-evaluated. Based on the ALARA concept of the optimization principle of radiation protection, a method for estimating the cost for radiation protection has been studied and an objective monetary cost of detriment due to radiation exposure, called {alpha} value ($/man-Sv) has been derived and proposed based on the Korean socio-economic situation and human risk factors to provide basic data for the radiation protection optimization study in Korea. (author). 100 refs., 104 tabs., 69 figs.

  5. Biological Research for Radiation Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Jung, Il Lae; Choi, Yong Ho; Kim, Jin Sik; Moon, Myung Sook; Byun, Hee Sun; Phyo, Ki Heon; Kim, Sung Keun

    2005-04-15

    The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about ornithine decarboxylase and its controlling proteins, thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin, S-adenosymethionine decarboxylase, and glutamate decarboxylase 67KD effect on the cell death triggered ionizing radiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(toxic agents). In this study, to elucidate the role of these proteins in the ionizing radiation (or H{sub 2}O{sub 2})-induced apoptotic cell death, we utilized sensesed (or antisensed) cells, which overexpress (or down-regulate) RNAs associated with these proteins biosynthesis, and investigated the effects of these genes on the cytotoxicity caused by ionizing radiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(or paraquat). We also investigated whether genisteine(or thiamine) may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation (may enhance the preventing effect radiation or paraquat-induced damage) because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing or cell protecting effects. Based on the above result, we suggest that the express regulation of theses genes have potentially importance for sensitizing the efficiency of radiation therapy of cancer or for protecting the radiation-induced damage of normal cells.

  6. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Composition of Accelerator Radiation Fields; Shielding of Electrons and Photons at Accelerators; Shielding of Hadrons at Accelerators; Low Energy Prompt Radiation Phenomena; Induced Radioactivity at Accelerators; Topics in Radiation Protection Instrumentation at Accelerators; and Accelerator Radiation Protection Program Elements.

  7. [The control of radiation protection in the field of radiotherapy by the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godet, J-L

    2007-11-01

    During the last months, several incidents at radiotherapy services occurred in France; one of these accidents led to the death of several patients or required further heavy surgical acts. In this context, ASN (Autorité de sûreté nucléaire) issued an experimental guide for the notification of radiation protection events and achieved, in dialogue with professional organisations, a new scale intended to facilitate public information on radiotherapy incidents. ASN is also fully involved in the preparation of the action plan managed by the Health ministry in order to improve the safety of treatment in radiotherapy.

  8. Topics in radiation at accelerators: Radiation physics for personnel and environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1996-10-01

    In the first chapter, terminology, physical and radiological quantities, and units of measurement used to describe the properties of accelerator radiation fields are reviewed. The general considerations of primary radiation fields pertinent to accelerators are discussed. The primary radiation fields produced by electron beams are described qualitatively and quantitatively. In the same manner the primary radiation fields produced by proton and ion beams are described. Subsequent chapters describe: shielding of electrons and photons at accelerators; shielding of proton and ion accelerators; low energy prompt radiation phenomena; induced radioactivity at accelerators; topics in radiation protection instrumentation at accelerators; and accelerator radiation protection program elements.

  9. IRPA initiative on radiation protection culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnik, Natalia; Tulik, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    The concept of radiation protection culture, proposed by French Society for Radiation Protection (SFRP) and then launched by International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) is presented. The paper is focused on the role of radiation culture in preventing unjustified fear associated with the use of radiation. Principles of RP culture and optimization of radiation protection, as well as the problems how RP culture can be learned and how to engage the stakeholders are considered.

  10. Developing a Radiation Protection Hub

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, Nolan E [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    The WARP report issued by the NCRP study committee estimates that in ten years there will be a human capital crisis across the radiation safety community. The ability to respond to this shortage will be amplified by the fact that many radiation protection (health physics) academic programs will find it difficult to justify their continued existence since they are low volume programs, both in terms of enrollment and research funding, compared to the research funding return and visibility of more highly subscribed and highly funded academic disciplines. In addition, across the national laboratory complex, radiation protection research groups have been disbanded or dramatically reduced in size. The loss of both of these national resources is being accelerated by low and uncertain government funding priorities. The most effective solution to this problem would be to form a consortium that would bring together the radiation protection research, academic and training communities. The goal of such a consortium would be to engage in research, education and training of the next generation of radiation protection professionals. Furthermore the consortium could bring together the strengths of different universities, national laboratory programs and other entities in a strategic manner to accomplish a multifaceted research, educational and training agenda. This vision would forge a working and funded relationship between major research universities, national labs, four-year degree institutes, technical colleges and other partners.

  11. Activities of Radiation Protection Centre in 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Radiat. Prot. Cent. Vilnius

    2001-01-01

    Description of the activities of Radiation Protection Centre in 2000 is presented. Radiation Protection Centre is responsible for radiation protection issues. Currently there are six departments at Radiation Protection Centre: two in Vilnius - Department of Radiation Protection Supervision and Control and Department of Programs and Expertise, and four in the districts. Brief information on subject controlled by each departments is provided focusing on main achievements and events.

  12. Intercomparison of radiation protection devices in a high-energy stray neutron field. Part II: Bonner sphere spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegel, B; Bedogni, R; Caresana, M; Esposito, A; Fehrenbacher, G; Ferrarini, M; Hohmann, E; Hranitzky, C; Kasper, A; Khurana, S; Mares, V; Reginatto, M; Rollet, S; Rühm, W; Schardt, D; Silari, M; Simmer, G; Weitzenegger, E

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission has funded within its 6th Framework Programme a three-year project (2005–2007) called CONRAD, COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry. A major task of the CONRAD Work Package “complex mixed radiation fields at workplaces” was to organise a benchmark exercise in a workplace field at a high-energy particle accelerator where neutrons are the dominant radiation component. The CONRAD benchmark exercise took place at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung mbH (GSI) in Darmstadt, Germany in July 2006. In this paper, the results of the spectrometry using four extended -range Bonner sphere spectrometers of four different institutes are reported. Outside Cave A the neutron spectra were measured with three spectrometers at six selected positions and ambient dose equivalent values were derived for use in the intercomparison with other area monitors and dosemeters. At a common position all three spectrometers were used to allow a direct comparison of their results which acts as an int...

  13. Radiation Protection Research: Radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandecasteele, C.; Vandenhove, H

    2000-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's Radioecology programme are (1) to evaluate, based on laboratory and field experiments, the mechanisms and dynamic (fluxes) of radionuclide transfers in the biosphere, considering all factors affecting the transfer parameters and their variability; (2) to develop and optimise models to predict the fate of radionuclides in the biosphere; (3) to advise on appropriate countermeasures and remediation options to reduce public exposure to artificial and man-enhanced natural radioactivity and to evaluate their feasibility, cost effectiveness and sustainable character; (4) to provide information to national and international authorities to enable these to assess the consequences of routine and accidental releases for populations and to select the most adequate mitigation actions. Main achievements in 1999 are reported.

  14. Mining and radiation protection law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischof, W.

    1986-01-01

    The article deals with the hazards of ionising radiation in the mining sector for the mining employees, the neighbouring population and the environment, with regard to prospecting, mining and processing radioactive ores. Due attention must also be paid to stockpiles, radioactive waste and imports of radioactive minerals. International radiation protection laws are to be applied on the basis of Euratom, IAEA, OECP/NEA and ICRP. The national law to be applied is Basic Law, Atomic Energy Law, and the Radiation Protection Ordinance of 1976. This law includes all activities having to do with mining of radioactive minerals, transport, imports and exports and waste management. Last not least, questions concerning the supervision carried out by the state and the administration are dealt with. (HSCH).

  15. CERN radiation protection (RP) calibration facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, Fabio

    2016-04-14

    Radiation protection calibration facilities are essential to ensure the correct operation of radiation protection instrumentation. Calibrations are performed in specific radiation fields according to the type of instrument to be calibrated: neutrons, photons, X-rays, beta and alpha particles. Some of the instruments are also tested in mixed radiation fields as often encountered close to high-energy particle accelerators. Moreover, calibration facilities are of great importance to evaluate the performance of prototype detectors; testing and measuring the response of a prototype detector to well-known and -characterized radiation fields contributes to improving and optimizing its design and capabilities. The CERN Radiation Protection group is in charge of performing the regular calibrations of all CERN radiation protection devices; these include operational and passive dosimeters, neutron and photon survey-meters, and fixed radiation detectors to monitor the ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), inside CERN accelerators and at the CERN borders. A new state-of-the-art radiation protection calibration facility was designed, constructed and commissioned following the related ISO recommendations to replace the previous ageing (more than 30 years old) laboratory. In fact, the new laboratory aims also at the official accreditation according to the ISO standards in order to be able to release certified calibrations. Four radiation fields are provided: neutrons, photons and beta sources and an X-ray generator. Its construction did not only involve a pure civil engineering work; many radiation protection studies were performed to provide a facility that could answer the CERN calibration needs and fulfill all related safety requirements. Monte Carlo simulations have been confirmed to be a valuable tool for the optimization of the building design, the radiation protection aspects, e.g. shielding, and, as consequence, the overall cost. After the source and irradiator installation

  16. Review on radiation protection in diagnostic radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vahid karami

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of x-ray and using of it for medical imaging produce tremendous outcomes in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Nowadays, more than 10 million diagnostic radiological procedures are perform around the world. Despite of unique benefits of ionizing radiations, in the field of radiation protection, they are associated with potential risks such as cancer and genetically abnormalities. It is estimated that radiation dose from diagnostic x-ray procedures are annually responsible for 7,587 and 5,695 cases of radiation induced cancer in the population of Japan and united states of America, respectively. Although the radiation dose associated with most radiological procedures are very low, but rapid increasing of x-ray procedures during two past decades and also reports of the substantial fraction of patients undergoing multiple x-ray procedures have been concerned due to the deterministic and stochastic effects of ionizing radiations. According to the recommendations of the radiation protection regulatory organizations, radiological procedure must be done with respect to social and economic factors in which exposure of patient and population kept as low as reasonable and achievable. Obtain to the desirable image quality associated with reduce radiation dose to patients is the aim of any diagnostic x-ray procedure. Correctly use of various factors such as collimating the primary beam to the region of diagnostic interest, optimal exposure parameters (high Kvp and low MAS, using of techniques and views that are desirable to reach higher radiation protection, reducing exposure time and shielding can reduce the patients' exposure besides the saving of image quality. Accurately following of the recommended protection instructions considerably decrease the exposure risks.

  17. Radiation protection at new reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brissaud, A. [EDF INDUSTRY, Basic Design Department, EDF-SEPTEN, VILLEURBANNE Cedex (France)

    2000-05-01

    The theoritical knowledge and the feedback of operating experience concerning radiations in reactors is now considerable. It is available to the designer in the form of predictive softwares and data bases. Thus, it is possible to include the radiation protection component throughout all the design process. In France, the existing reactors have not been designed with quantified radiation protection targets, although considerable efforts have been made to reduce sources of radiation illustrated by the decrease of the average dose rates (typically a factor 5 between the first 900 MWe and the last 1300 MWe units). The EDF ALARA PROJECT has demonstrated that good practises, radiation protection awareness, careful work organization had a strong impact on operation and maintenance work volume. A decrease of the average collective dose by a factor 2 has been achieved without noticeable modifications of the units. In the case of new nuclear facilities projects (reactor, intermediate storage facility,...), or special operations (such as steam generator replacement), quantified radiation protection targets are included in terms of collective and average individual doses within the frame of a general optimization scheme. The target values by themselves are less important than the application of an optimization process throughout the design. This is because the optimization process requires to address all the components of the dose, particularly the work volume for operation and maintenance. A careful study of this parameter contributes to the economy of the project (suppression of unecessary tasks, time-saving ergonomy of work sites). This optimization process is currently applied to the design of the EPR. General radiation protection provisions have been addressed during the basic design phase by applying general rules aiming at the reduction of sources and dose rates. The basic design optimization phase has mainly dealt with the possibility to access the containment at full

  18. New Radiation Protection training room

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    From now on, the theory and practical components of the Radiation Protection training, developed by the RP Group and offered by the HSE Unit’s Safety Training team to people working in a Controlled Radiation Area, will take place in a dedicated teaching room, designed specifically for this kind of training.   The new room is in the Safety Training Centre on the Prévessin site and has been open since 16 October. It has an adjoining workshop that, like the room itself, can accommodate up to 12 people. It is also equipped with an interactive board as well as instruments and detectors to test for ionising radiation. This room is located near the recently inaugurated LHC tunnel mock-up where practical training exercises can be carried out in conditions almost identical to those in the real tunnel. To consult the safety training catalogue and/or sign up for Radiation Protection training, please go to: https://cta.cern.ch For further information, please contact the Safety Trainin...

  19. Protection against radiation (biological, pharmacological, chemical, physical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksonov, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological protection for astronauts from penetrating radiation on long-term space flights is discussed. The status of pharmacochemical protection, development of protective substances, medical use of protective substances, protection for spacecraft ecologic systems, adaptogens and physical conditioning, bone marrow transplants and local protection are discussed. Combined use of local protection and pharmacochemical substances is also briefly considered.

  20. Protection against radiation (biological, pharmacological, chemical, physical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksonov, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological protection for astronauts from penetrating radiation on long-term space flights is discussed. The status of pharmacochemical protection, development of protective substances, medical use of protective substances, protection for spacecraft ecologic systems, adaptogens and physical conditioning, bone marrow transplants and local protection are discussed. Combined use of local protection and pharmacochemical substances is also briefly considered.

  1. Regulation on expert knowledge in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-10-25

    The regulation is to be applied to licenses according to paragraphs 3, 15, 16, 20, 20a of the Radiation Protection Law, paragraphs 6, 7, 9 of the Atomic Law, to notices according to paragraphs 4, 17 of the Radiation Protection Law as well as in the prospecting, mining and processing of radioactive minerals. It regulates the extent and evidence of the special knowledge required for radiation protection of radiological safety officers and personnel responsible for radiation protection.

  2. State Supervision and Control of Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Radiation Protection Centre is carrying state supervision and control of radiation protection. The main objective of state supervision and control of radiation protection is assessing how licensees comply with requirements of the appropriate legislation and enforcement. Summary of inspections conducted in 1999-2001 is presented.

  3. State Radiation Protection Supervision and Control

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Radiation Protection Centre is carrying state supervision and control of radiation protection. The main objective of state supervision and control of radiation protection is assessing how licensees comply with requirements of the appropriate legislation and enforcement. Summary of inspections conducted in 2002 is presented.

  4. Review on radiation protection in diagnostic radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Karami

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of x-ray and using of it for medical imaging have produced tremendous outcomes for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. More than 10 million diagnostic radiological procedures and 100,000 nuclear medicine exams are being performed daily around the world. According to the national commission on radiological protection and measurements (NCRP-report 160, medical x-ray is contribute to approximately 95% of all radiological examinations that is responsible for 74% of the collective dose to the US population. Despite of unique benefits of ionizing radiations, in the field of radiation protection, they are associated with potential risks such as cancer and genetically abnormalities. The cancer risk attributable to diagnostic radiology is estimated about 0.6% to 3%. It is estimated that the radiation dose from diagnostic x-ray procedures are annually responsible for 7,587 and 5,695 cases of radiation induced cancer in the population of Japan and US, respectively. Although the radiation dose associated with most radiological procedures are very low, but rapid increasing use of radiography procedures during two past decades have been concerned due to the cancer risk associated with ionizing radiations. On the base of linear no-threshold (LNT model of dose-response curve, any level of exposure is dangerous. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA is the main target of ionizing radiation. For radiological exposure with low dose, the stochastic effects such as genetic damages and leukemia are concerned. According to the recommendations of the radiation protection regulatory organizations, radiological procedure must be done with respect to social and economic factors in which exposure of patient and population kept as low as reasonable and achievable. Hence, prescription of a radiological test is acceptable only when its advantages are higher than its damages. Optimizing the different parameters such as: collimating the primary beam field to the area of

  5. NEUTRON CAPTURE GAMMA RAY FIELD WITH ENERGY TO 10 MeV FOR METROLOGICAL SUPPORT OF RADIATION PROTECTION DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Komar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical, and technological linear particle accelerators, and nuclear reactors are vastly widespread worldwide today. These facility generate fields of secondary gamma radiation with energy to 10 MeV. Therefore, we have a need to calibrate spectrometric and dosimetric ionization measurement instruments for the energies to 10 MeV. The aim of this work is to determine possibility to use thermal neutron collimator of АТ140 Neutron Calibration Facility with 238Pu-Be fast neutron source (IBN-8-6 for this. Below 3 MeV we use a set of point gamma standard spectrometry sources OSGI. We can acquire gamma rays with energies above 3 MeV using radioactive thermal neutron capture on target, i.e. (n, γ-nuclear reaction. We can use neutron capture gamma-ray from titanium target (to 7 MeV or nickel target (to 10 MeV situated in thermal neutron field for calibration. We can use thermal neutron collimator of АТ140 Neutron Calibration Facility with 238Pu-Be fast neutron source (IBN-8-6 for slowing down neutrons from radionuclide fast neutron sources to thermal energies in polyethylene. Thermal neutron collimator forms a beam from radionuclide source with a significant amount of neutrons with thermal energies. We placed Ti and Ni targets in collimator’s canal. We got experimental spectral data on detection unit BDKG-19M NaI(Tl 63 × 160 mm with nonlinear channel-energy conversion characteristic in range to 10 MeV. For additional filtration we proposed to use polyethylene neutron reflector and lead discs. We experimentally determined that placement of lead discs in collimator in front of the target allows to filter all spectrum while insignificantly weakening target’s emission. Using theoretical and experimental data we proved the ability to calibrate gamma-ray spectrometers in the range to 10 MeV. 

  6. Quantum optical dipole radiation fields

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, Adam

    2016-01-01

    We introduce quantum optical dipole radiation fields defined in terms of photon creation and annihilation operators. These fields are identified through their spatial dependence, as the components of the total fields that survive infinitely far from the dipole source. We use these radiation fields to perturbatively evaluate the electromagnetic radiated energy-flux of the excited dipole. Our results indicate that the standard interpretation of a bare atom surrounded by a localised virtual photon cloud, is difficult to sustain, because the radiated energy-flux surviving infinitely far from the source contains virtual contributions. It follows that there is a clear distinction to be made between a radiative photon defined in terms of the radiation fields, and a real photon, whose identification depends on whether or not a given process conserves the free energy. This free energy is represented by the difference between the total dipole-field Hamiltonian and its interaction component.

  7. Training in Radiation Protection for Interventional Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vano, E.; Guibelalde, E.

    2002-07-01

    Several potential problems have been detected in the safety aspects for the practice of interventional radiology procedures: a) An important increase in the number cases and their complexity and the corresponding increase of installations and specialists involved; b) New X ray systems more sophisticated, with advanced operational possibilities, requiring special skills in the operators to obtain the expected benefits;c) New medical specialists arriving to the interventional arena to profit the benefits of the interventional techniques without previous experience in radiation protection. For that reason, education and training is one of the basic areas in any optimisation programme in radiation protection (RP). the medical field and especially interventional radiology requires actions to promote and to profit the benefit of the new emerging technologies for training (Internet, electronic books, etc). The EC has recently sponsored the MARTIR programme (Multimedia and Audio-visual Radiation Protection Training in Interventional Radiology) with the production of two videos on basic aspects of RP and quality control and one interactive CD-ROM to allow tailored individual training programmes. those educational tools are being distributed cost free in the main European languages. To go ahead with these actions, the EC has decided to promote during 2002, a forum with the main Medical European Societies involved in these interventional procedures. (Author)

  8. New general radiation protection training course

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Some members of CERN personnel, users included, may have to work in supervised or controlled radiation areas, or may be concerned with activities involving the use of radioactive sources. According to CERN Safety rules all persons whose work may encounter ionising radiation risk must be adequately trained. This training must ensure that workers are informed about the potential health risks which could result from radiation exposure, about the basic principles of radiation protection and of the relevant radiation protection regulations as well as about safe working methods and techniques in radiation zones. Therefore the Organization organises mandatory general and work-specific radiation protection (RP) courses addressed to its personnel. These courses are also open to contractors’ personnel, in addition to the RP training they must receive from their employers. Based on the results of a pilot project, an improved general radiation protection course has been prepared. This...

  9. New general radiation protection training course

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Some members of CERN personnel, including users, may have to work in supervised or controlled radiation areas, or may be involved in activities involving the use of radioactive sources. According to CERN Safety Rules all persons whose work may be associated with ionising radiation risk must be adequately trained. This training must ensure that workers are informed about the potential health risks which could result from radiation exposure, the basic principles of radiation protection and the relevant radiation protection regulations as well as safe working methods and techniques in radiation zones. Therefore the Organization organises mandatory general and work-specific radiation protection (RP) courses for its personnel. These courses are also open to contractors’ personnel, in addition to the RP training they must receive from their employers. Based on the results of a pilot project, an improved general radiation protection course has been prepared. This new ½ day cours...

  10. Nevada National Security Site Radiation Protection Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-04-30

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, “Occupational Radiation Protection,” establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This RPP section consists of general statements that are applicable to the NNSS as a whole. The RPP also includes a series of appendices which provide supporting detail for the associated NNSS Tennant Organizations (TOs). Appendix H, “Compliance Demonstration Table,” contains a cross-walk for the implementation of 10 CFR 835 requirements. This RPP does not contain any exemptions from the established 10 CFR 835 requirements. The RSPC and TOs are fully compliant with 10 CFR 835 and no additional funding is required in order to meet RPP commitments. No new programs or activities are needed to meet 10 CFR 835 requirements and there are no anticipated impacts to programs or activities that are not included in the RPP. There are no known constraints to implementing the RPP. No guides or technical standards are adopted in this RPP as a means to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 835.

  11. Study of Neutron and Gamma Radiation Protective Shield

    OpenAIRE

    Eskandar Asadi Amirabadi; Marzieh Salimi; Nima Ghal-Eh; Gholam Reza Etaati; Hossien Asadi

    2013-01-01

    Due to the development of nuclear technology and use of these technologies in various fields of industry, medicine, research and etc, protection against radioactive rays is one of the most important topics in this field .The purpose of this is to reduce the dose rate from radioactive sources. The sources in terms of components are emitted various types of nuclear radiation with different energies. These radiations are involving of alpha particles, beta, and neutron and gamma radiation. Given ...

  12. Biological research for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Shim, Hae Won; Oh, Tae Jeong; Park, Seon Young; Lee, Kang Suk

    2000-04-01

    The work scope of Biological research for the radiation protection had contained the search of biological microanalytic methods for assessing the health effect by {gamma}-radiation and toxic agents, the standardization of human T-lymphocyte cell culture and polymerase chain reaction, T-cell clonal assay, and the quantification of mutation frequency in the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene locus by single exposure or combined exposure. Especially, the polymerase chain reaction methods using reverse transcriptase has been developed to analyze the mutant gene induced by {gamma}-radiation and chemical (pentachlorophenol) agent exposure, and to investigate the point mutations in the HPRT gene locus of T-lymphocytes. The HPRT T-cell clonal assay revealed that it could not differentiate {gamma}-irradiation from pentachlorophenol, because the frequency of somatic mutations induced by both damaging agents increased in a dose-dependent manner. The analysis of DNA sequence alterations of HPRT mutant clones clearly showed that both damaging agents induced different mutational spectra in the HPRT locus of T-cells. The large deletions, which account for 75 percent of the analyzed mutants, are characteristic mutations induced by {gamma}-irradiation. By contrast, point mutations such as base substitutions and insertion, come up to 97 percent in the case of pentachlorophenol-treated cells. The point mutation frequencies at 190 base pair and 444 base pair positions are 3-6 folds as high as in those at other mutation positions. It may be that these mutation sites are hot spots induced by pentachlorophenol. These results suggest that the HPRT mutation spectrum can be used as a potential bio marker for assessing a specific environmental risk. (author)

  13. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

    2007-08-09

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

  14. Radiation protection at synchrotron radiation facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J C; Vylet, V

    2001-01-01

    A synchrotron radiation (SR) facility typically consists of an injector, a storage ring, and SR beamlines. The latter two features are unique to SR facilities, when compared to other types of accelerator facilities. The SR facilities have the characteristics of low injection beam power, but high stored beam power. The storage ring is generally above ground with people occupying the experimental floor around a normally thin concrete ring wall. This paper addresses the radiation issues, in particular the shielding design, associated with the storage ring and SR beamlines. Normal and abnormal beam losses for injection and stored beams, as well as typical storage ring operation, are described. Ring shielding design for photons and neutrons from beam losses in the ring is discussed. Radiation safety issues and shielding design for SR beamlines, considering gas bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation, are reviewed. Radiation source terms and the methodologies for shielding calculations are presented.

  15. Measures of the French Society of Radiology in the field of radiation protection; Actions de la Societe francaise de radiologie dans le domaine de la radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducou Le Pointe, Hubert [service de radiologie, Hopital d' enfants Armand-Trousseau, 28 Avenue du Docteur Arnold Netter, 75012 Paris (France)

    2011-07-15

    The SFR (French Society of Radiology), its regional delegations, in partnership with the organ societies and federations, and its radiation protection group, are working on various radiation protection topics, especially justification and optimisation. Their work in these areas involves: - drafting and publishing guides (correct use of medical imaging examinations, radiological procedures and practical guidelines to help radiologists assess their professional practices); - organizing continuous medical training and promoting research; - informing the patients about imaging examinations and the use of ionising radiation; - remaining in close contact with official organisations and taking part in international programmes. (author)

  16. Operational radiation protection in high-energy physics accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokni, S H; Fassò, A; Liu, J C

    2009-11-01

    An overview of operational radiation protection (RP) policies and practices at high-energy electron and proton accelerators used for physics research is presented. The different radiation fields and hazards typical of these facilities are described, as well as access control and radiation control systems. The implementation of an operational RP programme is illustrated, covering area and personnel classification and monitoring, radiation surveys, radiological environmental protection, management of induced radioactivity, radiological work planning and control, management of radioactive materials and wastes, facility dismantling and decommissioning, instrumentation and training.

  17. On Divergence in Radiation Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Fricke, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Three thought experiments demonstrate that under certain circumstances radiation fields have to be attenuated or amplified multiplicatively in order not to violate the conservation of energy. Modulation of radiation by means other than superposition is theoretically made possible by plugging additional terms into the source slots of the Maxwell equations. Modulated radiation would enable the well focused stimulation of neurons for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  18. Radiation Protection in Medical Physics : Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Radiation Protection in Medical Physics Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Lemoigne, Yves

    2011-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental aspects of Radiation Protection in Medical Physics and covers three main themes: General Radiation Protection Principles; Radiobiology Principles; Radiation Protection in Hospital Medical Physics. Each of these topics is developed by analysing the underlying physics principles and their implementation, quality and safety aspects, clinical performance and recent advances in the field. Some issues specific to the individual techniques are also treated, e.g. calculation of patient dose as well as that of workers in hospital, optimisation of equipment used, shielding design of radiation facilities, radiation in oncology such as use of brachytherapy in gynecology or interventional procedures. All topics are presented with didactical language and style, making this book an appropriate reference for students and professionals seeking a comprehensive introduction to the field as well as a reliable overview of the most recent developments.

  19. Radiation protection in medical imaging and radiation oncology

    CERN Document Server

    Stoeva, Magdalena S

    2016-01-01

    Radiation Protection in Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology focuses on the professional, operational, and regulatory aspects of radiation protection. Advances in radiation medicine have resulted in new modalities and procedures, some of which have significant potential to cause serious harm. Examples include radiologic procedures that require very long fluoroscopy times, radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, and intravascular brachytherapy. This book summarizes evidence supporting changes in consensus recommendations, regulations, and health physics practices associated with these recent advances in radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiation oncology. It supports intelligent and practical methods for protection of personnel, the public, and patients. The book is based on current recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and is complemented by detailed practical sections and professional discussions by the world’s leading medical and health physics professionals. It also ...

  20. Protective effects in radiation modification of elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głuszewski, Wojciech; Zagórski, Zbigniew P.; Rajkiewicz, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Saturated character of ethylene/octene thermoplastic elastomers demands an application of nonconventional methods of crosslinking connections between chains of molecules. These are organic peroxides, usually in the presence of coagents or an application of ionizing radiation. Several approaches (radiation, peroxide, peroxide/plus radiation and radiation/plus peroxide) were applied in crosslinking of elastomere Engage 8200. Attention was directed to the protection effects by aromatic peroxides and by photo- and thermostabilizers on radiolysis of elastomers. Role of dose of radiation, dose rate of radiation as well as the role of composition of elastomere on the radiation yield of hydrogen and absorbtion of oxygen was investigated. DRS method was used to follow postirradiation degradation. Influence of crosslinking methods on properties of elastomers is described. Results were interpreted from the point of view of protective actions of aromatic compounds.

  1. Radiation Protection Group Annual Report 2003

    CERN Document Server

    Silari, M

    2004-01-01

    The RP Annual Report summarises the activities carried out by CERN’s Radiation Protection Group in the year 2003. It includes contribution from the EN section of the TIS/IE Group on environmental monitoring. Chapter 1 reports on the measurements and estimations of the impact on the environment and public exposure due to the Organisation’s activities. Chapter 2 provides the results of the monitoring of CERN’s staff, users and contractors to occupational exposure. Chapter 3 deals with operational radiation protection around the accelerators and in the experimental areas. Chapter 4 reports on RP design studies for the LHC and CNGS projects. Chapter 5 addresses the various services provided by the RP Group to other Groups and Divisions at CERN, which include managing radioactive waste, high-level dosimetry, lending radioactive test sources and shipping radioactive materials. Chapter 6 describes activities other than the routine and service tasks, i.e. development work in the field of instrumentation and res...

  2. Optimization of the workers radiation protection in the electro nuclear, industrial and medical fields; Optimisation de la radioprotection des travailleurs dans les domaines electronucleaire, industriel et medical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This conference is devoted to the radiation protection and the best way to optimize it. It reviews each area of the nuclear industry, and explores also the medical sector. Dosimetry, ALARA principle and new regulation are important points of this meeting. (N.C.)

  3. Chemical Protection Against Ionizing Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    experimentally obtained. SPONSOR: Div of Cancer Treatment, NIH /A TOPICS: 2D PI/ORG: Moss, Alfred J; Veterans Administration Ned Ctr, Little Rock AR TITLE...Robert C; Dartmouth- Hitchcock Ned Ctr, Hanover NH TITLE: Radiation-chemical induction of mutagenesis. SUMMARY: Effects of sensitizers on radiation

  4. Evaluation of radiation protection conditions in intraoral radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, Cristiano; Barros, Frieda Saicla; Rocha, Anna Silvia Penteado Setti da, E-mail: miguel_cristianoch@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (PPGEB/UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Biomedica; Tilly Junior, Joao Gilberto [Universidade Federal do Parana (UNIR/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Unidade de Imagem e Radioterapia; Almeida, Claudio Domingues de [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Medica

    2016-04-15

    Introduction: The dental radiology represents about 20% of human exposure to radiation in radio diagnostic. Although the doses practiced in intraoral dentistry are considered low, they should not be ignored due to the volume of the performed procedures. This study presents the radiation protection conditions for intraoral radiology in Curitiba - PR. Methods: Data was collected through a quantitative field research of a descriptive nature during the period between September of 2013 and December of 2014. The survey sample consisted of 97 dentists and 130 intraoral equipment. The data related to the equipment was collected using structured questions and quality control evaluations. The evaluations of the entrance skin dose, the size of the radiation field and the total filtration were performed with dosimetry kits provided and evaluated by IRD/CNEN. The exposure time and voltage were measured using noninvasive detectors. The occupational dose was verified by thermoluminescent dosimeters. The existence of personal protection equipment, the type of image processing and knowledge of dentists about radiation protection were verified through the application of a questionnaire. Results: Among the survey's results, it is important to emphasize that 90% of the evaluated equipment do not meet all the requirements of the Brazilian radiation protection standards. Conclusion: The lack of knowledge about radiation protection, the poor operating conditions of the equipment, and the image processing through visual method are mainly responsible for the unnecessary exposure of patients to ionizing radiation. (author)

  5. Evaluation of radiation protection conditions in intraoral radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Miguel

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The dental radiology represents about 20% of human exposure to radiation in radio diagnostic. Although the doses practiced in intraoral dentistry are considered low, they should not be ignored due to the volume of the performed procedures. This study presents the radiation protection conditions for intraoral radiology in Curitiba - PR. Methods Data was collected through a quantitative field research of a descriptive nature during the period between September of 2013 and December of 2014. The survey sample consisted of 97 dentists and 130 intraoral equipments. The data related to the equipments was collected using structured questions and quality control evaluations. The evaluations of the entrance skin dose, the size of the radiation field and the total filtration were performed with dosimetry kits provided and evaluated by IRD/CNEN. The exposure time and voltage were measured using noninvasive detectors. The occupational dose was verified by thermoluminescent dosimeters. The existence of personal protection equipment, the type of image processing and knowledge of dentists about radiation protection were verified through the application of a questionnaire. Results Among the survey's results, it is important to emphasize that 90% of the evaluated equipments do not meet all the requirements of the Brazilian radiation protection standards. Conclusion The lack of knowledge about radiation protection, the poor operating conditions of the equipments, and the image processing through visual method are mainly responsible for the unnecessary exposure of patients to ionizing radiation.

  6. Radiation. Protection. Health. Proceedings; Strahlen. Schutz. Gesundheit. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajek, Michael [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wien (Austria); Maringer, Franz Josef; Steurer, Andreas [Bundesamt fuer Eich- und Vermessungswesen, Wien (Austria); Schwaiger, Martina [Seibersdorf Labor GmbH, Seibersdorf (Austria); Timal, Guenter (ed.) [Bundesministerium fuer Inneres, Wien (Austria)

    2015-07-01

    The topics of the meeting are the diagnostic and therapeutic application of ionizing radiations, the application of radiation in research, industry and engineering and radiation protection. The volume includes the following chapters: Radiation protection and society, radiation protection infrastructure, population and environment, metrology and measuring techniques, 1. Workshop on population and environment, NORM and radon, 2. Update: dose - extent of damage - limiting value definition, radiation protection for personnel (except medicine), radiation protection in medicine.

  7. Effective dose: a radiation protection quantity

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, H G

    2012-01-01

    Modern radiation protection is based on the principles of justification, limitation, and optimisation. Assessment of radiation risks for individuals or groups of individuals is, however, not a primary objective of radiological protection. The implementation of the principles of limitation and optimisation requires an appropriate quantification of radiation exposure. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has introduced effective dose as the principal radiological protection quantity to be used for setting and controlling dose limits for stochastic effects in the regulatory context, and for the practical implementation of the optimisation principle. Effective dose is the tissue weighted sum of radiation weighted organ and tissue doses of a reference person from exposure to external irradiations and internal emitters. The specific normalised values of tissue weighting factors are defined by ICRP for individual tissues, and used as an approximate age- and sex-averaged representation of th...

  8. Heavy ion radiobiology for hadrontherapy and space radiation protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Marco

    2004-12-01

    Research in the field of biological effects of heavy charged particles is needed for both heavy-ion therapy (hadrontherapy) and protection from the exposure to galactic cosmic radiation in long-term manned space missions. Although the exposure conditions (e.g. high- vs. low-dose rate) and relevant endpoints (e.g. cell killing vs. neoplastic transformation) are different in the two fields, it is clear that a substantial overlap exists in several research topics. Three such topics are discussed in this short review: individual radiosensitivity, mixed radiation fields, and late stochastic effects of heavy ions. In addition, researchers involved either in experimental studies on space radiation protection or heavy-ion therapy will basically use the same accelerator facilities. It seems to be important that novel accelerator facilities planned (or under construction) for heavy-ion therapy reserve a substantial amount of beamtime to basic studies of heavy-ion radiobiology and its applications in space radiation research.

  9. Protection contre les radiations recommandations

    CERN Document Server

    Claude, A; Kipfer, P; Bacq, Z

    Considérations générales ; mesures de sécurité vis-à-vis des sources de rayonnement externes ; mesures de sécurité vis-à-vis des radioisotopes ; étude spéciale de la protection dans quelques cas particuliers ; mesures de sécurité vis-à-vis des neutrons ; mesures de protection pour les appareils de supervoltage ; appareils physiques de mesure et de contrôle pour la protection.

  10. Beta emitters and radiation protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars

    2009-01-01

    preparing 90Y-Zevalin were measured. CONCLUSIONS. Good laboratory practice is important to keep radiation doses low. To reduce bremsstrahlung, 90Y should not be shielded by lead but instead perspex (10 mm) or aluminium (5 mm). Bremsstrahlung radiation can be further reduced by adding a millimetre of lead......, and 90Y, using data from a freely available database. Bremsstrahlung yields were calculated for 90Y shielded by lead, aluminium, or perspex. Bremsstrahlung spectrum from 90Y shielded by perspex was measured, and attenuation of spectrum by lead was calculated. Whole-body and finger doses to persons...

  11. Management information system on radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Souza, Leonardo Soares de; Figueiredo, Geraldo Magela, E-mail: pabloag@cdtn.b, E-mail: lss@cdtn.b, E-mail: gmf@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Considering the flux complexity and the multi source information of all radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations, an effective management information system based on technology, information and people is necessary to improve the safety on all processes and operations subjected to radiation risks. An effective management information system is an essential tool to highlight the strengths and weaknesses and identify behaviors and trends on the activities requiring radiation protection programs. Such kind of distinct knowledge is useful to reach an effective management and support the human decision-making on nuclear organization. This paper presents a management information system based on Brazilian directives and regulations on radiation protection. Due to its generic characteristics, this radiation protection control system can be implemented on any nuclear organization by reediting the non restricted parameters which could differ considering all facilities and laboratories expected on-site with diverse technologies applications. This system can be considered as a powerful tool applied on the continuous management of radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations and research institutes as well as for long term planning, not only indicating how the safety activities are going, but why they are not going as well as planned where that is the case. (author)

  12. Radiation Protection Elephants in the Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, R. J.

    2004-07-01

    As our system of radiological protection evolves, several significant issues loom within radiation protection discussions and publications. These issues influence the nature of epidemiological and radiobiological research and the establishment of radiation protection recommendations, standards, and regulations. These issues are like the proverbial ''elephants in the room''. They are large, and it is unwise to ignore them. This paper discusses the impact of three young elephants as they make their presence increasingly obvious: increased cancer susceptibility from early-life exposure to radiation, terrorism and fear of radiation, and patient safety. Increased cancer susceptibility from early-life exposure to radiation is emerging as a discussion topic related to the safety of computed tomography (CT) and other medical modalities. Shortly after publication of CT dose data, manufacturers were helping to reduce doses to children by increasing flexibility for adjustment of technique factors. Also, radiation epidemiological data are being used in the development of guidance on exposure to chemical carcinogens during early life. Re-emergence of public fear of radiation has been fueled by threats of radiological dispersion devises and confusing messages about personal decontamination, emergency room acceptance or rejection of contaminated victims, and environmental clean-up. Finally, several professional publications have characterized risk of medical radiation exposure in terms of patient deaths even though epidemiological data do not support such conclusions. All three of these elephants require excellent science and sophisticated data analysis to coax them from the room. Anecdotal communications that confuse the public should be avoided. These are not the only elephants in the room, but these three are making their presence increasingly obvious. This paper discusses the need for radiation protection professionals to rely on good science in the

  13. Radiation Protection and Dosimetry An Introduction to Health Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stabin, Michael G

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive text provides an overview of all relevant topics in the field of radiation protection (health physics). Radiation Protection and Dosimetry serves as an essential handbook for practicing health physics professionals, and is also ideal as a teaching text for courses at the university level. The book is organized to introduce the reader to basic principles of radiation decay and interactions, to review current knowledge and historical aspects of the biological effects of radiation, and to cover important operational topics such as radiation shielding and dosimetry. In addition to presenting the most up to date treatment of the topics and references to the literature, most chapters contain numerical problems with their solutions for use in teaching or self assessment. One chapter is devoted to Environmental Health Physics, which was written in collaboration with leading professionals in the area.

  14. Beta emitters and radiation protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars

    2009-01-01

    , and 90Y, using data from a freely available database. Bremsstrahlung yields were calculated for 90Y shielded by lead, aluminium, or perspex. Bremsstrahlung spectrum from 90Y shielded by perspex was measured, and attenuation of spectrum by lead was calculated. Whole-body and finger doses to persons...... preparing 90Y-Zevalin were measured. CONCLUSIONS. Good laboratory practice is important to keep radiation doses low. To reduce bremsstrahlung, 90Y should not be shielded by lead but instead perspex (10 mm) or aluminium (5 mm). Bremsstrahlung radiation can be further reduced by adding a millimetre of lead......BACKGROUND. Beta emitters, such as 90Y, are increasingly being used for cancer treatment. However, beta emitters demand other precautions than gamma emitters during preparation and administration, especially concerning shielding. AIM. To discuss practical precautions for handling beta emitters...

  15. Evaluation of radiation protection conditions in intraoral radiology

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiano Miguel; Frieda Saicla Barros; Anna Silvia Penteado Setti da Rocha; João Gilberto Tilly Junior; Cláudio Domingues de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The dental radiology represents about 20% of human exposure to radiation in radio diagnostic. Although the doses practiced in intraoral dentistry are considered low, they should not be ignored due to the volume of the performed procedures. This study presents the radiation protection conditions for intraoral radiology in Curitiba - PR. Methods Data was collected through a quantitative field research of a descriptive nature during the period between September of 2013 a...

  16. Applying radiation health effects data to radiation protection policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muckerheide, James [Center for Nuclear Technology and Society at WPI, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Data from the peer-reviewed scientific literature establish a sound basis to define a low-dose, low-dose-rate, dose-response. These data include human health dose-response studies; immunologically 'whole' animal studies; and cellular and molecular biological studies of complete biological systems for the relevant immunological and physiological responses. Initiatives are required to constructively apply these data to both radiation research and radiation protection policies. First, current low level radiation health effects research must apply existing data to define research projects to integrate and confirm existing dose-response data, with specific emphasis on the biological bases that exist in definitive and reproducible cellular and biological dose-response. Second, dose-response assessment must identify and incorporate all existing substantial and confirmed data, including natural radiation sources, to establish the bases for radiation protection policy for interventions to protect public health and safety. A preliminary assessment of these data is applied to: 1) Specify research that can be constructively applied to describe radiation health effects dose-response. 2) Apply health effects dose-response to radiation and radioactivity applications policies to maximize radiation health effects interventions for occupational applications, medical applications, and other radiation and radioactive materials applications controls to cost-effectively assure public health and safety. An assessment of the proposed revisions to ICRP radiation protection policies is provided that associates the basis for administrative limits with the previous proposal of the US NRC for a 'Below Regulatory Concern' (BRC) policy. This proposal ignores the context of the fact that very low levels of radiation exposure are far within the variations of natural radiation exposures, and therefore can have no gross net consequences. The equivalent failure of the BRC proposal

  17. National congress of radiation protection; Congres national de radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The congress of radiation protection tackled different areas of radiation protection. The impact of ionizing radiations on environment coming from radioactive activities. The biological radiation effects, the dosimetry, the different ways of doing relative to radiation protection,the risks analysis and the communications with populations, information about accidents and the lessons learned from them are included in this congress. (N.C.)

  18. Radiation Protection at Light Water Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Prince, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This book is aimed at Health Physicists wishing to gain a better understanding of the principles and practices associated with a light water reactor (LWR) radiation protection program. The role of key program elements is presented in sufficient detail to assist practicing radiation protection professionals in improving and strengthening their current program. Details related to daily operation and discipline areas vital to maintaining an effective LWR radiation protection program are presented. Programmatic areas and functions important in preventing, responding to, and minimizing radiological incidents and the importance of performing effective incident evaluations and investigations are described. Elements that are integral in ensuring continuous program improvements are emphasized throughout the text.

  19. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

    1983-03-01

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

  20. THE MAIN TRENDS OF INTERACTION BETWEEN THE ADMINISTRATION OF ROSPOTREBNADZOR IN THE LENINGRAD REGION AND THE GOVERNMENT OF LENINGRAD REGION IN THE FIELD OF POPULATION RADIATION PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Gorbanev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the main interaction trends of the Administration of Rospotrebnadzor in the Leningrad Region and the Government of Leningrad Region regarding issues of regional radiation protection. It reports on comprehensive measures devoted to the limitation of the population exposure from natural irradiation sources, monitoring of territories which suffered from Chernobyl NPP accident and monitoring of the environmental impact of unauthorized dumps and solid municipal waste sites in the Leningrad Region. It presents the basic issues of medical exposure limitation in the Leningrad Region and measures for their solving.

  1. Building Protection Against External Ionizing Fallout Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homann, Steven G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    A nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill tens to hundreds of thousands of people through exposure to fallout (external gamma) radiation. Existing buildings can protect their occupants (reducing external radiation exposures) by placing material and distance between fallout particles and indoor individuals. This protection is not well captured in current fallout risk assessment models and so the US Department of Defense is implementing the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology to improve the ability of the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) model to account for building protection. This report supports the HPAC improvement effort by identifying a set of building attributes (next page) that, when collectively specified, are sufficient to calculate reasonably accurate, i.e., within a factor of 2, fallout shelter quality estimates for many individual buildings. The set of building attributes were determined by first identifying the key physics controlling building protection from fallout radiation and then assessing which building attributes are relevant to the identified physics. This approach was evaluated by developing a screening model (PFscreen) based on the identified physics and comparing the screening model results against the set of existing independent experimental, theoretical, and modeled building protection estimates. In the interests of transparency, we have developed a benchmark dataset containing (a) most of the relevant primary experimental data published by prior generations of fallout protection scientists as well as (b) the screening model results.

  2. Consequences of the new radiation protection law on the radiation protection register and the occupational radiation protection; Auswirkungen des neuen Strahlenschutzgesetzes auf das Strahlenschutzregister und die berufliche Strahlenueberwachung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frasch, Gerhard

    2017-08-01

    The implementation of the guideline 2013/59/EURATOM has been performed in the new radiation protection law. The most important consequences of the new radiation protection law for the occupational radiation protection are the following: the introduction of an explicit personal indicator and the actualization of occupational categories for employees. These facts require technical and administrative reorganization in data transmission of the licensee to the regulatory monitoring executive and the radiation protection register.

  3. Management of ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses, part 1: physics, radiation protection, and radiation instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Doran M; Jenkins, Mark S; Sugarman, Stephen L; Glassman, Erik S

    2014-03-01

    Ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses are exceedingly rare; therefore, most physicians have never managed such conditions. When confronted with a possible radiation injury or illness, most physicians must seek specialty consultation. Protection of responders, health care workers, and patients is an absolute priority for the delivery of medical care. Management of ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses, as well as radiation protection, requires a basic understanding of physics. Also, to provide a greater measure of safety when working with radioactive materials, instrumentation for detection and identification of radiation is needed. Because any health care professional could face a radiation emergency, it is imperative that all institutions have emergency response plans in place before an incident occurs. The present article is an introduction to basic physics, ionizing radiation, radiation protection, and radiation instrumentation, and it provides a basis for management of the consequences of a radiologic or nuclear incident.

  4. Conditions for radiation protection in industrial radiography

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The leaflet specifies radiation protection requirements for industrial radiography in Norway. The regulations are directed towards companies using or distributing sealed radioactive sources, x-ray equipment or accelerators in non-destructive material testing (NDT). Technical requirements to the equipment, as well as administrative requirements for use, licensing, qualifications, handling of accidents etc. are given. (Author)

  5. Radiation Protection Section (SC/SL/RP)

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to inform you that the Radiation Protection Section (SC/SL/RP) located on the Prévessin site has moved from Building 865 (ground floor) to new premises in Wing A of Building 892 (second floor). Telephone numbers remain the same. SC/SL/RP section

  6. Thermoluminescence Dosimetry Applied to Radiation Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Majborn, Benny

    1982-01-01

    This is a general review of the present state of the development and application of thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) for radiation protection purposes. A description is given of commonly used thermoluminescent dosimeters and their main dosimetric properties, e.g. energy response, dose range...

  7. Special radiation protection aspects of medical accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Silari, Marco

    2001-01-01

    Radiation protection aspects relevant to medical accelerators are discussed. An overview is first given of general safety requirements. Next. shielding and labyrinth design are discussed in some detail for the various types of accelerators, devoting more attention to hadron machines as they are far less conventional than electron linear accelerators. Some specific aspects related to patient protection are also addressed. Finally, induced radioactivity in accelerator components and shielding walls is briefly discussed. Three classes of machines are considered: (1) medical electron linacs for 'conventional' radiation therapy. (2) low energy cyclotrons for production of radionuclides mainly for medical diagnostics and (3) medium energy cyclotrons and synchrotrons for advanced radiation therapy with protons or light ion beams (hadron therapy). (51 refs).

  8. Radiation protection in Uruguay. The role of the Uruguayan radiation protection association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, D.E. [University of the Republic, Faculty of Law, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2000-05-01

    regulation, promotion and development. The paper will study that this does not follow international recommendations and as Uruguay has not nuclear plants for energy will be better to have a body which depends directly on the Presidence of the Republic because it will have strong links with many Ministries as Labour, Environment, Public Health and others and in this way it will give more confidence to the public. The role of the Uruguayan Radiation Protection Association: On April 1998 Uruguayan professionals of different areas of Radiation Protection created the Association Uruguaya de Radioprotection (A.U.R.) in order to work together with the objective of improving radiation protection in Uruguay. Since April 1999 we are member of the IRPA family. Members of AUR are interested on improving radiation protection in Uruguay so we work in order to cooperate with this desire as an essential need in the field of nuclear technology. Last month we finished a project of Radiation Protection Act and we presented it to the authorities. This Act will be study in this paper. It follows international recommendations. (author)

  9. Radiation protection in Swiss nuclear installations; Strahlenschutz in Schweizer Kernanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, J.; Brunell, M. [Eidgenoessisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat ENSI, Brugg (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    Well developed measures on operational radiation protection within Swiss nuclear installations will be presented. The focus lays on competent authority actions. Results of the last ten years, including events on radiation issues, will be discussed. Finally a view on challenges for radiation protection personnel with respect to a renewed Swiss radiation protection legislation based on recent ICRP recommendations will be given.

  10. Mechanisms of radiation interaction with DNA: Potential implications for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, W.K.; Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of presentations and discussions which took place at the US Department of Energy/Commission of European Communities (DOE/CEC) workshop on ''Mechanisms of Radiation Interaction with DNA: Potential Implications for Radiation Protection,'' held at San Diego, California, January 21-22, 1987, is provided. The Department has traditionally supported fundamental research on interactions of ionizing radiation with different biological systems and at all levels of biological organization. The aim of this workshop was to review the base of knowledge in the area of mechanisms of radiation action at the DNA level, and to explore ways in which this information can be applied to the development of scientifically sound concepts and procedures for use in the field of radiation protection.

  11. Chemical protection against ionizing radiation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livesey, J.C.; Reed, D.J.; Adamson, L.F.

    1984-08-01

    The scientific literature on radiation-protective drugs is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms involved in determining the sensitivity of biological material to ionizing radiation and mechanisms of chemical radioprotection. In Section I, the types of radiation are described and the effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems are reviewed. The effects of ionizing radiation are briefly contrasted with the effects of non-ionizing radiation. Section II reviews the contributions of various natural factors which influence the inherent radiosensitivity of biological systems. Inlcuded in the list of these factors are water, oxygen, thiols, vitamins and antioxidants. Brief attention is given to the model describing competition between oxygen and natural radioprotective substances (principally, thiols) in determining the net cellular radiosensitivity. Several theories of the mechanism(s) of action of radioprotective drugs are described in Section III. These mechanisms include the production of hypoxia, detoxication of radiochemical reactive species, stabilization of the radiobiological target and the enhancement of damage repair processes. Section IV describes the current strategies for the treatment of radiation injury. Likely areas in which fruitful research might be performed are described in Section V. 495 references.

  12. Biological research for the radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Chan Kug; Shim, Hae Won; Jung, Il Lae; Byun, Hee Sun; Moon, Myung Sook; Cho, Hye Jeong; Kim, Jin Sik

    2003-04-01

    The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about polyamine effect on cell death triggered ionizing radiation, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and toxic agents. In this paper, to elucidate the role of polyamines as mediator in lysosomal damage and stress(H{sub 2}O{sub 2})- induced apoptosis, we utilized {alpha}-DiFluoroMethylOrnithine (DFMO), which inhibited ornithine decarboxylase and depleted intracellular putrescine, and investigated the effects of polyamine on the apoptosis caused by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, ionizing radiation and paraquat. We also showed that MGBG, inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis, treatment affected intracellular redox steady states, intracellular ROS levels and protein oxidation. Thereafter we also investigated whether MGBG may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation or H{sub 2}O{sub 2} because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing effects. In addition, ceruloplasmin and thioredoxin, possible antioxidant proteins, were shown to have protective effect on radiation- or H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(or chemicals)-induced macromolecular damage or cell death.

