WorldWideScience

Sample records for radiation level measured

  1. Measurement uncertainty in broadband radiofrequency radiation level measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulević Branislav D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the evaluation of measurement uncertainty in the measurement of broadband radio frequency radiation, in this paper we propose a new approach based on the experience of the authors of the paper with measurements of radiofrequency electric field levels conducted in residential areas of Belgrade and over 35 municipalities in Serbia. The main objective of the paper is to present practical solutions in the evaluation of broadband measurement uncertainty for the in-situ RF radiation levels. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43009

  2. Beam size measurement at high radiation levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, F.J.

    1991-05-01

    At the end of the Stanford Linear Accelerator the high energy electron and positron beams are quite small. Beam sizes below 100 μm (σ) as well as the transverse distribution, especially tails, have to be determined. Fluorescent screens observed by TV cameras provide a quick two-dimensional picture, which can be analyzed by digitization. For running the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) with low backgrounds at the interaction point, collimators are installed at the end of the linac. This causes a high radiation level so that the nearby cameras die within two weeks and so-called ''radiation hard'' cameras within two months. Therefore an optical system has been built, which guides a 5 mm wide picture with a resolution of about 30 μm over a distance of 12 m to an accessible region. The overall resolution is limited by the screen thickness, optical diffraction and the line resolution of the camera. Vibration, chromatic effects or air fluctuations play a much less important role. The pictures are colored to get fast information about the beam current, size and tails. Beside the emittance, more information about the tail size and betatron phase is obtained by using four screens. This will help to develop tail compensation schemes to decrease the emittance growth in the linac at high currents. 4 refs., 2 figs

  3. Measurement of Background Gamma Radiation Levels at Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: An in-situ measurement of the background radiation level was carried out at the vicinity of three ... Soil contains small quantities of radioactive elements along with their progeny. .... assessment for soil samples from Kestanbol.

  4. Measurement of the natural radiation background level of Riyadh City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kusayer, T.A.; Al-Haj, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    A gamma spectroscopy system was used to analyze the radionuclides in soil samples and to determine the cumulative radioactivity of terrestrial origin in the Riyadh City area. Minimal work has been done in the 1980s to measure the natural background radiation level in Saudi Arabia by using thermoluminescent dosimeters. The measurement of the natural radioactivity in the Riyadh area for the radionuclide concentration in becquerels per kilogram, the exposure rate arising from radionuclides in grays per hour, and the equivalent dose rate in sieverts per hour are the goals of this work. Soil samples were collected from 21 places in Riyadh City. Each site was sampled for two depth profiles, 0 to 5 cm and 5 to 15 cm. These measurements were taken before the Chernobyl accident, and in the absence of any measurements for that area in the past, this work can be considered in future work for a reference 137 Cs concentration in Riyadh soil to determine the 137 Cs increase in the soil after the Chernobyl accident

  5. Measurement of radio frequency radiation (RFR) power levels from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the upsurge in the number of network providers and the attendant increase in the installation of mast in Nigeria, the environment is being inundated with radiofrequency radiation (RFR). There is, therefore, increasing concern about the health implications of this development. In this study measurements of RFR output ...

  6. Radiation exposure rate and liquid level measurement inside a high level liquid waste (HLLW) storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sur, B.; Yue, S.; Thekkevarriam, A.

    2007-01-01

    An instrument based on an inexpensive, small silicon diode has been developed and used to measure, for the first time, the gamma radiation exposure rate profile inside a 6.4 mm diameter reentrant thermo-well tube, immersed in the highly radioactive liquid solution in an HLLW storage tank. The measurement agrees with previous calculations of exposure rate, and provides confirmation for safe and effective radiation work plans and material selection for investigations and remediation of the storage tank facility. The measured radiation exposure rate profile is also used to confirm that the position of tank internal structures have not changed because of aging and corrosion, and to obtain, within a few mm, the level of liquid inside the tank. (author)

  7. Radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, Sung Jin; Kim, Seung Guk; No, Gyeong Seok; Park, Myeong Hwan; Ann, Bong Seon

    1998-03-01

    This book explains technical terms about radiation measurement, which are radiation, radiation quantity and unit such as prefix of international unit, unit for defence purposes of radiation, coefficient of radiation and interaction, kinds and principles of radiation detector, ionization chamber, G-M counter, G-M tube, proportional counter, scintillation detector, semiconductor radiation detector, thermoluminescence dosimeter, PLD, others detector, radiation monitor, neutron detector, calibration of radiation detector, statistics of counting value, activation analysis and electronics circuit of radiation detector.

  8. Measurements of the ionising radiation level at a nuclear medicine facility performing PET/CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulik, P.; Kowalska, M.; Golnik, N.; Budzynska, A.; Dziuk, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of radiation level measurements at workplaces in a nuclear medicine facility performing PET/ CT examinations. This study meticulously determines the staff radiation exposure in a PET/CT facility by tracking the path of patient movement. The measurements of the instantaneous radiation exposure were performed using an electronic radiometer with a proportional counter that was equipped with the option of recording the results on line. The measurements allowed for visualisation of the staff's instantaneous exposure caused by a patient walking through the department after the administration of "1"8F-FDG. An estimation of low doses associated with each working step and the exposure during a routine day in the department was possible. The measurements were completed by determining the average radiation level using highly sensitive thermoluminescent detectors. (authors)

  9. Survey of radiofrequency radiation levels around GSM base stations and evaluation of measurement uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulević Branislav D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a summary of broadband measurement values of radiofrequency radiation around GSM base stations in the vicinity of residential areas in Belgrade and 12 other cities in Serbia. It will be useful for determining non-ionizing radiation exposure levels of the general public in the future. The purpose of this paper is also an appropriate representation of basic information on the evaluation of measurement uncertainty.

  10. Testing of environmental radiation monitors using the Risø low-level radiation measurement stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    2000-01-01

    June, 1999. The chief aims of such experiments are to allow the participants to check their home calibrations of their detectors and to compare the responses of the individual environmental radiation measurement systems used in the different EU member states and making a link between the different...... a simulation of a radioactive plume passing over the monitors during a certain time was made using a specially designed source set up in the field that was able to vary the air kerma rate from low activity Cs-137 sources additional to the natural air kerma rate. It is demonstrated that a typical environmental...

  11. Solar Modulation of Atmospheric Cosmic Radiation:. Comparison Between In-Flight and Ground-Level Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, R. H. A.; Taylor, G. C.; Jones, J. B. L.

    January 2000 saw the start of a collaborative study involving the Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Virgin Atlantic Airways, the Civil Aviation Authority and the National Physical Laboratory in a program to investigate the cosmic radiation exposure to aircrew. The study has been undertaken in view of EU Directive 96/291 (May 2000) which requires the assessment of the level of radiation exposure to aircrew. The project's aims include validation of radiation dose models and evaluation of space weather effects on atmospheric cosmic radiation levels, in particular those effects not accounted for by the models. Ground level measurements are often used as a proxy for variations in cosmic radiation dose levels at aircraft altitudes, especially during Forbush Decreases (FDs) and Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events. Is this estimation realistic and does the ground level data accurately represent what is happening at altitude? We have investigated the effect of a FD during a flight from Hong Kong to London Heathrow on the 15th July 2000 and compared count rate and dose measurements with simultaneous variations measured at ground level. We have also compared the results with model outputs.

  12. Measurement of high natural background radiation levels by TLD at Cox's Bazar coastal areas in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.; Rahman, M.M.; Koddus, M.A.; Husain, S.R.; Malek, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    High natural background radiation levels at the Cox's Bazar coastal areas in Bangladesh were measured by LiF (TLD-100) dosemeters. The dose rates varied from 2621 to 35391 μGy.y -1 with a mean of 11968 μGy.y -1 . The average dose rate is found to significantly higher than the world average value. In order to formulate appropriate guidelines for radiation protection of the population in this area, the necessary recommendations are described. (author)

  13. Measurement and evaluation of the external radiation level at reactor Kartini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atok Suhartanto; Suparno

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and evaluation of external radiation level at reactor Kartini in 2012 has been done. The purpose of this activity is to know the external radiation level as a result of the radioactive or radiation source usage, toward the operational of limit condition. The measurement is using survey meter Inspector 11086, factor of calibration 0.991 mR/h, at 9 locations is: Control room area, Thermal column facilities, Demineralizer, Beamport radiography facilities, bulk shielding Deck, Subcritical facilities, Reactor hall, Deck reactor and on the surface of reactor water tank . The highest room average measurement result in 9 working areas for 12 months continuously are at the reactor tank location is between 13.05±1.09 (xlO -2 mSv/hour) to 16.80±1.40 (x10 -2 mSv/hour), and the lowest measurement result in 1 location (control room) is 0.02±0.005 (x10 -2 mSv/hour) to 0.035±0.009 (x10 -2 mSv/hour). The Kartini reactor is involved in the control area which has potentially contaminated and has radiation exposure at the level of 6 mSv/year. Radiation Protection Officer that work in interval will received radiation exposure dosage of 8.4 mSv/year. This dosage is still below the Below Dosage Value which is recommended by, BAPETEN decree No, 4, 2013 about Protection and Radiation Safety in Nuclear Energy Application at 20 mSv/year. The result of the evaluation above shows that the external radiation which occurred in each area is still below the operational of limit condition that is written on the Kartini reactor safety analysis report, on document number: C7/05/B2/LAK/2010, revision 7. So that the workplace is safe for work monitored. (author)

  14. Economic impact and effectiveness of radiation protection measures in aviation during a ground level enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthiä Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the omnipresent irradiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR and their secondary products, passengers and aircraft crew may be exposed to radiation from solar cosmic rays during ground level enhancements (GLE. In general, lowering the flight altitude and changing the flight route to lower latitudes are procedures applicable to immediately reduce the radiation exposure at aviation altitudes. In practice, however, taking such action necessarily leads to modifications in the flight plan and the consequential, additional fuel consumption constrains the mitigating measures. In this work we investigate in a case study of the ground level event of December 13th 2006 how potential mitigation procedures affect the total radiation exposure during a transatlantic flight from Seattle to Cologne taking into account constraints concerning fuel consumption and range.

  15. Preliminary results of measurement of natural environmental radiation levels and doses to population in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiliang; He Miaoting; Shu Qi

    1985-01-01

    In this paper the preliminary results of measurement of natural environmental radiation levels in China with RSS-111 high pressure ionization chamber and estimated doses to population are reported. A total of 2,723 indoor locales throughout China were measured. The results showed that the average absorbed dose rates in air due to gamma radiation for indoors and outdoors were 11.0 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 and 7.4 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 , respectively, and those due to cosmic rays were 3.2 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 and 3.7 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 , respectively. The annual average effective dose equivalent to population was 919 μSv, including 630 μSv from natural gamma radiation and 289 μSv from cosmic rays

  16. Active Radiation Level Measurement on New Laboratory Instrument for Evaluating the Antibacterial Activity of Radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joh, Eunha; Park, Jang Guen

    2014-01-01

    A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. However, it is difficult to measure the antibacterial effect of radioisotopes using a disc method. A disc method is a method for diffusing a drug by placing the drug containing disc on the medium. In this method, radioisotopes are diffused on the medium and it is difficult to measure the exact effect by radiation. Thus, new laboratory equipment needs to evaluate the antibacterial activity by the radioisotopes. In this study, we measured the radiation level of radioisotopes on a new laboratory instrument using a MCNP. A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. This method uses a drug diffusion system for the measurement of anti-bacterial antibiotics. To measure the antimicrobial activity of a radioisotope, a new type of laboratory instrument is necessary to prevent the drug from spreading. The radioisotopes are used to diagnose and treat cancer. However, studies for anti-biotical use have not progressed. The radiation of radioisotopes has the effect of killing bacteria. Before this study proceeds further, it is necessary to be able to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope easily in the laboratory. However, in this study, it was possible to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope in the laboratory using a new laboratory instrument. We intend to start evaluation studies of the antibacterial activity of specific radioisotopes. In addition, it will be possible to develop research to overcome diseases caused by bacteria in the future

  17. Active Radiation Level Measurement on New Laboratory Instrument for Evaluating the Antibacterial Activity of Radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, Eunha; Park, Jang Guen [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. However, it is difficult to measure the antibacterial effect of radioisotopes using a disc method. A disc method is a method for diffusing a drug by placing the drug containing disc on the medium. In this method, radioisotopes are diffused on the medium and it is difficult to measure the exact effect by radiation. Thus, new laboratory equipment needs to evaluate the antibacterial activity by the radioisotopes. In this study, we measured the radiation level of radioisotopes on a new laboratory instrument using a MCNP. A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. This method uses a drug diffusion system for the measurement of anti-bacterial antibiotics. To measure the antimicrobial activity of a radioisotope, a new type of laboratory instrument is necessary to prevent the drug from spreading. The radioisotopes are used to diagnose and treat cancer. However, studies for anti-biotical use have not progressed. The radiation of radioisotopes has the effect of killing bacteria. Before this study proceeds further, it is necessary to be able to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope easily in the laboratory. However, in this study, it was possible to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope in the laboratory using a new laboratory instrument. We intend to start evaluation studies of the antibacterial activity of specific radioisotopes. In addition, it will be possible to develop research to overcome diseases caused by bacteria in the future.

  18. Measured Radiation and Background Levels During Transmission of Megawatt Electron Beams Through Millimeter Apertures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Ricardo [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Balascuta, S. [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Benson, Stephen V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Bertozzi, William [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Boyce, James R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Cowan, Ray [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Evtushenko, Pavel [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Fisher, P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ihloff, Ernest E. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kalantarians, Narbe [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kelleher, Aidan Michael [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Krossler, W. J. [William and Mary College, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Legg, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Long, Elena [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Milner, Richard [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Neil, George R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Ou, Longwu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Schmookler, Barack Abraham [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Tennant, Christopher D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Tschalar, C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Williams, Gwyn P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Shukui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-off, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW continuous-wave (CW) beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, multipactoring inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation when the machine is tuned for 130 MeV operation.

  19. Measurement of the solar ultraviolet radiation at ground level in Bangi, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aljawi, Ohoud; Gopir, Geri; Duay, Abdul Basit [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. ohoud-aljawi@hotmail.com (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Understanding the amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation received by human, plant, and animal organisms near the earth’s surface is important to a wide range of fields such as cancer research, agriculture and forestry. The solar ultraviolet spectral irradiance at ground level was measured using the Avantes spectrometer for the period of January to March 2014 at Bangi (2°55´N, 101°46´E, 50 m above sea level) in Malaysia. These data were used to estimate the diurnal variation of UV irradiance (300 – 400 nm). The maximum irradiance of UV radiation was 45 W m{sup −2} on horizontal surface. The maximum irradiance of UV received in the local noon time, and the minimum values of UV irradiance was received in the local morning time. It is found a bigger value of UV radiation was observed on clear sky in January. The estimation of daily flux average of UV irradiance was (921± 91) kJ m{sup −2}.

  20. Measurements of environmental background radiation levels by TLD in and around the Jahangirnagar University Campus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.; Aleya Begum; Idris Miah, M.; Yunus, Afrozi

    1997-01-01

    The background radiation levels at 30 locations in and around the Jahangirnagar University Campus (JUC) were measured using a LiF(TLD-100) thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). In addition, dose rates at three pre-selected locations were measured on a monthly as well as quarterly basis for one year period (July 1993 - June 1994). The dose rate ranges from 1016 to 2167 μSv.y -1 (101.6 to 216.7 mrem.y -1 ) with a mean value of 1595 μSv.y -1 (159.5 mrem.y -1 ). These values are comparable with those of pre- and post-operational values for the reactor site. The estimated average annual effective dose equivalent to the inhabitants at the study areas was found to be 1276 μSv (127.6 mrem). Variation of background radiation level with meteorological parameters, namely, temperature, rainfall, relative humidity and pressure was also studied. The influence on the dose rate of the meteorological parameters was observed. (author)

  1. Radiative-lifetime measurements and calculations of odd-parity highly excited levels in Ba i

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Du Shan; Palmeri, Patrick; Quinet, Pascal; Biemont, Emile; Dai Zhenwen

    2010-01-01

    Natural radiative lifetime measurements have been performed for 70 odd-parity highly excited levels of neutral barium in the energy range from 308 15.512 to 417 59.93 cm -1 by a time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique in a laser-produced plasma. The lifetime values measured in this paper are in the range from 11.3 to 901 ns. They are compared with the published lifetimes of four levels. Two of them are in good agreement, whereas for the other two our measurements are slightly longer than the published data. The reasons for the discrepancies are discussed. Comparisons with theoretical results of the Hartree-Fock method with relativistic corrections illustrate the difficulties associated with the use of Cowan's codes for obtaining accurate branching fractions for transitions depopulating highly excited levels along the Rydberg series of heavy neutral elements. This work will be useful to extend the set of oscillator strengths available in Ba i.

  2. Measurement of the Radiative Decay of the Longest-Lived Level in the Fe XVII Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Träbert, Elmar

    2014-08-01

    The Fe XVII emission spectrum comprises several very prominent X-ray lines that play an important role in the study of many astrophysical objects. Among the Fe XVII X-ray lines, those emanating from a 3s level, i.e., lines 3F, 3G, and M2, invariably appear too strong compared to the lines emanating from a 3d level, i.e., lines 3C and 3D, when compared to theory. Two of the four 3s levels are metastable, which means they have a rather long radiative decay time compared to collisional processes. The decay rate of the 2p^53s J=2 level has recently been measured at the Livermore EBIT facility [J. R. Crespo López-Urrutia and P. Beiersdorfer, ApJ 721, 576 (2010)], and the scatter of predictions by a factor of 1.7 has been reduced to a measurement uncertainty of merely a few percent. Even longer-lived is the J=0 level of the same 2p^53s configuration. Theory predicts an exclusive magnetic dipole decay to the lowest J=1 level of the same 2p^53s configuration, i.e. to the upper level of line 3G. There appear to be fewer predictions for this rate than for the rates associated with the other Fe XVII levels. Various calculations yield a decay rate near 16 000 s-1 for this level (or a level lifetime near 63 µs). If this value is correct, electron-impact collisions affect line ratios tied to this level at densities between about 10^10 cm-3 and 10^13 cm-3, that is, exactly at many coronal densities of present interest. We have used the Livermore EBIT facility to measure the M1 decay rate of the 2p^53s J=0 level. We find a value commensurate with the value predicted by the Flexible Atomic Code.Work performed under auspices of U.S. D.o.E. by DE-AC52-07NA27344 and supported by NASA's APRA progam under Interagency Agreement NNG13WF991.

  3. State background-radiation levels: results of measurements taken during 1975-1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myrick, T.E.; Berven, B.A.; Haywood, F.F.

    1981-11-01

    Background radiation levels across the United States have been measured by the Off-Site Pollutant Measurements Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These measurements have been conducted as part of the ORNL program of radiological surveillance at inactive uranium mills and sites formerly utilized during Manhattan Engineer District and early Atomic Energy Commission projects. The measurements included determination of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 238 U concentrations in surface soil samples and measurement of external gamma-ray exposure rates at 1 m above the ground surface at the location of soil sampling. This information is being utilized for comparative purposes to determine the extent of contamination present at the survey sites and surrounding off-site areas. The sampling program to date has provided background information at 356 locations in 33 states. External gamma-ray exposure rates were found to range from less than 1 to 34 μR/h, with an US average of 8.5 μR/h. The nationwide average concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 238 U in surface soil were determined to be 1.1, 0.98, and 1.0 pCi/g, respectively

  4. Radiation practices and radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    The guide presents the principal requirements on accuracy of radiation measurements and on the approval, calibration and operating condition inspections of radiation meters, together with requirements for dosimetric services measuring the individual radiation doses of workers engaged in radiation work (approved dosimetric services). The Guide also sets out the definitions of quantities and units used in radiation measurements. The radiation protection quantities used for assessing the harmful effects of radiation and for expressing the maximum values for radiation exposure (equivalent dose and effective dose) are set out in Guide ST 7.2. This Guide concerns measurements of ionizing radiation involved in radiation practices, the results of which are used for determining the radiation exposure of workers engaged in radiation work and members of the public, and of patients subject to the use of radiation in health services, or upon the basis of which compliance with safety requirements of appliances currently in use and of their premises of use or of the workplaces of workers is ensured. The Guide also concerns measurements of the radon concentration of inhaled air in both workplaces and dwellings. The Guide does not apply to determining the radiation exposure of aircrews, determination of exposure caused by internal radiation, or measurements made to protect the public in the event of, or in preparation for abnormal radiation conditions

  5. Radiation level measured by a portable Geiger-Mueller counter at the altitude of commercial air routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    The background intensities of naturally occurring radiation were measured aboard scheduled commercial airplanes using a newly developed Geiger-Mueller counter with a pocket computer. The preliminary results show that the radiation at the cruising altitude of a commercial airplane on a transcontinental flight is 40 times higher than the ground-level. (author)

  6. Radiation detection and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    The book is a complete, clear and up-to-date text that provides a basic review of instruments and methods of ionizing radiation. The text covers detailed discussion of all detector types introductory discussions of radiation sources, interactions, and counting statistics functional analysis of the electronics and pulse processing aspects of radiation detectors in instrumentation systems and consideration of shielding and background potentially vital in low-level counting. A total of 350 figures and approximately 900 references to current scientific literature is included. The book is largely intended as a textbook for a junior/senior or first-year graduate course in nuclear instrumentation and radiation measurements

  7. Measurement of radiation levels in soil samples by γ-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sontakke, C.V.; Thamke, A.N.; Devika, K.; Srikanth, S.; Jayachandran, N.; Chander, Harish

    2016-01-01

    The natural terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate is an important contribution to the average dose rate received by the world's population. Estimation of the radiation dose distribution is important in assessing the health risk to a population and serve as the reference in documenting changes to environmental radioactivity in soil due to anthropogenic activities. Human beings are exposed outdoors to the natural terrestrial radiation that originates predominantly from the upper 30 cm of the soil. Only radionuclides with half-lives comparable with the age of the earth or their corresponding decay products existing in terrestrial material such as 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K are of great interest. Since these radionuclides are not uniformly distributed, the knowledge of their distribution in soil and rock play an important role in radiation protection and measurement. Gamma radiation from these represents the main external source of irradiation to the human body and the concentrations of these radionuclides in soil are determined by the radioactivity of the rock and also nature of the process of the formation of the soils. Therefore, radionuclides in soil generate a significant component of the background radiation exposure to the population

  8. Applying spaceborne reflectivity measurements for calculation of the solar ultraviolet radiation at ground level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. den Outer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term analysis of cloud effects on ultraviolet (UV radiation on the ground using spaceborne observations requires the use of instruments that have operated consecutively. The longest data record can be built from the reflectivity measurements produced by the instruments Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometers (TOMS flown on Nimbus 7 from 1979 to 1992, TOMS on Earth Probe from 1996 to 2005, and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI flown on EOS Aura since 2004. The reflectivity data produced by TOMS on Earth Probe is only included until 2002. A comparison is made with cloud effects inferred from ground-based pyranometer measurements at over 83 World Radiation Data Centre stations. Modelled UV irradiances utilizing the standard reflectivity are compared with measurements of UV irradiances at eight European low-elevation stations. The reflectivity data of the two TOMS instruments shows a consistent agreement, and the required corrections are of low percentage, i.e. 2–3%. In contrast, the reflectivity product of OMI requires correction of 7–10%, and a solar angle dependency therein is more pronounced. These corrections were inferred from a comparison with pyranometer data, and tested using the UV measurements. The average reduction of UV radiation due to clouds for all sites together indicates a small trend: a diminishing cloudiness, in line with ground-based UV observations. Uncorrected implementation of the reflectivity data would have indicated the opposite.

    An optimal area was established for reflectivity data for the calculation of daily sums of UV radiation. It measures approximately 1.25° in latitudinal direction for square-shaped areas overhead the ground-based UV stations. Such an area can be traversed within 5 to 7 h at the average wind speeds found for the West European continent.

  9. Low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1982-05-01

    It is known that the normal incidence of cancer in human populations is increased by exposure to moderately high doses of ionizing radiation. At background radiation levels or at radiation levels which are 100 times greater, the potential health risks are considered to be directly proportional to the total accumulated dose of radiation. Some of the uncertainties associated with this assumption and with the accepted risk estimates have been critically reviewed in this document. The general scientific consensus at present suggests that the accepted risk estimates may exaggerate the actual risk of low levels of sparsely ionizing radiations (beta-, gamma- or X-rays) somewhat but are unlikely to overestimate the actual risks of densely ionizing radiations (fast neutrons, alpha-particles). At the maximum permissible levels of exposure for radiation workers in nuclear power stations, the potential health hazards in terms of life expectancy would be comparable to those encountered in transportation and public utilities or in the construction industry. At the average radiation exposures received by these workers in practice, the potential health hazards are similar to those associated with safe categories of industries. Uranium mining remains a relativly hazardous occupation. In terms of absolute numbers, the genetic hazards, which are less well established, are thought to be smaller than the carcinogenic hazards of radiation when only the first generation is considered but to be of the same order of magnitude as the carcinogenic hazards when the total number of induced genetic disorders is summed over all generations

  10. Distribution of natural radionuclides and radiation level measurements in Karnataka State, India. An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangaswamy, D.R.; Sannappa, J.

    2016-01-01

    The exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation from natural sources is a continuing and inescapable feature of life on earth. A large number of natural radioactivity measurements were conducted throughout world, in order to know their distribution and to assess their radiological health hazards. In this regard, considerable studies have been conducted by different research groups in Karnataka state and more data are reported. In this article, all the studies of natural radioactivity measurements have been combined and reviewed. The majority of the reported articles are about monitoring, distribution and assessment of the radiological health hazards of naturally occurring radionuclides. (author)

  11. Measurement of ionizing radiation level in an high attitude town of Imesi-Ile, Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamidele, L.

    2011-01-01

    The present work attempts to measure ionizing radiation level in an high attitude town of lmesi-Ile, Osun State, South-western, Nigeria. The measurements were carried out in 20 locations within the town using portable Digilert 50 nuclear radiation monitor. The absorbed dose rates obtained ranges from 26.6 to 48.6nGyh -1 with a mean value of 32.0nGyh -1 and deviation of about 25%. The estimated annual effective dose is 0.46mSv. This value is less than the 1mSv/year recommended for normal environment by UNSCEAR.

  12. Levels of naturally occurring gamma radiation measured in British homes and their prediction in particular residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendall, G.M. [University of Oxford, Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Oxford (United Kingdom); Wakeford, R. [University of Manchester, Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health, Institute of Population Health, Manchester (United Kingdom); Athanson, M. [University of Oxford, Bodleian Library, Oxford (United Kingdom); Vincent, T.J. [University of Oxford, Childhood Cancer Research Group, Oxford (United Kingdom); Carter, E.J. [University of Worcester, Earth Heritage Trust, Geological Records Centre, Henwick Grove, Worcester (United Kingdom); McColl, N.P. [Public Health England, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon (United Kingdom); Little, M.P. [National Cancer Institute, DHHS, NIH, Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Gamma radiation from natural sources (including directly ionising cosmic rays) is an important component of background radiation. In the present paper, indoor measurements of naturally occurring gamma rays that were undertaken as part of the UK Childhood Cancer Study are summarised, and it is shown that these are broadly compatible with an earlier UK National Survey. The distribution of indoor gamma-ray dose rates in Great Britain is approximately normal with mean 96 nGy/h and standard deviation 23 nGy/h. Directly ionising cosmic rays contribute about one-third of the total. The expanded dataset allows a more detailed description than previously of indoor gamma-ray exposures and in particular their geographical variation. Various strategies for predicting indoor natural background gamma-ray dose rates were explored. In the first of these, a geostatistical model was fitted, which assumes an underlying geologically determined spatial variation, superimposed on which is a Gaussian stochastic process with Matern correlation structure that models the observed tendency of dose rates in neighbouring houses to correlate. In the second approach, a number of dose-rate interpolation measures were first derived, based on averages over geologically or administratively defined areas or using distance-weighted averages of measurements at nearest-neighbour points. Linear regression was then used to derive an optimal linear combination of these interpolation measures. The predictive performances of the two models were compared via cross-validation, using a randomly selected 70 % of the data to fit the models and the remaining 30 % to test them. The mean square error (MSE) of the linear-regression model was lower than that of the Gaussian-Matern model (MSE 378 and 411, respectively). The predictive performance of the two candidate models was also evaluated via simulation; the OLS model performs significantly better than the Gaussian-Matern model. (orig.)

  13. Levels of naturally occurring gamma radiation measured in British homes and their prediction in particular residences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, G.M.; Wakeford, R.; Athanson, M.; Vincent, T.J.; Carter, E.J.; McColl, N.P.; Little, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Gamma radiation from natural sources (including directly ionising cosmic rays) is an important component of background radiation. In the present paper, indoor measurements of naturally occurring gamma rays that were undertaken as part of the UK Childhood Cancer Study are summarised, and it is shown that these are broadly compatible with an earlier UK National Survey. The distribution of indoor gamma-ray dose rates in Great Britain is approximately normal with mean 96 nGy/h and standard deviation 23 nGy/h. Directly ionising cosmic rays contribute about one-third of the total. The expanded dataset allows a more detailed description than previously of indoor gamma-ray exposures and in particular their geographical variation. Various strategies for predicting indoor natural background gamma-ray dose rates were explored. In the first of these, a geostatistical model was fitted, which assumes an underlying geologically determined spatial variation, superimposed on which is a Gaussian stochastic process with Matern correlation structure that models the observed tendency of dose rates in neighbouring houses to correlate. In the second approach, a number of dose-rate interpolation measures were first derived, based on averages over geologically or administratively defined areas or using distance-weighted averages of measurements at nearest-neighbour points. Linear regression was then used to derive an optimal linear combination of these interpolation measures. The predictive performances of the two models were compared via cross-validation, using a randomly selected 70 % of the data to fit the models and the remaining 30 % to test them. The mean square error (MSE) of the linear-regression model was lower than that of the Gaussian-Matern model (MSE 378 and 411, respectively). The predictive performance of the two candidate models was also evaluated via simulation; the OLS model performs significantly better than the Gaussian-Matern model. (orig.)

  14. Development of radiation detection and measurement systems - Development of level gauge and density gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Su Man; Kim, Sung Hun; Jang, Jung Hun; Yun, Mung Hun; Yun Jun Hyung; Kang, Sung Youn [Techvalley co., Ltd., Research Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    -Pervasive effect of R and D results. Technical development of level/density measuring instruments has a definitely significant effect on the quality test of various products in the filled on the heavy industry. As measurement of flow increasingly becomes important in the plant design in the chemical industry, development of our products is applicable to various equipment in the field of industries. -Applications of R and D results. Technical development of level/density measurement copes with a technical difficulty in inspecting the internal conditions of chemical plants by transmission through metal materials in a non-destructive manner and thereby enables non-destructive flow and level tests in the field of industries. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  15. New method of radiation measurement at carbon isotope 14 low level in an environmental atmospheric sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tormos, J.

    2009-01-01

    A new method of preparation is proposed to extract the atmospheric carbon trapped in the solution of soda coming from air sampling in environment with a carbon-14 bubbler (type H.A.G. 7000). It is based on the neutralisation of the global soda solution got from bubbling pots by nitric acid, the complete desorption of the carbon under gaseous oxidized form (CO 2 ) and its trapping in a only capacity containing a reactive. The whole of the device is scanned by air at steady rate. A test catch of the reactive and of the trapped carbon dioxide is then blended to a glistening liquid (Permafluor E+) and measured in beta counting by scintillation in liquid medium with a counter for the measurement of low energy beta emitters at very low level of activity (Quantulus type). this method allows to get a limit of detection equal to 5 mBq/m 3 for the atmospheric organic carbon. The principal interest of this method is its quickness and simplicity of setting in motion for a measurement of 14 C in the atmospheric carbon dioxide at a level of natural activity. (N.C.)

  16. The environmental radiation monitoring system and in-situ measurements for early notification and OIL (Operational Intervention Levels) calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haquin, G.; Ne'eman, E.; Brenner, S.; Lavi, N.

    1997-01-01

    The efficiency of the environmental radiation monitoring, low level laboratory and in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry are evaluated as the systems for early notification and for determination of dose rate in air, surface contamination and activity concentration in food during emergencies for Operational Intervention Levels (OIL) recalculation.The National Environmental Radiation Monitoring System has proved its efficiency in the early detection of unregistered radiography work. A mobile station of the network can be used for absorbed dose rate measurement during emergencies in contaminated areas. The calibrated in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry system in an open phosphate ore mine has showed the efficiency of this technique for fast and accurate determination of soil activity concentration. The calibration for an uniform depth distribution can be easily mathematically converted to an exponential depth distribution in cases of radioactive material fallout

  17. Exposure levels to radiation in a nuclear medicine laboratory: measurements with thermoluminescence dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz J, A.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1996 in the Nuclear medicine Department and another routine and research departments of the National Institute of Medical and Nutrition Sciences (INCMNSZ) are working at least with 12 radioactive sources opened and sealed. However, it was unknown if with the Tl personal dosemeters with lithium fluoride crystals (LiF), could be possible to receive information about the equivalent dose for each radionuclide or if there was some radionuclide that by being low energy emissor or beta energy emissor, it did not represent an ionization power sufficient to excite the crystals of the thermoluminescent dosemeters (DTL). In this work the obtained results with control dosemeters of diverse source opened or sealed are shown, which were put at 1 cm of the LiF crystals during a time exposure 18 hours. Therefore the objective of this work is to verify which sources excite or not to DTL crystals and taking the pertinent safety measures for each radionuclide. The conclusion is that the majority of dosemeters were excited by beta or gamma radiation of the radionuclides and that LiF crystals are able to receive equivalent doses until 1200 mSv, being this a guarantee for the staff, that in an any moment could be exposed to high dose in his working day. Also it was corroborated that the radionuclides more energizer are: iodine-131, iodine-125 and sodium-22 while the phosphorus-32 must be managed with careful, since the exposure to hands can result significant, just like the technetium-99m ( 99m Tc). (Author)

  18. Radiation flux measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corte, E.; Maitra, P.

    1977-01-01

    A radiation flux measuring device is described which employs a differential pair of transistors, the output of which is maintained constant, connected to a radiation detector. Means connected to the differential pair produce a signal representing the log of the a-c component of the radiation detector, thereby providing a signal representing the true root mean square logarithmic output. 3 claims, 2 figures

  19. Low level radiation: biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    It is imperative that physicians and scientists using radiations in health care delivery continue to assess the benefits derived, vs. potential risk, to patients and radiation workers being exposed to radiation in its various forms as part of our health delivery system. Insofar as possible we should assure our patients and ourselves that the benefits outweigh the potential hazards involved. Inferences as to the possible biological effects of low level radiation are generally based on extrapolations from those effects observed and measured following acute exposures to considerably higher doses of radiation. Thus, in order to shed light on the question of the possible biological effects of low level radiation, a wide variety of studies have been carried out using cells in culture and various species of plant and animal life. This manuscript makes reference to some of those studies with indications as to how and why the studies were done and the conclusions that might be drawn there from. In addition reference is made to the handling of this information by scientists, by environmentalists, and by the news media. Unfortunately, in many instances the public has been misled by what has been said and/or written. It is hoped that this presentation will provide an understandable and reasonable perspective on the various appropriate uses of radiation in our lives and how such uses do provide significant improvement in our health and in our quality of life

  20. Some Comparisons of Measured and Predicted Primary Radiation Levels in the Aagesta Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalto, E; Sandlin, R; Krell, Aa

    1968-05-15

    Neutron fluxes and gamma exposure rates in the primary shields of the Aagesta nuclear plant have been measured and the results compared with values predicted during shield design, and with values obtained later by the NRN bulk shielding code. The input data for the problems are given. The radial predictions are conservative by a factor of not more than 2 close to the reactor and by an unknown, higher factor further out. The conservatism is explainable by the differences between the true local conditions and core power distributions and those assumed in the predictions. The axial flux levels based on streaming calculations are found to agree quite well with the estimated values. The conservatism here is not so large and it seems to be necessary to be very careful when handling streaming problems. The experience gained shows that a power plant is less suitable for studying the accuracy of the shield design codes as such, but the practical results from the combined application of massive shield codes and void streaming predictions to complicated problems give information about the true degree of conservatism present.

  1. The environmental radiation monitoring system and in-situ measurements for early notification and OIL (Operational Intervention Levels) calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haquin, G.; Ne`eman, E.; Brenner, S.; Lavi, N. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Sackler School of Medicine. Inst. for Environmental Research

    1997-12-31

    The efficiency of the environmental radiation monitoring, low level laboratory and in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry are evaluated as the systems for early notification and for determination of dose rate in air, surface contamination and activity concentration in food during emergencies for Operational Intervention Levels (OIL) recalculation.The National Environmental Radiation Monitoring System has proved its efficiency in the early detection of unregistered radiography work. A mobile station of the network can be used for absorbed dose rate measurement during emergencies in contaminated areas. The calibrated in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry system in an open phosphate ore mine has showed the efficiency of this technique for fast and accurate determination of soil activity concentration. The calibration for an uniform depth distribution can be easily mathematically converted to an exponential depth distribution in cases of radioactive material fallout 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.; e-mail: envirad at post.tau.ac.il; env{sub r}ad at netvision,net.il

  2. Radiation Calibration Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omondi, C.

    2017-01-01

    KEBS Radiation Dosimetry mandate are: Custodian of Kenya Standards on Ionizing radiation, Ensure traceability to International System (SI ) and Calibration radiation equipment. RAF 8/040 on Radioisotope applications for troubleshooting and optimizing industrial process established Radiotracer Laboratory objective is to introduce and implement radiotracer technique for problem solving of industrial challenges. Gamma ray scanning technique applied is to Locate blockages, Locate liquid in vapor lines, Locate areas of lost refractory or lining in a pipe and Measure flowing densities. Equipment used for diagnostic and radiation protection must be calibrated to ensure Accuracy and Traceability

  3. Radon and its decay products in living spaces: estimation of radiation exposure and risks for radon levels measured in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, W.

    1984-03-01

    After a general introduction to radiation levels, radon and its daughter products are considered. Radon in living spaces is discussed, in particular the radon concentration in family houses. The influence of energy saving characteristics on the radon concentration in the indoor air includes a 'matched pair' analysis and ventilation installations and dwell duration of indoor air noxious agents. Estimation of the radiation risks are determined, including risks of lung cancer, human epidemiological investigations (miners and radiation levels in living spaces), and possible results of energy saving characteristics. Finally characteristics and recommendations in general are given. (A.N.K.)

  4. Intercomparison of Environmental Nuclear Radiation Measuring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Fei; NI; Ning; HOU; Jin-bing; SONG; Ming-zhe

    2015-01-01

    In 2015,Radiation Metrology Division of China Institute of Atomic Energy organized an environmental monitoring of nuclear radiation measuring intercomparison,and 9laboratories attended.The intercomparison included environmental level dosemeters and protection level

  5. Radiation Levels around the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mala, P; Calviani, M; Nordt, A

    2013-01-01

    This work discuss on the radiation levels measured around the LHC machine during the 2012 operational year. The doses and particle fluences are measured primarily by RadMon detectors – about 300 RadMons are installed around the accelerator – and by thermoluminescent detectors. In addition, BLMs, IG5/PMI ionisation chambers as well as FGCs can be used for corresponding cumulated dose evaluations. The probability of SEE depends directly on the high-energy hadron (HEH) fluence, so this is the main parameter that is calculated based on RadMons counts.

  6. Radiation dose measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    About 200 scientists from 28 countries and 5 international organizations met at a symposium on radiation dosimetry held by the International Atomic Energy Agency in June 1960. The aim of the symposium was not so much the description of a large number of measuring instruments as a discussion of the methods used, with special emphasis on those problems which had become important in the context of recent developments, such as the measurement of mixed or very large doses

  7. Radiation ray measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Tatsuyuki; Ida, Masaki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a chained-radiation ray monitoring system which can be applied to an actual monitoring system of a nuclear power plant or the like. Namely, this device comprises a plurality of scintillation detectors. Each of the detectors has two light take-out ports for emitting light corresponding to radiation rays irradiated from the object of the measurement to optical fibers. In addition, incident light from the optical fiber by way of one of the light take-out optical ports is transmitted to the other of the ports and sent from the other optical port to the fibers. Plurality sets of measuring systems are provided in which each of the detectors are disposed corresponding to a plurality of objects to be measured. A signal processing device is (1) connected with optical fibers of plurality sets of measuring systems in conjunction, (2) detects the optical pulses inputted from the optical fibers to identify the detector from which the optical pulses are sent and (3) measures the amount of radiation rays detected by the identified detector. As a result, the device of the present invention can form a measuring system with redundancy. (I.S.)

  8. Deriving staff and public doses in a PET/CT facility from measured radiation levels using thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Haj, A. N.; Lobriguito, A. M.; Arafah, A.; Parker, R.

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of PET/CT at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre for whole body and brain imaging has become favourable for diagnosis of cancer. There is no data available on the PET/CT dose to staff and members of the public for different activities of 18 F [fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)] and for longer patient holding time. The study aims to determine and evaluate staff and public doses by using thermoluminescent dosemeters monthly readings for a 7-month deployment period and by using direct measurements of dose rates at 30 cm and 1 m distances from the patients after injection. The whole body doses per procedure and per administered activity of 18 F (FDG) were estimated. A dose map inside the PET/CT was generated to provide information of the dose levels in different locations. The Pearson correlation showed a strong correlation (r 2 = 0.71) between the dose per activity and the number of patients. Optimisation of radiation protection of staff and members of the public was investigated and recommendations were given. (authors)

  9. The use of radiation trapping in the measurement of the electron excitation cross section for the production of the 1s4 (3P1) level of Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miers, R.E.; Gastineau, J.E.; Phillps, M.H.; Anderson, L.W.; Lin, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    The authors report the use of laser induced fluorescence for the first measurement of the electron excitation cross section for the production of the 1s 4 ( 3 P 1 ) level of Ne. Radiation trapping is used to lengthen the effective lifetime of the 1s 4 level allowing for the electron excitation cross section of the 1s 4 level to be measured in a manner similar to the measurement of electron excitation cross sections of the metastable 1s 3 and 1s 5 levels. (Auth.)

  10. Measurement and Analysis of Radio-frequency Radiation Exposure Level from Different Mobile Base Transceiver Stations in Ajaokuta and Environs, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ushie, P. O.; Nwankwo, Victor U. J.; Bolaji, Ayinmode; Osahun, O. D.

    2013-01-01

    We present the result of a preliminary assessment of radio-frequency radiation exposure from selected mobile base stations in Ajaokuta environs. The Power density of RF radiation within a radial distance of 125m was measured. Although values fluctuated due to the influence of other factors, including wave interference from other electromagnetic sources around reference base stations, we show from analysis that radiation exposure level is below the standard limit (4.5W/sqm for 900MHz and 9W/sq...

  11. Radiation measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genrich, V.

    1985-01-01

    A highly sensitive and compactly structured radiation measuring instrument for detecting ionizing radiation, in particular for measuring dose rates and contamination. The laminar structure of the associated counter tube, using only a few, simple plastic parts and a highly elastic counter wire, makes it possible to use the simplest manufacturing techniques. The service life of the counter tube construction, which is completely and permanently sealed and filled with gas, is expected to be more than 12 years. The described counter tube can be adapted in optimal fashion to the available space in a pocket instrument if it is used in combination with a specialized high-voltage generator which is low in interference voltage and with a pulse evaluation circuit having a means of compensating for interference voltage

  12. Effect of radiation dose level on accuracy and precision of manual size measurements in chest tomosynthesis evaluated using simulated pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederman, Christina; Allansdotter Johnsson, Aase; Vikgren, Jenny; Rossi Norrlund, Rauni; Molnar, David; Svalkvist, Angelica; Maansson, Lars Gunnar; Baath, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the dependency of the accuracy and precision of nodule diameter measurements on the radiation dose level in chest tomosynthesis. Artificial ellipsoid-shaped nodules with known dimensions were inserted in clinical chest tomosynthesis images. Noise was added to the images in order to simulate radiation dose levels corresponding to effective doses for a standard-sized patient of 0.06 and 0.04 mSv. These levels were compared with the original dose level, corresponding to an effective dose of 0.12 mSv for a standard-sized patient. Four thoracic radiologists measured the longest diameter of the nodules. The study was restricted to nodules located in high-dose areas of the tomosynthesis projection radiographs. A significant decrease of the measurement accuracy and intra-observer variability was seen for the lowest dose level for a subset of the observers. No significant effect of dose level on the interobserver variability was found. The number of non-measurable small nodules (≤5 mm) was higher for the two lowest dose levels compared with the original dose level. In conclusion, for pulmonary nodules at positions in the lung corresponding to locations in high-dose areas of the projection radiographs, using a radiation dose level resulting in an effective dose of 0.06 mSv to a standard-sized patient may be possible in chest tomosynthesis without affecting the accuracy and precision of nodule diameter measurements to any large extent. However, an increasing number of non-measurable small nodules (≤5 mm) with decreasing radiation dose may raise some concerns regarding an applied general dose reduction for chest tomosynthesis examinations in the clinical praxis. (authors)

  13. Radiative lifetime and Lande-factor measurements of the Se I 4p35S 5S2 level using pulsed laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerne, R.

    1992-01-01

    This diploma project consists of spectroscopic examinations of atomic selenium. Natural selenium was thermally dissociated in a quarts resonance cell keeping the background pressure of selenium molecules low by differential heating. The 4p 3 5S 5 S 2 level was excited by frequency-tripled pulsed dye-laser radiation at 207 nm. From time-resolved recording of the fluorescence decay at 216 nm the natural radiative lifetime of the 5 S 2 level was determined to be 493(15) ns. Quantum-beat and optical double resonance measurements in an external magnetic field yielded g j = 2.0004(10) for the Lande factor

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    In order to understand energy's role in anthropogenic global climate change, significant reliance is being placed on General Circulation Models (GCMs). A major goal of the Department is to foster the development of GCMs capable of predicting the timing and magnitude of greenhouse gas-induced global warming and the regional effects of such warming. DOE research has revealed that cloud radiative feedback is the single most important effect determining the magnitude of possible climate responses to human activity. However, cloud radiative forcing and feedbacks are not understood at the levels needed for reliable climate prediction. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program will contribute to the DOE goal by improving the treatment of cloud radiative forcing and feedbacks in GCMs. Two issues will be addressed: the radiation budget and its spectral dependence and the radiative and other properties of clouds. Understanding cloud properties and how to predict them is critical because cloud properties may very well change as climate changes. The experimental objective of the ARM Program is to characterize empirically the radiative processes in the Earth's atmosphere with improved resolution and accuracy. A key to this characterization is the effective treatment of cloud formation and cloud properties in GCMs. Through this characterization of radiative properties, it will be possible to understand both the forcing and feedback effects. GCM modelers will then be able to better identify the best approaches to improved parameterizations of radiative transfer effects. This is expected to greatly improve the accuracy of long-term, GCM predictions and the efficacy of those predictions at the important regional scale, as the research community and DOE attempt to understand the effects of greenhouse gas emissions on the Earth's climate. 153 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Radiation levels in eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; Simmonds, J.R.; Wilkins, B.T.

    1986-01-01

    Immediately after news of the accident at Chernobyl became available on 28 April, the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) was asked by the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) for an appraisal of the radiation situation on the basis of which advice would be given to embassy staff, residents in affected countries and prospective travellers. The first Swedish measurements, external gamma dose rates and, later, concentrations of atmospheric and ground radioactivity, were used to estimate the quantity of radioactivity released by means of NRPB's accident consequence code (1), MARC. Our first predictions of 29 April indicated a substantial release of the order of 10 17 - 10 18 Bq, which was expected to lead to tens of early radiation-induced deaths in the area around the site. On the basis of NRPB's recommended Emergency Reference Levels (ERL's), it was thought that there would be a need for evacuation out to 20 to 30 km and for temporary food restrictions out to a few hundred kilometres from the site. FCO accordingly decided to evacuate students from Kiev and Minsk and to advise people not to travel to the western Soviet Union or to north-east Poland unless absolutely necessary

  16. Radiation detection and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    Introductory material covers radiation sources, radiation interactions, general properties of radiation detectors, and counting statistics and error prediction. This is followed by detailed sections on gas-filled detectors, scintillation counters, semiconductor detectors, neutron detectors and spectroscopy, detector electronics and pulse processing, and miscellaneous radiation detectors and applications

  17. Status of radiation-based measurement technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, B. S.; Lee, J. W.; Chung, C. E.; Hong, S. B.; Kim, J. T.; Park, W. M.; Kim, J. Y.

    1999-03-01

    This report describes the status of measurement equipment using radiation source and new technologies in this field. This report includes the development status in Korea together with a brief description of the technology development and application status in ten countries including France, America, and Japan. Also this report describes technical factors related to radiation-based measurement and trends of new technologies. Measurement principles are also described for the equipment that is widely used among radiation-based measurement, such as level measurement, density measurement, basis weight measurement, moisture measurement, and thickness measurement. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 21 figs

  18. Radiation measurements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, H.C.; Rogers, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    This 1990 symposium was the seventh in a series of meetings which began in 1964. The 300 participants from 23 countries and the 65 oral and 77 poster presentations were more than double the size of the 1985 symposium. Some of this increase derived from the broadened scope of the program. Previous meetings emphasized X-rays and gamma-rays, but it has been increasingly clear that distinction from other forms of radiation (i.e., electrons, alpha-particles and neutrons) was contrived. This broadening led to papers in fields such as ''airport'' monitors and arms control. However, most of the increase in size of the symposium is simply a reflection of the vigorous activity, both academic and industrial in radiation measurements and their many applications. The papers in these Proceedings are arranged by major topic without regard to whether the paper was invited or contributed, oral or poster. Discussion, although an important part of the meeting, was not recorded and therefore is not included in the Proceedings

  19. Measurement and detection of radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tsoulfanidis, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    This fourth edition reflects recent major developments that have occurred in radiation detector materials, systems, and applications. It continues to provide the most practical and up-to-date introduction to radiation detector technology, proper measurement techniques, and analysis of results for engineers and scientists using radiation sources. New chapters emphasize the expanded use of radiation detection systems in nuclear non-proliferation, homeland security, and nuclear medicine. The book also discusses the correct ways to perform measurements following current health physics procedures.

  20. Radiation protection, measurements and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The introductory lectures discuss subjects such as radiation protection principles and appropriate measuring techniques; methods, quantities and units in radiation protection measurement; technical equipment; national and international radiation protection standards. The papers presented at the various sessions deal with: Dosimetry of external radiation (27 papers); Working environment monitoring and emission monitoring (21 contributions); Environmental monitoring (19 papers); Incorporation monitoring (9 papers); Detection limits (4 papers); Non-ionizing radiation, measurement of body dose and biological dosimetry (10 papers). All 94 contributions (lectures, compacts and posters) are retrievable as separate records. (HP) [de

  1. Liquid metal level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, J.C.; Leyland, K.S.

    1982-01-01

    A liquid metal level indicator is described which can be used to measure, in a stainless steel tank, the level of a nuclear reactor coolant such as sodium. The instrument, which is based on the eddy current induction effect, gives readings over substantially the full depth of the tank and indicates the sense of change of level. (U.K.)

  2. Underwater radiation measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Yasuo

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for measuring, under water, radiation from spent fuels (long members to be detected) of nuclear power plants and reprocessing facilities. Namely, a detecting insertion tube (insertion tube) is disposed so as to be in parallel with axial direction of the long member to be detected stored underwater. A γ-ray detector is inserted to the inside of the insertion tube. A driving mechanism is disposed for moving the γ-ray detector in axial direction inside of the insertion tube. The driving mechanism preferably has a system that it moves the γ-ray detector by winding a detection signal cable around a driving drum. The driving mechanism is formed by inserting and securing a driving tube having screws formed on the side surface and inserting it into the insertion tube. It may have a system of moving the γ-ray detector together with the driving tube while engaging the teeth of a driving transfer mechanism with the screws of the driving tube. (I.S.)

  3. ''Intelligent'' radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, A.

    1980-01-01

    A description is given of three applications of current microprocessor technology which are characterized by the use of the microprocessor to impart a degree of intelligence to conventional radiation detection techniques. In the first application the microcomputer computes the radiation dose from the observed counting rate in a Geiger counter. In the second application the microcomputer provides the pulse height distribution and the radioisotopes used, from the spectrum of pulses from a scintillation counter. The third application is an arrangement for radiation monitor calibration. (H.K.)

  4. Measurement of spontaneous DNA damage and DNA repair capacity in healthy adult individuals from high and normal level natural radiation areas of Kerala, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivek Kumar, P.R.; Jaikrishan, G.; Das, Birajalaxmi

    2014-01-01

    Inhabitants of the south west coastal areas of Kerala receive high level natural radiation due to the presence of monazite ( 232 Th) in the beach sand. This provides a unique opportunity to investigate the biological effects of high level natural radiation on humans. This study evaluate basal DNA damage in 149 healthy adult male subjects (104 from high level natural radiation areas (HLNRA, > 1mSv year -1 ) and 45 from normal level natural radiation area (NLNRA, d''1mSv year -1 ) by the alkaline comet assay. Oxidative DNA damage (ENDO III, FPG and hOGG1-sensitive sites) was measured by the enzyme modified comet assay. Induction and rejoining of DNA strand breaks was measured after irradiating peripheral blood lymphocytes with 2 Gy or 4 Gy gamma radiation. Basal damage due to age and residential area of the donors showed significant interaction (P=0.001), when all subjects were analyzed using a general linear model (GLM). In subgroup analysis, basal damage increased with age in subjects from the NLNRA (P=0.007), while a significant negative correlation (P=0.01) was observed in subjects from HLNRA. Oxidative DNA damage was not influenced by age, smoking habit or residential area in the entire sample. Subjects of high dose group from HLNRA (>5.75 mSv/y, N=34) showed a significant reduction in the induction of DNA damage after 2 Gy (P=0.03) and 4 Gy (P=0.05) compared to subjects form NLNRA. The study showed increased rejoining of DNA strand breaks in subjects from HLNRA when measured at 7 minutes after irradiation (P=0.04). In this pilot study, a low basal damage in elderly subjects from HLNRA and a reduced induction of DNA damage after 2 Gy and 4 Gy irradiation in high dose group subjects from HLNRA might suggest a possible role of chronic low dose natural radiation on the induction of an in vivo radio adaptive response. However, our findings need more validation in a larger study population. (author)

  5. Radiation levels in nuclear diagnostic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeulen, A.M.T.I.

    1987-01-01

    To estimate the risks for a pregnant radiological worker, radiation level measurements are executed for common nuclear diagnostic techniques. These measurements are combined with the time which the radiologic worker is present during the performance of the diagnostic techniques. It is concluded that a radiologic worker is receiving less than 5 mSv during pregnancy. This is the case with in vivo determination in a department of nuclear medicine with common diagnostic techniques. Reduction of radiation doses during pregnancy is possible by reduction of heart function examinations, skeletal examinations and brain scans. 1 figure; 13 tabs

  6. Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, K.; Kraus, W.

    Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques are considered as components of the radiation risk. The influence of the exposure risk on type and extent of radiation protection measurements is discussed with regard to different measuring tasks. Based upon measuring results concerning the frequency of certain external and internal occupational exposures in the GDR, it has been shown that only a small fraction of the monitored persons are subjected to a high exposure risk. As a consequence the following recommendations are presented: occupationally exposed persons with small exposure risk should be monitored using only a long-term desimeter (for instance a thermoluminescence desimeter). In the case of internal exposure, the surface and air contamination levels should be controlled so strictly that routine measurements of internal contamination need not be performed

  7. Radiation dose rate measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorber, R.

    1987-01-01

    A portable device is described for in-field usage for measuring the dose rate of an ambient beta radiation field, comprising: a housing, substantially impervious to beta radiation, defining an ionization chamber and having an opening into the ionization chamber; beta radiation pervious electrically-conductive window means covering the opening and entrapping, within the ionization chamber, a quantity of gaseous molecules adapted to ionize upon impact with beta radiation particles; electrode means disposed within the ionization chamber and having a generally shallow concave surface terminating in a generally annular rim disposed at a substantially close spacing to the window means. It is configured to substantially conform to the window means to define a known beta radiation sensitive volume generally between the window means and the concave surface of the electrode means. The concave surface is effective to substantially fully expose the beta radiation sensitive volume to the radiation field over substantially the full ambient area faced by the window means

  8. Background compensation for a radiation level monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, D.J.

    1975-12-01

    Background compensation in a device such as a hand and foot monitor is provided by digital means using a scaler. With no radiation level test initiated, a scaler is down-counted from zero according to the background measured. With a radiation level test initiated, the scaler is up-counted from the previous down-count position according to the radiation emitted from the monitored object and an alarm is generated if, with the scaler having crossed zero in the positive going direction, a particular number is exceeded in a specific time period after initiation of the test. If the test is initiated while the scale is down-counting, the background count from the previous down- count stored in a memory is used as the initial starting point for the up-count.

  9. Solar and infrared radiation measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Vignola, Frank; Michalsky, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The rather specialized field of solar and infrared radiation measurement has become more and more important in the face of growing demands by the renewable energy and climate change research communities for data that are more accurate and have increased temporal and spatial resolution. Updating decades of acquired knowledge in the field, Solar and Infrared Radiation Measurements details the strengths and weaknesses of instruments used to conduct such solar and infrared radiation measurements. Topics covered include: Radiometer design and performance Equipment calibration, installation, operati

  10. Radiation detector device for measuring ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brake, D. von der.

    1983-01-01

    The device contains a compensating filter circuit, which guarantees measurement of the radiation dose independent of the energy or independent of the energy and direction. The compensating filter circuit contains a carrier tube of a slightly absorbing metal with an order number not higher than 35, which surrounds a tubular detector and which carries several annular filter parts on its surface. (orig./HP) [de

  11. A radiation measurement study on cellular phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali; Rozaimah Abd Rahim; Roha Tukimin; Khairol Nizam Mohamed; Mohd Amirul Nizam Mohamad Thari; Ahmad Fadzli Ahmad Sanusi

    2007-01-01

    This paper will explain the radiation level produced by various selected cellular phone from various models and brands available in the market. The result obtained from this study will also recommend whether a cellular phone is safe for public usage or it might cause any effect on public health. Finally, a database of radiation measurement level produced by selected various cellular phone will also be developed and exhibited in this paper. (Author)

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    In order to understand energy's role in anthropogenic global climate change, significant reliance is being placed on General Circulation Models (GCMs). A major goal is to foster the development of GCMs capable of predicting the timing and magnitude of greenhouse gas-induced global warming and the regional effects of such warming. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program will contribute to the Department of Energy goal by improving the treatment of cloud radiative forcing and feedbacks in GCMs. Two issues will be addressed: the radiation budget and its spectral dependence and the radiative and other properties of clouds. The experimental objective of the ARM Program is to characterize empirically the radiative processes in the Earth's atmosphere with improved resolution and accuracy. A key to this characterization is the effective treatment of cloud formation and cloud properties in GCMs. Through this characterization of radiative properties, it will be possible to understand both the forcing and feedback effects. 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Nuclear instrumentation for radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madan, V.K.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear radiation cannot be detected by human senses. Nuclear detectors and associated electronics facilitate detection and measurement of different types of radiation like alpha particles, beta particles, gamma radiation, and detection of neutrons. Nuclear instrumentation has evolved greatly since the discovery of radioactivity. There has been tremendous advancement in detector technology, electronics, computer technology, and development of efficient algorithms and methods for spectral processing to extract precisely qualitative and quantitative information of the radiation. Various types of detectors and nuclear instruments are presently available and are used for different applications. This paper describes nuclear radiation, its detection and measurement and associated electronics, spectral information extraction, and advances in these fields. The paper also describes challenges in this field

  14. Measurement and detection of radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tsoulfanidis, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    This is an update of the standard textbook for the field of radiation measurement. It includes illustrative examples and new problems. The research and applications of nuclear instrumentation have grown substantially since publication of the previous editions. With the miniaturization of equipment, increased speed of electronic components, and more sophisticated software, radiation detection systems are now more productively used in many disciplines, including nuclear nonproliferation, homeland security, and nuclear medicine. Continuing in the tradition of its bestselling predecessors, "Measurement and Detection of Radiation, Third Edition" illustrates the fundamentals of nuclear interactions and radiation detection with a multitude of examples and problems. It offers a clearly written, accessible introduction to nuclear instrumentation concepts. The following are new to the third edition: a new chapter on the latest applications of radiation detection, covering nuclear medicine, dosimetry, health physics, no...

  15. Split energy level radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.T.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes an energy discriminating radiation detector comprising: (a) a first element comprising a first material of a kind which is preferentially responsive to penetrative radiation of a first energy range; (b) a second element comprising a second material different in kind from the first material and of a kind which is preferentially responsive to penetrative radiation of second energy range extending higher than the first energy range. The element is positioned to receive radiation which has penetrated through a portion of the first element; and (c) a filter of penetrative radiation interposed between the first and second elements

  16. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Bahadori Amir; Semones Edward; Ewert Michael; Broyan James; Walker Steven

    2017-01-01

    Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles ...

  17. Thermoluminescent measurement in space radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Mei; Qi Zhangnian; Li Xianggao; Huang Zengxin; Jia Xianghong; Wang Genliang

    1999-01-01

    The author introduced the space radiation environment and the application of thermoluminescent measurement in space radiation dosimetry. Space ionization radiation is charged particles radiation. Space radiation dosimetry was developed for protecting astronauts against space radiation. Thermoluminescent measurement is an excellent method used in the spaceship cabin. Also the authors mentioned the recent works here

  18. Radiation measurements and quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    Accurate measurements are essential to research leading to a successful radiation process and to the commissioning of the process and the facility. On the other hand, once the process is in production, the importance to quality control of measuring radiation quantities (i.e., absorbed dose, dose rate, dose distribution) rather than various other parameters of the process (i.e. conveyor speed, dwell time, radiation field characteristics, product dimensions) is not clearly established. When the safety of the product is determined by the magnitude of the administered dose, as in radiation sterilization, waste control, or food preservation, accuracy and precision of the measurement of the effective dose are vital. Since physical dose measurements are usually simpler, more reliable and reproducible than biological testing of the product, there is a trend toward using standardized dosimetry for quality control of some processes. In many industrial products, however, such as vulcanized rubber, textiles, plastics, coatings, films, wire and cable, the effective dose can be controlled satisfactorily by controlling process variables or by product testing itself. In the measurement of radiation dose profiles by dosimetry, it is necessary to have suitable dose meter calibrations, to account for sources of error and imprecision, and to use correct statistical procedures in specifying dwell times or conveyor speeds and source and product parameters to achieve minimum and maximum doses within specifications. (author)

  19. The hazards of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackith, R.

    1979-01-01

    Safety standards are questioned, particularly in relation to the risk of inducing cancer at low doses of radiation. Statements are made on the following topics: incidence of leukaemia among children around reactors, general aging effect due to radiation, leukaemia among radiation workers in a shipyard repairing nuclear submarines, official withdrawal of funds from research workers in the field of radiation hazards, discrepancies between different measurements of radiation near nuclear power plants. (U.K.)

  20. Temperature radiation measuring equipment. Temperaturstrahlungsmessgeraet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotzer, W

    1981-01-22

    The invention is concerned with a temperature radiation measuring equipment for non-contact temperature measurement by the light intensity variation method, with a photoelectric resistance as the measuring element. By having a circuit with a transistor, the 'dark resistance' occurring in the course of time is compensated for and thus gives a genuine reading (ie. the voltage drop across the photoelectric resistance remains constant).

  1. Quality assurance in radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Mod Ali

    2002-01-01

    The achievement of traceability to recognize measurement standards for ionizing radiation posses special requirements. Methods of transferring reference standard to the working situation are devised through calibration and appropriate traceability, which optimize the accuracy attainable with the method of dose determination in routine use. Appropriate procedures are developed by the SSDL-MINT to establish accurate dose measurement in wide range of radiation fields such as in medicine, agriculture and industrial application. The status of work including effort towards ISO 9000 certification of SSDL dosimetry services will be summarized. (Author)

  2. Radiation Level Changes at RAM Package Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opperman, Erich [Washington Savannah River Company; Hawk, Mark B [ORNL; Kapoor, Ashok [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Packaging and Transportation; Natali, Ronald [R. B. Natali Consulting, Inc.

    2010-01-01

    This paper will explore design considerations required to meet the regulations that limit radiation level variations at external surfaces of radioactive material (RAM) packages. The radiation level requirements at package surfaces (e.g. TS-R-1 paragraphs 531 and 646) invoke not only maximum radiation levels, but also strict limits on the allowable increase in the radiation level during transport. This paper will explore the regulatory requirements by quantifying the amount of near surface movement and/or payload shifting that results in a 20% increase in the radiation level at the package surface. Typical IP-2, IP-3, Type A and Type B packaging and source geometries will be illustrated. Variations in surface radiation levels are typically the result of changes in the geometry of the surface due to an impact, puncture or crush event, or shifting and settling of radioactive contents.

  3. USA's gift aids radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    On 8 December 1969, the anniversary of President Eisenhower's speech which led to the foundation of the Agency, the United States of America handed over a $25 000 gift which will assist considerably the promotion of world-wide standardization in the measurement of radiation. (author)

  4. Course of radiation protection: technical level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The course handbook on radiation protection and nuclear safety, technical level prepared by scientists of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina Republic, describes the subjects in 19 chapters and 2 annexes. These topics detailed in the text have the following aspects: radioactivity elements, interaction of the radiation and the matter, radio dosimetry, internal contamination dosimetry, principles of radiation detection, biological radiation effects, fundamentals of radiation protection, dose limits, optimization, occupational exposure, radiation shielding, radioactive waste management, criticality accidents, safe transport of radioactive materials, regulatory aspects

  5. Environmental Gamma Radiation Measurements in Baskil District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canbazoglu, C.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we have determined environmental gamma radiation dose rate in Baskil district which has very high granite content in its geographical structure. Gamma radiation dose rate measurements were achieved by portable radiation monitoring equipment based on the energy range between 40 keV and 1.3 MeV. The measurements were performed on asphalt and soil surface level and also one meter above the ground surface. The gamma dose rate was also performed inside and outside of buildings over the district. The dose rates were found to be between 8.46μR/h and 34.66 μR/h. Indoor and outdoor effective dose rate of the gamma radiation exposure has been calculated to be 523μSv/y and 196μSv/y, respectively

  6. Background radiation levels and standards for protection from ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farai, I.

    1999-01-01

    Apart from the amount of radiation which a worker may receive while he performs his work, he is also exposed to radiation because of the nature of his environment. In other words, all individuals are subject to some irradiation even though they may not work with radioactive substances. This source of radiation exposure is often referred to as background radiation. In most environments, it is low-level and can be grouped into two natural and man-made. Background radiation provides the basis on which allowable exposure limits for workers are drawn

  7. Corrosion product behaviour in the Loviisa nuclear power plant primary coolant: measures taken to lower radiation levels by modified shutdown procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaernstroem, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    The primary circuit chemistry of the Loviisa nuclear power plant differs in some respects from the concepts commonly used in PWRs. In general, Loviisa 1, which is now in its sixth cycle, and Loviisa 2, which is in its second refuelling and maintenance shutdown (October 1982), are very clean compared with several other PWRs and it seems to be possible to keep the radiation levels low and even reduce them by using correct chemistry during operation; the shutdown conditions seem to have great influence on this matter. These modified shutdown conditions and their influence on radiation levels, dose rates and radwaste buildup are discussed. (author)

  8. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadori Amir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles is described. Using accelerated alpha particles at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the method is applied to sample tiles from the Heat Melt Compactor, which were created by melting material from a simulated astronaut waste stream, consisting of materials such as trash and unconsumed food. The shielding effectiveness calculated from measurements of the Heat Melt Compactor sample tiles is about 10% less than the shielding effectiveness of polyethylene. Shielding material produced from the astronaut waste stream in the form of Heat Melt Compactor tiles is therefore found to be an attractive solution for protection against space radiation.

  9. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Amir; Semones, Edward; Ewert, Michael; Broyan, James; Walker, Steven

    2017-09-01

    Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles is described. Using accelerated alpha particles at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the method is applied to sample tiles from the Heat Melt Compactor, which were created by melting material from a simulated astronaut waste stream, consisting of materials such as trash and unconsumed food. The shielding effectiveness calculated from measurements of the Heat Melt Compactor sample tiles is about 10% less than the shielding effectiveness of polyethylene. Shielding material produced from the astronaut waste stream in the form of Heat Melt Compactor tiles is therefore found to be an attractive solution for protection against space radiation.

  10. Exposure of Finnish population to ultraviolet radiation and radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoikkala, M.; Lappalainen, J.; Leszczynski, K.; Paile, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report is based on a survey of the literature on radiation risks involved in sunbathing and the use of solaria. The purpose of the report is to provide background information for the development of regulations on solaria and for informing the public about the risks posed by solaria and the sun. The report gives an overview of the properties and biological effects of ultraviolet radiation. The most important regulations and recommendations issued in various countries are presented. The connection between ultraviolet radiation and the risks of skin cancer is examined both on a general level and in reference to information obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry. In Finland, the incidence of melanomas nearly tripled between 1960 and 1980. The most important cause is considered to be the population's increased exposure to the su's ultraviolet radiation. There are no reliable data on the connection between the use of solaria and the risks of skin cancer. It is estimated, however, that solaria account for less than 10 per cent of the skin cancer risk of the whole population. There are some difficult physical problems associated with the measurement of ultraviolet radiation emitted by both natural sources and solaria. A preliminary study of these problems has been undertaken by means of a survey of the available literature, supplemented by a review of measurements performed by the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety. The estimated inaccuracy of the Optronic 742 spectroradiometer used by the Centre in the measurement of ultraviolet radiation emitted by the sun and solaria is about +-14%

  11. Radiation exposure of airplane crews. Exposure levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergau, L.

    1995-01-01

    Even at normal height levels of modern jet airplanes, the flying crew is exposed to a radiation level which is higher by several factors than the terrestrial radiation. There are several ways in which this can be hazardous; the most important of these is the induction of malignant growths, i.e. tumours. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Measuring Your Fitness Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... online calculator. If you'd rather do the math yourself, divide your weight in pounds by your ... Human Services recommends one of the following activity levels for adult fitness and health benefits: 150 minutes ...

  13. measurement of indoor background ionizing radiation in some

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Measurement of the background ionizing radiation profile within the. Chemistry Research Laboratory and Physics Laboratory III all of the. University of Jos and their immediate neighbourhood were carried out. These science laboratories also harbour a number of active radiation sources. The radiation levels were measured ...

  14. Assessment of dose level of ionizing radiation in army scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Hamid, S. M.

    2010-12-01

    Radiation protection is the science of protecting people and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation, which includes both particle radiation and high energy radiation. Ionizing radiation is widely used in industry and medicine. Any human activity of nuclear technologies should be linked to the foundation of scientific methodology and baseline radiation culture to avoid risk of radiation and should be working with radioactive materials and expertise to understand, control practices in order to avoid risks that could cause harm to human and environment. The study was conducted in warehouses and building of Sudan air force Khartoum basic air force during September 2010. The goal of this study to estimate the radiation dose and measurement of radioactive contamination of aircraft scrap equipment and increase the culture of radiological safety as well as the concept of radiation protection. The results showed that there is no pollution observed in the contents of the aircraft and the spire part stores outside, levels of radiation dose for the all contents of the aircraft and spire part within the excitable level, except temperature sensors estimated radiation dose about 43 μSv/h outside of the shielding and 12 μSv/h inside the shielding that exceeded the internationally recommended dose level. One of the most important of the identification of eighteen (18) radiation sources used in temperature and fuel level sensors. These are separated from the scrap, collected and stored in safe place. (Author)

  15. Radiation doses and possible radiation effects of low-level, chronic radiation in vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads, W.A.; Franks, L.A.

    1975-01-01

    Measurements were made of radiation doses in soil and vegetation in Pu-contaminated areas at the Nevada Test Site with the objective of investigating low-level, low-energy gamma radiation (with some beta radiation) effects at the cytological or morphological level in native shrubs. In this preliminary investigation, the exposure doses to shrubs at the approximate height of stem apical meristems were estimated from 35 to 140 R for a ten-year period. The gamma exposure dose estimated for the same period was 20.7 percent +- 6.4 percent of that recorded by the dosimeters used in several kinds of field instrument surveys. Hence, a survey instrument reading made at about 25 cm in the tops of shrubs should indicate about 1 / 5 the dosimeter-measured exposures. No cytology has yet been undertaken because of the drought since last winter. (auth)

  16. Cosmic radiation doses at flight level altitudes of airliners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viragh, E.; Petr, I.

    1985-01-01

    Changes are discussed in flux density of cosmic radiation particles with time as are the origin of cosmic radiation, the level of cosmic radiation near the Earth's surface, and the determination of cosmic radiation doses in airliners. Doses and dose rates are given measured on different flight routes. In spite of the fact that the flight duration at an altitude of about 10 km makes for about 80% of the total flight time, the overall radiation burden of the crews at 1000 flight hours a year is roughly double that of the rest of the population. (J.C.)

  17. Automated System of Area Radiation Measurement (ASARM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez G, J.

    2013-10-01

    The realized activities in nuclear facilities involve the determination of the presence of ionizing radiation fields in the workspaces. The instruments designed to detect and to measure these radiation fields provide useful information (specific type of radiation, intensity, etc.) to take the appropriate radiological protection measures, with the purpose of reducing to the minimum the workers exposition and the people in general. The radiological protection program of Reactor TRIGA Mark III contains the instructions and procedures to implement a periodic radiological monitoring, surveillance, rising of contamination levels, type and number of the instruments required for the radiological monitoring of areas and personal. The ana logical monitoring system model Rms II used to detect and measuring exposition speed and neutron radiation fields in several areas of the installation, provides the information in a logarithmic scale measurer of 4 or 5 decades located in a shelf where the previously mentioned measurement channels are centralized. Also inside the reactor monitoring system are two monitors of radioactive material concentration in the air: The particles continuous monitor and the gaseous effluents monitor which present the referred information of the diverse detectors through ana logical readers. These monitors when operating with an ana logical indication does not present the possibility to generate historical files electronically of each monitor previously mentioned neither to generate visual and audible indications of the alarms. This work presents the Automated System of Area Radiation Measurement which potentiated the functionality of the area monitors for gamma and neutron radiation, as well as of the particles continuous monitor and the gaseous effluents of reactor TRIGA Mark III, when being developed a computer system that captures in real time the information of all the monitors, generating this way an electronic binnacle, a visual and audible alarm

  18. Can low-level radiation cause cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosko, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Health in a multicellular organism is maintained by homeostatic processes. Disruption of these homeostatic controls at the molecular, biochemical, cellular, and organ systems levels can be brought about by irreversible changes in the genetic material (mutagenesis), cell death (cytotoxicity), or reversible changes in the expression of genes at the transcriptional, translational, or posttranslational levels (epigenesis). While radiation is known to induce DNA damage/mutations, cell, death and epigenetic changes, in addition to cancers that are found in radiation-exposed animals, experimentally, and in humans, epidemiologically, the question is, At low-level exposure, what is the risk that cancers are open-quotes causedclose quotes by the radiation?

  19. Level of Radiofrequency (RF) Radiations from GSM Base Stations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of radiofrequency radiations around two global systems for mobile communication (GSM) base stations located in the vicinity of a residential quarter and workplace complex were measured. The effects of the radiofrequency radiations on albino mice placed in exposure cages and located around the base stations ...

  20. Radiation levels from computer monitor screens within Benue State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of possible presence of soft X-ray levels from Computer Screens at distances of 0.5m and 1.0m was carried out within Benue State University, Makurdi, using ten different monitor models. Radiation measurement was carried out using a portable digital radiation meter, INSPECTOR 06250 (SE international Inc.

  1. Low-level radiation risks in people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goloman, M.; Filjushkin, V. lgor

    1993-01-01

    Using the limited human data plus the relationships derived from the laboratory, a leukemia risk model has been developed as well as a suggested model for other cancers in people exposed to low levels of radiation. Theoretical experimental and epidemiological evidence will be presented in an integrated stochastic model for projection of radiation-induced cancer risks

  2. About the principles of radiation level normalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovskij, A.V.

    2000-01-01

    The paper highlights the impact being made by the radiation level normalization principles upon the social and economic indicators. The newly introduced radiation safety standards - 97 are taken as an example. It is emphasized that it is necessary to use a sound approach while defining radiation protection standards, taking into consideration economic and social factors existing in Ukraine at the moment. Based on the concept of the natural radiation background and available results of the epidemiological surveys, the dose limits are proposed for the radiation protection standards. The paper gives a description of the dose limitation system recommended by the International Committee for Radiation Protection. The paper highlights a negative impact of the line non threshold concept, lack of special knowledge in the medical service and mass media to make decisions to protect people who suffered from the Chernobyl accident

  3. A large-scale measurement, analysis and modelling of electromagnetic radiation levels in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base stations in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadağ, Teoman; Yüceer, Mehmet; Abbasov, Teymuraz

    2016-01-01

    The present study analyses the electric field radiating from the GSM/UMTS base stations located in central Malatya, a densely populated urban area in Turkey. The authors have conducted both instant and continuous measurements of high-frequency electromagnetic fields throughout their research by using non-ionising radiation-monitoring networks. Over 15,000 instant and 13,000,000 continuous measurements were taken throughout the process. The authors have found that the normal electric field radiation can increase ∼25% during daytime, depending on mobile communication traffic. The authors' research work has also demonstrated the fact that the electric field intensity values can be modelled for each hour, day or week with the results obtained from continuous measurements. The authors have developed an estimation model based on these values, including mobile communication traffic (Erlang) values obtained from mobile phone base stations and the temperature and humidity values in the environment. The authors believe that their proposed artificial neural network model and multivariable least-squares regression analysis will help predict the electric field intensity in an environment in advance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. A large-scale measurement, analysis and modelling of electromagnetic radiation levels in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base stations in an urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadag, Teoman; Abbasov, Teymuraz; Yuceer, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The present study analyses the electric field radiating from the GSM/UMTS base stations located in central Malatya, a densely populated urban area in Turkey. The authors have conducted both instant and continuous measurements of high-frequency electromagnetic fields throughout their research by using non-ionising radiation-monitoring networks. Over 15 000 instant and 13 000 000 continuous measurements were taken throughout the process. The authors have found that the normal electric field radiation can increase ∼25 % during daytime, depending on mobile communication traffic. The authors' research work has also demonstrated the fact that the electric field intensity values can be modelled for each hour, day or week with the results obtained from continuous measurements. The authors have developed an estimation model based on these values, including mobile communication traffic (Erlang) values obtained from mobile phone base stations and the temperature and humidity values in the environment. The authors believe that their proposed artificial neural network model and multivariable least-squares regression analysis will help predict the electric field intensity in an environment in advance. (authors)

  5. Level gauge using neutron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus for determining the level of a solid or liquid material in a container comprises: a vertical guide within or alongside the container; a sensor positioned within the guide; means for moving the sensor along the guide; and means for monitoring the position of the sensor. The sensor comprises a source of fast neutrons, a detector for thermal neutrons, and a body of a neutron moderating material in close proximity to the detector. Thermal neutrons produced by fast neutron irradiation of the solid or liquid material, or thermal neutrons produced by irradiation of the neutron-moderating material by fast or epithermal neutrons reflected by the solid or liquid material, are detected when the sensor is positioned at or below the level of the material in the container

  6. Environmental levels of microwave radiation around a satellite earth station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyner, K.H.; Bangay, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the background to claims of possible adverse health effects arising from exposure to environmental levels of microwave radiation around satellite earth stations. Results of a recent survey of the environmental levels of microwave radiation around two 32 metre diameter satellite communications antennas owned and operated by the Overseas Telecommunications Commission (OTC) of Australia are presented. From the measurements obtained in this survey it can be concluded that the environmental levels of microwave radiation around the OTC and similar satellite facilities do not pose a health risk to persons in the vicinity

  7. Radiofrequency (RF) radiation measurement for diathermy machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozaimah Abdul Rahim; Roha Tukimin; Mohd Amirul Nizam; Ahmad Fadzli; Mohd Azizi

    2010-01-01

    Full-text: Diathermy machine is one of medical device that use widely in hospital and clinic. During the diathermy treatment, high radiofrequency (RF) currents (shortwave and microwave) are used to heat deep muscular tissues through electromagnetic energy to body tissues. The heat increases blood flow, relieve pain and speeding up recovery. The stray RF radiation from the machine can exposes to unintended tissue of the patient, to the operator (physical therapist) and also can cause electromagnetic interference (EMI) effect to medical devices around the machine. The main objective of this study is to establish a database of the RF radiation exposure levels experienced by the operator and patient during the treatments. RF radiation (electric and magnetic field) produced by the diathermy machines were measured using special RF survey meters. The finding of this study confirms that radiation levels on the surface and near the applicator of the diathermy machine much more elevated due to the much closer distance to the source and they exceeding the occupational and general public exposure limit. The results also shows the field strengths drop very significantly when the distance of measurement increase. (author)

  8. Radiation sources, radiation environment and risk level at Dubna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komochkov, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    The overall information about ionizing radiation sources, which form radiation environment and risk at Dubna, is introduced. Systematization of the measurement results is performed on the basis of the effective dose and losses of life expectancy. The contribution of different sources to total harm of Dubna inhabitants has been revealed. JINR sources carry in ∼ 4% from the total effective dose of natural and medicine radiation sources; the harm from them is much less than the harm from cigarette smoking. 18 refs.; 2 tabs

  9. Radiation levels in Ecuadorian Cattle Milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinoso, Teresa; Vasquez, Ramiro

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The radiation and natural radioactivity present in the ground from a radioactive decay of 238 U, 235 U and 232 Th, and of the radioisotope 40 K can be transferred to the nutritional chain of the human being. Milk is a food considered basic within population's diet. The Ecuadorian Highlands has the greater production of cattle milk in the country, this industry needs great extensions of graze and available superficial water, which the cows consumed for crude milk production, with the consequent product industrialization. In the present research, gamma radiation levels where monitoring in 12 crude milk representative samples of the zone. The measurements where carried out using an equipment of spectrometry gamma ray system, with a detector of Hiperpuro Germanium (GeHp), which has been used in the analysis of standard and samples spectrums, with a constant geometry of the sample holder. The spectrums of the milk analysis show the presence of the radioisotopes coming from uranium radioactive decay. The majority of the values of activity concentration are below the minimum detection activity, unlike the potassium that presents a detectable but a non quantitative spectrum. So far, with the results obtained it is possible to guarantee the milk consumption and its derivatives in the Andean Region of the country. Related research will allow us implementing the radiological monitoring of this and other foods in the country, in order to protected population health. (author)

  10. SGR-76 gamma radiation level indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubinskij-Nadezhdin, I.V.

    1978-01-01

    The design of a gamma-radiation level indicator is described; the instrument is part of a mobile radiometric laboratory (MRL). The design of the instrument permits gamma-radiation dose rates recording at 0.2-200 R/hr, and signals on gamma-background levels. The instrument has two separate threshold levels of signalling actuation. The light signalling at the first level is precautionary, and the sound signalling at the second level indicates the necessity of taking a decision as to whether or not the MRL can remain in the gamma-radiation field. Halogenic counters operating in a current mode are used as detectors. The basic error in recording the dose rate amounts to +-25%. Overall dimensions of the instrument 150x280x100 mm; weight less than 2.5 kg

  11. Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Bordner, Autumn S.; Crosswell, Danielle A.; Katz, Ainsley O.; Shah, Jill T.; Zhang, Catherine R.; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Hughes, Emlyn W.; Ruderman, Malvin A.

    2016-01-01

    Sixty-seven nuclear tests were conducted on two atolls in the northern Marshall Islands between 1946 and 1958. These tests produced radioactive fallout, which even today gives rise to radiation measurable above naturally occurring background levels. Rather than obtain new data, recent estimates of contamination levels in the northern Marshall Islands use measurements made decades ago to calculate present radiation levels. In contrast, we report on timely measurements on three different atolls...

  12. Radiobiologic effects at low radiation levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casarett, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    Data are reviewed on the effects of low radiation doses on mammals. Data from the 1972 report on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation issued by the Advisory Committee of the National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council are discussed. It was concluded that there are certain radiosensitive systems in which low doses of radiation may cause degenerative effects, including gametogenic epithelium, lens of the eye, and developing embryos. Despite extensive investigation of genetic effects, including chromosomal effects, neither the amount of change that will be caused by very low levels of irradiation nor the degree of associated detriment is known

  13. Human exposure to low level ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paix, David

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the low-level radiation sources and their effects on human populations, from a global perspective. 'Low-level' means exposures in the range of the natural background to which everybody is exposed. The quoted values are whole-world averages, but individual variations are mentioned in a few cases. (author). 22 refs

  14. Natural external radiation level and population dose in Hunan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A survey of the natural external radiation level in Hunan Province is reported. The measurements were performed with FD-71 scintillation radiometers. On the basis of measurements at about 1,600 locations, the contribution from cosmic radiation is found to be 3.0 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 , and the average absorbed dose rates in air from terrestrial γ-radiation for outdoors, indoors and roads are determined to be 9.2, 13.1 and 9.0 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 , respectively. The γ-radiation indoors is markedly higher than that outdoors by a factor of 1.42. The lowest γ-radiation level is found in the sedimentary plain around Donting Lake, while the highest absorbed dose rates in air from terrestrial radiation are observed in some areas with exposed granites. The indoor γ-radiation in brick houses is markedly higher than that in wooden houses. Tarred roads have evidently lower radiation level than sand-gravel roads or concrete roads. The annual effective dose equivalents to the population from cosmic and terrestrial sources are 0.256 and 0.756 mSv, respectively, with a total value of 1.012 mSv

  15. Health effects of low level radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Sadao [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    In 1982, Prof. Thomas Don Luckey of Missouri Univ. asserted `Radiation Hormesis` on the Journal of Health Physics and he published two books. CRIEPI initiated the research program on Radiation Hormesis following his assertion to confirm `is it true or not?` After nearly ten year research activities on data surveys and animal tests with many Universities, we are realizing scientific truth of bio-positive effects by low level radiation exposures. The interesting bio-positive effects we found could be categorized in following five groups. 1) Rejuvenation of cells such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability, 2) Moderation of psychological stress through response of key enzymes, 3) Suppression and therapy of adult-diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, 4) Suppression of cancer through enhancement of immune systems such as lymphocytes, 5) Suppression of cancer and ratio-adaptive response by activation of DNA repair and apoptosis. In the responses of many specialists to our initiation of radiation hormesis research program following T.D. Luckey`s claim about low level radiation, I have to pick up for the first, the great success of Prof. Sakamoto. Prof. Sakamoto had been already applying whole body low dose irradiation for ten years before our radiation hormesis research started on the therapy to suppress the cancer reappearing after treatment. He reported about his successful trial to real patients and showed an enhancement of immune system. (author)

  16. Health effects of low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao

    1998-01-01

    In 1982, Prof. Thomas Don Luckey of Missouri Univ. asserted 'Radiation Hormesis' on the Journal of Health Physics and he published two books. CRIEPI initiated the research program on Radiation Hormesis following his assertion to confirm 'is it true or not?' After nearly ten year research activities on data surveys and animal tests with many Universities, we are realizing scientific truth of bio-positive effects by low level radiation exposures. The interesting bio-positive effects we found could be categorized in following five groups. 1) Rejuvenation of cells such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability, 2) Moderation of psychological stress through response of key enzymes, 3) Suppression and therapy of adult-diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, 4) Suppression of cancer through enhancement of immune systems such as lymphocytes, 5) Suppression of cancer and ratio-adaptive response by activation of DNA repair and apoptosis. In the responses of many specialists to our initiation of radiation hormesis research program following T.D. Luckey's claim about low level radiation, I have to pick up for the first, the great success of Prof. Sakamoto. Prof. Sakamoto had been already applying whole body low dose irradiation for ten years before our radiation hormesis research started on the therapy to suppress the cancer reappearing after treatment. He reported about his successful trial to real patients and showed an enhancement of immune system. (author)

  17. Effects of high vs low-level radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to appreciate adequately the various possible effects of radiation, particularly from high-level vs low-level radiation exposure (HLRE, vs LLRE), it is necessary to understand the substantial differences between (a) exposure as used in exposure-incidence curves, which are always initially linear and without threshold, and (b) dose as used in dose-response curves, which always have a threshold, above which the function is curvilinear with increasing slope. The differences are discussed first in terms of generally familiar nonradiation situations involving dose vs exposure, and then specifically in terms of exposure to radiation, vs a dose of radiation. Examples are given of relevant biomedical findings illustrating that, while dose can be used with HLRE, it is inappropriate and misleading the LLRE where exposure is the conceptually correct measure of the amount of radiation involved

  18. Ultraviolet radiation, measurements and safety evaluations for radiation protection purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witew, B.; Fischer, P.G.