  13. Radiation Protection Using Carbon Nanotube Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conyers, Jodie L., Jr.; Moore, Valerie C.; Casscells, S. Ward

    2010-01-01

    BHA and BHT are well-known food preservatives that are excellent radical scavengers. These compounds, attached to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), could serve as excellent radical traps. The amino-BHT groups can be associated with SWNTs that have carbolyxic acid groups via acid-base association or via covalent association. The material can be used as a means of radiation protection or cellular stress mitigation via a sequence of quenching radical species using nano-engineered scaffolds of SWNTs and their derivatives. It works by reducing the number of free radicals within or nearby a cell, tissue, organ, or living organism. This reduces the risk of damage to DNA and other cellular components that can lead to chronic and/or acute pathologies, including (but not limited to) cancer, cardiovascular disease, immuno-suppression, and disorders of the central nervous system. These derivatives can show an unusually high scavenging ability, which could prove efficacious in protecting living systems from radical-induced decay. This technique could be used to protect healthy cells in a living biological system from the effects of radiation therapy. It could also be used as a prophylactic or antidote for radiation exposure due to accidental, terrorist, or wartime use of radiation- containing weapons; high-altitude or space travel (where radiation exposure is generally higher than desired); or in any scenario where exposure to radiation is expected or anticipated. This invention s ultimate use will be dependent on the utility in an overall biological system where many levels of toxicity have to be evaluated. This can only be assessed at a later stage. In vitro toxicity will first be assessed, followed by in vivo non-mammalian screening in zebra fish for toxicity and therapeutic efficacy.

  14. The gender problem in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Lars [Nobel Inst. of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    Gender is a range of characteristics used to distinguish between males and females, particularly in the cases of men and women and the masculine and feminine attributes assigned to them. While the social sciences sometimes approach gender as a social construct, and some gender studies particularly do, research in the natural and medical sciences investigates whether biological differences in males and females influence the development of gender in humans. Radiation protection regulations also take into account the possibly different radiation risks of males and females. The following contribution investigates how far this is justified, and what are the consequences. (orig.)

  15. Gravitational radiation resistance, radiation damping and field fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, G.

    1981-03-01

    Application is made of two different generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorems and their derivations to the calculation of the gravitational quadrupole radiation resistance using the radiation-reaction force given by Misner, Thorne and Wheeler and the usual tidal force on one hand and the tidal force and the free gravitational radiation field on the other hand. The quantum-mechanical version (including thermal generalizations) of the well known classical quadrupole radiation damping formula is obtained as a function of the radiation resistance.

  16. Antihistamine provides sex-specific radiation protection. [Ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickley, G.A.

    1981-04-01

    Rats suffer an early transient performance decrement immediately after a sufficiently large dose of ionizing radiation. However, it has been shown that males experience a more severe incapacitation than females. This sex difference has been attributed to the low estrogen levels in the male. In support of this notion, supplemental estrogens in castrated male rats have produced less-severe performance decrements post-irradiation. Antihistamines have also previously been shown to alleviate radiation's effect on behavior. The present study revealed that antihistamines are only effective in altering the behavioral incapacitation of sexually intact male subjects. This contrasts with previous work which indicates that estrogens can only benefit gonadectomized rats. These findings suggest that different mechanisms may underlie antihistamine and estrogen radiation protection.

  17. Science Goals in Radiation Protection for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francs A.

    2008-01-01

    Space radiation presents major challenges to future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Health risks of concern include cancer, degenerative and performance risks to the central nervous system, heart and lens, and the acute radiation syndromes. The galactic cosmic rays (GCR) contain high energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, which have been shown to cause qualitatively distinct biological damage compared to terresterial radiation, such as X-rays or gamma-rays, causing risk estimates to be highly uncertain. The biological effects of solar particle events (SPE) are similar to terresterial radiation except for their biological dose-rate modifiers; however the onset and size of SPEs are difficult to predict. The high energies of GCR reduce the effectiveness of shielding, while SPE s can be shielded however the current gap in radiobiological knowledge hinders optimization. Methods used to project risks on Earth must be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting health risks from space radiation, and thus impact mission requirements and costs. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies probabilistic risk assessments and uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts and to mission design. The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in radiation risk projection models. Exploration science goals in radiation protection are centered on ground-based research to achieve the necessary biological knowledge, and in the development of new technologies to improve SPE monitoring and optimize shielding. Radiobiology research is centered on a ground based program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and HZE nuclei at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

  18. Melatonin as Protection Against Radiation Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetner, D; Andersen, L P H; Rosenberg, J

    2016-01-01

    -hormone melatonin is a free radical scavenger, and induces several anti-oxidative enzymes. This review investigates the scientific literature on the protective effects of melatonin against exposure to ionizing radiation, and discusses the clinical potential of melatonin as prophylactic treatment against ionizing...... radiation damage. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed and included experimental or clinical studies written in English that investigated the protective effects of melatonin against gamma or X-ray irradiation in vivo. Studies were excluded if patients were treated with chemotherapy...... concomitantly. Results: 37 studies were included in the review. All were of experimental case-control design and employed animals. The studies demonstrated that exogenous melatonin reduced oxidative stress and inflammation in all investigated tissues. Furthermore, melatonin increased 30-day survival...

  19. New radiation protection calibration facility at CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, Markus; Carbonez, Pierre; Pozzi, Fabio; Silari, Marco; Vincke, Helmut

    2014-10-01

    The CERN radiation protection group has designed a new state-of-the-art calibration laboratory to replace the present facility, which is >20 y old. The new laboratory, presently under construction, will be equipped with neutron and gamma sources, as well as an X-ray generator and a beta irradiator. The present work describes the project to design the facility, including the facility placement criteria, the 'point-zero' measurements and the shielding study performed via FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. Contribution to developing the environment radiation protection methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudalova, A. [Institute of Atomic Power Engineering NRNU MEPhI (Russian Federation); Alexakhin, R.; Dubynina, M. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The environment sustainable development and biota protection, including the environment radiation protection are issues of nowadays interest in the society. An activity is ongoing on the development of a system of radiation protection for non-human biota. Anthropocentric and eco-centric principles are widely discussed. ICRP Publications 103, 108, 114 and many other reports and articles refer to the topic of environmental protection, reference animals and plants set, corresponding transfer parameters, dose models and derived consideration reference levels. There is still an open field for discussion of methods and approaches to get well-established procedure to assess environmental risks of radiation impacts to different organisms, populations and ecosystems. A huge work has been done by the ICRP and other organizations and research groups to develop and systematize approaches for this difficult subject. This activity, however, is not everywhere well-known and perceived, and more efforts are needed to bring ideas of eco-centric strategy in the environment radiation protection not only to public but to specialists in many countries as well. One of the main points of interest is an assessment of critical doses and doses rates for flora and fauna species. Some aspects of a possible procedure to find their estimates are studied in this work, including criteria for datasets of good quality, models of dose dependence, sensitivity of different umbrella endpoints and methods of original massive datasets treatment. Estimates are done based on information gathered in a database on radiation-induced effects in plants. Data on biological effects in plants (umbrella endpoints of reproductive potential, survival, morbidity, morphological, biochemical, and genetic effects) in dependence on dose and dose rates of ionizing radiation have been collected from reviewed publications and maintained in MS Access format. The database now contains about 7000 datasets and 25000 records

  1. Antihistamine provides sex-specific radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickley, G.A.

    1981-04-01

    Rats suffer an early transient performance decrement immediately after a sufficiently large dose of ionizing radiation. However, it has been shown that males experience a more severe incapacitation than females. This sex difference has been attributed to the low estrogen levels in the male. In support of this notion, supplemental estrogens in castrated male rats have produced less-severe performance decrements post-irradiation. Antihistamines have also previously been shown to alleviate radiation's effect on behavior. The present study revealed that antihistamines are only effective in altering the behavioral incapacitation of sexually intact male subjects. This contrasts with previous work which indicates that estrogens can only benefit gonadectomized rats. These findings suggest that different mechanisms may underly antihistamine and estrogen radiation protection.

  2. RADIATION ENVIRONMENT, ORGANIZATION AND PROVIDING OF POPULATION RADIATION PROTECTION CONTROL IN ST. PETBURG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Rakitin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of radiation environment and work experience of Rospotrebnadzor Administration in St. Petersburg in the field of organizing of population radiation protection control and interaction with the local government executive bodies. It shows the level and structure of the city population collective doses from the main dose forming ionizing irradiation sources. It emphasizes the integrated method of solving the population exposure limitation issues based on the results of radiation-hygienic passport system and on the data from Uniform State System for Doses Control and Registration. The evaluation of the work being carried out is given.

  3. Radiation protection and radiation safety: CERN and its host states to sign a tripartite agreement.

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    On 15 November CERN and its Host States will sign a tripartite agreement that replaces the existing bilateral agreements in matters of radiation protection and radiation safety at CERN. It will provide, for the first time, a single forum where the three parties will discuss how maximum overall safety can best be achieved in the specific CERN context.   CERN has always maintained close collaboration with its Host States in matters of safety. “The aim of this collaboration is especially to ensure best practice in the field of radiation protection and the safe operation of CERN’s facilities”, explains Ralf Trant, Head of the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection (HSE) Unit. Until today, CERN’s collaboration with its Host States was carried out under two sets of bilateral agreements: depending on which side of the French-Swiss border they were being carried out on, a different framework applied to the same activities. This approach has b...

  4. Evaluation of radiation protection principles observance in Iranian dental schools

    OpenAIRE

    GhazikhanlouSani K.; Eskandarlou A

    2009-01-01

    "nBackground and Aim: In recent decades many guidelines has been conducted by radiation protection organizations about radiation protection in dentistry. This study was designed to evaluate the observance of these guidelines in educational clinics of all dental schools in Iran."nMaterials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study a questionnaire based on National Radiation Protection guidelines was conducted. The questionnaire consisted of questions about radiation protection princ...

  5. CHARM Facility Test Area Radiation Field Description

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Specification document summarising the radiation field of the CHARM facility test area. This will act as a guide to any potential users of the facility as to what they can expect in terms of radiation, given in the form of radiation spectra information and fluence for each test position, along with general radiation maps for the test area and Montrac test location.

  6. Information as a part of radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djurovic, B.; Misovic, M. [Military Medical Academy, Radiation Protection Dept., Belgrade Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia); Spasic-Jokic, V. [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Lab. of Physics, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia)

    2006-07-01

    The increasing range of application of ionizing radiation in many different areas requires the needs for further education and training. Unfortunately, some aspects of application of ionizing radiation are not planed and announced for all involved personnel-like in military conflicts, when radiation and radioactivity are used as a new kind of ammunition. In that situation there is no time for formal and planned education. During the NATO strikes on Serbia and Montenegro in 1999. depleted uranium (D.U.) ammunition was used. Before that, it was used in Gulf War in 1991. for the first time. Faced with the health consequences of Gulf War for the soldiers of both sides, which were mainly attributed to D.U., Military Medical Service in the Army of Serbia and Montenegro, prepared educational material for the soldiers who could be employed in the area of the D.U. contamination. Considering the information/knowledge as very important part of radiation protection, booklet was prepared and distributed before the NATO strikes on Serbia and Montenegro. In this paper we present the booklet prepared for the military personnel. In the simplified way the nature of D.U. is explained. Some practical aspects of protection and prevention in D.U. contaminated area-how to avoid and minimize radiological hazard of D.U. in the battlefield, as well as how to avoid long-term hazards of D.U., are presented. It is also explained when to ask for medical care and what kind of examination would be necessary in the case of D.U. contamination. 5AUTHORS.

  7. The radiation protection of workers. I.R.S.N.activities in 2005 in the field of radiation protection management; La radioprotection des travailleurs. Activites de l'IRSN en 2005 dans le domaine de la gestion de la radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rannou, A.; Ameon, R.; Boisson, P.; Clairand, I.; Couasnon, O.; Franck, D.; Scanff, P.; Rehel, J.L.; Thevenet, M

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the main work carried out by the Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (I.R.S.N.) in the year 2005 for the management of occupational radiological protection. it draws up an assessment for this same year of the occupational external exposures to ionizing radiation in France on the basis of passive dosimetry data transmitted to the I.R.S.N. by the approved dosimetry laboratories. (authors)

  8. The radiation protection of workers I.R.S.N. activity in 2005 in the field of the radiation protection management; La radioprotection des travailleurs Activite de l'IRSN en 2005 dans le domaine de la gestion de la radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rannou, A.; Ameon, R.; Boisson, P.; Clairand, I.; Couasnon, O.; Franck, D.; Scanff, P.; Rehel, J.L.; Thevenet, M

    2008-07-01

    This report presents the main work carried out by the Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (I.R.S.N.) in the year 2005 for the management of occupational radiological protection. It draws up an assessment for this same year of the occupational external exposures to ionizing radiation in France on the basis of passive dosimetry data transmitted to the I.R.S.N. by the approved dosimetric laboratories. (author)

  9. Educational programme on radiation protection for veterinary medicine specialists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djuric, G.; Popovic, D. [School of Veterinary Medicine, Dept. of Radiology and Radiation Hygiene and Dept. of Physics, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1992-07-01

    The education of radiation protection for veterinary medicine specialists on the University of Belgrade is integrated both in regular graduate studies and in postgraduate studies. Within the graduate studies, students attend courses in physics and biophysics and in radiation hygiene. During postgraduate or specialistic veterinary medicine studies, veterinary medicine specialists expand their knowledge in radiation protection through a number of courses on radiation biophysics, radioecology, nuclear instrumentation and environmental protection. (author)

  10. Improving standards of radiation protection in medical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginjaume, M.; Ortega, X. [Institute of Energy Technology, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya - UPC (Spain); Carinou, E. [Greek Atomic Energy Commission - GAEC (Greece); Vanhavere, F. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK.CEN (Belgium); Clairand, I. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France); Gualdrini, G. [Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie, l' Energia e l' Ambiente - ENEA (Italy); Sans-Merce, M. [University Hospital Center Vaudois - CHUV (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    The use of ionizing radiation has led to major improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of patients. However, new developments in medical technology and the increased complexity of medical radiation techniques can produce high doses to medical personnel. In particular, interventional radiology and cardiology and nuclear medicine have been identified as fields where medical staff can receive potentially high doses. Within this framework, the ORAMED project, a collaborative project funded by the EU FP7, proposes new methodologies to improve standards of protection for medical staff. The main studied topics presented in this paper include extremity and eye-lens protection in interventional radiology and cardiology, extremity dosimetry in nuclear medicine, especially in therapy and positron emission tomography, and the evaluation and the improvement of active personal dosemeters used in pulsed medical radiation fields. An extensive dose measurement campaign of doses received in extremities and eye-lenses in more than 60 hospitals from 9 European countries has been undertaken. The analysis of the results highlights the most critical procedures and the effectiveness of the protection measures. (authors)

  11. Medicinal protection with Chinese herb-compound against radiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R.J.; Qian, J.K.; Yang, G.H.; Wang, B.Z.; Wen, X.L. (Institute of Space Medico-Engineering, Beijing (China))

    1990-08-01

    Experiments were carried out on mice and the subjects irradiated for cancer therapy to evaluate the protective efficacy of a Chinese medicinal herb-compound (CMHC). The lethality and the degree of leucopenia caused by radiation in mice medicated with CMHC were significantly less in comparison with control mice (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). CMHC significantly improved the WBC and the thrombocytes in irradiated workers (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). The WBC count of 40 patients under radiotherapy while treated with CMHC recovered from 3450 +/- 77/c.mm to 5425 +/- 264/c.mm (p less than 0.001); whereas, in the control group, without any medication, the WBC count dropped significantly (p less than 0.001). Our results revealed the applicabilities of CMHC in protection against radiation damage in spaceflight and in other fields.

  12. The ICRP protection policy. The conceptual framework of radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, R.H. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    1997-08-01

    Within twelve months of the discovery of X-rays in 1895, it was reported that large doses of radioation were harmful to living human tissues. The first radiation protection standards were set to avoid the early effects of acute irradiation. By the 1950s, evidence was mounting for late somatic effects - mainly a small excess of cancers - in irradiated populations. In the late 1980s, sufficient human epidemiological and had been accumulated to allow a comprehensive assessment of carcinogenic radiation risks following the delivery of moderately high doses. Workers and the public are exposed to lower doses and dose-rates that the groups from whom good data are available so that risks have had to be estimated for protection purposes. However, in the 1990s, some confirmation of these risk factors has been derived from occupationally exposed populations. If an estimate is made of the risk per unit dose, then in order to restrict the doses that people receive, levels of acceptable risk must be estabilished for both workers and the public. There has been and continues to be a debate about the definitions of `acceptable`, `unacceptable` and `tolerable` and the attributing of numerical values to these definitions. The values differ as between normal operations, the potential for accidents, recovery of contaminated land, and for workers or the public. This paper discusses the issues involved in the quantification of these terms and the way in which the International Commission on Radiological Protection has used acceptability of risk in setting its new standards for protection. (orig.) [Deutsch] Innerhalb von zwoelf Monaten nach der Entdeckung der radioaktiven Strahlung im Jahre 1895 wurde deren schaedigende Wirkung auf menschliche Organismen festgestellt. Die ersten Strahlenschutzstandards wurden aufgestellt, um Schaeden durch eine unmittelbare Bestrahlung vorzubeugen. In den fuenfziger Jahren wurden Gesundheitsrisiken von Strahlung ausgesetzten Bevoelkerungsschichten

  13. Improving the radiation hardness of graphene field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrou, Konstantinos; Masurkar, Amrita; Edrees, Hassan; Wishart, James F.; Hao, Yufeng; Petrone, Nicholas; Hone, James; Kymissis, Ioannis

    2016-10-01

    Ionizing radiation poses a significant challenge to the operation and reliability of conventional silicon-based devices. Here, we report the effects of gamma radiation on graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs), along with a method to mitigate those effects by developing a radiation-hardened version of our back-gated GFETs. We demonstrate that activated atmospheric oxygen from the gamma ray interaction with air damages the semiconductor device, and damage to the substrate contributes additional threshold voltage instability. Our radiation-hardened devices, which have protection against these two effects, exhibit minimal performance degradation, improved stability, and significantly reduced hysteresis after prolonged gamma radiation exposure. We believe this work provides an insight into graphene's interactions with ionizing radiation that could enable future graphene-based electronic devices to be used for space, military, and other radiation-sensitive applications.

  14. Radiation protection and safety of workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindhe, J.C. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst. (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    This section briefly reviews the principles applicable to radiation protection and safety of workers, and methods that could be used to minimise occupational exposure in reclamation work. In considering the clean up of areas shortly after an accident, a decision would have to be made whether to implement clean-up actions early and thus cause higher occupational doses, or wait until short-lived isotopes have decayed and/or weathering has reduced the radiation levels. For example, the decision may be to stabilise the contamination using sprays to prevent re-suspension followed by a delay before actual clean-up starts. The timing of such actions would depend on many factors, including weather conditions, the area involved, equipment available and the competence of the work force. Means of reducing occupational exposure while carrying out the tasks should, as far as possible, be clearly defined in `work procedures`. In general, reductions in occupational exposure during operational tasks can be accomplished by the use of shielding and limiting the time that workers spend exposed to radiation. (au). 10 refs.

  15. Radiation protection guidelines for the skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    With the exception of the function of cells in the skin associated with immunocompetence nonstochastic effects have been well characterized and threshold doses are known with a precision appropriate for setting radiation protection standards. A dose limitation of 0.5 Sv per year and a working lifetime dose limit of 20 Sv should protect the worker population adequately and therefore, the current protection standards are quite adequate. The risk estimate for skin cancer is very dependent on the selection of the projection model and on the mortality rate assumed. Based on the relative risk model, a mortality rate of 0.2% and summing risks for both UVR exposed and shielded skin the risk is about twice (1.94/10{sup {minus}4} Sv{sup {minus}1}) that which ICRP derived in 1977. With the absolute model the risk is considerably less, about 0.5/10{sup {minus}4} Sv{sup {minus}1}. 47 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. The radiation protection officer in medicine and engineering; Der Strahlenschutzbeauftragte in Medizin und Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, H.

    2006-08-15

    Subjects: Function and tasks of the radiation protection officers; Behaviour in radiation protection areas; Radiation protection in practice; Staff training and motivation; Measuring equipment; Radiation protection plans - structural, apparative and staff-related; Explanations of radiation protection legislation. This practical guide makes the many requirements on radiation protection easier and more transparent. (orig.)

  17. The radiation protection officer in medicine and engineering; Der Strahlenschutzbeauftragte in Medizin und Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2006-07-01

    Subjects: Function and tasks of the radiation protection officers; Behaviour in radiation protection areas; Radiation protection in practice; Staff training and motivation; Measuring equipment; Radiation protection plans - structural, apparative and staff-related; Explanations of radiation protection legislation. This practical guide makes the many requirements on radiation protection easier and more transparent. (orig.)

  18. Standard Guide for Radiation Protection Program for Decommissioning Operations

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1987-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides instruction to the individual charged with the responsibility for developing and implementing the radiation protection program for decommissioning operations. 1.2 This guide provides a basis for the user to develop radiation protection program documentation that will support both the radiological engineering and radiation safety aspects of the decommissioning project. 1.3 This guide presents a description of those elements that should be addressed in a specific radiation protection plan for each decommissioning project. The plan would, in turn, form the basis for development of the implementation procedures that execute the intent of the plan. 1.4 This guide applies to the development of radiation protection programs established to control exposures to radiation and radioactive materials associated with the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The intent of this guide is to supplement existing radiation protection programs as they may pertain to decommissioning workers, members of...

  19. Radiation Protection and Architecture Utilizing High Temperature Superconducting Magnets Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Active radiation shielding concepts have been studied for many decades as a means to protect crew from deep space radiation environments. These studies yield...

  20. Introduction to radiation protection practical knowledge for handling radioactive sources

    CERN Document Server

    Grupen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    The book presents an accessible account of the sources of ionising radiation and the methods of radiation protection. The basics of nuclear physics which are directly related to radiation protection are briefly discussed. The book describes the units of radiation protection, the measurement techniques, biological effects of radiation, environmental radiation, and many applications of radiation. For each chapter there is a problem section with full solutions. A detailed glossary and many useful information in appendixes complete the book. The author has addressed the issue of internationality to make sure that the text and, in particular, the complicated regulations can be easily interpreted not only in Europe and the United States but also in other countries. The subject of radiation protection requires a certain amount of mathematics. For those who have forgotten the basic rules of calculus a short refresher course in the form of a mathematical appendix is added.

  1. Quasi light fields: extending the light field to coherent radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Accardi, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Imaging technologies such as dynamic viewpoint generation are engineered for incoherent radiation using the traditional light field, and for coherent radiation using electromagnetic field theory. We present a model of coherent image formation that strikes a balance between the utility of the light field and the comprehensive predictive power of Maxwell's equations. We synthesize research in optics and signal processing to formulate, capture, and form images from quasi light fields, which extend the light field from incoherent to coherent radiation. Our coherent cameras generalize the classic beamforming algorithm in sensor array processing, and invite further research on alternative notions of image formation.

  2. Protection of DNA damage by radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Ho; Kim, In Gyu; Lee, Kang Suk; Kim, Kug Chan; Oh, Tae Jung

    1998-12-01

    The SOS response of Escherichia coli is positively regulated by RecA. To examine the effects of polyamines on The SOS response of E. Coli, we investigated the expression of recA gene in polyamine-deficient mutant and wild type carrying recA'::lacZ fusion gene. As a result, recA expression by mitomycin C is higher in wild type than that of polyamine-deficient mutant, but recA expression by UV radiation is higher in wild type than of mutant. We also found that exogenous polyamines restored the recA expression in the polyamine-deficient mutant to the wild type level. These results proposed that polyamines play an important role in mechanism of intracellular DNA protection by DNA damaging agents.

  3. Radiation protection at Hadron therapy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelliccioni, Maorizio

    2011-07-01

    The Italian National Centre for Oncological Hadrontherapy is currently under construction in Pavia. It is designed for the treatment of deep-seated tumours (up to a depth of 27 cm of water equivalent) with proton and C-ion beams as well as for both clinical and radiobiological research. The particles will be accelerated by a 7-MeV u(-1) LINAC injector and a 400-MeV u(-1) synchrotron. In the first phase of the project, three treatment rooms will be in operation, equipped with four fixed beams, three horizontal and one vertical. The accelerators are currently undergoing commissioning. The main radiation protection problems encountered (shielding, activation, etc.) are hereby illustrated and discussed in relation to the constraints set by the Italian national authorities.

  4. Application of Virtual Reality to Radiation Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamela, B.; Felipe, A.; Sanchez-Mayoral, M. L.; Mreino, A.; Sarti, F.

    2004-07-01

    In order to optimize the operations and procedures in several aspects of a Nuclear Power Plants, Iberdrola Ingenieria y Consultoria (Iberinco) has been developed some projects with Virtual Reality: CIPRES, ACEWO, TILOS and SICOMORO. With the experience acquired in these projects, Iberinco has checked the utility and advantageous of Virtual Reality applications that could have a direct application to Radiation Protection. With Virtual Reality it is possible to optimize the procedures involved in several critical aspects of the Plant Management. A training program bases on Virtual Reality systems could be one of the most important application. In Emergency situations the time of reaction is very important and in order to reduce it and dose, Virtual Reality is a very important tool, that could be used for training and to guide response team actions. Finally, the reduction of dose to workers, in a NPP, and patients, in hospital, is one of the most important application of Virtual Reality. (Author) 5 refs.

  5. Workstations studies and radiation protection; Etudes de postes et radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahaye, T. [Direction des relations du travail, 75 - Paris (France); Donadille, L.; Rehel, J.L.; Paquet, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Beneli, C. [Paris-5 Univ., 75 (France); Cordoliani, Y.S. [Societe Francaise de Radioprotection, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Vrigneaud, J.M. [Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris, 75 (France); Gauron, C. [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite, 75 - Paris (France); Petrequin, A.; Frison, D. [Association des Medecins du Travail des Salaries du Nucleaire (France); Jeannin, B. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Charles, D. [Polinorsud (France); Carballeda, G. [cabinet Indigo Ergonomie, 33 - Merignac (France); Crouail, P. [Centre d' Etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Valot, C. [IMASSA, 91 - Bretigny-sur-Orge (France)

    2006-07-01

    This day on the workstations studies for the workers follow-up, was organised by the research and health section. Devoted to the company doctors, for the competent persons in radiation protection, for the engineers of safety, it presented examples of methodologies and applications in the medical, industrial domain and the research, so contributing to a better understanding and an application of regulatory measures. The analysis of the workstation has to allow a reduction of the exposures and the risks and lead to the optimization of the medical follow-up. The agenda of this day included the different subjects as follow: evolution of the regulation in matter of demarcation of the regulated zones where the measures of workers protection are strengthened; presentation of the I.R.S.N. guide of help to the realization of a workstation study; implementation of a workstation study: case of radiology; the workstation studies in the research area; Is it necessary to impose the operational dosimetry in the services of radiodiagnostic? The experience feedback of a competent person in radiation protection (P.C.R.) in a hospital environment; radiation protection: elaboration of a good practices guide in medical field; the activities file in nuclear power plant: an evaluation tool of risks for the prevention. Methodological presentation and examples; insulated workstation study; the experience feedback of a provider; Contribution of the ergonomics to the determiners characterization in the ionizing radiation exposure situations;The workstations studies for the internal contamination in the fuel cycle facilities and the consideration of the results in the medical follow-up; R.E.L.I.R. necessity of workstation studies; the consideration of the human factor. (N.C.)

  6. Project Radiation protection East. Status Report, July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snihs, J.O.; Sundewall, H.; Grapengiesser, S. [STEGRA Consultants (Sweden); Bennerstedt, T. [TeknoTelje (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    Project Radiation Protection East is a Swedish program for radiation protection work in Central and Eastern Europe. The projects are assessed, planned and performed in close cooperation with partner organizations in the East. Since 1994 radiation protection cooperation concerning the former Soviet Navy training reactors in Paldiski, Estonia, is included in the project. This report presents a summary over some 140 projects, their status, allocated funds and their distribution over countries and project areas. 12 tabs.

  7. Development of advanced radiation monitors for pulsed neutron fields

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081895

    The need of radiation detectors capable of efficiently measuring in pulsed neutron fields is attracting widespread interest since the 60s. The efforts of the scientific community substantially increased in the last decade due to the increasing number of applications in which this radiation field is encountered. This is a major issue especially at particle accelerator facilities, where pulsed neutron fields are present because of beam losses at targets, collimators and beam dumps, and where the correct assessment of the intensity of the neutron fields is fundamental for radiation protection monitoring. LUPIN is a neutron detector that combines an innovative acquisition electronics based on logarithmic amplification of the collected current signal and a special technique used to derive the total number of detected neutron interactions, which has been specifically conceived to work in pulsed neutron fields. Due to its special working principle, it is capable of overcoming the typical saturation issues encountere...

  8. Radiation dose and protection in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Okano

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Radiographic examinations play an essential part of dental practice. Because a certain amount of radiation is inevitably delivered to patients, it should be as low as reasonably achievable. The purposes of this article are to review the definition of the dose, the concept of the radiation protection, the measurement of the dose in dental radiography, and means to reduce dose through effective selection of patients and the management of radiographic equipment. The effective dose from some dental radiographic examinations is high enough to warrant reconsideration of means to reduce patient exposure. By using digital sensors or F-speed film, instead of D-speed film, combined with rectangular collimation instead of round collimation, dentists can reduce patient's exposure by a factor of 10 for bitewing and full-mouth radiographs. Justification and optimization of a procedure along with dose limitations are essential in clinical practice. It is prudent to establish diagnostic reference levels for dental radiography in Japan. In addition, dentists should remain informed about safety updates and availability of new equipment, supplies and techniques that would further improve the diagnostic ability of radiographs and simultaneously decrease patient exposure.

  9. Inducible HSP70 Protects Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae-June; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kwon, Hee-Choong; Lee, Su-Jae; Bae, Sang-Woo; Lee, Yun-Sil [Korea Institute of Radiological Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Ho [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Irradiation (IR) delivered to the head and neck is a common treatment for malignancies. Salivary glands in the irradiation field are severely damaged, and consequently this resulted in marked salivary hypofunction. While the exact mechanism of salivary gland damage remains enigmatic, fluid secreting acinar cells are lost, and saliva output is dramatically reduced. Previously we have reported that inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70i) induced radioresistance in vitro. Moreover, HSP70i localized to salivary glands by gene transfer has great potential for the treatment of salivary gland. Herein, we investigated whether HSP70 can use as radio protective molecules for radiation-induced salivary gland damage in vivo.

  10. Novel Technology for Radiation Protection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation exposure to living tissue generates free radicals through ionizing reaction such as photoelectric effect, Compton and Auger effects.  Radiation...

  11. Field calibration studies for ionisation chambers in mixed high-energy radiation fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theis, C; Forkel-Wirth, D; Fuerstner, M; Mayer, S; Otto, Th; Roesler, S; Vincke, H

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring of ambient doses at work places around high-energy accelerators is a challenging task due the complexity of the mixed stray radiation fields encountered. At CERN, mainly Centronics IG5 high-pressure ionisation chambers are used to monitor radiation exposure in mixed fields. The monitors are calibrated in the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent H*(10) using standard, source-generated photon- and neutron fields. However, the relationship between ionisation chamber reading and ambient dose equivalent in a mixed high-energy radiation field can only be assessed if the spectral response to every component and the field composition is known. Therefore, comprehensive studies were performed at the CERN-EU high-energy reference field facility where the spectral fluence for each particle type has been assessed with Monte Carlo simulations. Moreover, studies have been performed in an accessible controlled radiation area in the vicinity of a beam loss point of CERN's proton synchrotron. The comparison of measurements and calculations has shown reasonable agreement for most exposure conditions. The results indicate that conventionally calibrated ionisation chambers can give satisfactory response in terms of ambient dose equivalent in stray radiation fields at high-energy accelerators in many cases. These studies are one step towards establishing a method of 'field calibration' of radiation protection instruments in which Monte Carlo simulations will be used to establish a correct correlation between the response of specific detectors to a given high-energy radiation field.

  12. Mechanisms of radiation interaction with DNA: Potential implications for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the US Department of Energy conducts a broad multidisciplinary research program which includes basic biophysics, biophysical chemistry, molecular and cellular biology as well as experimental animal studies and opportunistic human studies. This research is directed at understanding how low levels of radiation of various qualities produce the spectrum of biological effects that are seen for such exposures. This workshop was entitled ''Mechanisms of Radiation Interaction with DNA: Potential Implications for Radiation Protection.'' It ws jointly sponsored by the Department of Energy and the Commission of European Communities. The aim of the workshop was to review the base of knowledge in the area of mechanisms of radiation action at the DNA level, and to explore ways in which this information can be applied to the development of scientifically sound concepts and procedures for use in the field of radiation protection. The overview of research provided by this multidisciplinary group will be helpful to the Office in program planning. This report includes a summary of the presentations, extended abstracts, the meeting agenda, research recommendations, and a list of participants. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base.

  13. Computer Based Radiation Protection- A New Cd-Rom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geringer, T.; Bammer, M.; Ablber, M.

    2004-07-01

    Within the next few years, there'll be a lot of new challenges required from radiation protection. According to EU regulation[1] and the new austrian radiation protection law [2] regular additional training are requested. Patients protection in diagnostic and therapeutic usage of ionising radiation gains also more and more importance.[3] Not really surprisingly, the general population is definitely highly aware of the risks coming with the usage of radionuclides and x-rays in medicine. Furthermore, the nuclear power plant in Temelin, near the austrian border initiated a lively discussion about risks, necessity and use of ionising radiation in medicine and industry. It turned out to be a really hard job handling these topics in public. A brilliant didactics based on independent information and viewpoints was required. ARC Seibersdorf Research GmbH, represented by the department of medical technical applications and the radiation protection academy, developed an interactive CD-ROM covering several applications: Basics on radiation protection for medical and technical personnel ; preparation for a radiation protection training. Repetition of the main topics for graduates of a radiation protection training. Basics on radiation protection and emergency management for medical staff as well as for the general public. (Author)

  14. Overview of novel techniques for radiation protection and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosteo, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.agosteo@polimi.i [Politecnico of Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Sezione di Ingegneria Nucleare - CeSNEF, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    Generally, the main approaches for assessing the radiation protection (RP) quantities in neutron fields are: i) the use of an instrument with a response to the protection quantity quasi-independent of energy; ii) neutron spectrometry; iii) microdosimetry. The techniques based on the first approach include rem-meters, superheated emulsions and the electronic personal dosemeters. Passive rem-meters have recently been developed for assessing the ambient dose equivalent in pulsed neutron fields around particle accelerators for hadrontherapy and research. Most of these instruments are characterised by a response extended to high-energies (up to a few GeV). An example is given by the GSI-ball, which employs a pair of LiF TLDs as a thermal neutron detector. It is likely that passive instruments will play a fundamental role also for monitoring the neutron fields generated by ultra-high intensity lasers, where the duration of a single pulse is of the order of hundreds femtoseconds. Arrays of tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) of a millimetric/sub-millimetric physical size have been developed both for assessing the quality of therapeutic radiation beams and for estimating the RP quantities in low-intensity fields, which may limit the use of conventional microdosemeters. Very satisfactory results were obtained with GEM-based TEPCs and gas microstrip detectors (GMDs). Moreover, mini-TEPCs have been constructed and tested for measuring the quality of hadrontherapy beams (BNCT included). Silicon microdosemeters have also been demonstrated to be very promising for characterizing proton and ion beams for radiation therapy and for estimating the occurrence of single event effects in space applications.

  15. Thirty-sixth Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture on radiation protection and measurements--from the field to the laboratory and back: the what ifs, wows, and who cares of radiation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Antone L

    2013-11-01

    My scientific journey started at the University of Utah chasing fallout. It was on everything, in everything, and was distributed throughout the ecosystem. This resulted in radiation doses to humans and caused me great concern. From this concern I asked the question, "Are there health effects from these radiation doses and levels of radioactive contamination?" I have invested my scientific career trying to address this basic question. While conducting research, I got acquainted with many of the What ifs of radiation biology. The major What if in my research was, "What if we have underestimated the radiation risk for internally-deposited radioactive material?" While conducting research to address this important question, many other What ifs came up related to dose, dose rate, and dose distribution. I also encountered a large number of Wows. One of the first was when I went from conducting environmental fallout studies to research in a controlled laboratory. The activity in fallout was expressed as pCi L⁻¹, whereas it was necessary to inject laboratory animals with μCi g⁻¹ body weight to induce measurable biological changes, chromosome aberrations, and cancer. Wow! That is seven to nine orders of magnitude above the activity levels found in the environment. Other Wows have made it necessary for the field of radiation biology to make important paradigm shifts. For example, one shift involved changing from "hit theory" to total tissue responses as the result of bystander effects. Finally, Who cares? While working at U.S. Department of Energy headquarters and serving on many scientific committees, I found that science does not drive regulatory and funding decisions. Public perception and politics seem to be major driving forces. If scientific data suggested that risk had been underestimated, everyone cared. When science suggested that risk had been overestimated, no one cared. This result-dependent Who cares? was demonstrated as we tried to generate interactions

  16. Wireless Phones Electromagnetic Field Radiation Exposure Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Usman; W. F.W. Ahmad; M. Z. A. A. Kadir; M. Mokhtar

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Inadequate knowledge of electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones and increased usage at close proximity, created a lot of skepticism and speculations among end users on its safety or otherwise. Approach: In this study, near field electromagnetic field radiation measurements were conducted on different brand of mobile phones in active mode using a tri-axis isotropic probe and electric field meter. Results: The highest electromagnetic field exposure was recorded when th...

  17. Ionizing radiation exposure in interventional cardiology: current radiation protection practice of invasive cardiology operators in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valuckiene, Zivile; Jurenas, Martynas; Cibulskaite, Inga

    2016-09-01

    Ionizing radiation management is among the most important safety issues in interventional cardiology. Multiple radiation protection measures allow the minimization of x-ray exposure during interventional procedures. Our purpose was to assess the utilization and effectiveness of radiation protection and optimization techniques among interventional cardiologists in Lithuania. Interventional cardiologists of five cardiac centres were interviewed by anonymized questionnaire, addressing personal use of protective garments, shielding, table/detector positioning, frame rate (FR), resolution, field of view adjustment and collimation. Effective patient doses were compared between operators who work with and without x-ray optimization. Thirty one (68.9%) out of 45 Lithuanian interventional cardiologists participated in the survey. Protective aprons were universally used, but not the thyroid collars; 35.5% (n  =  11) operators use protective eyewear and 12.9% (n  =  4) wear radio-protective caps; 83.9% (n  =  26) use overhanging shields, 58.1% (n  =  18)-portable barriers; 12.9% (n  =  4)-abdominal patient's shielding; 35.5% (n  =  11) work at a high table position; 87.1% (n  =  27) keep an image intensifier/receiver close to the patient; 58.1% (n  =  18) reduce the fluoroscopy FR; 6.5% (n  =  2) reduce the fluoro image detail resolution; 83.9% (n  =  26) use a 'store fluoro' option; 41.9% (N  =  13) reduce magnification for catheter transit; 51.6% (n  =  16) limit image magnification; and 35.5% (n  =  11) use image collimation. Median effective patient doses were significantly lower with x-ray optimization techniques in both diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Many of the ionizing radiation exposure reduction tools and techniques are underused by a considerable proportion of interventional cardiology operators. The application of basic radiation protection tools and

  18. Acute Cerebrovascular Radiation Syndrome: Radiation Neurotoxicity , mechanisms of CNS radiation injury, advanced countermeasures for Radiation Protection of Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey; Maliev, Slava

    Key words: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (Cv ARS), Radiation Neurotoxins (RNT), Neurotransmitters, Radiation Countermeasures, Antiradiation Vaccine (ArV), Antiradiation Blocking Antibodies, Antiradiation Antidote. Psychoneuroimmunology, Neurotoxicity. ABSTRACT: To review the role of Radiation Neurotoxins in triggering, developing of radiation induced central nervous system injury. Radiation Neurotoxins - rapidly acting blood toxic lethal agent, which activated after irradiation and concentrated, circulated in interstitial fluid, lymph, blood with interactions with cell membranes, receptors and cell compartments. Radiation Neurotoxins - biological molecules with high enzymatic activity and/or specific lipids and activated or modified after irradiation. The Radiation Neurotoxins induce increased permeability of blood vessels, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and developing severe disorder of blood macro- and micro-circulation. Principles of Radiation Psychoneuro-immunology and Psychoneuro-allergology were applied for determination of pathological processes developed after irradiation or selective administration of Radiation Neurotoxins to radiation naïve mammals. Effects of radiation and exposure to radiation can develop severe irreversible abnormalities of Central Nervous System, brain structures and functions. Antiradiation Vaccine - most effective, advanced methods of protection, prevention, mitigation and treatment and was used for of Acute Radiation Syndromes and elaboration of new technology for immune-prophylaxis and immune-protection against ϒ, Heavy Ion, Neutron irradiation. Results of experiments suggested that blocking, antitoxic, antiradiation antibodies can significantly reduce toxicity of Radiation Toxins. New advanced technology include active immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation therapy that included specific blocking antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins

  19. Radiation protection optimisation techniques and their application in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefaure, C

    1996-12-31

    Since the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommendation 60, the optimisation principle appears to be the core of the radiation protection system. In practice applying it, means implementing an approach both predictive and evolutionary - that relies essentially on a prudent and responsible state of mind. the formal expression of this process, called optimization procedure, implies and indispensable tool for its implementation: the system of monetary values for the unit of collective dose. During the last few years, feed ALARA principle means that a global work management approach must be adopted, considering together all factors contributing to radiation dose. In the nuclear field, the ALARA approach appears to be more successful when implemented in the framework of a managerial approach through structure ALARA programmes. Outside the nuclear industry it is necessary to clearly define priorities through generic optimisation studies and ALARA audits. At the international level much efforts remain to be done to expand efficiently the ALARA process to internal exposure as well as to public exposure. (author) 2 graphs, 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Evolution of the radiation protection system; L'evolution du systeme de protection radiologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, R.H. [International Commission on Radiological Protection, Stockholm (Sweden); Schieber, C.; Cordoliani, Y.S. [Societe Francaise de Radioprotection, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Brechignac, F. [CEA Cadarache, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Protection de l' Environnement, 13 - Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2003-07-01

    The evolution of the system of radiological protection: justification for new ICRP recommendations, thoughts of the SFRP work group about the evolution of the system of radiation protection proposed by the ICRP, protection of environment against ionizing radiations seen by the ICRP are the three parts of this chapter. (N.C.)

  1. Assessment of radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cletus Uche Eze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of ionising radiation in diagnostic radiography could lead to hazards such as somatic and genetic damages. Compliance to safe work and radiation protection practices could mitigate such risks. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was a prospective cross sectional survey. Convenience sampling technique was used to select four x-ray diagnostic centres in four tertiary hospitals in Lagos metropolis. Data were analysed with Epi- info software, version 3.5.1. Results: Average score on assessment of knowledge was 73%. Most modern radiation protection instruments were lacking in all the centres studied. Application of shielding devices such as gonad shield for protection was neglected mostly in government hospitals. Most x-ray machines were quite old and evidence of quality assurance tests performed on such machines were lacking. Conclusion: Radiographers within Lagos metropolis showed an excellent knowledge of radiation protection within the study period. Adherence to radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos metropolis during the period studied was, however, poor. Radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria should embrace current trends in radiation protection and make more concerted efforts to apply their knowledge in protecting themselves and patients from harmful effects of ionising radiation.

  2. Solid state nuclear track detectors in hadrontherapy and radiation protection in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scampoli, Paola, E-mail: paola.scampoli@na.infn.i [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S.Angelo, Napoli (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    The recent widespread of carbon-therapy for cancer treatment and the long duration manned exploration planned by NASA require the knowledge of nuclear data both for assessing the correct dose distribution in the target volume and surrounding healthy tissue (radiation therapy), and for a better knowledge of the mixed radiation field to which astronauts will be exposed (radiation protection in space). Nuclear fragmentation taking place in traversed material, even human body itself, is indeed responsible for a beam quality change whose biological effects have to be evaluated. Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) provide accurate measurements of fluence and fragmentation of heavy ions needed for hadrontherapy and space radiation-protection purposes.

  3. The importance of microdosimetry for radiation biology and radiation protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendsen, G.W.

    1967-01-01

    In this contribution several features will be discussed of relations between biological effects produced by ionizing radiations and the spatial distributions of energy deposition of these radiations. Effects produced by high-LET radiations are generally found to be less dependent on dose-rate, dose-

  4. The importance of microdosimetry for radiation biology and radiation protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendsen, G.W.

    1967-01-01

    In this contribution several features will be discussed of relations between biological effects produced by ionizing radiations and the spatial distributions of energy deposition of these radiations. Effects produced by high-LET radiations are generally found to be less dependent on dose-rate,

  5. Evaluation of radiation protection principles observance in Iranian dental schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GhazikhanlouSani K.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: In recent decades many guidelines has been conducted by radiation protection organizations about radiation protection in dentistry. This study was designed to evaluate the observance of these guidelines in educational clinics of all dental schools in Iran."nMaterials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study a questionnaire based on National Radiation Protection guidelines was conducted. The questionnaire consisted of questions about radiation protection principles in dental radiography that is needed for patients and personnel protection and quality control of radiological instruments. The questionnaires were completed by the responsible person of each radiology department of dental schools (18 schools. After gathering the data, the results were compared with radiation protection standards."nResults: There was proper condition in the case of the existence of radiation protection facilities, such as lead apron, thyroid shield and lead impacted walls. However, personnel rarely use these facilities. Usage of high speed films and existence of automatic processor in dental schools was an appreciable point. The main problem was related to the lack of regular quality control programs."nConclusion: The observance of radiation protection regulations in radiology departments of dental schools was proper. But majority of departments had no regular quality control programs; and the use of digital systems in dental radiography was not common.

  6. Determination of the need for solar UV radiation protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letić Milorad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on the skin, the eyes and the immune system are well known. The need for UV radiation protection is popularized by the introduction of UV index. Uneven intensity of UV radiation in different regions in different periods of the year and in different times of the day requires that recommendations for UV radiation protection are given for possible UV index values in those regions. Objective. The aim of the study is to establish a simple and consistent method for the determination of the need for UV radiation protection in Serbia where UV radiation intensity can be approximated as uniform. Methods. Possible values of UV index during the year and the sun elevation during the day in periods throughout the year were used for the determination of maximal possible UV index values. These values were compared to UV index forecasts regarding UV radiation protection. Results. Maximal possible values for UV index were used for producing the colour graph. Colours on the graph indicate the need for UV radiation protection. Green - protection is not needed, yellow - protection is needed, red - protection is obligatory. Comparisons with the need for protection based on forecasts showed congruence in 97% of cases. Conclusion. The use of the graph for the determination of the need for UV radiation protection gives nearly the same results as recommendations based on UV index forecasts. The advantages of the graph are that it gives recommendations for the whole year, for the time intervals during the day in every period of the year and for the whole territory of Serbia.

  7. IAEA programme in the field of radiation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Haji-Saeid, Mohammad

    2005-07-01

    Radiation technologies applying gamma sources and electron accelerators for material modification are well-established processes. There are over 160 gamma industrial irradiators and 1300 electron industrial accelerators in operation worldwide. A new advancement in the field of radiation sources engineering is the development of high power direct e-/X conversion sources based on electron accelerators. Technologies to be developed beside environmental applications could be nanomaterials, structure engineered materials (sorbents, composites, ordered polymers, etc.) and natural polymers' processing. New products based on radiation-processed polysaccharides have already been commercialised in many countries of the East Asia and Pacific Region, especially in those being rich in natural polymers. Very important and promising applications concern environmental protection-radiation technology, being a clean and environment friendly process, helps to curb pollutants' emission as well. Industrial plants for flue gas treatment have been constructed in Poland and China. The pilot plant in Bulgaria using this technology has just started its operation. The Polish plant is equipped with accelerators of over 1 MW power, a breakthrough in radiation technology application. The industrial plant for wastewater treatment is under development in Korea and a pilot plant for sewage sludge irradiation has been in operation in India for many years. Due to recent developments, the Agency has restructured its programme and organized a Technical Meeting (TM) on "Emerging Applications of Radiation Technology for the 21st Century" at its Headquarters in Vienna, Austria, in April 2003, to review the present situation and possible developments of radiation technology to contribute to a sustainable development. This meeting provided the basic input to launch others in the most important fields of radiation technology applications: "Advances in Radiation Chemistry of Polymers" (Notre Dame, USA

  8. Missions of the French Defense Radiation Protection Service Concerning The Medical Management of Radio-contaminated Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagna, G; Pégorié, A; Entine, F; Michel, X; Dondey, M; Amabile, J-C

    2016-08-01

    The French Defense Radiation Protection Service (SPRA) is an institution of the French Armed Forces (SSA) that provides technical support in radiation protection matters for French military units. It provides services for the armed forces and when necessary for the national public health system. The aim of this note is to describe the variety of services provided by the SPRA in France and abroad, not only in a military context but also in the broader field of radiation protection.

  9. Evolution of radiation protection training programmes in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monica, Rodriguez Suarez; Elvira, Hernando Velasco; Javier, Menarguez; Javier, Fernandez; Susana, Falcon; Mirian, Bravo [CIEMAT - Radiation Protection Training Unit ( IEE), Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Education and training are an important tool to promote safety culture and to upgrade competence. In this sense, Radiation Protection (R.P.) training programmes are a major challenge in order to achieve occupational, public and environmental radiation protection in all applied fields of ionising radiation.The Spanish R.P. Education and Training system provides a solid and integrated educational model. The needs for a specialized training on R.P. for exposed workers appears into the Spanish regulation in 1964. Since then, a wide variety of R.P. initial, continuous and on the job training courses has been carried out, taking into account the diverse applied fields, the different levels of responsibilities, the technological and methodological advances, as well as the international trends. C.I.E.M.A.T., through the R.P. training Unit, has been organizing and developing most of the R.P. training in Spain since 1964, becoming a reference centre. The educational programmes are being continuously updating and improving in order to complete and adapt all R.P. training levels. Initial training, long-life training, updating or upgrading training, as well as other innovative courses related with R.P. are being offered by C.I.E.M.A.T. each year. Another important aspect of R.P. is the information and training to stake holders. C.I.E.M.A. T. is also working in this sense. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the evolution of R.P. training processes since 1964 in Spain, in order to conclude which are the future trends and the changes required to adapt the Spanish R.P. Education and Training system to the current needs and upcoming scene. (authors)

  10. Study on neutron radiation field of carbon ions therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jun-Kui; Li, Wu-Yuan; Yan, Wei-Wei; Chen, Xi-Meng; Mao, Wang; Pang, Cheng-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Carbon ions offer significant advantages for deep-seated local tumors therapy due to their physical and biological properties. Secondary particles, especially neutrons caused by heavy ion reactions should be carefully considered in treatment process and radiation protection. For radiation protection purposes, the FLUKA Code was used in order to evaluate the radiation field at deep tumor therapy room of HIRFL in this paper. The neutron energy spectra, neutron dose and energy deposition of carbon ion and neutron in tissue-like media was studied for bombardment of solid water target by 430MeV/u C ions. It is found that the calculated neutron dose have a good agreement with the experimental date, and the secondary neutron dose may not exceed one in a thousand of the carbon ions dose at Bragg peak area in tissue-like media.

  11. Studies about space radiation promote new fields in radiation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Takeo; Takahashi, Akihisa; Ohnishi, Ken

    2002-12-01

    Astronauts are constantly exposed to space radiation of various types of energy with a low dose-rate during long-term stays in space. Therefore, it is important to determine correctly the biological effects of space radiation on human health. Studies about biological the effects at a low dose and a low dose-rate include various aspects of microbeams, bystander effects, radioadaptive responses and hormesis which are important fields in radiation biology. In addition, space radiations contain high linear energy transfer (LET) particles. In particular, neutrons may cause reverse effectiveness at a low dose-rate in comparison to ionizing radiation. We are also interested in p53-centered signal transduction pathways involved in the cell cycle, DNA repair and apoptosis induced by space radiations. We must also study whether the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of space radiation is affected by microgravity which is another typical component in space. To confirm this, we must prepare centrifuge systems in an International Space Station (ISS). In addition, we must prepare many types of equipment for space experiments in an ISS, because we cannot use conventional equipment from our laboratories. Furthermore, the research for space radiation might give us valuable information about the birth and evolution of life on the Earth. We can also realize the importance of preventing the ozone layer from depletion by the use of exposure equipment to sunlight in an ISS. For these reasons, we desire to educate space researchers of the next generation based on the consideration of the preservation of the Earth from research about space radiation.

  12. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998. Act No 133

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A set of legislation consisting of three Acts in the field of radiation protection and nuclear safety was passed by both Houses of Parliament on 10 December 1998 and was proclaimed on 5 February 1999. Act No. 133 - Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act, which is a framework Law, established the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) as the regulatory body for radiation protection and nuclear safety, in place of the Nuclear Safety Bureau. The Chief Executive Officer of ARPANSA, who is appointed by the Governor-General for a term of up to 5 years, is obliged to submit annual and quarterly reports to the Minister on the operations of the Chief Executive Officer, ARPANSA, the Council, the Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee. The Council is a consultative body which examines issues relating to radiation protection and nuclear safety and advises the Chief Executive Officer on these issues as well as on the adoption of recommendations, policies and codes. The Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee are to be established as advisory committees to the Chief Executive Officer or the Council. Both committees should draft national policies, codes and standards in their respective fields and review their effectiveness periodically. The second in this series of legislation, Act No. 134, Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (License Charges) Act requires holders of both facility and source licenses to pay an annual charge, to be prescribed by the regulations. The third, Act No. 135 , Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Consequential Amendments) Act repeals those provisions of the 1987 Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation Act which concern the Nuclear Safety Bureau, and the 1978 Environment Protection Act as a whole

  13. Radiation protection of the environment: anthropocentric and eco-centric principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexakhin, R.M.; Fesenko, S.V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, RAAS, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    The second half of the 20. century was dominated in the field of radiation protection by the anthropocentric concept stated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). According to this concept 'if radiation standards protect man then biota are also adequately protected from ionizing radiation'. At the end of the 20. beginning of the 21. centuries in the area of radiation protection of nature an eco-centric strategy is beginning to develop where emphasis has swung to the protection of biota in their environment. Inadequacy of ICRP's anthropocentric concept is reported. Issues are discussed such as ecological dosimetry, non-equi-dose irradiation of man and biota, criteria for estimating radiation induced changes in biota and man, as well as the need to harmonize permissible exposure doses to man and biota. An urgent need is stressed to develop a single (synthetic) concept of radiation protection which simultaneously ensures protection of human health and biota well-being in their environment. This concept is to be based on the recognition of the integrity of socio-natural ecosystems where man and biota are considered as a unity. (author)

  14. Radiation protection and communication. Sociology and communication impact in radiation protection; Radioprotection et Communication. Sociologie et impact de la communication en radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berne, G. [CEA/Cadarache, Service de Protection contre les Rayonnements, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Bicheron, G.; Franco, P. [CEA/Fontenay aux Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, IPSN, 92 (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    Communication about nuclear energy was the subject of this conference. Different examples of communications are detailed in fields as different as impact of iodine 131 release in waste waters or public information about radiation protection, the north Cotentin radioecology group or what information to give to the patients in nuclear medicine. (N.C.)

  15. Plenary panel 1: The scientific bases of radiation protection. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation - Implications for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomaa, S. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    The universality of the target theory of radiation-induced effects is challenged by observations on non-targeted effects such as bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive response. Essential features of non-targeted effects are that they do not require direct nuclear exposure by radiation and they are particularly significant at low doses. This new evidence suggests a need for a new paradigm in radiation biology. The new paradigm should cover both the classical (targeted) and the non-targeted effects. New aspects include the role of cellular communication and tissue-level responses. A better understanding of non-targeted effects may have important consequences for health risk assessment and, consequently, on radiation protection. Non-targeted effects may contribute to the estimation of cancer risk from occupational, medical and environmental exposures. In particular, they may have implications for the applicability of the Linear-No-Threshold (L.N.T.) model in extrapolating radiation risk data into the low-dose region. This also means that the adequacy of the concept of dose to estimate risk is challenged by these findings. Moreover, these effects may provide new mechanistic explanations for the development of non-cancer diseases. Further research is required to determine if these effects, typically measured in cell cultures, are applicable in tissue level, whole animals, and ultimately in humans. (authors)

  16. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program - Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radiological Control Managers' Council

    2008-06-01

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection,' establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This NTS RPP promulgates the radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from NNSA/NSO activities at the NTS and other operational areas as stated in 10 CFR 835.1(a). NNSA/NSO activities (including design, construction, operation, and decommissioning) within the scope of this RPP may result in occupational exposures to radiation or radioactive material. Therefore, a system of control is implemented through specific references to the site-specific NV/YMP RCM. This system of control is intended to ensure that the following criteria are met: (1) occupational exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (2) DOE's limiting values are not exceeded, (3) employees are aware of and are prepared to cope with emergency conditions, and (4) employees are not inadvertently exposed to radiation or radioactive material.

  17. Radiation protection, radiation safety and radiation shielding assessment of HIE-ISOLDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanets, Y; Bernardes, A P; Dorsival, A; Gonçalves, I F; Kadi, Y; di Maria, S; Vaz, P; Vlachoudis, V; Vollaire, J

    2013-07-01

    The high intensity and energy ISOLDE (HIE-ISOLDE) project is an upgrade to the existing ISOLDE facility at CERN. The foreseen increase in the nominal intensity and the energy of the primary proton beam of the existing ISOLDE facility aims at increasing the intensity of the produced radioactive ion beams (RIBs). The currently existing ISOLDE facility uses the proton beam from the proton-synchrotron booster with an energy of 1.4 GeV and an intensity up to 2 μA. After upgrade (final stage), the HIE-ISOLDE facility is supposed to run at an energy up to 2 GeV and an intensity up to 4 μA. The foreseen upgrade imposes constrains, from the radiation protection and the radiation safety point of view, to the existing experimental and supply areas. Taking into account the upgraded energy and intensity of the primary proton beam, a new assessment of the radiation protection and radiation safety of the HIE-ISOLDE facility is necessary. Special attention must be devoted to the shielding assessment of the beam dumps and of the experimental areas. In this work the state-of-the-art Monte Carlo particle transport simulation program FLUKA was used to perform the computation of the ambient dose equivalent rate distribution and of the particle fluxes in the projected HIE-ISOLDE facility (taking into account the upgrade nominal primary proton beam energy and intensity) and the shielding assessment of the facility, with the aim of identifying in the existing facility (ISOLDE) the critical areas and locations where new or reinforced shielding may be necessary. The consequences of the upgraded proton beam parameters on the operational radiation protection of the facility were studied.

  18. Radiation protection planning for the international FAIR project; Strahlenschutzplanung fuer das internationale FAIR-Projekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehrenbacher, G. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); FAIR - Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Belousov, A.; Conrad, I. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); and others

    2015-07-01

    FAIR (=Facility for AntiProton and Ion Research) is an international accelerator facility which will be built near the GSI site in Darmstadt, where protons and heavy ion beams can be accelerated in a synchrotron to energies up to 30 GeV/nucleon with intensities partially up to 1E13/sec. The accelerated particles will be used for experiments in atomic, nuclear and plasma physics as well as for radiation biology and medicine and materials research. The radiation protection planning focuses on the estimation of radiation fields produced by heavy ions and its shielding. As examples, the radiation protection planning for the heavy ion synchrotron SIS100 as well as for two experiment caves are presented. Moreover, further important topics in this radiation protection planning are the estimation of the distribution and production of radionuclides in media and the handling before disposal.

  19. Radiation protection textbook; Manuel pratique de radioprotection (3. Ed.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambini, D.J.; Granier, R

    2007-07-01

    This textbook of radiation protection presents the scientific bases, legal and statutory measures and technical means of implementation of the radioprotection in the medical and industrial sectors, research and nuclear installations. It collects the practical information (organization, analysis of post, prevention, evaluation and risks management, the controls, the training and the information) usually scattered and the theoretical knowledge allowing every person using ionizing radiation: To analyze jobs in controlled areas, to watch the respect for the current regulations, to participate in the training and in the information of the staffs exposed to intervene in accidental situation. This third edition is widely updated and enriched by the most recent scientific and legal data concerning, notably, the human exposure, the dosimetry, the optimization of the radiation protection and the epidemiological inquiries. The contents is as follows: physics of ionizing radiation, ionizing radiation: origin and interaction with matter, dosimetry and protection against ionizing radiation, detection and measurement of ionizing radiation, radiobiology, legal measures relative to radiation protection, human exposure of natural origin, human exposure of artificial origin, medical, dental and veterinarian radiology, radiotherapy, utilization of unsealed sources in medicine and research, electronuclear industry, non nuclear industrial and aeronautical activities exposing to ionizing radiation, accidental exposures. (N.C.)

  20. Project Radiation Protection East. Swedish cooperation program for radiation protection in Eastern and Central Europe. Status Report, March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snihs, J.O.; Johansson, Mai [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Grapengiesser, S. [STEGRA Consultants (Sweden); Bennerstedt, T. [Tekno Telje (Sweden)

    1996-04-01

    Until now the Swedish program for radiation protection work in central and Eastern europe has been granted 55 MSEK by the Swedish government. The projects are assessed, planned and performed in close cooperation with partner organizations in the East. Since 1994, radiation protection cooperation concerning the former Soviet Navy training reactors in Paldiski, Estonia, is included in Radiation Protection East. The government has granted 8 MSEK for this purpose. This report presents a summary over some 150 projects, their status, allocated funds and their distribution over countries and project areas. The presentation is updated up to March 1996. 7 figs.

  1. Radiation Protection in Radiology Departments of Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospitals, Ahvaz, Iran, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouladi Dehaghi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Application of ionizing radiation in many fields especially in medicine is growing, and can cause adverse health effects. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate the radiation protection principles in radiology departments, based on national standards. Materials and Methods The current study was conducted in all radiology departments of the teaching hospitals in Ahvaz, Iran, and their radiation protection status was investigated using Audit technique. For this purpose Audit checklist was prepared and essential information gathered by observation, interview with radiology department managers, and documentary surveying. At the end, standard situations were classified in three levels: poor (˂ 50%, medium (50 - 75%,s and good (75 - 100%. Results The mean of radiation protection in the studied radiology departments was 70.53%. The highest and lowest levels of radiation protection were in quality control and suitable ventilation, respectively. Radiation protection was evaluated as medium in 71.4% and good in 28.6% of the studied radiology departments. Conclusions The state of observed radiation protection principles was relatively in the weak level in the studied radiology departments especially in facilities such as ventilation system, radiography entrance, and darkroom situation. More important reason was usage changing of sections as radiology billet from related organizations.

  2. Radiation Protection Using Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M.; Lu, Meng; Lucente-Schultz, Rebecca; Leonard, Ashley; Doyle, Condell Dewayne; Kosynkin, Dimitry V.; Price, Brandi Katherine

    2011-01-01

    This invention is a means of radiation protection, or cellular oxidative stress mitigation, via a sequence of quenching radical species using nano-engineered scaffolds, specifically single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and their derivatives. The material can be used as a means of radiation protection by reducing the number of free radicals within, or nearby, organelles, cells, tissue, organs, or living organisms, thereby reducing the risk of damage to DNA and other cellular components (i.e., RNA, mitochondria, membranes, etc.) that can lead to chronic and/or acute pathologies, including but not limited to cancer, cardiovascular disease, immuno-suppression, and disorders of the central nervous system. In addition, this innovation could be used as a prophylactic or antidote for accidental radiation exposure, during high-altitude or space travel where exposure to radiation is anticipated, or to protect from exposure from deliberate terrorist or wartime use of radiation- containing weapons.

  3. The workers radiation protection; La radioprotection des travailleurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godet, J.L.; Lachaume, J.L.; Vidal, J.P.; Aguilar, J.; Calpena, St.; Forner, S.; Pasquier, J.L.; Gauzelin; Combrexelle, J.D.; Haranger, D.; Garcier, Y.; Radecki, J.J.; Fracas, P.; Fraboulet, P.; Roussille, F.; Helfer, N.; Vibert, M.L.; Surribas, H.; Revol, J.P.; Gouerne, R.; Menechal, P; David, C.; Briand Champlong, J.; Biau, A.; Crescini, D.; Rannou, A.; Collingwood, I.R.; Gilvin, P.J.; Tattersall, P.J.; Taylor, J.; Grolleau, N.; Guzman, O.; Labarta, T.; Montesinos, J.J.; Rosales, L.; Munoz, J.; Amor Calvo, I

    2004-05-01

    This file gathers contributions and points of view from different actors of the workers radiation protection, included two foreign contributions making reference to Spanish and British practices. (N.C.)

  4. Viewpoint on proposed radiation-protection standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auxier, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The proposed revision of 10CFR20 is discussed from a personal perspective. A brief historical review of the development of radiation standards is presented, and arguments against the proposed de minimis level elaborated upon. (ACR)

  5. Simple Benchmark Specifications for Space Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleterry, Robert C. Jr.; Aghara, Sukesh K.

    2013-01-01

    This report defines space radiation benchmark specifications. This specification starts with simple, monoenergetic, mono-directional particles on slabs and progresses to human models in spacecraft. This report specifies the models and sources needed to what the team performing the benchmark needs to produce in a report. Also included are brief descriptions of how OLTARIS, the NASA Langley website for space radiation analysis, performs its analysis.

  6. HSP25 Protects Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae June; Lee, Yoon Jin; Kwon, Hee Choong; Lee, Su Jae; Bae, Sang Woo; Lee, Yun Sil [Korea Institute of Radiological Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Irradiation (IR) is a central treatment modality administered for head and neck malignancies. A significant consequence of this IR treatment is irreversible damage to salivary gland in the IR field. While the exact mechanism of salivary gland damage remains enigmatic, fluid secreting acinar cells are lost, and saliva output is dramatically reduced. Previously we have reported that heat shock protein 25 (HSP25) induced radioresistance in vitro. HSP25 interferes negatively with apoptosis through several pathways which involve its direct interaction with cytochrome c, protein kinase c delta or Akt. And localized gene transfer to salivary glands has great potential for the treatment of salivary gland. Herein, we investigated whether HSP25 can use as radio protective molecules for radiation-induced salivary gland damage in vivo.

  7. The radiation protection officer in medicine and engineering; Der Strahlenschutzbeauftragte in Medizin und Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, P.G.; Wolf, H.

    2008-06-15

    The directory covers the duties and responsibilities of the radiation protection officer in medicine and engineering, the fundamentals of radiation protection (German radiation protection law, limiting values, fundamental physics, biological radiation effects of ionizing radiation, radon at the working place, radiation protection for neutron handling), the accomplishment of radiation protection (radiation protection in case of open radioactive source handling, application of encapsulated radioactive materials, operation of facilities generating ionizing radiation, employment in foreign facilities or institutions, technical X-ray facilities or interfering radiation, X-ray facility in medicine, quality assurance in nuclear medicine).

  8. Radiation protection in medicine; Strahlenschutz in der Medizin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosi, Peter [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Fachbereich ' Strahlenschutzdosimetrie'

    2013-06-15

    The author describes the radiation protection of the medical personnel, the patients, and persons who help the patients in the medical application of ionizing radiation. After a description of dose limits the exposition in therapy and diagnostics is described. Finally the safe handling of radioactive materials is considered. (HSI)

  9. IAEA activities and new developments in optimization of radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Seong H. [IAEA, Vienna (Austria)

    1999-07-01

    Providing effective support for occupational radiation protection to IAEA Member States is an increasingly more demanding task. The Agency is approaching the challenge through implementation of a multicomponent programme based on the development of comprehensive guidance presented in the Safety Standards document series. These are augmented by specific technical recommendations published in the newly established Safety Reports series. Direct national and regional assistance, based on the recommendations and information presented in the IAEA documents is provided through an active Technical Cooperation programme. Finally, specific technical issues, including optimization of radiation protection, are addressed through occupational protection programmes. Further information on IAEA radiation protection programmes can be found on the Web site at: www.iaea.org/ns/rasanet/. Optimization of protection is an idea of very broad application. It can be used at all levels from simple day to day decisions to major analysis of different types of plant design and it should be applied in all areas of radiation protection; including medical diagnostic uses of radiation, control of exposure to natural radiation and the control of exposures in general industry as well as in the perhaps more publicized area of the nuclear power industry. The optimization idea should also in principle apply to procedures designed to prevent or mitigate the consequences of accidents or incidents that could lead to radiation exposure. In this paper the focus is on the principle of optimization stated in the BSS. And it presents the key concepts of optimization of radiation protection and main indicators of dose reduction, which have been collected from existing reports including drafts under developing. The effect of applying the optimization procedure for maintenance operations are also introduced as well as the main causes to prolong exposure time. (author). 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  10. Knowledge, Attitude, and Performance of Radiographers about the Principles of Radiation Protection and Following Protective Standards in Medical Imaging Centers of Hospitals in Fasa in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Alipoor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Although ionizing radiation is effective in the diagnosis of illnesses, it is dangerous from the perspective of protection for patients and radiographers working in radiology sections. Therefore, knowledge, understanding, and application of radiation protection can play an important role. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of the radiation protection principles in radiation workers in medical imaging centers and hospitals in Fasa, Fars, Iran. Materials & Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional one among all 50 radiation workers employed in radiology departments of this city. A questionnaire was the means of evaluation which contained demographic information and questions about the knowledge, attitude, and practice of radiology staff regarding the radiation protection. All of the completed questionnaires were analyzed, using SPSS19 software. Results: Radiographers’ participation rate was 100%, and the mean score of knowledge, attitude, and practice of radiation workers in the field of radiation protection was 42.36, 62.4, and 48.54, respectively. Depending on the degree of their knowledge, there was no statistically significant difference between the radiographers’ age, gender, and work experience, and the relationship between the following factors was not substantial. Conclusion: The results showed that by increasing the level of education, the awareness of radiation workers increases, too. To raise awareness of radiation protection for radiation workers, it is better to hold training courses.

  11. RADIATION HAZARD AND PROTECTION OF LOW ENERGY ACCELERATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷清章

    1994-01-01

    In this paper,the origin and type of radiation hazards as well as the main aspects of radiation protection for low-energy accelerators are discussed in general,and the problems of radiation protection and the experimental results of the operational monitoring of the five accelecrators in the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology,Sichuan University,namely,one 1.2M cyclofron,two Cockroft-waltons and two Van de Graafts,as well as a powerful electron accelerator for industrial irradiation are described.The discussion and evaluation are made according to the requirments of the national standards GB5172-85.

  12. Assessment of Radiographers’ Awareness about Radiation Protection Principles in Hospitals of Bandar Abbas, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erfaneh Kargar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study was conducted to evaluate the radiographers’ awareness of radiation protection principles in the radiology centers of the hospitals of Bandar Abbas, Iran. Materials and Methods This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 radiographers of three hospitals affiliated with Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences in 2015. The data were collected using a two-part questionnaire. The first part was related to the demographic information of the radiographers(i.e. age, gender, work experience, workplace, and passing related training courses. The second part consisted of questions related to the radiographers’ awareness in three fields of radiology physics, radiation protection, and hazards of radiation. Results According to the results of the present study, the mean total scores of the radiographers’ awareness about the radiology physics, radiation protection, and hazards of radiation was 18.41±1.14 out of 22. However, the radiographers’ awareness of the three investigated fields had no statistically significant relationships with the work experience (P=0.244 and gender (P=0.386. However, there was a significant relationship between the radiographers’ awareness about the radiation protection and their education level (P=0.034. Moreover, a significant association was found between the radiographers’ awareness and their workplace (P=0.009. Additionally, the participation in the radiation training courses was significantly correlated with the radiographers’ awareness regarding the radiation hazards (P=0.022. Conclusion According to the findings of the present study, the awareness level of the radiographers about the radiation protection principles was relatively good. However, it seems that the education level of the staff should be enhanced through holding regular short-term radiation training courses.

  13. Compliance with High-Intensity Radiated Fields Regulations - Emitter's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statman, Joseph; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Nguyen, Lee

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) uses high-power transmitters on its large antennas to communicate with spacecraft of NASA and its partner agencies. The prime reflectors of the DSN antennas are parabolic, at 34m and 70m in diameter. The DSN transmitters radiate Continuous Wave (CW) signals at 20 kW - 500 kW at X-band and S-band frequencies. The combination of antenna reflector size and high frequency results in a very narrow beam with extensive oscillating near-field pattern. Another unique feature of the DSN antennas is that they (and the radiated beam) move mostly at very slow sidereal rate, essentially identical in magnitude and at the opposite direction of Earth rotation.The DSN is in the process of revamping its documentation to provide analysis of the High Intensity Radiation Fields (HIRF) environment resulting from radio frequency radiation from DSN antennas for comparison to FAA regulations regarding certification of HIRF protection as outlined in the FAA regulations on HIRF protection for aircraft electrical and electronic systems (Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) [section sign][section sign] 23.1308, 25.1317, 27.1317, and 29.1317).This paper presents work done at JPL, in consultation with the FAA. The work includes analysis of the radiated field structure created by the unique DSN emitters (combination of transmitters and antennas) and comparing it to the fields defined in the environments in the FAA regulations. The paper identifies areas that required special attention, including the implications of the very narrow beam of the DSN emitters and the sidereal rate motion. The paper derives the maximum emitter power allowed without mitigation and the mitigation zones, where required.Finally, the paper presents summary of the results of the analyses of the DSN emitters and the resulting DSN process documentation.

  14. Management information system applied to radiation protection services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Souza, Leonardo Soares de; Figueiredo, Geraldo Magela; Figueiredo, Arthur, E-mail: pabloag@cdtn.br, E-mail: lss@cdtn.br, E-mail: gmf@cdtn.br, E-mail: arthurqof@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    An effective management information system based on technology, information and people is necessary to improve the safety on all processes and operations subjected to radiation risks. The complex and multisource information flux from all radiation protection activities on nuclear organizations requires a robust tool/system to highlight the strengths and weaknesses and identify behaviors and trends on the activities requiring radiation protection programs. Those organized and processed data are useful to reach a successful management and to support the human decision-making on nuclear organization. This paper presents recent improvements on a management information system based on the radiation protection directives and regulations from Brazilian regulatory body. This radiation protection control system is applied to any radiation protection services and research institutes subjected to Brazilian nuclear regulation and is a powerful tool for continuous management, not only indicating how the health and safety activities are going, but why they are not going as well as planned showing up the critical points. (author)

  15. Chiral-field microwave antennas (Chiral microwave near fields for far-field radiation)

    CERN Document Server

    Kamenetskii, E O; Shavit, R

    2015-01-01

    In a single-element structure we obtain a radiation pattern with a squint due to chiral microwave near fields originated from a magnetostatic-mode ferrite disk. At the magnetostatic resonances, one has strong subwavelength localization of energy of microwave radiation. Magnetostatic oscillations in a thin ferrite disk are characterized by unique topological properties: the Poynting-vector vortices and the field helicity. The chiral-topology near fields allow obtaining unique phase structure distribution for far-field microwave radiation.

  16. Countermeasure for Radiation Protection and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation during long-duration space missions is expected to cause short-term illness and increase long-term risk of cancer for astronauts. Radiation-induced free radicals overload the antioxidant defense mechanisms and lead to cellular damage at the membrane, enzyme, and chromosome levels. A large number of radioprotective agents were screened, but most had significant side effects. But there is increasing evidence that significant radioprotective benefit is achieved by increasing the dietary intake of foods with high antioxidant potential. Early plant-growing systems for space missions will be limited in both size and volume to minimize power and mass requirements. These systems will be well suited to producing plants containing high concentrations of bioprotective antioxidants. This project explored whether the production of bioprotective compounds could be increased by altering the lighting system, without increasing the space or power requirements for production, and evaluated the effects of environmental conditions (light quantity, light quality, and carbon dioxide [CO2] concentration) on the production of bioprotective compounds in lettuce, which provide a biological countermeasure for radiation exposure. The specific deliverables were to develop a database of bioprotectant compounds in plants that are suitable for use on longduration space missions, develop protocols for maintaining and increasing bioprotectant production under light emitting diodes (LEDs), recommend lighting requirements to produce dietary countermeasures of radiation, and publish results in the Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science.

  17. Bound and Radiation Fields in Rindler Frame

    CERN Document Server

    Hirayama, T

    2001-01-01

    Energy-momentum tensor of Li\\'enard-Wiechert field is split into bound and emitted parts in Rindler frame, by generalizing the reasoning of Teitelboim used in inertial frame. Our discussion proceeds with the the notion of ``energy'' defined with respect to the Killing vector field attached to the frame. We obtain the ``radiation formula in Rindler frame''(Rindler version of Larmor formula) and it is found that the radiation power is proportional to the square of ``acceleration $\\alpha^\\mu$ of the charge relative to the Rindler frame''. This result makes us split the Li\\'enard-Wiechert field into the part $\\tII$ which is linear in $\\alpha^\\mu$ and the part $\\tI$ which is independent of $\\alpha^\\mu$, and by using them, we split the energy-momentum tensor into two parts. We find that these are properly interpreted as the emitted and bound parts of the tensor in Rindler frame. In our identification of radiation, a charge does not radiate not only in the case where the charge is fixed to the Rindler frame, but als...

  18. Formation of secondary radiation fields at NICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshenko, G.; Paraipan, M.

    2009-09-01

    The crucial points of a radiation shielding design for a relativistic heavy ion accelerator are the source term problem, neutron fluence and dose attenuation characteristics of the shielding. Simulations of the radiation shielding for JINR's Nuclotron-Based Ion Facility (NICA) project were carried out using the GEANT4 code. Some regularities in the secondary neutron field generation at the 4.5 GeV/n uranium beam interaction with thick targets are discussed. Neutron attenuation by the ordinary concrete shielding of NICA was considered as well.

  19. Application of virtual reality technique to a radiation protection training program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajek, Brian K. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States); Kang, Ki Doo [KOrea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Yoo Jin [Kwangwoon Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yon Sik [Kunsan National Univ., Kunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Using an Internet Virtual Reality (IVR) technique, a 3-dimensional (3-D) model for the radiation controlled area in a nuclear power plant was developed, and a feasibility study to develop a computational program to estimate radiation dose was performed. For this purpose, a pilot model with a dynamic function and bi-directional communication was developed. This model was enhanced from the existing 3-D single-directional communication. In this pilot model, a plant visitor needs to first pass a series of security checks. If the visitor enters the controlled area and approaches a radiation hazard area, alarms with a warning lamp will be initiated automatically. Throughout the test to connect this model from both domestic and international sites in various time zones, it has proven to perform well. Therefore, this model can be applied to broad fields as radiation protection procedures or radiation protection training with photographic data, and on-line dose assessment programs.

  20. On the Radiation Protection of the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soberhart, L. J.; Clausse, A.; D' Amato, E.

    2004-07-01

    Over the last decade, substantial advances in what is know as legal protection of the environment, -as a different matter from human being protection- have been made. Some national legislations include serious penalties against environmental damage. It is becoming customary to consider a serious offence any excess in the prescribed limits of radioactive materials release to the environment. What these limits mean, however, is not completely clear nowadays. According to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) the standards of environmental control needed to protect man to the degree currently thought desirable will ensure that other species are not put at risk, although, occasionally, individual members of non human species might be harmed. However the use of limits of radioactive releases resulting from the direct application of ICRP recommend limits as legal references for the applicable offences in environmental protection is certainly a misconception. In this paper a conceptual framework for the calculation of legal limits for environmental radioprotection are presented. The approach is based on an ecosystem perspective, assessing the impact of radioactive releases on the ecosystem dynamics and equilibrium. The method is based on functional groups models -i.e. groups of species that are selected from a number of criteria such as play similar rules in the chain of nutrients or have the same radiosensitivity- providing the basis for prescribed limits of the radioactive material release to the environment. The methodology is applied to a system of three functional groups in equilibrium, with is affected by radioactive intrusion. Different impacts on the equilibrium can be identified, depending on the amount of radioactive material released to the environment. It is shown how the concept of equilibrium breakdown can be applied in order to assess the radiological impact. (Author) 8 refs.

  1. [Radiation protection of the environment: anthropocentric and eco-centric principles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksakhin, R M; Fesenko, S V

    2004-01-01

    The second half of the XX century was dominated in the field of radiation protection of the environment by the anthropocentric concept stated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). According to this concept "if man is adequately protected by radiological standards then biota are also adequately protected". At the end of the XX--beginning of the XXI centuries in the area of area of radiation protection of nature an ecocentric strategy is beginning to develop where emphasis has swung to the protection of biota in their environment. Inadequacy of ICRP's anthroposentric concept is reported. Issues are discussed such as ecological dosimetry, nonequidosal irradiation of man and biota, criteria for estimating radiation induced changes in biota and man, as well as the need to harmonize permissible exposure doses to man and biota. An urgent need is stressed to develop a single (synthetic) concept of radiation protection which simultaneously ensures protection of human health and biota well-being in their environment. This concept is to be based on the recognition of the integrity of socio-natural ecosystems where man and biota are considered as a unity.

  2. Encouraging the radiation protection practice; Incentivando a pratica da radioprotecao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Natanael O.; Cunha, Paulo C.N., E-mail: natanfisio@hotmail.com, E-mail: paulo.cunha@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Ciencias da Saude de Alagoas (UNCISAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil); Junior, Jose N.S.; Silva, Jessyca B., E-mail: nobertsilva@hotmail.com, E-mail: Jessyca.bs@hotmail.com [Escola Tecnica de Saude de Santa Barbara, Arapiraca, AL (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The radiological protection of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation (X-ray diagnoses, Nuclear Medicine, Radiotherapy and Dental) is essential to minimize the appearance of radiation effects. The ways to reduce the potential for exposure of workers are: Time, Distance , and Shielding. The most important purpose of radiation protection is to provide safe conditions for activities involving ionizing radiation, basic safety conditions that must be observed in professional practice. The professional must have full knowledge of the subject and deepen in the revision of norms and guidelines related to radiation protection establish by the Vigilancia Sanitaria - ANVISA, and Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, Brazil. The study was conducted in a technical school for the Technical Training Course in Radiology, where the students are invited to think deeply about the radiation protection of themselves, the patients and the environment. Developed since July 2012, with the participation of 30 students, with a leading class -three teachers assisting in the development of the project . With this project there was an awareness of both students, as instructors stage accompanying the daily lives of students and their own colleagues. Following the same objective in 2013 the project continues with more adept at radioprotection.

  3. Evaluation of radiation protection in interventional radiology; Evaluation de la radioprotection en radiologie interventionnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Pape, I.; Aget, H. [Centre Hospitalie Universitaire de Tours, 37 (France); Rondeau du Royer, C. [Inspection Regional du Travail de la region Centre (France)

    1998-07-01

    The interventional radiology, relatively to the conventional radiology exposes particularly to ionizing radiations, because of the time of utilisation of the radioscopy. It is important to optimize the risk according to the ALARA principle. The efforts must be made on the following fields: the radiation protection means, the periodic and systematic monitoring of material, a regular evaluation of operators irradiation, the training of non radiologist operators, the respect of the legislation on the maximum permissible dose equivalents. (N.C.)

  4. Evaluation of a radiation protection cabin for invasive electrophysiological procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragusin, Octavian; Weerasooriya, Rukshen; Jaïs, Pierre; Hocini, Mélèze; Ector, Joris; Takahashi, Yoshihide; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Bosmans, Hilde; Heidbüchel, Hein

    2007-01-01

    Complex invasive electrophysiological procedures may result in high cumulative operator radiation exposure. Classical protection with lead aprons results in discomfort while radioprotection is still incomplete. This study evaluated the usefulness of a radiation protection cabin (RPC) that completely surrounds the operator. The evaluation was performed independently in two electrophysiology laboratories (E1-Leuven, Belgium; E2-Bordeaux, France), comparing operator radiation exposure using the RPC vs. a 0.5 mm lead-equivalent apron (total of 135 procedures). E1 used thermoluminiscent dosimeters (TLDs) placed at 16 positions in and out of the RPC and nine positions in and out of the apron. E2 used more sensitive electronic personal dosimeters (EPD), placed at waist and neck. The sensitivity thresholds of the TLDs and EPDs were 10-20 microSv and 1-1.5 microSv, respectively. All procedures could be performed unimpeded with the RPC. Median TLD dose values outside protected areas were in the range of 57-452 microSv, whereas doses under the apron or inside the RPC were all at the background radiation level, irrespective of procedure and fluoroscopy duration and of radiation energy delivered. In addition, the RPC was protecting the entire body (except the hands), whereas lead apron protection is incomplete. Also with the more sensitive EPDs, the radiation dose within the RPC was at the sensitivity threshold/background level (1.3+/-0.6 microSv). Again, radiation to the head was significantly lower within the RPC (1.9+/-1.2 microSv) than with the apron (102+/-23 microSv, P<0.001). The use of the RPC allows performing catheter ablation procedures without compromising catheter manipulation, and with negligible radiation exposure for the operator.

  5. Country-overlapping radiation protection education and training by the CHERNE network; Laenderuebergreifende Strahlenschutzausbildung im Rahmen des CHERNE-Netzwerks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyler, Frieder [Fachhochschule Aachen, Juelich (Germany). Strahlenschutzkursstaette

    2013-09-01

    The CHERNE network is promoting the cooperation between colleges and research facilities at the training of students. The article describes particular study courses in the field of radiation protection. (orig.)

  6. Plasma wake field XUV radiation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prono, Daniel S. (Los Alamos, NM); Jones, Michael E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A XUV radiation source uses an interaction of electron beam pulses with a gas to create a plasma radiator. A flowing gas system (10) defines a circulation loop (12) with a device (14), such as a high pressure pump or the like, for circulating the gas. A nozzle or jet (16) produces a sonic atmospheric pressure flow and increases the density of the gas for interacting with an electron beam. An electron beam is formed by a conventional radio frequency (rf) accelerator (26) and electron pulses are conventionally formed by a beam buncher (28). The rf energy is thus converted to electron beam energy, the beam energy is used to create and then thermalize an atmospheric density flowing gas to a fully ionized plasma by interaction of beam pulses with the plasma wake field, and the energetic plasma then loses energy by line radiation at XUV wavelengths Collection and focusing optics (18) are used to collect XUV radiation emitted as line radiation when the high energy density plasma loses energy that was transferred from the electron beam pulses to the plasma.

  7. Application of virtual reality procedures in radiation protection and dose estimation for workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blunck, C.; Becker, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Radiation Research; Urban, M. [WAK GmbH Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe, Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs-GmbH, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    When people need to work in an environment where radiation fields are present, one has to think about the operation procedure in respect of radiation protection. This is valid for routine as well as for special work situations where radiation protection precautions are necessary. In order to give an advice about the safest way of operation and adequate shielding measures, it is necessary to analyse the radiation field and possible dose exposures at relevant positions in the working area. Since the field can be very inhomogeneous, extensive measurements could be needed for this purpose. In addition it is possible, that the field is not present before the time of work and a measurement could be troublesome or not possible at all. In this case, a simulation of the specific scenario could be an efficient way to analyse the radiation fields and determine possible exposures at different places. If an adequate phantom is used, it is even possible to determine personal doses like H{sub p}(10) or H{sub p}(0.07). However in most work situations, exposure is not a static scenario. The radiation field varies if the source or its surrounding objects change place. Furthermore people or parts of their bodies are usually in motion. Hence simulations of movements in inhomogeneous time and space variant radiation fields are desirable for dose assessment. In such a ''virtual reality'' working procedures could be trained or analysed without any exposure. We present an approach of simulating hand movements in inhomogeneous beta and photon radiation fields by means of an articulated hand phantom. As an example application, the hand phantom is used to simulate the handling of a Y-90 source. (orig.)

  8. Importance of establishing radiation protection culture in Radiology Department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Agapi Ploussi; Efstathios P Efstathopoulos

    2016-01-01

    The increased use of ionization radiation for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, the rapid advances in computed tomography as well as the high radiation doses delivered by interventional procedures have raised serious safety and health concerns for both patients and medical staff and have necessitated the establishment of a radiation protection culture(RPC) in every Radiology Department. RPC is a newly introduced concept. The term culture describes the combination of attitudes, beliefs, practices and rules among the professionals, staff and patients regarding to radiation protection. Most of the time, the challenge is to improve rather than to build a RPC. The establishment of a RPC requires continuing education of the staff and professional, effective communication among stakeholders of all levels and implementation of quality assurance programs. The RPC creation is being driven from the highest level. Leadership, professionals and associate societies are recognized to play a vital role in the embedding and promotion of RPC in a Medical Unit. The establishment of a RPC enables the reduction of the radiation dose, enhances radiation risk awareness, minimizes unsafe practices, and improves the quality of a radiation protection program. The purpose of this review paper is to describe the role and highlight the importance of establishing a strong RPC in Radiology Departments with an emphasis on promoting RPC in the Interventional Radiology environment.

  9. Radiation protection in pediatric radiology. Strahlenschutz in der Kinderradiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendel, H.; Stieve, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Because of the high growth rate of cell systems in phases of radiation exposure radiological investigations on children should not be considered unless there is a strong indication. The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements has worked out recommendations on radiation protection which have been published as an NCRP report. This report is most important even outside the USA. The present translation is aimed to contribute to better understanding of the bases and aims of radiation protection during radiological investigations on children. It addresses not only those physicians who carry out radiological investigations on children themselves but also all physicians requiring such investigations. For these physicians, but also for parents who are worried about the radiation risk to their children the report should be a useful source of information and decision aid ensuring, on the one hand, that necessary radiological investigations are not shunned for unjustified fear of radiation and that, on the other hand, all unnecessary exposure of children to radiation is avoided. Thus, it is to be hoped, the quality of pediatric radiological diagnostics will be improved.

  10. The Stellar Extreme-Ultraviolet Radiation Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerga, John

    1998-04-01

    The local extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation field from stellar sources has been determined by combining the EUV spectra of 54 stars, taken with the spectrometers aboard the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite. The resultant spectrum over the range 70-730 Å is estimated to be 95% complete above 400 Å and 90% complete above 200 Å. The flux contributed by two B stars and three hot white dwarfs dominate the spectrum except at the shortest wavelengths, where an assortment of EUV source types contribute. The high electron densities measured toward nearby stars can be accounted for by photoionization from this radiation field, but the spectrum is too soft to explain the overionization of helium with respect to hydrogen recently measure in the Local Cloud.

  11. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-11-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting, 2014. It was held on Nov.19-21, 2014 in Jeju, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2014. This proceedings is comprised of 8 sessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Radiation protection 1, Medical treatment and Biology 1, Radiation measurement 1, Radiation environment and protection 1, Radiation protection 2, Medical treatment and Biology 2, Radiation Measurement 2, Radiation environment and protection 2.

  12. Health protection: Toxic agent and radiation control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    It is estimated that of the four million chemical compounds which have been synthesized or isolated from natural materials, more than 55,000 are produced commercially. Approximately 1,000 new compounds are introduced annually; pesticide formulations alone contain about 1,500 active chemical ingredients. Diagnostic x-rays are used extensively in medicine and dentistry. Over 2,000 chemicals are suspected carcinogens in laboratory animals--epidemiologic evidence suggests that 26 of these chemicals and/or industrial processes are carcinogenic in humans. More than 20 agents are known to be associated with birth defects in humans; 47 atmospheric contaminants have been identified in animal studies as recognized carcinogens and 128 as mutagens; and, of the 765 contaminants identified in drinking water, 12 were recognized carcinogens, 31 suspected carcinogens, and 59 mutagens. Radiation has known carcinogenic and genetic effects at significant levels of exposure. Problems with toxic agents and radiation sources occur not only in industry, but also in medical and dental care (x-rays and drugs), agriculture (pesticides and herbicides), Government activities (biological and chemical agents), consumer products (incorrect use of consumer products which contain toxic substances), and natural sources (fungal products).

  13. Radiation-protective polymer-matrix nanostructured composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaloshkin, S.D.; Tcherdyntsev, V.V. [College of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnologies, National University of Science and Technology ' MISiS' , Leninsky Prospect, 4 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gorshenkov, M.V., E-mail: mvg@misis.ru [College of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnologies, National University of Science and Technology ' MISiS' , Leninsky Prospect, 4 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gulbin, V.N. [College of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnologies, National University of Science and Technology ' MISiS' , Leninsky Prospect, 4 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, S.A. [Russian State Technological University ' MATI' , Orshanskaya 3, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation-protective composites were fabricated by solid state intermixing and thermal pressing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composites based on UHMWPE contain B{sub 4}S and W nanopowders as fillers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanical and {gamma}-radiation protective properties of the polymer-matrix nanocomposites were determined experimentally. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For composites containing 12% B{sub 4}C and 12% W the mechanical properties were studied prior to and after the irradiation with fast neutrons. - Abstract: UHMWPE-based nanostructured composites containing B{sub 4}C and W nanopowders were fabricated and studied. The mechanical and {gamma}-radiation protective properties of the polymer-matrix nanocomposites were determined experimentally. For selected composites the mechanical properties were studied prior to and after the irradiation.

  14. Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H. [eds.

    1991-10-01

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

  15. Nuclear Technology Series. Radiation Protection Technician. A Suggested Program Planning Guide. Revised June 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This program planning guide for a two-year postsecondary radiation protection technician program is designed for use with courses 17-22 of thirty-five included in the Nuclear Technology Series. The purpose of the guide is to describe the nuclear power field and its job categories for specialists, technicians, and operators; and to assist planners,…

  16. Radiation protection optimization; Optimizacion de la proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barea, P. J.

    2009-07-01

    The basic purpose of the optimization of radiation protection in the Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant is to succeed in keeping the individual doses received by plant workers and the collective dose received by all of them as low as reasonably achievable. Based on this goal, the work is planned so that the individual doses and the number of people exposed to ionizing radiation are kept as low as possible (Program ALARA) in a way compatible with job execution. (Author)

  17. Advanced Radiation Protection (ARP): Thick GCR Shield Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Radiation Project to date has focused on SEP events.  For long duration missions outside Earth’s geomagnetic field, the galactic cosmic ray...

  18. Synchrotron radiation shielding design and ICRP radiological protection quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassey, Bassey; Moreno, Beatriz; Chapman, Dean

    2015-06-01

    Protection and operational quantities as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) are the two sets of quantities recommended for use in radiological protection for external radiation. Since the '80s, the protection quantities have evolved from the concept of dose equivalent to effective dose equivalent to effective dose, and the associated conversion coefficients have undergone changes. In this work, the influence of three different versions of ICRP photon dose conversion coefficients in the synchrotron radiation shielding calculations of an experimental enclosure has been examined. The versions are effective dose equivalent (ICRP Publication 51), effective dose (ICRP Publication 74), and effective dose (ICRP Publication 116) conversion coefficients. The sources of the synchrotron radiation white beam into the enclosure were a bending magnet, an undulator and a wiggler. The ranges of photons energy from these sources were 10-200 keV for the bending magnet and undulator, and 10-500 keV for the wiggler. The design criterion aimed a radiation leakage less than 0.5 µSv h(-1) from the enclosure. As expected, larger conversion coefficients in ICRP Publication 51 lead to higher calculated dose rates. However, the percentage differences among the calculated dose rates get smaller once shielding is added, and the choice of conversion coefficients set did not affect the final shielding decision.

  19. Shielding and Radiation Protection in Ion Beam Therapy Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroe, Andrew J.; Rightnar, Steven

    Radiation protection is a key aspect of any radiotherapy (RT) department and is made even more complex in ion beam therapy (IBT) by the large facility size, secondary particle spectra and intricate installation of these centers. In IBT, large and complex radiation producing devices are used and made available to the public for treatment. It is thus the responsibility of the facility to put in place measures to protect not only the patient but also the general public, occupationally and nonoccupationally exposed personnel working within the facility, and electronics installed within the department to ensure maximum safety while delivering maximum up-time.

  20. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry. Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-01-01

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations.

  1. Setting standards for radiation protection: A time for change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, H.W.; Hickman, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1950, the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommended that ``certain radiation effects are irreversible and cumulative.`` Furthermore, the ICRP ``strongly recommended that every effort be made to reduce exposures to all types of ionizing radiations to the lowest possible level.`` Then in 1954, the ICRP published its assumption that human response to ionizing radiation was linear with dose, together with the recommendation that exposures be kept as low as practicable. These concepts are still the foundation of radiation protection policy today, even though, as Evans has stated, ``The linear non-threshold (LNT) model was adopted specifically on a basis of mathematical simplicity, not from radio-biological data.... Groups responsible for setting standards for radiation protection should be abreast of new developments and new data as they are published; however, this does not seem to be the case. For example, there have been many reports in scientific, peer-reviewed, and other publications during the last three decades that have shown the LNT model and the policy of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) to be invalid. However, none of these reports has been refuted or even discussed by standard-setting groups. We believe this mandates a change in the standard-setting process.

  2. Radiation Protection of Environment under the Light of the New Concept of Radiation Protection of Non-Human Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansruedi Voelkle [Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Environmental Radioactivity Section, c/o Physics Department, University of Fribourg Chemin du Musee 3, 1700 Fribourg (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the question of whether radiation protection should be extended to plants and animals. Until now the recommendations of ICRP have been focused exclusively on the protection of man from ionizing radiation. It was assumed that, if man is protected, the quality of the living environment is not impaired. In recent years adequate principles, recommendations and laws have become necessary in order to protect the environment from man made toxins. These recommendations aimed to conserve plants and animals, to maintain the diversity of species, the health and status of natural habitats and the natural resources of our planet, to warrant natural evolution and selection processes in order to transmit a healthy world to future generations. Reflections have been made as to whether particular protection of fauna and flora from ionizing radiation should be included. This article presents some considerations from the point of view of operational radiation protection and some comments to the work already done by ICRP committee 5. The final purpose is to invite the audience to make its own reflections and to communicate any criticisms, comments or suggestions to committee 5 of ICRP. (author)

  3. Protective Effect of Chitin Urocanate Nanofibers against Ultraviolet Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuko Ito

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urocanic acid is a major ultraviolet (UV-absorbing chromophore. Chitins are highly crystalline structures that are found predominantly in crustacean shells. Alpha-chitin consists of microfibers that contain nanofibrils embedded in a protein matrix. Acid hydrolysis is a common method used to prepare chitin nanofibrils (NFs. We typically obtain NFs by hydrolyzing chitin with acetic acid. However, in the present study, we used urocanic acid to prepare urocanic acid chitin NFs (UNFs and examined its protective effect against UVB radiation. Hos: HR-1 mice coated with UNFs were UVB irradiated (302 nm, 150 mJ/cm2, and these mice showed markedly lower UVB radiation-induced cutaneous erythema than the control. Additionally, sunburn cells were rarely detected in the epidermis of UNFs-coated mice after UVB irradiation. Although the difference was not as significant as UNFs, the number of sunburn cells in mice treated with acetic acid chitin nanofibrils (ANFs tended to be lower than in control mice. These results demonstrate that ANFs have a protective effect against UVB and suggest that the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of NFs influence the protective effect of ANFs against UVB radiation. The combination of NFs with other substances that possess UV-protective effects, such as urocanic acid, may provide an enhanced protective effect against UVB radiation.

  4. Radiation damage of polymers in ultrasonic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anbalagan, Poornnima

    2008-07-01

    Radiation damage has always been a topic of great interest in various fields of sciences. In this work, an attempt is made to probe into the effect of subthreshold ultrasonic waves on the radiation damage created by irradiation of deuterons in polymer samples wherein the polymer samples act as model systems. Two equal volumes of radiation damage were produced in a single polymer sample wherein a standing wave of ultrasound was introduced into one. Three polymers namely, Polycarbonate, Polymethylmethacrylate and Polyvinyl chloride were used in this work. Four independent techniques were used to analyze the irradiated samples and visualize the radiation damage. Interferometric measurements give a measure of the refractive index modulation in the irradiated sample. Polymers, being transparent, do not absorb in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy shows absorption peaks in the visible region in irradiated polymer samples. Ion irradiation causes coloration of polymers. The light microscope is used to measure the absorption of white light by the irradiated polymers. Positron annihilation spectroscopy is used to obtain a measure of the open volume created by irradiation in polymers. A comparison between the irradiated region and the region exposed to ultrasonic waves simultaneously with irradiation in a polymer sample shows the polymer specific influence of the ultrasonic standing wave. (orig.)

  5. A database of neutron spectra, instrument response functions, and dosimetric conversion factors for radiation protection applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naismith, O.F. [National Physical Lab., Teddington (United Kingdom); Siebert, B.R.L. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    One of the major problems encountered in dose assessment for neutron radiation protection derives from the imperfect dose equivalent response of the devices used for monitoring. To investigate the performance of such devices in realistic neutron fields and to optimise calibration procedures, knowledge of both the prevalent spectral fluences and the energy response of the dosemeters is required. To facilitate this and similar studies, a database has been developed comprising a catalogue of neutron spectra and energy-dependent response functions together with a software package to manipulate the data in the catalogue. The range of data, features of the programs, and examples for radiation protection applications are described. (author).

  6. Beam dumps design and local radiation protection at TERA synchrotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, A; Campi, F; Agosteo, S

    2005-01-01

    The realisation of the National Center of Hadrontherapy was funded by the Italian Government in 2002. The Centre will be built in the area of Pavia (Italy). The synchrotron designed in the framework of this programme will accelerate protons and carbon ions up to 250 MeV and 400 MeV u(-1), respectively. Some of the main aspects which were taken into account in the design of the acceleration system are the patient's safety and the beam control. From this point of view an important role is played by the beam dumps in the synchrotron ring and upstream of the extraction system. In particular, an horizontal and a vertical beam dump will be installed in the synchrotron ring: the former will be used for lowering the beam intensity and the latter for beam abortion. The dump at the extraction will absorb the particles during the mounting and the falling ramps of the synchrotron magnetic cycle, thus extracting only the flat top of the ion spill. Beam dumps can produce intense fields of secondary radiation (neutrons, charged light-hadrons and photons) and high rates of induced activity, since they can absorb the beam completely. Usually they have to be shielded to protect the electronics during machine operation and to attenuate the radiation dose below the limits imposed by the law when the personnel access to the synchrotron hall. The part of the shielding design of the beam dumps concerning with the acceleration of protons was made using Monte Carlo simulations with the FLUKA code. Both induced activity and secondary radiation were taken into account. The shields against secondary radiation produced by carbon ions were designed, referring only to secondary neutrons, taking double-differential distributions from the literature as sources for the FLUKA simulations. The induced activity from carbon ions interactions was estimated analytically, using the data generated by the EPAX 2 code. The dose-equivalent rates from the induced radionuclides were calculated at 1 m from the

  7. Radiation protection education of executive authorities in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timal, Guenter [Federal Ministry of the Interior, Department for Civil Protection, Civil Protection School, Vienna (Austria)

    2000-05-01

    Legal basis and the self-protection of the own action forces are the reasons, why the executive authorities (Federal Police and Federal Gendarmerie) in Austria are engaged with radiation protection. The main task of education and training is delegated to the Civil Protection School, which belongs to the Department for Civil Protection in the Federal Ministry of the Interior. The possible missions range from control of transports with dangerous goods, accidents with radioactive materials, measurements after accidents in nuclear power plants, preventing illicit trafficking up to satellite crashes. The education is split in three sections, one week each, with two examinations. For preserving the standard of education and readiness for duty a regular further education and obligatory advanced training is a basic premise. The aim of the education is to educate autonomous and self dependent action-forces, which are under compliance of self-protection in a position, to detect radioactive sources or contamination, to measure them and to secure the dangerous zone. The programs of the education and training include theoretical instructions and practical exercises. The programs are currently evaluated and updated according to the latest standards to pedagogics, didactics and technology. This radiation protection education is offered in a modified form also to other action forces and authorities who were entrusted with tasks in radiation protection (e.g. fire brigade, red cross, telecommunications, customs, citizens of municipalities, provinces and ministries) to guarantee a most preferable basic training. The programs are supplemented by special courses, as for example radiation detection with helicopters supported with a GPS-airborne monitoring system or special instruction courses in connection with border protection monitors to prevent the illicit trafficking of radioactive sources or nuclear material. (author)

  8. Radiation in dental practice: awareness, protection and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, B N; Shubhasini, A R; Bhanushree, R; Sumsum, P S; Sushma, C N

    2013-01-01

    Radiation is the transmission of energy through space and matter. There are several forms of radiation, including ionizing and nonionizing. X-rays are the ionizing radiation used extensively in medical and dental practice. Even though they provide useful information and aid in diagnosis, they also have the potential to cause harmful effects. In dentistry, it is mainly used for diagnostic purposes and in a dental set-up usually the practicing dentist exposes, processes and interprets the radiograph. Even though such exposure is less, it is critical to reduce the exposure to the dental personnel and patients in order to prevent the harmful effects of radiation. Several radiation protection measures have been advocated to ameliorate these effects. A survey conducted in the Bengaluru among practicing dentists revealed that radiation protection awareness was very low and the necessary measures taken to reduce the exposure were not adequate. The aim of the article is to review important parameters that must be taken into consideration in the clinical set-up to reduce radiation exposure to patients and dental personnel.