    1983-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of ultraviolet radiation, one has to study that photobiologically effective radiation which induces a just measurable threshold reaction. For practical radiation protection, one has to determine the permissible duration of exposure at the end of which the threshold reaction is induced. This time limit is derived by means of spectral measurements and determination of radiation intensity. Detrimental photobiological effects can be avoided, and favourable effects optimized, by observing the time limit. Thus these measurements are used to determine the threshold at which the desired effects of ultraviolet radiation will be accompanied by unwanted effects or damage to persons, as for instance in the use of ultraviolet radiation for operating room sterilization, arc welding work, or cosmetic purposes. (orig.) [de

  19. Measurement and detection of radiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsoulfanidis, Nicholas; Landsberger, Sheldon

    2011-01-01

    .... With the miniaturization of equipment, increased speed of electronic components, and more sophisticated software, radiation detection systems are now more productively used in many disciplines...

  20. Radiation measurements on the Mir Orbital Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badhwar, G.D.; Atwell, W.; Reitz, G.; Beaujean, R.; Heinrich, W.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation measurements made onboard the MIR Orbital Station have spanned nearly a decade and covered two solar cycles, including one of the largest solar particle events, one of the largest magnetic storms, and a mean solar radio flux level reaching 250x10 4 Jansky that has been observed in the last 40 years. The cosmonaut absorbed dose rates varied from about 450 μGy day -1 during solar minimum to approximately half this value during the last solar maximum. There is a factor of about two in dose rate within a given module, and a similar variation from module to module. The average radiation quality factor during solar minimum, using the ICRP-26 definition, was about 2.4. The drift of the South Atlantic Anomaly was measured to be 6.0±0.5 deg. W, and 1.6±0.5 deg. N. These measurements are of direct applicability to the International Space Station. This paper represents a comprehensive review of Mir Space Station radiation data available from a variety of sources

  1. Methodology for setting the reference levels in the measurements of the dose rate absorbed in air due to the environmental gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Ley, Orlando; Capote Ferrera, Eduardo; Caveda Ramos, Celia; Alonso Abad, Dolores

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The methodology for setting the reference levels of the measurements of the gamma dose rate absorbed in the air is described. The registration level was obtained using statistical methods. To set the alarm levels, it was necessary to begin with certain affectation level, which activates the investigation operation mode when being reached. It is was necessary to transform this affectation level into values of the indicators selected to set the appearance of an alarm in the network, allowing its direct comparison and at the same time a bigger operability of this one. The affectation level was assumed as an effective dose of 1 mSv/y, which is the international dose limit for public. The conversion factor obtained in a practical way as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident was assumed, converting the value of annual effective dose into values of effective dose rate in air. These factors are the most important in our work, since the main task of the National Network of Environmental Radiological Surveillance of the Republic of Cuba is detecting accidents with a situations regional affectation, and this accident is precisely an example of pollution at this scale. The alarm level setting was based on the results obtained in the first year of the Chernobyl accident. For this purpose, some transformations were achieved. In the final results, a correction factor was introduced depending on the year season the measurement was made. It was taken into account the influence of different meteorological events on the measurement of this indicator. (author)

  2. Low-level radiation waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubofcik, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a low-level radiation waste container set for use in conjunction with an open-topped receptacle. It comprises: a receptacle liner having a closed end and an open end, the receptacle liner sized for deployment as an inserted liner in an open-topped receptacle for collecting low-level radiation waste material within the receptacle liner within the open-topped receptacle; a cover sized and shaped to fit over the open top of the open-topped receptacle and the receptacle liner therein with the cover is in a closed position. The cover having a depending skirt which, when the cover is in the closed position, extends downwardly to overlap the open-topped receptacle adjacent the open top thereof and a portion of the receptacle liner received therein; and the receptacle liner and cover being fabricated of flexible radiation shielding material

  3. Nuclear systems of level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, A.J.; Cabrera, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    In the industry there are processes in which is necessary to maintain the products level controlled which are handled for their transformation. The majority of such processes and by the operation conditions, they do not admit measure systems of level of invasive type then the application of nuclear techniques for level measurement results a big aid in these cases, since all the system installation is situated beyond frontiers of vessels that contain the product for measuring. In the Department of Nuclear Technology Applications of Mexican Petroleum Institute was developed a level measurement system by gamma rays transmission which operates in the Low Density Polyethylene plant of Petrochemical Complex Escolin at Poza Rica, Veracruz, Mexico. (Author)

  4. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churtgen, C.

    2007-01-01

    The low-level radioactivity measurements service performs measurements of alpha or beta emitters on various types of low-radioactivity samples (biological and environmental) from internal and external clients. to maintain and develop techniques concerning the measurement of low-level radioactivity of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in environmental or biological samples; to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters and alpha-spectrometers); to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination or low level radioactivity measurements; to maintain the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard for which we obtained the Beltest accreditation in 1998; to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides for workers of the nuclear industry;

  5. Acceptance criteria for deposition of low-level and intermediate-level radiation levels radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    This norm establishes the criteria for acceptance low and intermediate radiation level for safe deposition in repositories, for assuring the protection of workers, population and environment against the hazardous effects of the ionizing radiations. The criteria of this norm applies to the low and intermediate radiation levels

  6. Application of microprocessors to radiation protection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zappe, D.; Meldes, C.

    1982-01-01

    In radiation protection measurements signals from radiation detectors or dosemeters have to be transformed into quantities relevant to radiation protection. In most cases this can only be done by taking into account various parameters (e.g. the quality factor). Moreover, the characteristics of the statistical laws of nuclear radiation emission have to be considered. These problems can properly be solved by microprocessors. After reviewing the main properties of microprocessors, some typical examples of applying them to problems of radiation protection measurement are given. (author)

  7. Environmental gamma radiation levels around various DAE research centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takale, R.A.; Swarnakar, M.; Shetty, P.G.; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the gamma radiation levels of four research centres viz. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay; Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam; Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VECC), Kolkata; Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore; and an industry Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), Vashi. BARC is India's premier nuclear research facility and is a multi-disciplinary research centre with extensive infrastructure for advanced research and development (R and D). IGCAR, Kalpakkam is engaged in scientific research and advanced engineering programme towards the development of Fast Breeder Reactor technology. VECC Kolkata is dedicated to carry out frontier R and D in the fields of Accelerator Science and Technology, Nuclear Science (Theoretical and Experimental), and Material Science etc. RRCAT, Indore has rapidly grown into a premier institute for R and D in lasers, accelerators and their applications. BRIT, Vashi unit is involved in production, development, and supply of radioisotope based products and provision of isotope applications, radiation processing, radio analytical services etc. With an objective to keep a watch on the prevailing environmental background gamma radiation level around all the DAE installations, routine monitoring programme are being carried out using the Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs). TLDs provide the simple, inexpensive and precise measurement of small, integrated, external gamma radiation dose rate. The general practice of this programme is to observe the outdoor gamma radiation levels. This paper summarizes the methodology and gamma radiation levels of four research centres viz. BARC, IGCAR, VECC, RRCAT and an industry BRIT, Vashi

  8. Near-Core and In-Core Neutron Radiation Monitors for Real Time Neutron Flux Monitoring and Reactor Power Level Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas S. McGregor; Marvin L. Adams; Igor Carron; Paul Nelson

    2006-06-12

    MPFDs are a new class of detectors that utilize properties from existing radiation detector designs. A majority of these characteristics come from fission chamber designs. These include radiation hardness, gamma-ray background insensitivity, and large signal output.

  9. Near-Core and In-Core Neutron Radiation Monitors for Real Time Neutron Flux Monitoring and Reactor Power Level Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas S. McGregor; Marvin L. Adams; Igor Carron; Paul Nelson

    2006-01-01

    MPFDs are a new class of detectors that utilize properties from existing radiation detector designs. A majority of these characteristics come from fission chamber designs. These include radiation hardness, gamma-ray background insensitivity, and large signal output

  10. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtgen, C.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination and low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain and improve the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are reported

  11. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtgen, C.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advice the nuclear and non-nuclear industry in matters concerning radioactive contamination and/or low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain the quality assurance system according to the EN45001/ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2000 are reported

  12. Measurement of radiative lifetime in atomic samarium using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-08

    Feb 8, 2014 ... gations of radiative lifetime measurement of odd-parity energy level at ... introduced by an electronic delay generator between the two ... cascade repopulation and depopulation, Zeeman and hyperfine quantum beats [6]. The.

  13. Pressing problems of measurement of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fominykh, V.I.; Yudin, M.F.

    1993-01-01

    The current system for ensuring the unity of measurements in the Russian Federation and countries of the former Soviet Union ensures a high quality of dosimetric, radiometric, and spectrometric measurements in accordance with the recommendations of the Consulative Committee on Standards for Measurements of Ionizing Radiations of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (IBWM), International Organization on Radiological Units (ICRU), International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), International Organization on Legislative Metrology (IOLM), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), etc. Frequent collation of the national primary and secondary standards of Russia with those of IBWM and the leading national laboratories of the world facilitate mutual verification of the measurements of ionizing radiations. The scope of scientific and scientific-technical problems that can be solved by using ionizing radiations has expanded significantly in recent years. In this paper the authors consider some pressing problems of the metrology of ionizing radiations which have arisen as a result of this expansion. These include the need for unity and reliability of measurements involved in radiation protection, the measurement of low doses involving low dose rates, ensuring the unity of measurements when monitoring the radiological security of the population, the need for more uniformity on an international scale regarding the basic physical quantities and their units for characterizing radiation fields, determination of the accuracy of measurement of the radiation dose absorbed by an irradiated tissue or organ, and the development of complex standards for ionizing radiations. 5 refs., 1 tab

  14. Low-level radiation effects: a fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brill, A.B.; Adelstein, S.J.; Saenger, E.L.; Webster, E.W.

    1982-01-01

    Low Level Raidation Effects: A Fact Book, prepared by the Society of Nuclear Medicine Subcommittee on the Risks of Low-Level Ionizing Radiation, attempts to examine the health effects of small doses of radiation. For immediate questions, this work provides a well-organized brief summary of recent radiologic data from refereed scientific literature and from the publications of advisory groups such as the National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurement (NCRP), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), and the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). Since it consists almost entirely of tables and graphs from the above-mentioned sources along with summary paragraphs, the Fact Book is very useful in the preparation of lectures. The book is divided into seven sections. Chapter One, Glossary, Units and Conversion Factors, is useful because nearly all data given in the rest of the book is in conventional units and should be converted to SI units for future technical audiences. Chapter 2, Radiobiology, covers the fundamental principles of the field. Chapter 3, Radiation Doses, can be used to help an audience appreciate the relative magnitudes of radiation exposures they may read about or encounter. Chapter 4, Late Somatic Effects of Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation, gives data concerning cancer induction and embryonic effects, and Chapter 5 provides data on genetic effects Chapter 6, Risks, Statistical Facts and Public Perception can be used to compare the risks of radiation exposure with more commonly encountered risks

  15. Environmental policy. Ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    The report contains information on the natural (background) radiation exposure (chapter II), the natural radiation exposure as influenced by anthropogenic effects (chapter III), the anthropogenic radiation exposure (chapter IV), and the radiation doses to the environment and the population emanating from the Chernobyl fallout (chapter V). The natural radiation exposure is specified referring to the contributions from cosmic and terrestrial background radiation and intake of natural radioactive substances. Changes of the natural environment resulting from anthropogenic effects (technology applications) inducing an increase in concentration of natural radioactive substances accordingly increase the anthropogenic radiation exposure. Indoor air radon concentration in buildings for instance is one typical example of anthropogenic increase of concentration of natural radioactivity, primarily caused by the mining industry or by various materials processing activities, which may cause an increase in the average radiation dose to the population. Measurements so far show that indoor air concentration of radon exceeds a level of 200 Bq/m 3 in less than 2% of the residential buildings; the EUropean Commission therefore recommends to use this concentration value as a maximum value for new residential buildings. Higher concentrations are primarily measured in areas with relevant geological conditions and abundance of radon, or eg. in mining areas. (orig./CB) [de

  16. Ionizing radiation: levels and effects. Volume I. Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    This is the sixth substantive report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation to the General Assembly. It reviews the levels of radiation received from all sources to which man is exposed and, among the effects of ionizing radiation, it considers the genetic effects, the effects on the immune response and the induction of malignancies in animals and man. These are not the only effects of ionizing radiation. The acute consequences of massive amounts of radiation that may be received accidentally or during nuclear warfare are not reviewed here (the short discussion of this subject in the 1962 report is still largely valid, at least as an introduction), nor are the effects on the nervous system and the induction of chromosome anomalies in somatic cells, which were both considered by the Committee in its 1969 report. Unlike previous reports of the Committee, the present report is submitted to the General Assembly without the technical annexes in which the evidence considered by the Committee is discussed in detail and in which the bases for the Committee's conclusions, which are stated in the report, are fully documented. However, the annexes are being made available at the same time as the report in a separate publication, issued in two volumes and the Committee wishes to draw the attention of the General Assembly to the fact that the separation of the report from the annexes is for convenience only and that major importance attaches to the scientific evidence given in the annexes.

  17. Reduction of the pool-top radiation level in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choong-Sung; Park, Sang-Jun; Kim, Heonil; Park, Yong-Chul; Choi, Young-San

    1999-01-01

    HANARO is an open-tank-in-pool type reactor. Pool water is the only shielding to minimize the pool top radiation level. During the power ascension test of HANARO, the measured pool top radiation level was higher than the design value because some of the activation products in the coolant reached the pool surface. In order to suppress this rising coolant, the hot water layer system (HWL) was designed and installed to maintain l.2 meter-deep hot water layer whose temperature is 5degC higher than that of the underneath pool surface. After the installation of the HWL system, however, the radiation level of the pool-top did not satisfy the design value. The operation modes of the hot water layer system and the other systems in the reactor pool, which had an effect on the formation of the hot water layer, were changed to reduce pool-top radiation level. After the above efforts, the temperature and the radioactivity distribution in the pool was measured to confirm whether this system blocked the rising coolant. The radiation level at the pool-top was significantly reduced below one tenth of that before installing the HWL and satisfied the design value. It was also confirmed by calculation that this hot water layer system would significantly reduce the release of fission gases to the reactor hall and the environment during the hypothetical accident as well. (author)

  18. Low-level radiation: The cancer controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    According to early studies it would be safe to assume there are no late effects of radiation apart from cancer, no lasting selective effects of the early deaths of A-bomb victims, and no cancer risk at low dose levels (below 20 rad). The nuclear establishment had good reason to believe that a potentially dangerous situation had been completely defused, and optimists were still free to regard daily exposure to background radiation as a benign influence. For several years the only indication to the contrary was the Oxford survey's finding on prenatal X-rays. But today we face the possibility that there are other late effects of radiation besides cancer; and the possibility that the selection effects of the two nuclear explosions are still reflected in death rates among survivors and are the reason why no cancer effects have been found at low dose levels. If these possibilities are confirmed, we may one day realize how fortunate it was that the Oxford survey findings put a brake on the enthusiasms of nuclear power advocates. Otherwise, we might never have pressed for direct studies of the effects of low doses of radiation. 7 refs

  19. Measurements of radon levels inside Mexican caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borau, J.; Gonzalez, A.; Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J.I.

    1993-01-01

    Living animal species on earth have been exposed to environmental radon from the very beginning of time. The effects of radiation, combined with other natural parameters such as temperature, humidity, salt contents, etc., have most likely influenced the evaluation of different species. Thus, it is important to know and to evaluate the radon levels, among other radioactive elements present in enclosed environments such as caves, especially since those caves were also the dwellings and refuge of the predecessor of man. In this work we present radon level measurements inside some caves with vestiges of ancient inhabitats and some recently discovered natural caves, using Nuclear Track Detectors. (author)

  20. Radiation measurement practice for understanding statistical fluctuation of radiation count using natural radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao

    2014-01-01

    It is known that radiation is detected at random and the radiation counts fluctuate statistically. In the present study, a radiation measurement experiment was performed to understand the randomness and statistical fluctuation of radiation counts. In the measurement, three natural radiation sources were used. The sources were fabricated from potassium chloride chemicals, chemical fertilizers and kelps. These materials contain naturally occurring potassium-40 that is a radionuclide. From high schools, junior high schools and elementary schools, nine teachers participated to the radiation measurement experiment. Each participant measured the 1-min integration counts of radiation five times using GM survey meters, and 45 sets of data were obtained for the respective natural radiation sources. It was found that the frequency of occurrence of radiation counts was distributed according to a Gaussian distribution curve, although the obtained 45 data sets of radiation counts superficially looked to be fluctuating meaninglessly. (author)

  1. Measurement of advanced electromagnetic radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Bajlo, Darko

    2017-01-01

    For the purpose of detecting advanced electromagnetic radiation predicted by Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory for the case of incomplete absorption of retarded electromagnetic radiation, pulses in duration of 6 ns to 24 ns, wavelength from 91 cm to 200 cm where supplied to three different transmitting antennas. Detection was done with a λ/20 monopole antenna in the advanced time window at a time 2r/c before the arrival of the center of the retarded pulse. At distances ranging from 430 cm to 18...

  2. Results of ground level radiation measurements in support of the 1978 aerial survey of the Lake Ontario Ordnance Works, Lewiston, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berven, B.A.; Doane, R.W.; Haywood, F.F.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1979-09-01

    This report contains the results of a limited series of measurements at the Lake Ontario Ordnance Works site, three miles northeast of Lewiston, New York. The scope of this survey was not extensive, and the survey was conducted to support a concurrent aerial survey conducted by EG and G, Inc. Results of this survey indicate two souces of significant external gamma exposure on the site as well as several locations that retain low to intermediate levels of radioactivity in soil. Off-site soil radionuclide concentrations were well within background levels with one exception. Water radionuclide concentrations on the site in the Central Drainage Ditch are significantly above background levels but decrease with distance from the spoil pile, and are within restrictive concentration guides for off-site locations

  3. Environmental radiation measurements and remedial actions (Hantepe/Ezine/Canakkale)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    There are some regions in the world that are known as high background radiation areas. Intensive scientific investigations in the field of radiation dose and health effects, risk estimates, radiation protection, environmental transportation routes and ecological effects related with natural radiation have been carried out in these regions. Also natural radiation dosimetry, in vitro and in vivo biological studies which take into account the measurements in the field of low level radiation, radon, thoron and cosmic rays have been carried out, again in these regions. The well-known high natural background radiation areas in the world are Guarapari in Brazil, Ramsar in Iran, Kerala in India and Yangjiang in China. In addition to above mentioned areas, other relatively lower high background radiation areas are exist. Since 1960s, radiological, geological, epidemiological and ecological studies have been carried out in order to determine the risks and possible health effects of long-term low level natural radiation exposure. In the framework of surveying the background radiation of Turkey, the background radiation measurements were carried out in 56 different points around the area of Canakkale city. The radiation levels at Hantepe beach of Geyikli which is located in Ezine town of Canakkale was found higher than the mean background radiation level of the region. The radiation dose rates were measured in between 0.20 and 10.88 Gy h-1 in contact and 0.27 and 3.11 Gy h-1 above 1 meter of the ground level where the thorium-containing sand is dense. After the rehabilitation studies, the radiation dose rate were measured in between 0.15 and 8.09 Gy h-1 in contact and 0.17 and 2.88 Gy h-1 above 1 meter of the ground level. It was observed that the radiation dose rates were decreased seriously after the rehabilitation studies when the arithmetic mean value of the dose rates was taken into account. The effective dose calculations were performed by taking into account the

  4. Quality assurance in field radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, W.P.

    1985-01-01

    In most cases, an ion chamber radiation measuring instrument is calibrated in a uniform gamma radiation field. This results in a uniform ionization field throughout the ion chamber. Measurement conditions encountered in the field often produce non-uniform ionization fields within the ion chamber, making determination of true dose rates to personnel difficult and prone to error. Extensive studies performed at Hanford have provided appropriate correction factors for use with one type of ion chamber instrument, the CP. Suitable corrections are available for the following distinct measurement circumstances: (1) contact measurements on large beta and gamma sources, (2) contact measurements on small beta and gamma sources, (3) contact measurements on small-diameter cylinders, (4) measurements in small gamma beams, and (5) measurements at a distance from large beta sources. Recommendations are made for the implementation of these correction factors, in the interest of improved quality assurance in field radiation measurements. 12 references, 10 figures

  5. Low-level radiation and cancer deaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    It is stated that although the proportion of cancer deaths among males is somewhat higher for Hanford employees with recorded occupational radiation exposure compared with males in the general population of the State of Washington, there is no indication that radiation is the cause of this difference. Statistics are given for mean doses received and for deaths from cancer and other causes for male employees. It is shown that for each year the mean dose level of those who died from cancer is not significantly different from the mean of those who died from other causes. The mean dose level for the majority of those who died in a specific year is lower than the mean for the survivors in the year of death, in the year preceding the year of death, or in the two years preceding the year of death. This is true whether the mean was for those dying from cancer or from other causes. These relationships are similar for female exposed employees and agree with other similar studies. The latest analysis on longevity of exposed male Hanford employees vs those nonexposed and the out-of-plant controls from date of hire to April 1974 are considered and show no firm indication of any lasting adverse health effects among employees attributable to occupational exposure to radiation within permissible limits. (U.K.)

  6. Evaluating natural radiation level by existing airborne radioactive data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingkao, Hu; Changqing, Han; Jiangqi, Fang; Zhengxin, Shen

    2002-01-01

    Airborne Survey and Remote Sensing Center of Nuclear Industry, founded in the middle of 1950s, is a unique unit specialized in uranium exploration by airborne radioactive survey in China. Large numbers of airborne data of radioactivity and abundant experience have been accumulated for more than 40 years. All-round detailed investigation of environmental radiation levels in our country will not be completed in the near future. Thus, at present it is considered to evaluate natural radiation levels using the existing radioactive data. This paper introduces the results of analysis and study comparing airborne radioactive data for radiation environmental evaluation obtained from survey area in Gansu, China, in the 2001 with the measurement results by ground gamma ray radiation dose-rate instrument for environment. The air-earth inter-comparison error does not exceed 30% at radiation fields with a definite area, and the air-earth inter-comparison error does not exceed 60% at outcrop of granite. In 6km long profile that has various circumstances, such as desert, Gobi, farmland and residential area, minimum of air absorbed dose rate is 47nGy/h at an altitude of 1 meter above the soil plane, maximum is 68nGy/h. The inter-comparison errors are usually less than 20%, and maximum is 25.38%. This shows that it is feasible to obtain natural radiation levels rapidly if we could use the existing radioactive data adequately and make some correction, such as geology factor

  7. Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordner, Autumn S; Crosswell, Danielle A; Katz, Ainsley O; Shah, Jill T; Zhang, Catherine R; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Hughes, Emlyn W; Ruderman, Malvin A

    2016-06-21

    We report measurements of background gamma radiation levels on six islands in the northern Marshall Islands (Enewetak, Medren, and Runit onEnewetak Atoll; Bikini and Nam on Bikini Atoll; and Rongelap on Rongelap Atoll). Measurable excess radiation could be expected from the decay of (137)Cs produced by the US nuclear testing program there from 1946 to 1958. These recordings are of relevance to safety of human habitation and resettlement. We find low levels of gamma radiation for the settled island of Enewetak [mean = 7.6 millirem/year (mrem/y) = 0.076 millisievert/year (mSv/y)], larger levels of gamma radiation for the island of Rongelap (mean = 19.8 mrem/y = 0.198 mSv/y), and relatively high gamma radiation on the island of Bikini (mean = 184 mrem/y = 1.84 mSv/y). Distributions of gamma radiation levels are provided, and hot spots are discussed. We provide interpolated maps for four islands (Enewetak, Medren, Bikini, and Rongelap), and make comparisons to control measurements performed on the island of Majuro in the southern Marshall Islands, measurements made in Central Park in New York City, and the standard agreed upon by the United States and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) governments (100 mrem/y = 1 mSv/y). External gamma radiation levels on Bikini Island significantly exceed this standard (P = <0.01), and external gamma radiation levels on the other islands are below the standard. To determine conclusively whether these islands are safe for habitation, radiation exposure through additional pathways such as food ingestion must be considered.

  8. Traceability of radiation measurements: musings of a user

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1980-04-01

    Although users of radiation desire measurement traceability for a number of reasons, including legal, regulatory, contractual, and quality assurance requirements, there exists no real definition of the term in the technical literature. Definitions are proposed for both traceability and traceability to the National Bureau of Standards. The hierarchy of radiation standards is discussed and allowable uncertainties are given for each level. Areas of need with respect to radiation standards are identified, and a system of secondary radiation calibration laboratories is proposed as a means of providing quality calibrations and traceability on a routine basis

  9. Traceability of radiation measurements: musings of a user

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1980-04-01

    Although users of radiation desire measurement traceability for a number of reasons, including legal, regulatory, contractual, and quality assurance requirements, there exists no real definition of the term in the technical literature. Definitions are proposed for both traceability and traceability to the National Bureau of Standards. The hierarchy of radiation standards is discussed and allowable uncertainties are given for each level. Areas of need with respect to radiation standards are identified, and a system of secondary radiation calibration laboratories is proposed as a means of providing quality calibrations and traceability on a routine basis.

  10. Radiation protection measuring device SSM-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Product information from the producer on a universal measuring instrument for alpha, beta and gamma radiation designed for stationary and field use by military, police and fire brigades. 4 figs. (qui)

  11. Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site (SGP-ARM) is the oldest and largest of DOE's Arm sites. It was established in 1992. It consists of...

  12. Phantoms for Radiation Measurements of Mobile Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of radiation efficiency for a handheld phone equipped with a patch and a helical antenna operated near the human user have been performed. Both measurements include a simple head plus hand phantom and live persons are considered. The position of the hand on the phone is found...... to be the main reason for the large variation in radiation efficiency among persons. The tilt angle of the phone and the distance between the head and phone only play a minor role...

  13. Dosimetric radiation measurements in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, E.V.

    1983-01-01

    In reviewing radiation exposures recorded during spaceflights of the United States and the Soviet Union, this paper examines absorbed dose and dose rates as a function of parameters such as inclination, altitude, spacecraft type and shielding. Complete shielding from galactic cosmic rays does not appear practical because of spacecraft weight limitations. Preliminary data on neutron and HZE-particle components and LET spectra are available. Most of the data in this paper are from manned missions; for low Earth-orbit missions, the dose encountered is strongly altitude-dependent, with a weaker dependence on inclination. The doses range from about 6 millirad per day for the Space Transportation System (STS) No. 3 flight to about 90 mrad per day for Skylab. The effective quality factor (QF) for the near-Earth orbits and free space has been estimated to be about 1.5 and about 5.5 respectively. (author)

  14. MEASURING TEMPORAL PHOTON BUNCHING IN BLACKBODY RADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, P. K.; Poh, H. S.; Kurtsiefer, C. [Center for Quantum Technologies, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 (Singapore); Yeo, G. H.; Chan, A. H., E-mail: pengkian@physics.org, E-mail: phyck@nus.edu.sg [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, 117551 (Singapore)

    2014-07-01

    Light from thermal blackbody radiators such as stars exhibits photon bunching behavior at sufficiently short timescales. However, with available detector bandwidths, this bunching signal is difficult to observe directly. We present an experimental technique to increase the photon bunching signal in blackbody radiation via spectral filtering of the light source. Our measurements reveal strong temporal photon bunching from blackbody radiation, including the Sun. This technique allows for an absolute measurement of the photon bunching signature g {sup (2)}(0), and thereby a direct statement on the statistical nature of a light source. Such filtering techniques may help revive the interest in intensity interferometry as a tool in astronomy.

  15. Ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses. Annual report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhard-Stroel, Claudia; Hachenburger, Claudia; Trugenberger-Schnabel, Angela; Peter, Josef

    2013-07-01

    The annual report 2011 on ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses covers the following issues: Part A: Natural environmental radioactivity, artificial radioactivity in the environment, occupational radiation exposure, radiation exposure from medical applications, the handling of radioactive materials and sources of ionizing radiation, non-ionizing radiation. Part B; Current data and their evaluation: Natural environmental radioactivity, artificial radioactivity in the environment, occupational radiation exposure, radiation exposure from medical applications, the handling of radioactive materials and sources of ionizing radiation, non-ionizing radiation. The Appendix includes Explanations of terms, radiation doses and related units, external and internal radiation exposure, stochastic and deterministic radiation effects, genetic radiation effects, induction of malignant neoplasm, risk assessment, physical units and glossary, laws, ordinances, guidelines, recommendations and other regulations concerning radiation protection, list of selected radionuclides.

  16. Measurements of 212Pb concentration in the ground-level air in Beijing area and assessment of ionizing radiation exposure of the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Lianqing; Wen Huifen; Zhou Yuanwen

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes the method of measuring 212 Pb concentration in the ground-level air with a gamma spectrometer and the results of the measurements of 212 Pb concentrations during February 1988-January 1989. The results showed that the average and standard deviation are 0.54 and 0.40 Bq·m -3 ; the distribution of 212 Pb concentrations in air was logarithmic normal distribution, geometric average and geometric standard deviation are 0.44 Bq·m -3 and 2.0. The 212 Pb concentration in rain season is the lowest (0.42 Bq·m -3 ) while in heating season is the highest (0.66 Bq· -3 ). In period of a day, 212 Pb concentration in the morning 0-4 o'clock is the highest and in the afternoon 12-18 o'clock is the lowest, 212 Pb(max)/ 212 Pb(min) = 4.8

  17. Quality control of gamma radiation measuring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surma, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The problem of quality control and assurance of gamma radiation measuring systems has been described in detail. The factors deciding of high quality of radiometric measurements as well as statistical testing and calibration of measuring systems have been presented and discussed

  18. Online radiation dose measurement system for ATLAS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandic, I.; Cindro, V.; Dolenc, I.; Gorisek, A.; Kramberger, G. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mikuz, M. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Bronner, J.; Hartet, J. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitat Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, Freiburg (Germany); Franz, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    In experiments at Large Hadron Collider, detectors and electronics will be exposed to high fluxes of photons, charged particles and neutrons. Damage caused by the radiation will influence performance of detectors. It will therefore be important to continuously monitor the radiation dose in order to follow the level of degradation of detectors and electronics and to correctly predict future radiation damage. A system for online radiation monitoring using semiconductor radiation sensors at large number of locations has been installed in the ATLAS experiment. Ionizing dose in SiO{sub 2} will be measured with RadFETs, displacement damage in silicon in units of 1-MeV(Si) equivalent neutron fluence with p-i-n diodes. At 14 monitoring locations where highest radiation levels are expected the fluence of thermal neutrons will be measured from current gain degradation in dedicated bipolar transistors. The design of the system and tests of its performance in mixed radiation field is described in this paper. First results from this test campaign confirm that doses can be measured with sufficient sensitivity (mGy for total ionizing dose measurements, 10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2} for NIEL (non-ionizing energy loss) measurements, 10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} for thermal neutrons) and accuracy (about 20%) for usage in the ATLAS detector

  19. Online radiation dose measurement system for ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandic, I.; Cindro, V.; Dolenc, I.; Gorisek, A.; Kramberger, G.; Mikuz, M.; Bronner, J.; Hartet, J.; Franz, S.

    2009-01-01

    In experiments at Large Hadron Collider, detectors and electronics will be exposed to high fluxes of photons, charged particles and neutrons. Damage caused by the radiation will influence performance of detectors. It will therefore be important to continuously monitor the radiation dose in order to follow the level of degradation of detectors and electronics and to correctly predict future radiation damage. A system for online radiation monitoring using semiconductor radiation sensors at large number of locations has been installed in the ATLAS experiment. Ionizing dose in SiO 2 will be measured with RadFETs, displacement damage in silicon in units of 1-MeV(Si) equivalent neutron fluence with p-i-n diodes. At 14 monitoring locations where highest radiation levels are expected the fluence of thermal neutrons will be measured from current gain degradation in dedicated bipolar transistors. The design of the system and tests of its performance in mixed radiation field is described in this paper. First results from this test campaign confirm that doses can be measured with sufficient sensitivity (mGy for total ionizing dose measurements, 10 9 n/cm 2 for NIEL (non-ionizing energy loss) measurements, 10 12 n/cm 2 for thermal neutrons) and accuracy (about 20%) for usage in the ATLAS detector

  20. Evaluation of Arctic broadband surface radiation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, N.; Long, C. N.; Augustine, J.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, T.; Longenecker, D.; Niebergall, O.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

    2012-02-01

    The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ surface radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure incoming and outgoing shortwave (SW) and thermal infrared, or longwave (LW), radiation. Enhancements may include various sensors for measuring irradiance in narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that keep sensors and shading devices trained on the sun along its diurnal path. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating stations in a pristine undisturbed setting free of artificial blockage (such as from buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data in the Arctic include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the protective glass domes of the radiometers and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, comparisons are made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) SW measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of arctic radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both SW and LW measurements. Solutions to these operational problems that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols are proposed.

  1. Time course of cerebellar catalase levels after neonatal ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Meglio, A.; Caceres, L.; Zieher, L.M.; Guelman, L.R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Reactive oxygen species are physiologically generated as a consequence of aerobic respiration, but this generation is increased in response to external stimuli, including ionizing radiation. The central nervous system (CNS) is vulnerable to oxidative stress due to its high oxygen consumption rate, its high level of polyunsaturated fatty acids and low levels of antioxidant defences. An important compound of this defence system is the antioxidant enzyme catalase, an heme protein that removes hydrogen peroxide from the cell by catalyzing its conversion to water. The aim of the present work was to study if catalase is susceptible to oxidative stress generated by ionizing radiation on the cerebellum. Neonatal rats were irradiated with 5 Gy of X rays and the levels of catalase were measured at 15, 30 and 60 days of age. Results show that there is a decrease in the activity of catalase in irradiated cerebellum at 15 (% respect the control, 65.6 ± 14.8), 30 (51.35± 5.8%), and 60 days (9.3 ± 0.34%). Catalase activity at 15 and 30 days has shown to be positively correlated with the radiation-induced decrease in tissue's weight, while at 60 days there is an extra decrease. It would be suggested that, at long term, radiation exposure might induce, in addition to cerebellar atrophy, the oxidation of the radiosensitive heme group of the enzyme, leading to its inactivation. In conclusion, the antioxidant enzyme catalase has shown to be especially sensitive to ionizing radiation. (author)

  2. Radiation transmission pipe thickness measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Yasuhiko

    2010-01-01

    Fuji Electric Systems can be measured from the outer insulation of the transmission Characteristics and radiation detection equipment had been developed that can measure pipe wall thinning in plant and running, the recruitment of another three-beam calculation method by pipe thickness measurement system was developed to measure the thickness of the pipe side. This equipment has been possible to measure the thickness of the circumferential profile of the pipe attachment by adopting automatic rotation. (author)

  3. Computational methods for industrial radiation measurement applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, R.P.; Guo, P.; Ao, Q.

    1996-01-01

    Computational methods have been used with considerable success to complement radiation measurements in solving a wide range of industrial problems. The almost exponential growth of computer capability and applications in the last few years leads to a open-quotes black boxclose quotes mentality for radiation measurement applications. If a black box is defined as any radiation measurement device that is capable of measuring the parameters of interest when a wide range of operating and sample conditions may occur, then the development of computational methods for industrial radiation measurement applications should now be focused on the black box approach and the deduction of properties of interest from the response with acceptable accuracy and reasonable efficiency. Nowadays, increasingly better understanding of radiation physical processes, more accurate and complete fundamental physical data, and more advanced modeling and software/hardware techniques have made it possible to make giant strides in that direction with new ideas implemented with computer software. The Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR) at North Carolina State University has been working on a variety of projects in the area of radiation analyzers and gauges for accomplishing this for quite some time, and they are discussed here with emphasis on current accomplishments

  4. On output measurements via radiation pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeman, S.; Healey, A.J.; Forsberg, F.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown, by simple physical argument, that measurements of intensity with a radiation pressure balance should not agree with those based on calorimetric techniques. The conclusion is ultimately a consequence of the circumstance that radiation pressure measurements relate to wave momentum, while...... calorimetric methods relate to wave energy. Measurements with some typical ultrasound fields are performed with a novel type of hydrophone, and these allow an estimate to be made of the magnitude of the discrepancy to be expected between the two types of output measurement in a typical case....

  5. Nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savignac, Noel Felix; Gomez, Leo S; Yelton, William Graham; Robinson, Alex; Limmer, Steven

    2013-06-04

    This invention is a nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance of silver-silver halide on an interdigitated electrode to detect light or radiation comprised of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, X rays, and/or neutrons. The detector is comprised of an interdigitated electrode covered by a layer of silver halide. After exposure to alpha particles, beta particles, X rays, gamma rays, neutron radiation, or light, the silver halide is reduced to silver in the presence of a reducing solution. The change from the high electrical resistance (impedance) of silver halide to the low resistance of silver provides the radiation warning that detected radiation levels exceed a predetermined radiation dose threshold.

  6. Differential Detector for Measuring Radiation Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broide, A.; Marcus, E.; Brandys, I.; Schwartz, A.; Wengrowicz, U.; Levinson, S.; Seif, R.; Sattinger, D.; Kadmon, Y.; Tal, N.

    2004-01-01

    In case of a nuclear accident, it is essential to determine the source of radioactive contamination in order to analyze the risk to the environment and to the population. The radiation source may be a radioactive plume on the air or an area on the ground contaminated with radionuclides. Most commercial radiation detectors measure only the radiation field intensity but are unable to differentiate between the radiation sources. Consequently, this limitation causes a real problem in analyzing the potential risk to the near-by environment, since there is no data concerning the contamination ratios in the air and on the ground and this prevents us from taking the required steps to deal with the radiation event. This work presents a GM-tube-based Differential Detector, which enables to determine the source of contamination

  7. Biological monitors for low levels of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohankumar, M.N.; Jeevanram, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    The biological effects of high doses of ionising radiation are well understood and the methods of measurement of these doses well established. However the effects due to extremely low doses remain by and large uncertain. This is because of the fact that at such low doses no gross symptoms are seen. In fact, at these levels the occurrence of double strand breaks leading to the formation of chromosomal aberrations like dicentrics is rare and chances of mutation due to base damage are negligible. Hence neither chromosomal aberration studies nor mutational assays are useful for detecting doses of the order of a few milligray. Results of exhaustive work done by various laboratories indicate that below 20 mGy the chromosomal aberration technique based on scoring of dicentrics cannot distinguish between a linear or a threshold model. However indirect methods like unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) appear to be promising for the detection of radiation exposures due to low levels of radiation. This report reviews the available literature on the biological effects of low levels of ionising radiation and highlights the merits and demerits of the various methods employed in the measurement of UDS and SCE. The phenomenon of radio-adaptive response (RAR) and its relation to DNA repair is also discussed. (author)

  8. Biological monitors for low levels of ionising radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohankumar, M N; Jeevanram, R K [Safety Research and Health Physics Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    1996-12-31

    The biological effects of high doses of ionising radiation are well understood and the methods of measurement of these doses well established. However the effects due to extremely low doses remain by and large uncertain. This is because of the fact that at such low doses no gross symptoms are seen. In fact, at these levels the occurrence of double strand breaks leading to the formation of chromosomal aberrations like dicentrics is rare and chances of mutation due to base damage are negligible. Hence neither chromosomal aberration studies nor mutational assays are useful for detecting doses of the order of a few milligray. Results of exhaustive work done by various laboratories indicate that below 20 mGy the chromosomal aberration technique based on scoring of dicentrics cannot distinguish between a linear or a threshold model. However indirect methods like unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) appear to be promising for the detection of radiation exposures due to low levels of radiation. This report reviews the available literature on the biological effects of low levels of ionising radiation and highlights the merits and demerits of the various methods employed in the measurement of UDS and SCE. The phenomenon of radio-adaptive response (RAR) and its relation to DNA repair is also discussed. (author). 98 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Relations between radiation risks and radiation protection measuring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, K.; Kraus, W.

    1975-10-01

    'Risk of damage' and 'exposure risk' are considered as components of the radiation risk. The influence of the 'exposure risk' on type and extent of radiation protection measurements is discussed with regard to different measuring tasks. Basing upon measuring results concerning the frequency of certain external and internal occupational exposures in the GDR, it has been shown that only a small fraction of the monitored persons are subjected to a high 'exposure risk'. As a consequence the following recommendations are given for discussion: (a) occupationally exposed persons with small 'exposure risk' should be monitored using only a long-term dosimeter (for instance a thermoluminescence dosimeter), (b) in the case of internal exposure the surface and, if necessary, air contamination should be controlled so strictly that routine measurements of internal contamination need not be performed. (author)

  10. 47 CFR 2.1511 - Measurements of radiated emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS FCC Procedure for Testing Class A, B and S Emergency... 243 MHz. Step (9) Compute the peak effective radiated power for the maximum level of each measured emission using the following formula: EC03JN91.001 where: dBmmeas is the measured receiver reading in dBm...

  11. Detection and measurement of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    All detection or measurement of radiation rests in the possibility of recognizing the interactions of radiation with matter. When radiation passes through any kind of material medium, all or a portion of its energy is transferred to this medium. This transferred energy produces an effect in the medium. In principle, the detection of radiation is based on the appearance and the observation of this effect. In theory, all of the effects produced by radiation may be used in detecting it: in practice, the effects most commonly employed are: (1) ionization of gases (gas detectors), or of some chemical substance which is transformed by radiation (photographic or chemical dosimeters); (2) excitations in scintillators or semiconductors (scintillation counters, semiconductor counters); (3) creation of structural defects through the passage of radiation (transparent thermoluminescent and radioluminescent detectors); and (4) raising of the temperature (calorimeters). This study evaluates in detail, instruments based on the ionization of gases and the production of luminescence. In addition, the authors summarize instruments which depend on other forms of interaction, used in radiation medicine and hygiene (radiology, nuclear medicine)

  12. Radiation budget measurement/model interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Ciesielski, P.; Randel, D.; Stevens, D.

    1983-01-01

    This final report includes research results from the period February, 1981 through November, 1982. Two new results combine to form the final portion of this work. They are the work by Hanna (1982) and Stevens to successfully test and demonstrate a low-order spectral climate model and the work by Ciesielski et al. (1983) to combine and test the new radiation budget results from NIMBUS-7 with earlier satellite measurements. Together, the two related activities set the stage for future research on radiation budget measurement/model interfacing. Such combination of results will lead to new applications of satellite data to climate problems. The objectives of this research under the present contract are therefore satisfied. Additional research reported herein includes the compilation and documentation of the radiation budget data set a Colorado State University and the definition of climate-related experiments suggested after lengthy analysis of the satellite radiation budget experiments.

  13. Metrology of ionizing radiations and environmental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourreddine, Abdel-Mjid

    2008-01-01

    The subject of radiation protection covers all measurements taken by the authorities to ensure protection of the population and its environment against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Dosimetry occupies an important place in this field, because it makes it possible to consider and to quantify the risk of using radiations in accordance with the prescribed limits. In this course, we will review the fundamental concepts used in the metrology and dosimetry of ionizing radiations. After classification of ionizing radiations according to their interactions with biological matter, we will present the various quantities and units brought into play and in particular the new operational quantities that are good estimators raising protection standards. They are directly connected to the annual limits of effective dose and of equivalent dose defined in the French regulation relating to the protection of the population and of workers against ionizing radiations. The average natural exposure of the population in France varies between 2 to 2.5 mSv per year, depending on geographic location. It comes principally from three sources: cosmic radiation, radioactive elements contained in the ground and radioactive elements that we absorb when breathing or eating. Radon, which is a naturally occurring radioactive gas, is a public health risk and represents 30% of the exposure. Finally, we will give some applications of dosimetry and environmental measurements developed recently at RaMsEs/IPHC laboratory of Strasbourg. (author)

  14. Measurement tolerance analysis of solar radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cimo, J.; Maderkova, L.; Horak, J.; Igaz, D.; Pasztorova, S. [Department of Biomereorlogy and Hydrology, Slovak Agriculture University, Nitra (Slovakia)

    2012-07-01

    Solar radiant energy is bane and almost the only one source of heat for Earth 's surface and for atmosphere, and almost the only one source of energy for physical processes. Solar energy is one of the most available and the most ecological energy source. Currently the firm Kipp and Zonen belongs to prominent producer of sensors for measuring of global radiation. These sensors are the most used in our country and also in network of meteorological measurements of WMO. Therefore the two types of measuring sensors for global radiation (pyranometer PMP6, CMP 11) in comparison with calculation method Savin-Angstrom are analysed. (author)

  15. Radiation protection measurement. Philosophy and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recht, P.; Lakey, J.R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A selection from the proceedings of the International Symposium held by the U.K. Society for radiological protection in June 1974 was presented. The central theme was the philosophy of radiation protection measurement and its interpretation although some specific areas of good health physics practice were included. The 28 papers selected were chosen to be either representative of the central theme or of wider interest. The papers have been grouped in 6 main sections: philosophy of measurements; interpretation of measurements; implementation by legislation and monitoring; radiation exposure and control; reactor safety and siting; accidents

  16. Symmetry and Asymmetry Level Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Usually, Symmetry and Asymmetry are considered as two opposite sides of a coin: an object is either totally symmetric, or totally asymmetric, relative to pattern objects. Intermediate situations of partial symmetry or partial asymmetry are not considered. But this dichotomy on the classification lacks of a necessary and realistic gradation. For this reason, it is convenient to introduce "shade regions", modulating the degree of Symmetry (a fuzzy concept. Here, we will analyze the Asymmetry problem by successive attempts of description and by the introduction of the Asymmetry Level Function, as a new Normal Fuzzy Measure. Our results (both Theorems and Corollaries suppose to be some new and original contributions to such very active and interesting field of research. Previously, we proceed to the analysis of the state of art.