  9. Momentum of the Pure Radiation Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The local momentum equation of the pure radiation field is considered in terms of an earlier elaborated and revised electromagnetic theory. In this equation the contribution from the volume force is found to vanish in rectangular geometry, and to become nonzero but negligible in cylindrical geometry. Consequently the radiated momentum is due to the Poynting vector only, as in conventional electrodynamics. It results in physically relevant properties of a photon model having an angular momentum (spin. The Poynting vector concept is further compared to the quantized momentum concept for a free particle, as represented by a spatial gradient operator acting on the wave function. However, this latter otherwise successful concept leads to difficulties in the physical interpretation of known and expected photon properties such as the spin, the negligible loss of transverse momentum across a bounding surface, and the Lorentz invariance.

  10. Virtual radiation fields for ALARA determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, T.W.

    1995-12-31

    As computing power has increased, so too has the ability to model and simulate complex systems and processes. In addition, virtual reality technology has made it possible to visualize and understand many complex scientific and engineering problems. For this reason, a virtual dosimetry program called Virtual Radiation Fields (VRF) is developed to model radiation dose rate and cumulative dose to a receptor operating in a virtual radiation environment. With the design and testing of many facilities and products taking place in the virtual world, this program facilitates the concurrent consideration of radiological concerns during the design process. Three-dimensional (3D) graphical presentation of the radiation environment is made possible through the use of IGRIP, a graphical modeling program developed by Deneb Robotics, Inc. The VRF simulation program was designed to model and display a virtual dosimeter. As a demonstration of the program`s capability, the Hanford tank, C-106, was modeled to predict radiation doses to robotic equipment used to remove radioactive waste from the tank. To validate VRF dose predictions, comparison was made with reported values for tank C-106, which showed agreement to within 0.5%. Graphical information is presented regarding the 3D dose rate variation inside the tank. Cumulative dose predictions were made for the cleanup operations of tank C-106. A four-dimensional dose rate map generated by VRF was used to model the dose rate not only in 3D space but also as a function of the amount of waste remaining in the tank. This allowed VRF to predict dose rate at any stage in the waste removal process for an accurate simulation of the radiological conditions throughout the tank cleanup procedure.

  11. Radiation protection by disulfiram: protection of membrane and DNA in vitro and in vivo against gamma-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Nitin Motilal; Gopalaswamy, Usulumarty Venu; Nair, Cherupally rishnan K

    2003-09-01

    Disufiram (a drug used for the treatment of alcoholism) protected microsomal membranes and plasmid DNA against damages induced by gamma-radiation. The peroxidation of membrane lipids increased linearly with the radiation dose up to 600 Gy, and the presence of disulfiram inhibited membrane lipid peroxidation as assayed by the presence of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances. The reduction of the quantity of the supercoiled (ccc) form of plasmid pBR322 DNA is directly related to the radiation-induced damage, particularly to DNA strand breaks. There was a complete protection of plasmid DNA when exposed to gamma-radiation in the presence of disufiram (0.1 mM) at 300 Gy. This drug also protected deoxyribose against damages caused by hydroxyl radicals produced by the Fenton reaction. The administration of DSF to mice prior to whole-body radiation exposure (4 Gy) resulted in a reduction of peroxidation of membrane lipids in mice liver as well as a decrease in radiation-induced damage to cellular DNA, as assayed by single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). The results thus suggest the possible use of DSF as a radioprotector.

  12. Observations of the diffuse UV radiation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Jayant; Henry, R. C.; Feldman, P. D.; Tennyson, P. D.

    1989-01-01

    Spectra are presented for the diffuse UV radiation field between 1250 to 3100 A from eight different regions of the sky, which were obtained with the Johns Hopkins UVX experiment. UVX flew aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-61C) in January 1986 as part of the Get-Away Special project. The experiment consisted of two 1/4 m Ebert-Fastie spectrometers, covering the spectral range 1250 to 1700 A at 17 A resolution and 1600 to 3100 A at 27 A resolution, respectively, with a field of view of 4 x .25 deg, sufficiently small to pick out regions of the sky with no stars in the line of sight. Values were found for the diffuse cosmic background ranging in intensity from 300 to 900 photons/sq cm/sec/sr/A. The cosmic background is spectrally flat from 1250 to 3100 A, within the uncertainties of each spectrometer. The zodiacal light begins to play a significant role in the diffuse radiation field above 2000 A, and its brightness was determined relative to the solar emission. Observed brightnesses of the zodiacal light in the UV remain almost constant with ecliptic latitude, unlike the declining visible brightnesses, possibly indicating that those (smaller) grains responsible for the UV scattering have a much more uniform distribution with distance from the ecliptic plane than do those grains responsible for the visible scattering.

  13. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 2: Radiation Protection I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  14. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 17: Radiation Protection II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  15. Looking into future: challenges in radiation protection in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehani, M M

    2015-07-01

    Radiation protection in medicine is becoming more and more important with increasing wider use of X-rays, documentation of effects besides the potential for long-term carcinogenic effects. With computed tomography (CT) likely to become sub-mSv in coming years, positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and some of the nuclear medical examination will become focus of attraction as high-dose examinations, even though they are less-frequent ones. Clarity will be needed on radiation effects at levels of radiation doses encountered in a couple of CT scans and if effects are really cumulative. There is challenge to develop radiation metrics that can be used as easily as units of temperature and length and avoidance of multiple meaning of a single dose metric. Other challenges include development of biological indicators of radiation dose, transition from dose to a representative phantom to dose to individual patient, system for tracking of radiation exposure history of patient, avoidance of radiation-induced skin injury in patients and radiation cataract in staff, cutting down inappropriate referrals for radiological examinations, confidence building in patient and patient safety in radiotherapy.

  16. Radiation protection by ascorbic acid in sodium alginate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliste, A.J.; Mastro, N.L. Del [Center of Radiation Technology, IPEN/CNEN/SP, University City, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: ajaliste@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    Alginates are gelling hydrocolloids extracted from brown seaweed used widely in the nourishing and pharmaceutical industries. As alginic acid gellification retard food entrance in the stomach alginate is an additive used in diets. The objective of this work was to study the protective action of the ascorbic acid in alginate solutions against the action of {sup 60} Co gamma radiation. One % (w/v) solutions of alginate had been used and concentrations of ascorbic acid varied from 0 to 2.5% (w/v). The solutions were irradiated with doses up to 10 kGy. Viscosity/dose relationship and the p H of the solutions at 25 Centigrade were determined. Ascorbic acid behaved as an antioxidant against radiation oxidative shock in this model system of an irradiated viscous solution. Besides its radiation protective role on alginate solutions ascorbic acid promoted a viscosity increase in the range of concentrations employed. (Author)

  17. National congress of radiation protection - SFRP 2005; Congres National de Radioprotection - SFRP 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagroye, I. [Bordeaux Univ., Lab. de Bioelectromagnetisme de l' EPHE, Lab. PIOM, ENSCPB, 33 (France); Gonzague, A. [EDF, Centre d' appui du parc en exploitation, Groupe prevention des risques environnement, 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Ammerich, M. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la radioprotection (DGSNR), 75 - Paris (France); Blanc, D.; Lecomte, J.F.; Boucher, D.; Boucher, D.; Averbeck, D.; Gourmelon, P.; Barbey, P.; Bourguignon, M.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Dutrillaux, B.; Radecki, J.J.; Schieber, C.; Cosset, J.M.; Lecomte, J.F.; Lochard, J.; Metivier, H.; Sugier, A.; Tirmarche, M.; Aurengo, A.; Lamartine, J.; Martin, M.; Mallard, C.; Malfoy, B.; Ugolin, N.; Chevillard, S.; Schlumberger, M.; Laurier, D.; White-Koning, M.L.; Hemon, D.; Tirmarche, M.; Jougla, E.; Clavel, J.; Miccoli, L.; Barber, R.; Angulo, J.F.; Dubrova, Y.E.; Le Gall, B.; Phan, G.; Grillon, G.; Rouit, E.; Benech, H.; Fattal, E.; Deverre, J.R.; Legros, A.; Beuter, A.; Verrier, A.; Magne, I.; Souques, M.; Lambrozo, J.; Schmitt, P.; Roth, P.; Nadi, M.; Joly, L.; Chapel, C.; Burgain, A.; Marliot, F.; Cordier, E.; Courant, D.; Elabbassi, E.B.; Seze, R. de

    2005-07-01

    The nine tutorial sessions are: first one, the new recommendations of the ICRP; second one, effects on health of ionizing radiations with the following subjects ( the dose-response relationship and the estimation of carcinogen effects of ionizing radiation low doses; effect of dose rate on the induction and repair of radioinduced DNA double strand break; interest of global approach in radiation protection; molecular signature of the radioinduction in the thyroid tumors: example of radioinduced thyroid tumors after radiotherapy; incidence of child leukemia near the nuclear facilities: results of a multi sites study in France; genome instability and mutations induction after ionizing irradiation: consequences for the progeny; D.T.P.A encapsulation, an efficient strategy for the plutonium decorporation among the rat); the third one, non-ionizing radiation with the following subjects (can the exposure to a magnetic field of 100 {mu} T at 50 Hz be detected in the human physiological shiver; evaluation of the population exposure to the magnetic fields of 50 Hz: what indicators to choose; experimental study of the immunity of implantable defibrillators to the low frequencies electro-magnetic perturbations; DNA damages induced by the Ar F laser; dosimetry with a phantom in gel of human head); fourth session concerns the regulatory aspects; the fifth one presents the radiation protection and the radioactive waste management; the sixth session concerns the public and patients radiation protection; the seventh one treats the radiation protection in professional area with the following subjects ( optimization of radiation protection in the underground uranium mine of Cominak in Niger; revealing by multi parameters capillaroscopy, of micro vascular alterations of fingers among interventional radiologists; use of radioactive and chemical probes in biological research; uncertainties on doses and D.P.U.I.; monitoring of work areas. Evaluation of workers exposure towards a

  18. Radiation Protection in Educational Institutions. Recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Washington, DC.

    The problems involved when radiation-producing devices of our contemporary technology are used in the teaching of science at the high school and undergraduate college level are discussed. Information is provided on the hazards involved in the use of radiation-producing equipment or radioactive materials in science demonstrations and experiments…

  19. Advances in nuclear particle dosimetry for radiation protection and medicine - Ninth Symposium on Neutron Dosimetry (Editorial Material, English)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoetelief, J; Bos, A J.; Schuhmacher, H; McDonald, Joseph C.; Schultz, F W.; Pihet, P

    2004-12-15

    The Ninth Symposium on Neutron Dosimetry has been expanded to cover not only neutron radiation but heavy charged particle dosimetry as well. The applications are found in such fields as radiation protection, aircrew dosimetry, medicine, nuclear power and accelerator health physics. Scientists from many countries from around the world presented their work, and described the latest developments in techniques and instrumentation.

  20. Radiolysis of Serine in High Radiation Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Y. Aguilar-Ovando

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The formation of amino acids under simulated condition suggests that this type of compounds were readily formed on the primitive Earth. Nevertheless, there is no conclusive explanation to the origin of their specific chirality in biological systems. Differences in their stability in the primitive conditions may give some clues about this unsolved problem. Protection mechanisms have been considered, such as the adsorption of the organic compounds onto mineral surfaces. By using HPLC/ELSD to analyze aqueous suspensions of serine adsorbed on clay (sodium montmorillonite and a meteorite (Allende irradiated in different doses with a cobalt-60 gamma source, the aim of this work was to study the possible protector role of these mineral surfaces when an amino acid, serine, is adsorbed onto them and the system is exposed to a high radiation source. The results showed that adsorption is better at acidic pH and desorption from the mineral at basic pH. The irradiation of the free amino acid destroyed it almost completely at a dose of 91 kGy, but the presence of the mineral abruptly decreases the decomposition, acting as a protective agent. At the same time, the results in aqueous solution show no statistically significant differences in adsorption or radiolysis of D and L serine.

  1. The study of the radiation protection of propolis to the radiation effects in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Y.H.; Suzuki, Ikukatsu; Hasegawa, Takeo; Muto, H. [Suzuka Univ. of Medical Science, Mie (Japan); Yanagisawa, Takaharu; Iwasa, Toshihiro; Bamen, K.

    2000-05-01

    The profit which radiation brought to the Homo sapiens is very big. But, radiation has even harmful parameter for the human besides one case. After effect on man to the radiation is thought about, the individual of which sensibility is the highest is a fetus. Therefore, even an effects to this fetus is grasped precisely, and protection criterion and resource are decided from the viewpoint of the protection of radiation as well. If it does so, a child and maturitas aren't so difficult as in the protection of radiation and the managerial side. It was examined about control group, propolis administration chisels for medical use group, 1.5 Gy independent exposure group and propolis pluse 1.5 Gy group in this study. It was examined about the protection of radiation of propolis which to malformation, fetal death, arrested development, and so on in the organogenesis (8 days post conception) being done when sensibility is the highest against the teratogenesis. Preimplantation death rate was compared with the control group and the sham control group, and statistical significant difference wasn't recognized by a 1.5 Gy radiation independent exposure group, propolis administration 1.5 Gy radiation exposure group. As for the embryonic death rate, propolis was administered, and obviously embryonic death rate was poorer than the 1.5 Gy independent exposure group, and significant difference was recognized by a 1.5 Gy radiation exposure group (p<0.001). It has a 1.5 Gy radiation exposure group made clear by this research fetal death rate propolis administer more only 1.5 Gy exposure fetal death rate development low (p<0.001). Fetal death rate wasn't recognized by propolis administration group (Sham control). As for the teratogenesis rate, propolis was administered, and the teratogenesis rate of the 1.5 Gy radiation exposure group was higher than the 1.5 Gy radiation independent exposure group. But, this is thought anamorphosis appear by propolis administration so

  2. Isolation, characterization, and radiation protection of Sipunculus nudus L. polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Shen, Xianrong; Liu, Yuming; Zhang, Junling; He, Ying; Liu, Qiong; Jiang, Dingwen; Zong, Jie; Li, Jiamei; Hou, Dengyong; Chen, Wei; Wang, Qingrong; Luo, Qun; Li, Kexian

    2016-02-01

    Sipunculus nudus Linnaeus polysaccharide (SNP) was purified from S. nudus L. via NaOH extraction, trichloroacetic acid deproteination, DEAE-cellulose 52 and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography. The monosaccharide analysis and molecular weight was detected with HPLC. FT-IR, 1H spectrum and 13C NMR spectrum were performed to detect the chemical characteristics. The antioxidant activity was assayed in vitro. The radiation protection effects were detected on mice. The results showed that SNP was composed of mannose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, arabinose and fucose, and the average molecular weight was 680 kDa. Above the concentration of 10 mg/mL, SNP showed powerful scavenging activity on hydroxyl radical. In the animals irradiated with a 7.5 Gy γ-rays, the 90 mg/kg and the 270 mg/kg SNP groups survived significantly longer than the radiation control group. In the animals irradiated with a 4.0 Gy γ-rays, SNP showed significant protection effect. The contents of DNA in bone marrow cells were significantly increased by SNP treatment, and the micronucleus rates of 30 mg/kg and 270 mg/kg SNP groups were decrease significantly compared to the radiation control group. These findings suggest that SNP possesses marked antioxidant and bone marrow damage protection capacity which play important roles in the prevention of radiation damage.

  3. Job satisfaction and its relationship to Radiation Protection Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (RPKAP) of Iranian radiation workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, S S; Dabbagh, S T; Abbasi, M; Mehrdad, R

    2017-01-23

    This study aimed to find the association between job satisfaction and radiation protection knowledge, attitude and practice of medical radiation workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. In this crosssectional study, 530 radiation workers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences completed a knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire on protecting themselves against radiation and Job Descriptive Index as a job satisfaction measure during May to November 2014. Opportunities for promotion (84.2%) and payment (91.5%) were the most important factors for dissatisfaction. Radiation workers who were married, had more positive attitudes toward protecting themselves against radiation, and had higher level of education accounted for 15.8% of the total variance in predicting job satisfaction. In conclusion, medical radiation workers with a more positive attitude toward self-protection against radiation were more satisfied with their jobs. In radiation environments, improving staff attitudes toward their safety may be considered as a key strategy to increase job satisfaction.

  4. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-04-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting, 2015. It was held on Apr. 22-24, 2015 in Yeosu, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2014. This proceedings is comprised of 8 sessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Radiation protection 1, Medical treatment and Biology 1, Radiation Measurement 1, Radiation environment and disasters prevention 1, Radiation protection 2, Medical treatment and Biology 2, Radiation Measurement 2, Radiation environment and disasters prevention 2.

  5. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-10-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting, 2015. It was held on Oct.23, 2015 Mayfield Hotel in Seoul, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2015. This proceedings is comprised of 8 sessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Radiation protection 1, Medical treatment and Biology 1, Radiation Measurement 1, Radiation environment and disasters prevention 1, Radiation protection 2, Medical treatment and Biology 2, Radiation Measurement 2, Radiation environment and disasters prevention 2.

  6. Excitation of magnetization using a modulated radiation damping field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Jamie D; Huang, Susie Y; Lin, Yung-Ya

    2006-10-12

    In this work, pulsed-field gradients are used to modulate the radiation damping field generated by the detection coil in an NMR experiment in order that spins with significantly different chemical shifts can affect one another via the radiation damping field. Experiments performed on solutions of acetone/water and acetone/DMSO/water demonstrate that spins with chemical shift differences much greater than the effective radiation damping field strength can still be coupled by modulating the radiation damping field. Implications for applications in high-field NMR and for developing sensitive magnetization detectors are discussed.

  7. The international radiation protection: the international actors; La radioprotection internationale: les acteurs internationaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacoste, A.C.; Bourguignon, M.; Mercier, J.P.; Wambersie, A.; Flury-Herard, A.; Sugier, A.; Amaral, E.; Mrabit, K.; Lazo, T.; Shengli, Niu; Zhanat, Carr; Hanson, G.; Borras, C.; Perrin, M.L.; Audebert, P.; Janssens, A.; Herzeele, M.; Barre, B.; Piechowski, J.; Godet, J.L.; Lochard, J.; Lefaure, Ch.; Crouail, P.; Lacronique, J.F

    2005-12-15

    The International commission on radiation units and measurements, (ICRU) and UNSCEAR represent the basic knowledge from science. For the international recommendations in radiation protection we find ICRP, the radiological safety standards of IAEA, the Committee of radiation protection and public health of the nuclear energy agency (Nea), the role and recent activities of the ilo concerning the radiation protection of workers and the Who role in radiation protection. About the regulation elaboration for the international standardization in radiation protection we have the international standard organisation (ISO), the alimentarius Codex and the radiation protection, at the European level, the European commission and the directives lay down the basic standards in radiation protection, the scientific and technical committee of the EURATOM treaty (S.T.C.). How to use the regulation is explained trough the international radiation protection association (IRPA), the European ALARA network (E.A.N.) the international cooperation on N.R.B.C. malevolent risk. (N.C.)

  8. General report on legal problems in radiation protection. Working group 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The legal implications and especially how some of the less definite concepts of the ICRP recommendations in Publication 60, issued in 1991, are given regulatory form are analysed. The preparation of the new EC directive on radiation protection and the attempt by IAEA and NEA to integrate the ICRP radiological protection principles with the nuclear safety principles are also examined. A special paragraph deals with long-debated question of exemptions. The report then analyses the right to be informed and the obligation to inform, in the field of radiation protection of the public, highlighting the different approaches in the regulatory systems developed during the past years at Community level and in the US. The problems of coordination between the provisions of the EC and the EURATOM treaties on environmental protection and radiation protection respectively, are then considered, partly with a view to the possible merging of these provisions into a single Treaty. Lastly, some considerations are developed concerning the different possible approaches to compensation for potentially radiation-induced diseases. 27 refs., 1 tab.

  9. A History of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repacholi, M H

    2017-10-01

    Concern about health risks from exposure to non-ionizing radiation (NIR) commenced in the 1950s after tracking radars were first introduced during the Second World War. Soon after, research on possible biological effects of microwave radiation in the former Soviet Union and the U.S. led to public and worker exposure limits being much lower in Eastern European than in Western countries, mainly because of different protection philosophies. As public concern increased, national authorities began introducing legislation to limit NIR exposures from domestic microwave ovens and workplace devices such as visual display units. The International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) was formed in 1966 to represent national radiation protection societies. To address NIR protection issues, IRPA established a Working Group in 1974, then a Study Group in 1975, and finally the International NIR Committee (INIRC) in 1977. INIRC's publications quickly became accepted worldwide, and it was logical that it should become an independent commission. IRPA finally established the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), chartering its remit in 1992, and defining NIR as electromagnetic radiation (ultraviolet, visible, infrared), electromagnetic waves and fields, and infra- and ultrasound. ICNIRP's guidelines have been incorporated into legislation or adopted as standards in many countries. While ICNIRP has been subjected to criticism and close scrutiny by the public, media, and activists, it has continued to issue well-received, independent, science-based protection advice. This paper summarizes events leading to the formation of ICNIRP, its key activities up to 2017, ICNIRP's 25th anniversary year, and its future challenges.

  10. Characteristic of the radiation field in low Earth orbit and in deep space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Guenther

    2008-01-01

    The radiation exposure in space by cosmic radiation can be reduced through careful mission planning and constructive measures as example the provision of a radiation shelter, but it cannot be completely avoided. The reason for that are the extreme high energies of particles in this field and the herewith connected high penetration depth in matter. For missions outside the magnetosphere ionizing radiation is recognized as the key factor through its impact on crew health and performance. In absence of sporadic solar particle events the radiation exposure in Low Earth orbit (LEO) inside Spacecraft is determined by the galactic cosmic radiation (protons and heavier ions) and by the protons inside the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), an area where the radiation belt comes closer to the earth surface due to a displacement of the magnetic dipole axes from the Earth's center. In addition there is an albedo source of neutrons produced as interaction products of the primary galactic particles with the atoms of the earth atmosphere. Outside the spacecraft the dose is dominated by the electrons of the horns of the radiation belt located at about 60" latitude in Polar Regions. The radiation field has spatial and temporal variations in dependence of the Earth magnetic field and the solar cycle. The complexity of the radiation field inside a spacecraft is further increased through the interaction of the high energy components with the spacecraft shielding material and with the body of the astronauts. In interplanetary missions the radiation belt will be crossed in a couple of minutes and therefore its contribution to their radiation exposure is quite small, but subsequently the protection by the Earth magnetic field is lost, leaving only shielding measures as exposure reduction means. The report intends to describe the radiation field in space, the interaction of the particles with the magnetic field and shielding material and give some numbers on the radiation exposure in low earth

  11. Radiation protection in odontology: French regulation and new European standards; La radioprotection en odontologie: reglementation francaise et nouvelles normes europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foucart, J.M

    2004-07-01

    This a point on the regulatory evolutions in the field of radiation protection in the daily practice of odontology, consecutive to the transposition in French law of European directives. This work proposes practical cards to manage installation in radiodiagnosis in order to protect professional personnel and patients. (N.C.)

  12. Temperature field for radiative tomato peeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccurullo, G.; Giordano, L.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays peeling of tomatoes is performed by using steam or lye, which are expensive and polluting techniques, thus sustainable alternatives are searched for dry peeling and, among that, radiative heating seems to be a fairly promising method. This paper aims to speed up the prediction of surface temperatures useful for realizing dry-peeling, thus a 1D-analytical model for the unsteady temperature field in a rotating tomato exposed to a radiative heating source is presented. Since only short times are of interest for the problem at hand, the model involves a semi-infinite slab cooled by convective heat transfer while heated by a pulsating heat source. The model being linear, the solution is derived following the Laplace Transform method. A 3D finite element model of the rotating tomato is introduced as well in order to validate the analytical solution. A satisfactory agreement is attained. Therefore, two different ways to predict the onset of the peeling conditions are available which can be of help for proper design of peeling plants. Particular attention is paid to study surface temperature uniformity, that being a critical parameter for realizing an easy tomato peeling.

  13. Evaluation of Spacecraft Shielding Effectiveness for Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    1999-01-01

    The potential for serious health risks from solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) is a critical issue in the NASA strategic plan for the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS). The excess cost to protect against the GCR and SPE due to current uncertainties in radiation transmission properties and cancer biology could be exceedingly large based on the excess launch costs to shield against uncertainties. The development of advanced shielding concepts is an important risk mitigation area with the potential to significantly reduce risk below conventional mission designs. A key issue in spacecraft material selection is the understanding of nuclear reactions on the transmission properties of materials. High-energy nuclear particles undergo nuclear reactions in passing through materials and tissue altering their composition and producing new radiation types. Spacecraft and planetary habitat designers can utilize radiation transport codes to identify optimal materials for lowering exposures and to optimize spacecraft design to reduce astronaut exposures. To reach these objectives will require providing design engineers with accurate data bases and computationally efficient software for describing the transmission properties of space radiation in materials. Our program will reduce the uncertainty in the transmission properties of space radiation by improving the theoretical description of nuclear reactions and radiation transport, and provide accurate physical descriptions of the track structure of microscopic energy deposition.

  14. Building 772 - CERN’s new calibration facility for radiation protection instruments is ready to go

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Building 772 is becoming the new home of CERN’s calibration facility for radiation protection instrumentation. The new laboratory in Prévessin will be a state-of-the-art calibration facility and the first of its kind in both France and Switzerland, offering a wide range of possibilities with respect to radiation fields and instrumentation.   New four-axis calibration bench for radiation protection instruments.   Civil engineering work started in November 2013 in Prévessin and Building 772 is now finished and ready for inauguration. CERN’s calibration facility was previously located in Building 172 in Meyrin. Although still very accurate, the technology used was becoming obsolete and needed replacement. “Having considered different options, the decision was taken to build a new facility fully designed and conceived to meet all international safety and technical requirements of such a laboratory,” says Pie...

  15. Radiation Protection Of Outside Workers: Implementation Of The EC Council Directive 90/641/EURATOM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannsens, A.; Schnuer, K.; Naegele, J. [European Commission, DG Energy and Transport B. EUROFORUM, 4455, L-2920 (Luxembourg); Lefaure, C.; Vaillant, L. [Nuclear Protection Evaluation Centre (CEPN) Batiment Expansion 10000, 28 rue de la Redoute, 92263 Fontenay-aux- Roses (France)

    2006-07-01

    In the beginning of the 1980's, the problem of radiological protection of workers belonging to contracted companies (undertakings) within nuclear facilities was raised. In most of the nuclear facilities, the so-called outside workers received 80% (and even more) of the collective dose, and quite often higher individual doses than workers permanently employed by the nuclear operators. Since the outside workers radiation protection issue was not explicitly taken into account by the 1980 European Basic Safety Standards Directive, there was a need for an additional piece of European radiation protection legislation. In this context, the European Union adopted in 1990 the Council Directive 90/641/EURATOM on the radiological protection of outside workers. This Directive shall ensure at European Union level that the radiological protection situation for the outside workers is equivalent to that offered to those workers permanently employed by the operators of nuclear facilities. Since the adoption of the Directive in 1990 the geographical situation of the European Union has changed significantly. At the same time, an evolution took place in the industrial structures of the nuclear industry followed by changes of employment conditions. Furthermore, new European radiation protection requirements were issued considering scientific and technical developments in the radiological protection field and laid down in the new radiation Protection Basic Safety Standards Directive 96/29/EURATOM. Taking into account these aspects the Radiation Protection Unit of the European Commission Directorate General for Energy and Transport decided to investigate the current situation and the future status of the Outside Workers Directive 90/641/EURATOM. The European Commission Radiation Protection Unit thus awarded the CEPN with a contract in order to evaluate through a survey the level of regulatory, administrative and operational implementation of Directive 90/641/EURATOM into Member

  16. Calibration for Radiation Protection Equipment for the Measuring Airborne Tritium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Xi-lin; SHEN; En-wei; WEI; Ke-xin; WANG; Kong-zhao; LI; Hou-wen; GE; Jian-an; LV; Xiao-xia

    2012-01-01

    <正>Monitoring airborne tritium is an important routine work in heavy water reactor nuclear power stations and the units related with tritium. Nowadays direct measuring instruments like hand carrying tritium monitors are more often used in routine workshop environment check. Need for calibrating such monitors was suggested. A trial work about the calibration for radiation protection equipment for measuring airborne tritium was carried out with a domestic standard EJ/T 1077-1998 equivalent that of IEC 710.

  17. Software for radiation protection; Software fuer den Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graffunder, H. [Ingenieurbuero Graffunder, Stutensee (Germany)

    2002-03-01

    The software products presented are universally usable programs for radiation protection. The systems were designed in order to establish a comprehensive database specific to radiation protection and, on this basis, model in programs subjects of radiation protection. Development initially focused on the creation of the database. Each software product was to access the same nuclide-specific data; input errors and differences in spelling were to be excluded from the outset. This makes the products more compatible with each other and able to exchange data among each other. The software products are modular in design. Functions recurring in radiation protection are always treated the same way in different programs, and also represented the same way on the program surface. The recognition effect makes it easy for users to familiarize with the products quickly. All software products are written in German and are tailored to the administrative needs and codes and regulations in Germany and in Switzerland. (orig.) [German] Die hier vorgestellten Softwareprodukte sind universell einsetzbare Programme fuer den Strahlenschutz. Die Systeme wurden mit dem Ziel erstellt, eine umfangreiche strahlenschutz-spezifische Datenbasis zu erschaffen und darauf basierend Themen des Strahlenschutzes programmtechnisch abzubilden. Der Schwerpunkt der Entwicklungen lag zunaechst bei der Schaffung der Datenbasis. Jedes Softwareprodukt sollte auf dieselben nuklidspezifischen Daten zurueckgreifen, Eingabefehler und unterschiedliche Schreibweisen sollten von vorneherein ausgeschlossen werden. Die Produkte selbst wurden damit kompatibel zueinander und koennen Daten untereinander austauschen. Die Softwareprodukte sind modular aufgebaut. Im Strahlenschutz wiederkehrende Funktionen werden in verschiedenen Programmen immer gleich behandelt und auf der Programmoberflaeche auch gleich dargestellt. Der Wiedererkennungseffekt vereinfacht es den Anwendern, sich schnell mit den Produkten anzufreunden. Alle

  18. A biokinetic model for zinc for use in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, R.W., E-mail: rwl@ornl.gov

    2012-03-15

    The physiology of the essential trace element zinc has been studied extensively in human subjects using kinetic analysis of time-dependent measurements of administered zinc tracers. A number of biokinetic models describing zinc exchange between plasma and tissues and endogenous excretion of zinc have been derived as fits to data for specific study groups. More rudimentary biokinetic models for zinc have been developed to estimate radiation doses from internally deposited radioisotopes of zinc. The latter models are designed to provide broadly accurate estimates of cumulative decays of zinc radioisotopes in tissues and are not intended as realistic descriptions of the directions of movement of zinc in the body. This paper reviews biokinetic data for zinc and proposes a physiologically meaningful biokinetic model for systemic zinc for use in radiation protection. The proposed model bears some resemblance to zinc models developed in physiological studies but depicts a finer division of systemic zinc and is based on a broader spectrum of data than previous models. The proposed model and the model for zinc currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection yield reasonably similar estimates of total-body retention and effective dose for internally deposited radioisotopes of zinc but much different systemic distributions of activity and much different dose estimates for some individual tissues, particularly the liver. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc is an essential trace element with numerous functions in the human body. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several biokinetic models for zinc have been developed from tracer studies on humans. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More rudimentary biokinetic models for zinc have been developed in radiation protection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biokinetic data for zinc are reviewed and a new biokinetic model is proposed for radiation protection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proposed model

  19. Protection Strategy of Sensitive Body Organs in Radiation Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfath, Ramin M.; Papiez, Lech

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate protection strategies of sensitive body anatomy against the irradiation to the cancerous moving tumors in intensity modulated radiation therapy. Inspired by optimization techniques developed in statistical physics and dynamical systems, we deploy a method based on variational principles and formulate an efficient genetic algorithm which enable us to search for global minima in a complex landscape of irradiation dose delivered to the radiosensitive organs at risk....

  20. Development of Functional Foods for Body Protection Using Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, S. K.; Jung, U. H.; Park, H. R.

    2007-07-15

    We have previously developed two herbal compositions(HemoHIM, HemoTonic) that protects immune/hematopoietic system and self-renewal tissues against radiation and enhances immune/hematopoietic functions. In this study, we tried to expand its usability by verifying its protective activity against various harmful stimuli as well as radiation. HemoHIM was shown to be highly effective in reducing immune/hematopoietic damage, particularly, normalizing the Th1/Th2 imbalance, which seemed to be a result of increased production of IL-12p70 by APC and enhanced NK cell activity. Also HemoHIM was shown to have protective activities against UV-induced skin damage, immune system damage by an anticancer drug (CP), immune depression by old age and stress, and inflammation. Finally it was confirmed in a human study that HemoHIM improves the immune cell functions and cytokine production. Based on these results, HemoHIM has been approved as a health functional food for immunomodulation by Korea FDA and succeeded in its industrialization. Meanwhile, to develop functional foods for the reduction of chronic radiation damage (carcinogenesis), we have screened natural products for inhibitory activities against carcinogenesis-related factors, and developed two anti-carcinogenic compositions. Also 6 single compounds were isolated and identified from radioprotective natural products and elucidated some synergistic protection by several single compounds and established a basis for the development of advanced technology for radioprotection. Also, to obtain the applicability of radiation technology for the safe sanitatation and distribution of functional food materials, we verified the toxicological safety, stability of activity and active components of irradiated medicinal herbs

  1. The HERMES silicon project—the radiation protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beuzekom, M. G.; Bouhali, O.; Mexner, V.; Mos, S.; Reischl, A.; Steijger, J. J. M.

    2003-10-01

    The HERMES-detector has recently been upgraded with a silicon detector called the Lambda Wheels. This is the first detector following the interaction region. It consists of two disks of silicon detectors close to the beamline. This location makes it vulnerable to increased radiation levels which may be caused by beam instabilities. The Lambda Wheel detector, therefore, contains a system to detect these instabilities. This additional system triggers a kicker which dumps the HERA-lepton beam when the radiation level becomes too high. This contribution describes the radiation monitor which consists of two sets of three ionization chambers each, and the data-acquisition system which reads them out. The system has been installed and is operational since the summer of 2001. The HERA-accelerator was being commissioned after an upgrade during this time and several kinds of beam instabilities were observed with this protection system. The characteristics of some events will be described.

  2. Protection Strategy of Sensitive Body Organs in Radiation Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Abolfath, Ramin M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate protection strategies of sensitive body anatomy against the irradiation to the cancerous moving tumors in intensity modulated radiation therapy. Inspired by optimization techniques developed in statistical physics and dynamical systems, we deploy a method based on variational principles and formulate an efficient genetic algorithm which enable us to search for global minima in a complex landscape of irradiation dose delivered to the radiosensitive organs at risk. We take advantage of the internal motion of body anatomy during radiation therapy to reduce the unintentional delivery of the radiation to sensitive organs. We show that the accurate optimization of the control parameters, compare to the conventional IMRT and widely used delivery based on static anatomy assumption, leads to a significant reduction of the dose delivered to the organs at risk.

  3. Novel Radiation Protection System Enabled by Hydrogen Enhanced Nano Fibers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for radiation protection in humans is critical to the success of the nation's continued presence in space. A new radiation protection system will be...

  4. Pharmacological Protection From Radiation {+-} Cisplatin-Induced Oral Mucositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotrim, Ana P. [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Yoshikawa, Masanobu [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Sunshine, Abraham N.; Zheng Changyu [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Sowers, Anastasia L.; Thetford, Angela D.; Cook, John A.; Mitchell, James B. [Radiation Biology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Baum, Bruce J., E-mail: bbaum@dir.nidcr.nih.gov [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate if two pharmacological agents, Tempol and D-methionine (D-met), are able to prevent oral mucositis in mice after exposure to ionizing radiation {+-} cisplatin. Methods and Materials: Female C3H mice, {approx}8 weeks old, were irradiated with five fractionated doses {+-} cisplatin to induce oral mucositis (lingual ulcers). Just before irradiation and chemotherapy, mice were treated, either alone or in combination, with different doses of Tempol (by intraperitoneal [ip] injection or topically, as an oral gel) and D-met (by gavage). Thereafter, mice were sacrificed and tongues were harvested and stained with a solution of Toluidine Blue. Ulcer size and tongue epithelial thickness were measured. Results: Significant lingual ulcers resulted from 5 Multiplication-Sign 8 Gy radiation fractions, which were enhanced with cisplatin treatment. D-met provided stereospecific partial protection from lingual ulceration after radiation. Tempol, via both routes of administration, provided nearly complete protection from lingual ulceration. D-met plus a suboptimal ip dose of Tempol also provided complete protection. Conclusions: Two fairly simple pharmacological treatments were able to markedly reduce chemoradiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. This proof of concept study suggests that Tempol, alone or in combination with D-met, may be a useful and convenient way to prevent the severe oral mucositis that results from head-and-neck cancer therapy.

  5. Radiation protection research projects. Status report 2007; Strahlenschutzforschung. Programmreport 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard-Stroel, Claudia; Goedde, Ralph; Hachenberger, Claudia; Loebke-Reinl, Angelika; Schmitt-Hannig, Annemarie

    2009-01-15

    In Behalf of the German Federal Environment Ministry (BMU) the BfS (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz) assigns research contracts concerning radiation protection topics. The results of these research projects are supposed to provide decision support for the development of radiation protection regulations and other specific radiation protection tasks of the BMU. The BfS is basically charged for the planning, the technical and administrative prearrangements, the assignment, the expert monitoring and the technical evaluation of the results. The report is the compiled information on the results or intermediate results (status reports) of these research projects for the year 2007. [German] Das Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS) vergibt im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit (BMU) Forschungsvorhaben auf dem Gebiet des Strahlenschutzes. Die Ergebnisse dieser Vorhaben dienen als Entscheidungshilfen bei der Erarbeitung von Strahlenschutzvorschriften und bei der Erfuellung sonstiger Fachaufgaben des BMU im Bereich Strahlenschutz. Die Planung, fachliche und administrative Vorbereitung, Vergabe, Begleitung sowie die fachliche Bewertung der Ergebnisse der Untersuchungsvorhaben ist grundsaetzlich Aufgabe des Bundesamtes fuer Strahlenschutz. Der vorliegende Bericht informiert ueber die Ergebnisse bzw. Zwischenergebnisse (in Form von Statusberichten) von Strahlenschutzvorhaben des BMU-Ressortforschungsprogramms im Jahr 2007. (orig.)

  6. Proceedings of the second conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R. E.; Sims, C. S. [eds.

    1988-11-01

    The Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 31--November 3, 1988, at the Holiday Inn, Crowne Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To facilitate meeting these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical sessions included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, calibration, standards and regulations, instrumentation, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. This document provides a summary of the conference technical program and a partial collection of full papers for the oral presentations in order of delivery. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  7. Outdoor workers' acceptance of personal protective measures against solar ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marko; Uller, Andreas; Schulmeister, Karl; Brusl, Helmut; Hann, Hans; Kindl, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The acceptance and usability of personal protection against solar UV radiation was evaluated in a field study with a group of tinsmiths in Austria. The personal protective measures (PPM) tested involved four categories: shirts, headwear, sunglasses and topically applied sunscreens; at least six different products per category were tested. Recommendations for the "ideal" shirt, headwear, pair of sunglasses and topical sunscreen are given based on data from questionnaires, i.e., from the point of view of the workers, independently from the actual physical level of protection (such as low transmittance or area of coverage) provided. It is argued that in practice it is important to consider the acceptance and usability of protective measures as well as the level of physical protection when providing PPM.

  8. Study on CYCIAE-100 radiation field and residual radioactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Yuan-Jie; ZHANG Tian-Jue; JIA Xian-Lu; ZHOU Zheng-He; WANG Feng; WEI Su-Min; ZHONG Jun-Qing; TANG Chuan-Xiang

    2009-01-01

    The accelerators should be properly designed to make the radiation field produced by beam loss ual radiation field.The induced radioactivity in accelerator components is the dominant source of occupational radiation exposure if the accelerator is well shielded.The source of radiation is the beam loss when cyclotron is operating.In this paper,the radiation field for CYCIAE-100 is calculated using Monte Carlo method and the radioactive contamination near stripping foil is studied.A method to reduce the dose equivalent rate of maintenance staff is also given.

  9. A defense in depth approach to radiation protection for 125I production activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, T; Potter, C A

    2001-08-01

    Not all operational radiation protection situations lend themselves to simple solutions. Often a Radiation Protection Program must be developed and implemented for difficult situations. A defense in depth approach to radiation protection was developed for 125I production activities. Defense in depth relies on key radiation protection elements that tend to be mutually supportive and in combination provide reasonable assurance that the overall desired level of protection has been provided. For difficult situations, defense in depth can provide both a reasonable and appropriate approach to radiation protection.

  10. A Model for Protective Behavior against the Harmful Effects of Radiation based on Medical Institution Classifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok; Kwon, Deok Mun [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Gwangju Health College University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seung Moo [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    This study surveyed a total of 1,322 radiation technologist in health care institutions throughout Korea. This is a comparative study conducted on the levels of protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation in heath care institutions which indicated that university hospitals and general hospitals showed higher level of protective behavior than for medical practitioners. This study found university hospitals have the following 7 characteristics to manage protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation, protective environment, self-efficacy by distinction of task , self-efficacy, expectation of the protective behavior, the number of patients, level of the education related to the protection of the harmful effects of radiation and protective attitude. While general hospitals have the following 3 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior and protective attitude. Hospitals have the following 4 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior, protective attitude and self-efficacy and medical clinics have characteristics protective environment.

  11. Organization of central database for implementation of ionizing radiation protection in the Republic of Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubelka, D.; Svilicic, N. [Croatian Radiation Protection Institute, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2000-05-01

    The paper is intended to give an overview of the situation in the Republic of Croatia resulting from passing of the new ionizing radiation protection law. Data collecting organization and records keeping structure will be highlighted in particular, as well as data exchange between individual services involved in ionizing radiation protection. The Radiation Protection Act has been prepared in compliance with the international standards and Croatian regulations governing the ionizing radiation protection field. Its enforcement shall probably commence in October 1999, when the necessary bylaws regulating in detail numerous specific and technical issues of particular importance for ionizing radiation protection implementation are expected to be adopted. Within the Croatian Government, the Ministry of Health is charge of ionizing radiation protection. Such competence is traditional in our country and common throughout the world. This Ministry has authorized three institutions to carry out technical tasks related to the radiation protection, such as radiation sources inspections and personal dosimetry. Such distribution of work demands coordination of all involved institutions, control of their work and records keeping. The Croatian Radiation Protection Institute has been entrusted to coordinate work of these institutions, control their activities, and set up the central national registry of radiation sources and workers, as well as doses received by the staff during their work. Since the Croatian Radiation Protection Institute is a newly established institution, we could freely determine our operational framework. Due to its publicly accessible source code and wide base of users and developers, the best prospective for stability and long-term accessibility is offered by the Linux operating system. For the database development, Oracle RDBMS was used, partly because it is a leading manufacturer of database management systems, and partly because our staff is very familiar

  12. Protective effect of corticosteroids on radiation pneumonitis in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, N.J.; Narine, K.R.; Wade, R.

    1988-01-01

    We explored the protective effect of corticosteroids on the mortality of mice that received thoracic irradiation. Methylprednisolone, 100 mg/kg/week, given from 11 weeks after gamma irradiation of the thorax resulted in an increase in the LD50 (11-26 weeks) from 14.3 +/- 0.3 (mean +/- SE) Gy to 17.6 +/- 0.4 Gy, P less than 0.001, a protection factor of 1.2. Withdrawal of steroids at various times during the period of radiation pneumonitis resulted in accelerated mortality in the next 2-4 weeks, so that the cumulative mortality caught up with that of control animals by 4 weeks after steroid withdrawal. However, after the end of the usual period of pneumonitis withdrawal of steroids did not result in accelerated mortality, suggesting that the time when steroids are protective corresponds to the duration of pneumonitis. A smaller dose of steroids, 25 mg/kg/week, was found to be as protective as the larger dose used in the above experiments. The possibility that corticosteroids reduce mortality, even when given many weeks after radiation, may have important practical and theoretical implications.

  13. Radiation shielding is not a solution. Radiation protection of air crews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Theresia [Vereinigung Cockpit e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). AG Strahlenschutz

    2012-06-15

    In most working environments it is fairly easy to minimize radiation doses of workers as postulated by radiation protection basics: Increasing the distance to the radiation source, reducing the exposure time, and the use of protective clothing or shielding. With air crews however, being the largest group of exposed persons and receiving the highest collective doses, classical protective measures are difficult or even impossible to enforce. Without neglecting the economical situation, effective measures could nevertheless be realized. Planning flights at slightly lower altitudes and further away from the geomagnetic poles can significantly reduce the radiation exposure for both crew and passengers. Furthermore, affordable high-quality dosimeters with the size of mobile phones have reached marketability. If installed on board, they could measure and display the actually received radiation during normal operation and additionally warn the flight crew in case of an abnormally high dose rate during solar particle events. Pilots could react to such warnings according to procedures that are yet to be installed. (orig.)

  14. Radiation protection. The past and the future; Strahlenschutz. Vergangenheit und Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, Rolf

    2016-11-01

    After a short summary of the history of radiation protection and its scientific basis a survey is given on the actual state of radiation protection, thereby entering into open questions like risk perception and communication with the general public. Finally, the future tasks of radiation protection are described.

  15. 78 FR 19148 - Shielding and Radiation Protection Review Effort and Licensing Conditions for Dry Storage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 72 Shielding and Radiation Protection Review Effort and...-ISG-26A), Revision 0, ``Shielding and Radiation Protection Review Effort and Licensing Conditions for... to NRC staff when reviewing the shielding and radiation protection portions of applications...

  16. Radiation protection: Radiation dose units and fundamentals. Correct use of radiation dose units, measurements, risk assessment; Dosisbegriffe und Grundlagen im Strahlenschutz. Dosisbegriffe richtig anwenden, Messgroessen bestimmen, Risiken bewerten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkerts, K.H.; Wolf, H.

    2005-07-01

    Radiation protection intends to prevent radiation damage by appropriate staff-related and technical measures in accordance with the specifications of the German X-Ray Ordinance (RoV) and Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV) and in agreement with the ICRLP (International Commission on Radiological Protection). They require that radiation use must be justified, exposure conditions must be optimised, and exposure times must be limited to the shortest time necessary. In practical use, this requires considerable practical and theoretical knowledge from the user concerning the physical properties of radiation sources, interactions with tissue and matter of different types of radiation, and biological effects of radiation. National and international organizations and committees have specified the knowledge which a user must have as follows: Physical fundamentals of radiation protection; Measuring quantities and specified standard units; Organisational and constructional radiation protection; Legal knowledge. (orig.)

  17. Vacuum radiation induced by time dependent electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Many predictions of new phenomena given by strong field quantum electrodynamics (SFQED will be tested on next generation multi-petawatt laser facilities in the near future. These new phenomena are basis to understand physics in extremely strong electromagnetic fields therefore have attracted wide research interest. Here we discuss a new SFQED phenomenon that is named as vacuum radiation. In vacuum radiation, a virtual electron loop obtain energy from time dependent external electric field and radiate an entangled photon pair. Features of vacuum radiation in a locally time dependent electric field including spectrum, characteristic temperature, production rate and power are given.

  18. Vacuum radiation induced by time dependent electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Zhi-meng; Hong, Wei; He, Shu-Kai; Teng, Jian; Gu, Yu-qiu

    2017-04-01

    Many predictions of new phenomena given by strong field quantum electrodynamics (SFQED) will be tested on next generation multi-petawatt laser facilities in the near future. These new phenomena are basis to understand physics in extremely strong electromagnetic fields therefore have attracted wide research interest. Here we discuss a new SFQED phenomenon that is named as vacuum radiation. In vacuum radiation, a virtual electron loop obtain energy from time dependent external electric field and radiate an entangled photon pair. Features of vacuum radiation in a locally time dependent electric field including spectrum, characteristic temperature, production rate and power are given.

  19. Studies on Radiation Protection Effect of the Beer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Jong Gi; Ha, Tae Young; Hwang, Chul; Hyan; Lee, Young Hwa [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Busan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    In this study, it was investigated whether commercially produced beer is able to prevent a lymphocyte from radiation induced apoptosis. Whole blood samples were acquired from 5 healthy volunteers (male, 26-38 years old) and the lymphocyte were isolated by density gradient centrifugation. Radiation induced apoptosis of the lymphocyte were investigated by 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy to 5.0 Gy irradiation. In some experiments, the donor drunk beer and then blood samples were collected. In other experiments, melatonin or glycine betain was added to lymphocyte culture medium. Treated or untreated lymphocytes were cultured for 60 hours and radiation induced apoptosis of the lymphocyte was analyzed by annexin-V staining through flow cytometery. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of the untreated lymphocytes is 1.22{+-}1.1, 1.22{+-}1.1, 1.38{+-}1.0, 1.47{+-}1.1, 1.50{+-}1.2 by radiation dose of 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy and 5.0 Gy respectively. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of lymphocytes is isolated from beer drunken donors is 0.971.0, 0.991.0, 1.11{+-}0.9, 1.29{+-}1.1, 1.15{+-}1.1 by radiation doses respectively which are reduced 21.5% compared with untreated lymphocyte. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of the lymphocytes is isolated from non-alcohol beer drunken donors is 1.22{+-}1.1, 1.17{+-}1.1, 1.13{+-}1.3, 1.38{+-}1.2, 1.32{+-}1.1 by radiation dose of 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy and 5.0 Gy respectively which are reduced 10.8% compared with the untreated lymphocyte. As a result, it is suggested that beer may protect the lymphocyte from radiation damage and inhibit apoptosis.

  20. Polarization of radiation of electrons in highly turbulent magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosekin, A. Yu.; Kelner, S. R.; Aharonian, F. A.

    2016-09-01

    We study the polarization properties of the jitter and synchrotron radiation produced by electrons in highly turbulent anisotropic magnetic fields. The net polarization is provided by the geometry of the magnetic field the directions of which are parallel to a certain plane. Such conditions may appear in the relativistic shocks during the amplification of the magnetic field through the so-called Weibel instability. While the polarization properties of the jitter radiation allows extraction of direct information on the turbulence spectrum as well as the geometry of magnetic field, the polarization of the synchrotron radiation reflects the distribution of the magnetic field over its strength. For the isotropic distribution of monoenergetic electrons, we found that the degree of polarization of the synchrotron radiation is larger than the polarization of the jitter radiation. For the power-law energy distribution of electrons the relation between the degree of polarization of synchrotron and jitter radiation depends on the spectral index of the distribution.

  1. Polarization of radiation of electrons in highly turbulent magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Prosekin, A Yu; Aharonian, F A

    2016-01-01

    We study the polarization properties of the jitter and synchrotron radiation produced by electrons in highly turbulent anisotropic magnetic fields. The net polarization is provided by the geometry of the magnetic field the directions of which are parallel to a certain plane. Such conditions may appear in the relativistic shocks during the amplification of the magnetic field through the so-called Weibel instability. While the polarization properties of the jitter radiation allows extraction of direct information on the turbulence spectrum as well as the geometry of magnetic field, the polarization of the synchrotron radiation reflects the distribution of the magnetic field over its strength. For the isotropic distribution of monoenergetic electrons, we found that the degree of polarization of the synchrotron radiation is larger than the polarization of the jitter radiation. For the power-law energy distribution of electrons the relation between the degree of polarization of synchrotron and jitter radiation dep...

  2. Dose equivalent measurements in mixed and time varying radiation fields around high-energy accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, S

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of ambient dose equivalent in stray radiation fields behind the shielding of high-energy accelerators are a challenging task. Several radiation components (photons, neutrons, charged particles, muons, etc.), spanning a wide range of energies, contribute to the total dose equivalent. The radiation fields are produced by beam losses interacting with structural material during the acceleration or at the ejection to experimental areas or other accelerators. The particle beam is usually not continuous but separated in "bunches" or pulses, which further complicates dose measurements at high-energy accelerators. An ideal dosimeter for operational radiation protection should measure dose equivalent for any composition of radiation components in the entire energy range even when the field is strongly pulsed. The objective of this work was to find out if an ionisation chamber operated as a "recombination chamber" and a TEPC instrument using the variance-covariance method ("Sievert Instrument") are capable ...