  17. Indoor radon level measurements in Iran using AEOI passive dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Solaymanian, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    A passive radon diffusion dosimeter was developed at the RPD of AEOI for nationwide indoor radon level measurements. Several parameters of the dosimeter were studied. Radon levels were determined in about 250 houses in Ramsar (a high natural radiation area), Tehran, Babolsar and Gonabad. In this paper, the results of some dosimeter parameters as well as radon levels in indoor air are reported

  18. Optical fibre radiation damage measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ediriweera, S.R.; Kvasnik, F.

    1991-01-01

    The results of studies of changes in the spectroscopic properties of commercial fibers are reported. Analysis of the attenuation spectra of various fibers have confirmed the expected different behavior of Ge-doped and pure silica fibers. However, differences in spectra of fibers made nominally from the same materials but using different processes were also observed. It is therefore concluded that the manufacturing process as well as doping determine the relative abundance of Type I and II color-center defects. The Raman spectra of the fibers were also obtained and analyzed. A strong resonant fluorescence at 650 nm, thought to be due to Type II color-centers, was observed in certain fibers. In general the changes in Raman spectra followed the theoretical expectation, however, the differences between fibers could not be entirely attributed to the doping levels. Again the manufacturing process and the subsequent treatment of fibers is thought to be partially responsible. 12 refs

  19. Estimation of diffuse from measured global solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriarty, W.W.

    1991-01-01

    A data set of quality controlled radiation observations from stations scattered throughout Australia was formed and further screened to remove residual doubtful observations. It was then divided into groups by solar elevation, and used to find average relationships for each elevation group between relative global radiation (clearness index - the measured global radiation expressed as a proportion of the radiation on a horizontal surface at the top of the atmosphere) and relative diffuse radiation. Clear-cut relationships were found, which were then fitted by polynomial expressions giving the relative diffuse radiation as a function of relative global radiation and solar elevation. When these expressions were used to estimate the diffuse radiation from the global, the results had a slightly smaller spread of errors than those from an earlier technique given by Spencer. It was found that the errors were related to cloud amount, and further relationships were developed giving the errors as functions of global radiation, solar elevation, and the fraction of sky obscured by high cloud and by opaque (low and middle level) cloud. When these relationships were used to adjust the first estimates of diffuse radiation, there was a considerable reduction in the number of large errors

  20. Natural radiation measurements in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuardo, E.

    1996-01-01

    To estimate the population indoor exposure in dwellings and workers exposure in some mines of the country, a radon and gamma monitoring programme is presently being carried out by the C.CH.E.N. Dosimetry Laboratory. In 1988-89 an indoor radon survey was started, using passive track detectors and long periods of integration time, and in the past two years some measurements of radon in mines, drinking water and high background zones have been added. The radon gas concentrations in 119 single family dwellings in Santiago in the winter season led to an estimated effective annual dose from inhalation of 500 μSv. Other radon gas concentrations in water and mines are presented and discussed. (author)

  1. Investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in Hubei Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Sihui; Zhang Jiaxian

    1992-01-01

    The methods and results of the investigation on natural penetrating radiation level in Hubei Province are presented, 290 measuring points of 25 x 25 km-grid were set uniformly up all over the province, with 385 densely measuring points of different types added. The results show that: (1) The area-weighted, population-weighted and point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for field is 60.8, 58.5 and 60.9 nGy ·h -1 , respectively; (2) The point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for road is 55.3 nGy·h -1 ; (3) The population-weighted and point-weighed average value of natural γ radiation dose rate inside buildings is 94.5 and 93.2 x 10 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (4) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of the dose rate inside buildings from cosmic ray is 27.8 and 26.3 nGy·h -1 , and outside buildings is 31.8 and 30.4 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (5) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural penetrating radiation dose rate inside building is 121.0 and 120.7 nGy·h -1 , outside buildings is 92.8 and 88.9 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (6) The annual effective dose equivalent from cosmic ray, natural γ radiation and natural penetrating radiation is 0.24, 0.52 and 0.76 mSv, respectively; and correspondingly, the annual collective effective dose equivalent is 1.2, 2.5 and 3.7 x 10 4 man·Sv, respectively

  2. Investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in Heilongjiang Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuncheng; Wu Chengxiang; Zhang Juling; Zhao Defeng

    1994-01-01

    The methods and results of the investigation on natural penetrating radiation level in Heilongjiang Province are presented. 221 25 km x 25 km-grid measuring points were set uniformly up all over the province, with 555 densely measuring points of different types added. The results show that: (1)The area-weighted, population-weighted and point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for field is 53.5, 58.5 and 54.2 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (2) The point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for road is 58.4 nGy·h -1 ; (3) The population-weighted and point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate inside buildings is 85.2 and 78.9 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (4) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of the dose rate inside buildings from cosmic ray is 28.6 and 28.1 nGy·h -1 , and outside buildings is 32.4 and 32.2 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (5) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural penetrating radiation dose rate inside buildings is 109.7 and 112.8 nGy·h -1 , outside buildings is 84.8 and 91.0 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (6) The annual effective dose equivalent from cosmic ray, natural γ radiation and natural penetrating radiation is 0.26, 0.48 and 0.73 mSv, respectively; and correspondingly, the annual collective effective dose equivalent is 0.8 x 10 4 , 1.6 x 10 4 and 2.4 x 10 4 man·Sv, respectively

  3. Investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in Jiangsu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ming; Wang Chengbao.

    1993-01-01

    The methods and results of in investigation on natural penetrating radiation level in Jiangsu Province are presented. 182 25 km x 25 km-grid measuring points were set up uniformly all over the province, with 236 densely measuring points of different types added. The results show that: (1) The area-weighted, population-weighted and point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for field is 50.3, 50.6 and 50.4 nGy · h -1 , respectively; (2) The point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for road is 47.1 nGy · h -1 ; (3) The population-weighted and point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate inside buildings is 89.7 and 89.2 nGy · h -1 , respectively; (4) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of the dose rate inside buildings from cosmic ray is 26.0 and 25.8 nGy · h -1 , and outside buildings is 29.2 and 29.1 nGy · h -1 , respectively; (5) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural penetrating radiation dose rate inside buildings is 115.1 and 115.5 nGy · h -1 , outside buildings is 79.5 and 79.7 nGy · h -1 , respectively; (6) The annual effective dose equivalent from cosmic ray, natural γ radiation and natural penetrating radiation is 0.23, 0.48 and 0.71 mSv, respectively; and correspondingly, the annual collective effective dose equivalent is 3.0, 1.5 and 4.5 x 10 4 man · Sv, respectively

  4. Investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in Shaanxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunfang; Li Jiyin

    1994-01-01

    The methods and results of the investigation on natural penetrating radiation level in Shaanxi Province are presented. 359 25 km x 25 km-grid measuring points were set uniformly up all over the province, with 433 densely measuring points of different types added. The results show that: (1) The area-weighted, population-weighted and point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for field is 62.0, 63.0 and 61.0 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (2) The point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for road is 63.0 nGy · h -1 ; (3)The population-weighted and point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate inside buildings is 100.0 and 98.0 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (4)The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of the dose rate inside buildings from cosmic ray is 32.0 and 31.0 nGy·h -1 , and outside buildings is 37.0 and 36.0 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (5)The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural penetrating radiation dose rate inside buildings is 130.0 and 131.0 nGy·h -1 , outside buildings is 130.0 and 130.0 nGy·h -1 , respectively; (6)The annual effective dose equivalent from cosmic ray, natural γ radiation and natural penetrating radiation is 0.55, 0.28 and 0.83 mSv, respectively; and correspondingly, the annual collective effective dose equivalent is 1.63, 0.83 and 2.46 x 10 4 man·Sv, respectively

  5. Development of radiation protection and measurement technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Si Young; Lee, T. Y.; Kim, J. L.; Kim, B. H.; Lee, B. J.; Chung, K. K.; Lee, K. C.; Chung, R. I.; Han, Y. D.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, C. K.; Yoon, K. S.; Jeong, D. Y.; Yoon, S. C.; Yoon, Y. C.; Lee, S. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, K. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. K.; Lee, J. K. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Reference X-, gamma, beta and neutron radiation fields complying with the ISO and ANSI standards have been established and evaluated to provide a basic technical support in national radiation protection dosimetry program and to provide calibration measurement devices. Personal dose evaluation algorithm has been developed with these reference radiation fields, which comply well with both domestic and the new ANSI N13.11, to evaluate accurate personal dose equivalents. A personal internal dosimetry algorithm which can estimate the intakes of radionuclides from the results of in vivo bioassay and the resulting internal doses has been developed and verified its performance. It was also evaluated to be equality excellent compared with those being used in foreign countries and used to make a computer code for internal dose evaluation which can be run with PC under the Windows environment. A BOMAB phantom for precise calibration of in vivo system has been also designed, fabricated and test-evaluated. Based on the ALARA concept of the optimization principle of radiation protection, a method for estimating the cost for radiation protection has been studied and an objective monetary cost of detriment due to radiation exposure, called {alpha} value ($/man-Sv) has been derived and proposed based on the Korean socio-economic situation and human risk factors to provide basic data for the radiation protection optimization study in Korea. (author). 100 refs., 104 tabs., 69 figs.

  6. Comparative Measurements of Radon Concentration in Soil Using Passive and Active Methods in High Level Natural Radiation Area (HLNRA of Ramsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanat B

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radon and its daughters are amongst the most important sources of natural exposure in the world. Soil is one of the signifcant sources of radon/thoron due to both radium and thorium so that the emanated thoron from it may cause in creased uncertainties in radon measurements. Recently, a diffusion chamber has been designed and optimized for passive discriminative measurements of radon/thoron concentrations in soil. Objective: In order to evaluate the capability of the passive method, some com parative measurements (with active methods have been performed. Method: The method is based upon measurements by a diffusion chamber, includ ing two Lexan polycarbonate SSNTDs, which can discriminate the emanated radon/ thorn from the soil by delay method. The comparative measurements have been done in ten selected points of HLNRA of Ramsar in Iran. The linear regression and cor relation between the results of two methods have been studied. Results: The results show that the radon concentrations are within the range of 12.1 to 165 kBq/m3 values. The correlation between the results of active and passive methods was measured by 0.99 value. As well, the thoron concentrations have been measured between 1.9 to 29.5 kBq/m3 values at the points. Conclusion: The sensitivity as well as the strong correlation with active mea surements shows that the new low-cost passive method is appropriate for accurate seasonal measurements of radon and thoron concentration in soil.

  7. Measurement of Radiated Power Loss on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yanmin; Hu Liqun; Mao Songtao; Xu Ping; Chen Kaiyun; Lin Shiyao; Zhong Guoqiang; Zhang Jizong; Zhang Ling; Wang Liang

    2011-01-01

    A type of silicon detector known as AXUV (absolute extreme ultraviolet) photodiodes is successfully used to measure the radiated power in EAST. The detector is characterized by compact structure, fast temporal response (<0.5 s) and flat spectral sensitivity in the range from ultra-violet to X-ray. Two 16-channel AXUV arrays are installed in EAST to view the whole poloidal cross-section of plasma. Based on the diagnostic system, typical radiation distributions for both limiter and divertor plasma are obtained and compared. As divertor detachment occurs, the radiation distribution in X-point region is observed to vary distinctly. The total radiation power losses in discharges with different plasma parameters are briefly analyzed.

  8. Aircrew radiation exposure: sources-risks-measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.

    1994-05-01

    A short review is given on the actual aircrew exposure and its sources. The resulting risks for harmful effects to the health and discuss methods for in-flight measurements of exposure is evaluated. An idea for a fairly simple and economic approach to a practical, airborne active dosimeter for the assessment of individual crew exposure is presented. The exposure of civil aircrew to cosmic radiation, should not be considered a tremendous risk to the health, there is no reason for panic. However, being significantly higher than the average exposure to radiation workers, it can certainly not be neglected. As recommended by ICRP, aircrew exposure has to be considered occupational radiation exposure and aircrews are certainly entitled to the same degree of protection, as other ground-based radiation workers have obtained by law, since long time. (author)

  9. Evaluation of Arctic broadband surface radiation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Matsui

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ surface radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure incoming and outgoing shortwave (SW and thermal infrared, or longwave (LW, radiation. Enhancements may include various sensors for measuring irradiance in narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers that keep sensors and shading devices trained on the sun along its diurnal path. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating stations in a pristine undisturbed setting free of artificial blockage (such as from buildings and towers and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data in the Arctic include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the protective glass domes of the radiometers and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, comparisons are made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse SW measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of arctic radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both SW and LW measurements. Solutions to these operational problems that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols are proposed.

  10. Radiation levels in the SSC interaction regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groom, D.E. [ed.

    1988-06-10

    The radiation environment in a typical SSC detector has been evaluated using the best available particle production models coupled with Monte Carlo simulations of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades. The problems studied include direct charged particle dose, dose inside a calorimeter from the cascades produced by incident photons and hadrons, the flux of neutrons and photons backscattered from the calorimeter into a central cavity, and neutron flux in the calorimeter. The luminosity lifetime at the SSC is dominated by collision losses in the interaction regions, where the luminosity is equivalent to losing an entire full-energy proton beam into the apparatus every six days. The result of an average p-p collision can be described quite simply. The mean charged multiplicity is about 110, and the particles are distributed nearly uniformly in pseudorapidity ({eta}) over all the angles of interest. The transverse momentum distribution is independent of angle, and for our purposes may be written as p{perpendicular}exp(-p{perpendicular}/{beta}). The mean value of p{perpendicular} may be as high as 0.6 GeV/c. Most of the radiation is produced by the very abundant low-p{perpendicular} particles. The dose or neutron fluence produced by individual particles in this energy region are simulated over a wide variety of conditions, and several measurements serve to confirm the simulation results. In general, the response (a dose, fluence, the number of backscattered neutrons, etc.) for an incident particle of momentum p can be parameterized in the form Np{sup {alpha}}, where 0.5 < {alpha}< 1.0. The authors believe most of their results to be accurate to within a factor of two or three, sufficiently precise to serve as the basis for detailed designs.

  11. High level radiation dosimetry in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Tetsuo

    1979-01-01

    The physical and biological dosimetries relating to cancer therapy with radiation were taken up at the first place in the late intercomparison on high LET radiation therapy in Japan-US cancer research cooperative study. The biological dosimetry, the large dose in biomedical research, the high dose rate in biomedical research and the practical dosimeters for pulsed neutrons or protons are outlined with the main development history and the characteristics which were obtained in the relating experiments. The clinical neutron facilities in the US and Japan involved in the intercomparison are presented. Concerning the experimental results of dosimeters, the relation between the R.B.E. compared with Chiba (Cyclotron in National Institute of Radiological Sciences) and the energy of deuterons or protons used for neutron production, the survival curves of three cultured cell lines derived from human cancers, after the irradiation of 250 keV X-ray, cyclotron neutrons of about 13 MeV and Van de Graaff neutrons of about 2 MeV, the hatchability of dry Artemia eggs at the several depths in an absorber stack irradiated by 60 MeV proton beam of 40, 120 and 200 krad, the peak skin reaction of mouse legs observed at various sets of average and instantaneous dose rates, and the peak skin reaction versus three instantaneous dose rates at fixed average dose rate of 7,300 rad/min are shown. These actual data were evaluated numerically and in relation to the physical meaning from the viewpoint of the fundamental aspect of cancer therapy, comparing the Japanese measured values to the US data. The discussion record on the high dose rate effect of low LET particles on biological substances and others is added. (Nakai, Y.)

  12. CAR LEADEX Level 1C Artic Sea Ice and Tundra Radiation Measurements (CAR_LEADEX_L1C) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CAR LEADEX mission measured bidirectional reflectance functions for four common arctic surfaces: snow covered sea ice, melt season sea ice, snow covered tundra, and...

  13. Radiation measurement of civil air flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, M.

    1999-01-01

    In order to aquire knowledge of the radiation exposure of civil aircrew members in common flight altitudes, it was necessary to develop a practicable measurement system. Radiation exposure was hereby estimated by using the ACREM-System, which is patented by the Austrian Research Centres Seibersdorf (OEFZS). Total Equivalent Dose could be estimated in a simple way by combining a measured component of the radiation field in flight altitudes and the results of simulation with LUIN 94 particle transport code (Keran O'Brian). To verify the results of the measurement system, a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) was used. Because of the difficult measurement conditions in cargo airplanes, special attention had to be taken to make the measurement equipment easy to use and transport. Special software has been developed to automate the measurement and the evaluation of the large amount of collected data. Measurements in standard calibration photon fields for the characterization of the equipment could be performed at the Primary Dosimetry Laboratory for Austria at the Austrian Research Centre (OEFZS) in Seibersdorf. Additional measurements were performed at Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt Braunschweig (PTB, Germany) and Paul Scherer Institute (PSI, Switzerland) to determine the reponse of the instruments to high energy photon and standard neutron fields. (author)

  14. Terrestrial radiation level in selected asphalt plants in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Terrestrial radiation level in selected asphalt plants in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ... An environmental radiation survey in asphalt processing plants in Rivers State was been carried out ... Therefore the results show significant radiological risk.

  15. Neutron measuring instruments for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzelmann, M.; Schneider, W.; Hoefert, M.; Kuehn, H.; Jahr, R.; Wagner, S.; Piesch, E.

    1979-09-01

    The present report deals with selected topics from the field of neutron dosimetry for radiation protection connected with the work of the subcommittee 6802 in the Standards Committee on Radiology (NAR) of the German Standards Institute (DIN). It is a sort of material collection. The topics are: 1. Measurement of the absorbed-energy dose by a) ionization chambers in fields of mixed radiation and b) recoil-proton proportional counting tubes. 2. Measurement of the equivalent dose, neutron monitors, combination methods by a) rem-meters, b) recoil-proton counting tubes, c) recombination method, tissue-equivalent proportional counters, activation methods for high energies in fields of mixed radiation, d) personnel dosimetry by means of ionization chambers and counting tubes, e) dosimetry by means of activation methods, nuclear track films, nonphotographic nuclear track detectors and solid-state dosimeters. (orig./HP) [de

  16. ACREM: A new air crew radiation exposure measuring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.; Duftschmid, K.; Kerschbaumer, S.; Schmitzer, C.; Strachotinsky, C.; Grosskopf, A.; Winkler, N.

    1996-01-01

    Cosmic radiation has already been discovered in 1912 by the Austrian Nobel Laureate Victor F. Hess. After Hess up to now numerous measurements of the radiation exposure by cosmic rays in different altitudes have been performed, however, this has not been taken serious in view of radiation protection.Today, with the fast development of modern airplanes, an ever increasing number of civil aircraft is flying in increasing altitudes for considerable time. Members of civil aircrew spending up to 1000 hours per year in cruising altitudes and therefore are subject to significant levels of radiation exposure. In 1990 ICRP published its report ICRP 60 with updated excess cancer risk estimates, which led to significantly higher risk coefficients for some radiation qualities. An increase of the radiation weighting factors for mean energy neutron radiation increases the contribution for the neutron component to the equivalent dose by about 60%, as compared to the earlier values of ICRP26. This higher risk coefficients lead to the recommendation of the ICRP, that cosmic radiation exposure in civil aviation should be taken into account as occupational exposure. Numerous recent exposure measurements at civil airliners in Germany, Sweden, USA, and Russia show exposure levels in the range of 3-10 mSv/year. This is significantly more than the average annual dose of radiation workers (in Austria about 1.5 mSv/year). Up to now no practicable and economic radiation monitoring system for routine application on board exits. A fairly simple and economic approach to a practical, active in-flight dosimeter for the assessment of individual crew exposure is discussed in this paper

  17. Environmental 238U and 232Th concentration measurements in an area of high level natural background radiation at Palong, Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, A Termizi; Hussein, A Wahab M A; Wood, A Khalik

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of uranium-238 and thorium-232 in soil, water, grass, moss and oil-palm fruit samples collected from an area of high background radiation were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA). U-238 concentration in soil ranged from 4.9 mg kg(-1) (58.8 Bq kg(-1)) to 40.4 mg kg(-1) (484.8 Bq kg(-1)), Th-232 concentration ranged from 14.9 mg kg(-1) (59.6 Bq kg(-1)) to 301.0 mg kg(-1) (1204 Bq kg(-1)). The concentration of U-238 in grass samples ranged from below the detection limit to 0.076 mg kg(-1) (912 mBq kg(-1)), and Th-232 ranged from 0.008 mg kg(-1) (32 mBq kg(-1)) to 0.343 mg kg(-1) (1.372 Bq kg(-1)). U-238 content in water samples ranged from 0.33 mg kg(-1) (4.0 Bq L(-1)) to 1.40 mg kg(-1) (16.8 Bq L(-1)), and Th-232 ranged from 0.19 mg kg(-1) (0.76 Bq L(-1)) to 0.66 mg kg(-1) (2.64 Bq L(-1)). It can be said that the concentrations of environmental U-238 and Th-232 in grass and water samples in the study area are insignificant. Mosses were found to be possible bio-radiological indicators due to their high absorption of the heavy radioelements from the environment.

  18. Optical fibers and their applications for radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, Tsunemi

    1998-01-01

    When optical fibers are used in a strong radiation field, it is necessary to increase the radiation-resistant capacity. Aiming at the improvement of such property, the characteristics of recent optical fibers made from quartz-glass were reviewed and the newly developed techniques for radiation measurement using those fibers were summarized in this report. Since optical fibers became able to use in the levels near the core conditions, their applications have started in various fields of technologies related to radiation. By combining the optical fibers and a small sensor, it became possible to act as 'Key Component' for measuring wide range radioactivity from a trace activity to a strong radiation field in the reactor core. Presently, the fibers are utilized for investigation of the optical mechanisms related in radiation, evaluation of their validities so on. Further, the optical fibers are expected to utilize in a multi-parametric measuring system which allows to concomitantly determine the radiation, temperature, pressure, flow amount etc. as an incore monitor. (M.N.)

  19. Optical fibers and their applications for radiation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakuta, Tsunemi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    When optical fibers are used in a strong radiation field, it is necessary to increase the radiation-resistant capacity. Aiming at the improvement of such property, the characteristics of recent optical fibers made from quartz-glass were reviewed and the newly developed techniques for radiation measurement using those fibers were summarized in this report. Since optical fibers became able to use in the levels near the core conditions, their applications have started in various fields of technologies related to radiation. By combining the optical fibers and a small sensor, it became possible to act as `Key Component` for measuring wide range radioactivity from a trace activity to a strong radiation field in the reactor core. Presently, the fibers are utilized for investigation of the optical mechanisms related in radiation, evaluation of their validities so on. Further, the optical fibers are expected to utilize in a multi-parametric measuring system which allows to concomitantly determine the radiation, temperature, pressure, flow amount etc. as an incore monitor. (M.N.)

  20. Investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in inner mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenyuan; Du Xuelin; Zhang Baozhong; Fu Su; Chen Jun; Zhang Wenhai

    1990-01-01

    The scheme, quality assurance measure, and results for environmental natural penetrating radiation level investigation in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region was reported. Over the whole Region area of more than 1.18 million km 2 , 1018 net grid measuring points were selected with grid spacing of 25 x 25 km. The range of natural environmental terrestrial γ-radiation air absorbed dose rate over fields was (0.96-18.62) x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , the range of γ-radiatoin dose rate over road was (1.07-26.08) x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , the mean was 5.92 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 ; the range of γ-radiation dose rate in buildings was (3.82-18.94) x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 ; the range of outdoor air absorbed dose rate caused by ionization compnents of cosmic rays was (3.12-5.55) x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , while indoor range was (2.60-4.66) x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 ; the range of outdoor natural penetrating radiation dose rate was (8.31-11.26) x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , indoor range was (11.20-14.67) x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 ; annual average individual effective dose equivalent and annual collective effective dose equivalent caused by natural penetrating radiatoin were 0.84 mSv and 1.61 x 10 4 man·Sv respectively. The georgaphical distribution of terrestrial γ-radiation dose rate within all region was reprted, the increase of environmental terrestial γ-radiation caused by human activity was also pointed. This ought to be paid enough attention to

  1. Environmental radiation measurements using TLD in and around AERE, Dhaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.; Husain, S.R.; Rahman, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The external background radiation level in and around the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) in Dhaka has been measured. The measurements were performed using lithium fluoride (LiF) thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLD-100) at 32 locations, all one metre above the ground. The annual average dose rate measured in the AERE environs was 1.74+-0.23 mGy.y -1 in air, based on analysis of thermoluminescence dosemeter data collected from 1982 to 1984. (author)

  2. High level natural radiation areas with special regard to Ramsar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.

    1993-01-01

    The studies of high level natural radiation areas (HLNRAs) around the world are of great importance for determination of risks due to long-term low-level whole body exposures of public. Many areas of the world possess HLNRAs the number of which depends on the criteria defined. Detailed radiological studies have been carried out in some HLNRAs the results of which have been reported at least in three international conferences. Among the HLNRAs, Ramsar has so far the highest level of natural radiation in some areas where radiological studies have been of concern. A program was established for Ramsar and its HLNRAs to study indoor and outdoor gamma exposures and external and internal doses of the inhabitants, 226 Ra content of public water supplies and hot springs, of food stuffs, etc., 222 Rn levels measured in 473 rooms of near 350 houses, 16 schools and 89 rooms and many locations of old and new Ramsar Hotels in different seasons, cytogenetic effects on inhabitants of Talesh Mahalleh, the highest radiation area, compared to that of a control area and radiological parameters of a house with a high potential for internal and external exposures of the inhabitants. It was concluded that the epidemiological studies in a number of countries did not show any evidence of increased health detriment in HLNRAs compared to control groups. In this paper, the conclusions drawn from studies in some HLNRAs around the world in particular Ramsar are discussed. (author). 20 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  3. Automatic radiation measuring system connected with GPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    The most serious nuclear disaster in Japan has broken out at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant due to Great East Japan Earthquake. Prompt and exact mapping of the contamination is of great importance for radiation protection and for the environment restoration. We have developed radiation survey systems KURAMA and KURAMA-2 for rapid and exact measurement of radiation dose distribution. The system is composed of a mobile radiation monitor and the computer in office which is for the storage and visualization of the data. They are connected with internet and are operated for continuous radiation measurement while the monitor is moving. The mobile part consists of a survey meter, an interface to transform the output of the survey meter for the computer, a global positioning system, a computer to process the data for connecting to the network, and a mobile router. Thus they are effective for rapid mapping of the surface contamination. The operation and the performance of the equipment at the site are presented. (J.P.N.)

  4. Low-level radiation: a high-level concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, C.

    1979-01-01

    The role of DOE in radiation health effects research is discussed. The possibility of conflict of interest is presented. The Mancuso episode is cited as evidence. The roles of several agencies (EPA, NRC, and OSHA) in establishing safe limits of radiation exposure are discussed

  5. Background radiation levels and medical exposure levels in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, D.V.; Solomon, S.B.; Thomson, J.E.M.

    1999-01-01

    The average effective background dose received by the Australian population has been reassessed to be ∼1.5 millisievert (mSv) per year. Over half of this exposure arises from exposure from terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays, the remainder from radionuclides within the body and from inhalation of radon progeny. This background is to be compared with medical radiation, primarily diagnostic, which could add half as much again to the population exposure. This paper reviews research programmes carried out by the Australian Radiation Laboratory to study radiation exposure from natural background and from medical use. While the latter exposure is accepted to have a social benefit, there is a need to ensure that doses are no more than necessary to provide effective diagnosis and optimal treatment. Copyright (1999) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  6. Radiation protection at workplaces with increased natural radiation exposure in Greece: recording, monitoring and protection measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiriadis, C.; Koukoliou, V.

    2002-01-01

    Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is the regulatory, advisory and competent authority on radiation protection matters. It is the authority responsible for the introduction of Radiation Protection regulations and monitoring of their implementation. In 1997, within the frame of its responsibilities the Board of the GAEC appointed a task group of experts to revise and bring the present Radiation Protection Regulations into line with the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) 96/29/Euratom Directive and the 97/43/Euratom Directive (on health protection of individuals against the dangers of ionising radiation in relation to medical exposure). Concerning the Title 7. of the new European BSS Directive, which refers to the Radiation Protection at work places with increased levels of natural radiation exposure, the Radiation Protection Regulations provides that the authority responsible for recording, monitoring and introducing protection measures at these places is the GAEC. Practices where effective doses to the workers due to increased natural radiation levels, may exceed 1mSv/y, have to be specified and authorised by the GAEC. The identification procedure is ongoing

  7. Radiation Dose Measurement Using Chemical Dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min Sun; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Yu Ri; Han, Bum Soo

    2010-01-01

    The radiation dose can be estimated in various ways. Dose estimates can be obtained by either experiment or theoretical analysis. In experiments, radiation impact is assessed by measuring any change caused by energy deposition to the exposed matter, in terms of energy state (physical change), chemical production (chemical change) or biological abnormality (biological change). The chemical dosimetry is based on the implication that the energy deposited to the matter can be inferred from the consequential change in chemical production. The chemical dosimetry usually works on the sample that is an aqueous solution, a biological matter, or an organic substance. In this study, we estimated absorbed doses by quantitating chemical changes in matter caused by radiation exposure. Two different chemical dosimeters, Fricke and ECB (Ethanol-Chlorobenzene) dosimeter, were compared in several features including efficacy as dose indicator and effective dose range

  8. Space weather effects measured in atmospheric radiation on aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. K.; Bouwer, D.; Bailey, J. J.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Judge, K.; Wieman, S. R.; Atwell, W.; Gersey, B.; Wilkins, R.; Rice, D.; Schunk, R. W.; Bell, L. D.; Mertens, C. J.; Xu, X.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Wiley, S.; Teets, E.; Shea, M. A.; Smart, D. F.; Jones, J. B. L.; Crowley, G.; Azeem, S. I.; Halford, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the domains that are affected by space weather, the coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Since 2013 Space Environment Technologies (SET) has been conducting observations of the atmospheric radiation environment at aviation altitudes using a small fleet of six instruments. The objective of this work is to improve radiation risk management in air traffic operations. Under the auspices of the Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) and Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX) projects our team is making dose rate measurements on multiple aircraft flying global routes. Over 174 ARMAS and USEWX flights have successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs), Solar Energetic Protons (SEPs), and outer radiation belt energetic electrons. The real-time radiation exposure is measured as an absorbed dose rate in silicon and then computed as an ambient dose equivalent rate for reporting dose relevant to radiative-sensitive organs and tissue in units of microsieverts per hour. ARMAS total ionizing absorbed dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time, processed on the ground into ambient dose equivalent rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users. Dose rates from flight altitudes up to 56,700 ft. are shown for flights across the planet under a variety of space weather conditions. We discuss several space weather

  9. A unique experiment. Measurement of radiation doses at Vinca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-07-15

    For the first time in the history of the peaceful applications of atomic energy, an experiment was conducted to determine the exact levels of radiation exposure resulting from a reactor incident. The experiment was made at Vinca, Yugoslavia, wherein October 1958 six persons had been subjected to high doses of neutron and gamma radiation during a brief uncontrolled run of a zero-power reactor. One of them died but the other five were successfully treated at the Curie Hospital in Paris. In the case of four of them, the treatment involved the grafting of healthy bone marrow to counteract the effects of radiation on blood-forming tissues. It was recognized that if the effects produced on the irradiated persons could be related to the exact doses of radiation they had received, it would be possible to gain immensely valuable knowledge about the biological consequences of acute and high level radiation exposure on a quantitative basis. It was suggested to the Yugoslav authorities that a dosimetry experiment be conducted at Vinca. The most accurate modern techniques of dosimetry developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory were employed during the experiment. Simultaneous measurements of the neutron and gamma doses were made at points where the people had been located. At these points the effects of the radiation on the salt solution in the phantoms were studied. In particular, the energy distribution of the radiation was investigated.It was the ratio between the various components of the radiation that was of special interest in these measurements because this ratio itself would help in determining the exact doses. The dose of one of the components, viz. slow neutrons, had already been determined during the treatment of the patients. If the ratio of the components could be ascertained, the doses of the fast neutrons and gamma rays could also be established because the ratio would not be affected by the power level at which the reactor was operated

  10. Investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zengxin; Zhang Wenying; Zheng Rukuan; Wei Shujun; Ding Huiqiu

    1992-01-01

    The authors report the methods and results of investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in Beijing. There were 83 measurement points selected, which were located at the vertexes of 1 x 1 km square meshes and uniformly distributed over the urban district. 173 net grid measuring points selected with grid spacing of 10 x 10 km and uniformly distributed over the suburban district. Another 131 more densely distributed points were added over some special areas. The results show that: (1) The point-weighted, area-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate over field is 56.2, 56.4 and 50.1 nGy · h -1 respectively. The γ radiation dose rate is higher in west and north area than in southeast area. (2) The point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate over roads was 49.3 nGy · h -1 . (3) The point weighted and population-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose inside buildings was 83.5 and 77.1 nGy · h -1 respectively. (4) The weighted average of air absorbed dose rate from the ionizing components of cosmic rays (except for neutron) over point number and population was respectively 29.0 and 27.5 nGy · h -1 indoors, and 32.3 and 30.8 nGy · h -1 outdoors. (5) The point and population-weighted means of natural penetrating radiation dose rate (the contribution from neutron is not included) are 112.8 and 104.5 nGy · h -1 indoors, respectively; 88.7 and 81.3 nGy · h -1 outdoors, respectively. (6) The annual effective dose equivalent per capital people natural γ radiation, cosmic ray and natural penetrating radiation was 0.43, 0.25 and 0.68 mSv respectively, and the annual collective effective dose equivalent was 4.0, 2.3 and 6.3 x 10 3 man · Sv, respectively

  11. Health aspects of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marko, A.M.

    1979-06-01

    A brief description of natural background radiation is given. To understand the relationship between doses and effects the magnitude and distribution over time are stressed. The derivation of radiation protection standards and corresponding risks are discussed. The risks to the occupational worker and to the public from nuclear power are placed in context of risks in other industries and from alternate energy sources, including conservation. (author)

  12. Health effects of low level radiation exposure among radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Motoi

    2003-01-01

    In Japan, a cohort study of radiation workers has been conducted since 1990. The cohort population consisted of about 176,000 workers (mostly males) who had been registered in the centralized radiation dose registry system and engaged in various radiation works at nuclear facilities. Statistical analyses were performed mainly on the 2,934 deaths, of which 1,191 were cancer cases, detected among 119,000 male subjects during the prospective follow-up. The standardized mortality ratio showed that for any cancers mortality was not different between this population and Japanese general population. By the trend test, though significantly increasing trend in accord with increasing doses was not observed for both cancer in all sites and leukemia, it was highly significant for esophagus cancer and external causes of deaths. Results of the questionnaire survey study of lifestyle of radiation workers suggested that increasing trend of these diseases was at least partly due to the influence of some confounding factors. As a result of reviewing published studies, including the present work, trend of mortality from cancer in all sites with increasing doses seems still unclear, whereas for leukemia it appears to stay flat under 100 mSv but rapidly rise up in the doses higher than this as if fitting to either a linear-quadratic or threshold models. (author)

  13. Measurements of the cosmic background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, R.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of the attributes of the 2.7-K microwave background radiation (CBR) are reviewed, with emphasis on the analytic phase of CBR studies. Methods for the direct measurement of the CBR spectrum are discussed. Attention is given to receivers, antennas, absolute receiver calibration, atmospheric emission and absorption, the galactic background contribution, the analysis of LF measurements, and recent HF observations of the CBR spectrum. Measurements of the large-angular-scale intensity distribution of the CBR (the most convincing evidence that the radiation is of cosmological origin) are examined, along with limits on the linear polarization of the CBR. A description is given of the NASA-sponsored Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite mission. The results of the COBE mission will be a set of sky maps showing, in the wave number range from 1 to 10,000 kaysers, the galactic background radiation due to synchrotron emission from galactic cosmic rays, to diffuse thermal emission from H II regions, and to diffuse thermal emission from interstellar and interplanetary dust, as well as a residue consisting of the CBR and whatever other cosmological background might exist

  14. An international intercomparison of absorbed dose measurements for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taiman Kadni; Noriah Mod Ali

    2002-01-01

    Dose intercomparison on an international basis has become an important component of quality assurance measurement i.e. to check the performance of absorbed dose measurements in radiation therapy. The absorbed dose to water measurements for radiation therapy at the SSDL, MINT have been regularly compared through international intercomparison programmes organised by the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria such as IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose quality audits and the Intercomparison of therapy level ionisation chamber calibration factors in terms of air kerma and absorbed dose to water calibration factors. The results of these intercomparison in terms of percentage deviations for Cobalt 60 gamma radiation and megavoltage x-ray from medical linear accelerators participated by the SSDL-MINT during the year 1985-2001 are within the acceptance limit. (Author)

  15. Measurement of microwave radiation from electron beam in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, I.S.; Akimune, H. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan); Fukushima, M.; Ikeda, D. [Institute of Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Inome, Y. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan); Matthews, J.N. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 4112-0830 (United States); Ogio, S. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Sagawa, H. [Institute of Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Sako, T. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Shibata, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Yamamoto, T., E-mail: tokonatu@konan-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan)

    2016-02-21

    We report the use of an electron light source (ELS) located at the Telescope Array Observatory in Utah, USA, to measure the isotropic microwave radiation from air showers. To simulate extensive air showers, the ELS emits an electron beam into the atmosphere and a parabola antenna system for the satellite communication is used to measure the microwave radiation from the electron beam. Based on this measurement, an upper limit on the intensity of a 12.5 GHz microwave radiation at 0.5 m from a 10{sup 18} eV air shower was estimated to be 3.96×10{sup −16} W m{sup −2} Hz{sup −1} with a 95% confidence level.

  16. Deviating measurements in radiation protection. Legal assessment of deviations in radiation protection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegl, A.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates how, from a legal point of view, deviations in radiation protection measurements should be treated in comparisons between measured results and limits stipulated by nuclear legislation or goods transport regulations. A case-by-case distinction is proposed which is based on the legal concequences of the respective measurement. Commentaries on nuclear law contain no references to the legal assessment of deviating measurements in radiation protection. The examples quoted in legal commentaries on civil and criminal proceedings of the way in which errors made in measurements for speed control and determinations of the alcohol content in the blood are to be taken into account, and a commentary on ozone legislation, are examined for analogies with radiation protection measurements. Leading cases in the nuclear field are evaluated in the light of the requirements applying in case of deviations in measurements. The final section summarizes the most important findings and conclusions. (orig.) [de

  17. Investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in Hebei province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Deliang; Wang Shuming; Yang Huanfeng

    1990-01-01

    The methods and results of the investigation on natural penetrating radiation level in Hebei Province from 1985 to 1987 are presented. 285 25 x 25 km-netted measuring points were set unformly up all over the porvince, with 204 densely measuring points of different types added. The results show that: (1) The point-weighted, area-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for field is 5.59, 5.51 and 5.31 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , respectively; (2) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of the dose rate inside buildings from cosmic ray is 3.05 and 2.80 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , and outside buildings is 3.38 and 3.11 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , respectively; (3) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural penetrating radiation dose rate inside buildings is 12.44 and 11.97 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , outside buildings is 8.97 and 8.42 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , respectively; (4) The annual effective dose equivalent from natural γ radiation, cosmic ray and natural penetrating radiation is 0.50, 0.25, and 0.75 mSv, respectively; and correspondingly, the annual collective effectiv dose equivalent is 2.7, 1.3 and 4.0 x 10 4 man·Sv, respectively

  18. Statistics for Radiation Measurement. Chapter 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lötter, M. G. [Department of Medical Physics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa)

    2014-12-15

    Measurement errors are of three general types: (i) blunders, (ii) systematic errors or accuracy of measurements, and (iii) random errors or precision of measurements. Blunders produce grossly inaccurate results and experienced observers easily detect their occurrence. Examples in radiation counting or measurements include the incorrect setting of the energy window, counting heavily contaminated samples, using contaminated detectors for imaging or counting, obtaining measurements of high activities, resulting in count rates that lead to excessive dead time effects, and selecting the wrong patient orientation during imaging. Although some blunders can be detected as outliers or by duplicate samples and measurements, blunders should be avoided by careful, meticulous and dedicated work. This is especially important where results will determine the diagnosis or treatment of patients.

  19. Automatic actinometric system for diffuse radiation measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiniuk, Agnieszka; Zajkowski, Maciej

    2015-09-01

    Actinometric station is using for measuring solar of radiation. The results are helpful in determining the optimal position of solar panels relative to the Sun, especially in today's world, when the energy coming from the Sun and other alternative sources of energy become more and more popular. Polish climate does not provide as much energy as in countries in southern Europe, but it is possible to increase the amount of energy produced by appropriate arrangement of photovoltaic panels. There is the possibility of forecasting the amount of produced energy, the cost-effectiveness and profitability of photovoltaic installations. This implies considerable development opportunities for domestic photovoltaic power plants. This article presents description of actinometric system for diffuse radiation measurement, which is equipped with pyranometer - thermopile temperature sensor, amplifier AD620, AD Converter ADS1110, microcontroller Atmega 16, SD card, GPS module and LCD screen.

  20. Measurements of neutron radiation in aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, B.; Poje, M.; Varga, M.; Radolic, V.; Miklavcic, I.; Faj, D.; Stanic, D.; Planinic, J.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation environment is a complex mixture of charged particles of the solar and galactic origin, as well as of secondary particles created in an interaction of galactic cosmic particles with the nuclei of the Earth's atmosphere. A radiation field at aircraft altitude consists of different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. In order to measure a neutron component of the cosmic radiation, we investigated a few combinations of a track etch detector (CR-39, LR-115) with a plastic converter or boron foil. Detector calibration was performed on neutrons coming from the nuclear reactor, as well as in the CERN-EU high-energy Reference Field (CERF) facility. From November 2007 to September 2008, the neutron dose equivalent was measured by the track detectors during five aircraft flights, in the north geographical latitude from 21 o to 58 o ; the respective average dose rate, determined by using the D-4 detector (CR-39/B), was H n =5.9 μSv/h. The photon dose rate, measured by the electronic dosimeter RAD-60 SE, had the average value of H f =1.4 μSv/h.

  1. Measurements of neutron radiation in aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovic, B.; Poje, M.; Varga, M.; Radolic, V.; Miklavcic, I. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Osijek, P.O. Box 125 (Croatia); Faj, D. [Clinical Hospital Osijek (Croatia); Stanic, D. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Osijek, P.O. Box 125 (Croatia); Planinic, J., E-mail: planinic@ffos.h [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Osijek, P.O. Box 125 (Croatia)

    2010-12-15

    Radiation environment is a complex mixture of charged particles of the solar and galactic origin, as well as of secondary particles created in an interaction of galactic cosmic particles with the nuclei of the Earth's atmosphere. A radiation field at aircraft altitude consists of different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. In order to measure a neutron component of the cosmic radiation, we investigated a few combinations of a track etch detector (CR-39, LR-115) with a plastic converter or boron foil. Detector calibration was performed on neutrons coming from the nuclear reactor, as well as in the CERN-EU high-energy Reference Field (CERF) facility. From November 2007 to September 2008, the neutron dose equivalent was measured by the track detectors during five aircraft flights, in the north geographical latitude from 21{sup o} to 58{sup o}; the respective average dose rate, determined by using the D-4 detector (CR-39/B), was H{sub n}=5.9 {mu}Sv/h. The photon dose rate, measured by the electronic dosimeter RAD-60 SE, had the average value of H{sub f}=1.4 {mu}Sv/h.

  2. Nuclear power and low level radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Newcombe, H.B.

    1979-03-01

    Even in the future, nuclear power is expected to contribute less than 1/10th of the present total population exposure to man-made radiation. By the best estimates available, the current health risks of nuclear power generation appear to be much less than those associated with the major alternative sources of energy, with the exception of natural gas which is about equally safe. Uncertainties concerning the radiation risks from nuclear power, from medical x-rays and from the effects of reduced ventillation to conserve heat appear to be less than those associated with estimates of risks from the use of coal and various other sources of energy. This is in part because of the large amount of effort devoted to studies of radiation effects. The benefits in terms of current life expectancy associated with any of the conventional or unconventional methods of power production appear to greatly outweigh the associated current health hazards. (author)

  3. A knowledge and awareness level survey of radiation protection among the radiation workers in Henan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Xiao-jun; Tian, Chong-bin; Zhang, Qin-fu; Liu, Cheng; Ding, Li

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Objective: To reveal the knowledge and awareness level of radiation protection among radiation workers in Henan province and to explore the methods to improve it. Methods: A questionnaire survey was carried out among 208 radiation workers. Results: The correct rate of the answer to radiation protection knowledge from radiation workers in Henan province is 53.78%. Most of them (88.9%) realized that it is important to protect patients and their companions. They adhere to the principles of justification of medial exposure and optimization of radiation protection and follow the management system of radiation protection. However, a few workers didn't follow the principles strictly. Sometime, during the radio diagnosis and radiotherapy services, the patients and their companions were not well protected from the radiation, and some patients were given unnecessary X-ray examine. Even worse, some workers did not attach importance to the regulations of radiation protection and disobey them frequently. Again, some hospital leaders disregard the regulation of radiation protection and didn't follow the regulation of health surveillance and radiation protection monitoring properly. And those behaviors and attitude, in fact, influence some workers' attitude to radiation protection. Conclusion: The level of radiation protection knowledge and awareness among the radiation workers in Henan province needs to be improved. It is necessary to strengthen radiation protection knowledge by strengthening training, and to improve safety awareness among the radiation staff, and, more important, the hospital leaders as well. (author)

  4. Chromosome Aberration on High Level Background Natural Radiation Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanti-Lusiyanti; Zubaidah-Alatas

    2001-01-01

    When the body is irradiated, all cells can suffer cytogenetic damage that can be seen as structural damage of chromosome in the lymphocytes. People no matter where they live in world are exposed to background radiation from natural sources both internal and external such as cosmic radiation, terrestrial radiation, cosmogenic radiation radon and thoron. Level of area natural ionizing radiation is varies depending on the altitude, the soil or rock conditions, particular food chains and the building materials and construction features. Level of normal areas of background exposure is annual effective dose 2.4 mSv and the high level areas of background exposure 20 mSv. This paper discuses the frequency of aberration chromosome especially dysenteries in several countries having high level radiation background. It seems that frequency of chromosome aberrations increase, generally with the increase of age of the people and the accumulated dose received. (author)

  5. Development of a mobile robot for remote radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Ushnish; Saini, Surendra Singh; Swaroop, Tumapala Teja; Sreejith, P.; Kumar, Ravinder; Ray, Debasish Datta

    2016-01-01

    Remote measurement of radiation using mobile robots is recommended in nuclear installations. For this purpose various robots have been developed that carry a radiation sensor. However since the robot has to go very near to the source of radiation, the life of the robot's components is compromised due to high level of absorbed dose. It was earlier managed to increase the life expectancy of remote radiation measurement robots by allowing the sensor to be placed on an extendable telescopic assembly; analogous to a health physicist taking measurements using a Teletector. The first prototype developed had stair climbing capabilities but it was found to be over dimensioned for various potential applications. A significant use of such robots is in taking measurements at nuclear reprocessing facilities having narrow cluttered pathways. This required development of a new version of the robot capable of negotiating the narrow pathways of such facilities. This paper describes the different aspects of the development of the mobile robot system with flexible radiation sensing capabilities

  6. Radiation damage at the molecular level: Nanodosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, F.; Munoz, A.; Lagares, J. I.; Nunez, L.; Garcia, G.

    2013-01-01

    One of the main practical use of the model is its use as a tool of nanodosimetry which basically consists in characterizing the effect of radiation on nano volumes (comparable to the DNA of volumes) in terms of link breaks and molecular dissociations. (Author)

  7. Spectral and electronic measurements of solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mamoru; Hanyu, Mitsuhiro

    1977-01-01

    The spectral data of solar radiation are necessary if detailed discussion is intended in relation to the utilization of solar energy. Since those data have not been fully prepared so far, a measuring equipment developed in Electro-technical Laboratory to obtain those data is described. The laboratory is now continuing the measurement at the wavelength of 0.3 μm to 1.1 μm. The equipment employs the system to always calibrate with the standard light source, it can measure both the direct light of the sun only and the sun light including sky light, and it enables to obtain the value based on the secondary standard of spectral illumination intensity established by the laboratory. The solar spectral irradiance is determined with the current readings of photomultiplier in the standard light source and the sun-light measurements at a wavelength and with the spectral illumination intensity from the standard light source. In order to practice such measurement many times at various wavelengths, control of the equipment, data collection, computation, drawing and listing are performed by a microcomputer. As an example, the data on Sept. 10, 1976, are shown comparing the graphs at three different hours. It can be well observed that the transmissivity attenuates with shorter wavelength, and the transmissivity in near infra-red region changes greatly due to the absorption of radiation by water vapour. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  8. Evidence for beneficial low level radiation effects and radiation hormesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinendegen, L.E.

    2005-01-01

    Low doses in the mGy range cause a dual effect on cellular DNA. One effect concerns a relatively low probability of DNA damage per energy deposition event and it increases proportional with dose, with possible bystander effects operating. This damage at background radiation exposure is orders of magnitudes lower than that from endogenous sources, such as ROS. The other effect at comparable doses brings an easily obeservable adaptive protection against DNA damage from any, mainly endogenous sources, depending on cell type, species, and metabolism. Protective responses express adaptive responses to metabolic perturbations and also mimic oxygen stress responses. Adaptive protection operates in terms of DNA damage prevention and repair, and of immune stimulation. It develops with a delay of hours, may last for days to months, and increasingly disappears at doses beyond about 100 to 200 mGy. Radiation-induced apoptosis and terminal cell differentiation occurs also at higher doses and adds to protection by reducing genomic instability and the number of mutated cells in tissues. At low doses, damage reduction by adaptive protection against damage from endogenous sources predictably outweighs radiogenic damage induction. The analysis of the consequences of the particular low-dose scenario shows that the linear-no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis for cancer risk is scientifically unfounded and appears to be invalid in favor of a threshold or hormesis. This is consistent with data both from animal studies and human epidemiological observations on low-dose induced cancer. The LNT hypothesis should be abandoned and be replaced by a hypothesis that is scientifically justified. The appropriate model should include terms for both linear and non-linear response probabilities. Maintaining the LNT-hypothesis as basis for radiation protection causes unressonable fear and expenses. (author)

  9. Responses to the low-level-radiation controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    Some data sets dealing with the hazards of low-level radiation are discussed. It is concluded that none of these reports, individually or collectively, changes appreciably or even significantly the evaluations of possible low-level radiation effects that have been made by several authoritative national and international groups

  10. Physiological benefits from low levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckey, T.D.

    1982-01-01

    Extensive literature indicates that minute doses of ionizing radiation benefit animal growth and development, fecundity, health and longevity. Specific improvements appear in neurologic function, growth rate and survival of young, wound healing, immune competence, and resistance to infection, radiation morbidity, and tumor induction and growth. Decreased mortality from these debilitating factors results in increased average life span following exposure to minute doses of ionizing radiation. The above phenomena suggest the possibility that ionizing radiation may be essential for life. Limited data with protozoa suggest that reproduction rates decrease when they are maintained in subambient radiation environments. This may be interpreted to be a radiation deficiency. Evidence must now be obtained to determine whether or not ionizing radiation is essential for growth, development, nutrient utilization, fecundity, health and longevity of higher animals. Whether or not ionizing radiation is found to be essential for these physiologic functions, the evidence reviewed indicates that the optimal amount of this ubiquitous agent is imperceptibly above ambient levels. (author)

  11. Reactor water level measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroki, Reiji; Asano, Tamotsu.

    1996-01-01

    A condensation vessel is connected to the upper portion of a reactor pressure vessel by way of a pipeline. The lower portion of the condensation vessel is connected to a low pressure side of a differential pressure transmission device by way of a reference leg pipeline. The high pressure side of the differential pressure transmission device is connected to the lower portion of the pressure vessel by way of a pipeline. The condensation vessel is equipped with a temperature sensor. When a temperature of a gas phase portion in the condensation vessel is lowered below a predetermined level, and incondensible gases in the condensation vessel starts to be dissolved in water, signals are sent from the temperature sensor to a control device and a control valve is opened. With such a constitution, CRD driving water flows into the condensation vessel, and water in which gases at the upper portion of the condensation vessel is dissolved flows into the pressure vessel by way of a pipeline. Then, gases dissolved in a reference water column in the reference leg pipeline are eliminated and the value of a reference water pressure does not change even upon abrupt lowering of pressure. (I.N.)

  12. Measuring ionizing radiation with a mobile device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelsburg, Matthias; Fehrenbach, Thomas; Puente León, Fernando

    2012-02-01

    In cases of nuclear disasters it is desirable to know one's personal exposure to radioactivity and the related health risk. Usually, Geiger-Mueller tubes are used to assess the situation. Equipping everyone with such a device in a short period of time is very expensive. We propose a method to detect ionizing radiation using the integrated camera of a mobile consumer device, e.g., a cell phone. In emergency cases, millions of existing mobile devices could then be used to monitor the exposure of its owners. In combination with internet access and GPS, measured data can be collected by a central server to get an overview of the situation. During a measurement, the CMOS sensor of a mobile device is shielded from surrounding light by an attachment in front of the lens or an internal shutter. The high-energy radiation produces free electrons on the sensor chip resulting in an image signal. By image analysis by means of the mobile device, signal components due to incident ionizing radiation are separated from the sensor noise. With radioactive sources present significant increases in detected pixels can be seen. Furthermore, the cell phone application can make a preliminary estimate on the collected dose of an individual and the associated health risks.

  13. Bunch Length Measurements using Coherent Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ischebeck, Rasmus; Barnes, Christopher; Blumenfeld, Ian; Clayton, Chris; Decker, Franz Josef; Deng, Suzhi; Hogan, Mark; Huang Cheng Kun; Iverson, Richard; Johnson, Devon K; Krejcik, Patrick; Lu, Wei; Marsh, Kenneth; Oz, Erdem; Siemann, Robert; Walz, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    The accelerating field that can be obtained in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator depends on the current of the electron beam that excites the wake. In the E-167 experiment, a peak current above 10kA will be delivered at a particle energy of 28GeV. The bunch has a length of a few ten micrometers and several methods are used to measure its longitudinal profile. Among these, autocorrelation of coherent transition radiation (CTR) is employed. The beam passes a thin metallic foil, where it emits transition radiation. For wavelengths greater than the bunch length, this transition radiation is emitted coherently. This amplifies the long-wavelength part of the spectrum. A scanning Michelson interferometer is used to autocorrelate the CTR. However, this method requires the contribution of many bunches to build an autocorrelation trace. The measurement is influenced by the transmission characteristics of the vacuum window and beam splitter. We present here an analysis of materials, as well as possible layouts ...

  14. Liquid level measurement in high level nuclear waste slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, G.E.; Heckendorn, F.M.; Postles, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Accurate liquid level measurement has been a difficult problem to solve for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The nuclear waste sludge tends to plug or degrade most commercially available liquid-level measurement sensors. A liquid-level measurement system that meets demanding accuracy requirements for the DWPF has been developed. The system uses a pneumatic 1:1 pressure repeater as a sensor and a computerized error correction system. 2 figs

  15. Radiation budget measurement/model interface research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    The NIMBUS 6 data were analyzed to form an up to date climatology of the Earth radiation budget as a basis for numerical model definition studies. Global maps depicting infrared emitted flux, net flux and albedo from processed NIMBUS 6 data for July, 1977, are presented. Zonal averages of net radiation flux for April, May, and June and zonal mean emitted flux and net flux for the December to January period are also presented. The development of two models is reported. The first is a statistical dynamical model with vertical and horizontal resolution. The second model is a two level global linear balance model. The results of time integration of the model up to 120 days, to simulate the January circulation, are discussed. Average zonal wind, meridonal wind component, vertical velocity, and moisture budget are among the parameters addressed.

  16. Ultraviolet light and infrared radiation. Measurement and hazard assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, A.; Salsi, S.

    1979-01-01

    Ultraviolet, light and infrared radiation exists in many work places and can be dangerous in many ways, especially for the eyes. The INRS has developed a method and an apparatus for measuring on site or in a laboratory the spectral energy distribution of such radiation and the luminance of the source. With current knowledge of the effects of radiation on the eyes and by comparing readings taken and recommended limit values, it is possible to determine the risk levels at work places in the different wave ranges. Two examples of readings taken at a pot furnace in a crystal glass factory and at an MAG welding station are given and the appropriate protective measures described [fr

  17. Proportional counter system for radiation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, M; Okudera, S

    1970-11-21

    A gas such as Xe or Kr employed in counter tubes is charged into the counter tube of a gas-flow type proportional counter for radiation measurement and into a vessel having a volume larger than that of the counter tube. The vessel communicates with the counter tube to circulate the gas via a pump through both the vessel and tube during measurement. An organic film such as a polyester synthetic resin film is used for the window of the counter tube to measure X-rays in the long wavelength range. Accordingly, a wide range of X-rays can be measured including both long and short wavelengths ranges by utilizing only one counter tube, thus permitting the gases employed to be effectively used.

  18. A sensor element for direct radiation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajons, P.; Wernhart, U.; Zeiler, H. [University of Vienna (Austria). Institut of Material Physics

    1998-08-01

    A combination of a photodiode with a nonimaging light concentrator is developed to perform measurements of the direct solar radiation component. A prototype composed of low price elements is taken as a starting point to discuss the problems which must be faced when calibrating such sensors. By this the influence of the angle of incidence and spectral distribution (caused by different air mass or varying degree of clearness) of the incident radiation on the behavior of the system is studied. The readings are compared to the calculated (global minus diffuse) readings obtained from two standard star pyranometers. Finally the possibilities for increasing the accuracy of the sensor element and for applying the device are discussed. (author)

  19. Measuring thyroid uptake with hand-held radiation monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschamps, M.

    1987-04-01

    With the use of Iodine 123, 125 and 131 and some compounds of Technetium-99 m, a fraction of the isotopes can be trapped in the thyroid of the technicians. We used the hand-held radiation contamination or survey meters of the nine (9) Nuclear medicine departments we visited to see if they were adequate for the evaluation of thyroid uptake of the users. Measurements on a neck-phanton helped us to determine a minimum detectable activity for each isotope. We were then able to check if the measurements of investigations and action levels were possible. None of the hand-held radiation monitors are completely satisfactory for the measure of thyroid uptake of the user. We discuss a class of equipment capable of measuring radiation emissions at the investigation level. Measurement at the action level is possible with meters having scintillation or proportional probes but none of them permits the discrimination in energy required for a quantitative evaluation of the radioisotopes used

  20. Method and apparatus for determining accuracy of radiation measurements made in the presence of background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    A radioactivity measuring instrument, and a method related to its use, for determining the radioactivity of a sample measured in the presence of significant background radiation, and for determining an error value relating to a specific probability of accuracy of the result are presented. Error values relating to the measurement of background radiation alone, and to the measurement of sample radiation and background radiation together, are combined to produce a true error value relating to the sample radiation alone

  1. Measuring element for the detection and determination of radiation doses of gamma radiation and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, W.; Piesch, E.

    1975-01-01

    A measuring element detects and proves both gamma and neutron radiation. The element includes a photoluminescent material which stores gamma radiation and particles of arsenic and phosphorus embedded in the photoluminescent material for detecting neutron radiation. (U.S.)

  2. Measurement of Thermal Radiation Properties of Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, J. C. (Editor)

    1963-01-01

    The overall objectives of the Symposium were to afford (1) an opportunity for workers in the field to describe the equipment and procedures currently in use for measuring thermal radiation properties of solids, (2) an opportunity for constructive criticism of the material presented, and (3) an open forum for discussion of mutual problems. It was also the hope of the sponsors that the published proceedings of the Symposium would serve as a valuable reference on measurement techniques for evaluating thermal radiation properties of solids, partic.ularly for those with limited experience in the field. Because of the strong dependence of emitted flux upon temperature, the program committee thought it advisable to devote the first session to a discussion of the problems of temperature measurement. All of the papers in Session I were presented at the request of and upon topics suggested by the Committee. Because of time and space limitations, it, was impossible to consider all temperature measurement problems that might arise--the objective was rather to call to the attention of the reader some of the problems that might be encountered, and to provide references that might provide solutions.

  3. Environmental radiation measurements using lithium fluoride thermoluminescence dosemeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, C.M.H.; Green, B.M.R.; McKinlay, A.F.; Richards, D.J. (National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell (UK))

    1984-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board is involved in a large scale environmental survey of radiation levels in homes throughout the United Kingdom. Passive radon and gamma ray dosemeters are posted to a representative sample of households. Lithium fluoride thermoluminescence dosemeters are used to assess natural gamma radiation and are left in the measurement location for a period of six months before being returned to the Board for processing. As a preliminary to the national survey, the Board has been engaged on several limited surveys in regions of igneous and sedimentary geology. Experience gained in these limited surveys and from standardisation studies using environmental dosemeters are reported.

  4. The Great Plains low-level jet (LLJ) during the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) intensive observation period (IOP)-4 and simulations of land use pattern effect on the LLJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y.; Raman, S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The Great Plains low-level jet (LLJ) is an important element of the low-level atmospheric circulation. It transports water vapor from the Gulf of Mexico, which in turn affects the development of weather over the Great Plains of the central United States. The LLJ is generally recognized as a complex response of the atmospheric boundary layer to the diurnal cycle of thermal forcing. Early studies have attributed the Great Plains LLJ to the diurnal oscillations of frictional effect, buoyancy over sloping terrain, and the blocking effects of the Rocky Mountains. Recent investigations show that the speed of the LLJ is also affected by the soil type and soil moisture. Some studies also suggest that synoptic patterns may play an important role in the development of the LLJ. Land surface heterogeneties significantly affect mesoscale circulations by generating strong contrasts in surface thermal fluxes. Thus one would expect that the land use pattern should have effects on the LLJ`s development and structure. In this study, we try to determine the relative roles of the synoptic forcing, planetary boundary layers (PBL) processes, and the land use pattern in the formation of the LLJ using the observations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Intensive Operation Period (IOP)-4 and numerical sensitivity tests.

  5. Radiation measurement on the International Space Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopova, A.B.; Manaseryan, M.M.; Melkonyan, A.A.; Tatikyan, S.Sh.; Potapov, Yu.

    2005-01-01

    The results of an investigation of radiation environment on board the ISS with apogee/perigee of 420/380km and inclination 51.6 o are presented. For measurement of important characteristics of cosmic rays (particles fluxes, LET spectrum, equivalent doses and heavy ions with Z>=2) a nuclear photographic emulsion as a controllable threshold detector was used. The use of this detector permits a registration of the LET spectrum of charged particles within wide range of dE/dx and during last years it has already been successfully used on board the MIR station, Space Shuttles and 'Kosmos' spacecrafts. An integral LET spectrum was measured in the range 0.5-2.2x103keV/μm and the value of equivalent dose 360μSv/day was estimated. The flux of biologically dangerous heavy particles with Z>=2 was measured (3.85x103particles/cm2)

  6. Studies on the natural radiation levels around the Caspian sea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbari, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    We measured about 80 items from four areas of Mazandaran, randomly selected samples of food products, soil and water, around the shore of the Caspian sea area. The results showed that the natural radioactivity in beans and broad beans in some areas is much more than in others. The results were also compared with the levels of radiations from some materials from Brazil, which also contained high levels of radiations. Samples measured in this study showed higher levels of radiations than the American food products. (author). 12 refs, 8 tabs

  7. Health effects of low-level radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiological surveys have attempted to assess the carcinogenic risk induced by exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation. Such studies are difficult to carry out because the incidence of radiation induced cancers is of only a few per cent, even following relativity large doses, and because there is no way to distinguish radiation induced cancer from the background of natural human cancers; moreover these surveys are exposed to many biases due to relatively small sizes of the populations studied and the difficulties of finding an appropriate control group, of estimating the absorbed doses and of collecting the data. A few national or international expert committees have analysed the available data and evaluated the carcinogenic effects. Their estimations of the risk, are similar and allow one to quantify the carcinogenic risk for doses above 100 rads. The risks of lower doses must be determined by extrapolation from human data at high doses. This extrapolation requires the knowledge of the dose-effect relationship. A linear extrapolation is most common and probably leads to a conservative estimate of the risk. A linear-quadratic function is probably more realistic and in better accordance with most scientific data. However the validity of its use for the estimation of carcinogenic risk is still debated. In experimental animals, the influence of dose-rate is important and some data suggest that this is the same for the carcinogenic effect in human beings. The genetic effects are probably less important than was feared a few years ago. The most important recent observation is the absence of any significant genetic effect in the progeny of the survivors of the A. bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This allows a conservative estimate of the maximum genetic risk for human beings [fr

  8. Intermediate bands versus levels in non-radiative recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luque, Antonio; Marti, Antonio; Antolin, Elisa; Tablero, Cesar

    2006-01-01

    There is a practical interest in developing semiconductors with levels situated within their band gap while preventing the non-radiative recombination that these levels promote. In this paper, the physical causes of this non-radiative recombination are analyzed and the increase in the density of the impurities responsible for the mid-gap levels to the point of forming bands is suggested as the means of suppressing the recombination. Simple models supporting this recommendation and helping in its quantification are presented

  9. Space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Jr; Charles, L [Alcoa, TN; Buckner, Mark A [Oak Ridge, TN; Hanson, Gregory R [Clinton, TN; Bryan, William L [Knoxville, TN

    2011-04-26

    Methods and apparatus are described for space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers. A method includes in situ polling a suite of passive integrating ionizing radiation sensors including reading-out dosimetric data from a first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and a second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor, where the first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor remain situated where the dosimetric data was integrated while reading-out. Another method includes arranging a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially dispersed array; determining a relative position of each of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors to define a volume of interest; collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors; and triggering an alarm condition when a dose level of an ionizing radiation source is calculated to exceed a threshold.

  10. Health effects of low-level radiation in shipyard workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanoski, G.M.

    1991-06-01

    The Nuclear Shipyard Workers Study (NSWS) was designed to determine whether there is an excess risk of leukemia or other cancers associated with exposure to low levels of gamma radiation. The study compares the mortality experience of shipyard workers who qualified to work in radiation areas to the mortality of similar workers who hold the same types of jobs but who are not authorized to work in radiation areas. The population consists of workers from six government and two private shipyards

  11. Experience of water chemistry and radiation levels in Swedish BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivars, R.; Elkert, J.

    1981-01-01

    From the BWR operational experience in Sweden it has been found that the occupational radiation exposures have been comparatively low in an international comparison. One main reason for the favourable conditions is the good water chemistry performance. This paper deals at first with the design considerations of water chemistry and materials selection. Next, the experience of water chemistry and radiation levels are provided. Finally, some methods to further reduce the radiation sources are discussed. (author)

  12. Radiation damage measurements in room temperature semiconductor radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, L.A.; Olsen, R.W.; James, R.B.; Brunett, B.A.; Walsh, D.S.; Doyle, B.L.; Vizkelethy, G.; Trombka, J.I.

    1998-01-01

    The literature of radiation damage measurements on cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), cadmium telluride (CT), and mercuric iodide (HgI 2 ) is reviewed and in the case of CZT supplemented by new alpha particle data. CZT strip detectors exposed to intermediate energy (1.3 MeV) proton fluences exhibit increased interstrip leakage after 10 10 p/cm 2 and significant bulk leakage after 10 12 p/cm 2 . CZT exposed to 200 MeV protons shows a two-fold loss in energy resolution after a fluence of 5 x 10 9 p/cm 2 in thick (3 mm) planar devices but little effect in 2 mm devices. No energy resolution effects were noted from moderated fission spectrum of neutrons after fluences up to 10 10 n/cm 2 , although activation was evident. Exposures of CZT to 5 MeV alpha particle at fluences up to 1.5 x 10 10 α/cm 2 produced a near linear decrease in peak position with fluence and increases in FWHM beginning at about 7.5 x 10 9 α/cm 2 . CT detectors show resolution losses after fluences of 3 x 10 9 p/cm 2 at 33 MeV for chlorine-doped detectors. Indium doped material may be more resistant. Neutron exposures (8 MeV) caused resolution losses after fluences of 2 x 10 10 n/cm 2 . Mercuric iodide has been studied with intermediate energy protons (10 to 33 MeV) at fluences up to 10 12 p/cm 2 and with 1.5 GeV protons at fluences up to 1.2 x 10 8 p/cm 2 . Neutron exposures at 8 MeV have been reported at fluences up to 10 15 n/cm 2 . No radiation damage was reported under these irradiation conditions

  13. New approach to radiation monitoring: citizen based radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuca, P.; Helebrant, J.

    2016-01-01

    Both the Fukushima Dai-chi NPP accident in Japan in 2011 and the Chernobyl NPP accident in USSR in 1986 similarly to the first one have shown a necessity to find a way how to improve confidence of the public to official authorities. It is important especially in such a case of severe accidents with significant consequences in large inhabited areas around the damaged NPP. A lack of public confidence to officials was caused mostly by rather poor communication between official authorities and the public, as well by restricted access to the information for the public. It may have extremely negative impacts on the public understanding of actual situation and its possible risks, on public acceptance of necessary protective measures and participation of the public in remediation of the affected areas. One of possible ways to improve the situation can be implementation of citizen radiation monitoring on voluntary basis. Making sure, the official results are compatible with public self-measured ones, the public probably has more confidence in them. In the Czech Republic the implementation of such an approach is tested in the framework of security research founded by the Czech Ministry of the Interior - the research project RAMESIS solved by SURO. (authors)

  14. Development of radiation detection and measurement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, B. S.; Ham, C. S.; Chung, C. E. and others

    2000-03-01

    This report contains descriptions on the following six items. The first item is the result of a study on CsI(TI) crystals with their light emitting characteristics and the result of a study on plastic scintillators. The second item is the result of a study on advanced radiation detectors and includes experiments for the effect of using a Compton suppressor with an HPGe detector. For the third item, we describe the results of a design work done using EGS4 for a thickness gauge, a density gauge, and a level gauge. The fourth item contains descriptions on the prototype circuit systems developed for a level gauge, a thickness gauge, and for a survey meter. The fifth part contains the computed tomography algorithm and a prototype scanning system developed for a CT system. As the sixth and the last item, we describe the prototype high precision heat source and the prototype heat-voltage converter which we have designed and fabricated.

  15. Development of radiation detection and measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, B. S.; Ham, C. S.; Chung, C. E. and others

    2000-03-01

    This report contains descriptions on the following six items. The first item is the result of a study on CsI(TI) crystals with their light emitting characteristics and the result of a study on plastic scintillators. The second item is the result of a study on advanced radiation detectors and includes experiments for the effect of using a Compton suppressor with an HPGe detector. For the third item, we describe the results of a design work done using EGS4 for a thickness gauge, a density gauge, and a level gauge. The fourth item contains descriptions on the prototype circuit systems developed for a level gauge, a thickness gauge, and for a survey meter. The fifth part contains the computed tomography algorithm and a prototype scanning system developed for a CT system. As the sixth and the last item, we describe the prototype high precision heat source and the prototype heat-voltage converter which we have designed and fabricated

  16. Measurements relating fire radiative energy density and surface fuel consumption - RxCADRE 2011 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Hudak; Matthew B. Dickinson; Benjamin C. Bright; Robert L. Kremens; E. Louise Loudermilk; Joseph J. O' Brien; Benjamin S. Hornsby; Roger D. Ottmar

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale experiments have demonstrated that fire radiative energy is linearly related to fuel combusted but such a relationship has not been shown at the landscape level of prescribed fires. This paper presents field and remotely sensed measures of pre-fire fuel loads, consumption, fire radiative energy density (FRED) and fire radiative power flux density (FRFD),...

  17. An overview of radiation protection at national level in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitriou, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Greek radiation protection Regulations were revised extensively and harmonized with the relevant Euratom Directives in 1991, covering almost all applications of ionizing radiation. According to the low in force, Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is the regulatory and competent authority on radiation protection matters. Among others is responsible: for evaluating the environmental radiation, for introducing emergency plans to responsible Ministries to cope with radiation accidents or increased radioactivity levels, for issuing safety regulation concerning the operation employing ionizing radiation, performing inceptions to all installations or laboratories where radioisotopes or radiation producing machines are employed including all medical applications and issuing the certificate of compliance with the radiation protection regulations. GAEC is the governmental licensing authority for import, export, possession, use, transport and disposal of radioactive materials including fissile materials, and is also responsible for providing training and education to scientists and technical personnel on radiation protection and operates a two years postgraduate course in Medical radiation Physics in collaboration with three Greek Universities, leading to an M Sc degree.The achievements, initiatives and perceptivities of GAEC in the fields of its responsibility are discussed. Statistical data concerning the application of ionising radiation in Greece during the last five years are also presented (author)

  18. Radiative lifetime measurements of rubidium Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branden, D B; Juhasz, T; Mahlokozera, T; Vesa, C; Wilson, R O; Zheng, M; Tate, D A; Kortyna, A

    2010-01-01

    We have measured the radiative lifetimes of ns, np and nd Rydberg states of rubidium in the range 28 ≤ n ≤ 45. To enable long-lived states to be measured, our experiment uses slow-moving (∼100 μK) 85 Rb atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). Two experimental techniques have been adopted to reduce random and systematic errors. First, a narrow-bandwidth pulsed laser is used to excite the target nl Rydberg state, resulting in minimal shot-to-shot variation in the initial state population. Second, we monitor the target state population as a function of time delay from the laser pulse using a short-duration, millimetre-wave pulse that is resonant with a one- or two-photon transition to a higher energy 'monitor state', n'l'. We then selectively field ionize the monitor state, and detect the resulting electrons with a micro-channel plate. This signal is an accurate mirror of the nl target state population, and is uncontaminated by contributions from other states which are populated by black body radiation. Our results are generally consistent with other recent experimental results obtained using a method which is more prone to systematic error, and are also in excellent agreement with theory.

  19. Radiation levels on empty cylinders containing heel material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shockley, C.W. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Empty UF{sub 6} cylinders containing heel material were found to emit radiation levels in excess of 200 mr/hr, the maximum amount stated in ORO-651. The radiation levels were as high as 335 mr/hr for thick wall (48X and 48Y) cylinders and 1050 mr/hr for thin wall (48G and 48H) cylinders. The high readings were found only on the bottom of the cylinders. These radiation levels exceeded the maximum levels established in DOT 49 CFR, Part 173.441 for shipment of cylinders. Holding periods of four weeks for thick-wall cylinders and ten weeks for thin-wall cylinders were established to allow the radiation levels to decay prior to shipment.

  20. Investigation of the electromagnetic radiation field level in the vicinity of Damascus international airport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abukassem, I.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work is to estimate the electromagnetic radiation exposure of Damascus international airport workers.Different kinds of electromagnetic wave sources exist in the vicinity of the airport, for example, mobile phone base stations. It was found that the exposure level in all studied points (offices, halls, traffic control tour, etc) is lower than the international restriction levels. Few recommendations were given for some work situation or places where the measured electromagnetic radiation levels were relatively high.(author)

  1. Genetic effects of low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumner, D.

    1988-01-01

    The author outlines the evidence for genetic effects. The incidence of congenital abnormalities, stillbirths and child deaths has been examined in 70,000 pregnancies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and compared with pregnancies in an unirradiated control group. No difference was detected in incidence of congenital abnormalities of stillbirths, but there was a small insignificant increase in child deaths when both parents were exposed. The number of children born with chromosome aberrations was slightly higher, but insignificant in the exposed group compared with controls. However, surveys of congenital malformations in children of radiologists and in children of Hanford workers suggest a genetic effect of radiation. Absolute and relative methods of calculating risks and the ICRP risk factor is also briefly discussed. (U.K.)

  2. Environmental gamma radiation measurements in Bangladeshi houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrish Miah, M.

    2002-01-01

    The indoor gamma dose rate in air measured using TLDs in the Dhaka district is not wide ranging and follows a normal distribution with an arithmetic mean of 1.54±0.26 mGy.y -1 . The result has been compared with those found by other investigators for different locations of the world. Measurements were made on a monthly basis for a year period, and a sinusoidal variation of monthly indoor gamma radiation of the type: d = 160 + 65 cos p/6 (m -1 ), where d is the indoor dose rate (nGy.h -1 ) and m the month, was observed. This might be due to seasonally varied air exchange rates of the houses. The average annual effective dose and the collective dose equivalent for the residents were estimated to be 0.86 mSv and 172.20 man-Sv respectively based on the indoor gamma exposure. (author)

  3. Environmental gamma radiation measurements in Bangladeshi houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    Indoor gamma dose rate in air measured using TLDs in the Dhaka district is not wide ranging and follows a normal distribution with an arithmetic mean of 1.54±0.26 mGy y -1 . The result has been compared with those found by other investigators for different locations of the world. Measurements were made on a monthly basis for a year period, and a sinusoidal variation of monthly indoor gamma radiation of the type: d=160+65 cos π/6 (m-1), where d is the indoor dose rate (nGy h -1 ) and m the month. This might be due to the seasonally varied air exchange rates of the houses. The average annual effective dose and the collective dose equivalent for the residents were estimated to be 0.86 mSv and 172.20 man-Sv, respectively, based on the indoor gamma exposure

  4. Environmental gamma radiation measurements in Bangladeshi houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M.I. E-mail: idrish_physics@yahoo.com

    2004-06-01

    Indoor gamma dose rate in air measured using TLDs in the Dhaka district is not wide ranging and follows a normal distribution with an arithmetic mean of 1.54{+-}0.26 mGy y{sup -1}. The result has been compared with those found by other investigators for different locations of the world. Measurements were made on a monthly basis for a year period, and a sinusoidal variation of monthly indoor gamma radiation of the type: d=160+65 cos {pi}/6 (m-1), where d is the indoor dose rate (nGy h{sup -1}) and m the month. This might be due to the seasonally varied air exchange rates of the houses. The average annual effective dose and the collective dose equivalent for the residents were estimated to be 0.86 mSv and 172.20 man-Sv, respectively, based on the indoor gamma exposure.

  5. Measurement of basis weight by radiation gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchnea, A.

    1981-01-01

    For accurate measurement of the basis weight (mass per unit area) of a material such as paper between a radioactive source and an ionization chamber the apparatus is calibrated by using a plurality of standards of known basis weight to provide a relationship between basis weight and the output current of the chamber which includes at least terms of the second order and preferably terms of higher orders. The major portion of the radiation path is enclosed in airtight chambers which are sufficiently rigid that the density therein is independent of ambient temperature and pressure variations. The accuracy is increased by measuring ambient temperature and pressure fluctuations, and linearly compensating for resultant density variations in the air gap through which the paper web passes. A wheel holding the standards is induced by a motor and a perforated encoding disc. (author)

  6. Book of abstracts of the international conference on high levels of natural radiation held in Ramsar, Islamic Republic of Iran, 3-7 Nov 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Borhan Azad, S.; Katouzi, M.

    1990-01-01

    Papers presented in international conference on high levels of natural radiation was in the following subjects: A review of world natural radiation, environmental transfer pathway,technologically enhanced natural radiation environment,radon in the environment,radium determination in water,cytogenetic studies in high natural radiation areas,epidemiological studies in high natural radiation areas and radiation measurements methods

  7. Effects of low levels of radiation on humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxier, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The state of knowledge on effects of low-level ionizing radiations on humans is reviewed. Several problems relating to dose thresholds or lack of thresholds for several types of cancer and high LET radiations and the effects of fractionation and dose protection are discussed

  8. Market survey of level measurement equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    In a market survey of level measurement equipment from 42 manufacturers, which is based on different principles of measurement and which is used for different applications, the data of the various manufacturers is compiled. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Water level measurement uncertainty during BWR instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torok, R.C.; Derbidge, T.C.; Healzer, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper addresses the performance of the water-level measurement system in a boiling water reactor (BWR) during severe instability oscillations which, under some circumstances, can occur during an anticipated transient without SCRAM (ATWS). Test data from a prototypical mock-up of the water-level measurement system was used to refine and calibrate a water-level measurement system model. The model was then used to predict level measurement system response, using as boundary conditions vessel pressures calculated by ppercase RETRAN for an ATWS/instability event.The results of the study indicate that rapid pressure changes in the reactor pressure vessel which cause oscillations in downcomer water level, coupled with differences in instrument line lengths, can produce errors in the sensed water level. Using nominal parameters for the measurement system components, a severe instability transient which produced a 0.2 m peak-to-minimum water-level oscillation in the vessel downcomer was predicted to produce pressure difference equivalent to a 0.7 m level oscillation at the input to the differential pressure transmitter, 0.5 m oscillation at the output of the transmitter, and an oscillation of 0.3 m on the water-level indicator in the control room. The level measurement system error, caused by downcomer water-level oscillations and instrument line length differential, is mitigated by damping both in the differential pressure transmitter used to infer level and in the control room display instrument. ((orig.))

  10. Method for steam generator water level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a nuclear power plant, a method of controlling the steam generator water level, wherein the steam generator has an upper level tap corresponding to an upper level, a lower level, a riser positioned between the lower and upper taps, and level sensor means for indicating water level between a first range limit and a second range limit, the sensor means being connected to at least the lower tap. It comprises: calculating a measure of velocity head at about the lower level tap; calculating a measure of full water level as the upper level less the measure of velocity head; calibrating the level sensor means to provide an output at the first limit corresponding to an input thereto representative of the measure of full level; calculating a high level setpoint equal to the level of the riser less a bias amount which is a function of the position of the riser relative to the span between the taps; and controlling the water level when the sensor means indicates that the high level setpoint has been reached

  11. Ambient radiation levels in positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Priscila do Carmo; Oliveira, Paulo Marcio Campos de; Mamede, Marcelo; Silveira, Mariana de Castro; Aguiar, Polyanna; Real, Raphaela Vila, E-mail: pridili@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Silva, Teogenes Augusto da [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Objective: to evaluate the level of ambient radiation in a PET/CT center. Materials and methods: previously selected and calibrated TLD-100H thermoluminescent dosimeters were utilized to measure room radiation levels. During 32 days, the detectors were placed in several strategically selected points inside the PET/CT center and in adjacent buildings. After the exposure period the dosimeters were collected and processed to determine the radiation level. Results: in none of the points selected for measurements the values exceeded the radiation dose threshold for controlled area (5 mSv/ year) or free area (0.5 mSv/year) as recommended by the Brazilian regulations. Conclusion: in the present study the authors demonstrated that the whole shielding system is appropriate and, consequently, the workers are exposed to doses below the threshold established by Brazilian standards, provided the radiation protection standards are followed. (author)

  12. Ambient radiation levels in positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Priscila do Carmo; de Oliveira, Paulo Marcio Campos; Mamede, Marcelo; Silveira, Mariana de Castro; Aguiar, Polyanna; Real, Raphaela Vila; da Silva, Teógenes Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the level of ambient radiation in a PET/CT center. Materials and Methods Previously selected and calibrated TLD-100H thermoluminescent dosimeters were utilized to measure room radiation levels. During 32 days, the detectors were placed in several strategically selected points inside the PET/CT center and in adjacent buildings. After the exposure period the dosimeters were collected and processed to determine the radiation level. Results In none of the points selected for measurements the values exceeded the radiation dose threshold for controlled area (5 mSv/year) or free area (0.5 mSv/year) as recommended by the Brazilian regulations. Conclusion In the present study the authors demonstrated that the whole shielding system is appropriate and, consequently, the workers are exposed to doses below the threshold established by Brazilian standards, provided the radiation protection standards are followed. PMID:25798004

  13. Radiation exposure levels in phosphate mining activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Al-Hushari, M.; Raja, G.

    1992-01-01

    Radon, radon daughter concentration and gamma ray exposure rate were measured at different places in the phosphate mining areas of Syria. The grab sampling method was used. For radon measurements, discrete air samples without progeny were collected over short periods of time, whereas daughters were collected on filter paper. A three-count procedure was used for the measurement of radon daughter concentrations to improve accuracy. The measurements were carried out at 37 locations selected in the mines, factories, offices and homes in the mining area. The sampling was repeated monthly for a full calendar year. Workers and their families were classified in different categories according to the nature of their jobs. The doses were estimated using proper occupancy factors. The dose equivalent from radon daughters varies from 1 mSv.y -1 to a maximum of 10 mSv.y -1 . Radon concentrations vary from 100 Bq.m -3 to several hundreds. (author)

  14. Examining a link between SPEs and ground level radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have previously found a correlation between solar proton events (SPEs) and congenital malformations (CMs). A similar correlation has also been found between long term solar variability and CMs. We examine the ionizing radiation dose from these events as well as the largest events on record to determine whether these events are capable of producing these effects. We show that the total ionizing radiation dose (consisting of neutrons and muons) at ground level is insufficient for production of the observed increases in CM rate under the current paradigm regarding ionizing radiation from muons and neutrons. Current research on the subject shows that our assumptions regarding muonic ionizing radiation may be underestimating their biologic effect. We recommend further experimentation regarding the radiation dose due to muons, as this may prove to be a more substantial contribution to our radiation environment than previously assumed.

  15. Radiation damage measurements in room-temperature semiconductor radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Franks, L A; Olsen, R W; Walsh, D S; Vizkelethy, G; Trombka, J I; Doyle, B L; James, R B

    1999-01-01

    The literature of radiation damage measurements on cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), cadmium telluride (CT), and mercuric iodide (HgI sub 2) is reviewed and in the case of CZT supplemented by new alpha particle data. CZT strip detectors exposed to intermediate energy (1.3 MeV) proton fluences exhibit increased interstrip leakage after 10 sup 1 sup 0 p/cm sup 2 and significant bulk leakage after 10 sup 1 sup 2 p/cm sup 2. CZT exposed to 200 MeV protons shows a two-fold loss in energy resolution after a fluence of 5x10 sup 9 p/cm sup 2 in thick (3 mm) planar devices but little effect in 2 mm devices. No energy resolution effects were noted from a moderated fission spectrum of neutrons after fluences up to 10 sup 1 sup 0 n/cm sup 2 , although activation was evident. Exposures of CZT to 5 MeV alpha particles at fluences up to 1.5x10 sup 1 sup 0 alpha/cm sup 2 produced a near linear decrease in peak position with fluence and increases in FWHM beginning at about 7.5x10 sup 9 alpha/cm sup 2. CT detectors show resolution...

  16. Estimating shortwave solar radiation using net radiation and meteorological measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortwave radiation has a wide variety of uses in land-atmosphere interactions research. Actual evapotranspiration estimation that involves stomatal conductance models like Jarvis and Ball-Berry require shortwave radiation to estimate photon flux density. However, in most weather stations, shortwave...