  3. Dose equivalent measurements in mixed and time varying radiation fields around high-energy accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, S

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of ambient dose equivalent in stray radiation fields behind the shielding of high-energy accelerators are a challenging task. Several radiation components (photons, neutrons, charged particles, muons, etc.), spanning a wide range of energies, contribute to the total dose equivalent. The radiation fields are produced by beam losses interacting with structural material during the acceleration or at the ejection to experimental areas or other accelerators. The particle beam is usually not continuous but separated in "bunches" or pulses, which further complicates dose measurements at high-energy accelerators. An ideal dosimeter for operational radiation protection should measure dose equivalent for any composition of radiation components in the entire energy range even when the field is strongly pulsed. The objective of this work was to find out if an ionisation chamber operated as a "recombination chamber" and a TEPC instrument using the variance-covariance method ("Sievert Instrument") are capable ...

  4. Using ecosystem science to improve protection of the environment from radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, C. [Stockholm University (Sweden); Brechignac, F. [IUR / IRSN (France); Barnthouse, L. [LWB Environmental Services Inc. (United States); Brown, J. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway); Forbes, V. [University of Lincoln (United Kingdom); Kapustka, L. [LC LK Consultancy (Canada); Kautsky, U. [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB - SKB (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    The ecosystem approach (EA) involves considering the impacts of an anthropogenic stressor at the ecosystem level because this is usually the ultimate goal of environmental protection. As such, EA includes population, community and ecosystem effects, structural and functional effects, indirect effects due to ecological interactions between species, dynamic interactions, positive or negative feedback loops, and potential synergistic or antagonistic effects of multiple stressors (both anthropogenic and natural). All such effects better reflect the reality of the impact of a contamination scenario than if assessments are restricted to considering effects to individual organisms or species. Such effects may be greater or lesser than expected from studies of individual organisms or species, so not considering them may result in under- or overestimation of risk, respectively. EA is a term that is widely used in environmental assessment, management and legislation in a number of regulatory fields (e.g., radiation protection, chemicals legislation, fisheries policy, international biodiversity conventions). However, although its justification is now well established in a wide range of environment protection contexts, its practical use is still unclear due to poorly defined protection goals and assessment endpoints, making its implementation difficult. This paper presents the initial findings of a newly formed follow-up task group of the International Union of Radioecology whose aims are to identify ways to put the EA into practice when considering protection of the environment from radiation. Drawing on knowledge and experience from a range of fields, we summarise the types of ecosystem processes, goods and services that might be included when using this approach, the science that supports the use of the EA, and the methodological challenges that need to be addressed when implementing the EA in the field of radiation protection. Document available in abstract form only

  5. Meeting the Needs for Radiation Protection: Diagnostic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frush, Donald P

    2017-02-01

    Radiation and potential risk during medical imaging is one of the foremost issues for the imaging community. Because of this, there are growing demands for accountability, including appropriate use of ionizing radiation in diagnostic and image-guided procedures. Factors contributing to this include increasing use of medical imaging; increased scrutiny (from awareness to alarm) by patients/caregivers and the public over radiation risk; and mounting calls for accountability from regulatory, accrediting, healthcare coverage (e.g., Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services), and advisory agencies and organizations as well as industry (e.g., NEMA XR-29, Standard Attributes on CT Equipment Related to Dose Optimization and Management). Current challenges include debates over uncertainty with risks with low-level radiation; lack of fully developed and targeted products for diagnostic imaging and radiation dose monitoring; lack of resources for and clarity surrounding dose monitoring programs; inconsistencies across and between practices for design, implementation and audit of dose monitoring programs; lack of interdisciplinary programs for radiation protection of patients; potential shortages in personnel for these and other consensus efforts; and training concerns as well as inconsistencies for competencies throughout medical providers' careers for radiation protection of patients. Medical care providers are currently in a purgatory between quality- and value-based imaging paradigms, a state that has yet to mature to reward this move to quality-based performance. There are also deficits in radiation expertise personnel in medicine. For example, health physics academic programs and graduates have recently declined, and medical physics residency openings are currently at a third of the number of graduates. However, leveraging solutions to the medical needs will require money and resources, beyond personnel alone. Energy and capital will need to be directed to

  6. Stakeholders and Radiation Protection in Today's World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Jones, C. [Retired US DOE (United States); Lochard, J. [Centre d' Etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Lazo, T. [OECD/NEA - Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-07-01

    In looking forward the C.R.P.P.H.(Nea 's Committee on radiation protection and public health) identified three influences that will condition the way we address emerging issues, and will alter how we address ongoing issues. These are the involvement of stakeholders in decision making processes, the evolution of radiological protection science and its changing place in risk assessment and management, and the experience gained in implementing the current system of radiological protection. First among there is the growing importance of stakeholder involvement in radiation protection decision making. This has affected the way that the principles of justification, optimization and limitation are viewed, the way the role of the radiation protection professional in risk assessment and management is viewed, and the relative importance of case specific circumstances in relation to harmonized, internationally accepted criteria. In the wake of this change, the international system of radiological protection is being updated by the ICRP, and discussions of the most appropriate direction to take are nearing their end. Second, radiological protection science continues to identify specific aspects that do not fit the conventional linear non threshold model, and which us to consider that, at the very least, the risks from different exposures and exposure situations may not be as simply and universally comparable assumed. This will affect the way that risks are managed, and all relevant stakeholder involvement processes. In addition, decisions relating to public, worker and environmental health and safety are increasingly seen as judgement social choices. Although such choices must be guided by an understanding of state-of-the-art scientific and its uncertainties, the final, choice will generally be made by society, not scientists. Third, since the issuance of ICRP Publication 60 in 1990, and the International Basic Safety Standards in 1996, extensive experience has been

  7. Light-Cone Effect of Radiation Fields in Cosmological Radiative Transfer Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, Kyungjin

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel method to implement time-delayed propagation of radiation fields in cosmological radiative transfer simulations. Time-delayed propagation of radiation fields requires construction of retarded-time fields by tracking the location and lifetime of radiation sources along the corresponding light-cones. Cosmological radiative transfer simulations have, until now, ignored this "light-cone effect" or implemented ray-tracing methods that are computationally demanding. We show that radiative transfer calculation of the time-delayed fields can be easily achieved in numerical simulations when periodic boundary conditions are used, by calculating the time-discretized retarded-time Green's function using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method and convolving it with the source distribution. We also present a direct application of this method to the long-range radiation field of Lyman-Werner band photons, which is important in the high-redshift astrophysics with first stars.

  8. Radiation protection performance indicators at the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzekovic, Helena

    2006-06-01

    Nuclear power plant safety performance indicators are developed "by nuclear operating organisations to monitor their own performance and progress, to set their own challenging goals for improvement, and to gain additional perspective on performance relative to that of other plants". In addition, performance indicators are widely used by regulatory authorities although the use is not harmonised. Two basic performance indicators related to good radiation protection practice are collective radiation exposure and volume of low-level radioactive waste. In 2000, Nuclear Power Plant Krsko, a Westinghouse pressurised water reactor with electrical output 700 MW, finished an extensive modernisation including the replacement of both steam generators. While the annual volume of low-level radioactive waste does not show a specific trend related to modernisation, the annual collective dose reached maximum, i.e. 2.60 man Sv, and dropped to 1.13 man Sv in 2001. During the replacement of the steam generators in 2000, the dose associated with this activity was 1.48 man Sv. The annual doses in 2002 and 2003 were 0.53 and 0.80 man Sv, respectively, nearing thus the goal set by the US Institute of Nuclear Power Operators, which is 0.65 man Sv. Therefore, inasmuch as collective dose as the radiation protection performance indicator are concerned, the modernisation of the Krsko nuclear power plant was a success.

  9. A biokinetic model for zinc for use in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The physiology of the essential trace element zinc has been studied extensively in human subjects using kinetic analysis of time-dependent measurements of administered zinc tracers. A number of biokinetic models describing zinc exchange between plasma and tissues and loss of systemic zinc in excreta have been developed from the derived data. More rudimentary biokinetic models for zinc have been developed to estimate radiation doses from internally deposited radioisotopes of zinc. The latter models are designed to provide broadly accurate estimates of cumulative decays of zinc radioisotopes in tissues and are not intended as realistic descriptions of the directions of movement of zinc in the body. This paper reviews biokinetic data for zinc and proposes a physiologically meaningful biokinetic model for systemic zinc for use in radiation protection. The proposed model bears some resemblance to zinc models developed in physiological studies but depicts a finer division of systemic zinc and is based on a broader spectrum of data than previous models. The proposed model and current radiation protection model for zinc yield broadly similar estimates of effective dose from internally deposited radioisotopes of zinc but substantially different dose estimates for several individual tissues, particularly the liver.

  10. A training syllabus for radiation protection in dental radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, A; Dowling, A; Renehan, J; Clarke, D; Malone, J F

    2008-01-01

    The EU Council Directive 97/43/EURATOM (MED) states that Member States shall ensure that adequate theoretical and practical training is provided for dental practitioners working with ionising radiation; this also includes the provision of continuing education and training programmes, post-qualification. The area of dental radiology is specifically mentioned in this legally binding document. The Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, St James's Hospital, Dublin, is particularly interested in the area of radiation protection training and routinely provides educational courses both at national and international levels. A recent review of their dental radiation protection course was undertaken in conjunction with a number of Principal Dental Surgeons within the Health Service Executive in Ireland. The revised course was delivered to over 200 dental staff members at two separate meetings during 2006. The response from attendees was very positive. It is proposed to extend this course to other dental professionals, working both in the Irish private and public health sectors in the future.

  11. Radiation Protection Studies for LCLS Tune Up Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana-Leitner, M.; Fass, A.; Mao, S.; Nuhn, H.D.; /SLAC; Roesler, S.; /CERN; Rokni, S.; Vollaire, J.; /SLAC

    2010-04-29

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is a pioneer fourth generation hard x-ray free electron laser that shall start to deliver laser pulses in 2009. Among other components of LCLS that present radiation protection concerns, the tune up dump (tdund) is of special interest because it also constitutes an issue for machine protection, as it is placed close to radiation sensitive components, like electronic devices and permanent magnets in the undulators. This paper first introduces the stopper of tdund looking at the heat load, and then it describes the shielding around the dump necessary to maintain the prompt and residual dose within design values. Next, preliminary comparisons of the magnetization loss in a dedicated on-site magnet irradiation experiment with FLUKA simulations serve to characterize the magnetic response to radiation of magnets like those of LCLS. The previous knowledge, together with the limit for the allowed demagnetization, are used to estimate the lifetime of the undulator. Further simulations provide guidelines on which lifetime can be expected for an electronic device placed at a given distance of tdund.

  12. Highly Catalytic Nanodots with Renal Clearance for Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Junying; Yang, Jiang; Chen, Jie; Shen, Xiu; Deng, Jiao; Deng, Dehui; Long, Wei; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Liu, Changlong; Li, Meixian

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (gamma and x-ray) is widely used in industry and medicine, but it can also pose a significant hazardous effect on health and induce cancer, physical deformity and even death, due to DNA damages and invasion of free radicals. There is therefore an urgent unmet demand in designing highly efficient radioprotectants with synergetic integration of effective renal clearance and low toxicity. In this study, we designed ultrasmall (sub-5 nm) highly catalytically active and cysteine-protected MoS2 dots as radioprotectants and investigated their application in protection against ionizing radiation. In vivo preclinical studies showed that the surviving fraction of MoS2-treated mice can appreciably increase to up to 79 % when they were exposed to high-energy ionizing radiation. Furthermore, MoS2 dots can contribute in cleaning up the accumulated free radicals within the body, repairing DNA damages and recovering all vital chemical and biochemical indicators, suggesting their unique role as free radical...

  13. A training syllabus for radiation protection in dental radiology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, A

    2008-01-01

    The EU Council Directive 97\\/43\\/EURATOM (MED) states that Member States shall ensure that adequate theoretical and practical training is provided for dental practitioners working with ionising radiation; this also includes the provision of continuing education and training programmes, post-qualification. The area of dental radiology is specifically mentioned in this legally binding document. The Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, St James\\'s Hospital, Dublin, is particularly interested in the area of radiation protection training and routinely provides educational courses both at national and international levels. A recent review of their dental radiation protection course was undertaken in conjunction with a number of Principal Dental Surgeons within the Health Service Executive in Ireland. The revised course was delivered to over 200 dental staff members at two separate meetings during 2006. The response from attendees was very positive. It is proposed to extend this course to other dental professionals, working both in the Irish private and public health sectors in the future.

  14. Radiation protection in interventional radiology; Strahlenschutz in der interventionellen Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamus, R.; Loose, R.; Galster, M. [Klinikum Nuernberg Nord, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Nuernberg (Germany); Wucherer, M. [Klinikum Nuernberg Nord, Institut fuer Medizinische Physik, Nuernberg (Germany); Uder, M. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Institut fuer Radiologie, Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    The application of ionizing radiation in medicine seems to be a safe procedure for patients as well as for occupational exposition to personnel. The developments in interventional radiology with fluoroscopy and dose-intensive interventions require intensified radiation protection. It is recommended that all available tools should be used for this purpose. Besides the options for instruments, x-ray protection at the intervention table must be intensively practiced with lead aprons and mounted lead glass. A special focus on eye protection to prevent cataracts is also recommended. The development of cataracts might no longer be deterministic, as confirmed by new data; therefore, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has lowered the threshold dose value for eyes from 150 mSv/year to 20 mSv/year. Measurements show that the new values can be achieved by applying all X-ray protection measures plus lead-containing eyeglasses. (orig.) [German] Die Anwendung ionisierender Strahlung in der Medizin scheint sowohl fuer Patienten als auch fuer beruflich exponierte Personen sicher zu sein. Die interventionellen Entwicklungen der letzten Jahre mit sehr durchleuchtungs- und dosisintensiven Eingriffen erfordern allerdings eine Intensivierung des Strahlenschutzes. Es empfiehlt sich, die zur Verfuegung stehenden Moeglichkeiten auszuschoepfen. Neben den Geraeteoptionen muss der Strahlenschutz am Eingriffstisch durch Bleilamellenaufstecker und montiertes Bleiglas intensiv betrieben werden. Besonderen Fokus muss auf den Schutz der Augen zur Kataraktvermeidung gelegt werden. Da dessen Ausbildung nach neuen Erkenntnissen moeglicherweise nicht mehr deterministisch zu sehen ist, hat die Internationale Strahlenschutzkommission (IRCP) den Grenzwert von 150 auf 20 Mikrosievert (mSv)/Jahr erniedrigt. Messungen belegen, dass unter Einhaltung aller Strahlenschutzmassnahmen plus Bleiglasbrille dieser einzuhalten ist. (orig.)

  15. [Fetus radiation doses from nuclear medicine and radiology diagnostic procedures. Potential risks and radiation protection instructions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Pavlos

    2007-01-01

    Although in pregnancy it is strongly recommended to avoid diagnostic nuclear medicine and radiology procedures, in cases of clinical necessity or when pregnancy is not known to the physician, these diagnostic procedures are to be applied. In such cases, counseling based on accurate information and comprehensive discussion about the risks of radiation exposure to the fetus should follow. In this article, estimations of the absorbed radiation doses due to nuclear medicine and radiology diagnostic procedures during the pregnancy and their possible risk effects to the fetus are examined and then discussed. Stochastic and detrimental effects are evaluated with respect to other risk factors and related to the fetus absorbed radiation dose and to the post-conception age. The possible termination of a pregnancy, due to radiation exposure is discussed. Special radiation protection instructions are given for radiation exposures in cases of possible, confirmed or unknown pregnancies. It is concluded that nuclear medicine and radiology diagnostic procedures, if not repeated during the pregnancy, are rarely an indication for the termination of pregnancy, because the dose received by the fetus is expected to be less than 100 mSv, which indicates the threshold dose for having deterministic effects. Therefore, the risk for the fetus due to these diagnostic procedures is low. However, stochastic effects are still possible but will be minimized if the radiation absorbed dose to the fetus is kept as low as possible.

  16. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-04-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting, 2014. It was held on Apr.23-25, 2014 Grand Hotel in Busan, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Spring Meeting 2014. This proceedings is comprised of 8 sessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Medical treatment and Biology 1, Measurement and Analysis 1, Measurement and Analysis 2, Radiation protection 1, Radiation protection 2, Medical treatment and Biology 2, Measurement and Analysis 3, Radiation protection 3.

  17. Radon - from knowledge to action: an all-around cleared issue of radiation protection?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maringer, F.J. [Vienna Univ. of Natural Resources and Applied Life Science, BEV - Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (Austria); Vienna Univ. of Technology, Low-Level Counting Laboratory Arsenal, Wien (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    The knowledge about radon is well established in the radiation protection world. After many decades of research work done worldwide by many radiation protection scientists and research teams, the sources and origin, the transport through the soil and into the buildings, and the radiobiological effects of radon progenies in the human respiratory tract are well known. When typing 'radon' in web search engines e.g. www.google.at about 5.1 Million hits are appearing. A countless number of papers have been published in the field of radon research and the ICRP has established radiation protection principles for radon exposure at home and at workplaces. So far, the radon issue seemed well ticked off in the scientific world of radiation protection and the scientists could give more attention to other and more newsworthy problems and questions. But this is only half the truth. The implementation of radon mitigation and precaution standards needs continuously scientific attendance and research networking on an international level. Otherwise the radon issue could degrade easily to a simplified technical and economical exercise without sustainable results in public health. In this paper the radon investigations in Austria which have been carried out in the last 20 years and the applied methods and derived standards for mitigation and precaution in the home and workplace sectors are given. The future strategy and scientific and social necessities in the radon issue are outlined comprehensively. The agreed and proposed research objectives and cooperation which seems necessary are discussed in consideration of the medium-term European radiation protection context. (authors)

  18. Research on Dependable Ionizing Radiation Protection based on Model i*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Hai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The software’s unreliability mostly attributes to an erroneous analysis on the requirements done at the beginning. In this paper, we apply the tool of i* frame requirement modeling and build early requirement model against ionizing radiation. After finding out possible risks and corresponding solutions during the process of modeling analysis, we propose reasoning models against ionizing radiation. The radiation protection system  with  the  above models  can  figure out  the  purpose  of agents  related  to radiant source and provide normal service even when the environment software system is being interfered. It can serve the ecological and economical society with stability and development.  The model is divided into several sections. Section 1 gives the outline of the dependant software. Section 2 illustrates the  i* frame  technology. Section 3, 4 and 5 cover the topic of dependant security requirement analysis, SD&SR model on ionizing radiation respectively. Section 6 gives the conclusion.

  19. Multifaceted pathways protect human skin from UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Vivek T; Ganju, Parul; Ramkumar, Amrita; Grover, Ritika; Gokhale, Rajesh S

    2014-07-01

    The recurrent interaction of skin with sunlight is an intrinsic constituent of human life, and exhibits both beneficial and detrimental effects. The apparent robust architectural framework of skin conceals remarkable mechanisms that operate at the interface between the surface and environment. In this Review, we discuss three distinct protective mechanisms and response pathways that safeguard skin from deleterious effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The unique stratified epithelial architecture of human skin along with the antioxidant-response pathways constitutes the important defense mechanisms against UV radiation. The intricate pigmentary system and its intersection with the immune-system cytokine axis delicately balance tissue homeostasis. We discuss the relationship among these networks in the context of an unusual depigmenting disorder, vitiligo. The elaborate tunable mechanisms, elegant multilayered architecture and evolutionary selection pressures involved in skin and sunlight interaction makes this a compelling model to understand biological complexity.

  20. ON STANDARDIZATION OF RADIATION PROTECTION INDEXES OF NATURAL MINERAL WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Issues connected with the standardization of radiation protection indexes of natural mineral waters are considered in the article. It is shown that classification of natural mineral waters according to their intended use which is accepted in GOST R 54316-2011 is close to their classification in the EU countries. Justification is given of the approaches to standardization of natural radionuclides content in natural mineral waters. It is shown that it is more acceptable to use the values of interventional levels for individual radionuclides given in Radiation Safety Standard-99/2009 for this purpose in comparing with the values given in WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality.

  1. Radiation protection research projects. Programme report 2013. Summary of results from recent research projects of the BMU's Applied Research Programme carried out under the responsibility of the German Office of Radiation Protection (BfS); Strahlenschutzforschung. Programmreport 2013. Bericht ueber das vom Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz fachlich begleitete und administrativ umgesetzte Forschungsprogramm Strahlenschutz des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt-Hannig, Annemarie; Goedde, Ralph; Loebke-Reinl, Angelika; Hachenberger, Claudia; Trugenberger-Schnabel, Angela (comps.)

    2014-09-15

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) awards research grants for projects in the field of radiation protection. The findings of these projects serve as decision aiding information in the development of radiation protection regulations as well as in the fulfilment of specific tasks in the field of radiation protection. Planning, technical and administrative preparation, awarding of contracts, general support as well as the technical evaluation of research and study projects are tasks of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. This report provides information on preliminary (in the form of status reports) and, where applicable, final results of radiation protection projects within the BMUB's Environmental Research Plan for the year 2013.

  2. Radiation protection research projects. Program report 2014. Report on research program radiation protection of the Federal ministry for environment, nature conservation and reactor safety with technical and administrative steering by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz; Strahlenschutzforschung. Programmreport 2014. Bericht ueber das vom Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz fachlich begleitete und administrativ umgesetzte Forschungsprogramm Strahlenschutz des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt-Hannig, Annemarie; Loebke-Reinl, Angelika; Peter, Josef; Goedde, Ralph; Hachenberger, Claudia; Trugenberger-Schnabel, Angela

    2015-09-15

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) awards research grants for projects in the field of radiation protection. The findings of these projects se rve as decision aiding information in the development of radiation protection regulations as well as in the fulfilment of specific tasks in the field of radiation protection. The tasks of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection involve planning, technical and administrative preparation, awarding of contracts, general support as well as the technical evaluation of research and study projects. This report provides information on results, i.e. preliminary (in the form of status reports) and, where applicable, final results of radiation protection projects within the BMUB's Environmental Research Plan for the year 2014.

  3. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korać, Radava R; Khambholja, Kapil M

    2011-07-01

    Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A "sclerojuglonic" compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects.

  4. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radava R Korać

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E, flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A "sclerojuglonic" compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects.

  5. Proposal for magnetic/electromagnetic fields protection norms on national level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Drago

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The modern life is not possible without application of magnetic/electromagnetic fields, which can be both helpful and harmful for human body. Influence of magnetic/electromagnetic fields on biological systems The non-ionizing radiation, especially magnetic/electromagnetic fields of all frequencies (0-300 GHz, can have many harmful effects on the human health that is confirmed by numerous epidemiological studies, studies with volunteers, animal studies, and in vitro studies. Proposal for magnetic/electromagnetic fields protection norms Proposal for magnetic/electromagnetic fields protection norms on national level based on the WHO Program for Environment, International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP], and WHO International EMF Project. Conclusion Protection from harmful effects of the magnetic/electromagnetic fields is still a great problem in many countries of modern society - huge costs, impaired quality of life, and more important, damage to the human health. Numerous data and publications of harmful effects of the magnetic/electromagnetic fields represents one's country basic necessary documentation for making decisions and law documents for protection norms on national level concerning the health maintenance according to the ICNIRP normatives.

  6. New concept of IEC standards for radiation protection dosemeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, P; Behrens, R

    2008-01-01

    The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) develops new standards for radiation protection dosemeters which follow a new concept. They are much more flexible in detail, but still ensure the same measurement quality. They are, for example, no longer specific for the detector type, but rather specific for the measurement task, e.g. for individual monitoring with active direct-reading instruments. Another example is that they are flexible with respect to the ranges of influence quantities. The conceptual changes are described in this paper, together with the advantages this new concept provides for manufacturers, users and legislators.

  7. Chromatin compaction protects genomic DNA from radiation damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Takata

    Full Text Available Genomic DNA is organized three-dimensionally in the nucleus, and is thought to form compact chromatin domains. Although chromatin compaction is known to be essential for mitosis, whether it confers other advantages, particularly in interphase cells, remains unknown. Here, we report that chromatin compaction protects genomic DNA from radiation damage. Using a newly developed solid-phase system, we found that the frequency of double-strand breaks (DSBs in compact chromatin after ionizing irradiation was 5-50-fold lower than in decondensed chromatin. Since radical scavengers inhibited DSB induction in decondensed chromatin, condensed chromatin had a lower level of reactive radical generation after ionizing irradiation. We also found that chromatin compaction protects DNA from attack by chemical agents. Our findings suggest that genomic DNA compaction plays an important role in maintaining genomic integrity.

  8. Radiation protection: protection of patients undergoing cone beam computed tomography examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drage, Nicholas; Carmichael, Fiona; Brown, Jackie

    2010-10-01

    Cone beam computed tomography is becoming a popular imaging modality in dentistry. The effective dose from these examinations is generally higher than conventional plain film radiography. This article outlines the ways of protecting patients from the harmful effects of radiation. Cone beam computed tomography is an emerging imaging modality. The effective doses are generally higher than conventional radiography and it is therefore important that anyone requesting or performing these investigations understands how to keep the doses to patients as low as reasonably practicable.

  9. Molecular targets in cellular response to ionizing radiation and implications in space radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, M.; Tabocchini, M.A. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy). Physics Lab.; Sapora, O. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy). Comparative Toxicology Lab.

    2002-12-01

    DNA repair systems and cell cycle checkpoints closely co-operate in the attempt of maintaining the genomic integrity of cells damaged by ionizing radiation. DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) are considered as the most biologically important radiation-induced damage. Their spatial distribution and association with other types of damage depend on radiation quality. It is believed these features affect damage reparability, thus explaining the higher efficiency for cellular effects of densely ionizing radiation with respect to {gamma}-rays. DSB repair systems identified in mammalian cells are homologous recombination (HR), single-strand annealing (SSA) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). Some enzymes may participate in more than one of these repair systems. DNA damage also triggers biochemical signals activating checkpoints responsible for delay in cell cycle progression that allows more time for repair. Those at G1/S and S phases prevent replication of damaged DNA and those at G2/M phase prevent segregation of changed chromosomes. Individuals with lack or alterations of genes involved in DNA DSB repair and cell cycle checkpoints exhibit syndromes characterized by genome instability and predisposition to cancer. Information reviewed in this paper on the basic mechanisms of cellular response to ionizing radiation indicates their importance for a number of issues relevant to protection of astronauts from space radiation. (author)

  10. Fourth conference on radiation protection and dosimetry: Proceedings, program, and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casson, W.H.; Thein, C.M.; Bogard, J.S. [eds.

    1994-10-01

    This Conference is the fourth in a series of conferences organized by staff members of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to improve communication in the field of radiation protection and dosimetry. Scientists, regulators, managers, professionals, technologists, and vendors from the United States and countries around the world have taken advantage of this opportunity to meet with their contemporaries and peers in order to exchange information and ideas. The program includes over 100 papers in 9 sessions, plus an additional session for works in progress. Papers are presented in external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, radiation protection programs and assessments, developments in instrumentation and materials, environmental and medical applications, and on topics related to standards, accreditation, and calibration. Individual papers are indexed separately on EDB.

  11. Radiation Fields in the Vicinity of Compact Accelerator Neutron Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester; Brandon W. Blackburn; Augustine J. Caffrey

    2006-10-01

    Intense pulsed radiation fields emitted from sealed tube neutron generators provide a challenge for modern health physics survey instrumentation. The spectral sensitivity of these survey instruments requires calibration under realistic field conditions while the pulsed emission characteristics of neutron generators can vary from conditions of steady-state operation. As a general guide for assessing radiological conditions around neutron generators, experiments and modeling simulations have been performed to assess radiation fields near DD and DT neutron generators. The presence of other materials and material configurations can also have important effects on the radiation dose fields around compact accelerator neutron generators.

  12. Investigation of Radiation Protection Methodologies for Radiation Therapy Shielding Using Monte Carlo Simulation and Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanny, Sean

    The advent of high-energy linear accelerators for dedicated medical use in the 1950's by Henry Kaplan and the Stanford University physics department began a revolution in radiation oncology. Today, linear accelerators are the standard of care for modern radiation therapy and can generate high-energy beams that can produce tens of Gy per minute at isocenter. This creates a need for a large amount of shielding material to properly protect members of the public and hospital staff. Standardized vault designs and guidance on shielding properties of various materials are provided by the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) Report 151. However, physicists are seeking ways to minimize the footprint and volume of shielding material needed which leads to the use of non-standard vault configurations and less-studied materials, such as high-density concrete. The University of Toledo Dana Cancer Center has utilized both of these methods to minimize the cost and spatial footprint of the requisite radiation shielding. To ensure a safe work environment, computer simulations were performed to verify the attenuation properties and shielding workloads produced by a variety of situations where standard recommendations and guidance documents were insufficient. This project studies two areas of concern that are not addressed by NCRP 151, the radiation shielding workload for the vault door with a non-standard design, and the attenuation properties of high-density concrete for both photon and neutron radiation. Simulations have been performed using a Monte-Carlo code produced by the Los Alamos National Lab (LANL), Monte Carlo Neutrons, Photons 5 (MCNP5). Measurements have been performed using a shielding test port designed into the maze of the Varian Edge treatment vault.

  13. Considerations on radiation protection of aircraft crew in Brazil; Consideracoes a respeito de protecao radiologica de tripulacoes de aeronaves no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federico, C.A.; Goncalez, O.L., E-mail: claudiofederico@ieav.cta.b, E-mail: odairl@ieav.cta.b [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA-IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Estudos Avancados; Sordi, G.M.; Caldas, L.V.E., E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper discuss the guidelines existing in the ICRP documents related to radiation protection applied to the aircraft crew and it is presented a brief report on the evolution of these studies in this field, and also the regulations already adopted by the integrating of the European Union, Canada and USA. Also, are presented some peculiarities of Brazilian air space and the legislation applied to work with ionizing radiation, discussing the general aspects of radiation protection applied to the aircraft crew in Brazil

  14. The nuclear safety and the radiation protection in France in 2003; La surete nucleaire et la radioprotection en France en 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-15

    Nine points are reviewed: the law project relative to the safety and openness in nuclear field, the safety of the European PWR type Reactor, the priorities in radiation protection, inspection of radiation protection, the surveillance of patients exposure to ionizing radiations, the hot days and dryness of summer 2003 and the functioning of nuclear power plant, the national planning of radioactive waste management, the becoming of high level and years living radioactive waste, the European nuclear policy. (N.C.)

  15. CONCORD: comparison of cosmic radiation detectors in the radiation field at aviation altitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Meier Matthias M.; Trompier François; Ambrozova Iva; Kubancak Jan; Matthiä Daniel; Ploc Ondrej; Santen Nicole; Wirtz Michael

    2016-01-01

    Space weather can strongly affect the complex radiation field at aviation altitudes. The assessment of the corresponding radiation exposure of aircrew and passengers has been a challenging task as well as a legal obligation in the European Union for many years. The response of several radiation measuring instruments operated by different European research groups during joint measuring flights was investigated in the framework of the CONCORD (COmparisoN of COsmic Radiation Detectors) campaign ...

  16. Radiation reaction in quantum field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Atsushi

    2002-11-01

    We investigate radiation-reaction effects for a charged scalar particle accelerated by an external potential realized as a space-dependent mass term in quantum electrodynamics. In particular, we calculate the position shift of the final-state wave packet of the charged particle due to radiation at lowest order in the fine structure constant α and in the small ħ approximation. We show that it disagrees with the result obtained using the Lorentz-Dirac formula for the radiation-reaction force, and that it agrees with the classical theory if one assumes that the particle loses its energy to radiation at each moment of time according to the Larmor formula in the static frame of the potential. However, the discrepancy is much smaller than the Compton wavelength of the particle. We also point out that the electromagnetic correction to the potential has no classical limit.

  17. Separation of radiation from two sources from their known radiated sum field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Tommi; Pivnenko, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for complete and exact separation of the radiated fields of two sources (at the same frequency) from the knowledge of their radiated sum field. The two sources can be arbitrary but it must be possible to enclose the sources inside their own non-intersecting minimum...

  18. Development of Radiation protection and measurement technology - Evaluation of monetory values of radiation dose for implementation of ALARA in radiation protection practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Ki; Chang, Jae Kwon; Lee, Choon Sik; Won, In Ho [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Chung Woo [Korean Association for Radiation Protection, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    Approaches for estimation of the monetory values of radiation dose were reviewed to establish an appropriate model for evaluation of .alpha. values for quantitative optimization in radiation protection in Korea. Relevant socio-economical factors such as human capital, willingness to pay for saving a life, GNP, medicare cost for a cancer patient, were estimated as input data for the calculation. Base case alpha values were evaluated for low doses of different exposure situations; occupational exposure, exposure of member of the public, medical exposure of adults and children, exposure to natural radiation, and potential exposure. The estimated generic alpha value per sievert for base case was approximately the same as the GNP per caput. The alpha value at high doses were calculated by escalating the base case values with appropriate exponential risk aversion factor. Special values of alpha, $100000/Sv for base for example, were assigned for radiation protection in nuclear power plants for which contribution of non-quantifiable factors is much larger. Quantitative optimization procedures were explained with numerical illustrations using the protection options and related factors provided in ICRP 55 for a uranium mine. 34 refs., 18 tabs., 8 figs. (author)

  19. Radiation rescue: mesenchymal stromal cells protect from lethal irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lange

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Successful treatment of acute radiation syndromes relies on immediate supportive care. In patients with limited hematopoietic recovery potential, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC transplantation is the only curative treatment option. Because of time consuming donor search and uncertain outcome we propose MSC treatment as an alternative treatment for severely radiation-affected individuals. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mouse mesenchymal stromal cells (mMSCs were expanded from bone marrow, retrovirally labeled with eGFP (bulk cultures and cloned. Bulk and five selected clonal mMSCs populations were characterized in vitro for their multilineage differentiation potential and phenotype showing no contamination with hematopoietic cells. Lethally irradiated recipients were i.v. transplanted with bulk or clonal mMSCs. We found a long-term survival of recipients with fast hematopoietic recovery after the transplantation of MSCs exclusively without support by HSCs. Quantitative PCR based chimerism analysis detected eGFP-positive donor cells in peripheral blood immediately after injection and in lungs within 24 hours. However, no donor cells in any investigated tissue remained long-term. Despite the rapidly disappearing donor cells, microarray and quantitative RT-PCR gene expression analysis in the bone marrow of MSC-transplanted animals displayed enhanced regenerative features characterized by (i decreased proinflammatory, ECM formation and adhesion properties and (ii boosted anti-inflammation, detoxification, cell cycle and anti-oxidative stress control as compared to HSC-transplanted animals. CONCLUSIONS: Our data revealed that systemically administered MSCs provoke a protective mechanism counteracting the inflammatory events and also supporting detoxification and stress management after radiation exposure. Further our results suggest that MSCs, their release of trophic factors and their HSC-niche modulating activity rescue endogenous hematopoiesis

  20. Education in radiation protection. How to maintain competence and build up trust; Ausbildung im Strahlenschutz. Kompetenz erhalten, Vertrauen foerdern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahlbruch, J.W. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz

    2016-07-01

    Education and Training in Radiation Protection is the most important key to maintain the competence necessary to handle radioactive material or to use ionizing radiation. This article gives a short overview of new developments concerning E and T in RP for different fields of applications in Germany and provides some ideas how competence can support the development of trust between stakeholders in order to ensure RP.

  1. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation - Implications for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisko Salomaa [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    The universality of the target theory of radiation-induced effects is challenged by observations on non-targeted effects such as bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive response. Essential features of non-targeted effects are that they do not require direct nuclear exposure by radiation and they are particularly significant at low doses. This new evidence suggests a need for a new paradigm in radiation biology. The new paradigm should cover both the classical (targeted) and the non-targeted effects. New aspects include the role of cellular communication and tissue-level responses. A better understanding of non-targeted effects may have important consequences for health risk assessment and, consequently, on radiation protection. Non-targeted effects may contribute to the estimation of cancer risk from occupational, medical and environmental exposures. In particular, they may have implications for the applicability of the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) model in extrapolating radiation risk data into the low-dose region. This also means that the adequacy of the concept of dose to estimate risk is challenged by these findings. Moreover, these effects may provide new mechanistic explanations for the development of non-cancer diseases. Further research is required to determine if these effects, typically measured in cell cultures, are applicable in tissue level, whole animals, and ultimately in humans. (author)

  2. Patient radiation dose and protection from cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang

    2013-06-01

    After over one decade development, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been widely accepted for clinical application in almost every field of dentistry. Meanwhile, the radiation dose of CBCT to patient has also caused broad concern. According to the literature, the effective radiation doses of CBCTs in nowadays market fall into a considerably wide range that is from 19 µSv to 1073 µSv and closely related to the imaging detector, field of view, and voxel sizes used for scanning. To deeply understand the potential risk from CBCT, this report also reviewed the effective doses from literatures on intra-oral radiograph, panoramic radiograph, lateral and posteroanterior cephalometric radiograph, multi-slice CT, and so on. The protection effect of thyroid collar and leaded glasses were also reviewed.

  3. Patient radiation dose and protection from cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Gang [Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing (China)

    2013-06-15

    After over one decade development, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been widely accepted for clinical application in almost every field of dentistry. Meanwhile, the radiation dose of CBCT to patient has also caused broad concern. According to the literature, the effective radiation doses of CBCTs in nowadays market fall into a considerably wide range that is from 19 {mu}Sv to 1073 {mu}Sv and closely related to the imaging detector, field of view, and voxel sizes used for scanning. To deeply understand the potential risk from CBCT, this report also reviewed the effective doses from literatures on intra-oral radiograph, panoramic radiograph, lateral and posteroanterior cephalometric radiograph, multi-slice CT, and so on. The protection effect of thyroid collar and leaded glasses were also reviewed.

  4. Radiation and reflection acoustical fields of an annular phased array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Puxiang; ZHANG Bixing; WANG Chenghao

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of the radiation and reflection acoustical fields of an annular phased array are investigated. The effects of the element number, element radius, interelement spacing, centre frequency, focus position, and other parameters on the radiation acoustical field of the annular phased array is theoretically studied. In experiment, an annular transducer with 8 equal-area elements is designed and fabricated, and a series of experimental measurements are conducted. The radiation acoustical field and its reflection on a liquid-solid interface are theoretically and experimentally studied. The experimental result is in good agreement with the theoretical one.

  5. The protective effect of a constant magnetic field. [reduction of molecular cell pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosunov, A. V.; Tripuzov, A. N.

    1974-01-01

    The protective effect of a constant magnetic field sharply reduced spontaneous lysis of E. coli cells when subjected to ultraviolet radiation. A protective effect of a CMF was found in a study of tissue cultures of normally growing cells (kidney epithelium) and cancer cells (cells from a cancer of the larynx). The protective effect of a CMF is also seen in a combined exposure of tissue cultures to X-rays and CMF energy (strength of the CMF was 2000 oersteds with a gradient of 500 oersteds/cm). The data obtained are of interest to experimental oncology (development of new methods of treating malignant tumors).

  6. Radiation terrorism: what society needs from the radiobiology-radiation protection and radiation oncology communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, C Norman [Office of Preparedness and Emergency Response, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC (United States); Parker, Gerald W [Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Society's and individuals' concerns about the adverse effects from radiation are logically amplified many times when radiological terrorism is considered. The spectrum of events include industrial sabotage, the use of an explosive or non-explosive radiological dispersal device, the placement of a radiological exposure device in a public facility and the use of an improvised nuclear device. The consequences of an event relate to the physical and medical damage of the event itself, the financial impact, and the acute and long-term medical consequences, including fear of radiation-induced cancer. The magnitude of a state-sponsored nuclear event is so great that limited detailed response planning had been done in the past, as compared to the work now ongoing. Planning is done on the basis of scenario modelling. Medical response planning includes medical triage, distribution of victims to care by experienced physicians, developing medical countermeasures to mitigate or treat radiation injury, counselling and appropriately following exposed or potentially exposed people, and helping the local community develop confidence in their own response plan. Optimal response must be based on the best available science. This requires scientists who can define, prioritise and address the gaps in knowledge with the range of expertise from basic physics to biology to translational research to systems expertise to response planning to healthcare policy to communications. Not only are there unique needs and career opportunities, but there is also the opportunity for individuals to serve their communities and country with education regarding radiation effects and by formulating scientifically based government policy.

  7. Investigation of Field-Collected Data Using Diffuse and Specular, Forward and Reverse Radiative Transfer Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    protection in the United States. AFIT-ENP-MS-15-M-100 INVESTIGATION OF FIELD-COLLECTED DATA USING DIFFUSE AND SPECULAR , FORWARD AND REVERSE...RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENP-MS-15-M-100 INVESTIGATION OF FIELD-COLLECTED DATA USING DIFFUSE AND SPECULAR , FORWARD AND REVERSE... specular and diffuse properties of a set of eight materials on diffuse-only and diffuse- specular radiative transfer models in the wavelength range of

  8. Usefulness of non-lead aprons in radiation protection for physicians performing interventional procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuguchi, Masayuki; Chida, Koichi; Taura, Masaaki; Inaba, Yohei; Ebata, Ayako; Yamada, Shogo

    2008-01-01

    At present, interventional radiology (IVR) tends to involve long procedures (long radiation duration), and physicians are near to the source of scattered radiation. Hence, shielding is critical in protecting physicians from radiation. Protective aprons and additional lead-shielding devices, such as tableside lead drapes, are important means of protecting the physician from scattered radiation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether non-lead aprons are effective in protecting physicians from radiation during IVR procedures. In this study, the radiation protection effects of commercially available protective lead and non-lead aprons, when exposed to diagnostic X rays, are compared. The performance of these non-lead and lead aprons was similar for scattered X rays at tube voltages of 60-120 kV. Properly designed non-lead aprons are thus more suitable for physicians because they weigh approximately 20% less than the lead aprons, and are non-toxic.

  9. The Electromagnetic Dipole Radiation Field through the Hamiltonian Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likar, A.; Razpet, N.

    2009-01-01

    The dipole radiation from an oscillating charge is treated using the Hamiltonian approach to electrodynamics where the concept of cavity modes plays a central role. We show that the calculation of the radiation field can be obtained in a closed form within this approach by emphasizing the role of coherence between the cavity modes, which is…

  10. Radiative heat transfer in the extreme near field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeongtae; Song, Bai; Fernández-Hurtado, Víctor; Lee, Woochul; Jeong, Wonho; Cui, Longji; Thompson, Dakotah; Feist, Johannes; Reid, M T Homer; García-Vidal, Francisco J; Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod

    2015-12-17

    Radiative transfer of energy at the nanometre length scale is of great importance to a variety of technologies including heat-assisted magnetic recording, near-field thermophotovoltaics and lithography. Although experimental advances have enabled elucidation of near-field radiative heat transfer in gaps as small as 20-30 nanometres (refs 4-6), quantitative analysis in the extreme near field (less than 10 nanometres) has been greatly limited by experimental challenges. Moreover, the results of pioneering measurements differed from theoretical predictions by orders of magnitude. Here we use custom-fabricated scanning probes with embedded thermocouples, in conjunction with new microdevices capable of periodic temperature modulation, to measure radiative heat transfer down to gaps as small as two nanometres. For our experiments we deposited suitably chosen metal or dielectric layers on the scanning probes and microdevices, enabling direct study of extreme near-field radiation between silica-silica, silicon nitride-silicon nitride and gold-gold surfaces to reveal marked, gap-size-dependent enhancements of radiative heat transfer. Furthermore, our state-of-the-art calculations of radiative heat transfer, performed within the theoretical framework of fluctuational electrodynamics, are in excellent agreement with our experimental results, providing unambiguous evidence that confirms the validity of this theory for modelling radiative heat transfer in gaps as small as a few nanometres. This work lays the foundations required for the rational design of novel technologies that leverage nanoscale radiative heat transfer.

  11. [Scrap metal and ionizing radiation hazard: prevention and protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugni, U

    2012-01-01

    The numerous accidents occurred in companies that melt scrap metals have shown that the hazard caused by the presence of radioactive materials--or 'orphan sources'--may have serious consequences on standard production, with great economic and social damage. Italian Legislative Decree No. 100/11 establishes the skills required for the safe management of scrap metals in the whole production cycle, thus requiring the involvement of experts in radiation protection. The paper details the procedures that shall be implemented in the companies that melt scrap metals. Said procedures involve several professional roles: managers, department heads and occupational physicians. The paper describes the general characteristics of the instruments used, staff training programs and the experience gained in 15 years of activity.

  12. Nuclear fragmentation measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Napoli, M. [INFN - Sezione di Catania (Italy); Agodi, C.; Blancato, A. A.; Cavallaro, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Sardina, D.; Scuderi, V. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy); Battistoni, G. [INFN - Sezione di Milano (Italy); Bondi, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Nicolosi, D.; Raciti, G.; Tropea, S. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Catania (Italy); Giacoppo, F. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo (Norway); Morone, M. C. [Dipartimento di Biopatologia e Diagnostica per Immagini, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy); Pandola, L. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy); Rapisarda, E. [Nuclear and Radiation Physics Section, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Celestijnenlaan Heverlee (Belgium); Romano, F. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy) and Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi Roma (Italy); and others

    2013-04-19

    Nuclear fragmentation measurements are necessary in hadrontherapy and space radiation protection, to predict the effects of the ion nuclear interactions within the human body. Nowadays, a very limited set of carbon fragmentation cross sections has been measured and in particular, to our knowledge, no double differential fragmentation cross sections at intermediate energies are available in literature. We have measured the double differential cross sections and the angular distributions of the secondary fragments produced in the {sup 12}C fragmentation at 62 AMeV on a thin carbon target. The experimental data have been also used to benchmark the prediction capability of the Geant4 Monte Carlo code at intermediate energies, where it was never tested before.

  13. Carbon Fragmentation Cross Sections for Hadrontherapy and Space Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Napoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Nicolosi, D.; Pandola, L.; Raciti, G.; Romano, F.; Sardina, D.; Scuderi, V.; Tropea, S.; Bondì, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.

    2014-05-01

    Fragmentation reactions represent a serious complication in hadrontherapy and space radiation protection. In order to predict their effects, both reliable Monte Carlo codes and experimental data are needed. The shortage of precise measurements, especially of double differential cross sections, has triggered many dedicated experiments at relativistic energies. Aiming to explore the Fermi energy regime, as well, where different reaction mechanisms are involved, we measured the 12C fragmentation at 62 AMeV on a 12C and a 197Au target. A high granularity Si-CsI hodoscope allowed to identify the charge and the mass of detected fragments and measure their energy and emission angle. In this work we report the double differential cross sections for the production of different fragments as a function of the emission angle. Experimental results are compared with the GEANT-4 Monte Carlo predictions performed using two reaction models, the Quantum Molecular Dynamic and the Binary Light Ion Cascade.

  14. Nuclear fragmentation measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Napoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Battistoni, G.; Blancato, A. A.; Bondı, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Giacoppo, F.; Morone, M. C.; Nicolosi, D.; Pandola, L.; Raciti, G.; Rapisarda, E.; Romano, F.; Sardina, D.; Scuderi, V.; Sfienti, C.; Tropea, S.

    2013-04-01

    Nuclear fragmentation measurements are necessary in hadrontherapy and space radiation protection, to predict the effects of the ion nuclear interactions within the human body. Nowadays, a very limited set of carbon fragmentation cross sections has been measured and in particular, to our knowledge, no double differential fragmentation cross sections at intermediate energies are available in literature. We have measured the double differential cross sections and the angular distributions of the secondary fragments produced in the 12C fragmentation at 62 AMeV on a thin carbon target. The experimental data have been also used to benchmark the prediction capability of the Geant4 Monte Carlo code at intermediate energies, where it was never tested before.

  15. Virtual-reality education and training system for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T.; Miyatake, H.; Kawakami, T. [Radioisotope Research Center, Osaka (Japan)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    In order to break the mannerism in the education and training method for radiation protection introduction of virtual reality system to the chalkface has been discussed in addition to the usual lecture and video system in the subcommittee established in JRIAS (Japan Radioisotope Association), and the leading model has been installed in Osaka University. It consists of a main server and 3 clients with a software for virtual reality. With this system the trainee could go into the virtual laboratory and handle the radioisotope. In that case he could also experience various accidents such as trivial failure in the experiments, serious hazard, fire, earthquake, etc., which are difficult to suffer in the real laboratory. Hence those who have experienced such a training could come to act rapidly up against any sudden accidents and also the virtual reality system would result decrease in unnecessary radioactive wastes.

  16. Envitonmental monitoring and radiation protection in Škocjan Caves, Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec Gerjeviè, V.; Jovanovič, P.

    2012-04-01

    Škocjan Caves were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1986, due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage. Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park Škocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data. Relation of background radiation to carrying capacity will be explained. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. A system of education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection will be presented as well.

  17. Tomography of binomial states of the radiation field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazrafkan, MR; Man'ko, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    The symplectic, optical, and photon-number tomographic symbols of binomial states of the radiation field are studied. Explicit relations for all tomograms of the binomial states are obtained. Two measures for nonclassical properties of these states are discussed.

  18. Tomography of binomial states of the radiation field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazrafkan, MR; Man'ko, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    The symplectic, optical, and photon-number tomographic symbols of binomial states of the radiation field are studied. Explicit relations for all tomograms of the binomial states are obtained. Two measures for nonclassical properties of these states are discussed.

  19. Safety and Radiation Protection at Swedish Nuclear Power Plants 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    other things. Up-to-date and documented safety analyses must be prepared and actively be included in both the preventive safety work and in connection with plant modifications. The licensees have implemented design analysis projects for a long period of time and clarified and stringent regulations for safety analyses have entered into force in 2005. As a result, updated safety reports exist for many of the facilities and schedules exist for the supplementary work that remains to be done. SKI's reinforced supervision of Barsebaeck 2 continued until the closure of the reactor on May 31, 2005. In SKI's opinion, BKAB mainly handled the lengthy facility closure in a satisfactory manner. The handling of nuclear waste at the nuclear facilities has mainly functioned well. The same applies to the operation of the Repository for Low and Intermediate-level Operational Waste (SFR-1) and the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (CLAB). The overall evaluation of the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) is that radiation protection at Swedish nuclear power plants has functioned well in 2005. The total radiation dose to the personnel at Swedish nuclear power plants was 9.2 manSv, which agrees with the average value of the total radiation doses over the last five years (9 manSv). No-one received a radiation dose in excess of the established dose limits and the radiation levels in the facilities are largely unchanged compared with previous years. The radiation doses to the public from the Swedish nuclear power plants continue to be low. SSI considers that continuous work is also needed in the future at the facilities to further reduce radioactive releases by applying the best available technique (BAT) and other measures. The control measurements that SSI is conducting on environmental samples from around the nuclear power facilities as well as on radioactive releases to water show a good agreement with the licensees' own measurements.