  17. Cosmic Radiation Measurements in Airline Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagshaw, M

    1999-07-01

    Ionising radiation monitoring equipment is installed in all Concordes and much data have been derived. To validate the measurements from the on-board monitoring equipment, a programme of measurements on Concorde has been carried out using passive dosemeters in association with the UK National Radiological Protection Board. Data from a typical month (in this case October 1997) shows an arithmetic mean dose across the British Airways Concorde fleet of 12.9 ({+-}0.4) {mu}Sv.h{sup -1}. Results from the NRPB measurements for the same month give a dose of 11.4 ({+-}0.5) {mu}Sv.h{sup -1} and application of the CARI 3Q programme gives a dose of 9.6 {mu}Sv.h{sup -1} for the same month. The effective route dose between London and New York gives a mean value of 43.1 {mu}Sv for the Concorde detectors. The NRPB results give a route dose of 38.9 {mu}Sv whereas the CARI 3Q programme gives a route dose of 32.5 {mu}Sv. Measurements have also been performed on the Boeing 747-400 aircraft on the high latitude ultralonghaul direct London-Tokyo flight and these give values in the region of 6 {mu}Sv.h{sup -1}, against the CARI 3Q estimate of 3.7 {mu}Sv.h{sup -1}. (author)

  18. Cosmic Radiation Measurements in Airline Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagshaw, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ionising radiation monitoring equipment is installed in all Concordes and much data have been derived. To validate the measurements from the on-board monitoring equipment, a programme of measurements on Concorde has been carried out using passive dosemeters in association with the UK National Radiological Protection Board. Data from a typical month (in this case October 1997) shows an arithmetic mean dose across the British Airways Concorde fleet of 12.9 (±0.4) μSv.h -1 . Results from the NRPB measurements for the same month give a dose of 11.4 (±0.5) μSv.h -1 and application of the CARI 3Q programme gives a dose of 9.6 μSv.h -1 for the same month. The effective route dose between London and New York gives a mean value of 43.1 μSv for the Concorde detectors. The NRPB results give a route dose of 38.9 μSv whereas the CARI 3Q programme gives a route dose of 32.5 μSv. Measurements have also been performed on the Boeing 747-400 aircraft on the high latitude ultralonghaul direct London-Tokyo flight and these give values in the region of 6 μSv.h -1 , against the CARI 3Q estimate of 3.7 μSv.h -1 . (author)

  19. Risks of low-level radiation - the evidence of epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloag, D.

    1980-01-01

    The difficulties involved in estimating risks from very low levels of radiation and the use of dose-response models for cancer incidence are discussed with reference to the third BEIR Committee report on the Effects on Populations of Exposure to low levels of Ionizing Radiation (1980). Cancer risk estimates derived from different epidemiological studies are reviewed. They include atom bomb survivors, medically irradiated groups and occupational groups. (36 references). (author)

  20. The great advances in radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, A.

    2002-01-01

    The title of this banquet talk was selected to entertain conferees with recollections of major advances in dosimetry that have stimulated appetites for scientific progress. Recalling over fifty years of use of dosimetric instruments and concepts in the 1950-2000 era leads to an appreciation of many advances in solid state dosimetry, which others here know well and pursue vigorously. This author has been mainly a user, admirer, and interpreter of the fundamental methods of dose measurement. These advances have allowed ease of application in radiation protection and medical physics, for determining current routine and accidental exposures to workers, and for precise radiotherapeutic dose delivery. In more recent years, advances in identifying means of locating selective depositions of energy in various materials are providing ways of retrospectively assessing doses to tissue that were deposited many years ago. These methods also will allow development of quantitative theories of radiation damage once the lesions of interest are identified through further advances in molecular genetics. Yet, reflections on the past fifty years lead to increasing appreciation of the enormous achievements of our predecessors in the 1900-1950 period. Therefore, this presentation emphasises methods used by the author and some of his data interpretations during his 52-year career, with some examination of the earlier origin of some of these methods. (author)

  1. Measurements of computed tomography radiation scatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Every, B.; Petty, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the measurement of scattered radiation from a computed tomography (CT) scanner in a clinical situation and compares the results with those obtained from a CT performance phantom and with data obtained from CT manufacturers. The results are presented as iso-dose contours. There are significant differences between the data obtained and that supplied by manufacturers, both in the shape of the iso-dose contours and in the nominal values. The observed scatter in a clinical situation (for an abdominal scan) varied between 3% and 430% of the manufacturers' stated values, with a marked reduction in scatter noted a the head and feet of the patient. These differences appear to be due to the fact that manufacturers use CT phantoms to obtain scatter data and these phantoms do not provide the same scatter absorption geometry as patients. CT scatter was observed to increase as scan field size and slice thickness increased, whilst there was little change in scatter with changes in gantry tilt and table slew. Using the iso-dose contours, the orientation of the CT scanner can be optimised with regard to the location and shielding requirements of doors and windows. Additionally, the positioning of staff who must remain in the room during scanning can be optimised to minimise their exposure. It is estimated that the data presented allows for realistic radiation protection assessments to be made. 13 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  2. Radiation dose measurement in gastrointestinal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulieman, A.; Elzaki, M.; Kappas, C.; Theodorou, K.

    2011-01-01

    Barium studies investigations (barium swallow, barium meal and barium enema) are the basic routine radiological examination, where barium sulphate suspension is introduced to enhance image contrast of gastrointestinal tracts. The aim of this study was to quantify the patients' radiation doses during barium studies and to estimate the organ equivalent dose and effective dose with those procedures. A total of 33 investigations of barium studies were measured by using thermoluminescence dosemeters. The result showed that the patient entrance surface doses were 12.6±10, 44.5±49 and 35.7±50 mGy for barium swallow, barium meal, follow through and enema, respectively. Effective doses were 0.2, 0.35 and 1.4 mSv per procedure for barium swallow, meal and enema respectively. Radiation doses were comparable with the previous studies. A written protocol for each procedure will reduce the inter-operator variations and will help to reduce unnecessary exposure. (authors)

  3. The Australasian radiation protection society's position statement on risks fro low levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Controversy continues in the radiation protection literature on whether or not ionizing radiation is harmful at low doses, with unresolved scientific uncertainty about effects below a few tens of millisieverts. To settle what regulatory controls (if any) should apply in this dose region, an assumption has to be made relating dose to the possibility of harm or benefit. The assumption made and the way it is applied can have far-reaching effects, not only on the scale of regulatory compliance required but also on public perception of risk, and therefore on the technological choices made by society. It is important therefore that decisions reached concerning the regulation of low doses of ionizing radiation derive from rational arguments and are perceived to have an ethical basis. It is also important that such decisions are neither portrayed nor perceived as resolving the scientific uncertainties: rather, they serve merely to facilitate the implementation of appropriate measures to ensure safety. At its Annual General Meeting in 2004, the Australasian Radiation Protection Society (ARPS) set up a working group to draft a statement of the Society's position on this matter. The resulting position statement was adopted by the Society at its Annual General Meeting on 14 November 2005. Its salient features are as follows: There is insufficient evidence to establish a dose-effect relationship for doses that are less than a few tens of millisieverts in a year. A linear extrapolation from higher dose levels should be assumed only for the purpose of applying regulatory controls; Estimates of collective dose arising from individual doses that are less than some tens of millisieverts in a year should not be used to predict numbers of fatal cancers; The risk to an individual of doses significantly less than 100 microsieverts in a year is so small, if it exists at all, that regulatory requirements to control exposure at this level are not warranted. The paper will

  4. Circuit and Measurement Technique for Radiation Induced Drift in Precision Capacitance Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sudheer; Shankar, Krishnamurthy Ganapathy

    2013-04-01

    In the design of radiation tolerant precision ADCs targeted for space market, a matched capacitor array is crucial. The drift of capacitance ratios due to radiation should be small enough not to cause linearity errors. Conventional methods for measuring capacitor matching may not achieve the desired level of accuracy due to radiation induced gain errors in the measurement circuits. In this work, we present a circuit and method for measuring capacitance ratio drift to a very high accuracy (<; 1 ppm) unaffected by radiation levels up to 150 krad.

  5. Measurement of solar radiation at the Earth's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartman, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    The characteristics of solar energy arriving at the surface of the Earth are defined and the history of solar measurements in the United States presented. Radiation and meteorological measurements being made at solar energy meteorological research and training sites and calibration procedures used there are outlined. Data illustrating the annual variation in daily solar radiation at Ann Arbor, Michigan and the diurnal variation in radiation at Albuquerque, New Mexico are presented. Direct normal solar radiation received at Albuquerque is contrasted with that received at Maynard, Massachusetts. Average measured global radiation for a period of one year for four locations under clear skies, 50% cloud cover, and 100% cloud cover is given and compared with the solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere. The May distribution of mean daily direct solar radiation and mean daily global solar radiation over the United States is presented. The effects of turbidity on the direct and circumsolar radiation are shown.

  6. Method and apparatus for measuring electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, J. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described in which the capacitance of a semiconductor junction subjected to an electromagnetic radiation field is utilized to indicate the intensity or strength of the radiation.

  7. Biological trace element measurements using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giauque, R.D.; Jaklevic, J.M.; Thompson, A.C.

    1985-07-01

    The feasibility of performing x-ray fluorescence trace element determinations at concentrations substantially below the ppM level for biological materials is demonstrated. Conditions for achieving optimum sensitivity were ascertained. Results achieved for five standard reference materials were, in most cases, in excellent agreement with listed values. Minimum detectable limits of 20 ppM were measured for most elements

  8. Automatic Measurement of Low Level Contamination on Concrete Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, M.; Itoh, H.; Shimada, T.; Yanagihara, S.

    2002-01-01

    Automatic measurement of radioactivity is necessary for considering cost effectiveness in final radiological survey of building structures in decommissioning nuclear facilities. The RAPID (radiation measuring pilot device for surface contamination) was developed to be applied to automatic measurement of low level contamination on concrete surfaces. The RAPID has a capability to measure contamination with detection limit of 0.14 Bq/cm2 for 60Co in 30 seconds of measurement time and its efficiency is evaluated to be 5 m2/h in a normal measurement option. It was confirmed that low level contamination on concrete surfaces could be surveyed by the RAPID efficiently compared with direct measurement by workers through its actual application

  9. Evaluation of radiation protection educational level of professional exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, O.; Krstev, S.; Jovanovic, S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Serbia and Montenegro legislation concerning with radiation protection was upgrading after publication ICRP- 60 and B.S.S., No.115. Present Law on the Protection against Ionizing Radiation is in force from 1996. Among quite new issues in radiation protection regulations there was article relate to obligatory refresher training. Due to adverse political and economic situation through many years radiation protection regulations were not fulfill completely. The aim of this investigation was to get real view to education level of professional exposed workers. In Serbia and Montenegro the most of ionizing radiation sources are in medical use and the most exposed workers are radiographers and radiologists. The test was passed by 200 radiographers and 50 radiologists. Main groups of questions were: Radiation protection and safety; difference between safety and security; legislation: law and regulations; incidents, accidents and operational failures: recording, learning. Usually, knowledge from school pales. New quantities (as ambient and personal dose equivalent) are mostly unknown. It is easier to understand the real difference between safety and security than to understand linguistic differences. Discussing regulations workers are more interesting in syndicate regulations than radiation protection ones. Operational failures and incidents are hidden. Better to say: nobody dare to speak about them. The results imposed conclusion that regulatory body has to pay more attention to upraise safety culture and radiation protection education level of professional exposed workers. (authors)

  10. Regulatory control of low level radiation exposure in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyanda, A.M.; Muhogora, W.E.

    1997-01-01

    In Tanzania, the radiation protection law was issued in 1983. Under this law, the National Radiation Commission is responsible for safe uses of ionizing radiation. The regulatory control of the resulting doses from the uses of radiation sources in medicine, industry, research and teaching is presented. The system of control reflects the existing interactions between the National Radiation Commission and users through the established radiation protection infrastructure. From the national dose registry data, it is found that the highest annual individual doses over 10 years ago, came from less than 5% of total monitored workers and were in the range 10 - 15 mSv y -1 . The experienced radiation levels in uncontrolled areas of potential workplaces is less than 1 μSv h -1 . The possibility for associating such low dose levels to the effectiveness of the existing regulatory dose control framework is discussed. Despite of this achievement, the need to improve further the radiation protection and safety programs is found necessary. (author)

  11. The Radiation Levels for Household Goods Made in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Reyoung; Park, Doo Won; Lee, Wan No; Choi, Sang Do; Chung, Kun Ho; Kang, Mun Ja; Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Chang Woo

    2008-01-01

    The environmental radiation based on a natural and artificial radiation always exists in the environment. The natural radiation includes cosmic ray coming into the atmosphere from outer space, radiation emitted from the earth's crust or soil, radiation by the radon in the air and its progenies. These natural radiation comes from various buildings like a house and an apartment, agricultural and stock breeding products like rice and milk, and a body, etc. The artificial radiation emanates from a nuclear power plant, a radioisotope facility, a radioactive waste disposal site, a medical or research facility treating a radioactive material, a radiation generation device for an industry, TV, a microwave oven, appliances like a fluorescent clock, an airport security table, etc. Among the various kinds of radioactive nuclides that existed in the earth's crust at the time of the earth's formation about 4,000 million years ago, all the short half life nuclides decayed and the long half life nuclides remain amid the nuclides of a half life with more than 100 million years and their progenies now. In fact, the natural radiation level is determined by the nuclides of the Thorium series which have K-40 (half life 1.25 billion years), Th-232 (half life 14.5 billion years) as a parent nuclide, the nuclides of the uranium series which have U-238 (half life 4.5 billon years) as a parent nuclide, and the cosmic ray like photon and muon. These nuclides are distributed in the soil, sea water, construction material and body with different concentrations. Different radiation dose rates are presented in different regions due to the different concentrations of the radioactive minerals included at the materials. Actually, Brazil and India reveal a relatively high natural radiation level

  12. Colour dosemeters for high level radiation dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönbacher, H.; Coninckx, F.; Miller, A.

    1990-01-01

    interpretation or a dose measurement with a simple instrument such as a portable reflecting densitometer in the range of 10(3) to 10(6) Gy. Two projects were investigated: (1) a thin plastic film with a self adhesive tape containing a radiochromic dye which induces a colour change when exposed to ionising...... of paint and film dosemeters were installed in the 450 GeV Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN and irradiated during operation for more than two years. Within the useful range of the dosemeters, dose comparisons with other dosemeter types gave satisfactory results. Application in other fields...

  13. Health effects of low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevillard, S.; Ugolin, N.; Lebeau, J.; Ory, K.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear energy production is necessarily associated with the handling and storage of radioactive elements, which are liable to have deleterious effects on human health, and on environment. These deleterious effects are varied, but they greatly depend on the dose, which has been received, and the exposure type. Therefore, only intense and massive exposures are liable to be clinically detected. They can entail immediate consequences, even lead to the person's death. Thanks to safety measures, which have been implemented to an international scale, this occurs very rarely. Excluding extensive accidental cases, medical irradiation for therapeutic use and conflicts, workers and population in general are exposed to low doses and low dose-rates. Low dose exposures, resulting from either a contamination or an external irradiation are more frequent. In fact, we could say that the whole humanity is concerned by natural exposure, which varies depending on regions, as well as by medical exposure, which varies depending on the medicalisation status of the country. (author)

  14. Method of measuring blood flow by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gildenberg, P.L.

    1977-01-01

    A method of measuring relative blood flow through at least a part of the body using penetrating radiation comprises transmitting a plurality of rays at an initial angle or initial mean angle through a planar slice of the body to define a first set of rays, transmitting a plurality of further sets of rays at angles or mean angles different from each other and from the initial angle or initial mean angle through the same planar slice of the body to define by the intersection of all such rays a two-dimensional matrix of elements of the body in the slice, measuring for each ray emerging from the body a number of over the period of time at least equal to a pulse interval representing the momentary sum of the transmissions or absorptions of the element of the body intersected by the ray, determining from the momentary signals momentary signals a difference signal representing the maximum difference between the momentary signals for each ray over the period of time, deriving sets of discrete difference signals corresponding to the sets of rays, the difference signals being indicative of the transmission or absorption of blood flowing through each element of the body in the matrix, and calculating from the difference signals resultant signals representing the transmissions or absorptions due to blood flow in the elements of the matrix. These resultant signals may be visually depicted on a cathode ray tube display, as a digital print-out, or as a photograph. 30 claims, 8 figures

  15. The analysis of radiation levels for daily supplies made in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.R. [Ulsan National Inst. of Science and Tech., Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    The radiation levels were measured and assessed for samples around a living environment such as building materials and industrial products for which civil complaint had been filed to have radioactivity in Korea. The dose rates for more than one hundred samples from the goods in a living environment were compared with those of the background. The sample's radiation level ranged from 0.095 μSv/h to 0.162 μSv/h, which are within the range of the laboratory background level from 0.090 μSv/h to 0.174 μSv/h. It was thought the radiation level of the goods for which the civil complaint was given had not particular difference from the environmental radiation level in Korea in spite of deviations for some samples. (author)

  16. Radiation detection and measurement concepts, methods and devices

    CERN Document Server

    McGregor, Douglas

    2019-01-01

    This text on radiation detection and measurement is a response to numerous requests expressed by students at various universities, in which the most popularly used books do not provide adequate background material, nor explain matters in understandable terms. This work provides a modern overview of radiation detection devices and radiation measurement methods. The topics selected in the book have been selected on the basis of the author’s many years of experience designing radiation detectors and teaching radiation detection and measurement in a classroom environment.

  17. Low-level radioactive waste disposal: radiation protection laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapuis, A.M.; Guetat, P.; Garbay, H.

    1991-01-01

    The politics of radioactive waste management is a part of waste management and activity levels are one of the components of potential waste pollutions in order to assume man and environment safety. French regulations about personnel and public' radiation protection defines clearly the conditions of radioactive waste processing, storage, transport and disposal. But below some activity levels definite by radiation protection laws, any administrative procedures or processes can be applied for lack of legal regulations. So regulations context is not actually ready to allow a rational low-level radioactive waste management. 15 refs.; 4 tabs.; 3 figs

  18. Characteristics and correlation of various radiation measuring methods in spatial radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Kazuhiro; Tonouchi, Shigemasa

    1992-01-01

    When the survey of the state of natural radiation distribution was carried out, for the purpose of examining the useful measuring method, the comparison of the γ-ray dose rate calculated from survey meter method, in-situ measuring method and the measuring method by sampling soil was carried out. Between the in-situ measuring method and the survey meter method, the correlation Y=0.986X+5.73, r=0.903, n=18, P<0.01 was obtained, and the high correlation having the inclination of nearly 1 was shown. Between the survey meter method and the measuring method by sampling soil, the correlation Y=1.297X-10.30, r=0.966, n=20 P<0.01 was obtained, and the high correlation was shown, but as for the dose rate contribution, the disparities of 36% in U series, 6% in Th series and 20% in K-40 were observed. For the survey of the state of natural radiation distribution, the method of using in combination the survey meter method and the in-situ measuring method or the measuring method by sampling soil is suitable. (author)

  19. Outdoor radiofrequency radiation levels in the West Bank-Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahham, Adnan; Hammash, Alaa

    2012-05-01

    This work presents the results of exposure levels to radio frequency (RF) emission from different sources in the environment of the West Bank-Palestine. These RF emitters include FM and TV broadcasting stations and mobile phone base stations. Power densities were measured at 65 locations distributed over the West Bank area. These locations include mainly centres of the major cities. Also a 24 h activity level was investigated for a mobile phone base station to determine the maximum activity level for this kind of RF emitters. All measurements were conducted at a height of 1.7 m above ground level using hand held Narda SRM 3000 spectrum analyzer with isotropic antenna capable of collecting RF signals in the frequency band from 75 MHz to 3 GHz. The average value of power density resulted from FM radio broadcasting in all investigated locations was 0.148 μW cm(-2), from TV broadcasting was 0.007 μW cm(-2) and from mobile phone base station was 0.089 μW cm(-2). The maximum total exposure evaluated at any location was 3.86 μW cm(-2). The corresponding exposure quotient calculated for this site was 0.02. This value is well below unity indicating compliance with the International Commission on non-ionising Radiation protection guidelines. Contributions from all relevant RF sources to the total exposure were evaluated and found to be ~62 % from FM radio, 3 % for TV broadcasting and 35 % from mobile phone base stations. The average total exposure from all investigated RF sources was 0.37 μW cm(-2).

  20. Outdoor radiofrequency radiation levels in the West Bank-palestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahham, A.; Hammash, A.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the results of exposure levels to radio frequency (RF) emission from different sources in the environment of the West Bank-Palestine. These RF emitters include FM and TV broadcasting stations and mobile phone base stations. Power densities were measured at 65 locations distributed over the West Bank area. These locations include mainly centres of the major cities. Also a 24 h activity level was investigated for a mobile phone base station to determine the maximum activity level for this kind of RF emitters. All measurements were conducted at a height of 1.7 m above ground level using hand held Narda SRM 3000 spectrum analyzer with isotropic antenna capable of collecting RF signals in the frequency band from 75 MHz to 3 GHz. The average value of power density resulted from FM radio broadcasting in all investigated locations was 0.148 μW cm -2 , from TV broadcasting was 0.007 μW cm -2 and from mobile phone base station was 0.089 μW cm -2 . The maximum total exposure evaluated at any location was 3.86 μW cm -2 . The corresponding exposure quotient calculated for this site was 0.02. This value is well below unity indicating compliance with the International Commission on non-ionising Radiation protection guidelines. Contributions from all relevant RF sources to the total exposure were evaluated and found to be ∼62 % from FM radio, 3 % for TV broadcasting and 35 % from mobile phone base stations. The average total exposure from all investigated RF sources was 0.37 μW cm -2 . (authors)

  1. Radiation level survey of a mobile phone base station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, M.C.; Schaffer, S.R.

    2006-01-01

    Electromagnetic field (E.M.F.) evaluations were carried out in the surroundings of a roof-top mobile-phone radio-base station (R.B.S.). Four of its sector-panel antennas are installed on two parallel vertical masts, each supporting two panels in a vertical collinear-array. The geometry is such that the vertical plane containing both masts is about 10 meters distant and parallel to the backside of an educational institution. This proximity provoked great anxiety among the local community members regarding potential health hazards.1. Introduction: To keep up with the expansion of the mobile-phone services, the number of Radio-Base Stations (R.B.S.) installations is increasing tremendously in Brazil. Efficient control and radiation monitoring to assess R.B.S. compliance to existing regulations are still lacking and particularly in big cities, clearly non - compliant R.B.S. can be seen which represent potentially hazardous E.M.F. sources to the nearby population. This first survey of an irregular R.B.S. revealed significant E-field strengths outside, as well as inside a classroom of an educational building where an usually prolonged stay is necessary. These results confirm that this problem deserves further attention, moreover, if one considers that public and occupational exposure limits set by I.C.N.I.R.P. (also adopted in Brazil) are exclusively based on the immediate thermal effects of acute exposure, disregarding any potential health risk from prolonged exposure to lower level radiation. Research activities focusing on quantitative aspects of electromagnetic radiation from R.B.S., as well as on biological and adverse health effects are still at a very incipient level, urging for immediate actions to improve this scenario in our country. 2. Material, methods and results Measurements were carried out with a broadband field strength monitor, E.M.R.-300 (W and G) coupled to an isotropic E-field probe (100 khz to 3 GHz). Preliminary measurements helped locating

  2. Analysis of radiation level on dinosaur fossil in Zigong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Changshu; Liang Shuzhi; Fan Zhengnian.

    1995-01-01

    Study on radiation level of dinosaur fossil and environment in conservation zone in Zigong, Sichuan has been done. The results showed that the γ radiation dose and radioactivity strength of 232 Th and 40 K in dinosaur fossil, soil and rock in the conservation zone were within the limits of radioactive background value in Zigong. Radioactivity strength of 238 U, 226 Ra in dinosaur fossil were 26.6 and 29.2 times higher than the rock of same layer respectively

  3. Electromagnetically driven radiative shocks and their measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, K.; Watanabe, M.; Nakajima, M.; Kawamura, T.; Horioka, K.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental results on a generation of strong shocks in a compact pulse power device are reported. The characteristics of strong shocks are different from hydrodynamical shocks' because they depend on not only collisions but radiation processes. Radiative shocks are relevant to high energy density phenomena such as the explosions of supernovae. When initial pressure is lower than about 50 mtorr, an interesting structure is confirmed at the shock front, which might indicate a phenomenon proceeded by the radiative process. (author)

  4. Measurement of radiation dose in dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmrot, E.; Carlsson, G. A.

    2005-01-01

    Patient dose audit is an important tool for quality control and it is important to have a well-defined and easy to use method for dose measurements. In dental radiology, the most commonly used dose parameters for the setting of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) for intraoral examinations and dose width product (DWP) for panoramic examinations. DWP is the air kerma at the front side of the secondary collimator integrated over the collimator width and an exposure cycle. ESAK or DWP is usually measured in the absence of the patient but with the same settings of tube voltage (kV), tube current (mA) and exposure time as with the patient present. Neither of these methods is easy to use, and, in addition, DWP is not a risk related quantity. A better method of monitoring patient dose would be to use a dose area product (DAP) meter for all types of dental examinations. In this study, measurements with a DAP meter are reported for intraoral and panoramic examinations. The DWP is also measured with a pencil ionisation chamber and the product of DWP and the height H (DWP x H) of the secondary collimator (measured using film) was compared to DAP. The results show that it is feasible to measure DAP using a DAP meter for both intraoral and panoramic examinations. The DAP is therefore recommended for the setting of DRLs. (authors)

  5. Acceptable level of radiation risk and its perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusama, Tomoko; Shinozaki, Motoshi; Yoshizawa, Yasuo

    1987-03-01

    The acceptable level of radiation risk for public members, that is 10/sup -5//y, was proposed by ICRP and other international organizations. We studied to survey basic procedures of deriving this value and to derive an acceptable risk value in Japan by using similar procedures. The basic procedures to derive 10/sup -5//y were found as follows; (1) 0.1 percent of annual mortality from all diseases, (2) 0.1 percent of life time risk, (3) one percent of mortality from all causes in each age cohort and (4) corresponding value to 1 mSv annual radiation exposure. From these bases we derived the value of 10/sup -5//y as acceptable risk level in Japan. The perception to risk level of 10/sup -5//y in conventional life was investigated by means of questionnaires for 1,095 college students living in Tokyo. The risks considered in this study were natural background radiation, coffee, skiing, X-ray diagnosis, spontaneous cancer, passive smoking and air pollution. The most acceptable risk was the risk related with natural background radiation. And the risk of natural background radiation was more easily accepted by the students who had knowledges on natural background radiation. On the other hand, the risk from air pollution or passive smoking was the most adverse one.

  6. Acceptable level of radiation risk and its perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko; Shinozaki, Motoshi; Yoshizawa, Yasuo

    1987-01-01

    The acceptable level of radiation risk for public members, that is 10 -5 /y, was proposed by ICRP and other international organizations. We studied to survey basic procedures of deriving this value and to derive an acceptable risk value in Japan by using similar procedures. The basic procedures to derive 10 -5 /y were found as follows; (1) 0.1 percent of annual mortality from all diseases, (2) 0.1 percent of life time risk, (3) one percent of mortality from all causes in each age cohort and (4) corresponding value to 1 mSv annual radiation exposure. From these bases we derived the value of 10 -5 /y as acceptable risk level in Japan. The perception to risk level of 10 -5 /y in conventional life was investigated by means of questionnaires for 1,095 college students living in Tokyo. The risks considered in this study were natural background radiation, coffee, skiing, X-ray diagnosis, spontaneous cancer, passive smoking and air pollution. The most acceptable risk was the risk related with natural background radiation. And the risk of natural background radiation was more easily accepted by the students who had knowledges on natural background radiation. On the other hand, the risk from air pollution or passive smoking was the most adverse one. (author)

  7. Industrial level measurement techniques - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudel, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The outlined methods of industrial level measurement technique are nowadays in current use. In correspondence with the technical evolution the mechanical techniques are mentioned first, followed by a description of the more modern electronic methods. These measurement methods comply especially to the requirements of computer aided process guiding systems, i.e. compatibility of signals, self-checking and reliability. (orig.) [de

  8. Some cosmic radiation dose measurements aboard flights connecting Zagreb Airport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukovic, B.; Radolic, V.; Lisjak, I.; Vekic, B.; Poje, M.; Planinic, J.

    2008-01-01

    When primary particles from space, mainly protons, enter the atmosphere, they produce interactions with air nuclei, and cosmic-ray showers are induced. The radiation field at aircraft altitude is complex, with different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. The non-neutron component of cosmic radiation dose aboard A320 and ATR40 aircraft was measured with TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter; the neutron dose was measured with the neutron dosimeter consisted of LR-115 track detector and boron foil BN-1 or 10 B converter. The estimated occupational effective dose for the aircraft crew (A320) working 500 h per year was 1.64 mSv. Another experiment was performed at the flights Zagreb-Paris-Buenos Aires and reversely, when one measured non-neutron cosmic radiation dose; for 26.7 h of flight, the MINI 6100 dosimeter gave an average dose rate of 2.3 μSv/h and the TLD dosimeter registered the dose equivalent of 75 μSv or the average dose rate of 2.7 μSv/h; the neutron dosimeter gave the dose rate of 2.4 μSv/h. In the same month, February 2005, a traveling to Japan (24-h-flight: Zagreb-Frankfurt-Tokyo and reversely) and the TLD-100 measurement showed the average dose rate of 2.4 μSv/h; the neutron dosimeter gave the dose rate of 2.5 μSv/h. Comparing dose rates of the non-neutron component (low LET) and the neutron one (high LET) of the radiation field at the aircraft flight level, we could conclude that the neutron component carried about 50% of the total dose, that was near other known data

  9. Some cosmic radiation dose measurements aboard flights connecting Zagreb Airport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovic, B.; Radolic, V. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Osijek, P.O. Box 125 (Croatia); Lisjak, I. [Croatia Airlines, Zagreb (Croatia); Vekic, B. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Poje, M. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Osijek, P.O. Box 125 (Croatia); Planinic, J. [Department of Physics, University of Osijek, Osijek, P.O. Box 125 (Croatia)], E-mail: planinic@ffos.hr

    2008-02-15

    When primary particles from space, mainly protons, enter the atmosphere, they produce interactions with air nuclei, and cosmic-ray showers are induced. The radiation field at aircraft altitude is complex, with different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. The non-neutron component of cosmic radiation dose aboard A320 and ATR40 aircraft was measured with TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter; the neutron dose was measured with the neutron dosimeter consisted of LR-115 track detector and boron foil BN-1 or {sup 10}B converter. The estimated occupational effective dose for the aircraft crew (A320) working 500 h per year was 1.64 mSv. Another experiment was performed at the flights Zagreb-Paris-Buenos Aires and reversely, when one measured non-neutron cosmic radiation dose; for 26.7 h of flight, the MINI 6100 dosimeter gave an average dose rate of 2.3 {mu}Sv/h and the TLD dosimeter registered the dose equivalent of 75 {mu}Sv or the average dose rate of 2.7 {mu}Sv/h; the neutron dosimeter gave the dose rate of 2.4 {mu}Sv/h. In the same month, February 2005, a traveling to Japan (24-h-flight: Zagreb-Frankfurt-Tokyo and reversely) and the TLD-100 measurement showed the average dose rate of 2.4 {mu}Sv/h; the neutron dosimeter gave the dose rate of 2.5 {mu}Sv/h. Comparing dose rates of the non-neutron component (low LET) and the neutron one (high LET) of the radiation field at the aircraft flight level, we could conclude that the neutron component carried about 50% of the total dose, that was near other known data.

  10. Method of measuring reactor water level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Kaoru.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a water level measuring system so that a reactor water level detecting signal can be corrected in correspondence to a recirculation flow, thereby to carry out a correct water level detection in a wide range of the reactor. Method: According to the operation record of a precursor reactor, the ratio Δh of the lowering of the water level due to the recirculation flow is lowered in proportion to the ratiowith respect to the rated differential pressure of the recirculation flow. Accordingly, the flow of recirculation pump is measured by an elbow differential pressure generator utilizing an elbow of a pipe, and the measured value is multiplied by a gain by a ratio setter, and therefter, an addition computation is carried out by an adder for correcting the signal from a water level detector. When the signal from the water level detector is corrected in this manner, the influence of the lowering of the water level due to the recirculation flow can be removed, and an interlocker predetermined in the defined water level can be actuated, thus the influence of the dynamic pressure due to the recirculation flow acting on the instrumental pipe line detecting the reactor water level can be removed effectively. (Yoshino, Y.)

  11. Measurement of indoor background ionizing radiation in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Certain types of building materials are known to be radioactive. Exposure to indoor ionizing radiation like exposure to any other type of ionizing radiation results in critical health challenges. Measurement of the background ionizing radiation profile within the Chemistry Research Laboratory and Physics Laboratory III all of ...

  12. Portable apparatus for measurement of nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, G.D.

    1975-01-01

    The apparatus described is stated to be particularly applicable to the measurement of tritium contamination of a surface, although it may have other applications to the determination of radioactivity on surfaces. The mean range of a tritium β particle in air at normal atmospheric pressure is only 1.5 mm. and when monitoring such radiation with the apparatus it is necessary to exclude light. The apparatus comprises a plastic scintillator sheet located in the base of a housing, with a sealing ring mounted in the base so as to make a hermetic and light-tight seal between a support surface and the base of the housing. Photomultiplier means are optically coupled to the scintillator sheet to detect and amplify the scintillations, and a pump device is provided to reduce the air pressure in the vicinity of the sheet to below atmospheric pressure. The scintillator sheet and the photomultiplier means are movable as one unit within the housing, the unit being arranged to be acted upon by atmospheric pressure so as to move the unit into an operative position against a spring when the air pressure in the vicinity of the sheet is reduced to below atmospheric pressure. A shutter is provided to prevent exposure of the scintillator sheet to light when the apparatus is not in use. (U.K.)

  13. Level Densities and Radiative Strength Functions in 170,171Yb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agvaanluvsan, U.; Schiller, A.; Becker, J.A.; Berstein, L.A.; Guttormsen, M.; Mitchell, G.E.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Voinov, A.

    2003-01-01

    Level densities and radiative strength functions in 171 Yb and 170 Yb nuclei have been measured with the 171 Yb( 3 He, 3 He(prime) γ) 171 Yb and 171 Yb( 3 He, αγ) 170 Yb reactions. A simultaneous determination of the nuclear level density and the radiative strength function was made. The present data adds to and is consistent with previous results for several other rare earth nuclei. The method will be briefly reviewed and the result from the analysis will be presented. The radiative strength function for 171 Yb is compared to previously published work.

  14. Review of measures to control radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindon, T.N.

    1980-03-01

    Methods used in Canada and the U.S.A. to overcome problems in the control of radiation, to prescribe standards and to ensure that compliance with the standards is achieved are reviewed. The relevant Acts and Regulations are outlined. Options which could be applied in Australia for effecting better control of radiation are suggested

  15. Electromagnetic Radiation Measurements and Safety Issues of some Cellular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mousa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the mobile telecommunication systems are tremendously growing allover the world then the numbers of handheld andbase stations are also rapidly growing and it became very popular to see these base stations distributed everywhere in theneighborhood and on roof tops which has caused a considerable amount of panic to the public in Palestine concerning witherthe radiated electromagnetic field from these base stations may cause any health effect or hazard. This paper focuses on theradiated electromagnetic energy from some typical mobile base stations around the city of Nablus. The exposure levels dueto these stations were measured and compared to some international standard guidelines like ICNIRP and FCC to see if itmeets these standards, this is in order to answer some of the public fear and concern. The results are presented and somecomments are made on the other sources of electromagnetic radiation in the 200 kHz to 3 GHz range.

  16. Radiation exposure in nuclear medicine: real-time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvain, Iara; Bok, Bernard; X. Bichat University, Paris

    2002-01-01

    French regulations have introduced the use of electronic dosimeters for personnel monitoring of workers. In order to evaluate the exposure from diagnostic procedures to nuclear medicine staff, individual whole-body doses were measured daily with electronic (digital) personal dosimeters during 20 consecutive weeks and correlated with the work load of each day. Personal doses remained always below 20 mu Sv/d under normal working conditions. Radiation exposure levels were highest to tech staff, nurses and stretcher-bearers. The extrapolated annual cumulative doses for all staff remained less than 10% of the maximum legal limit for exposed workers (2 mSv/yr). Electronic dosimeters are not technically justified for routine survey of staff. The high sensitivity and immediate reading of electronic semiconductor dosimeters may become very useful for exposure control under risky working conditions. It may become an important help for optimising radiation protection. (author)

  17. Radiation monitoring and measuring instrument developed by Turkish Atomic Energy Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuecuekarslan, N.; Gueven, A.

    2001-01-01

    Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA), Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Nuclear Electronics Department is working on research, development and production of radiation monitoring and measuring instruments in the aims of TAEA to serve our Country. Advanced micro controller technology is used to cover problems of radiation measurement. Control by micro controller enables reliable, stable measurement and display of low level dose rate fields. It makes possible the simultaneous measurement of both dose and dose rate values

  18. The Role Of Sevoflurane And Ionising Radiation On THE Level Of Primary DNA Damage Measured In Blood And Different Organs Of Swiss Albino Mice By THE Alkaline Comet Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkovic, V.; Milic, M.; Horvat Knezevic, A.; Halovanovic, S.; Borojevic, N.; Orsolic, N.

    2015-01-01

    Sevoflurane is general anaesthetic suitable for short surgical procedures due to its quick induction of anaesthesia, maintaining spontaneous breathing frequency and hemodynamic stability of patients. However, it can directly trigger the formation of peroxynitrite, significantly increase intracellular levels of H2O2, peroxide, superoxide anion and nitric oxide in peripheral polymorphonuclear neutrophils 1h after the treatment; lowering the levels of intracellular glutathione, and increase radiosensitivity of cells also exposed to ionising radiation (IR). We wanted to evaluate the level of sinergistic effect and possible radiosensitivity DNA damage in blood, and different organs of Swiss albino mice after exposure to both sevoflurane (2.4 percent, 50:50) and the 1Gy gamma-ray radiation generally used in diagnostic purposes after 0, 2, 6 and 24 hours from the combined treatment with alkaline comet assay. Combined exposure to sevoflurane and IR has demonstrated synergistic effect. Due to metabolising of the sevoflurane, there was different sensitivity between blood, liver, kidney and brain cells. (author).

  19. Automatization of the radiation control measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Akio; Ogata, Harumi; Horikoshi, Yoshinori; Shirai, Kenji

    1988-01-01

    Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) was constructed to fabricate the MOX fuels for 'MONJU' and 'JOYO' reactors and to develop the practical fuel fabricating technology. For the fuel fabrication process in this facility, centralized controlling system is being adopted for the mass production of the fuel and reduction of the radiation exposure dose. Also, the radiation control systems are suitable for the large-scale facility and the automatic-remote process of the fuel fabrication. One of the typical radiation control systems is the self moving survey system which has been developed by PNC and adopted for the automatic routine monitoring. (author)

  20. Comparisons of Air Radiation Model with Shock Tube Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Deepak; McCorkle, Evan; Bogdanoff, David W.; Allen, Gary A., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the predictive capability of shock layer radiation model appropriate for NASA s Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle lunar return entry. A detailed set of spectrally resolved radiation intensity comparisons are made with recently conducted tests in the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility at NASA Ames Research Center. The spectral range spanned from vacuum ultraviolet wavelength of 115 nm to infrared wavelength of 1400 nm. The analysis is done for 9.5-10.5 km/s shock passing through room temperature synthetic air at 0.2, 0.3 and 0.7 Torr. The comparisons between model and measurements show discrepancies in the level of background continuum radiation and intensities of atomic lines. Impurities in the EAST facility in the form of carbon bearing species are also modeled to estimate the level of contaminants and their impact on the comparisons. The discrepancies, although large is some cases, exhibit order and consistency. A set of tests and analyses improvements are proposed as forward work plan in order to confirm or reject various proposed reasons for the observed discrepancies.

  1. Natural radiation level and doses to population in Anhui province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The absorbed dose rates in air 1 m above the ground from natural radiation and terrestrial gamma radiation in Anhui Province were surveyed. One measurement was made in every area of 90 km 2 . The absorbed dose rates in air from terrestrial radiation range from 54 to 90 nGy.h -1 with an average of 70 nGy.h -1 . The ratios of indoors-to-outdoors and of roads-to-outdoors are 1.5 and 0.9 respectively. The annual effective dose equivalent from external radiation is 0.68-1.05 mSv. The population-weighted average values for mountain area, plain, hilly land, and the Changjiang River basin as well as the annual collective effective dose equivalent were calculated

  2. Dosimetric methodology and reference system for diagnostic level X radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiens, Maria da Penha Albuquerque

    1999-01-01

    Several methodologies for the calibration of diagnostic radiology instruments were developed and established at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. These established radiation qualities are recommended by international standards. The methods may be used in the calibration procedures of survey meters used in radiation protection measurements (scattered radiation), instruments used in direct beams (attenuated and non attenuated beams) and quality control instruments. A reference system was proposed using two identical ionization chambers developed at IPEN. They differ only by the collecting electrode material, one of aluminium and the other of graphite. The different energetic dependence of the chamber's response provided a ratio related to the tube potential. The variation of only 0.28%, from 14.3 to 111 keV, on the energetic dependence of the graphite electrode chamber, provided the possibility of air kerma rate determination in the studied radiation beams. (author)

  3. LOWRAD 96. Methods and applications of low-level radioactivity measurements. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fietz, J [ed.; Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    The newest developments in the field of low-level radioactivity measurements and new applications for existing and low-level measuring facilities are presented. The contributions mostly were devoted to basic physical aspects and applications of low-level counting. Papers on chemical separation and preparation techniques and on low-level radiation dose determinations were also presented. (DG)

  4. Radiation hormesis: an outcome of exposure to low level ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, Krishan

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a benign environmental agent at background levels. Human population is always exposed to ionizing radiation from natural sources. Important sources are cosmic rays which come from outer space and from the surface of the sun, terrestrial radionuclides which occur in the earths crust in various geological formations in soils, rocks, building materials, plants, water, food, air and in the human body itself. With the increasing use of radiation in health facilities, scientific research, industry and agriculture, the study of impact of low-level ionizing radiation on environment and possible health effects on future generations has been a cause of concern in recent years. As regards the effects, it is established fact that high doses of ionizing radiation are harmful to health, there exists, however, a substantial controversy regarding the effects of low doses of ionizing radiation (LLIR). In the present paper, brief review of the available literature, data and reports on stimulation by low-dose irradiation and recent data supporting radiation hormesis. A linear quadratic model has been given illustrating the validity of radiation hormesis, besides the comparison of the dose rates arising from natural and manmade sources to the Indian population. This overview summarizes various reports

  5. Atmospheric radiation measurement: A program for improving radiative forcing and feedback in general circulation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrinos, A.A.; Renne, D.S.; Stokes, G.M.; Ellingson, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a key element of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) global change research strategy. ARM represents a long-term commitment to conduct comprehensive studies of the spectral atmospheric radiative energy balance profile for a wide range of cloud conditions and surface types, and to develop the knowledge necessary to improve parameterizations of radiative processes under various cloud regimes for use in general circulation models (GCMs) and related models. The importance of the ARM program is a apparent from the results of model assessments of the impact on global climate change. Recent studies suggest that radiatively active trace gas emissions caused by human activity can lead to a global warming of 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius and to important changes in water availability during the next century (Cess, et al. 1989). These broad-scale changes can be even more significant at regional levels, where large shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns are shown to occur. However, these analyses also indicate that considerable uncertainty exists in these estimates, with the manner in which cloud radiative processes are parameterized among the most significant uncertainty. Thus, although the findings have significant policy implications in assessment of global and regional climate change, their uncertainties greatly influence the policy debate. ARM's highly focused observational and analytical research is intended to accelerate improvements and reduce key uncertainties associated with the way in which GCMs treat cloud cover and cloud characteristics and the resulting radiative forcing. This paper summarizes the scientific context for ARM, ARM's experimental approach, and recent activities within the ARM program

  6. Effects of combined radiofrequency radiation exposure on levels of reactive oxygen species in neuronal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Hyung Chul; Lee, Je-Jung

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the combined RF radiation (837 MHz CDMA plus 1950 MHz WCDMA) signal on levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neuronal cells. Exposure of the combined RF signal was conducted at specific absorption rate values of 2 W/kg of CDMA plus 2 W/kg of WCDMA for 2 h. Co-exposure to combined RF radiation with either H 2 O 2 or menadione was also performed. The experimental exposure groups were incubator control, sham-exposed, combined RF radiation-exposed with or without either H 2 O 2 or menadione groups. The intracellular ROS level was measured by flow cytometry using the fluorescent probe dichlorofluorescein diacetate. Intracellular ROS levels were not consistently affected by combined RF radiation exposure alone in a time-dependent manner in U87, PC12 or SH-SY5Y cells. In neuronal cells exposed to combined RF radiation with either H 2 O 2 or menadione, intracellular ROS levels showed no statically significant alteration compared with exposure to menadione or H 2 O 2 alone. These findings indicate that neither combined RF radiation alone nor combined RF radiation with menadione or H 2 O 2 influences the intracellular ROS level in neuronal cells such as U87, PC12 or SH-SY5Y. (author)

  7. Radiation Pressure Measurements on Micron-Size Individual Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Witherow, W. K.; West, E. A.; Gallagher, D. L.; Adrian, M. L.; Fishman, G. J.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of electromagnetic radiation pressure have been made on individual silica (SiO2) particles levitated in an electrodynamic balance. These measurements were made by inserting single charged particles of known diameter in the 0.2- to 6.82-micron range and irradiating them from above with laser radiation focused to beam widths of approximately 175- 400 microns at ambient pressures particle due to the radiation force is balanced by the electrostatic force indicated by the compensating dc potential applied to the balance electrodes, providing a direct measure of the radiation force on the levitated particle. Theoretical calculations of the radiation pressure with a least-squares fit to the measured data yield the radiation pressure efficiencies of the particles, and comparisons with Mie scattering theory calculations provide the imaginary part of the refractive index of SiO2 and the corresponding extinction and scattering efficiencies.

  8. Assessment of environmental gamma radiation levels at locations having different source characteristics using TLDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Swarnkar, M.; Takale, R.A.; Shetty, P.G.; Pandit, G.G.; Puranik, V.D.

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides are the major contributor to the total effective dose of ionizing radiation received by the population (UNSCEAR, 1993). The dose in environment thus depends largely on natural radiation than manmade or artificially produced radiation. In the last few decades, there is a growing concern all over the world about radiation and their exposure to population. Thus, it is a necessity to conduct frequent radiological environmental surveillance in order to assess population exposure accurately. Recently, application of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) has been extended to the measurement of mixed radiation field as encountered in the environment. The advantages of passive TL dosimeters for environmental monitoring are that they are small, cheap and do not require power supply during application. The passive TL dosimeters play an important role to provide data on natural background radiation and to determine the contribution to the dose to public from man-made sources. In the present study, three different sites were chosen to compare environmental gamma radiation levels in different scenarios. Kaiga has been chosen as site 1, where four unit of pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) of 220 MWe each are in operation. Site 2 is chosen at natural high background radiation area (NHBRA) of Kerala and Vishakhapatnam was chosen as site 3, which is situated at a normal background area. The objective of the study is to illustrate the effect, if any, of an operating nuclear power reactor on environmental gamma radiation levels

  9. Lifetime measurements of excited Co I levels

    CERN Document Server

    Klotz, W D; Gobel, L H

    1977-01-01

    In the region of 3500 AA the lifetimes of eight excited Cobalt I levels have been measured by means of the zero field level crossing method. The measured lifetimes belong to the odd configurations 3d/sup 7/4s4p and 3d/sup 8/4p and are of the accuracy of about 5%. The hyperfine structure of levels with I not=J has to be taken into account in evaluating lifetimes from level crossing data, because the nuclear spin of the natural isotope /sup 59/Co is I=7/2. Therefore the influence of the line profile of the exciting resonance lines on the lifetimes has been investigated. The results are compared with those of other authors. Furthermore absolute oscillator strengths were calculated with known branching ratios and a new absolute scale has been established. (23 refs).

  10. About Solar Radiation Intensity Measurements and Data Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICH-VANCEA Claudiu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the intensity of solar radiation is one of the directions of investigation necessary for the implementation of photovoltaic systems in a particular geographical area. This can be done by using specific measuring equipment (pyranometer sensors based onthermal or photovoltaic principle. In this paper it is presented a method for measuring solar radiation (which has two main components - direct radiation and diffuse radiation with sensors based on photovoltaic principle. Such data are processed for positioning solarpanels, in order their efficiency to be maximized.

  11. Measurement of radiation damage on an optical reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, K.C.; Sahu, S.K.; Huang, H.C.; Ueno, K.; Chang, Y.H.; Wang, C.H.; Hou, W.S.

    1997-01-01

    We measured the radiation damage on an optical white fluorocarbon reflector called Goretex, which is to be used for aerogel threshold counters and crystal calorimeters of the BELLE detector of the KEK B-factory. Reflectance of the Goretex surface was monitored to see any effect of the radiation damage. Maximum equivalent dose was 8.6 Mrad. No radiation damage is observed within measurement errors. (orig.)

  12. Terrestrial radiation measurements in Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudiksen, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    With the prospect of habitation in the near future, radiological surveys were undertaken of Enewetak and Bikini Atolls to provide a basis for determining whether or not the atolls can be safely reinhabited. The surveys included all of the forty islands within Enewetak Atoll, but only the two principal islands, Bikini and Eneu Islands, of Bikini Atoll. These atolls were former U.S. nuclear weapons test sites in the Pacific. Integral parts of the surveys were the measurements of the distributions of radioactivity in the soil and the resulting gamma ray exposure rates for external dose estimation. Numerous soil samples were collected from both atolls for analysis by Ge (Li) gamma spectrometry and by wet chemistry techniques. At Enewetak Atoll the gamma exposure rates were measured by TLDs and a helicopter-borne array of Nal detectors, while at Bikini Atoll portable Nal detectors, pressurized ion-chambers, and TLDs were utilized. The predominant species measured in the soil samples collected from both atolls were 90 Sr, 239,240 Pu, 137 Cs and 60 Co with the latter two nuclides being the primary contributors to the gamma-ray exposure rates. The geographical distribution of the exposure rates measured on both atolls, was highly variable ranging from less than 1 μR/h on islands that had not been impacted radiologically by the testing program, to over 100 μR/h near weapon detonation sites. Thus, within Enewetak Atoll, the highest soil activities and gamma-ray exposure rates were measured on the northern islands, where the weapons testing had been most intense. Bikini Island exhibited contamination levels that were considerably higher than those on Eneu Island. Generally, the highest activity levels were observed within the island interiors or in proximity to ground zero sites, and could usually be related to the surrounding vegetation density. The island of Yvonne, within Enewetak Atoll, is the most severely contaminated land area. Particles containing as much as several

  13. Survey by measurement of urban environmental radiation, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inokoshi, Yukio; Kitahara, Akiharu; Suzuki, Takashi; Sugiura, Shiroharu; Shindo, Kotaro

    1984-01-01

    In the evaluation of the effect of radiation on the population of Tokyo Metropolis, it is necessary to know the external exposure due to natural radiation. Radiation dose rate has been measured on the ground (parks, etc.), paved roads (sidewalks), buildings, and transportation facilities (subways). The average values of cosmic ray and ground radiation were 8.8 x 10 -10 C/kg.h and 6.5 x 10 -10 C/kg.h, respectively. The radiation dose rate on roads differed largely with the structural materials, thickness, etc. The radiation in wooden buildings was almost similar to surrounding natural radiation. In high-rise buildings, there was not much difference from floor to floor. The natural radiation in subways depends largely on the depth. (Mori, K.)

  14. Application of a universal optic data link for radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, T.; Takada, E.

    2002-01-01

    Optic Data Link (ODL) is a device to convert electric and optic signals to each other, which is used for the field of optical communications. We examined the possibility to apply ODLs to radiation measurements. The effect of ODLs on energy and timing resolution has been investigated. From the results, fundamental applicability of ODLs to radiation measurements has been demonstrated. (author)

  15. Calibration of solar radiation measuring instruments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahm, R J; Nakos, J C

    1979-11-01

    A review of solar radiation measurement of instruments and some types of errors is given; and procedures for calibrating solar radiation measuring instruments are detailed. An appendix contains a description of various agencies who perform calibration of solar instruments and a description of the methods they used at the time this report was prepared. (WHK)

  16. Do dose area product meter measurements reflect radiation doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • August 2004. Abstract. This study determined the correlation between radiation doses absorbed by health care workers and dose area product meter (DAP) measurements at Universitas Hospital, Bloemfontein. The DAP is an instrument which accurately measures the radiation emitted from ...

  17. Do dose area product meter measurements reflect radiation doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the correlation between radiation doses absorbed by health care workers and dose area product meter (DAP) measurements at Universitas Hospital, Bloemfontein. The DAP is an instrument which accurately measures the radiation emitted from the source. The study included the interventional ...

  18. Measuring the greenhouse effect and radiative forcing through the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipona, Rolf; Kräuchi, Andreas; Brocard, Emmanuel

    2013-04-01

    In spite of a large body of existing measurements of incoming shortwave solar radiation and outgoing longwave terrestrial radiation at the Earth's surface and at the top of the atmosphere, there are few observations documenting how radiation profiles change through the atmosphere - information that is necessary to fully quantify the greenhouse effect of the Earth's atmosphere. Using weather balloons and specific radiometer equipped radiosondes, we continuously measured shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes from the surface of the Earth up to altitudes of 35 kilometers in the upper stratosphere. Comparing radiation profiles from night measurements with different amounts of water vapor, we show evidence of large greenhouse forcing. We show, that under cloud free conditions, water vapor increases with Clausius-Clapeyron ( 7% / K), and longwave downward radiation at the surface increases by 8 Watts per square meter per Kelvin. The longwave net radiation however, shows a positive increase (downward) of 2.4 Watts per square meter and Kelvin at the surface, which decreases with height and shows a similar but negative increase (upward) at the tropopause. Hence, increased tropospheric water vapor increases longwave net radiation towards the ground and towards space, and produces a heating of 0.42 Kelvin per Watt per square meter at the surface. References: Philipona et al., 2012: Solar and thermal radiation profiles and radiative forcing measured through the atmosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L13806, doi: 10.1029/2012GL052087.

  19. Calculating the diffuse solar radiation in regions without solar radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huashan; Bu, Xianbiao; Long, Zhen; Zhao, Liang; Ma, Weibin

    2012-01-01

    Correlations for calculating diffuse solar radiation can be classified into models with global solar radiation (H-based method) and without it (Non-H method). The objective of the present study is to compare the performance of H-based and Non-H methods for calculating the diffuse solar radiation in regions without solar radiation measurements. The comparison is carried out at eight meteorological stations in China focusing on the monthly average daily diffuse solar radiation. Based on statistical error tests, the results show that the Non-H method that includes other readily available meteorological elements gives better estimates. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Non-H method is more appropriate than the H-based one for calculating the diffuse solar radiation in regions without solar radiation measurements. -- Highlights: ► Methods for calculating diffuse solar radiation in regions without solar radiation measurements are investigated. ► Diffuse solar radiation models can be classified into two groups according to global solar radiation. ► Two approaches are compared at the eight meteorological stations in China. ► The method without global solar radiation is recommended.

  20. Chernobyl accident: Causes, consequences and problems of radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortov, V.; Ustyantsev, Yu.

    2013-01-01

    General description of Chernobyl accident is given in the review. The accident causes are briefly described. Special attention is paid to radiation situation after the accident and radiation measurements problems. Some data on Chernobyl disaster are compared with the corresponding data on Fukushima accident. It is noted that Chernobyl and Fukushima lessons should be taken into account while developing further measures on raising nuclear industry safety. -- Highlights: ► The short comparative analysis of accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima is given. ► We note the great effect of β-radiation on the radiation situation at Chernobyl. ► We discuss the problems of radiation measurements under these conditions. ► The impact of shelter on the radiation situation near Chernobyl NPS is described

  1. Radiation measurements in Austria in 1999 - date and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobek, E.; Streeruwitz, E.

    2000-12-01

    natural radiation exposure do occur. There are regions with particular geological conditions where exposure levels by far exceed the average dose due to high radon values. Artificial radiation exposure is predominantly caused by the use of radioactive substances and of ionizing radiation in medical applications, in particular by x-ray diagnostics, leading on the average to approximately 1.3 mSv per person annually in the reporting period. By comparison, the dose to the Austrian population due to the effects of the reactor accident at Chernobyl amounting in 1999 to less than 0.02 mSv is small. The exposure as a result of the operation of the nuclear installations at the Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf and at the Atomic Institute of the Austrian Universities in 1999 was negligible. Investigative measurements by the authorities of gaseous and liquid emissions and the internal surveillance by the operators show that maximum permissible levels never were exceeded. Also environmental monitoring in the surroundings could not detect any inadmissibly high gamma dose rates or immissions. The artificial radionuclide content of air, precipitation and surface water in the reporting period was mainly caused by the Chernobyl accident and similarly low as in the previous years. In these media the values for caesium-137 - which nowadays is the only significant radionuclide left from the Chernobyl fallout - are only slightly higher than before the accident. However, in soils from certain regions much higher caesium-137 concentrations can be found than before the accident. Since in most agriculturally used sods radiocaesium is fixed strongly to clay minerals and thus is only marginally available for plant uptake, foodstuffs and agricultural products generally show only minor caesium-137 concentrations. In comparison, significantly higher values still can be found in some forest produce such as wild growing fungi and game. In semi-natural forest ecosystems the fixation of caesium is

  2. Control measures in industrial and medical applications of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinloye, M. K.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation and radioactive substances are natural and permanent features of the environment; additionally the use of human made radiation is widespread. Sources of radiation are essential to modern health care, disposable medical supplies sterilized by intense radiation have been central to combating disease, radiology is a vital diagnostic tool and radiotherapy is commonly part of the treatment of malignancies. Nuclear techniques are in growing use in industry, agriculture, medicine and many fields of research, benefiting hundreds of millions of people and giving employment to millions of people in the related occupations, Irradiation is used around the world to preserve and reduce wastage and sterilization techniques have been used to eradicate disease carrying insects and pests. Industrial radiography is in routine use, for example to examine welds and detect cracks and help prevent the failure of engineered structures. It is also known that exposure to ionizing radiation can result to injuries that manifest themselves in the individual and his descendants. It is therefore imperative that the use of radiation sources be accompanied with the methods necessary for the prevention of the harmful effects of the radiation. These methods are referred to as control measures. Control measures that have been applied in establishments can be classified into physical control measures and administrative control measures. Physical control measures involve the technical aspects while administrative control measures augment physical measures. The guidelines and recommendations for the safe use of radiation and radioactive materials are provided through legislative and regulatory controls

  3. Measurement of radiation damage on an epoxy-based optical glue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.C.; Peng, K.C.; Sahu, S.K.; Ueno, K.; Chang, Y.H.; Wang, C.H.; Hou, W.S.

    1997-01-01

    We measured the radiation damage on an optical glue called Eccobond-24, which is a candidate for CsI and BGO crystal calorimeters of the BELLE detector of the KEK B-factory. Absorption spectrophotometry in the range 300-800 nm was used to monitor the radiation damage. The maximum equivalent dose was 1.64 Mrad. The glue shows effects of damage, but is acceptable for the radiation level in the above-mentioned experiment. (orig.)

  4. Solar radiation measurements at the network of six sites in the UK, January - December 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, C.M.H.; Campbell, J.I.; Pearson, A.J.; Grainger, K.J.L.; Dean, S.F.; Clark, I.E

    2002-04-01

    A summary of the results from January to December 2001 of a survey of solar radiation levels at the UK network of six solar radiation measurement sites is presented. The network consists of three NRPB sites at Chilton, Leeds and (monitoring since 1988) and three Meteorological Office stations at Camborne, Kinloss and Lerwick (monitoring since 1993). Visible (400-770 nm), ultraviolet UVA radiation (320-400 nm) and erythemally weighted ultraviolet radiation UVR{sub eff} (280-400 nm) have been measured simultaneously using a three detector measurement system. Results are compared with calculated irradiances of ultraviolet radiation and published illuminance data, and with data for the measurement period from 1988 to 2000. Yearly reports have been produced for selected sites, giving the daily solar index (which is a measure of the sunburn potential for sensitive skin types) throughout the year. (author)

  5. Solar radiation measurements at the network of six sites in the UK, January - December 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, C.M.H.; Campbell, J.I.; Pearson, A.J.; Grainger, K.J.L.; Dean, S.F.; Clark, I.E.

    2002-01-01

    A summary of the results from January to December 2001 of a survey of solar radiation levels at the UK network of six solar radiation measurement sites is presented. The network consists of three NRPB sites at Chilton, Leeds and (monitoring since 1988) and three Meteorological Office stations at Camborne, Kinloss and Lerwick (monitoring since 1993). Visible (400-770 nm), ultraviolet UVA radiation (320-400 nm) and erythemally weighted ultraviolet radiation UVR eff (280-400 nm) have been measured simultaneously using a three detector measurement system. Results are compared with calculated irradiances of ultraviolet radiation and published illuminance data, and with data for the measurement period from 1988 to 2000. Yearly reports have been produced for selected sites, giving the daily solar index (which is a measure of the sunburn potential for sensitive skin types) throughout the year. (author)

  6. Measurement of radiation dose in paediatric micturating cystourethrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, N. E. A.

    2013-06-01

    Paediatrics and children have been recognized that they have a higher risk of developing cancer from the radiation than adults. Therefor, increased attention has been directed towards the dose to the patients. Micturating Cystourethrography (MCU) is a commonly use ed fluoroscopic procedure in children and commonly used to detect the vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) and show urethral and bladder and abnormalities. This study aims to measure the pediatric patients undergoing MCU. The study was carried out in two hospitals in Khartoum. The entrance surface dose (ESD) was determined determined by indirect method for 45 children. Furthermore, the mean ESD, sd and range resulting from MCU procedures has been estimated to be 0.7±.5 (0.2-2.5) mGy for the total patient population. The radiation dose to the patients is well within established safety limits, in the light of the current practice. The radiation dose results of this study are appropriate for adoption as the local initial dose reference level (DRL) value for this technique. The data presented in this study showed our doses to be approximately 50% lower than the lower mean values presented in the literature.(Author)

  7. Mathematical simulation of gamma-radiation angle distribution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batij, V.G.; Batij, E.V.; Egorov, V.V.; Fedorchenko, D.V.; Kochnev, N.A.

    2008-01-01

    We developed mathematical model of the facility for gamma-radiation angle distribution measurement and calculated response functions for gamma-radiation intensities. We developed special software for experimental data processing, the 'Shelter' object radiation spectra unfolding and Sphere detector (ShD) angle resolution estimation. Neuronet method using for detection of the radiation directions is given. We developed software based on the neuronet algorithm, that allows obtaining reliable distribution of gamma-sources that make impact on the facility detectors at the measurement point. 10 refs.; 15 figs.; 4 tab

  8. Radiation Measured for Chinese Satellite SJ-10 Space Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dazhuang; Sun, Yeqing; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Shenyi; Sun, Yueqiang; Liang, Jinbao; Zhu, Guangwu; Jing, Tao; Yuan, Bin; Zhang, Huanxin; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Lei

    2018-02-01

    Space biological effects are mainly a result of space radiation particles with high linear energy transfer (LET); therefore, accurate measurement of high LET space radiation is vital. The radiation in low Earth orbits is composed mainly of high-energy galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), solar energetic particles, particles of radiation belts, the South Atlantic Anomaly, and the albedo neutrons and protons scattered from the Earth's atmosphere. CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors sensitive to high LET are the best passive detectors to measure space radiation. The LET method that employs CR-39 can measure all the radiation LET spectra and quantities. CR-39 detectors can also record the incident directions and coordinates of GCR heavy ions that pass through both CR-39 and biosamples, and the impact parameter, the distance between the particle's incident point and the seed's spore, can then be determined. The radiation characteristics and impact parameter of GCR heavy ions are especially beneficial for in-depth research regarding space radiation biological effects. The payload returnable satellite SJ-10 provided an excellent opportunity to investigate space radiation biological effects with CR-39 detectors. The space bio-effects experiment was successfully conducted on board the SJ-10 satellite. This paper introduces space radiation in low Earth orbits and the LET method in radiation-related research and presents the results of nuclear tracks and biosamples hitting distributions of GCR heavy ions, the radiation LET spectra, and the quantities measured for the SJ-10 space mission. The SJ-10 bio-experiment indicated that radiation may produce significant bio-effects.

  9. Measurement of stray EC radiation on W7-AS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandini, F.; Hirsch, M.; Cirant, S.; Erckmann, V.; Granucci, G.; Kasparek, W.; Laqua, H. P.; Muzzini, V.; Nowak, S.; Radau, S.

    2001-10-01

    In the framework of a collaboration between IFP-CNR Milano, IPP Garching/Greifswald and IPF Stuttgart, a set of four millimeterwave probes has been installed in W7-AS stellarator at selected positions of the inner vessel wall. Their purpose is to observe RF stray radiation during operation in presence of strong level of Electron Cyclotron (EC) waves, used for plasma start-up, heating and current drive. The aim of these measurements is to benchmark two complementary theoretical models for the distribution of the stray radiation in the vessel. From these codes, quantitative predictions are expected for the spatial distribution of the RF wall load and the RF-impact on in-vessel components in large future devices such as W7-X and, possibly, ITER. This input is important to optimize the wall armour and select rf-compatible in-vessel materials. We present first measurements from different heating and startup scenarios, with up to 800 kW of injected power at 140 GHz and different launching geometries. An analysis of measurements performed on FTU using a previous version of sniffer probe is also presented.

  10. Measurement of stray EC radiation on W7-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandini, F.; Cirant, S.; Granucci, G.; Muzzini, V.; Nowak, S.; Hirsch, M.; Erckmann, V.; Laqua, H.P.; Radau, S.; Kasparek, W.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of a collaboration between IFP-CNR Milano, IPP Garching/Greifswald and IPF Stuttgart, a set of four millimeterwave probes has been installed in W7-AS stellarator at selected positions of the inner vessel wall. Their purpose is to observe RF stray radiation during operation in presence of strong level of Electron Cyclotron (EC) waves, used for plasma start-up, heating and current drive. The aim of these measurements is to benchmark two complementary theoretical models for the distribution of the stray radiation in the vessel. From these codes, quantitative predictions are expected for the spatial distribution of the RF wall load and the RF-impact on in-vessel components in large future devices such as W7-X and, possibly, ITER. This input is important to optimize the wall armour and select rf-compatible in-vessel materials. We present first measurements from different heating and startup scenarios, with up to 800 kW of injected power at 140 GHz and different launching geometries. An analysis of measurements performed on FTU using a previous version of sniffer probe is also presented

  11. Measuring stations for gamma radiation - measured results 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjelle, P.E.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma radiation is recorded continuously at 25 stations in Sweden. The evaluation of the data from five of the stations is made in a most accurate way, and the results are presented in this report. (G.B.)

  12. Solar and terrestrial radiation: methods and measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coulson, Kinsell L

    1975-01-01

    ... AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM, WITHOUT PERMISSION IN WRITING FROM THE PUBLISHER. ACADEMIC PRESS, INC. Ill Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10003 United Kingdom Edition published by A C A D E M I C PRESS, INC. (LONDON) LTD. 24/28 Oval Road, London NW1 Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Coulson, Kinsell L Solar and terrestrial radiation. Inclu...

  13. Crack velocity measurement by induced electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, V.; Rabinovitch, A.; Bahat, D.

    2006-01-01

    Our model of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emanated from fracture implies that EMR amplitude is proportional to crack velocity. Soda lime glass samples were tested under uniaxial tension. Comparison of crack velocity observed by Wallner line analysis and the peak amplitude of EMR signals registered during the test, showed very good correlation, validating this proportionality

  14. Crack velocity measurement by induced electromagnetic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frid, V. [Deichmann Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Negev, Geological and Environmental Sciences Department, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel)]. E-mail: vfrid@bgu.ac.il; Rabinovitch, A. [Deichmann Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Negev, Physics Department, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel); Bahat, D. [Deichmann Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Negev, Geological and Environmental Sciences Department, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel)

    2006-07-31

    Our model of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emanated from fracture implies that EMR amplitude is proportional to crack velocity. Soda lime glass samples were tested under uniaxial tension. Comparison of crack velocity observed by Wallner line analysis and the peak amplitude of EMR signals registered during the test, showed very good correlation, validating this proportionality.

  15. Radiation transport in high-level waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakali, V.S.; Barnes, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    The waste form selected for vitrifying high-level nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at West Valley, NY is borosilicate glass. The maximum radiation level at the surface of a canister filled with the high-level waste form is prescribed by repository design criteria for handling and disposition of the vitrified waste. This paper presents an evaluation of the radiation transport characteristics for the vitreous waste form expected to be produced at West Valley and the resulting neutron and gamma dose rates. The maximum gamma and neutron dose rates are estimated to be less than 7500 R/h and 10 mRem/h respectively at the surface of a West Valley canister filled with borosilicate waste glass

  16. Assessing risks from occupational exposure to low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1989-06-01

    Currently, several epidemiological studies of workers who have been exposed occupationally to radiation are being conducted. These include workers in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada, involved in the production of both defense materials and nuclear power. A major reason for conducting these studies is to evaluate possible adverse health effects that may have resulted because of the radiation exposure received. The general subject of health effects resulting from low levels of radiation, including these worker studies, has attracted the attention of various news media, and has been the subject of considerable controversy. These studies provide a good illustration of certain other aspects of the statistician's role; namely, communication and adequate subject matter knowledge. A competent technical job is not sufficient if these other aspects are not fulfilled

  17. Vessel used in radiation counting to determine radioactivity levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Glover, J.S.; Shephard, B.P.

    1977-01-01

    This invention concerns the vessels used in radiation counting to determine radioactivity levels. These vessels prove to be particularly useful in analyses of the kind where a radioactive element or compound is separated into two phases and the radioactivity of one phase is determined. Such a vessel used in the counting of radiation includes an organic plastic substance tube appreciably cylindrical in shape whose upper end is open whilst the lower end is closed and integral with it, and an anti-radiation shield in metal or in metal reinforced plastic located at the lower end of the tube and extending along the wall of the tube up to a given height. The vessel contains a reaction area of 1 to 10 ml for holding fluid reagents [fr

  18. Measurement and modelling of radiation transmission within a stand of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berbigier, P.; Bonnefond, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A semi-empirical model of radiation penetration in a maritime pine canopy was developed so that mean solar (and net) radiation absorption by crowns and understorey could be estimated from above-canopy measurements only. Beam radiation Rb was assumed to penetrate the canopy according to Beer's law with an extinction coefficient of 0.32; this figure was found using non-linear regression techniques. For diffuse sky radiation, Beer's law was integrated over the sky vault assuming a SOC (standard overcast sky) luminance model; the upward and downward scattered radiative fluxes were obtained using the Kubelka-Munk equations and measurements of needle transmittance and reflectance. The penetration of net radiation within the canopy was also modelled. The model predicts the measured albedo of the stand very well. The estimation of solar radiation transmitted by the canopy was also satisfactory with the maximum difference between this and the mean output of mobile sensors at ground level being only 18 W m -2 . Due to the poor precision of net radiometers, the net radiation model could not be tested critically. However, as the modelled longwave radiation balance under the canopy is always between -10 and -20 Wm -2 , the below-canopy net radiation must be very close to the solar radiation balance. (author) [fr

  19. Ground-based spectral measurements of solar radiation, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Keizo; Kobayashi, Masaharu; Goto, Ryozo; Yamauchi, Toyotaro

    1979-01-01

    A newly designed spectro-pyranometer was used for the measurement of the global (direct + diffuse) and the diffuse sky radiation reaching the ground. By the subtraction of the diffuse component from the global radiation, we got the direct radiation component which leads to the spectral distribution of the optical thickness (extinction coefficient) of the turbid atmosphere. The measurement of the diffuse sky radiation reveals the scattering effect of aerosols and that of the global radiation allows the estimation of total attenuation caused by scattering and absorption of aerosols. The effects of the aerosols are represented by the deviation of the real atmosphere measured from the Rayleigh atmosphere. By the combination of the measured values with those obtained by theoretical calculation for the model atmosphere, we estimated the amount of absorption by the aerosols. Very strong absorption in the ultraviolet region was recognized. (author)

  20. Calorimeter with capacitance transducer for measurement of SHF radiation power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Onishchenko, I.N.; Uskov, V.V.

    2005-01-01

    A calorimeter of simple design for measuring total energy of microwave radiation is described. It operates in the energy range of 0.5 J to 6 kJ; water is used as the absorbing material. A capacitive probe is applied to measure changes in the water volume. The energy absorption factor of electromagnetic radiation in the range of 3-60 GHz is at least 0.9. The calorimeter is insensitive to radiation field nonuniformity over the absorber volume. The calorimeter is intended for measuring the radiation energy of beam plasma generators and generators with dielectric structure. Its design makes it possible to simultaneously measure the radiation energy and monitor the beam current [ru

  1. Investigation of environmental natural penetrating radiation level in Anhui province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jingqiu; Chen Shuping; Jiang Shan; Zhu Xingsheng; Huang Jiangbin; Wu Chuanyong; Wang Weining

    1992-01-01

    The methods and results of the investigation on natural penetrating radiation level in Anhui Province in 1987 are presented. The results show that: (1) The point-weighted, area-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for field is 5.67, 5.62 and 5.55 x 10 -8 Gy· -1 , respectively; (2) The point-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate for road is 5.38 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 ; (3) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural γ radiation dose rate inside buildings is 9.59 and 9.36 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , respectively; (4) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of the dose rate inside buildings from cosmic ray is 2.64 and 2.62 x 10 -8 ·h -1 , and outside buildings is 2.95 and 2.94 x 10 -8 ·h -1 , respectively; (5) The point-weighted and population-weighted average value of natural penetrating radiation dose rate inside buildings is 12.23 and 11.99 x 10 -8 Gy·h -1 , outside buildings is 8.62 and 8.49 x 10 -8 ·h -1 , respectively; (6) The annual effective dose equivalent from natural γ radiation, cosmic ray and natural penetrating radiation is 0.51, 0.24, and 0.75 mSv, respectively; and correspondingly, the annual collective effective dose equivalent is 2.5, 1.2 and 3.7 x 10 4 man·Sv, respectively

  2. Radiation induced deep level defects in bipolar junction transistors under various bias conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chaoming; Yang, Jianqun; Li, Xingji; Ma, Guoliang; Xiao, Liyi; Bollmann, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is sensitive to ionization and displacement radiation effects in space. In this paper, 35 MeV Si ions were used as irradiation source to research the radiation damage on NPN and PNP bipolar transistors. The changing of electrical parameters of transistors was in situ measured with increasing irradiation fluence of 35 MeV Si ions. Using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), defects in the bipolar junction transistors under various bias conditions are measured after irradiation. Based on the in situ electrical measurement and DLTS spectra, it is clearly that the bias conditions can affect the concentration of deep level defects, and the radiation damage induced by heavy ions.

  3. A method to measure internal stray radiation of cryogenic infrared imaging systems under various ambient temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qijie; Chang, Songtao; Li, Zhou; He, Fengyun; Qiao, Yanfeng

    2017-03-01

    The suppression level of internal stray radiation is a key criterion for infrared imaging systems, especially for high-precision cryogenic infrared imaging systems. To achieve accurate measurement for internal stray radiation of cryogenic infrared imaging systems under various ambient temperatures, a measurement method, which is based on radiometric calibration, is presented in this paper. First of all, the calibration formula is deduced considering the integration time, and the effect of ambient temperature on internal stray radiation is further analyzed in detail. Then, an approach is proposed to measure the internal stray radiation of cryogenic infrared imaging systems under various ambient temperatures. By calibrating the system under two ambient temperatures, the quantitative relation between the internal stray radiation and the ambient temperature can be acquired, and then the internal stray radiation of the cryogenic infrared imaging system under various ambient temperatures can be calculated. Finally, several experiments are performed in a chamber with controllable inside temperatures to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can be used to measure internal stray radiation with high accuracy at various ambient temperatures and integration times. The proposed method has some advantages, such as simple implementation and the capability of high-precision measurement. The measurement results can be used to guide the stray radiation suppression and to test whether the internal stray radiation suppression performance meets the requirement or not.

  4. Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in Ti VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, K M; Keenan, F P; Msezane, A Z

    2013-01-01

    We report on calculations of energy levels, radiative rates, oscillator strengths and line strengths for transitions among the lowest 253 levels of the (1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 ) 3s 2 3p 5 , 3s3p 6 , 3s 2 3p 4 3d, 3s3p 5 3d, 3s 2 3p 3 3d 2 , 3s 2 3p 4 4s, 3s 2 3p 4 4p and 3s 2 3p 4 4d configurations of Ti VI. The general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package and flexible atomic code are adopted for the calculations. Radiative rates, oscillator strengths and line strengths are reported for all electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), electric quadrupole (E2) and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions among the 253 levels, although calculations have been performed for a much larger number of levels. Comparisons are made with existing available results and the accuracy of the data is assessed. Additionally, lifetimes for all 253 levels are listed, although comparisons with other theoretical results are limited to only 88 levels. Our energy levels are estimated to be accurate to better than 1% (within 0.03 Ryd), whereas results for other parameters are probably accurate to better than 20%. A reassessment of the energy level data on the National Institute of Standards and Technology website for Ti VI is suggested. (paper)

  5. The correlation between osteopontin level and radiation response of malignant gliomas at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isnaniah Hasan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteopontin is an endogenous molecular marker for tumor hypoxia, and hypoxia is one of the factors that determine the aggressiveness of the disease. The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation between osteopontin levels and radiation response in malignant glioma. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 15 malignant glioma patients who underwent radiation therapy from July 2004 to May 2015 at the RSUPN Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. Osteopontin levels were measured from paraffin-embedded tissue using a commercial ELISA kit. Tumor volume was calculated using computed tomography (CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI images, based on three-dimensional volume measurements. Tumor response was evaluated by comparing pre- and post-radiation tumor volumes using CT scan and MRI images. The mean osteopontin level was 0.49 ± 0.45 ng/mL and the mean percentage change in tumor volume was 8.59 ± 54.22%, with a 60% enlargement in tumor volume. A progressive disease was found in 26.7% of patients. There was a weak but insignificant negative correlation (r = -0.39, p = 0.146 between the level of osteopontin and radiation response. In contrast, there was a strong but insignificant positive correlation (r = +0.68, p = 0.219 between the level of osteopontin and radiation response in the patient group that used the chemosensitizer temozolamide.

  6. Low level radiation: how low can you get?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsley, M.

    1990-01-01

    Information stored on the world's largest data bank concerning the health of nuclear industry workers is to be handed over to researchers at Birmingham University by the US Department of Energy. The data bank contains detailed information on 300,000 nuclear employees, going back to the 1940s. Such a large sample size will allow the results of a previous study conducted on workers in the US nuclear industry to be verified. That study was concluded in 1978 and showed that the risk estimates set by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were between 10 and 30 times too low. The current ICRP estimate allows workers up to 50mSv of exposure to low level radiation per year. Risk estimates have been derived from data relating to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. However in those cases the radiation doses were relatively high but over a short period. In the nuclear industry the doses are lower but are long term and this may account for the apparent anomalies such as the incidence of leukaemia amongst children whose fathers have worked in the nuclear industry compared with that for the children whose fathers received radiation doses from the atomic bombings. It is expected the study will show that low-level radiation is more damaging than has previously been thought. (author)

  7. Somatic and genetic effects of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, A.C.

    1974-01-01

    Although the biological effects of ionizing radiation are probably better known than those of any other physical or chemical agent in the environment, our information about such effects has come from observations at doses and dose rates which are orders of magnitude higher than natural background environmental radiation levels. Whether, therefore biological effects occur in response to such low levels can be estimated only by extrapolation, based on assumptions about the dose-effect relationship and the mechanisms of the effects in question. Present knowledge suggests the possibility that several types of biological effects may result from low-level irradiation. The induction of heritable genetic changes in germ cells and carcinogenic changes in somatic cells are considered to be the most important from the standpoint of their potential threat to health. On the basis of existing data, it is possible to make only tentative upper limit estimates of the risks of these effects at low doses. The estimates imply that the frequency of such effects attributable to exposure at natural background radiation levels would constitute only a small fraction of their natural incidence. 148 references

  8. Radiation and impurity measurements in FRX-C/T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrien, R.E.; McKenna, K.F.; Rej, D.J.; Tuszewski, M.

    1984-01-01

    Translation of Field-Reversed Configurations (FRCs) in the FRX-C/T device has provided better diagnostic access for radiation measurements. It is observed that radiated power accounts for 7 +- 2% of the total power losses, indicating that thermal conduction accounts for about half of the losses. It was determined through impurity seeding experiments that the oxygen fraction is 0.6 +- 0.2% and that oxygen can account for most of the radiated power

  9. Trace element measurements with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, A.L.; Kraner, H.W.; Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Mills, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Aspects of the application of synchrotron radiation to trace element determinations by x-ray fluorescence have been investigated using beams from the Cornell facility, CHESS. Fluoresced x rays were detected with a Si(Li) detector placed 4 cm from the target at 90 0 to the beam. Thick samples of NBS Standard Reference Materials were used to calibrate trace element sensitivity and estimate minimum detectable limits for this method

  10. Radiation protection measures for hot cell sanitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.U.; Burck, W.; Dilger, H.

    1983-01-01

    The cell 5 of the Hot Cell Facility of the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (KfK) was to be restored and reequipped after 12 years of operation. The decontamination work was first done remotely controlled and afterwards by 38 persons entering the cell, which took about 2 months. The radiation protection methods and personal dosimetry systems are described. At the beginning of the work the γ-dose rate amounted up to 900 mSv/h. After completion of the remotely controlled decontamination work the γ-dose rate decreased to 1.5 mSv/h. At that time the (α+β-contamination was 10 5 Bq/cm 2 . Till the end of the work the removable activity dropped to 10 2 - 10 3 Bq/cm 2 for β-radiation, to 0.3 - 30 Bq/cm 2 for α-radiation and the local dose rate to about 0.03 mSv/h. During the work the accumulated collective doses were listed for breast, hand, head, gonads and foot. In the figure the development with the time of the doses for breast and hand is shown. During restoration work of the cell the accumulated collective whole-body dose amounted to 30 mSv. (orig.) [de

  11. Radiation dose measurements in intravenous pyelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egeblad, M.; Gottlieb, E.

    1975-01-01

    Intravenous pyelography (IVP) and micturition cystourethrography (MCU) are the standard procedures in the radiological examination of children with urinary tract infections and in the control of these children. Gonad protection against radiation is not possible in MCU, but concerning the girls partly possible in IVP. It is of major importance to know the radiation dose in these procedures, especially since the examination is often repeated in the same patients. All IVP were done by means of the usual technique including possible gonad protection. The thermoluminescence dosimeter was placed rectally in the girls and fixed on the scrota in the boys. A total of 50 children was studied. Gonad dose ranged from 140 to 200mR in the girls and from 20 to 70mR in the boys (mean values). The radiation dose in IVP is very low compared to that of MCU, and from this point of view IVP is a dose saving examination in the control of children with urinary tract infections [fr

  12. A possible methodological approach to setting up control level of radiation factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devyatajkin, E.V.; Abramov, Yu.V.

    1986-01-01

    The mathematical formalization of the concept of control levels (CL) which enables one to obtain CL numerical values of controllable parameters required for rapid control purposes is described. The initial data for the assessment of environmental radioactivity are the controllable parameter values that is practical characteristic of controllable radiation factor showing technically measurable or calculation value. The controllable parameters can be divided into two classes depending on the degree of radiation effect on a man: possessing additivity properties (dosimetric class) and non-possessing (radiation class, which comprises the results of control of medium alteration dynamics, equipment operation safety, completeness of protection measures performance). The CL calculation formulas with account for requirements of radiation safety standards (RSS-76) are presented

  13. Measuring radiation dose to patients undergoing fluoroscopically-guided interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, L E; Badawy, M K

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence and complexity of fluoroscopically guided interventions (FGI) raises concern regarding radiation dose to patients subjected to the procedure. Despite current evidence showing the risk to patients from the deterministic effects of radiation (e.g. skin burns), radiation induced injuries remain commonplace. This review aims to increase the awareness surrounding radiation dose measurement for patients undergoing FGI. A review of the literature was conducted alongside previous researches from the authors’ department. Studies pertaining to patient dose measurement, its formalism along with current advances and present challenges were reviewed. Current patient monitoring techniques (using available radiation dosimeters), as well as the inadequacy of accepting displayed dose as patient radiation dose is discussed. Furthermore, advances in real-time patient radiation dose estimation during FGI are considered. Patient dosimetry in FGI, particularly in real time, remains an ongoing challenge. The increasing occurrence and sophistication of these procedures calls for further advances in the field of patient radiation dose monitoring. Improved measuring techniques will aid clinicians in better predicting and managing radiation induced injury following FGI, thus improving patient care. (paper)

  14. Effects of microelectronics on industrial level measuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudel, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    Microelectronic elements and production technologies have begun to change industrial level measurement, and this trend will continue. Spectacular breakthroughs cannot be expected, due to the major demand of reliability and to administrative constraints. The demand for transducers has increased with the advance of low-cost computer hardware. Electronics makes well-known method of measurements more universally applicable; it helps to realize new methods, and to design multifunctional transducers which always give the necessary signal for process guidance. The effects on society and environment are wholly positive: More and better measuring technologies permit a better utilisation of raw materials and energies, help to prevent environmental damage, and to raise the standard of living. Negative results are not to be expected on this sector. (orig./RW) [de

  15. Tradescantia in studies of genetic effects of low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Atsushi

    1976-01-01

    Tradescantia in studies on genetic effects of low level radiation is briefly introduced. Radiosensitivity, method of screening stamen hair mutation, materials in current uses, spontaneous mutation rate, and modifying factors are refered. For stamen hair mutation b values in exponential model were lower in irradiation with low dose rate at high environmental temperature. The dose response curves under these modifying conditions, when extrapolated to low dose range, well fit to the line which was obtained by Sparrow's experiment of low level irradiation. In chronic irradiation, the frequency of stamen hair mutation reaches to the constant value after 17 days from the start of irradiation, and is as much as 4 times higher than the peak value in one day irradiation at the same exposure rate. The spontaneous mutation rate of KU-7 varied with temperature. The increase with 1 0 C increment of mean temperature was -0.04%. Uses of Tradescantia in monitoring the environmental radiation is discussed. (auth.)

  16. Measurement and modeling of external radiation during 1985 from LAMPF [Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility] emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, B.M.; Olsen, W.A.; Chen, Ili; Van Etten, D.M.

    1987-11-01

    An array of three portable, pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) continued to measure external radiation levels during 1985 caused by radionuclides emitted from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). A Gaussian-type atmospheric dispersion model, using onsite meteorological and stack release data, was tested during this study. A more complex finite model, which takes into account the contribution of radiation at a receptor from different locations of the passing plume, was also tested. Monitoring results indicate that, as in 1984, a persistent wind up the Rio Grande Valley during the evening and early morning hours is largely responsible for causing the highest external radiation levels to occur to the northeast and north-northeast of LAMPF. However, because of increased turbulent mixing during the day, external radiation levels are generally much less during the day than at night. External radiation levels during 1985 show approximately a 75% reduction over 1984 levels. This resulted from a similar percentage reduction in LAMPF emissions caused by newly implemented emission controls. Comparison of predicted and measured daily external radiation levels indicates a high degree of correlation. The model also gives accurate estimates of measured concentrations over longer time periods. Comparison of predicted and measured hourly values indicates that the model generally tends to overpredict during the day and underpredict at night. 9 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs

  17. Device for the integral measurement of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micheron, Francois.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to devices for the integral determination of ionizing radiations, particularly to the construction of a portable dosemeter. Portable measuring instruments have been suggested in the past, particularly dosemeters in which the discharge of a capacitor under the action of ionizing radiations is measured. Since the charge of a capacitor is not stable owing to dielectric imperfections, these measuring instruments have to be recalibrated at frequent intervals. To overcome this drawback, the invention suggests using the discharge of an electret, electrically charged to a pre-set initial value, under the action of ionizing radiations, as the transducer means of a dosemeter used in conjunction with display or warning systems [fr

  18. Intercomparison of measuring and evaluation methods for environmental radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kimiaki; Nagaoka, Toshi; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Moriuchi, Shigeru; Okano, Masaharu.

    1990-11-01

    This report presents the results of the cooperative research by IPCR and JAERI. In order to investigate the accuracy and characteristics of the measurement and evaluation methods for environmental radiations, developed independently by IPCR and by JAERI, field experiments were performed using the both methods under the same conditions at the same time. The experiments were performed at fixed points on the ground, in a moving car and in a flying helicopter. Discussion was made on the basis of the comparison of the results from the both methods. The exposure rates from the IPCR method agreed within 10% with those from the JAERI method, however the former were systematically higher than the latter. Since the evaluated exposure rate components due to 238 U-series, 232 Th-series and 40 K showed apparent differences between the IPCR method and the JAERI method, further investigation is necessary for the positions and widths of the applied energy bands and the coefficients in the equations to evaluate the components. In measurements in a moving vehicle, the sequential data should be gathered per sufficiently short distance to distinguish the local change of the radiation level when it changes greatly according to the location. The aerial data showed that the exposure rates from terrestrial gamma rays in the region west of the Abe river are apparently higher than those in the Kanto district. (author)

  19. Protecting agriculture against nuclear radiations: conception and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann Hans-Joerg

    1997-01-01

    In case of atomic and chemical (AC) accident or attacks the agriculture is severely affected. This became clearly after the Chernobyl disaster, after which the authorities mobilized and increased the efforts to protect the agriculture. In Switzerland the Federal Commission for AC protection has undertaken the necessary actions in collaboration with the Federal Office for Agriculture. The protection of agriculture against radioactive fallout has many aspects. One of these concerns the requirement of informing farmers with all the necessary instruction to ensure the protection of rural population and animals, foods and forages, to make them able to take essential protection measures without exterior assistance, and to provide the agriculture buildings with simple and durable tools necessary in case of emergency intervention. To implement these requirements on Confederation level educational programs were developed to instruct agriculture agents and advisors on basic notions of radioactivity and radiation protection. These programs are thought to make the farmer aware with the implications of nuclear chemical and nuclear menace and the measures of protecting its enterprise by own means. Special instructions are to be applied by the enterprise chiefs to ensure first that the personnel protection is the top priority and then how to minimize and limit the damage produced by the radiation accident

  20. First aid and subsequent measures after radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, H.D.

    1980-01-01

    An organisation schedule and first aid measures after accidents involving ionizing radiation are presented, both in accordance with the current practice of the responsible professional associations. Optimum care also of persons with radiation injuries will be assured by cooperation between voluntary lay helpers, physicians, and regional centres in which failure symptons of the haematopoietic system can be treated. (DG) [de

  1. In-situ radiation measurements of the C1 and C2 waste storage tank vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, L.K.; Womble, P.C.; Weems, L.D.