  20. National congress of radiation protection - SFRP 2005; Congres National de Radioprotection - SFRP 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagroye, I. [Bordeaux Univ., Lab. de Bioelectromagnetisme de l' EPHE, Lab. PIOM, ENSCPB, 33 (France); Gonzague, A. [EDF, Centre d' appui du parc en exploitation, Groupe prevention des risques environnement, 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Ammerich, M. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la radioprotection (DGSNR), 75 - Paris (France); Blanc, D.; Lecomte, J.F.; Boucher, D.; Boucher, D.; Averbeck, D.; Gourmelon, P.; Barbey, P.; Bourguignon, M.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Dutrillaux, B.; Radecki, J.J.; Schieber, C.; Cosset, J.M.; Lecomte, J.F.; Lochard, J.; Metivier, H.; Sugier, A.; Tirmarche, M.; Aurengo, A.; Lamartine, J.; Martin, M.; Mallard, C.; Malfoy, B.; Ugolin, N.; Chevillard, S.; Schlumberger, M.; Laurier, D.; White-Koning, M.L.; Hemon, D.; Tirmarche, M.; Jougla, E.; Clavel, J.; Miccoli, L.; Barber, R.; Angulo, J.F.; Dubrova, Y.E.; Le Gall, B.; Phan, G.; Grillon, G.; Rouit, E.; Benech, H.; Fattal, E.; Deverre, J.R.; Legros, A.; Beuter, A.; Verrier, A.; Magne, I.; Souques, M.; Lambrozo, J.; Schmitt, P.; Roth, P.; Nadi, M.; Joly, L.; Chapel, C.; Burgain, A.; Marliot, F.; Cordier, E.; Courant, D.; Elabbassi, E.B.; Seze, R. de

    2005-07-01

    The nine tutorial sessions are: first one, the new recommendations of the ICRP; second one, effects on health of ionizing radiations with the following subjects ( the dose-response relationship and the estimation of carcinogen effects of ionizing radiation low doses; effect of dose rate on the induction and repair of radioinduced DNA double strand break; interest of global approach in radiation protection; molecular signature of the radioinduction in the thyroid tumors: example of radioinduced thyroid tumors after radiotherapy; incidence of child leukemia near the nuclear facilities: results of a multi sites study in France; genome instability and mutations induction after ionizing irradiation: consequences for the progeny; D.T.P.A encapsulation, an efficient strategy for the plutonium decorporation among the rat); the third one, non-ionizing radiation with the following subjects (can the exposure to a magnetic field of 100 {mu} T at 50 Hz be detected in the human physiological shiver; evaluation of the population exposure to the magnetic fields of 50 Hz: what indicators to choose; experimental study of the immunity of implantable defibrillators to the low frequencies electro-magnetic perturbations; DNA damages induced by the Ar F laser; dosimetry with a phantom in gel of human head); fourth session concerns the regulatory aspects; the fifth one presents the radiation protection and the radioactive waste management; the sixth session concerns the public and patients radiation protection; the seventh one treats the radiation protection in professional area with the following subjects ( optimization of radiation protection in the underground uranium mine of Cominak in Niger; revealing by multi parameters capillaroscopy, of micro vascular alterations of fingers among interventional radiologists; use of radioactive and chemical probes in biological research; uncertainties on doses and D.P.U.I.; monitoring of work areas. Evaluation of workers exposure towards a

  1. Radiation protection issues after 20 years of LHC operation

    CERN Document Server

    Forkel-Wirth, D; Roesler, S; Theis, C; Ulrici, L; Vincke, H; Vincke, Hz

    2011-01-01

    Since November 2009, the LHC commissioning progresses very well, both with proton and lead beams. It will continue in 2011 and nominal LHC operation is expected to be attained in 2013. In parallel, plans for various LHC upgrades are under discussion, suggesting a High-Luminosity (HL) upgrade first and a High-Energy (HE) upgrade in a later state. Whereas the upgrade in luminosity would require the modification of only some few key accelerator components like the inner triplets, the upgrade in beam energy from 7 TeV to 16.5 TeV would require the exchange of all dipoles and of numerous other accelerator components. The paper gives an overview of the radiation protection issues related to the dismantling of LHC components prior to the installation of the HE-LHC components, i.e. after about 20 years of LHC operation. Two main topics will be discussed: (i) the exposure of workers to ionizing radiation during the dismantling of dipoles, inner triplets or collimators and experiments and (ii) the production, condition...

  2. Development of Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation Protective Fabric Using Combined Electrospinning and Electrospraying Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Mukesh Kumar; Das, B. R.; Kumar, Kamal; Kishore, Brij; Prasad, N. Eswara

    2017-03-01

    The article reports a novel technique for functionization of nanoweb to develop ultraviolet (UV) radiation protective fabric. UV radiation protection effect is produced by combination of electrospinning and electrospraying technique. A nanofibrous web of polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) coated on polypropylene nonwoven fabric is produced by latest nanospider technology. Subsequently, web is functionalized by titanium dioxide (TiO2). The developed web is characterized for evaluation of surface morphology and other functional properties; mechanical, chemical, crystalline and thermal. An optimal (judicious) nanofibre spinning condition is achieved and established. The produced web is uniformly coated by defect free functional nanofibres in a continuous form of useable textile structural membrane for ultraviolet (UV) protective clothing. This research initiative succeeds in preparation and optimization of various nanowebs for UV protection. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) result reveals that PVDF webs photo-degradative behavior is non-accelerated, as compared to normal polymeric grade fibres. Functionalization with TiO2 has enhanced the photo-stability of webs. The ultraviolet protection factor of functionalized and non-functionalized nanowebs empirically evaluated to be 65 and 24 respectively. The developed coated layer could be exploited for developing various defence, para-military and civilian UV protective light weight clothing (tent, covers and shelter segments, combat suit, snow bound camouflaging nets). This research therefore, is conducted in an attempt to develop a scientific understanding of PVDF fibre coated webs for photo-degradation and applications for defence protective textiles. This technological research in laboratory scale could be translated into bulk productionization.

  3. Development of Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation Protective Fabric Using Combined Electrospinning and Electrospraying Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Mukesh Kumar; Das, B. R.; Kumar, Kamal; Kishore, Brij; Prasad, N. Eswara

    2017-06-01

    The article reports a novel technique for functionization of nanoweb to develop ultraviolet (UV) radiation protective fabric. UV radiation protection effect is produced by combination of electrospinning and electrospraying technique. A nanofibrous web of polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) coated on polypropylene nonwoven fabric is produced by latest nanospider technology. Subsequently, web is functionalized by titanium dioxide (TiO2). The developed web is characterized for evaluation of surface morphology and other functional properties; mechanical, chemical, crystalline and thermal. An optimal (judicious) nanofibre spinning condition is achieved and established. The produced web is uniformly coated by defect free functional nanofibres in a continuous form of useable textile structural membrane for ultraviolet (UV) protective clothing. This research initiative succeeds in preparation and optimization of various nanowebs for UV protection. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) result reveals that PVDF webs photo-degradative behavior is non-accelerated, as compared to normal polymeric grade fibres. Functionalization with TiO2 has enhanced the photo-stability of webs. The ultraviolet protection factor of functionalized and non-functionalized nanowebs empirically evaluated to be 65 and 24 respectively. The developed coated layer could be exploited for developing various defence, para-military and civilian UV protective light weight clothing (tent, covers and shelter segments, combat suit, snow bound camouflaging nets). This research therefore, is conducted in an attempt to develop a scientific understanding of PVDF fibre coated webs for photo-degradation and applications for defence protective textiles. This technological research in laboratory scale could be translated into bulk productionization.

  4. Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources international basic safety standards

    CERN Document Server

    International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna

    2014-01-01

    The Board of Governors of the IAEA first approved Basic Safety Standards in June 1962; they were published by the IAEA as IAEA Safety Series No. 9. A revised edition was issued in 1967. A third revision was published by the IAEA as the 1982 Edition of IAEA Safety Series No. 9 ; this edition was jointly sponsored by the IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA and the WHO. The next edition was International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, published by the IAEA as IAEA Safety Series No. 115 in February 1996, and jointly sponsored by the FAO, IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and the WHO.

  5. Priorities in radiation protection. Propositions for a better protection of persons against the danger of ionizing radiations. Report of the Vrousos commission; Priorites en radioprotection. Propositions pour une meilleure protection des personnes contre les dangers des rayonnements ionisants. Rapport de la commission Vrousos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-15

    this report presents priorities for actions and recommendations on subjects such communication, information, education, and also research, monitoring of technological development, expertise or giving users more responsibility. these recommendations are given with actions propositions on field of workers radiation protection or patients protection or radioactive sources management. (N.C.)

  6. Occurrence of BOOP outside radiation field after radiation therapy for small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamanishi, Tohru; Oida, Kazukiyo [Tenri Hospital, Nara (Japan); Morimatu, Takafumi (and others)

    2001-09-01

    We report a case of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) that occurred outside the radiation field after radiation therapy for small cell lung cancer. A 74-year-old woman received chemotherapy and a total of 60 Gy of radiation therapy to the right hilum and mediastinum for small cell carcinoma of the suprahilar area of the right lung. Radiation pneumonitis developed within the radiation port 3 months after the completion of radiation therapy. She complained of cough and was admitted 7 months after completion of the radiation therapy. Chest radiography and computed tomography demonstrated peripheral alveolar opacities outside the radiation field on the side contralateral to that receiving the radiation therapy. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed that the total cell count was increased, with a markedly increased percentage of lymphocytes. Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed a histologic pattern consistent with BOOP. Treatment with corticosteroids resulted in rapid improvement of the symptoms and complete resolution of the radiographic abnormalities of the left lung. Although some cases of BOOP following radiation therapy for breast cancer have been reported, none of BOOP after radiation therapy for lung cancer have appeared in the literature. (author)

  7. Addressing ecological effects of radiation on populations and ecosystems to improve protection of the environment against radiation: Agreed statements from a Consensus Symposium☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréchignac, François; Oughton, Deborah; Mays, Claire; Barnthouse, Lawrence; Beasley, James C.; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Bradshaw, Clare; Brown, Justin; Dray, Stéphane; Geras’kin, Stanislav; Glenn, Travis; Higley, Kathy; Ishida, Ken; Kapustka, Lawrence; Kautsky, Ulrik; Kuhne, Wendy; Lynch, Michael; Mappes, Tapio; Mihok, Steve; Møller, Anders P.; Mothersill, Carmel; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Otaki, Joji M.; Pryakhin, Evgeny; Rhodes, Olin E.; Salbu, Brit; Strand, Per; Tsukada, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the output of a consensus symposium organized by the International Union of Radioecology in November 2015. The symposium gathered an academically diverse group of 30 scientists to consider the still debated ecological impact of radiation on populations and ecosystems. Stimulated by the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters’ accidental contamination of the environment, there is increasing interest in developing environmental radiation protection frameworks. Scientific research conducted in a variety of laboratory and field settings has improved our knowledge of the effects of ionizing radiation on the environment. However, the results from such studies sometimes appear contradictory and there is disagreement about the implications for risk assessment. The Symposium discussions therefore focused on issues that might lead to different interpretations of the results, such as laboratory versus field approaches, organism versus population and ecosystemic inference strategies, dose estimation approaches and their significance under chronic exposure conditions. The participating scientists, from across the spectrum of disciplines and research areas, extending also beyond the traditional radioecology community, successfully developed a constructive spirit directed at understanding discrepancies. From the discussions, the group has derived seven consensus statements related to environmental protection against radiation, which are supplemented with some recommendations. Each of these statements is contextualized and discussed in view of contributing to the orientation and integration of future research, the results of which should yield better consensus on the ecological impact of radiation and consolidate suitable approaches for efficient radiological protection of the environment. PMID:27058410

  8. Addressing ecological effects of radiation on populations and ecosystems to improve protection of the environment against radiation: Agreed statements from a Consensus Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréchignac, François; Oughton, Deborah; Mays, Claire; Barnthouse, Lawrence; Beasley, James C; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Bradshaw, Clare; Brown, Justin; Dray, Stéphane; Geras'kin, Stanislav; Glenn, Travis; Higley, Kathy; Ishida, Ken; Kapustka, Lawrence; Kautsky, Ulrik; Kuhne, Wendy; Lynch, Michael; Mappes, Tapio; Mihok, Steve; Møller, Anders P; Mothersill, Carmel; Mousseau, Timothy A; Otaki, Joji M; Pryakhin, Evgeny; Rhodes, Olin E; Salbu, Brit; Strand, Per; Tsukada, Hirofumi

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the output of a consensus symposium organized by the International Union of Radioecology in November 2015. The symposium gathered an academically diverse group of 30 scientists to consider the still debated ecological impact of radiation on populations and ecosystems. Stimulated by the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters' accidental contamination of the environment, there is increasing interest in developing environmental radiation protection frameworks. Scientific research conducted in a variety of laboratory and field settings has improved our knowledge of the effects of ionizing radiation on the environment. However, the results from such studies sometimes appear contradictory and there is disagreement about the implications for risk assessment. The Symposium discussions therefore focused on issues that might lead to different interpretations of the results, such as laboratory versus field approaches, organism versus population and ecosystemic inference strategies, dose estimation approaches and their significance under chronic exposure conditions. The participating scientists, from across the spectrum of disciplines and research areas, extending also beyond the traditional radioecology community, successfully developed a constructive spirit directed at understanding discrepancies. From the discussions, the group has derived seven consensus statements related to environmental protection against radiation, which are supplemented with some recommendations. Each of these statements is contextualized and discussed in view of contributing to the orientation and integration of future research, the results of which should yield better consensus on the ecological impact of radiation and consolidate suitable approaches for efficient radiological protection of the environment.

  9. Basic concepts on environmental radiation protection; Conceitos basicos de protecao radiologica ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Amaral, Eliana C.S

    2007-07-01

    This chapter makes an overview on basic concepts of environmental radiation protection, approaching the system of protection for practices, evaluation oc the environmental radiologic impact, environmental monitoring, models and exposures pathways.

  10. Knowledge of Radiation Hazards, Radiation Protection Practices and Clinical Profile of Health Workers in a Teaching Hospital in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awosan, K J; Ibrahim, Mto; Saidu, S A; Ma'aji, S M; Danfulani, M; Yunusa, E U; Ikhuenbor, D B; Ige, T A

    2016-08-01

    Use of ionizing radiation in medical imaging for diagnostic and interventional purposes has risen dramatically in recent years with a concomitant increase in exposure of patients and health workers to radiation hazards. To assess the knowledge of radiation hazards, radiation protection practices and clinical profile of health workers in UDUTH, Sokoto, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 110 Radiology, Radiotherapy and Dentistry staff selected by universal sampling technique. The study comprised of administration of standardized semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire (to obtain information on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of radiation hazards, and radiation protection practices of participants), clinical assessment (comprising of chest X-ray, abdominal ultrasound and laboratory investigation on hematological parameters), and evaluation of radiation exposure of participants (extracted from existing hospital records on their radiation exposure status). The participants were aged 20 to 65 years (mean = 34.04 ± 8.83), most of them were males (67.3%) and married (65.7%). Sixty five (59.1%) had good knowledge of radiation hazards, 58 (52.7%) had good knowledge of Personal Protective Devices (PPDs), less than a third, 30 (27.3%) consistently wore dosimeter, and very few (10.9% and below) consistently wore the various PPDs at work. The average annual radiation exposure over a 4 year period ranged from 0.0475mSv to 1.8725mSv. Only 1 (1.2%) of 86 participants had abnormal chest X-ray findings, 8 (9.4%) of 85 participants had abnormal abdominal ultrasound findings; while 17 (15.5%) and 11 (10.0%) of 110 participants had anemia and leucopenia respectively. This study demonstrated poor radiation protection practices despite good knowledge of radiation hazards among the participants, but radiation exposure and prevalence of abnormal clinical conditions were found to be low. Periodic in-service training and monitoring on radiation safety was

  11. [Nuclear energy and public health, the mission of OPRI (Office of Protection from Ionizing Radiation)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisné, M R

    1995-03-15

    In the domain of the use of ionising radiation for medical purposes and in the nuclear industry, the protection of man and his environment is primordial. Such protection is defined in European Community countries by the Directives of the Euratom Council, applied as national law. In France, the "Office de protection contre les rayonnements ionisants" oversees the application of laws and rules relating to protection from radiation and determines the inspections and analyses required to ensure the protection of the population against ionising radiation.

  12. Intercalated and Hydrogenated Carbon Nanofibers for Multifunctional Radiation Protection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Improvements in radiation shielding materials are needed to support NASA's human and robotic exploration programs. Shielding for both electromagnetic radiation...

  13. Polarized radiation diagnostics of stellar magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathys, Gautier

    The main techniques used to diagnose magnetic fields in stars from polarimetric observations are presented. First, a summary of the physics of spectral line formation in the presence of a magnetic field is given. Departures from the simple case of linear Zeeman effect are briefly considered: partial Paschen-Back effect, contribution of hyperfine structure, and combined Stark and Zeeman effects. Important approximate solutions of the equation of transfer of polarized light in spectral lines are introduced. The procedure for disk-integration of emergent Stokes profiles, which is central to stellar magnetic field studies, is described, with special attention to the treatment of stellar rotation. This formalism is used to discuss the determination of the mean longitudinal magnetic field (through the photographic technique and through Balmer line photopolarimetry). This is done within the specific framework of Ap stars, which, with their unique large-scale organized magnetic fields, are an ideal laboratory for studies of stellar magnetism. Special attention is paid to those Ap stars whose magnetically split line components are resolved in high-dispersion Stokes I spectra, and to the determination of their mean magnetic field modulus. Various techniques of exploitation of the information contained in polarized spectral line profiles are reviewed: the moment technique (in particular, the determination of the crossover and of the mean quadratic field), Zeeman-Doppler imaging, and least-squares deconvolution. The prospects that these methods open for linear polarization studies are sketched. The way in which linear polarization diagnostics complement their Stokes I and V counterparts is emphasized by consideration of the results of broad band linear polarization measurements. Illustrations of the use of various diagnostics to derive properties of the magnetic fields of Ap stars are given. This is used to show the interest of deriving more physically realistic models of the

  14. Delivering a radiation protection dividend: systemic capacity-building for the radiation safety profession in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Hilton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many African countries planning to enter the nuclear energy “family” have little or no experience of meeting associated radiation safety demands, whether operational or regulatory. Uses of radiation in medicine in the continent, whether for diagnostic or clinical purposes, are rapidly growing while the costs of equipment, and hence of access to services, are falling fast. In consequence, many patients and healthcare workers are facing a wide array of unfamiliar challenges, both operational and ethical, without any formal regulatory or professional framework for managing them safely. This, combined with heighted awareness of safety issues post Fukushima, means the already intense pressure on radiation safety professionals in such domains as NORM industries and security threatens to reach breaking point. A systematic competency-based capacity-building programme for RP professionals in Africa is required (Resolution of the Third AFRIRPA13 Regional Conference, Nairobi, September 2010. The goal is to meet recruitment and HR needs in the rapidly emerging radiation safety sector, while also addressing stakeholder concerns in respect of promoting and meeting professional and ethical standards. The desired outcome is an RP “dividend” to society as a whole. A curriculum model is presented, aligned to safety procedures and best practices such as Safety Integrity Level and Layer of Protection analysis; it emphasizes proactive risk communication both with direct and indirect stakeholders; and it outlines disciplinary options and procedures for managers and responsible persons for dealing with unsafe or dangerous behavior at work. This paper reports on progress to date. It presents a five-tier development pathway starting from a generic foundation course, suitable for all RP professionals, accompanied by specialist courses by domain, activity or industry. Delivery options are discussed. Part of the content has already been developed and delivered as

  15. Environmental Protection of Oil and Gas Fields 1997 Subscriptions Welcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ ENTIRONMENTAL PROTECTION OF OIL AND GAS FIELDS is a scientific and technical periodical in Chinese with abstracts in English. jointly operated by China Petroleum Planning and Engineering Institute and Technical Supervision, Safety and Environmental Protection Bureau, CNPC and publicly distributed at home and abroad.

  16. Radiological Protection in Transition. Proceedings of the 14. Regular Meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection, NSFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentin, J.; Cederlund, T.; Drake, P.; Finne, I.E.; Glansholm, A.; Jaworska, A.; Paile, W.; Rahola, T. (eds.)

    2005-09-01

    These proceedings comprise the papers and posters presented at the 14th Regular Meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection, the theme of which was 'Radiological protection in transformation'. There were sessions on international developments and stakeholder involvement, on education, training, and measurements, on emergencies, on nuclear installations, on non-ionising radiation, on medical radiation, on industrial uses of radiation, on radiobiology, on natural sources of radiation, on non-nuclear waste, on NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research), on radioecology and artificial radionuclides in the environment, and on regulatory and international activities. In addition to invited lectures and proffered papers, there were educational primer lessons in the mornings and several roundtable discussions. In all, there were almost 100 contributions from participants representing at least 10 different countries. The range of different topics covered, the scientific quality of the contributions, and the interest shown in this meeting reflect the high standing of radiological protection in the Nordic countries.

  17. Novel protective lead shield and pulse fluoroscopy can reduce radiation exposure during the ERCP procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Toshio; Itoi, Takao; Sofuni, Atsushi; Itokawa, Fumihide; Tsuchiya, Takayoshi; Ishii, Kentaro; Tsuji, Shujiro; Ikeuchi, Nobuhito; Moriyasu, Fuminori

    2012-05-01

    ERCP-related procedures involve radiation exposure of patients and medical staff. We developed a novel protective lead shield which is attached around the fluoroscopy generator. Here we examine levels of radiation exposure to patients, endoscopists and assistants, and evaluate the usefulness of the newly designed protective shield. Four-hundred and seventy-one ERCP procedures were performed from April 2006 to April 2007. At first, we compared the radiation dose of consecutive fluoroscopy conditions with pulse fluoroscopy of 15 per second and then the radiation dose with and without the protective shield. Next, we measured the radiation exposure of endoscopists and assistants in the clinical setting monitored by digital dosimeter during ERCP procedure. The radiation dose was the most at the 45° direction. Using pulse fluoroscopy of 15 per second the radiation dose of patients and endoscopists decreased by about half. Using both pulse fluoroscopy of 15 per second and the protective shield, the radiation dose at the endoscopist's position was reduced up to 97%. The total fluoroscopy time was 5851 minutes in the 471 ERCP cases. Using pulse 15 and the protective lead shield, the radiation exposure dose of one endoscopist and two assistants were 2430.8, 2673.9 and 1375.0µSv, respectively. Novel protective lead shield in combination with pulse fluoroscopy can significantly reduce the radiation exposure leading to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure to patients and medical staff.

  18. Radiation Protection Training frame in Virgen del Rocio University Hospital; Formacion en proteccion radiologica en los Hospitales Universitarios Virgen del Rocio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrador, M.; Baeza, M.; Luis-Simon, J.; Carbajo, J.; Gomez-Puerto, A.; Gonzalez, V.; Mateos; Haro, G.; Gomez, M.

    2003-07-01

    The International Community has established a dose limitation system to control the risks due to the ionizing radiation pacific use. The education and training of the occupational exposed workers is necessary to achieve the objectives of this dose limitation system.The second largest contribution to exposures of the individuals worldwide after natural background radiation, comes from medical radiation procedures. For this reason, the radiation protection training of medical workers is essential. In the particular autonomous region of Andalusia, most medical radiation procedures comes from the Public Health Service. Therefore, Andalusia Healthy Service maintains a radiation protection training plan for their occupational exposed workers. This training plan includes: training of the radioactive facilities supervisors and operators in both nuclear medicine and radiotherapy areas; training for medical radiodiagnosis facility management; quality assurance in medical diagnosis and therapy; and update on radiation protection. The training plan is performed with theoretical and practical course homologated by the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council. These courses cover four basic fields related to radiation: Physics, Radiobiology, Radiation Protection and Legislation. These courses have been organised by the Andalusia Healthy System since 1993. A total of 722 medical workers have been trained for radiation protection. Therefore, optimum conditions for the safe and correct use of ionizing radiation have been provided to these workers. The supervisor or operator's license of the radioactive facility can be also obtained by these courses. (Author) 17 refs.

  19. Radiation (absorbing) boundary conditions for electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevensee, R. M.; Pennock, S. T.

    1987-01-01

    An important problem in finite difference or finite element computation of the electromagnetic field obeying the space-time Maxwell equations with self-consistent sources is that of truncating the outer numerical boundaries properly to avoid spurious numerical reflection. Methods for extrapolating properly the fields just beyond a numerical boundary in free space have been treated by a number of workers. This report avoids plane wave assumptions and derives boundary conditions more directly related to the source distribution within the region. The Panofsky-Phillips' relations, which enable one to extrapolate conveniently the vector field components parallel and perpendicular to a radial from the coordinate origin chosen near the center of the charge-current distribution are used to describe the space-time fields.

  20. Radiation protection performance for the dismantling of the WWR-M primary cooling circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobach, Yu N; Luferenko, E D; Shevel, V N

    2014-12-01

    The WWR-M is a light-water-cooled and moderated heterogonous research reactor with a thermal output of 10 MW. The reactor has been in operation for >50 y and has had an excellent safety record. A non-hermeticity of the inlet line of the primary cooling circuit (PCC) was found, and the only reasonable technical solution was the complete replacement of the PCC inlet and outlet pipe lines. Such a replacement was a challenging technical task due to the necessity to handle large size components with complex geometries under conditions of high-level radiation fields, and therefore, it required detailed planning aiming to reduce staff exposure. This paper describes the dismantling and removal of the PCC components focusing on radiation protection issues.

  1. Special Radiation Protection Precautions in Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, J.

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine concerns the administration of appropriate amounts of radioactivity of certain isotopes, in order to achieve internal localized irradiation of neoplasmatic cells. Due to the increased level and the specific isotope characteristics of administered radioactivity, special Radiation Protection precautions must be taken. This study addresses such issues, based on national as well as international legislation and guidelines. Application of the principle of optimization is of outmost importance and is based on individual dose planning. The decision about the release of Nuclear Medicine patients after therapy is determined on an individual basis, taking into account patients' pattern of contact with other people, their age and that of persons in the home environment, in addition to other factors. Estimation of the absorbed dose given to the treated organ is based on uptake measurements and other biokinetic data, as well as on the mass of the treated tissue or organ. Concerning pregnant women, the rule of thumb is that they should not be treated, unless the radionuclide therapy is required to save their lives. In that case, the potential absorbed dose and risk to the foetus should be estimated and conveyed to the patient. After radionuclide therapy, a female should be advised to avoid pregnancy for the period of time depending on the specific radionuclide. This is to ensure that the dose to a conceptus/foetus would probably not exceed 1 mGy (the member of the public dose limit). The radiation risk for relatives and caregivers is small and unlikely to exceed the legal dose constraints during the period of the patient's treatment. Solid waste from the patient's stay in hospital is a different matter, and is normally incinerated or held for a period until radioactive decay brings the activity to an acceptable level.

  2. Sound power radiated by sources in diffuse fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polack, Jean-Dominique

    2000-01-01

    Sound power radiated by sources at low frequency notoriously depends on source position. We sampled the sound field of a rectangular room at 18 microphone and 4 source positions. Average power spectra were extrapolated from the reverberant field, taking into account the frequency dependent...... reverberation times. They reveal fluctuations that depend on source position and extend far above Schroeder frequency....

  3. Radioecology in hte Arctic: Activities of the new environmental protection unit of the NRPA in Tromsoe[Norwegian RadiationProtection Authority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerland, S.; Lind, B. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Polar Environmental Centre, Environmental Proctection Unit, Tromsoe (Norway)

    2002-04-01

    In August 1999, the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Statens straelevern) established an Environmental Protection Unit in the Polar Environmental Centre in Tromsoe, northern Norway. Major tasks of the three persons at the unit include monitoring and research in both marine and terrestrial environments in northern Eurasian areas and the Arctic. This includes field and laboratory work, collaboration with the other institutions within the Polar Environmental Centre (e.g. the Norwegian Polar Institute), and integrating studies within the AMAP programme. The Environmental Protection Unit was recently involved in fieldwork in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard), an international cruise to the Fram Strait, a technetium monitoring program in the Western Barents Sea, and radiation measurements on the site in the Barents Sea where the Russian submarine 'Kursk' sunk. (LN)

  4. 6. national congress of radiation protection S.F.R.P. 2007; 6. congres national de radioprotection S.F.R.P. 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This congress tackles the following subjects: individual dosimetry for external irradiation, update of arrangements in the public health code relative to the radiation protection, implementation of zoning decree, regulation, radiation protection in professional area, radiation protection in ITER, non ionizing radiation, radiation protection in accident situation, biological radiation effects, radiation protection for patients, dosimetry, environmental exposure, radiation protection and radioactive waste management. (N.C.)

  5. Radiation protection in medical applications; La proteccion radiologica en las aplicaciones medicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado M, H. [Sociedad Mexicana de Seguridad Radiologica A. C., Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2008-12-15

    The justification of the practices is the fundamental principle on which rests the peaceful use of ionizing radiations. They actually contain as aspirations to improve the quality of people's lives, contributing to sustainable development through environmental protection, so that the sources security and the individuals protection will be conditions which are not and should can not be operated. For medical applications is a highly illustrative example of this, since both for the diagnosis and therapy, the goal is to achieve what is sought for the white tissue, secured the least possible damage to the neighboring tissues so that in turn reduce the negative effects for the patient. As a basis for achieving the above, it is essential to have qualified personnel in all areas incidents, for example users, workers, officials and staff members. There are a variety of specialists in the field of medical applications as, nuclear chemistry, nuclear engineering, radiation protection, medical physics, radiation physics and others. Among the human resource in the country must make up the majority are medical radiologists, highlighting gaps in the number of radiotherapy and nuclear medicine but specially in the medical physics, who is in some way from a special viewpoint of the formal school, new to the country. This is true for the number of facilities which are in the country. The radiation protection responsibilities in medical applications focus primarily on two figures: the radiology safety manager, who is primarily dedicated to the protection of occupationally exposed personnel and the public, and the medical physicist whose functions are geared towards the radiological protection of the patient. The principal legislation in the medical applications area has been enacted and is monitored by the Health Secretary and National Commission on Nuclear Safety and Safeguards, entities that have reached agreements to avoid overlap and over-regulation. Medical applications in

  6. Establishment of Testing Device for Shielding Performance of X and Gamma Ray Radiation Protection Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG; Ming-zhe; WEI; Ke-xin; HOU; Jin-bing; WANG; Hong-yu; GAO; Fei; NI; Ning

    2015-01-01

    X and gamma ray radiation protective material shielding performance testing device was built based on the international standard IEC61331.1-2014.The device can be used to test attenuation ratio,attenuation equivalent and lead equivalent of radiation protective material in"narrow beam condition","broad beam condition"and"inverse

  7. Measurement of dose equivalent with personal dosemeters and instrumentation of radiological protection in the new operative magnitudes ICRU, for external fields of radiation beta. Part IV. Survey of the angular response of instruments used in radiological protection in secondary patron fields of beta radiation ({sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y (1850 MBq and 74 MBq), {sup 204}TI (18.5 MBq) and {sup 147}Pm (518 MBq)); Medicion de dosis equivalente con dosimetros personales e instrumentacion de proteccion radiologica en las nuevas magnitudes operativas ICRU, para campos de radiacion beta externos. Parte IV. Estudio de la respuesta angular de instrumentos empleados en proteccion radiologica en campos patrones secundarios de radiacion beta ({sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y (1850 MBq y 74 MBq), {sup 204}TI (18.5 MBq) y {sup 147}Pm(518 MBq))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1994-02-15

    Tests type were made (type test) in the following commercial instrumentation commonly used in radiological protection: Geiger-Mueller Counters (FH40 FE), Plastic Scintillators (NE-BP/6/4A), Ionization Chambers (RO-5) and Proportional Counters (HP-100A; gas:P-10). With object of checking the possibility that these they can carry out the new operative unit ICRU, H' (0.07; {alpha}). The tests consisted on determining the energy and angular response of the detectors in secondary patron fields of beta radiation, for isotopes of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y (1850 MBq and 74 MBq and {sup 147}Pm(518 MBq). The results show the inadequate of these commercial instruments for the realization of the H' operative unit (0.07; {alpha}) in beta external fields. Due to flaws in the design, construction and calibration of the instruments for this type of radiation fields (Author)

  8. Approaches to promotion and implementation of action on Radiation Protection for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goske, Marilyn J; Applegate, Kimberly E; Bulas, Dorothy; Butler, Priscilla F; Callahan, Michael J; Coley, Brian D; Don, Steven; Farley, Shawn; Frush, Donald P; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Kaste, Sue C; Morrison, Gregory; Sidhu, Manrita; Strauss, Keith J; Treves, S Ted

    2011-09-01

    The Radiation Protection in Medicine conference, reviewed in this journal supplement, outlined nine strategies to promote radiation protection for patients. The Alliance for Radiation Safety in Pediatric Imaging has focused its work on three of those areas: creating awareness of the need and opportunities for radiation protection for children; developing open-source educational materials for medical professionals and parents on this critical topic for improved patient safety and communication; and lastly, advocating on behalf of children with industry, government and regulatory bodies to improve equipment design and safety features, standardisation of nomenclature and displays of dose reports across vendor platforms that reflect the special considerations of children.

  9. Spontaneous Radiation Emission from Short, High Field Strength Insertion Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffrey Krafft

    2005-09-15

    Since the earliest papers on undulaters were published, it has been known how to calculate the spontaneous emission spectrum from ''short'' undulaters when the magnetic field strength parameter is small compared to unity, or in ''single'' frequency sinusoidal undulaters where the magnetic field strength parameter is comparable to or larger than unity, but where the magnetic field amplitude is constant throughout the undulater. Fewer general results have been obtained in the case where the insertion device is both short, i.e., the magnetic field strength parameter changes appreciably throughout the insertion device, and the magnetic field strength is high enough that ponderomotive effects, radiation retardation, and harmonic generation are important physical phenomena. In this paper a general method is presented for calculating the radiation spectrum for short, high-field insertion devices. It is used to calculate the emission from some insertion device designs of recent interest.

  10. Spontaneous radiation emission from short, high field strength magnetic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Krafft

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the earliest papers on undulators were published, it has been known how to calculate the spontaneous emission spectrum from short undulators when the magnetic field strength parameter is small compared to unity, or in “single” frequency sinusoidal undulators where the magnetic field strength parameter is comparable to or larger than unity, but where the magnetic field amplitude is constant throughout the undulator. Fewer general results have been obtained in the case where the magnetic device is both short, i.e., the magnetic field strength parameter changes appreciably throughout the device, and the magnetic field strength is high enough that ponderomotive effects, radiation retardation, and harmonic generation are important physical phenomena. In this paper a general method is presented for calculating the radiation spectrum for short, high-field magnetic devices. It is used to calculate the emission from some designs of recent interest.

  11. Characterization of radiations field in Earth space in term of linear energy transfer (L.E.T.) for the radiation protection and the radiobiology; Caracterisation du champ de radiation dans l`espace circumterrestre en terme de transfert lineique d`energie (T.L.E.) pour la radioprotection et pour la radiobiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebaron-Jacobs, L.

    1994-07-07

    The space missions on orbital stations are becoming longer and the radiological risk constitutes a factor limiting the space flights. The tissue-equivalent proportional counters, (CIRCE in 1988 and 1990, then NAUSICAA from 1992), have been conceived to ensure the monitoring and the dosimetry of space travellers. They measure in real time, different parameters of dosimetry and evaluate the microdosimetric spectrum of space radiations on the board of the Mir spatial station. The equivalent of middle day dose measured by CIRCE was situated between 0.6 and 0.8 mSv associated to a quality factor of 1.9; that one measured by NAUSICAA is higher, between 0.9 and 1.0 mSv with a steady quality factor. These systems measure the time and spatial variations of cosmic radiations, in function of solar activity, orbit, and shielding thickness of space vehicles. Values of high doses equivalent (upper than 1 mSv), associated to quality factor of 1.4 have been measured during the South Atlantic Anomaly crossing and during solar eruptions. That is the same for polar regions. The evaluation of Relative Biological Effectiveness (R.B.E.) of the space radiations on Mir station board, in term of carcinogenesis of the Harder gland in the mouse, is here an extrapolation of a relation based on experimental data; the average R.B.E. allows to suppose that radiological risk is low. (N.C.). 69 refs., 74 figs., 19 tabs.

  12. Field Testing of a Portable Radiation Detector and Mapping System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, K.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Hayes, D.W.; Eakle, R.F.

    1998-03-01

    Researchers at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have developed a man- portable radiation detector and mapping system (RADMAPS) which integrates the accumulation of radiation information with precise ground locations. RADMAPS provides field personnel with the ability to detect, locate, and characterize nuclear material at a site or facility by analyzing the gamma or neutron spectra and correlating them with position. the man-portable field unit records gamma or neutron count rate information and its location, along with date and time, using an embedded Global Positioning System (GPS). RADMAPS is an advancement in data fusion, integrating several off-the-shelf technologies with new computer software resulting in a system that is simple to deploy and provides information useful to field personnel in an easily understandable form. Decisions on subsequent actions can be made in the field to efficiently use available field resources. The technologies employed in this system include: recording GPS, radiation detection (typically scintillation detectors), pulse height analysis, analog-to-digital converters, removable solid-state (Flash or SRAM) memory cards, Geographic Information System (GIS) software and personal computers with CD-ROM supporting digital base maps. RADMAPS includes several field deployable data acquisition systems designed to simultaneously record radiation and geographic positions. This paper summarizes the capabilities of RADMAPS and some of the results of field tests performed with the system.

  13. The LNT Debate in Radiation Protection: Science vs. Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossman, Kenneth L

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable interest in revisiting LNT theory as the basis for the system of radiation protection in the US and worldwide. Arguing the scientific merits of policy options is not likely to be fruitful because the science is not robust enough to support one theory to the exclusion of others. Current science cannot determine the existence of a dose threshold, a key piece to resolving the matter scientifically. The nature of the scientific evidence is such that risk assessment at small effective doses (defined as scientifically defensible. This paper argues for an alternative approach by looking at the LNT debate as a policy question and analyzes the problem from a social and economic perspective. In other words, risk assessment and a strictly scientific perspective are insufficiently broad enough to resolve the issue completely. A wider perspective encompassing social and economic impacts in a risk management context is necessary, but moving the debate to the policy and risk management arena necessarily marginalizes the role of scientists.

  14. Modern new nuclear fuel characteristics and radiation protection aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Ian R

    2005-01-01

    The glut of fissile material from reprocessing plants and from the conclusion of the cold war has provided the opportunity to design new fuel types to beneficially dispose of such stocks by generating useful power. Thus, in addition to the normal reactor core complement of enriched uranium fuel assemblies, two other types are available on the world market. These are the ERU (enriched recycled uranium) and the MOX (mixed oxide) fuel assemblies. Framatome ANP produces ERU fuel assemblies by taking feed material from reprocessing facilities and blending this with highly enriched uranium from other sources. MOX fuel assemblies contain plutonium isotopes, thus exploiting the higher neutron yield of the plutonium fission process. This paper describes and evaluates the gamma, spontaneous and alpha reaction neutron source terms of these non-irradiated fuel assembly types by defining their nuclear characteristics. The dose rates which arise from these terms are provided along with an overview of radiation protection aspects for consideration in transporting and delivering such fuel assemblies to power generating utilities.

  15. Protected gates for topological quantum field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beverland, Michael E.; Pastawski, Fernando; Preskill, John [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Buerschaper, Oliver [Dahlem Center for Complex Quantum Systems, Freie Universität Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Koenig, Robert [Institute for Advanced Study and Zentrum Mathematik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Sijher, Sumit [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    We study restrictions on locality-preserving unitary logical gates for topological quantum codes in two spatial dimensions. A locality-preserving operation is one which maps local operators to local operators — for example, a constant-depth quantum circuit of geometrically local gates, or evolution for a constant time governed by a geometrically local bounded-strength Hamiltonian. Locality-preserving logical gates of topological codes are intrinsically fault tolerant because spatially localized errors remain localized, and hence sufficiently dilute errors remain correctable. By invoking general properties of two-dimensional topological field theories, we find that the locality-preserving logical gates are severely limited for codes which admit non-abelian anyons, in particular, there are no locality-preserving logical gates on the torus or the sphere with M punctures if the braiding of anyons is computationally universal. Furthermore, for Ising anyons on the M-punctured sphere, locality-preserving gates must be elements of the logical Pauli group. We derive these results by relating logical gates of a topological code to automorphisms of the Verlinde algebra of the corresponding anyon model, and by requiring the logical gates to be compatible with basis changes in the logical Hilbert space arising from local F-moves and the mapping class group.

  16. The dielectric response to the magnetic field of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Shouvik; Mukhopadhyay, Sourabh; Datta, Prasanta Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Light–matter interaction in transparent dielectrics is revisited, including the magnetic force on bound charges in the Lorentz oscillator model. The parameter ranges of incident radiation and the medium on which the magnetic field of the electromagnetic radiation will have a significant effect are traced using Floquet theory. The analysis reveals that the threshold intensity for a significant response of the magnetic field of the radiation at the second harmonic of the incident radiation can be reduced to {10}12 {{W}}{{cm}}-2 for off resonant and even lower for resonant interaction. This phenomenon has already been observed indirectly in experiments [1, 2]. Induced magnetizing current due to the magnetic force is shown to originate from a modified dielectric response, which may be useful in future magneto-optic devices, solar energy harvesting, and studying the ultrafast dynamics in doped dielectrics.

  17. Synchrotron radiation in strongly coupled conformal field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Athanasiou, Christiana; Liu, Hong; Nickel, Dominik; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2010-01-01

    Using gauge/gravity duality, we compute the energy density and angular distribution of the power radiated by a quark undergoing circular motion in strongly coupled ${\\cal N}=4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We compare the strong coupling results to those at weak coupling, finding them to be very similar. In both regimes, the angular distribution of the radiated power is in fact similar to that of synchrotron radiation produced by an electron in circular motion in classical electrodynamics: the quark emits radiation in a narrow beam along its velocity vector with a characteristic opening angle $\\alpha \\sim 1/\\gamma$. To an observer far away from the quark, the emitted radiation appears as a short periodic burst, just like the light from a lighthouse does to a ship at sea. Our strong coupling results are valid for any strongly coupled conformal field theory with a dual classical gravity description.

  18. Modern Classical Electrodynamics and Electromagnetic Radiation - Vacuum Field Theory Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The work is devoted to studying some new classical electrodynamics models of interacting charged point particles and related with them physical aspects. Based on the vacuum field theory no-geometry approach, developed in \\cite{BPT,BPT1}, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian reformulations of some alternative classical electrodynamics models are devised. A problem closely related to the radiation reaction force is analyzed aiming to explain the Wheeler and Feynman reaction radiation mechanism, well ...

  19. The radiative transfer of synchrotron radiation through a compressed random magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Cawthorne, T V

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the radiative transfer of synchrotron radiation in the presence of a magnetic field configuration resulting from the compression of a highly disordered magnetic field. It is shown that, provided Faraday rotation and circular polarization can be neglected, the radiative transfer equations for synchrotron radiation separate for this configuration, and the intensities and polarization values for sources that are uniform on large scales can be found straightforwardly in the case where opacity is significant. Although the emission and absorption coefficients must, in general, be obtained numerically, the process is much simpler than a full numerical solution to the transfer equations. Some illustrative results are given and an interesting effect, whereby the polarization increases while the magnetic field distribution becomes less strongly confined to the plane of compression, is discussed. The results are of importance for the interpretation of polarization near the edges of lobes in radio gal...

  20. Radiation hydrodynamics of triggered star formation: the effect of the diffuse radiation field

    CERN Document Server

    Haworth, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of including diffuse field radiation when modelling the radiatively driven implosion of a Bonnor-Ebert sphere (BES). Radiation-hydrodynamical calculations are performed by using operator splitting to combine Monte Carlo photoionization with grid-based Eulerian hydrodynamics that includes self-gravity. It is found that the diffuse field has a significant effect on the nature of radiatively driven collapse which is strongly coupled to the strength of the driving shock that is established before impacting the BES. This can result in either slower or more rapid star formation than expected using the on-the-spot approximation depending on the distance of the BES from the source object. As well as directly compressing the BES, stronger shocks increase the thickness and density in the shell of accumulated material, which leads to short, strong, photo-evaporative ejections that reinforce the compression whenever it slows. This happens particularly effectively when the diffuse field is includ...

  1. Maintenance of radiation protection at a drawing board stage of the "Shelter" Object transformation into environmentally safe system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechaev, S Yu

    2015-12-01

    Special aspects of radiation protection maintenance at a drawing board stage of the "Shelter" Object transforma tion into environmentally safe system are shaped in the article. Information is provided on the basis of analysis of design plans and specifications both with project paperwork from activities at the ShO in 2002 2015 on accordance to requirements of the Ukrainian health legislation in the field of radiation hygiene regulations. Specific features of radiation factors at the ShO were identified accounting their emergency origination. Relevancy of assessment of a range of activity types and technologies impact on radiation situation in the operation environment was reviewed and substantiated. General characteristics of radiation exposure and resulting doses in personnel under the activi ty execution are provided followed by the requirements to estimates of anticipated radiation doses. Features and peculiarities of application of the Ukrainian health legislation in a field of radiation hygienic regulations are reviewed in a view of meeting the requirements of NRBU 97, NRBU 97/D 2000, OSPU 2005, SPORO 85, SP AES 88 and other health legislative regulatory documents under conditions of work at the ShO. By the virtue of analysis of radi ation hygienic factors at the ShO the special aspects of choice of individual and collective radiological protection arrangements for personnel were identified, namely the individual protective gear and respiratory protection equip ment, shielding, decontamination, dust suppression, ventilation, sanitary pass control, sanitary barriers, scope and types of radiological control, setting the design levels of radiological environment parameters, criteria for the most safe options (technologies) of work execution.

  2. Improving patient radiation protection in medical practices; Pour une meilleure prise en compte de la radioprotection des patients dans les pratiques medicales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godet, J.L.; Krembel, D.; Valero, M. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Van Bladel, L. [Agence Federale de Controle Nucleaire (Belgium); Rousseau, E. [Ministere de la Sante et des Solidarites, 75 - Paris (France); Frija, G. [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, 75 - Paris (France); Francois, P. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Rizzo-Padoin, N. [Groupe Hospitalier Lariboisiere - F. Widal, 75 - Paris (France); Gardin, I. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Quant I.F., 76 - Rouen (France); Aurengo, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France); Devaux, J.Y. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Saint Antoine, 75 - Paris (France); Schroeder, J.B. [Syndicat National de l' Industrie des Technologies Medicales (SNITEM), 92 - Paris la Defense (France); Gerard, J.P. [Centres de lutte contre le cancer (France); Berthier, G.; Sage, J. [AFSSAPS (France); Scanff, P.; Aubert, B.; Talbot, A. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Clamart (France); Sinno-Tellier, S.; Pirard, Ph. [Institut de veille sanitaire, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France); Aroua, A. [AHEAD SA (Switzerland); Bochud, F.; Verdun, F.R. [Institut Universitaire de Radiophysique Appliquee, Lausanne (Switzerland); Trueb, Ph.; Zeller, W. [Office Federale de la Sante Publique (Switzerland); Lefebvre, G.; Smeesters, P

    2006-09-15

    A number of severe radiation protection accidents have occurred in France in recent months in radiotherapy departments, resulting in serious pathologies among the exposed patients and the death of one person. These accidents, allied to the fact that use of ionizing radiation for medical purposes is the leading source of human exposure, justify the priority the A.S.N. gives to radiation protection of patients and its supervision. This file gathers four parts in relation with radiation protection in the medical field. he first one concerns the radiation accidents and the lessons learned from them. The second part is devoted to the point of view of medical actors. The third part is in relation with the challenges of new techniques. The last part concerns the exposures and the radiation doses. (N.C.)

  3. Cosmological fluctuations of a random field and radiation fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastero-Gil, Mar [Departamento de Física Teórica y del Cosmos, Campus de Fuentenueva, Universidad de Granada, Granada, 18071 (Spain); Berera, Arjun [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Moss, Ian G. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastlle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Ramos, Rudnei O., E-mail: mbg@ugr.es, E-mail: ab@ph.ed.ac.uk, E-mail: ian.moss@ncl.ac.uk, E-mail: rudnei@uerj.br [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 20550-013 Brazil (Brazil)

    2014-05-01

    A generalization of the random fluid hydrodynamic fluctuation theory due to Landau and Lifshitz is applied to describe cosmological fluctuations in systems with radiation and scalar fields. The viscous pressures, parametrized in terms of the bulk and shear viscosity coefficients, and the respective random fluctuations in the radiation fluid are combined with the stochastic and dissipative scalar evolution equation. This results in a complete set of equations describing the perturbations in both scalar and radiation fluids. These derived equations are then studied, as an example, in the context of warm inflation. Similar treatments can be done for other cosmological early universe scenarios involving thermal or statistical fluctuations.

  4. Conformation change of enzyme molecules in laser radiation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshenyuk, N. S.; Prigun, M. V.; Apanasevitsh, E. E.; Kruglik, G. S.

    2007-06-01

    As a result of an analysis of macromolecules properties in the coherent optical radiation field and with allowance for the experimentally obtained unique data on the interaction of lazer radiation with biomolecules (dependence of the interaction efficiency on the coherence length, presence of the effect in the spectra region far from the absorption band), a mechanism of wave interaction is developed. Using this mathematical model, the calculations of a change in the macromolecules oscillatory energy in the coherent radiation field are performed. It is shown that the increase of macromolecules oscillatory energy depends strongly on the coherence length of radiation. On exposure to noncoherent radiation, the biomolecules oscillatory energy practically does not change, whereas on exposure to laser radiation (coherence length ~3 cm), energy of oscillations of atoms increases by an order of 2÷4, which results in a change in the conformation of biomolecules and activity of enzymes. Recently a lot of data are received concerning the change of lysosomal enzymes activity in blood plasma under action of laser radiation.

  5. Polarization in cyclotron radiation in strong magnetic fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luidmila Semionova; Denis Leahy; Jorge Paez

    2010-01-01

    We revisit the problem of radiative transitions of electrons in the presence of a strong magnetic field.We derive fully relativistic cyclotron transition rates for an arbitrary magnetic field,for any orientation of electron spin and for any polarization of the emitted radiation.Also,we obtain the transition rates for any value of the initial electron's parallel momentum.For very strong magnetic fields,transitions to the ground state predominate.Transition rates summed over the electron's spin orientation and for unpolarized radiation are also obtained,which confirm previous results by Latal.Transition widths are calculated for different electron spin orientations and different polarizations of radiation.We obtain general expressions for transition rates that reduce to the results for the non-relativistic case and for unpolarized radiation.Additionally we get,for the non-relativistic approximation,the transition rates for any polarization of radiation.As an application,the first five emission lines are evaluated and compared to the X-ray emitting neutron star V0332+53,which has multiple observable cyclotron lines,taking into account gravitational redshift.The most probable polarization is ∈(2).

  6. Perspectives for environmental radiation protection in EU radiation protection legislation; Perspectivas para la proteccion del Medio Ambiente en la legislacion de Proteccion Radiologica de la UE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, A.

    2000-07-01

    The basis of EU radiation protection legislation is the EURATOM Trealy. It is discussed whether the Treaty offers a legal basis for the protection of the natural environment. The incorporation of provisions pertaining to the nuclear fuel cycle or to radioactive substances in general environmental legislation is explained, as well as the possible implications of international conventions subscribed by the European Union. The European Commission is in the process of developing an overall approach to risk analysis for the protection of health, consumer interests, and the environment. It is examined to what extent the consideration of the impact of radiation on the natural environment fits in the overall framework and whether the principles underlying classical radiation protection are applicable to biota. Specific attention is given to situations where high levels of environmental radioactivity would require intervention. (Author)

  7. Spacecraft Radiator Freeze Protection Using a Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Schunk, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    An active thermal control system architecture has been modified to include a regenerative heat exchanger (regenerator) inboard of the radiator. Rather than using a radiator bypass valve a regenerative heat exchanger is placed inboard of the radiators. A regenerator cold side bypass valve is used to set the return temperature. During operation, the regenerator bypass flow is varied, mixing cold radiator return fluid and warm regenerator outlet fluid to maintain the system setpoint. At the lowest heat load for stable operation, the bypass flow is closed off, sending all of the flow through the regenerator. This lowers the radiator inlet temperature well below the system set-point while maintaining full flow through the radiators. By using a regenerator bypass flow control to maintain system setpoint, the required minimum heat load to avoid radiator freezing can be reduced by more than half compared to a radiator bypass system.

  8. Durability and shielding performance of borated Ceramicrete coatings in beta and gamma radiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.; Sayenko, S. Yu.; Dovbnya, A. N.; Shkuropatenko, V. A.; Tarasov, R. V.; Rybka, A. V.; Zakharchenko, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    Ceramicrete™, a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic, was developed for nuclear waste immobilization and nuclear radiation shielding. Ceramicrete products are fabricated by an acid-base reaction between magnesium oxide and mono potassium phosphate. Fillers are used to impart desired properties to the product. Ceramicrete's tailored compositions have resulted in several commercial structural products, including corrosion- and fire-protection coatings. Their borated version, called Borobond™, has been studied for its neutron shielding capabilities and is being used in structures built for storage of nuclear materials. This investigation assesses the durability and shielding performance of borated Ceramicrete coatings when exposed to gamma and beta radiations to predict the composition needed for optimal shielding performance in a realistic nuclear radiation field. Investigations were conducted using experimental data coupled with predictive Monte Carlo computer model. The results show that it is possible to produce products for simultaneous shielding of all three types of nuclear radiations, viz., neutrons, gamma-, and beta-rays. Additionally, because sprayable Ceramicrete coatings exhibit excellent corrosion- and fire-protection characteristics on steel, this research also establishes an opportunity to produce thick coatings to enhance the shielding performance of corrosion and fire protection coatings for use in high radiation environment in nuclear industry.

  9. Durability and shielding performance of borated Ceramicrete coatings in beta and gamma radiation fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagh, Arun S., E-mail: asw@anl.gov [Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Sayenko, S.Yu.; Dovbnya, A.N.; Shkuropatenko, V.A.; Tarasov, R.V.; Rybka, A.V.; Zakharchenko, A.A. [National Science Center, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • It incorporates all suggestions by the reviewers. • Explanation to each new term is provided and suitable references are given. • Sample identities have been streamlined by revising the text and the tables. • Some figures have been redrawn. - Abstract: Ceramicrete™, a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic, was developed for nuclear waste immobilization and nuclear radiation shielding. Ceramicrete products are fabricated by an acid–base reaction between magnesium oxide and mono potassium phosphate. Fillers are used to impart desired properties to the product. Ceramicrete’s tailored compositions have resulted in several commercial structural products, including corrosion- and fire-protection coatings. Their borated version, called Borobond™, has been studied for its neutron shielding capabilities and is being used in structures built for storage of nuclear materials. This investigation assesses the durability and shielding performance of borated Ceramicrete coatings when exposed to gamma and beta radiations to predict the composition needed for optimal shielding performance in a realistic nuclear radiation field. Investigations were conducted using experimental data coupled with predictive Monte Carlo computer model. The results show that it is possible to produce products for simultaneous shielding of all three types of nuclear radiations, viz., neutrons, gamma-, and beta-rays. Additionally, because sprayable Ceramicrete coatings exhibit excellent corrosion- and fire-protection characteristics on steel, this research also establishes an opportunity to produce thick coatings to enhance the shielding performance of corrosion and fire protection coatings for use in high radiation environment in nuclear industry.

  10. Simulation of Heat Transfer and Electromagnetic Fields of Protected Microcomputers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Lakatos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of collaboration between Department of mechatronics and electronics at University of Žilina and VÚVT Engineering a.s. Žilina in area of heat transfer simulations and disturbing electromagnetic radiation simulations in computer construction. The simulations results were used in development of protected microcomputer prototypes in frame of applied research at both of workplaces.

  11. Public protection from electromagnetic fields of industry frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Kazimieras Vytautas Maceika

    2006-01-01

    Lithuania introduced normative of public protection from 50 Hz frequency electric field. It proposed permissible intensity of this field – 0,5 kV/m inside buildings and 1 kV/m in their territory. Separate normative is prepared for industry frequency electric and magnetic fields in work places. Permitted values of fields depend on exposure duration, but cannot exceed 25 kV/m and 5,1 kA/m. Russian, Swedish and American scientists declare that long time exposure of 50 Hz magnetic field with inte...

  12. Technology development for evaluation of operational quantities in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Lyul; Chang, S. Y.; Lee, L. T.; Kim, B. H.; Chung, K. K.; Lee, J. I.; Lim, G. S.; Kim, J. S.; Nam, Y. M.; Chang, J. K.; Kim, D. Y.; Yang, J. S

    2000-03-01

    A study on the fabrication of a new personal thermo-luminescence dosimeter, which can evaluate the personal dose equivalent H{sub p}(d), has been performed. Optimum conditions for fabrication of a LiF:Mg,Cu,Na,Si TL phosphor powder has been determined and a disc type TL pellet has been fabricated from this TL powder. Another type of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy,Mo TL material has been also fabricated. These two TL materials have shown greater TL sensitivity than the foreign-made commercial TL materials. Mono-energetic fluorescence X-ray from 8.6 keV to 75 keV for use in performance testing of the developed TLDs energy response have been constructed and evaluated for the performance of the purity, air kerma, beam uniformity and distribution, and scattered fraction of X-rays. Reference neutron field of a D{sub 2}O moderated {sup 252}Cf source was characterized and the irradiation system using {sup 226}Ra and {sup 137}Cs sources was installed to construct the environmental gamma reference radiation and the low-level gamma radiation. A capability of calibration and measurement of KAERI In Vivo counting system for transuranic elements in the lung has been evaluated through the participation in the overseas intercomparison study on the In Vivo radioactivity measurement. An improvement and advancement of KAERI lung counting technology have been made by the analysis off uncertainties from the assumption of uniform radioactivity distribution in the lung, experimental determination and comparing of detection efficiency with different lung sets, and mathematical efficiency calibration of In Vivo counting system. (author)

  13. Radiation of Electron in the Field of Plane Light Wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelinsky, A.; Drebot, I.V.; Grigorev, Yu.N.; Zvonareva, O.D.; /Kharkov, KIPT; Tatchyn, R.; /SLAC

    2006-02-24

    Results of integration of a Lorentz equation for a relativistic electron moving in the field of running, plane, linear polarized electromagnetic wave are presented in the paper. It is shown that electron velocities in the field of the wave are almost periodic functions of time. For calculations of angular spectrum of electron radiation intensity expansion of the electromagnetic field in a wave zone into generalized Fourier series was used. Expressions for the radiation intensity spectrum are presented in the paper. Derived results are illustrated for electron and laser beam parameters of NSC KIPT X-ray generator NESTOR. It is shown that for low intensity of the interacting electromagnetic wave the results of energy and angular spectrum calculations in the frame of classical electrodynamics completely coincide with calculation results produced using quantum electrodynamics. Simultaneously, derived expressions give possibilities to investigate dependence of energy and angular Compton radiation spectrum on phase of interaction and the interacting wave intensity.

  14. Radiation exposure and radiological protection in interventional radiological procedures with special attention to neurointerventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Kouichirou; Sakai, Kunio [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Yoshimura, Shutaro; Oka, Tetsuya; Ito, Jusuke

    2000-11-01

    It is necessary to interventional radiologists to understand the system of radiological protection recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection: justification, optimization, and individual dose and risk limits. Estimation and measurements of the radiation exposure to patients and personnel are important for radiological protection to avoid radiation injuries, such as temporal epilation and cataract. The practical principle of ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) should be kept in any interventional radiological procedure. (author)

  15. Non ionizing radiations Sources, fields of application, problem issues and normatives

    CERN Document Server

    Raganella, L

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is briefly to review radiation sources, in work and life places, and national standards, proposed or enforced in different countries, with particular reference to ELF. RF and MW electromagnetic fields. It is aimed to give a help to qualitative valutation on the work we can carry out for the development of an effective health protection of workers and general public.

  16. Development of object simulator for radiation field of dental x-rays

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,L.F.; Ferreira,F.C.L.; Sousa, E. F.; Cardoso, Leandro Xavier; Vasconcelos, E. D. S.; Brasil, Lourdes Mattos

    2013-01-01

    In dentistry radiography is of fundamental importance to the dentist can make an accurate diagnosis. For this it is necessary to pay attention to the radiological protection of both the professional and the patient and control image quality for an accurate diagnosis. In this work, quality control tests were performed on X-ray machines in private dental intraoral in the municipality of Marabá, where they measured the diameters of the radiation field to see if these machines are ...

  17. Topological magnetoelectric effects in microwave far-field radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezin, M.; Kamenetskii, E. O.; Shavit, R. [Microwave Magnetic Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel)

    2016-07-21

    Similar to electromagnetism, described by the Maxwell equations, the physics of magnetoelectric (ME) phenomena deals with the fundamental problem of the relationship between electric and magnetic fields. Despite a formal resemblance between the two notions, they concern effects of different natures. In general, ME-coupling effects manifest in numerous macroscopic phenomena in solids with space and time symmetry breakings. Recently, it was shown that the near fields in the proximity of a small ferrite particle with magnetic-dipolar-mode (MDM) oscillations have the space and time symmetry breakings and the topological properties of these fields are different from the topological properties of the free-space electromagnetic fields. Such MDM-originated fields—called magnetoelectric (ME) fields—carry both spin and orbital angular momenta. They are characterized by power-flow vortices and non-zero helicity. In this paper, we report on observation of the topological ME effects in far-field microwave radiation based on a small microwave antenna with a MDM ferrite resonator. We show that the microwave far-field radiation can be manifested with a torsion structure where an angle between the electric and magnetic field vectors varies. We discuss the question on observation of the regions of localized ME energy in far-field microwave radiation.

  18. Improved normal tissue protection by proton and X-ray microchannels compared to homogeneous field irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girst, S; Marx, C; Bräuer-Krisch, E; Bravin, A; Bartzsch, S; Oelfke, U; Greubel, C; Reindl, J; Siebenwirth, C; Zlobinskaya, O; Multhoff, G; Dollinger, G; Schmid, T E; Wilkens, J J

    2015-09-01

    The risk of developing normal tissue injuries often limits the radiation dose that can be applied to the tumour in radiation therapy. Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT), a spatially fractionated photon radiotherapy is currently tested at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) to improve normal tissue protection. MRT utilizes an array of microscopically thin and nearly parallel X-ray beams that are generated by a synchrotron. At the ion microprobe SNAKE in Munich focused proton microbeams ("proton microchannels") are studied to improve normal tissue protection. Here, we comparatively investigate microbeam/microchannel irradiations with sub-millimetre X-ray versus proton beams to minimize the risk of normal tissue damage in a human skin model, in vitro. Skin tissues were irradiated with a mean dose of 2 Gy over the irradiated area either with parallel synchrotron-generated X-ray beams at the ESRF or with 20 MeV protons at SNAKE using four different irradiation modes: homogeneous field, parallel lines and microchannel applications using two different channel sizes. Normal tissue viability as determined in an MTT test was significantly higher after proton or X-ray microchannel irradiation compared to a homogeneous field irradiation. In line with these findings genetic damage, as determined by the measurement of micronuclei in keratinocytes, was significantly reduced after proton or X-ray microchannel compared to a homogeneous field irradiation. Our data show that skin irradiation using either X-ray or proton microchannels maintain a higher cell viability and DNA integrity compared to a homogeneous irradiation, and thus might improve normal tissue protection after radiation therapy.

  19. Quantization of the radiation field in an anisotropic dielectric medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wei; Liu Shi-Bing; Yang Wei

    2009-01-01

    There are both loss and dispersion characteristics for most dielectric media. In quantum theory the loss in medium is generally described by Langevin force in the Langevin noise (LN) scheme by which the quantization of the radiation field in various homogeneous absorbing dielectrics can be successfully actualized. However, it is invalid for the anisotropic dispersion medium. This paper extends the LN theory to an anisotropic dispersion medium and presented the quantization of the radiation field as well as the transformation relation between the homogeneous and anisotropic dispersion media.

  20. Characterization of a CT ionization chamber for radiation field mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Ana P; Neves, Lucio P; Vivolo, Vitor; Xavier, Marcos; Khoury, Helen J; Caldas, Linda V E

    2012-07-01

    A pencil-type ionization chamber, developed at Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN), was characterized with the objective to verify the possibility of its application in radiation field mapping procedures. The characterization tests were evaluated, and the results were satisfactory. The results obtained for the X radiation field mapping with the homemade chamber were compared with those of a PTW Farmer-type chamber (TN 30011-1). The maximum difference observed in this comparison was only 1.25%, showing good agreement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. RESEARCH ON INDOOR ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION FIELD OF MULTIPLE ANTENNA SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Li; Lu Yanhui; Zou Peng; Zhou Xiaoping

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of the indoor environment brings great challenges to predict the electromagnetic radiation field of multiple antenna systems.Based on the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) algorithm,using the mobile phone shielding device as the multiple antenna systems example,the mobile phone shielding device's indoor electromagnetic radiation field is researched by measurment method and simulation method.The effectivity of prediction method is verified by comparing the prediciton results with the measurment results.About 80% of the error can be controlled less than ±4 dB.The quantitative research has certain guiding significance to the prediction of the multiple antenna systems radio wave propagation.

  2. Occurrence of BOOP outside radiation field after tangential radiation therapy for breast carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamanishi, Tohru; Gohma, Iwao; Oida, Kazukiyo [Tenri Hospital, Nara (Japan)] (and others)

    2000-07-01

    We report three cases of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) that occurred outside the radiation field after radiation therapy using tangential fields for breast carcinoma. All patients complained of a cough between 14 and 20 weeks after completion of radiation therapy. Fever also developed in two of the three. Chest radiography and computed tomography demonstrated peripheral alveolar opacities outside the radiation field on the same side as the radiation therapy. Laboratory data showed an increased level of C-reactive protein and an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed an elevated total cell count with a very high percentage of lymphocytes. Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed a histologic pattern consistent with BOOP. Treatment with corticosteroids resulted in rapid clinical improvement and complete resolution of the radiographic abnormalities. This pulmonary disorder appears to be induced by radiation, especially when a tangential field is employed for breast carcinoma, though the etiology has not been fully investigated. It is important to be aware of this type of pulmonary complication in patients given radiotherapy for breast carcinoma. (author)

  3. Radiation protection tasks on the Kiev research reactor WWR-M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobach Yuri N.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the description of and the operational experience with the radiation protection system at the research reactor WWR-M are presented. The list of the factors regarding the radiation hazards during the reactor routine operation is given and the main activities on the radiation safety provision are established. The statistical information for the staff exposure, the radioactive aerosol releases and the external radiation monitoring is shown. The preliminary considerations on the system upgrading for the decommissioning are presented.

  4. Radiation protection for the illegal governmental use of radiation sources. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.

    2000-07-01

    Probably for the first time, illegal governmental uses of radiation sources, including the administrative infrastructure such as special radiation protection regulation, an advisory body etc., have been documented by the evaluation of the documents of the Ministry of State Security in the former German Democratic Republic (East Germany). Over a thousand persons, but also documents, money bills etc. were marked with a wide variety of radionuclides and traced with specially developed detectors. Among the many different nuclides provided regularly from the Rossendorf Research Center near Dresden, in particular {sup 46}Sc was popular. (orig.) [German] 'Regierungskriminalitaet' kann man auch im deutschen Strahlenschutz finden. Anhand neuer Dokumentationen der so genannten Gauckbehoerden, ueber die auch schon fluechtig in der Presse berichtet und spekuliert wurde, lassen sich Einzelheiten ueber die Vorgehensweisen einfallsreicher Stasi-Mitarbeiter, die Stasi-eigene Strahlenschutzverordnung und Strahlenschutz-Kommission usw. rekonstruieren. Ueber 1.000 Personen, aber auch Gegenstaende, Dokumente, Geldscheine etc. wurden markiert, wobei unter einer Vielzahl der regelmaessig aus Rossendorf gelieferten Nukliden {sup 46}Sc besonders gern eingesetzt sowie in Dresden spezielle Nachweisgeraete entwickelt wurden. (orig.)

  5. Radiation exposure in gastroenterology: improving patient and staff protection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ho, Immanuel K H

    2014-08-01

    Medical imaging involving the use of ionizing radiation has brought enormous benefits to society and patients. In the past several decades, exposure to medical radiation has increased markedly, driven primarily by the use of computed tomography. Ionizing radiation has been linked to carcinogenesis. Whether low-dose medical radiation exposure will result in the development of malignancy is uncertain. This paper reviews the current evidence for such risk, and aims to inform the gastroenterologist of dosages of radiation associated with commonly ordered procedures and diagnostic tests in clinical practice. The use of medical radiation must always be justified and must enable patients to be exposed at the lowest reasonable dose. Recommendations provided herein for minimizing radiation exposure are based on currently available evidence and Working Party expert consensus.

  6. Multi-national findings on radiation protection of children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehani, Madan M. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    This article reviews issues of radiation protection in children in 52 low-resource countries. Extensive information was obtained through a survey by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); wide-ranging information was available from 40 countries and data from the other countries pertained to frequency of pediatric CT examinations. Of note is that multi-detector CT (MDCT) was available in 77% of responses to the survey, typically nodal centers in these countries. Nearly 75% of these scanners were reported to have dose displays. The pediatric CT usage was lower in European facilities as compared to Asian and African facilities, where usage was twice as high. The most frequently scanned body part was the head. Frequent use of 120 kVp was reported in children. The ratio of maximum to minimum CT dose index volume (CTDI{sub vol}) values varied between 15 for abdomen CT in the age group 5-10 years and 100 for chest CT in the age group <1 year. In 8% of the CT systems, CTDI values for pediatric patients were higher than those for adults in at least one age group and for one type of examination. Use of adult protocols for children was associated with CTDI{sub w} or CTDI{sub vol} values in children that were double those of adults for head and chest examination and 50% higher for abdomen examination. Patient dose records were kept in nearly half of the facilities, with the highest frequency in Europe (55% of participating facilities), and in 49% of Asian, 36% of Latin American and 14% of African facilities. The analysis of the first-choice examinations in seven clinical conditions showed that practice was in accordance with guidelines for only three of seven specified clinical conditions. (orig.)

  7. Measuring the radiation field and radiation hard detectors at JET: Recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murari, A.; Edlington, T.; Angelone, M.; Bertalot, L.; Bolshakova, I.; Bonheure, G.; Brzozowski, J.; Coccorese, V.; Holyaka, R.; Kiptily, V.; Lengar, I.; Morgan, P.; Pillon, M.; Popovichev, S.; Prior, P.; Prokopowicz, R.; Quercia, A.; Rubel, M.; Santala, M.; Shevelev, A.; Syme, B.; Vagliasindi, G.; Villari, R.; Zoita, V. L.; JET-EFDA Contributors

    2008-08-01

    Since in ITER the radiation field will be much more demanding than that of present day devices, research programmes at JET are aimed at developing radiation hard diagnostics and related components. Initially, significant efforts are devoted to determining the radiation field of both the plasma and in the immediate environment with better accuracy. New developments in MCNP calculations and dedicated measurements provide useful information about the radiation field in the Torus Hall, even during non-operational periods. The effect of using Beryllium in the near future for JET first wall, is being assessed. New materials for activation samples are under consideration and will be tested to improve the calibration accuracy of JET neutron diagnostics. The long-term goal of this work is to obtain spectrometric information from an appropriate combination of different materials. Several studies are under way to modify the radiation field at the detectors by using LiH or pure water as neutron filters, to alleviate the problem of the background in γ-ray measurements. A suite of radiation hard detectors for neutrons, magnetic field and charged particles are being developed. Super-heated fluid neutron detectors, used for yield and imaging, are being upgraded, in order to provide a broad-band spectrometric capability. Chemical vapour deposited diamond diodes are being qualified as counters and as spectrometers. Prototypes of Hall probes made of InSb have been installed on the machine and have provided some preliminary results. Si-on-insulator detectors are under development for use in neutral particle analysers and are currently being bench-tested. Some attention is being devoted to optical components, fibres and mirrors, and to investigating radiation hard electronics using reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Arrays.

  8. Reliability of semiconductor and gas-filled diodes for over-voltage protection exposed to ionizing radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Koviljka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide-spread use of semiconductor and gas-filled diodes for non-linear over-voltage protection results in a variety of possible working conditions. It is therefore essential to have a thorough insight into their reliability in exploitation environments which imply exposure to ionizing radiation. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of irradiation on over-voltage diode characteristics by exposing the diodes to californium-252 combined neutron/gamma radiation field. The irradiation of semiconductor over-voltage diodes causes severe degradation of their protection characteristics. On the other hand, gas-filled over-voltage diodes exhibit a temporal improvement of performance. The results are presented with the accompanying theoretical interpretations of the observed changes in over-voltage diode behaviour, based on the interaction of radiation with materials constituting the diodes.

  9. MGR COMPLIANCE PROGRAM GUIDANCE PACKAGE FOR RADIATION PROTECTION EQUIPMENT, INSTRUMENTATION AND FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-02-01

    This Compliance Program Guidance Package identifies the regulatory guidance and industry codes and standards addressing radiation protection equipment, instrumentation, and support facilities considered to be appropriate for radiation protection at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Included are considerations relevant to radiation monitoring instruments, calibration, contamination control and decontamination, respiratory protection equipment, and general radiation protection facilities. The scope of this Guidance Package does not include design guidance relevant to criticality monitoring, area radiation monitoring, effluent monitoring, and airborne radioactivity monitoring systems since they are considered to be the topics of specific design and construction requirements (i.e., ''fixed'' or ''built-in'' systems). This Guidance Package does not address radiation protection design issues; it addresses the selection and calibration of radiation monitoring instrumentation to the extent that the guidance is relevant to the operational radiation protection program. Radon and radon progeny monitoring instrumentation is not included in the Guidance Package since such naturally occurring radioactive materials do not fall within the NRC's jurisdiction at the MGR.

  10. The protective effects of trace elements against side effects induced by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jaial [Dept. of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Trace elements play crucial role in the maintenance of genome stability in the cells. Many endogenous defense enzymes are containing trace elements such as superoxide dismutase and metalloproteins. These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are main trace elements that have protective roles against radiation-induced DNA damages. Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity. Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic. The aim of this paper to review the role of trace elements in protection cells against genotoxicity and side effects induced by ionizing radiation.

  11. Black Hole Evaporation and Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics for a Radiation Field

    CERN Document Server

    Saida, H

    2005-01-01

    When a black hole is put in an "empty" space (zero temperature space) on which there is no matter except the matter of the Hawking radiation (Hawking field), then an outgoing energy flow from the black hole into the empty space exists. By the way, an equilibrium between two arbitrary systems can not allow the existence of an energy (heat) flow from one system to another. Consequently, in the case of a black hole evaporation in the empty space, the Hawking field should be in a nonequilibrium state. Hence the total behaviour of the evaporation, for example the time evolution of the total entropy, should be analysed with a nonequilibrium thermodynamics for the Hawking field. This manuscript explains briefly the way of constructing a nonequilibrium thermodynamic theory for a radiation field, and apply it to a simplified model of a black hole evaporation to calculate the time evolution of the total entropy.

  12. Stability of the toroidal magnetic field in stellar radiation zones

    CERN Document Server

    Bonanno, Alfio

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the stability of the magnetic field in radiation zones is of crucial importance for various processes in stellar interior like mixing, circulation and angular momentum transport. The stability properties of a star containing a prominent toroidal field in a radiation zone is investigated by means of a linear stability analysis in the Boussinesq approximation taking into account the effect of thermal conductivity. The growth rate of the instability is explicitly calculated and the effects of stable stratification and heat transport are discussed in detail. It is argued that the stabilizing influence of gravity can never entirely suppress the instability caused by electric currents in radiation zones although the stable stratification can significantly decrease the growth rate of instability

  13. Modern Classical Electrodynamics and Electromagnetic Radiation - Vacuum Field Theory Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Bogolubov, N N

    2012-01-01

    The work is devoted to studying some new classical electrodynamics models of interacting charged point particles and related with them physical aspects. Based on the vacuum field theory no-geometry approach, developed in \\cite{BPT,BPT1}, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian reformulations of some alternative classical electrodynamics models are devised. A problem closely related to the radiation reaction force is analyzed aiming to explain the Wheeler and Feynman reaction radiation mechanism, well known as the absorption radiation theory, and strongly dependent on the Mach type interaction of a charged point particle in an ambient vacuum electromagnetic medium. There are discussed some relationships between this problem and the one derived within the context of the vacuum field theory approach. The R. \\ Feynman's \\textquotedblleft heretical\\textquotedblright\\ approach \\cite{Dy1,Dy2} to deriving the Lorentz force based Maxwell electromagnetic equations is also revisited, its complete legacy is argued both by means o...

  14. Radiation-reaction trapping of electrons in extreme laser fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, L L; Pukhov, A; Kostyukov, I Yu; Shen, B F; Akli, K

    2014-04-11

    A radiation-reaction trapping (RRT) of electrons is revealed in the near-QED regime of laser-plasma interaction. Electrons quivering in laser pulse experience radiation reaction (RR) recoil force by radiating photons. When the laser field reaches the threshold, the RR force becomes significant enough to compensate for the expelling laser ponderomotive force. Then electrons are trapped inside the laser pulse instead of being scattered off transversely and form a dense plasma bunch. The mechanism is demonstrated both by full three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations using the QED photonic approach and numerical test-particle modeling based on the classical Landau-Lifshitz formula of RR force. Furthermore, the proposed analysis shows that the threshold of laser field amplitude for RRT is approximately the cubic root of laser wavelength over classical electron radius. Because of the pinching effect of the trapped electron bunch, the required laser intensity for RRT can be further reduced.

  15. Electromagnetic Fields Radiated by a Circular Loop with Arbitrary Current

    CERN Document Server

    Salem, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    We present a rigorous approach to compute the electromagnetic fields radiated by a thin circular loop with arbitrary current. We employ a polar transmission representation along with a Kontorovich-Lebedev transform to derive integral representations of the field in the interior and exterior regions of a sphere circumscribing the loop. The convergence of the obtained expressions is discussed and comparison with full-wave simulation and other methods are shown.

  16. Verification of absorbed dose rates in reference beta radiation fields: Measurements with an extrapolation chamber and radiochromic film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaldo, S R; Benavente, J A; Da Silva, T A

    2016-11-01

    Beta Secondary Standard 2 (BSS 2) provides beta radiation fields with certified values of absorbed dose to tissue and the derived operational radiation protection quantities. As part of the quality assurance, the reliability of the CDTN BSS2 system was verified through measurements in the (90)Sr/(90)Y and (85)Kr beta radiation fields. Absorbed dose rates and their angular variation were measured with a 23392 model PTW extrapolation chamber and with Gafchromic radiochromic films on a PMMA slab phantom. The feasibility of using both methods was analyzed.

  17. Topological magnetoelectric effects in microwave far-field radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Berezin, M; Shavit, R

    2015-01-01

    Similar to electromagnetism, described by the Maxwell equations, the physics of magnetoelectric (ME) phenomena deals with the fundamental problem of the relationship between electric and magnetic fields. Despite a formal resemblance between the two notions, they concern effects of different natures. In general, ME coupling effects manifest in numerous macroscopic phenomena in solids with space and time symmetry breakings. Recently it was shown that the near fields in the proximity of a small ferrite particle with magnetic dipolar mode (MDM) oscillations have the space and time symmetry breakings and topological properties of these fields are different from topological properties of the free space electromagnetic (EM) fields. Such MDM originated fields, called magnetoelectric (ME) fields, carry both spin and orbital angular momentums. They are characterized by power flow vortices and non zero helicity. In this paper, we report on observation of the topological ME effects in far field microwave radiation based ...

  18. [Dynamics of biomacromolecules in coherent electromagnetic radiation field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshcheniuk, N S; Apanasevich, E E; Tereshenkov, V I

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that induced oscillations and periodic displacements of the equilibrium positions occur in biomacromolecules in the absence of electromagnetic radiation absorption, due to modulation of interaction potential between atoms and groups of atoms forming the non-valence bonds in macromolecules by the external electromagnetic field. Such "hyperoscillation" state causes inevitably the changes in biochemical properties of macromolecules and conformational transformation times.

  19. Thermal radiation field of low-temperature sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łakomy, T.

    1989-05-01

    The asymmetric thermal radiation field of heat sources existing in industry and in the building of apartments has been determined in this work. A description was realised by vector radiant and mean radiant temperatures ( VRT, TMR) obtaining their statistic reciprocal relationships at summer and winter terms.

  20. Blended learning specialists in radiation protection; Formacion semipresencial de especialistas en proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayo, P.; Campayo, J. M.; Verdu, G.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we present a blended learning Radiation Protection Technician through an approved degree from the Polytechnic University of Valencia, which covers the knowledge and skills of functions relating to operators and supervisors in various areas and skilled workers to be to perform their work in technical units or Radiation Protection Radiation Protection Services. The benefits of this work are those related to achieving quality training flexible and adapted to follow the check off the person conducting the course, adapted to internal and external training of the applicant companies.

  1. CHANGE IN DEFORMATION PROPERTIES MODELING OF CONCRETE IN PROTECTIVE STRUCTURES OF NUCLEAR REACTOR BY IONIZING RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Agakhanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of studying the effect impact of elementary particles impact on the strength and deformation materials properties used in protective constructions nuclear reactors and reactor technology has been stipulated. A nuclear reactor pressure vessel from prestressed concrete, combining the functions of biological protection is to be considered. The neutron flux problem distribution in the pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor has been solved. The solution is made in axisymmetric with the finite element method using a flat triangular finite element. Computing has been conducted in Matlab package. The comparison with the results has been obtained using the finite difference method, as well as the graphs of changes under the influence of radiation exposure and the elastic modulus of concrete radiation deformations have been constructed. The proposed method allows to simulate changes in the deformation properties of concrete under the influence of neutron irradiation. Results of the study can be used in the calculation of stress-strain state of structures, taking into account indirect heterogeneity caused by the physical fields influence.

  2. Dynamics of Cometary Dust Particles in Electromagnetic Radiation Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranen, Joonas; Markkanen, Johannes; Penttilä, Antti; Muinonen, Karri

    2016-10-01

    The formation of cometary dust tails and comae is based on solar radiation pressure. The pressure effects of electromagnetic radiation were originally conceptualized in Kepler's observations of the tails of comets and formulated mathematically by Maxwell in 1873. Today, the dynamics of cometary dust are known to be governed by gravity, electromagnetic forces, drag, solar wind, and solar radiation pressure.Solar radiation pressure has its roots in absorption, emission, and scattering of electromagnetic radiation. Due to modern advances in so-called integral equation methods in electromagnetics, a new approach of studying the effect of radiation pressure on cometary dust dynamics can be constructed. We solve the forces and torques due to radiation pressure for an arbitrarily shaped dust particle using volume integral equation methods.We then present a framework for solving the equations of motion of cometary dust particles due to radiative interactions. The solution is studied in a simplified cometary environment, where the radiative effects are studied at different orbits. The rotational and translational equations of motion are solved directly using a quaternion-based integrator. The rotational and translational equations of motion affect dust particle alignment and concentration. This is seen in the polarization of the coma. Thus, our direct dynamical approach can be used in modelling the observed imaging photo-polarimetry of the coma.In future studies, the integrator can be further extended to an exemplary comet environment, taking into account the drag, and the electric and magnetic fields. This enables us to study the dynamics of a single cometary dust particle based on fundamental physics.Acknowledgments. Research supported, in part, bythe European Research Council (ERC, grant Nr. 320773).

  3. Safety and Radiation Protection at Swedish Nuclear Power Plants 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    transparent basis for making decisions in safety matters. During the year it has however become apparent that further improvement measures are necessary. The plant has had a relatively large number of operational disturbances during 2007 which have been analysed in order to implement suitable measures. Modernisation projects follow the time schedules which were decided earlier for implementation in order to comply with the regulations. Some measures are already completed, others are underway, and the programme will continue until 2013. SKI is supervising the progress of the modernisation and the improvements to the physical protection of the plants. Forsmark Kraftgrupp AB has applied for permission to increase the thermal power in reactors Forsmark 1-3. The government hasn't yet granted permission for these power increases. SKI has approved trial operation for Ringhals 1 and Ringhals 3 at the increased power levels during the year. For Ringhals 3 this is the first stage of the planned power increases. Ringhals has also applied to increase the thermal power in Ringhals 4. The government has granted permission for the thermal power increase in Oskarshamn 3. SKI is currently performing a safety review of this application. Oskarshamn have made an application to increase the thermal power in Oskarshamn 2. During 2007 SKI has performed inspections to control how nuclear safeguards are managed by the nuclear power stations. In all 80 inspections have been carried out. Nothing has been found during these inspections to indicate that there are any deficiencies in the nuclear safeguard activities. No serious incidents or accidents have occurred resulting in abnormal radiation exposure of personnel. Radioactive releases from the plants have resulted in calculated doses to the most exposed person in the critical group that are well below the environmental impact goal of 10 microsievert. Forsmark, which in recent years has had recurrent problems with the measurement of airborne

  4. Electrical integrity of oxides in a radiation field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); Kinoshita, C.

    1996-04-01

    In the absence of an applied electric field, irradiation generally produces a decrease in the permanent (beam-off) electrical conductivity of ceramic insulators. However, in the past 6 years several research groups have reported a phenomenon known as radiation induced electrical degradation (RIED), which produces significant permanent increases in the electrical conductivity of ceramic insulators irradiated with an applied electric field. RIED has been reported to occur at temperatures between 420 and 800 K with applied electric fields as low as 20 V/mm.

  5. Ways of providing radiation resistance of magnetic field semiconductor sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Bolshakova, I A; Holyaka, R; Matkovskii, A; Moroz, A

    2001-01-01

    Hall magnetic field sensors resistant to hard ionizing irradiation are being developed for operation under the radiation conditions of space and in charged particle accelerators. Radiation resistance of the sensors is first determined by the properties of semiconductor materials of sensitive elements; we have used microcrystals and thin layers of III-V semiconductors. Applying complex doping by rare-earth elements and isovalent impurities in certain proportions, we have obtained magnetic field sensors resistant to irradiation by fast neutrons and gamma-quanta. Tests of their radiation resistance were carried out at IBR-2 at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna). When exposed to neutrons with E=0.1-13 MeV and intensity of 10 sup 1 sup 0 n cm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 , the main parameter of the sensors - their sensitivity to magnetic fields - changes by no more than 0.1% up to fluences of 10 sup 1 sup 4 n cm sup - sup 2. Further improvement of radiation resistance of sensor materials is expected by ...

  6. Screening of new substances for radiation protection and technology development of efficacy improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Byung Sun; Park, Sun Young; Jang, Eun Jung [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    To evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of candidate compounds, we examined the effects of selenium compounds, melatonin, and propolis on the colony forming efficiency (CFE) of gamma-irradiated CHO cells. - Protective effects of selenium compounds against radiation-induced cytotoxicity Sodium selenite showed protective effects at low concentrations against radiation-induced toxicity in CHO cells, whereas its effects were weak at higher concentrations. Selenomethionine also reduced the radiation-induced cytotoxicity. Both of these compounds showed highest protective effects at the concentration of 1 uM. - Protective effects of melatonin against radiation-induced cytotoxicity Melatonin showed the protective effects against radiation-induced cytotoxicity, and the protection was highest at 1 mM concentration. - Protective effects of selenium compounds against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity Propolis showed dose-dependent inhibition of hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity. In particular, the highest inhibition was observed when propolis were treated at 0.3 and 1 ng/ml 24h prior to the hydrogen peroxide treatment. The protective effects of propolis was observed only when it was pretreated at least 8 hours before hydrogen peroxide treatment.

  7. A characteristic scale in radiation fields of fractal clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiscombe, W.; Cahalan, R.; Davis, A.; Marshak, A. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The wavenumber spectrum of Landsat imagery for marine stratocumulus cloud shows a scale break when plotted on a double log plot. We offer an explanation of this scale break in terms of smoothing by horizontal radiative fluxes, which is parameterized and incorporated into an improved pixel approximation. We compute the radiation fields emerging from cloud models with horizontally variable optical depth fractal models. We use comparative spectral and multifractal analysis to qualify the validity of the independent pixel approximation at the largest scales and demonstrate it`s shortcomings on the smallest scales.

  8. Comparison between Brazilian radiation protection standard and the recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection published in 2007; Comparacao entre a norma brasileira de radioprotecao e a recomendacao da International Commission on Radiological Protection - ICRP, publicadas em 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, W.S. [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Itatiaia, RJ (Brazil). Fabrica do Combustivel Nuclear. Servico de Radioprotecao; Kelecom, A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/GETA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos; Pereira, J.R.S. [Universidade Veiga de Almeida (UVA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Curso de Graduacao em Direito

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the differences between the CNEN's standard and the publication of ICRP-103, analyzing the philosophy for radiation protection, dose limits and other relevant aspects of radiation protection.

  9. Abilities for radiological protection supervisor in the ionizing radiation for industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sordi, G.M., E-mail: adelia@atomo.com.b [ATOMO Radioprotecao e Seguranca Nuclear S/C Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sahyun, A., E-mail: gian@atomo.b [ABENDI - Associacao Brasileira de Ensaios Nao Destrutivos e Inspecao, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andreucci, R., E-mail: zzricardo.zzandreucci@Voith.co [Voith Hydro Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, P.G. [Multiend Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The authors of this paper, has introduced an industrial training program for the R.P.E - Radiation Protection Expert to comply with contents of CNEN Standard NN 3.01 'Basic Guideline of Radiation Protection'. The 'training program' has been divided in four steps, based on: professional R.P.E work, knowledge level to perform his activities, education program and detailed basic bibliography. In the last congress we have presented a paper about the content of radiation protection training program. In this paper we will discuss the abilities that the supervisor need to obtain to perform the radiation protection report. We discuss the number of abilities for each one of the disciplines mentioned in the last paper and we provide some particular abilities. (author)

  10. Heat gain from thermal radiation through protective clothing with different insulation, reflectivity and vapour permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröde, P.; Kuklane, K.; Candas, V.; Hartog, E.A. den; Griefahn, B.; Holmér, I.; Meinander, H.; Nocker, W.; Richards, M.; Havenith, G.

    2010-01-01

    The heat transferred through protective clothing under long wave radiation compared to a reference condition without radiant stress was determined in thermal manikin experiments. The influence of clothing insulation and reflectivity, and the interaction with wind and wet underclothing were

  11. Application to an Internet site in radiation protection; Application d`un site Internet en radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambini, D.J.; Baum, T.P.; Spector, M.; Elgard, M.C.; Mechaly, Y.; Grainer, R.; Barritault, L. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital Laennec, Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    Training specialists in medical radiation protection is ensured by the Continuous Training Center of University Rene Descartes since 1990. The necessity of updating knowledge has urged us to develop an Internet site (http://www.citi2.fr/RADIO). Besides the mandatory functions of the educational management (secretariat, information on the stages, registrations, etc.) this site provides: 1. Practical information (addresses of administrative and technical organisms, presentation of radiation protection programs); 2. Scientific information (bibliographic bulletin of the EDF service of radiation protection, updated every two months, description of recent radiation protection works); 3. Institutional documentation (analysis of recent basic texts, ICRP publications, European directives). The interrogation of general interest asked via e-mail and forum allowing communication between experts, graduated students and the education faculty will be available on the site. The communication will be augmented by tele-formation modules for continuous distant training

  12. Multilayer Polymeric Shielding to Protect Humans from Galactic Cosmic Radiation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Sub-topic X4.01, NASA has identified a need for advanced radiation-shielding materials and structures to protect humans from the hazards of galactic cosmic...

  13. Bragg Curve, Biological Bragg Curve and Biological Issues in Space Radiation Protection with Shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honglu, Wu; Cucinotta, F.A.; Durante, M.; Lin, Z.; Rusek, A.

    2006-01-01

    The space environment consists of a varying field of radiation particles including high-energy ions, with spacecraft shielding material providing the major protection to astronauts from harmful exposure. Unlike low-LET gamma or X-rays, the presence of shielding does not always reduce the radiation risks for energetic charged particle exposure. Since the dose delivered by the charged particle increases sharply as the particle approaches the end of its range, a position known as the Bragg peak, the Bragg curve does not necessarily represent the biological damage along the particle traversal since biological effects are influenced by the track structure of both primary and secondary particles. Therefore, the biological Bragg curve is dependent on the energy and the type of the primary particle, and may vary for different biological endpoints. To achieve a Bragg curve distribution, we exposed cells to energetic heavy ions with the beam geometry parallel to a monolayer of fibroblasts. Qualitative analyses of gamma-H2AX fluorescence, a known marker of DSBs, indicated increased clustering of DNA damage before the Bragg peak, enhanced homogenous distribution at the peak, and provided visual evidence of high linear energy transfer (LET) particle traversal of cells beyond the Bragg peak. A quantitative biological response curve generated for micronuclei (MN) induction across the Bragg curve did not reveal an increased yield of MN at the location of the Bragg peak. However, the ratio of mono-to bi-nucleated cells, which indicates inhibition in cell progression, increased at the Bragg peak location. These results, along with other biological concerns, show that space radiation protection with shielding can be a complicated issue.

  14. IV Joint Congress Spanish Societies of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, 23-26 Jun 2015, Valencia (Spain); IV Congreso Conjunto Sociedad Espanola Fisica Medica y Proteccion Radiologica, 23-26 Junio 2015, Valencia (Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The Congress theme is Physical Activity and Health: Challenges of medical physics and radiation protection. Held in Valencia Spain, from 23 to 26 June 2015. This Congress gathers the papers presented by the group of technicians working in fields related to medical physics and radiation protection in hospitals, UTPRs, universities or other institutions. (Author)

  15. The Role of Nuclear Fragmentation in Particle Therapy and Space Radiation Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Cary; La Tessa, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The transport of the so-called HZE particles (those having high charge, Z, and energy, E) through matter is crucially important both in space radiation protection and in the clinical setting where heavy ions are used for cancer treatment. HZE particles are usually considered those having Z > 1, though sometimes Z > 2 is meant. Transport physics is governed by two types of interactions, electromagnetic (ionization energy loss) and nuclear. Models of transport, such as those used in treatment planning and space mission planning must account for both effects in detail. The theory of electromagnetic interactions is well developed, but nucleus-nucleus collisions are so complex that no fundamental physical theory currently describes them. Instead, interaction models are generally anchored to experimental data, which in some areas are far from complete. The lack of fundamental physics knowledge introduces uncertainties in the calculations of exposures and their associated risks. These uncertainties are greatly compounded by the much larger uncertainties in biological response to HZE particles. In this article, we discuss the role of nucleus-nucleus interactions in heavy charged particle therapy and in deep space, where astronauts will receive a chronic low dose from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and potentially higher short-term doses from sporadic, unpredictable solar energetic particles (SEPs). GCRs include HZE particles; SEPs typically do not and we, therefore, exclude them from consideration in this article. Nucleus-nucleus collisions can result in the breakup of heavy ions into lighter ions. In space, this is generally beneficial because dose and dose equivalent are, on the whole, reduced in the process. The GCRs can be considered a radiation field with a significant high-LET component; when they pass through matter, the high-LET component is attenuated, at the cost of a slight increase in the low-LET component. Not only are the standard measures of risk

  16. Second meeting of competent persons in radiation protection; Deuxiemes rencontres des personnes competentes en radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This conference treats the subjects interesting the competent persons in radiation protection. It is divided in four sessions. The first one concerns the regulatory bases for the action of competent persons and includes three articles, the second one is about the operational dosimetry and includes six articles, the third session is devoted to the sources and waste management and represents two texts, the last and fourth session concerns the competent person in radiation protection and gives evidence. (N.C.)

  17. Knowledge plus Attitude in Radiation Protection; Aptitud mas Actitud en Proteccion Radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez, G. R.; Sanchez, G. D.

    2003-07-01

    Since the introduction of the Basic Safety Standards recommendations, the scope of the radiation protection was broadening. On behalf of the incorporation of radiation protection of the patient in medical exposures, the different groups of professionals involved: physicians, medical physicists, radiation protection officers, regulators, etc., have to work together. The objective of radiation protection, that is, to reduces doses from practices, to prevent potential exposures, to detect its occurrence as well as to evaluate and spread such abnormal situations, will be obtained only if it were possible to joint two basic conditions: knowledge and attitude. It should be well known the differences between the backgrounds needed to be for example, a medical physicist or an R.P.O., However, their attitude to solve an eventual problem involving radiation protection should be the same; as well as the behavior of the specialized physician and regulators, in order to add towards common goals. In this work, we show as an example the curricula contents about radiation protection of the cancer of medical physics in the Universidad Nacional de San Martin (UNSAM), and the corresponding module on medical exposures from the Post-Graduate course on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, held since the 80s in Buenos Aires by the National Commission of Atomic Energy, ARN, IAEA, and the Universidad de Buenos Aires. On the other hand, we describe different attitudes which leads or could start major radiological accidents, regardless the level of knowledge in radiation protection. We conclude that the larger numbers of accidents are due to problems in the attitude than in the level of knowledge of the person involved. Consequently; we suggest emphasizing the discussion on how to generate positive attitudes in every professional involucrated, independently of its cognitive profile or level. (Author) 2 refs.

  18. Measurement quantities in radiation protection; Messgroessen im Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosi, Peter [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Fachbereich ' Strahlenschutzdosimetrie' ; Hupe, Oliver [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' Photonendosimetrie' ; Kramer, H.M.

    2013-06-15

    After an introduction of the dose equivalent different types of dose equivalents are presented. In this connection stochastic and deterministic radiation effects are considered. Then stationary dose and personnel dose are discussed. Finally the different weighting factors are considered. (HSI)

  19. Advanced Structural Nanomaterials for Astronaut Radiation Protection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Zyvex in cooperation with Prairie View A&M (CARR) and Boeing will develop a space radiation shielding multi-functional material that will provide high energy...

  20. Non-ionizing radiation protection summary of research and policy options

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Andrew W

    2017-01-01

    This book explains the characteristics of all forms of electromagnetic non-ionizing radiation (NIR) and analyzes the relationship between exposure and its biological effects, as well as the known dose-response relationships associated with each. Taking a uniquely holistic approach to the concept of health that builds upon the WHO definition to include not only absence of disease, but the physical, mental and social well-being of individuals and the population, it reviews established and potential risks and protections, along with regulatory issues associated with each. The risks to public health of NIR, whether in the form of UV light, radio waves from wireless devices, or electric and magnetic fields associated with electrical power systems, is currently a cause of great concern among members of the public and lawmakers. But in order to separate established science from speculation and make informed decisions about how to mitigate the risks of NIR and allocate precious resources, policymakers, manufacturers...

  1. The scientific bases of radiation protection; Les fondements scientifiques de la radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosset, J.M. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Boissiere, A.; Eschenbrenner, A. [Groupe de Physique des Solides, Universite Paris-6-7, CNRS UMR 75-88, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    Six articles constitute this chapter about radiation protection. Double strand breaks induced by K events on DNA, effects of dose rate on double strand breaks make the object of two first articles. The study of speciation can give information in the field of internal dosimetry, it is the subject of the third article. The fourth article relates the work about the distribution profiles of iodine 127 and iodine 129 among thyroid of young rats born of mother deprived in steady iodine but contaminated by iodine 129 in a period varying from 489 hours (new born) to 21 days (adolescents) after the birth. The fifth article studies the interest of the expansion in vivo of haematopoietic cells for the treatment of radioinduced aplastic anemia. The last text is devoted to the genotoxic effects of radio frequencies. (N.C.)

  2. Fragmentation cross sections at intermediate energies for hadrontherapy and space radiation protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Napoli M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear fragmentation studies, historically driven by the interest of the nuclear physicists, are nowadays the subject of great attention for the hadrontherapy and the space radiation protection communities. In both fields, fragmentation cross sections are needed to predict the effects of the ion nuclear interactions within the patient’s and the astronaut’s body. Indeed, the the Monte Carlo codes used in planning tumor treatments and space missions must be tuned and validated by experimental data. However, only a limited set of fragmentation cross sections are available in literature, especially at Fermi energies. Therefore we have studied the production of secondary fragments in the 12C+12C and 12C+ 197Au reactions at 62 AMeV. Some of the measured cross sections are presented in this work.

  3. Fragmentation cross sections at intermediate energies for hadrontherapy and space radiation protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Napoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Bondi, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Nicolosi, D.; Pandola, L.; Raciti, G.; Romano, F.; Sardina, D.; Scuderi, V.; Tropea, S.

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear fragmentation studies, historically driven by the interest of the nuclear physicists, are nowadays the subject of great attention for the hadrontherapy and the space radiation protection communities. In both fields, fragmentation cross sections are needed to predict the effects of the ion nuclear interactions within the patient's and the astronaut's body. Indeed, the the Monte Carlo codes used in planning tumor treatments and space missions must be tuned and validated by experimental data. However, only a limited set of fragmentation cross sections are available in literature, especially at Fermi energies. Therefore we have studied the production of secondary fragments in the 12C+12C and 12C+ 197Au reactions at 62 AMeV. Some of the measured cross sections are presented in this work.

  4. Dosimetry in radiation fields around high-energy proton accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; Silari, M; Theis, C

    2008-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry at high-energy proton accelerators is a difficult task because of the complexity of the stray radiation field. A good knowledge of this mixed radiation field is very important to be able to select the type of detectors (active and/or passive) to be employed for routine area monitoring and to choose the personal dosimeter legally required for estimating the effective dose received by individuals. At the same time, the response function of the detectors to the mixed field must be thoroughly understood. A proper calibration of a device, which may involve a complex series of measurements in various reference fields, is needed. Monte Carlo simulations provide a complementary – and sometimes the principal – mean of determining the response function. The ambient dose equivalent rates during operation range from a few hundreds of μSv per year to a few mSv per year. To measure such rates one needs detectors of high sensitivity and/or capable of integrating over long periods. The main challenge...

  5. Characterization of a CT ionization chamber for radiation field mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perini, Ana P., E-mail: aperini@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Neves, Lucio P., E-mail: lpneves@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vivolo, Vitor, E-mail: vivolo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Xavier, Marcos, E-mail: mxavier@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Khoury, Helen J., E-mail: hjkhoury@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Departamento de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire 1000, 50740-540, Recife, PE (Brazil); Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    A pencil-type ionization chamber, developed at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), was characterized with the objective to verify the possibility of its application in radiation field mapping procedures. The characterization tests were evaluated, and the results were satisfactory. The results obtained for the X radiation field mapping with the homemade chamber were compared with those of a PTW Farmer-type chamber (TN 30011-1). The maximum difference observed in this comparison was only 1.25%, showing good agreement. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new ionization chamber was made and tested for radiation field mapping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This ionization chamber was made using only accessible low cost materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The operational tests were made and the results were within the recommended limits. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The field map was compared with a commercial chamber presenting a 1.25% difference. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our chamber presents potential for assurance reliability in calibration procedures.

  6. Electric field deformation in diamond sensors induced by radiation defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassel, Florian; Boer, Wim de; Boegelspacher, Felix; Dierlamm, Alexander; Mueller, Thomas; Steck, Pia [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik (IEKP), Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) (Germany); Dabrowski, Anne; Guthoff, Moritz [CERN (Switzerland)

    2016-07-01

    The BCML system is a beam monitoring device in the CMS experiment at the LHC. As detectors 32 poly-crystalline CVD diamond sensors are positioned in a ring around the beam pipe at a distance of ±1.8 m and ±14.4 m from the interaction point. The radiation hardness of the diamond sensors in terms of measured signal during operation was significantly lower than expected from laboratory measurements. At high particle rates, such as those occurring during the operation of the LHC, a significant fraction of the defects act as traps for charge carriers. This space charge modifies the electrical field in the sensor bulk leading to a reduction of the charge collection efficiency (CCE). A diamond irradiation campaign was started to investigate the rate dependent electrical field deformation with respect to the radiation damage. Besides the electrical field measurements via the Transient Current Technique, the CCE was measured. The experimental results were used to create an effective trap model that takes the radiation damage into account. Using this trap model the rate dependent electrical field deformation and the CCE were simulated with the software ''SILVACO TCAD''. This talk compares the experimental measurement results with the simulations.

  7. Radiation hydrodynamics of triggered star formation: the effect of the diffuse radiation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Thomas J.; Harries, Tim J.

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the effect of including diffuse field radiation when modelling the radiatively driven implosion of a Bonnor-Ebert sphere (BES). Radiation-hydrodynamical calculations are performed by using operator splitting to combine Monte Carlo photoionization with grid-based Eulerian hydrodynamics that includes self-gravity. It is found that the diffuse field has a significant effect on the nature of radiatively driven collapse which is strongly coupled to the strength of the driving shock that is established before impacting the BES. This can result in either slower or more rapid star formation than expected using the on-the-spot approximation depending on the distance of the BES from the source object. As well as directly compressing the BES, stronger shocks increase the thickness and density in the shell of accumulated material, which leads to short, strong, photoevaporative ejections that reinforce the compression whenever it slows. This happens particularly effectively when the diffuse field is included as rocket motion is induced over a larger area of the shell surface. The formation and evolution of 'elephant trunks' via instability is also found to vary significantly when the diffuse field is included. Since the perturbations that seed instabilities are smeared out elephant trunks form less readily and, once formed, are exposed to enhanced thermal compression.

  8. First Investigation on the Radiation Field of the Spherical Hohlraum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Wen Yi; Li, Zhichao; Chen, Yao-Hua; Xie, Xuefei; Lan, Ke; Liu, Jie; Ren, Guoli; Li, Yongsheng; Liu, Yonggang; Jiang, Xiaohua; Yang, Dong; Li, Sanwei; Guo, Liang; Zhang, Huan; Hou, Lifei; Du, Huabing; Peng, Xiaoshi; Xu, Tao; Li, Chaoguang; Zhan, Xiayu; Yuan, Guanghui; Zhang, Haijun; Jiang, Baibin; Huang, Lizhen; Du, Kai; Zhao, Runchang; Li, Ping; Wang, Wei; Su, Jingqin; Ding, Yongkun; He, Xian-Tu; Zhang, Weiyan

    2016-07-01

    The first spherical hohlraum energetics experiment is accomplished on the SGIII-prototype laser facility. In the experiment, the radiation temperature is measured by using an array of flat-response x-ray detectors (FXRDs) through a laser entrance hole at four different angles. The radiation temperature and M -band fraction inside the hohlraum are determined by the shock wave technique. The experimental observations indicate that the radiation temperatures measured by the FXRDs depend on the observation angles and are related to the view field. According to the experimental results, the conversion efficiency of the vacuum spherical hohlraum is in the range from 60% to 80%. Although this conversion efficiency is less than the conversion efficiency of the near vacuum hohlraum on the National Ignition Facility, it is consistent with that of the cylindrical hohlraums used on the NOVA and the SGIII-prototype at the same energy scale.

  9. A summary of recommendations for occupational radiation protection in interventional cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Ariel; Hian, Sim Kui; Miller, Donald L; Le Heron, John; Padovani, Renato; Vano, Eliseo

    2013-02-01

    The radiation dose received by cardiologists during percutaneous coronary interventions, electrophysiology procedures, and other interventional cardiology procedures can vary by more than an order of magnitude for the same type of procedure and for similar patient doses. There is particular concern regarding occupational dose to the lens of the eye. This document provides recommendations for occupational radiation protection for physicians and other staff in the interventional suite. Simple methods for reducing or minimizing occupational radiation dose include minimizing fluoroscopy time and the number of acquired images; using available patient dose reduction technologies; using good imaging-chain geometry; collimating; avoiding high-scatter areas; using protective shielding; using imaging equipment whose performance is controlled through a quality assurance program; and wearing personal dosimeters so that you know your dose. Effective use of these methods requires both appropriate education and training in radiation protection for all interventional cardiology personnel, and the availability of appropriate protective tools and equipment. Regular review and investigation of personnel monitoring results, accompanied as appropriate by changes in how procedures are performed and equipment used, will ensure continual improvement in the practice of radiation protection in the interventional suite. These recommendations for occupational radiation protection in interventional cardiology and electrophysiology have been endorsed by the Asian Pacific Society of Interventional Cardiology, the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions, the Latin American Society of Interventional Cardiology, and the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions.

  10. Information strategy and information products in radiation protection. A Norwegian RISKPERCOM study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitan, J.B.; Toennesen, A. [Statens Straalevern, Oesteraas (Norway); Waldahl, R. [Avdeling for media og kommunikasjon, Oslo Univ., Oslo (Norway)

    1998-02-01

    A short description of the national background for the radiation issue is presented together with a presentation of information strategy and analysis of the information products of the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. This is part of an international study. 35 refs.

  11. Controversial issues confronting the BEIR III committee: implications for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art for conducting risk assessment studies, especially known and unknown factors relative to radioinduced cancer or other diseases, sources of scientific and epidemiological data, dose-response models used, and uncertainties which limit precision of estimation of excess radiation risks. These are related to decision making for radiation protection policy. (PSB)

  12. Some considerations on radiation protection. A questionnaire report from the nursing department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Toshiyuki; Koyama, Masanori; Saito, Masato; Ikai, Takeshi; Nakajima, Fujio; Matsui, Masayuki; Kadono, Koji; Miura, Teruo; Igimi, Yutaka [Saiseikai Shiga Hospital (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    Authors conducted the questionnairing on the radiation protection in cooperation with nurses. And on the basis of the results, we reported here what is now important for the radiation protection and what we can do as the team medical activities, including the discussion with other documents. On November 1996, the questionnairing was conducted in 165 nurses of Saiseikai Shiga Hospital and replies were received from 78% of them. Nurses from 1 year to <3 years in experience were 44% and these from 3 to <5 years in experience 19%. The questionaire was designed to elicit the interest, the sense and the understanding on the medical radiation protection, and to obtain what kinds of the interest they have and what they want to know. On the understanding of the radiation, many nurses had much interest in the radiation exposure to patients and nurses own, which occupied 33% of the respondents. One hundred thirteen nurses (68%) had some questions on the radiation protection, in which the most was on the potable radiation apparatus. Among patients` questions about the radiation, the most numerous was on the physical and genetic effects and many nurses could not respond the suitably. On the basis of these results nurses were given the training. (K.H.)

  13. BEIR-III report and its implications for radiation protection and public health policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-03-01

    A general background is given of the implications the BEIR-III Report may have on societal decision-making in the regulation of activities concerned with the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific basis for establishing appropriate radiation protection guides are discussed. (ACR)

  14. Mesoscopic near-field radiative heat transfer at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasilta, Ilari; Geng, Zhuoran; Chaudhuri, Saumyadip; Koppinen, Panu

    2015-03-01

    Near-field radiative heat transfer has mostly been discussed at room temperatures and/or macroscopic scale geometries. Here, we discuss our recent theoretical and experimental advances in understanding near-field transfer at ultra-low temperatures below 1K. As the thermal wavelengths increase with lowering temperature, we show that with sensitive tunnel junction bolometers it is possible to study near-field transfer up to distances ~ 10 μm currently, even though the power levels are low. In addition, these type of experiments correspond to the extreme near-field limit, as the near-field region starts at ~ mm distances at 0.1 K, and could have theoretical power enhancement factors of the order of 1010. Preliminary results on heat transfer between two parallel metallic wires are presented. We also comment on possible areas were such heat transfer might be relevant, such as densely packed arrays of low-temperature detectors.

  15. Phenomenological approach to introduce damping effects on radiation field states

    CERN Document Server

    D'Almeida, N G; Serra, R M; Moussa, M H Y

    2000-01-01

    In this work we propose an approach to deal with radiation field states which incorporates damping effects at zero temperature. By using some well known results on dissipation of a cavity field state, obtained by standard ab-initio methods, it was possible to infer through a phenomenological way the explicit form for the evolution of the state vector for the whole system: the cavity-field plus reservoir. This proposal turns out to be of extreme convenience to account for the influence of the reservoir over the cavity field. To illustrate the universal applicability of our approach we consider the attenuation effects on cavity-field states engineering. A proposal to maximize the fidelity of the process is presented.

  16. Numerical calculation of radiation protective clothing efficiency by using Monte Carlo method

    OpenAIRE

    Моргунов, Владимир Викторович; Диденко, Наталья Викторовна; Трищ, Роман Михайлович

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of numerical experiments on modeling of absorption of gamma-radiation with/without using the proposed radiation-protective suit and radiation-shielding material (lead glass in the form of microspheres). The proposed method numerical experiments leads to the reduction of human, time and financial resources. When conducting numerical experiments we used the software package GEANT4. When conducting numerical experiments, we used a phantom of the human body (total...

  17. Mechanisms of alteration of the immune system by ionizing radiations: a basis for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourguignon, M. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France); Perez, M.; Dubner, D.; Michelin, S. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Carosella, E. [CEA, Service de Recherches en Hemato -Immunologie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Alterations of the immune system appear in relationship with exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) in different situations, e.g., accidents, radiation therapy of cancer, prenatal irradiation, some human diseases with hypersensitivity to IR and aging. Thus, the comprehension of the mechanisms of the alterations of the immune system by IR is necessary to elaborate strategies of protection and to pave the way for future possible therapies. At least 9 mechanisms of alterations can be identified: 1- Apoptosis. Apoptosis is a key mechanism of the natural regulation of the immune system and plays also a key role in the response to IR: lymphocytes die rapidly by apoptosis after exposure. Different pathways of induction of apoptosis have been identified, and include p53 dependent and mitochondria mediated pathways, as well as CD95 and ROS initiation; 2- TCR mutations. The T cell antigen receptor is responsible to discriminate between self and non self. Mutations of the TCR may result from exposure to IR; 3- Modification of the Th1-Th2 balance. T helper cells may express 2 distinct secretion patterns: Th1 cytokines promote cell-mediated immunity while Th2 cytokines favor humoral immunity. Although the effects of IR on the Th1/Th2 balance remains controversial, an imbalance towards a Th2 profile is likely and patients with cancer and systemic auto-immune disease often present a switch from Th1 to Th2; 4- Bystander effects and genetic instability. Stimulatory effect or genomic instability have been observed in haematopoietic cells exposed to IR and related to a bystander mechanism. 5- Shift toward an inflammatory profile. Ionizing radiation may induce a persistent inflammatory profile as a result of dis-regulation of cytokine production; such a status of persistent inflammation has been observed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors. 6- Modification of antigen presentation. Antigen presentation by dendritic cells is an essential function preceding

  18. A Computational Model of Cellular Response to Modulated Radiation Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, Stephen J., E-mail: stephen.mcmahon@qub.ac.uk [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Butterworth, Karl T. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); McGarry, Conor K. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Radiotherapy Physics, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Trainor, Colman [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); O' Sullivan, Joe M. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Clinical Oncology, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Hounsell, Alan R. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Radiotherapy Physics, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Prise, Kevin M. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To develop a model to describe the response of cell populations to spatially modulated radiation exposures of relevance to advanced radiotherapies. Materials and Methods: A Monte Carlo model of cellular radiation response was developed. This model incorporated damage from both direct radiation and intercellular communication including bystander signaling. The predictions of this model were compared to previously measured survival curves for a normal human fibroblast line (AGO1522) and prostate tumor cells (DU145) exposed to spatially modulated fields. Results: The model was found to be able to accurately reproduce cell survival both in populations which were directly exposed to radiation and those which were outside the primary treatment field. The model predicts that the bystander effect makes a significant contribution to cell killing even in uniformly irradiated cells. The bystander effect contribution varies strongly with dose, falling from a high of 80% at low doses to 25% and 50% at 4 Gy for AGO1522 and DU145 cells, respectively. This was verified using the inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine to inhibit the bystander effect in cells exposed to different doses, which showed significantly larger reductions in cell killing at lower doses. Conclusions: The model presented in this work accurately reproduces cell survival following modulated radiation exposures, both in and out of the primary treatment field, by incorporating a bystander component. In addition, the model suggests that the bystander effect is responsible for a significant portion of cell killing in uniformly irradiated cells, 50% and 70% at doses of 2 Gy in AGO1522 and DU145 cells, respectively. This description is a significant departure from accepted radiobiological models and may have a significant impact on optimization of treatment planning approaches if proven to be applicable in vivo.

  19. Performance of a radiation protection cabin during implantation of pacemakers or cardioverter defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploux, Sylvain; Ritter, Philippe; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Clementy, Jacques; Bordachar, Pierre

    2010-04-01

    Pacemaker implants are associated with a high cumulative exposure of the operators to radiation. Standard radiation protection with lead aprons is incomplete and the cause of spine disorders. A radiation protection cabin offers complete protection by surrounding the operator, without requiring a lead apron. We randomly and evenly assigned 60 patients undergoing implantations of permanent pacemakers or cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) with (a) a radiation protection cabin (cabin group, n = 30) versus (b) standard protection with a 0.5 mm lead-equivalent apron (control group, n = 30). Radiation exposure was measured using personal electronic dosimeters placed on the thorax, back, and head of the operator. The patient, procedural, and device characteristics of the 2 study groups were similar. All procedures in the cabin group were performed as planned without increase in duration or complication rate compared with the control group. The mean radiation dose to the head, normalized for fluoroscopy duration, was significantly lower in the cabin (0.040 +/- 0.032 microSv/min) than in the control (1.138 +/- 0.560 microSv/min) group (p < 0.0001). The radiation doses to the thorax (0.043 +/- 0.027 vs 0.041 +/- 0.040 microSv/min) and back (0.038 +/- 0.029 vs 0.033 +/- 0.018 microSv/min) in the cabin versus control group (under the apron) were similar. The use of a radiation protection cabin markedly decreased the exposure of the operator to radiation, and eliminated the need to wear a lead apron, without increasing the procedural time or complication rate during implantation of pacemaker and ICD.

  20. CONCORD: comparison of cosmic radiation detectors in the radiation field at aviation altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meier Matthias M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Space weather can strongly affect the complex radiation field at aviation altitudes. The assessment of the corresponding radiation exposure of aircrew and passengers has been a challenging task as well as a legal obligation in the European Union for many years. The response of several radiation measuring instruments operated by different European research groups during joint measuring flights was investigated in the framework of the CONCORD (COmparisoN of COsmic Radiation Detectors campaign in the radiation field at aviation altitudes. This cooperation offered the opportunity to measure under the same space weather conditions and contributed to an independent quality control among the participating groups. The CONCORD flight campaign was performed with the twin-jet research aircraft Dassault Falcon 20E operated by the flight facility Oberpfaffenhofen of the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, DLR. Dose rates were measured at four positions in the atmosphere in European airspace for about one hour at each position in order to obtain acceptable counting statistics. The analysis of the space weather situation during the measuring flights demonstrates that short-term solar activity did not affect the results which show a very good agreement between the readings of the instruments of the different institutes.

  1. CONCORD: comparison of cosmic radiation detectors in the radiation field at aviation altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Matthias M.; Trompier, François; Ambrozova, Iva; Kubancak, Jan; Matthiä, Daniel; Ploc, Ondrej; Santen, Nicole; Wirtz, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Space weather can strongly affect the complex radiation field at aviation altitudes. The assessment of the corresponding radiation exposure of aircrew and passengers has been a challenging task as well as a legal obligation in the European Union for many years. The response of several radiation measuring instruments operated by different European research groups during joint measuring flights was investigated in the framework of the CONCORD (COmparisoN of COsmic Radiation Detectors) campaign in the radiation field at aviation altitudes. This cooperation offered the opportunity to measure under the same space weather conditions and contributed to an independent quality control among the participating groups. The CONCORD flight campaign was performed with the twin-jet research aircraft Dassault Falcon 20E operated by the flight facility Oberpfaffenhofen of the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, DLR). Dose rates were measured at four positions in the atmosphere in European airspace for about one hour at each position in order to obtain acceptable counting statistics. The analysis of the space weather situation during the measuring flights demonstrates that short-term solar activity did not affect the results which show a very good agreement between the readings of the instruments of the different institutes.

  2. Analysis of radiation pneumonitis outside the radiation field in breast conserving therapy for early breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogo, Etsuyo; Fujimoto, Kiminori; Hayabuchi, Naofumi [Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine] (and others)

    2002-02-01

    In a retrospective study of radiation-induced pulmonary changes for patients with breast conserving therapy for early breast cancer, we sent questionnaires to the main hospitals in Japan. In this study, we analyzed pulmonary changes after tangential whole-breast irradiation. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for radiation pneumonitis outside the radiation field. The questionnaires included patients data, therapy data, and lung injury information between August 1999 and May 2000. On the first questionnaires, answer letters were received from 107 institutions out of 158 (67.7%). On the second questionnaires, response rate (hospitals which had radiation pneumonitis outside the radiation field) was 21.7% (23/106). We could find no risk factors of this type of pneumonitis. We suggested that lung irradiation might trigger this type of pneumonitis which is clinically similar to BOOP (bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia). It developed in 1.5-2.1% among the patients with breast conserving surgery and tangential whole-breast irradiation. And it is likely appeared within 6 months after radiotherapy. (author)

  3. THE ROLE OF BELARUS NATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIATION PROTECTION IN THE MINIMIZATION OF CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACCIDENT AT THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Stozharov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Belarus National Commission on Radiation Protection was established in 1991, based on the former Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Supreme Council Resolution. The Commission works out recommendations on the radiation protection to submit to the state authorities, state institutions under the Republic of Belarus Government and state research institutions, reviews and assesses scientific data in the field of radiation protection and makes suggestions in regards of the implementation of the achieved developments. The Commission engages leading scientists and practitioners from Belarus, involved in the provision of the radiation protection and safety in the state. The methodological cornerstone for the Commission activities was chosen to be the committment to the worldwide accepted approach of the nature and magnitude of the undertaken protective measures justification in the field of radiation safety. The Commission adheres the ALARA optimization criteria as the core of the aforementioned approach. The Commission has also submited to the Government a number of developments which were crucial in the highest level managerial decisions elaboration. The latter impacted directly the state tactics and strategy in the environmental, health and social consequences of the Chernobyl disaster minimization. Following the recommendations of the international institutions (ICRP, IAEA, UNSCEAR, FAO/WHO, developments of the colleagues in the Russian Federation, Ukraine and the local regional experience, the Commission proceeds with the expert observation of the ongoing protective measures to reduce the radiation impact and population exposure resulted from the Chernobyl accident, is actively occupied in the radiation safety ensuring at the Belarussian nuclear power plant being under construction, much contributes to elaboration of the new version of the state Law “On Radiation Protection of Population” and other regulatory documents.

  4. Cyclotron Line Features from Near-Critical Fields II on the Effect of Anisotropic Radiation Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Araya-Gochez, R A; Araya-Gochez, Rafael A.; Harding, Alice K.

    2000-01-01

    We assess the impact of radiation anisotropy on the line shapes that result from relativistic magnetic Compton scattering in the low-density/high-field regime. A Monte Carlo implementation of radiation transport allows for spatial diffusion of photons in arbitrary geometries and accounts for relativistic angular redistribution. The cross section includes natural line widths and photon "spawning" from up to fourth harmonic photons. In our first paper we noted that even if the photon injection is isotropic a strongly anisotropic radiation field rapidly ensues. We now investigate the angular distribution of cyclotron spectra emerging from an internally irradiated magnetized plasma with a prescribed global geometry (either cylindrical or plane parallel) and the effects of anisotropic photon injection on the line shapes. Varying the input angular distribution permits a better understanding of the line formation process in more realistic scenarios where the radiative mechanisms are influenced by the intrinsic aniso...

  5. Spanish participation in the R and D program in radiation protection within the field''Safety in Nuclear Fission'' of ECC (1992-1993). Participacion espaola en el programa de I+D en proteccion radiologica dentro del area de '' Seguridad de la fision nuclear'' de la CEE (1992-93)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Twenty two Spanish research teams from Universities, Hospitals, Foundations, as well as CIEMAT, have received contributions from the EC of 188 million pesetas. This funding corresponds to the Program: ''Research in radiation protection'' for the period 1992-1993. The total budget of the program is 3400 million pesetas.

  6. Radiative Neutron Capture on Carbon-14 in Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rupak, Gautam; Vaghani, Akshay

    2012-01-01

    The cross section for radiative capture of neutron on carbon-14 is calculated using the model-independent formalism of halo effective field theory. The dominant contribution from E1 transition is considered, and the cross section is expressed in terms of elastic scattering parameters of the effective range expansion. Contributions from both resonant and non-resonant interaction are calculated. Significant interference between these leads to a capture contribution that deviates from simple Breit-Wigner resonance form.

  7. Radiation protection in brachytherapic treatment of prostatic carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannino, G.; Bona, R.; Occhipinti, A. [Catania Univ. Hospital, ' Vittorio Emanuele, Ferrarotto e Santo Bambino' (Italy); Testagrossa, B.; Vermiglio, G.; Tripepi, M.G. [Messina Univ., Dept. of Protezionistica Ambientale, Sanitaria, Sociale ed Industriale (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate absorbed doses for medical staff and general public deriving from prostate brachytherapy with I-125 seeds. Methods And Materials: Radiation exposure measurements were made for staff and on a subset of 64 patients of the 100 trans perineal I-125 implanted seeds implants at the Vittorio Emanuele, Ferrarotto e Santo Bambino Universitary Hospital. Results: Absorbed doses for operators are very low when using radiation safety devices. The exposure rate at the anterior skin surface due to I-125 implanted seeds ranged from 32 to 120 {mu}Sv/hour. Conclusions: The evaluation of dose measurements shows that radiation risk associated to this practice is very low, both for staff that for critical group of population, if they follow the specific radioprotection statements supplied by health physicists. (authors)

  8. Radioadaptive response for protection against radiation-induced teratogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Ryuji; Ootsuyama, Akira; Norimura, Toshiyuki

    2005-03-01

    To clarify the characteristics of the radioadaptive response in mice, we compared the incidence of radiation-induced malformations in ICR mice. Pregnant ICR mice were exposed to a priming dose of 2 cGy (667 muGy/min) on day 9.5 of gestation and to a challenging dose of 2 Gy (1.04 Gy/min) 4 h later and were killed on day 18.5 of gestation. The incidence of malformations and prenatal death and fetal body weights were studied. The incidence of external malformations was significantly lower (by approximately 10%) in the primed (2 cGy + 2 Gy) mice compared to the unprimed (2 Gy alone) mice. However, there were no differences in the incidence of prenatal death or the skeletal malformations or the body weights between primed and unprimed mice. These results suggest that primary conditioning with low doses of radiation suppresses radiation-induced teratogenesis.

  9. The radiation protection and the radioactive wastes management; La radioprotection et la gestion des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servais, F. [CHR Hopital de Warquignies, Service de Medecine Nucleaire (Belgium); Woiche, Ch. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service Interne et de Prevention et Protection (Belgium); Hunin, Ch. [Agence Federale de Controle Nucleaire, Service Controle Etablissements Classes, Brexelles (Belgium)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    This chapter concerns the radiation protection in relation with the radioactive waste management. Three articles make the matter of this file, the management of radioactive medical waste into hospitals, a new concept of waste storage on site, the protection devices on the long term with some lessons for the radioactive waste management. (N.C.)

  10. Protective Efficacy of Plasmodium vivax Radiation-Attenuated Sporozoites in Colombian Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Vásquez-Jiménez, Juan M; Lopez-Perez, Mary;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immunizing human volunteers by mosquito bite with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (RAS) results in high-level protection against infection. Only two volunteers have been similarly immunized with P. vivax (Pv) RAS, and both were protected. A phase 2 controlled cl...

  11. RADIATION ACCIDENTS: EXPERIENCE OF MEDICAL PROTECTION AND MODERN STRATEGY OF PHARMACOLOGICAL MAINTENANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Grebenyuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience of medical protection at radiation accidents is analyzed. It is shown, that medicines that have been in the arsenal of medical service during the liquidation of consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident satisfied their predestination in a whole and were rather effective for radiation protection. The modern strategy of pharmacological maintenance based on use of means and methods, allowing to keeping a life, health and professional serviceability of people in conditions of amazing action of a complex of factors of radiation accidents, is submitted.

  12. Radiation protection protocol observed amongst dentist population in the union territory of Puducherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Sitra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk involved with dental radiography is certainly small in comparison with many other risks that are a common part of everyday life. However, there is no basis to assume that it is zero. Though the radiation dose levels in dental practice are relatively low, one should consider the cumulative effect of repeated exposures. There should be a striving for implementation of radiation protection measures and selection criteria for radiography in private dental offices. This article presents the results of the survey conducted in the private dental offices in the Union territory of Puducherry to gain insight into the knowledge and attitude of the Puducherry dentists towards radiation protection.

  13. Radiation Protection Challenges for a Human Mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, C. J.; Hassler, D.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Schwadron, N.; Spence, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    A human mission to Mars presents many challenges, not least of which is the radiation exposure that crew members will certainly receive in all phases of the journey, but most critically during the transits to and from Mars. Measurements from the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) aboard the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover, made both in flight and on the surface of Mars, confirm previous estimates that crew members under reasonable shielding would receive a dose equivalent of about 1 Sievert on a 1000-day mission. In standard radiation biology, an acute exposure to 1 Sievert would be expected to increase lifetime fatal cancer risk by about 5%. This is well beyond the currently allowed 3% risk increase limit used by NASA and JAXA. Perhaps more significantly, the nature of exposure in space differs greatly from the terrestrial exposures that lead to the 5% estimate -- in space, the exposure is received at a very low dose rate, and includes a significant component from heavy ions in the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs). Acute exposures to Solar Energetic Particles are also possible, but the generally lower energies of SEPs (kinetic energies typically below 100 MeV/nuc) mean that modest amounts of shielding are effective against them. Thus the greater concern for long-duration deep-space missions is the GCR exposure. In this presentation, I will briefly review the MSL-RAD data and discuss current approaches to radiation risk estimation, including the NASA limit of 3% at the 95% confidence level. Recent results from the NASA radiation biology program indicate that cancer may not be the only risk that needs to be considered, with emerging concerns about cardiovascular and central nervous system health. These health effects are not accounted for in the current methodology and could potentially be threatening to mission success if they manifest in the course of the mission, rather than appearing many years after the exposure as radiation-induced cancer typically does.

  14. Radiation engineering of optical antennas for maximum field enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Tae Joon; Jamshidi, Arash; Kim, Myungki; Dhuey, Scott; Lakhani, Amit; Choo, Hyuck; Schuck, Peter James; Cabrini, Stefano; Schwartzberg, Adam M; Bokor, Jeffrey; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wu, Ming C

    2011-07-13

    Optical antennas have generated much interest in recent years due to their ability to focus optical energy beyond the diffraction limit, benefiting a broad range of applications such as sensitive photodetection, magnetic storage, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. To achieve the maximum field enhancement for an optical antenna, parameters such as the antenna dimensions, loading conditions, and coupling efficiency have been previously studied. Here, we present a framework, based on coupled-mode theory, to achieve maximum field enhancement in optical antennas through optimization of optical antennas' radiation characteristics. We demonstrate that the optimum condition is achieved when the radiation quality factor (Q(rad)) of optical antennas is matched to their absorption quality factor (Q(abs)). We achieve this condition experimentally by fabricating the optical antennas on a dielectric (SiO(2)) coated ground plane (metal substrate) and controlling the antenna radiation through optimizing the dielectric thickness. The dielectric thickness at which the matching condition occurs is approximately half of the quarter-wavelength thickness, typically used to achieve constructive interference, and leads to ∼20% higher field enhancement relative to a quarter-wavelength thick dielectric layer.

  15. Conservation of ζ with radiative corrections from heavy field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Takahiro [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Urakawa, Yuko [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Olden Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2016-06-08

    In this paper, we address a possible impact of radiative corrections from a heavy scalar field χ on the curvature perturbation ζ. Integrating out χ, we derive the effective action for ζ, which includes the loop corrections of the heavy field χ. When the mass of χ is much larger than the Hubble scale H, the loop corrections of χ only yield a local contribution to the effective action and hence the effective action simply gives an action for ζ in a single field model, where, as is widely known, ζ is conserved in time after the Hubble crossing time. Meanwhile, when the mass of χ is comparable to H, the loop corrections of χ can give a non-local contribution to the effective action. Because of the non-local contribution from χ, in general, ζ may not be conserved, even if the classical background trajectory is determined only by the evolution of the inflaton. In this paper, we derive the condition that ζ is conserved in time in the presence of the radiative corrections from χ. Namely, we show that when the dilatation invariance, which is a part of the diffeomorphism invariance, is preserved at the quantum level, the loop corrections of the massive field χ do not disturb the constant evolution of ζ at super Hubble scales. In this discussion, we show the Ward-Takahashi identity for the dilatation invariance, which yields a consistency relation for the correlation functions of the massive field χ.

  16. Radiation protection in medical and biomedical research; Proteccion radiologica en la investigacion medica y biomedica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuente Puch, A.E. de la, E-mail: andres@orasen.co.cuES [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-11-01

    The human exposure to ionizing radiation in the context of medical and biomedical research raises specific ethical challenges whose resolution approaches should be based on scientific, legal and procedural matters. Joint Resolution MINSAP CITMA-Regulation 'Basic Standards of Radiation Safety' of 30 November 2001 (hereafter NBS) provides for the first time in Cuba legislation specifically designed to protect patients and healthy people who participate in research programs medical and biomedical and exposed to radiation. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the need to develop specific requirements for radiation protection in medical and biomedical research, as well as to identify all the institutions involved in this in order to establish the necessary cooperation to ensure the protection of persons participating in the investigation.

  17. Status of technical radiation protection units; Situacion de las Unidades Tecnicas de Proteccion Radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arguelles Sanchez, R.; Rodriguez Marti, M.; Sierra Perler, I. C.; Villarroel Gonzalez-Elipe, R.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this report is to analyse the current situation of Radiological Protection technical Units until December 2008 and to carry out an evaluation on the quality the services provided to clients in terms of nuclear safety and radiation protection at nuclear facilities and radioactive and medical radiodiagnostics facilities in accordance with the function assigned to them by the CSN. these are set forth in the Rules of Health Protection against ionising radiation and the RD 1976/1999 on quality criteria applied to radiodiagnostics. (Author)

  18. Radiation protection for the sentinel node procedure in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kanter, AY; Arends, PPAM; Eggermont, AMM; Wiggers, T

    2003-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of our study was to determine the radiation dose for those who are involved in the sentinel node procedure in breast cancer patients and testing of a theoretical model. Methods: We studied 12 consecutive breast cancer patients undergoing breast surgery, and a sentinel node dissecti

  19. Environmental protection in the frame of radiation protection. Recommendation of the Commission on radiological protection including justification and explanation; Schutz der Umwelt im Strahlenschutz. Empfehlung der Strahlenschutzkommission mit Begruendung und Erlaeuterung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-01-15

    The environmental protection is part of the radiation protection but without defined regulations concerning the protection of non-human species and the ecological systems. In 2008 the SSK (Strahlenschutzkommission) was asked to elaborate measures for environmental radiation protection. Part of the recommendation was the application of sustainability concepts on radioactive materials.

  20. Prevention of γ-radiation induced cellular genotoxicity by tempol: protection of hematopoietic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Lakshmy; Nair, Cherupally Krishnan Krishnan

    2012-09-01

    Tempol (TPL) under in vitro conditions reduced the extent of gamma radiation induced membrane lipid peroxidation and disappearance of covalently closed circular form of plasmid pBR322. TPL protected cellular DNA from radiation-induced damage in various tissues under ex vivo and in vivo conditions as evidenced by comet assay. TPL also prevented radiation induced micronuclei formation (in peripheral blood leucocytes) and chromosomal aberrations (in bone marrow cells) in whole body irradiated mice. TPL enhanced the rate of repair of cellular DNA (blood leucocytes and bone marrow cells) damage when administered immediately after radiation exposure as revealed from the increased Cellular DNA Repair Index (CRI). The studies thus provided compelling evidence to reveal the effectiveness of TPL to protect hematopoietic system from radiation injury.

  1. Comparison between Brazilian radiation protection norm and ICRP recommendations published in 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Py Junior, Delcy de A., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio. Servico de Radioprotecao. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao; Pereira, Juliana R. de S., E-mail: pereirarsj@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Campus Pocos de Caldas; Kelecom, Alphonse, E-mail: akelecom@id.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (GETA/LARARA-PLS/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos. Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais; Mortagua, Valter, E-mail: Valter@inb.gov.br [Usina de lnterlagos (USIN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Coordenacao

    2013-07-01

    In the year 2007, ICRP published a set of recommendations (The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, Publication 103), which changed some important concepts. This work aims to compare the Brazilian radiation protection basic norm with the new ICRP recommendations, by checking the existing differences. The main difference between ICRP publication 60 and ICRP publication 103 is the changing of the concept of protection based on process, by using the concepts of practice and intervention, to the protection based in the exposition situation, by using the concepts of planned exposure, emergency and existing situation. Other important difference lies in the values of the radiation and tissue weighting factors, in the quantities equivalent and effective dose, and updating the radiation detriment based on the latest available scientific information of the biology and physics of radiation exposure. At last, the demonstration of the environment radiation protection must be clear, and this concept is not found in Brazilian nuclear legislation. Also some similarities were found. The fundamental principles of the Brazilian norms are the same as that of ICRP 103, which are the justification principle, the optimization principle and the application of dose limits. The individual effective dose limit of Brazilian norm is the same of the ICRP 103, established as 20 mSv per year. In order to adequate the Brazilian norm it is necessary to change its concept of protection and the values of radiation and tissue weighting, and updating the radiation detriment, besides making clear the concept of protection of the environment. It is important to notice that although the Brazilian norm is not in complete agreement with all international recommendations, it must be completely followed as the norm which is in use in the country. (author)

  2. Efficiency of lead aprons in blocking radiation − how protective are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Jae Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Interpretation: The 0.5 mm lead aprons blocked just over one third of the radiation scattered towards the surgeon. Use of robotic-guidance in a minimally invasive approach provided for a reduction of 62.5% of the overall radiation the surgeon was exposed to during open conventional approach. We conclude that reduced radiation use (e.g. by using robotic guidance is a more effective strategy for minimizing exposure to radiation than reliance on protection by lead aprons, and recommend utilization of practices and technologies that reduce the surgical team’s routine exposure to X-rays.

  3. Guideline for radiation protection in veterinary medicine. Guideline relating to the Ordinance for Protection Against Damage Through Ionising Radiation (Radiation Protection Ordinance - StrlSchV) and the Ordinance for Protection Against X-Ray Radiation (X-Ray Ordinance - RoeV); Richtlinie Strahlenschutz in der Tierheilkunde. Richtlinie zur Verordnung ueber den Schutz vor Schaeden durch ionisierende Strahlen (Strahlenschutzverordnung - StrlSchV) und zur Verordnung ueber den Schutz vor Roentgenstrahlen (Roentgenverordnung - RoeV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalczak, H.

    2005-05-15

    The Guideline on ''Radiation Protection in Veterinary Medicine'' primarily addresses the supreme Land authorities that are responsible for radiation protection. Its purpose is to harmonise the radiation protection procedures employed by the Laender, thus establishing a nationwide uniform system for monitoring the handling of radioactive substances and ionising radiation applications in veterinary medicine on the basis of the legal regulations in force. In addition the guideline is intended to serve veterinary staff as a source of practical information which explains the radiation protection requirements stipulated by the legal regulations and technical rules. This concerns in particular the rules for the acquisition of the necessary radiation protection skills or the necessary knowledge of radiation protection by the veterinary surgeon performing the application or the staff cooperation in the application.

  4. Radiation protection effect by the combination of propolis and agaricus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Yeunhwa; Yamada, Katsunori; Ukawa, Yuuichi [Suzuka Univ. of Medical Science, Suzuka (Japan)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    The aims of the radioprotection are a human and the safety keeping of the environment. The leukocyte that much research is to do in the animals, and relations between the lymphocyte and the radiation are being made distinct until now. It paid attention to it in this determination stage, and lymphocyte toward the radiation was observed by using the ICR mice used for the lymphocyte simulation abundantly in this research. And, it was examined about the fetal effect toward the radiation. So, an excuse as a radioprotective agent of the effect on the fetus toward the radiation was examined experimentally by using the propolis and agaricus by this research. Therefore, it is a purpose to obtain information as a medicament of the radioprotection. ICR mice were used for the experiment. The pregnant mice were placed in plastic cages for radiation exposure, and were treated with a single whole-body X -radiation at 1 Gy and 2Gy with a dose rate of 35 cGy/min on 8 days after the conception. 100 mg/kg of propolis and agaricus. The total number of irradiated dams observed in this study was 40, a total of 38 non-irradiated control and sham control dams was also prepared, and 659 non-irradiated live fetuses served as controls. Statistical significant difference was recognized between the lymphocyte of the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy group and the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy + propolis and agaricus extracts of water solution administrated group toward the lymphocyte and embryonic death of control group and sham control group (p<0.01). But, when it was compared with the lymphocyte and embryonic death rate of the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy group and the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy + Propolis and agaricus group, the lymphocyte rate of the 1.0Gy and 2.0Gy + Propolis and agaricus group was decrease. And, if propolis and agaricus was administered, the embryo beyond the haploid number that did implantation was found out in the exposure beyond 1.0Gy or 2.0Gy.

  5. Public Protection from Electromagnetic Fields of Industry Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimieras Vytautas Maceika

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithuania introduced normative of public protection from 50 Hz frequency electric field. It proposed permissible intensity of this field – 0,5 kV/m inside buildings and 1 kV/m in their territory. Separate normative is prepared for industry frequency electric and magnetic fields in work places. Permitted values of fields depend on exposure duration, but cannot exceed 25 kV/m and 5,1 kA/m. Russian, Swedish and American scientists declare that long time exposure of 50 Hz magnetic field with intensity more than 0,2-0,3 µT is dangerous for carcinogenic risk. International Agency for research on Cancer (IARC initiated a program to evaluate the carcinogenic risk of low frequency electromagnetic fields to humans and till 2002 year collected a lot of information for different countries with quantitative analysis of epidemic data. Standardized incidents ratio (SIR was proposed for evaluation of leukaemia in humans and especially children. Exposure of children in magneticfields > 0,4 µT showed a twofold SIR increasing. Data concerning the subject of an evaluation did not disclose inadequate evidence in humans and experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of magnetic fields of industry frequency, but they are classified as “possibly carcinogenic to humans”.

  6. Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture on radiation protection and measurements: what makes particle radiation so effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Eleanor A

    2012-11-01

    The scientific basis for the physical and biological effectiveness of particle radiations has emerged from many decades of meticulous basic research. A diverse array of biologically relevant consequences at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organism level have been reported, but what are the key processes and mechanisms that make particle radiation so effective, and what competing processes define dose dependences? Recent studies have shown that individual genotypes control radiation-regulated genes and pathways in response to radiations of varying ionization density. The fact that densely ionizing radiations can affect different gene families than sparsely ionizing radiations, and that the effects are dose- and time-dependent, has opened up new areas of future research. The complex microenvironment of the stroma and the significant contributions of the immune response have added to our understanding of tissue-specific differences across the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum. The importance of targeted versus nontargeted effects remains a thorny but elusive and important contributor to chronic low dose radiation effects of variable LET that still needs further research. The induction of cancer is also LET-dependent, suggesting different mechanisms of action across the gradient of ionization density. The focus of this 35th Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture is to chronicle the step-by-step acquisition of experimental clues that have refined our understanding of what makes particle radiation so effective, with emphasis on the example of radiation effects on the crystalline lens of the human eye.

  7. CT equipment and performance issues: radiation protection 162.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edyvean, S

    2013-02-01

    Since the development of the CT scanner in the early 1970s, CT scanner technology has continuously developed through technical advancement, faster computer processing, superior detectors and helical and multi-detector scanning modes. As a result, the scope of clinical examinations has broadened considerably, and in parallel, this has been achieved with improvement in image quality and radiation dose efficiency. Despite this, and perhaps because image quality can always be improved at the expense of increased radiation dose, CT examinations are among the highest-dose procedures encountered routinely in medical imaging. The qualitative criteria for acceptability in RP 162 address some functional and operational issues, and the quantitative criteria, in the form of suspension levels, focus primarily around hardware aspects of the CT scanner, though consideration is also given to software, operator aspects and selection of scan protocols. Some of the specific aspects and challenges in modern CT systems, in particular multi-slice and wide beams are also addressed.

  8. Low cost CCD camera protection against neutron radiation damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, J G M

    2005-01-01

    At a radiotherapy department cancer patients are treated with high energy electron and photon beams. These beams are produced by a linear accelerator. A closed circuit television system is used to monitor patients during treatment. Although CCD cameras are rather resistant to stray radiation, they are damaged by the low flux of neutrons which are produced by the linac as a side effect. PVC can be used to reduce damage to CCD cameras induced by neutron radiation. A box with 6 cm thick walls will extend the life of the camera at least by a factor of two. A PVC neutron shield is inexpensive. PVC is easy to obtain and the box is simple to construct. A similar box made out of PE will not reduce neutron damage to a CCD camera. Although PE is a good medium to moderate faster neutrons, thereby reducing some of the bulk defects, it will not capture thermal neutrons which induce surface damage.

  9. Radiological protection, safety and security issues in the industrial and medical applications of radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    The use of radiation sources, namely radioactive sealed or unsealed sources and particle accelerators and beams is ubiquitous in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Besides radiological protection of the workers, members of the public and patients in routine situations, the use of radiation sources involves several aspects associated to the mitigation of radiological or nuclear accidents and associated emergency situations. On the other hand, during the last decade security issues became burning issues due to the potential malevolent uses of radioactive sources for the perpetration of terrorist acts using RDD (Radiological Dispersal Devices), RED (Radiation Exposure Devices) or IND (Improvised Nuclear Devices). A stringent set of international legally and non-legally binding instruments, regulations, conventions and treaties regulate nowadays the use of radioactive sources. In this paper, a review of the radiological protection issues associated to the use of radiation sources in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation is performed. The associated radiation safety issues and the prevention and mitigation of incidents and accidents are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the security issues associated to the global use of radiation sources for the aforementioned applications and the inherent radiation detection requirements will be presented. Scientific, technical, legal, ethical, socio-economic issues are put forward and discussed.

  10. Microwave background radiation anisotropy from scalar field gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebbins, A. (NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Fermilab MS209, Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510-0500 (United States)); Veeraraghavan, S. (Physics Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States) Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States))

    1993-09-15

    Analytic calculations of the cosmological density fluctuations and microwave background radiation anisotropies induced by gradients in a topologically trivial scalar field are presented. This anlaytic solution should provide a good test for numerical simulations of microwave anisotropy from scalar fields. To the extent that these results generalize to other scalar field models and configurations, they imply that (1) MBR measurements limit large-scale primordial variations greater than about 5[times]10[sup 16] GeV within our horizon, (2) the total scalar field variation is a fair predictor of the magnitude of the MBR anisotropy, but is only accurate to within a factor of about three, (3) scalar fields as well as other models of seeded perturbations produce a few times more anisotropy [Delta][ital T]/[ital T] for a given density fluctuation [delta][rho]/[rho] (on the same scale) than do primordial adiabatic perturbations, (4) models of scalar field seeds which produce a scale-invariant spectrum of perturbations seem to require galaxies to be more clustered than the mass on small scales, and (5) scalar fields do not tilt'' the Universe.

  11. Loranthus longiflorus protect central nervous system against oxidative damages of electromagnetic radiation on rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Nagar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The interaction of mobile phone radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR with the brain is a serious concern of our society. In this study, we aimed to experiment on the anti-oxidative property of a parasitic plant Loranthus longiflorus (Loranthaceae to protect central nervous system against oxidative damages of mobile phone electromagnetic field (EMF. Materials and Methods: Healthy male albino wistar rats were exposed to RF-EMR by giving 5 min calling/5 min interval for 1 hour per day for 2 months, keeping a GSM (0.9/1.8 GHz mobile phone in silent mode (no ring tone in the cage. After 15, 30, 45, 60 days exposure, three randomly picked animals from each group were tested with using behavioural model of CNS on rats. Results and Conclusion: Loranthus longiflorus bark extract could be effective in decreasing immobility (P < 0.05 and increased locomotor activity (P < 0.05. This result indicates the protective effect of Loranthus longiflorus bark against EMF induced oxidative damage of central nervous system.

  12. Radiation from relativistic shocks with turbulent magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Nishikawa, K -I; Medvedev, M; Zhang, B; Hardee, P; Nordlund, A; Frederiksen, J; Mizuno, Y; Sol, H; Pohl, M; Hartmann, D H; Oka, M; Fishman, G J

    2009-01-01

    Using our new 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code parallelized with MPI, we investigated long-term particle acceleration associated with a relativistic electron-positron jet propagating in an unmagnetized ambient electron-positron plasma. The simulations were performed using a much longer simulation system than our previous simulations in order to investigate the full nonlinear stage of the Weibel instability and its particle acceleration mechanism. Cold jet electrons are thermalized and ambient electrons are accelerated in the resulting shocks. Acceleration of ambient electrons leads to a maximum ambient electron density three times larger than the original value. Behind the bow shock in the jet shock strong electromagnetic fields are generated. These fields may lead to time dependent afterglow emission. We calculated radiation from electrons propagating in a uniform parallel magnetic field to verify the technique. We also used the new technique to calculate emission from electrons based on...

  13. A field test of a simple stochastic radiative transfer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, N. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The problem of determining the effect of clouds on the radiative energy balance of the globe is of well-recognized importance. One can in principle solve the problem for any given configuration of clouds using numerical techniques. This knowledge is not useful however, because of the amount of input data and computer resources required. Besides, we need only the average of the resulting solution over the grid scale of a general circulation model (GCM). Therefore, we are interested in estimating the average of the solutions of such fine-grained problems using only coarse grained data, a science or art called stochastic radiation transfer. Results of the described field test indicate that the stochastic description is a somewhat better fit to the data than is a fractional cloud cover model, but more data are needed. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  14. Electric Field Change and VHF Radiation during Lightning Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, T. C.; Karunarathne, S.; Bandara, S. A.; Karunarathne, N. D.; Siedlecki, R.; Stolzenburg, M.

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies of lightning initiation [e.g., Marshall et al., JGR 2014; Marshall et al., AGU 2015] have shown that an initial electric field change (IEC) occurs for about 1 ms before the first initial breakdown (IB) pulse in most (and perhaps all) lightning flashes. The same studies indicate that the IEC itself begins after an event that radiates strongly in the VHF radio band; this event seems to be the real lightning initiation event [e.g., Rison et al., Nature Communications 2016]. During the summer of 2016 we used an array of E-change sensors and VHF sensors located in north Mississippi to obtain correlated data on the VHF lightning initiation event, the IEC, and the IB pulses of nearby lightning flashes. In this presentation we show examples of lightning initiation events and their subsequent IECs at multiple sensors. In addition, we show examples of the VHF radiation associated with IB pulses.

  15. Repeated Nrf2 stimulation using sulforaphane protects fibroblasts from ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Sherin T.; Bergström, Petra; Hammarsten, Ola, E-mail: ola.hammarsten@clinchem.gu.se

    2014-05-01

    Most of the cytotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation is mediated by radical-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Cellular protection from free radicals can be stimulated several fold by sulforaphane-mediated activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 that regulates more than 50 genes involved in the detoxification of reactive substances and radicals. Here, we report that repeated sulforaphane treatment increases radioresistance in primary human skin fibroblasts. Cells were either treated with sulforaphane for four hours once or with four-hour treatments repeatedly for three consecutive days prior to radiation exposure. Fibroblasts exposed to repeated-sulforaphane treatment showed a more pronounced dose-dependent induction of Nrf2-regulated mRNA and reduced amount of radiation-induced free radicals compared with cells treated once with sulforaphane. In addition, radiation- induced DNA double-strand breaks measured by gamma-H2AX foci were attenuated following repeated sulforaphane treatment. As a result, cellular protection from ionizing radiation measured by the 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay was increased, specifically in cells exposed to repeated sulforaphane treatment. Sulforaphane treatment was unable to protect Nrf2 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, indicating that the sulforaphane-induced radioprotection was Nrf2-dependent. Moreover, radioprotection by repeated sulforaphane treatment was dose-dependent with an optimal effect at 10 uM, whereas both lower and higher concentrations resulted in lower levels of radioprotection. Our data indicate that the Nrf2 system can be trained to provide further protection from radical damage. - Highlights: • Repeated treatment with sulforaphane protects fibroblasts from ionizing radiation • Repeated sulforaphane treatment attenuates radiation induced ROS and DNA damage • Sulforaphane mediated protection is Nrf2 dependent.

  16. Radiation protection research projects. Programme report 2002. Summary of results from recent research projects of the BMU's Applied Research Programme carried out under the responsibility of the German Office of Radiation Protection (BfS); Strahlenschutzforschung. Programmreport 2002. Bericht ueber das vom Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz fachlich begleitete und verwaltete Ressortforschungsprogramm Strahlenschutz des Bundesumweltministeriums (BMU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergler, I.; Bernhard, C.; Goedde, R.; Loebke-Reinl, A.; Schmitt-Hannig, A.

    2004-03-01

    The Federal Office of Radiation Protection awards research projects in the field of radiation protection on the behalf of the Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). The findings of these projects serve as decision-making aids in the development of radiation protection regulations as well as in the fulfilment of the BMU's specific tasks in the field of radiation protection. Planning, technical and administrative preparation, awarding of contracts, general support as well as technical evaluation of the research and study projects is the task of the Federal Office of Radiation Protection. The present report provides information on the preliminary and, where applicable, final results of radiation protection projects in the year 2002 within the BMU's Applied Research Programme. (orig.) [German] Das Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz vergibt im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit Untersuchungsvorhaben auf dem Gebiet des Strahlenschutzes. Die Ergebnisse dieser Vorhaben dienen als Entscheidungshilfen bei der Erarbeitung von Strahlenschutzvorschriften und bei der Erfuellung der Fachaufgaben des BMU im Bereich Strahlenschutz. Die Planung, fachliche und administrative Vorbereitung, Vergabe, Begleitung sowie die fachliche Bewertung der Ergebnisse der Untersuchungsvorhaben ist Aufgabe des Bundesamtes fuer Strahlenschutz. Der vorliegende Bericht informiert ueber die Ergebnisse bzw. Zwischenergebnisse von Strahlenschutzvorhaben des BMU Ressortforschungsprogramms im Jahr 2002. (orig.)

  17. Modeling of ultrasonic and terahertz radiations in defective tiles for condition monitoring of thermal protection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri Rahani, Ehsan

    Condition based monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) is necessary for safe operations of space shuttles when quick turn-around time is desired. In the current research Terahertz radiation (T-ray) has been used to detect mechanical and heat induced damages in TPS tiles. Voids and cracks inside the foam tile are denoted as mechanical damage while property changes due to long and short term exposures of tiles to high heat are denoted as heat induced damage. Ultrasonic waves cannot detect cracks and voids inside the tile because the tile material (silica foam) has high attenuation for ultrasonic energy. Instead, electromagnetic terahertz radiation can easily penetrate into the foam material and detect the internal voids although this electromagnetic radiation finds it difficult to detect delaminations between the foam tile and the substrate plate. Thus these two technologies are complementary to each other for TPS inspection. Ultrasonic and T-ray field modeling in free and mounted tiles with different types of mechanical and thermal damages has been the focus of this research. Shortcomings and limitations of FEM method in modeling 3D problems especially at high-frequencies has been discussed and a newly developed semi-analytical technique called Distributed Point Source Method (DPSM) has been used for this purpose. A FORTRAN code called DPSM3D has been developed to model both ultrasonic and electromagnetic problems using the conventional DPSM method. This code is designed in a general form capable of modeling a variety of geometries. DPSM has been extended from ultrasonic applications to electromagnetic to model THz Gaussian beams, multilayered dielectrics and Gaussian beam-scatterer interaction problems. Since the conventional DPSM has some drawbacks, to overcome it two modification methods called G-DPSM and ESM have been proposed. The conventional DPSM in the past was only capable of solving time harmonic (frequency domain) problems. Time history was

  18. DNA Protection Protein, a Novel Mechanism of Radiation Tolerance: Lessons from Tardigrades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuma Hashimoto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Genomic DNA stores all genetic information and is indispensable for maintenance of normal cellular activity and propagation. Radiation causes severe DNA lesions, including double-strand breaks, and leads to genome instability and even lethality. Regardless of the toxicity of radiation, some organisms exhibit extraordinary tolerance against radiation. These organisms are supposed to possess special mechanisms to mitigate radiation-induced DNA damages. Extensive study using radiotolerant bacteria suggested that effective protection of proteins and enhanced DNA repair system play important roles in tolerability against high-dose radiation. Recent studies using an extremotolerant animal, the tardigrade, provides new evidence that a tardigrade-unique DNA-associating protein, termed Dsup, suppresses the occurrence of DNA breaks by radiation in human-cultured cells. In this review, we provide a brief summary of the current knowledge on extremely radiotolerant animals, and present novel insights from the tardigrade research, which expand our understanding on molecular mechanism of exceptional radio-tolerability.

  19. DNA Protection Protein, a Novel Mechanism of Radiation Tolerance: Lessons from Tardigrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takuma; Kunieda, Takekazu

    2017-01-01

    Genomic DNA stores all genetic information and is indispensable for maintenance of normal cellular activity and propagation. Radiation causes severe DNA lesions, including double-strand breaks, and leads to genome instability and even lethality. Regardless of the toxicity of radiation, some organisms exhibit extraordinary tolerance against radiation. These organisms are supposed to possess special mechanisms to mitigate radiation-induced DNA damages. Extensive study using radiotolerant bacteria suggested that effective protection of proteins and enhanced DNA repair system play important roles in tolerability against high-dose radiation. Recent studies using an extremotolerant animal, the tardigrade, provides new evidence that a tardigrade-unique DNA-associating protein, termed Dsup, suppresses the occurrence of DNA breaks by radiation in human-cultured cells. In this review, we provide a brief summary of the current knowledge on extremely radiotolerant animals, and present novel insights from the tardigrade research, which expand our understanding on molecular mechanism of exceptional radio-tolerability. PMID:28617314

  20. Radiation protection dosimetry in medicine - Report of the working group n.9 of the European radiation dosimetry group (EURADOS) - coordinated network for radiation dosimetry (CONRAD - contract EC N) fp6-12684; Dosimetrie pour la radioprotection en milieu medical - rapport du groupe de travail n. 9 du European radiation dosimetry group (EURADOS) - coordinated netword for radiation dosimetry (CONRAD - contrat CE fp6-12684)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This report present the results achieved within the frame of the work the WP 7 (Radiation Protection Dosimetry of Medical Staff) of the coordination action CONRAD (Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry) funded through the 6. EU Framework Program. This action was coordinated by EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group). EURADOS is an organization founded in 1981 to advance the scientific understanding and the technical development of the dosimetry of ionising radiation in the fields of radiation protection, radiobiology, radiation therapy and medical diagnosis by promoting collaboration between European laboratories. WP7 coordinates and promotes European research for the assessment of occupational exposures to staff in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology workplaces. Research is coordinated through sub-groups covering three specific areas: 1. Extremity dosimetry in nuclear medicine and interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in the specific fields of the hospitals and studies of doses to different parts of the hands, arms, legs and feet; 2. Practice of double dosimetry: this sub-group reviews and evaluates the different methods and algorithms for the use of dosemeters placed above and below lead aprons in large exposure during interventional radiology procedures, especially to determine effective doses to cardiologists during cardiac catheterization; and 3. Use of electronic personal dosemeters in interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in laboratories and hospitals, and intercomparisons with passive dosemeters with the aim to enable the formulation of standards. (authors)