    1996-09-01

    In August of 1996, the Applied Radiation Measurements Department (ARMD) of the Waste Management and Remedial Action Division (WMRAD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked with characterizing the radiation fields in the C 1 and C 2 Liquid Low Level Waste (LLLW) tank vault located at ORNL. These in-situ measurements were made to provide data for evaluating the potential radiological conditions for personnel working in or around the vault during future planned activities. This report describes the locations where measurements were made, the types of radiation detection instruments used, the methods employed, the problems encountered and resolved, and discusses the results obtained

  2. Radiation protection measures during the decommissioning of DR 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Thommy Ingemann; Hedemann Jensen, Per; Sogaard-Hansena, Jens; Lauridsen, Bente

    2008-01-01

    DR 2 (Danish Reactor 2), one of the research reactors at the Riso site, has been in the process of being decommissioned during the last two years. The decommissioning will be completed in 2008. The reactor went critical for the first time in late 1958 and was shut down in 1975. The construction was a 5 MW light-water moderated and cooled tank type reactor. Although the process of decommissioning was formally initiated in 2005, it was preceded by a characterization project with the purpose of determining activity contents in key materials and dose rates at relevant spots in the reactor. The paper describes the removal of neutron beam plugs, grid plate and a thermal column with focus on radiation protection issues. The primary objective is, however, to describe the measures taken to control radiation doses during the removal of the reactor block concrete and the reactor tank.The demolition and removal of concrete was done by an external contractor. The contractor had to comply with a comprehensive set of requirements. This included splitting activated concrete from concrete containing activities below clearance levels with no use of fluids of any kind, as the risk of not being able to control diffusion of contaminated fluids was an important issue. The experience from the decommissioning of the DR 1 reactor in 2005 showed that water-cooled cutting made it very difficult to monitor the levels of air contamination as the filters of the air monitors were blocked frequently. Certainly, dry cutting turned out to be a great technical challenge to the external contractor. Another demand was that the work should take place inside a de-pressurized containment in order to control air contamination and thereby minimize internal doses. The experience gathered from the practical implementation of dose reducing measures will be discussed. Problems involving the use of external contractors will be discussed, including training of personnel with no prior knowledge of radioactivity

  3. Spectroscopic and bolometric measurements of radiation loss in DIVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiho, Makoto; Odajima, Kazuo; Sugie, Tatsuo; Maeda, Hikosuke; Kasai, Satoshi

    1977-11-01

    Radiation loss due to low- and high-z impurities in DIVA (JFT-2a) was measured by means of a calibrated 3m grazing incidence vacuum monochromater and a calibrated pyroelectric detector. The following results were obtained: 1) Radiation loss power due to low-z impurities becomes insignificant by using clean surfaces for the vacuum wall. 2) Radiation loss power due to pseudo continuum from high-z impurities has influence on the energy balance of the confined plasma. 3) The divertor reduces the radiation loss by a factor of about 3. (auth.)

  4. CMS High Level Trigger Timing Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Clint

    2015-01-01

    The two-level trigger system employed by CMS consists of the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, which is implemented using custom-built electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a farm of commercial CPUs running a streamlined version of the offline CMS reconstruction software. The operational L1 output rate of 100 kHz, together with the number of CPUs in the HLT farm, imposes a fundamental constraint on the amount of time available for the HLT to process events. Exceeding this limit impacts the experiment's ability to collect data efficiently. Hence, there is a critical need to characterize the performance of the HLT farm as well as the algorithms run prior to start up in order to ensure optimal data taking. Additional complications arise from the fact that the HLT farm consists of multiple generations of hardware and there can be subtleties in machine performance. We present our methods of measuring the timing performance of the CMS HLT, including the challenges of making such measurements. Results for the performance of various Intel Xeon architectures from 2009-2014 and different data taking scenarios are also presented. (paper)

  5. Measurements and TCAD Simulations of Bulk and Surface Radiation Damage Effects

    CERN Document Server

    F. Moscatelli; G. M. Bilei; A. Morozzi; G.-F. Dalla Betta; R. Mendicino; M. Boscardin; N. Zorzi; L. Servoli; P. Maccagnani

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose the application of a radiation damage model based on the introduction of deep level traps/recombination centers suitable for device level numerical simulation of radiation detectors at very high fluences (e.g. 1÷2×1016 1-MeV equivalent neutrons per square centimeter) combined with a surface damage model developed by using experimental parameters extracted from measurements from gamma irradiated p-type dedicated test structures.

  6. Legal aspects of radiation protection at the international level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papazian, J.

    1981-01-01

    A review is made of the respective activities of the various international organizations concerned with radiation protection at the legal level. These organizations are either non-governmental (I.C.R.P., I.C.R.U.) or governmental in which case they can act at the world (U.N., I.A.E.A., I.L.O., W.H.O.) or regional level (N.E.A., EURATOM, COMECOM). The legal impact of the recommendations or directives they issue is specified [fr

  7. Genetic damage from low-level and natural background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oftedal, P.

    1988-01-01

    Relevant predictions that have been made of possible low level biological effects on man are reviewed, and the estimate of genetic damage is discussed. It is concluded that in spite of a number of attempts, no clear-cut case of effects in human populations of radiation at natural levels has been demonstrated. The stability of genetic material is dynamic, with damage, repair and selection running as continuous processes. Genetic materials are well protected and are conservative in the extreme, not least because evolution by genetic adaptation is an expensive process: Substitution of one allele A 1 by another A 2 means the death of the whole A 1 population

  8. Techniques for radiation measurements: Micro-dosimetry and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waker, A. J.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental Micro-dosimetry is concerned with the determination of radiation quality and how this can be specified in terms of the distribution of energy deposition arising from the interaction of a radiation field with a particular target site. This paper discusses various techniques that have been developed to measure radiation energy deposition over the three orders of magnitude of site-size; nano-meter, micrometer and millimetre, which radiation biology suggests is required to fully account for radiation quality. Inevitably, much of the discussion will concern the use of tissue-equivalent proportional counters and variants of this device, but other technologies that have been studied, or are under development, for their potential in experimental Micro-dosimetry are also covered. Through an examination of some of the quantities used in radiation metrology and dosimetry the natural link with Micro-dosimetric techniques will be shown and the particular benefits of using Micro-dosimetric methods for dosimetry illustrated. (authors)

  9. Radiation exposure in the young level 1 trauma patient: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Michael B; Bellaire, Laura L; Moore, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has become an increasingly popular and powerful tool for clinicians managing trauma patients with life-threatening injuries, but the ramifications of increasing radiation burden on individual patients are not insignificant. This study examines a continuous series of 337 patients less than 40 years old admitted to a level 1 trauma center during a 4-month period. Primary outcome measures included number of scans; effective dose of radiation from radiographs and CT scans, respectively; and total effective dose from both sources over patients' hospital stays. Several variables, including hospital length of stay, initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, and Injury Severity Score, correlated with greater radiation exposure. Blunt trauma victims were more prone to higher doses than those with penetrating or combined penetrating and blunt trauma. Location and mechanism of injury were also found to correlate with radiation exposure. Trauma patients as a group are exposed to high levels of radiation from X-rays and CT scans, and CT scans contribute a very high proportion (91.3% ± 11.7%) of that radiation. Certain subgroups of patients are at a particularly high risk of exposure, and greater attention to cumulative radiation dose should be paid to patients with the above mentioned risk factors.

  10. Radioactivity levels in Indian coal and some technologically enhanced exposure to natural radiation environment of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, T.V.; Mishra, U.C.

    1988-01-01

    The summary of results of gamma-spectrometric measurements of natural radioactivity levels in coal from mines, coal, fly-ash, slag and soil samples from thermal power plants in India are presented. These constitute the sources of technologic ally enhanced exposures to natural radiation. Brief description of sampling and measurement procedure is given. Radiation dose to the population from coal fired power plants for electricity generation have been calculated using the model developed by UNSCEAR and ORNL reports with correction for local population density. (author). 13 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs

  11. Radiated power measurement with AXUV photodiodes in EAST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yanmin; Hu Liqun; Du Wei; Mao Songtao; Chen Kaiyun; Zhang Jizhong

    2013-01-01

    The fast bolometer diagnostic system for absolute radiated power measurement on EAST tokamak is introduced, which is based on the absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) photodiodes. The relative calibration of AXUV detectors is carried out using X-ray tube and standard luminance source in order to evaluate the sensitivity degradation caused by cumulative radiation damage during experiments. The calibration result shows a 23% sensitivity decrease in the X-ray range for the detector suffering ∼27000 discharges, but the sensitivity for the visible light changes little. The radiated power measured by AXUV photodiodes is compared with that measured by resistive bolometer. The total radiated power in main plasma deduced from AXUV detector is lower a factor of 1∼4 than that deduced from resistive bolometer. Some typical measurement results are also shown in this article. (author)

  12. Measuring Earth's Radiation Budget from the Vicinity of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, W. H.; Lorentz, S. R.; Erlandson, R. E.; Cahalan, R. F.; Huang, P. M.

    2018-02-01

    We propose to measure Earth's radiation budget (integrated total and solar-reflected shortwave) using broadband radiometers and other technology demonstrated in space. The instrument is compact, autonomous, and has modest resource requirements.

  13. Development of radiation detection and measurement system - Development of scintillation radiation sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hee Dong; Kim, Wan [Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea); Kim, Do Sung [Taegu University, Taegu (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    We have been fabricated CsI(Tl) scintillation crystals and plastic scintillators for radiation-based measuring equipment. CsI (Tl) single crystals doped with thallium as an activator were grown using the Czochralski method. The crystal structure of grown CsI(Tl) was bcc, and it was confirmed that its lattice constant was 4,568 A. The spectral range of luminescence of CsI(Tl) was 350 {approx} 700 nm independent of thallium concentration, and the fast component of the luminescence was decreased with increasing thallium concentration. The energy resolution of CsI(Tl) scintillator doped with 0.1 mole% thallium was about 9% for 137 Cs {gamma}-rays. The relation formula of {gamma}-ray energy versus energy resolution was ln(FWHM%)=-0.705ln({epsilon})+6.75. The radiation damage of CsI(Tl) increased in proportion to thallium concentration and radiation damage of CsI(Tl) increased in proportion to thallium concentration and radiation dosage, and the irradiated crystals were colored reddish. The radiation induced absorption bands appeared around 355, 425, 520 and 555 nm, and their energy level were about 3.50, 2.88, 2.39 and 2.21 eV. Plastic scintillators were fabricated thermal polymerization method. Those were polymerizing at 120 deg. C, during 72 hours, and annealing at 75 deg. C, during 24 hours. When the concentration of 1st solute was 1.5 wt% and concentration of 2nd solute was 0.01 wt%, the characteristics of scintillation were very excellent. Also 3.0 wt% tetraphenyl lead were loaded to improve the detection efficiency of {gamma}-ray. The range of emission spectrum was 400 {approx} 450nm, and the central peak was 415 nm. The radiation damage was not appear under 1*10{sup 3}Gy, but the color of plastic scintillator was changed to brown, over 1*10{sup 4}Gy exposured. 84 refs., 39 figs. (Author)

  14. Influence of ionizing radiation on gastrointestinal peptide levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysocki, J.; Esposito, V.; Linard, C. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1997-03-01

    Exposure of the gut to ionising radiation may induce gastrointestinal damage and dysfunction. Early effects such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, anorexia may be observed within the first 24 h after irradiation. Such symptoms are seen even with doses as low as 1 Gy. later effects and the onset of the gastrointestinal syndrome are seen at higher doses (10 Gy) and include gastric emptying inhibition, intestinal hemorrhages, disturbances in water and electrolytes balance and septicemia. The severity of which depends on the nature, dose and dose rate received. The mechanism underlying these changes was unclear; it has long been known that exposure to ionising radiation affects intestinal morphology usually because of inhibition of mitotic activity at the level of the crypt enterocyst. The various physiological functions of the gastrointestinal tract are controlled by a wide variety of agents as neurotransmitters, neuropeptides. Radiation induces alterations in hormonal release and response. The present study carried out in the rat focuses on Gastrin Releasing Peptide (GRP), a gastrointestinal neuropeptide present in the central nervous system and in the gut endocrine cells were released into blood. The GRP controls food intake, pancreatic enzyme secretions, gastric emptying, intestinal motility and cellular proliferation. The aim was to investigate the effects of gamma and neutron/gamma on plasma and gastrointestinal tissue levels of GRP

  15. Environments with elevated radiation levels from natural radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.

    2000-01-01

    Some areas in the world have elevated levels of radioactive substances in the environment forming elevated radiation areas (ERAs) where public potential annual effective doses can exceed even the dose limit of radiation workers. Such radioactive substances are either terrestrial natural radioactivity added naturally in the soil or natural and/or man-made radioactivity from human activities added into the environment. If radioactivity is added naturally, elevated natural radiation areas (ENRAs) are formed. Based on the classification criteria introduced by the author, such regions are divided into static and dynamic areas. They are also classified in accordance with their level of potential effective dose to the public. Some main ENRAs are classified. Highlights are presented of the results of activity studies carried out in selected areas. The concepts discussed can also be applied to areas formed by human activities. The author suggests some guidelines for future studies, regulatory control and decision making, bearing in mind the need for harmonization of policies for regulatory control and remedial actions at sites to protect the public from environmental chronic exposures. (author)

  16. Measurement of radionuclides in the environment via Cherenkov radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, H.H.

    1987-01-01

    The author has developed an alternate approach to the measurement of some beta-emitting nuclides that utilizes the luminescence generated by the Cherenkov process. The luminescence, now known as Cherenkov radiation, was shown to be generated when a charged particle passes through a transparent medium at a speed that exceeds the phase velocity of light in the same medium. Cherenkov emission is different from most other luminescence processes in that it is a purely physical phenomenon. One consequence of this is that Cherenkov systems are free of chemical quenching effects. Conventional methods of analysis for environmental levels of beta-emitting radionuclides are often tedious, time-consuming, and expensive. The Cherenkov method is fast, requires very little operator attention, and is much less expensive to perform

  17. Optical fibers and their applications for radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, Tsunemi

    1998-01-01

    As a new method of radiation measurements, several optical methods using optical fiber sensors have been developed. One is the application of 'radio-luminescence' from the optical fiber itself such as plastic scintillating fibers. Other researches are made to develop the 'combined-sensors' by combination of optical fibers and scintillating materials. Using the time domain method of optical fiber sensors, the profile of radiation distribution along the optical fiber can be easily determined. A multi-parameter sensing system for measurement of radiation, temperature, stress, etc, are also expected using these optical fiber sensors. (author)

  18. Radiation protection measures to support the life of population at contaminated territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolevich, I.V.

    1993-01-01

    At the contaminated territories from the first days after the accident at Chernobyl NPP protection measures are conducted with the aim to decrease the total dose of radiation to a limited level and to decrease the risk of cancer deceases and genetic consequences for living and next generations. Radiation protection measures at these territories are the following: radiation control of food and environment; measures on lowering the content of radionuclides in the air, water and soils; measures to supply people with clean food and products of agriculture; lowering the dose loading during X-ray diagnostics; control of radon influence, resettlement of population to the clear territories. Apart from that measures on development of medical service, supply with fool-bodied food, lowering the sociopsychological tension, education in the field of radiation protection and legal knowledge are conducted. The results of activity are shown

  19. Radioactivity measurement of radioactive contaminated soil by using a fiber-optic radiation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hanyoung; Kim, Rinah; Moon, Joo Hyun

    2016-06-01

    A fiber-optic radiation sensor (FORS) was developed to measure the gamma radiation from radioactive contaminated soil. The FORS was fabricated using an inorganic scintillator (Lu,Y)2SiO5:Ce (LYSO:Ce), a mixture of epoxy resin and hardener, aluminum foil, and a plastic optical fiber. Before its real application, the FORS was tested to determine if it performed adequately. The test result showed that the measurements by the FORS adequately followed the theoretically estimated values. Then, the FORS was applied to measure the gamma radiation from radioactive contaminated soil. For comparison, a commercial radiation detector was also applied to measure the same soil samples. The measurement data were analyzed by using a statistical parameter, the critical level to determine if net radioactivity statistically different from background was present in the soil sample. The analysis showed that the soil sample had radioactivity distinguishable from background.

  20. Dose response curves for effects of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    The linear dose-response model used by international committees to assess the genetic and carcinogenic hazards of low-level radiation appears to be the most reasonable interpretation of the available scientific data that are relevant to this topic. There are, of course, reasons to believe that this model may overestimate radiation hazards in certain instances, a fact acknowledged in recent reports of these committees. The linear model is now also being utilized to estimate the potential carcinogenic hazards of other agents such as asbestos and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This model implies that there is no safe dose for any of these agents and that potential health hazards will increase in direct proportion to total accumulated dose. The practical implication is the recommendation that all exposures should be kept 'as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account'. (auth)

  1. Evaluation of the radiation levels in different surgical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Santos, M.C.P. da; Almeida, A. de; Belluci, A.D.; Ghilardi Neto, T.

    1989-01-01

    The exposure of a medical team to radiation during surgical procedures evidently depends on the duration and difficulties of the particular procedure. We have made a dosimetric study of the average equivalent doses received by the surgical teams during 10 different surgical procedures over a period of one month. Our results demonstrate that the levels of ionizing radiation that the members of the teams receive typically do not surpass the limits stipulated for the following surgical procedures: nefrolithotomy, percutaneous ureterolithomy, ureteroscoy connected with removal of stones in the inferior third of the ureter, osteosynthesis of the tibial plateau together with a articular toalet and minireconstruction of the knee. For compound surgical procedures, for example, osteosynthesis of a femur fracture together with biopsy of an exposed femur or percutaneous nefrolithotomy (complex cases), the dose limits have been surpassed owing to the additional fluoroscopy needed in those p rocedures. (author) [pt

  2. Measurement of the radiation in the accelerator-therapy room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zutz, Hayo

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of the scattering radiation in the accelerator-therapy room of the PTB is described. The accelerators are commercial linear accelerators of the firm Elektra of the type ''Precise''. The measurements were performed by means of secondary-normal ionization chambers and a special measurement technique developed in the PTB both with and without the used beam. (HSI)

  3. Radiation risk estimation based on measurement error models

    CERN Document Server

    Masiuk, Sergii; Shklyar, Sergiy; Chepurny, Mykola; Likhtarov, Illya

    2017-01-01

    This monograph discusses statistics and risk estimates applied to radiation damage under the presence of measurement errors. The first part covers nonlinear measurement error models, with a particular emphasis on efficiency of regression parameter estimators. In the second part, risk estimation in models with measurement errors is considered. Efficiency of the methods presented is verified using data from radio-epidemiological studies.

  4. Systemic effects of ionizing radiation at the proteome and metabolome levels in the blood of cancer patients treated with radiotherapy: the influence of inflammation and radiation toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelonek, Karol; Pietrowska, Monika; Widlak, Piotr

    2017-07-01

    Blood is the most common replacement tissue used to study systemic responses of organisms to different types of pathological conditions and environmental insults. Local irradiation during cancer radiotherapy induces whole body responses that can be observed at the blood proteome and metabolome levels. Hence, comparative blood proteomics and metabolomics are emerging approaches used in the discovery of radiation biomarkers. These techniques enable the simultaneous measurement of hundreds of molecules and the identification of sets of components that can discriminate different physiological states of the human body. Radiation-induced changes are affected by the dose and volume of irradiated tissues; hence, the molecular composition of blood is a hypothetical source of biomarkers for dose assessment and the prediction and monitoring of systemic responses to radiation. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview on the available evidence regarding molecular responses to ionizing radiation detected at the level of the human blood proteome and metabolome. It focuses on patients exposed to radiation during cancer radiotherapy and emphasizes effects related to radiation-induced toxicity and inflammation. Systemic responses to radiation detected at the blood proteome and metabolome levels are primarily related to the intensity of radiation-induced toxicity, including inflammatory responses. Thus, several inflammation-associated molecules can be used to monitor or even predict radiation-induced toxicity. However, these abundant molecular features have a rather limited applicability as universal biomarkers for dose assessment, reflecting the individual predisposition of the immune system and tissue-specific mechanisms involved in radiation-induced damage.

  5. Energy levels, lifetimes and radiative data of W LV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-bin; Sun, Rui; Koike, Fumihiro; Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Dong, Chen-zhong

    2018-01-01

    Calculations of energy levels, radiative data and lifetimes are reported for tungsten Ca-like ion (W LV) by using multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method. The GRASP2K package is adopted to carry out a large-scale systematic computation with a restricted active space treatment; the Breit interaction and QED effects are included in subsequent relativistic configuration interaction calculations. The energies and lifetimes of the lowest 119 levels are listed; the main leading configuration of the levels is of the ground state configuration [Ne]3s23p63d2 and the first excited configuration [Ne]3s23p53d3. The wavelengths, radiative rates and oscillator strengths for relatively strong E1, E2, M1, and M2 transitions are listed. Comparisons with earlier experimental and theoretical values are made. The average relative deviations of energy levels from the NIST results and E1 transition wavelengths from the EBIT experimental results have turned to be only 0.20% and 0.13%, respectively. The other present results are in reasonable agreement with available data. These agreements confirm the reliability and accuracy of the current results. The present datasets may help us with the investigation of the electron-electron correlation effects in complex multi-electron highly charged heavy ions and of the diagnosis of tungsten impurity plasmas in fusion science.

  6. Radiation quantities, units and measurements. Final report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambersie, A.; Allisy, A.; Caswell, R.S.

    2000-01-01

    The determination of human exposure to radiation and radioactivity, whether arising from environmental exposures, medical practice or industrial activities, requires a fundamental set of quantities and units with which exposures can be specified and the means and ability to make measurements which yield results in terms of these quantities and units. Radiation protection then, as well as effective use of radiation in medical applications, requires the capability to accurately quantify the characteristics and extent of radiation exposure, so that appropriate and useful assessments of the potential health consequences and risks, whether for protection of the public and workers or for diagnosis and treatment of disease, can be formulated. The work carried out via this concerted action on ''Radiation quantities, units and measurements'' has addressed these needs. Measurement of radiation is a complex subject and is a science in itself. Yet many users of radiation who need to make radiation measurements cannot be expected to become experts in this particular field. They need authoritative guidance on how to deal with the measurement problems connected with their particular use of radiation. The work carried out pursuant to this concerted action has resulted in publications that meet this need. Important achievements include the publication of seven new ICRU reports, the completion of all but the printing of three other ICRU reports, completion of the drafting work on two other reports, the development of many others reports and the initiation of seven new activities that will result in ICRU reports representing important future contribution to the needs identified in this project. (orig.)

  7. Radiation and cancer in Wales. The biological consequences of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busby, C.C.

    1994-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear in the last ten years that, in the UK, the scientific measurement and appraisal of human health risks, including pollution, are in the hands of the Government and establishment controlled organisations. In the area of drug-related illness, drug side-effects and medicine safety, profits are routinely put before health. The Chernobyl catastrophe, the greatest single pollution event ever, saw the Government responding with warnings which were too little and too late. Water and milk had been drunk, contaminated animals had been sold and eaten. Recently we have come within a hair's breadth of an ozone hole over Europe at a time when a General Election was in progress. Nothing was said: what information that was available came from the United Nations, from NASA, anywhere but from the UK Government. A recently leaked CEGB document shows levels of radioisotopic pollution in the Trawsfynydd lake to be different (and much higher) than those admitted to by Nuclear Electric pic and published by the Welsh Office. Details of the enormous release of radiation to the environment following the Windscale reactor fire in 1957 have only recently become available. At the time people could have been warned but were not. It is no longer possible to believe what we are told. Or what we are not told. Subtle and serious hazards to human health may exist and be unknown to us. To those who read this and perhaps follow up some of the references, it may seem a difficult task to choose between the few heretical voices and the massive nuclear industry megaphone. I have often been asked a variation of the following question: 'If scientists cannot agree amongst themselves on the effects of radiation, how are mere laymen expected to choose in this complicated and difficult area?' And so radiobiology has become like a religion. You believe or you do not. Radiation causes cancer at low dose or it does not. This is not a necessary state of affairs. Enough data is now

  8. Radiation and cancer in Wales. The biological consequences of low-level radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busby, C C

    1994-07-01

    It has become increasingly clear in the last ten years that, in the UK, the scientific measurement and appraisal of human health risks, including pollution, are in the hands of the Government and establishment controlled organisations. In the area of drug-related illness, drug side-effects and medicine safety, profits are routinely put before health. The Chernobyl catastrophe, the greatest single pollution event ever, saw the Government responding with warnings which were too little and too late. Water and milk had been drunk, contaminated animals had been sold and eaten. Recently we have come within a hair's breadth of an ozone hole over Europe at a time when a General Election was in progress. Nothing was said: what information that was available came from the United Nations, from NASA, anywhere but from the UK Government. A recently leaked CEGB document shows levels of radioisotopic pollution in the Trawsfynydd lake to be different (and much higher) than those admitted to by Nuclear Electric pic and published by the Welsh Office. Details of the enormous release of radiation to the environment following the Windscale reactor fire in 1957 have only recently become available. At the time people could have been warned but were not. It is no longer possible to believe what we are told. Or what we are not told. Subtle and serious hazards to human health may exist and be unknown to us. To those who read this and perhaps follow up some of the references, it may seem a difficult task to choose between the few heretical voices and the massive nuclear industry megaphone. I have often been asked a variation of the following question: 'If scientists cannot agree amongst themselves on the effects of radiation, how are mere laymen expected to choose in this complicated and difficult area?' And so radiobiology has become like a religion. You believe or you do not. Radiation causes cancer at low dose or it does not. This is not a necessary state of affairs. Enough data is now

  9. Measuring receptive collocational competence across proficiency levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déogratias Nizonkiza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates, (i English as Foreign Language (EFL learners’ receptive collocational knowledge growth in relation to their linguistic proficiency level; (ii how much receptive collocational knowledge is acquired as proficiency develops; and (iii the extent to which receptive knowledge of collocations of EFL learners varies across word frequency bands. A proficiency measure and a collocation test were administered to English majors at the University of Burundi. Results of the study suggest that receptive collocational competence develops alongside EFL learners’ linguistic proficiency; which lends empirical support to Gyllstad (2007, 2009 and Author (2011 among others, who reported similar findings. Furthermore, EFL learners’ collocations growth seems to be quantifiable wherein both linguistic proficiency level and word frequency occupy a crucial role. While more gains in terms of collocations that EFL learners could potentially add as a result of change in proficiency are found at lower levels of proficiency; collocations of words from more frequent word bands seem to be mastered first, and more gains are found at more frequent word bands. These results confirm earlier findings on the non-linearity nature of vocabulary growth (cf. Meara 1996 and the fundamental role played by frequency in word knowledge for vocabulary in general (Nation 1983, 1990, Nation and Beglar 2007, which are extended here to collocations knowledge.

  10. Measurement of solar energy radiation in Abu Dhabi, UAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.D.; Kubo, I.; Ohadi, M.; Alili, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents data on measurement of actual solar radiation in Abu Dhabi (24.43 deg. N, 54.45 deg. E). Global solar radiation and surface temperatures were measured and analyzed for one complete year. High resolution, real-time solar radiation and other meteorological data were collected and processed. Daily and monthly average solar radiation values were calculated from the one-minute average recorded values. The highest daily and monthly mean solar radiation values were 369 and 290 W/m 2 , respectively. The highest one-minute average daily solar radiation was 1041 W/m 2 . Yearly average daily energy input was 18.48 MJ/m 2 /day. Besides the global solar radiation, the daily and monthly average clearness indexes along with temperature variations are discussed. When possible, global solar energy radiation and some meteorological data are compared with corresponding data in other Arab state capitals. The data collected indicate that Abu Dhabi has a strong potential for solar energy capture

  11. Measurement of solar energy radiation in Abu Dhabi, UAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M.D.; Kubo, I.; Ohadi, M.; Alili, A.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi, P.O. Box 2533 (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents data on measurement of actual solar radiation in Abu Dhabi (24.43 N, 54.45 E). Global solar radiation and surface temperatures were measured and analyzed for one complete year. High resolution, real-time solar radiation and other meteorological data were collected and processed. Daily and monthly average solar radiation values were calculated from the one-minute average recorded values. The highest daily and monthly mean solar radiation values were 369 and 290 W/m{sup 2}, respectively. The highest one-minute average daily solar radiation was 1041 W/m{sup 2}. Yearly average daily energy input was 18.48 MJ/m{sup 2}/day. Besides the global solar radiation, the daily and monthly average clearness indexes along with temperature variations are discussed. When possible, global solar energy radiation and some meteorological data are compared with corresponding data in other Arab state capitals. The data collected indicate that Abu Dhabi has a strong potential for solar energy capture. (author)

  12. Radiation measured for ISS-Expedition 12 with different dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, D.; Semones, E.; Gaza, R.; Johnson, S.; Zapp, N.; Weyland, M.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation in low Earth orbit (LEO) is mainly from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR), solar energetic particles and particles in South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). These particles' radiation impact to astronauts depends strongly on the particles' linear energy transfer (LET) and is dominated by high LET radiation. It is important to investigate the LET spectrum for the radiation field and the influence of radiation on astronauts. At present, the best active dosimeters used for all LET are the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and silicon detectors; the best passive dosimeters are thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) or optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) for low LET and CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) for high LET. TEPC, CR-39 PNTDs, TLDs and OSLDs were used to investigate the radiation for space mission Expedition 12 (ISS-11S) in LEO. LET spectra and radiation quantities (fluence, absorbed dose, dose equivalent and quality factor) were measured for the mission with these different dosimeters. This paper introduces the operation principles for these dosimeters, describes the method to combine the results measured by CR-39 PNTDs and TLDs/OSLDs, presents the experimental LET spectra and the radiation quantities

  13. Measuring scatter radiation in diagnostic x rays for radiation protection purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayiotakis, George; Vlachos, Ioannis; Delis, Harry; Tsantilas, Xenophon; Kalyvas, Nektarios; Kandarakis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, radiation protection and dosimetry in medical X-ray imaging practice has been extensively studied. The purpose of this study was to measure secondary radiation in a conventional radiographic room, in terms of ambient dose rate equivalent H*(10) and its dependence on the radiographic exposure parameters such as X-ray tube voltage, tube current and distance. With some exceptions, the results indicated that the scattered radiation was uniform in the space around the water cylindrical phantom. The results also showed that the tube voltage and filtration affect the dose rate due to the scatter radiation. Finally, the scattered X-ray energy distribution was experimentally calculated. (authors)

  14. Measurement of natural background radiation intensity on a train

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y. F.; Lin, J. W.; Sheu, R. J.; Lin, U. T.; Jiang, S. H.

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to measure different components of natural background radiation on a train. A radiation measurement system consisting of four types of radiation detectors, namely, a Berkeley Lab cosmic-ray detector, moderated 3He detector, high pressure ionisation chamber and NaI(Tl) spectrometer, associated with a global positioning system unit was established for this purpose. For the commissioning of the system, a test measurement on a train along the railway around the northern Taiwan coast from Hsinchu to Hualien with a distance of ∼275 km was carried out. No significant variation of the intensities of the different components of natural background radiation was observed, except when the train went underground or in the tunnels. The average external dose rate received by the crew of the train was estimated to be 62 nSv h -1 . (authors)

  15. Levels of external natural radiation and doses to population in Heilongjiang province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Yicheng; He Yongjiang; Wang Lu

    1985-01-01

    The external natural radiation level in Heilongjiang Province was measured by using China-made FD-71 scintillation radiometers and RSS-111 high pressure ionization chambers. The doses of external radiation to population were also calculated. The population-weighted average value of the absorbed dose rate from terrestrial γ-radiation was 7.2 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 for outdoors, and 10.8 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 for indoors. The population-weighted average absorbed dose rate in air from cosmic rays was 3.3 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 . The annual population-weighted average effective dose equivalent and the annual collective effective dose equivalent from the environmental γ-radiation were 620 μSv and 20.1 x 10 3 man.Sv, respectively. The corresponding figures from cosmic rays were 260 μSv and 8.7 x 10 3 man.Sv, respectively

  16. Mobile equipment for measurement of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    NRPA has several systems to perform mobile measurements. One of the systems consists of detectors mounted on the roof of a car. Mobile systems can be used to map the radioactive contamination of large areas in a short time, to the reference measurements and to search for sources astray. The systems can be mounted on the vehicle or used in a helicopter or airplane. (AG)

  17. Ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses. Annual report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhard-Stroel, Claudia; Hachenburger, Claudia; Trugenberger-Schnabel, Angela; Peter, Josef

    2010-12-01

    The annual report on environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure 2009 consists of two parts. Part A: General information: natural environmental radioactivity, artificial radioactivity in the environment, occupational radiation exposure, radiation exposures from medical applications, the handling of radioactive materials and sources of ionizing radiation, non-ionizing radiation. Part B includes current data and their evaluation for natural environmental radioactivity, artificial radioactivity in the environment, occupational radiation exposure, radiation exposures from medical applications, the handling of radioactive materials and sources of ionizing radiation, non-ionizing radiation.

  18. Effects of ionizing radiation on plants and animals at levels implied by current radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The 1977 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection stated that the commission believes that if man is adequately protected from radiation, other organisms are also likely to be sufficiently protected. The present report examines this statement by considering the effects of ionizing radiation on animals and plants in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The conclusions are that chronic dose rates of IMGy.d -1 or less are unlikely to cause measurable deleterious effects in terrestrial populations, and that in the aquatic environment limiting chronic dose rates to 10MGy.d -1 to the maximally exposed individuals would provide adequate protection for the population. Thus specific radiation protection standards for non-human organisms are not needed. 193 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  19. Using Radiation Pattern Measurements for Mobile Handset Performance Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2005-01-01

    The mean effective gain (MEG) is an attractive performance measure of mobile handsets, since it incorporates both directional and polarization properties of the handset and environment. In this work the MEG is computed from measured spherical radiation patterns of five different mobile handsets...... values obtained for different orientations of the handsets in the environments. For practical measurements it is important to minimize the measurement time. The paper includes a study of the variation in MEG when the number of samples in the spherical radiation pattern is reduced. Furthermore...

  20. Radiation and man - evaluation of biological and environmental low level radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riklis, E.

    1977-01-01

    The harmful effects of acute radiation cannot be resolved by statistical means and require clearer knowledge of mechanisms of action and much wider collection of human experience before any definite sound stand can be taken. Much information has accumulated from animal experiments, and still the interpretations are not always clearcut, but for human experience it is only the occasional accident which can give a direct answer. Some of the phenomena attributed to low dose radiation are summarized. There are regions of radiation exposure about which we have only limited positive knowledge, an all low-dose risk estimates have been based on effects observed at relatively high doses. Much information has been gathered which does not support the severity of former basic principles, especially our knowledge of mechanisms of repair existing in most cells as natural defence against the damages caused by radiation as well as by many chemicals which act as mutagenic and carcinogenic agents. Understanding these mechanism, their scope of action and their availability to a damaged cell and organism will lead towards modification of the acceptable permissible exposures, in some cases towards severity, but in most cases towards leniency and higher values. For the evaluation of the effects of low level low dose-rate radiations, whether external, or from internal deposition of isotopes, only late somatic and genetic effects should be considered. (B.G.)

  1. High beta radiation exposure of medical staff measures for optimisation of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, I.; Rimpler, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: New therapies applying beta radionuclides have been introduced in medicine in recent years, especially in nuclear medicine, e. g. radio-synoviorthesis, radioimmunotherapy and palliative pain therapy. The preparation of radiopharmaceuticals, their dispensary as well as injection require the handling of vials and syringes with high activities of beta emitters at small distances to the skin. Thus the medical staff may be exposed to a high level of beta radiation. Hence the local skin dose, Hp(0,07), was measured at these workplaces with thin-layer thermoluminescent dosemeters TLD (LiF:Mg,P,Cu) fixed to the tip of the fingers at both hands of the personnel. In addition, official beta/photon ring dosemeters were worn at the first knuckle of the index finger. Very high local skin doses were measured at the tip of index finger and thumb. The findings indicate that the exposure of the staff can exceed the annual dose limit for skin of 500 mSv when working at a low protection standard. By the use of appropriate shieldings and tools (e.g. tweezers or forceps) the exposure was reduced of more than one order of magnitude. The German dosimetry services provide official beta/photon ring dosemeters for routine monitoring of the extremity exposure of occupationally exposed persons. But even monitoring with these official dosemeters does not provide suitable results to control compliance with the dose limit in the majority of cases because they can mostly not be worn at the spot of highest beta exposure (finger tip). Therefore, a study was performed to identify the difference of readings of official ring dosemeters and the maximum local skin dose at the finger tips. At workplaces of radio-synoviorthesis a correction factor of 3 was determined provided that the staff worked at high radiation protection standard and the ring dosemeters were worn at the first knuckle of the index finger. The correction factor increases significantly when the radiation

  2. [Level of microwave radiation from mobile phone base stations built in residential districts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ji; Lu, Yiyang; Zhang, Huacheng; Xie, Hebing; Yang, Xinwen

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the condition of microwave radiation pollution from mobile phone base station built in populated area. Random selected 18 residential districts where had base station and 10 residential districts where had no base stations. A TES-92 electromagnetic radiation monitor were used to measure the intensity of microwave radiation in external and internal living environment. The intensities of microwave radiation in the exposure residential districts were more higher than those of the control residential districts (p station, it would gradually weaken with the increase of the distance. The level of microwave radiation in antenna main lobe region is not certainly more higher than the side lobe direction, and the side lobe direction also is not more lower. At the same district, where there were two base stations, the electromagnetic field nestification would take place in someplace. The intensities of microwave radiation outside the exposure windows in the resident room not only changed with distance but also with the height of the floor. The intensities of microwave radiation inside the aluminum alloys security net were more lower than those of outside the aluminum alloys security net (p 0.05). Although all the measure dates on the ground around the base station could be below the primary standard in "environment electromagnetic wave hygienic standard" (GB9175-88), there were still a minorities of windows which exposed to the base station were higher, and the outside or inside of a few window was even higher beyond the primary safe level defined standard. The aluminum alloys security net can partly shield the microwave radiation from the mobile phone base station.

  3. Distribution of radionuclides and radiation levels in some district of Karnataka State, India - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannappa, J.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation is a form of energy that can be travelled through the medium in the form of waves or particles. The heat, sound and light are different forms of radiations that peoples can feel or see but there are other kinds of radiations that human senses cannot detect. Indeed we are constantly receiving such invisible radiation from the sky, earth crust, air, food and even our own body. Such radiations can be divided into ionizing and non ionizing radiation. The exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation from natural sources is a continuing and inescapable feature of life on earth. Our environment contains natural radionuclides in variable amounts. A large number of natural radioactivity measurements were conducted throughout world, in order to know their distribution and to assess their radiological health hazards. Karnataka state has 30 districts and having 74,051 sq m area and it is having various geological formations. The Archean complex made up of Dharwad schists and granitic gneisses, these cover around 60% of the area of the state and it consists of gneisses, granite and charnockite rocks. Some of the minerals found in this region are dolomite, lime stone, gabbro, quartzite, pyroxenite, manganese and iron ore and metabasalt. In addition the proposed uranium mining region is also present in Googi region of Yadagiri district. In many places Iron and manganese mining activities, crushing and quarrying activities are continuously going on. It is expected that such mining and extraction activities can enhance the natural radiation level in the environment. Hence there is a need to estimate the environmental radiation levels in the habitats of these areas. Our research group along with many researches in the Karnataka state initiated systematic study on the dose received by the population in some district of different environmental matrixes and more data are reported in Karnataka state, which have been reviewed and compiled in this paper. (author)

  4. Radiation protection measures in the case of incidents and radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzberg, B.

    1976-01-01

    Measures to be taken in the case of radiation accidents connected with an unusually high radiation exposure to persons, the amounts of which exceed the limiting values, with depend on whether there has been an external or an internal exposure. In order to give further treatment in the case of whole-body or partial-body irradiation, it is necessary to estimate the exposure dose. In nuclear medicine the accident doses are generally low, i.e. acute radiation damage does not occur here, and immediate measures are not necessary. Therapeutic measures in the case of incorporation accidents are only necessary when the maximum amounts for the nuclide in question recommended by the ICRP has been reached or exceeded in the organism. However, decorporation measures ought to be carried out only by qualified radiation protection physicians. The type of radiation accident which occurs most frequently in nuclear medicine is radiation exposure as a result of contamination. If in the case of contamination of a person the measurement exceeds the radioactivity limit, the decontamination measures are necessary. In the present contribution, these measures for cases without injuries are described in detail. (orig./HP) [de

  5. The radiation budget of stratocumulus clouds measured by tethered balloon instrumentation: Variability of flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, David P.; Stephens, Graeme L.; Cox, Stephen K.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of longwave and shortwave radiation were made using an instrument package on the NASA tethered balloon during the FIRE Marine Stratocumulus experiment. Radiation data from two pairs of pyranometers were used to obtain vertical profiles of the near-infrared and total solar fluxes through the boundary layer, while a pair of pyrgeometers supplied measurements of the longwave fluxes in the cloud layer. The radiation observations were analyzed to determine heating rates and to measure the radiative energy budget inside the stratocumulus clouds during several tethered balloon flights. The radiation fields in the cloud layer were also simulated by a two-stream radiative transfer model, which used cloud optical properties derived from microphysical measurements and Mie scattering theory.

  6. Measurement and simulation of the radiation environment in the lower atmosphere for dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pioch, Christian Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Flying personnel is occupationally exposed to rather high radiation levels due to secondary cosmic radiation. Therefore, the radiation environment induced in the lower atmosphere by galactic and solar cosmic radiation was characterized by means of particle transport calculations using GEANT4. These calculations were validated with continuous measurements of the energy spectra of secondary neutrons with Bonner sphere spectrometers at the Zugspitze mountain and near the North Pole. The response of these instruments was determined with GEANT4 and for the first time experimentally verified at high neutron energies (244 and 387 MeV). Route doses for aircrews along typical long-haul flights were determined for galactic and solar cosmic radiation using most recent data on the magnetospheric field and primary cosmic radiation.

  7. [Staffing levels in medical radiation physics in radiation therapy in Germany. Summary of a questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leetz, Hans-Karl; Eipper, Hermann Hans; Gfirtner, Hans; Schneider, Peter; Welker, Klaus

    2003-10-01

    To get a general idea of the actual staffing level situation in medical radiation physics in 1999 a survey was carried out by the task-group "Personalbedarf" of Deutsche Gesellschaft für Medizinische Physik (DGMP) among all DGMP-members who are active in this field. Main components for equipment and activities are defined in Report 8 and 10 of DGMP for staffing requirements in medical radiation physics. 322 forms were sent out, 173 of them have been evaluated. From the answers regarding equipment and activities numbers for staff are calculated by the methods given in Report 8 and 10 for this spot check target and compared with effective staffing levels. The data of the spot check are then extrapolated on total Germany. The result is a calculated deficit of 865 medical physicists for the whole physics staff, 166 of them in radiation therapy. From the age distribution of DGMP-members and the calculated deficit resulted a training capacity of about 100 medical physicists at all per year (19 in radiation therapy) if the deficit shall be cut back in 10 years.

  8. Linear devices in combined high-level radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Vonno, N.W.

    1987-01-01

    The design of precision analog integrated circuits for use in combined high-level radiation environments has traditionally been on a full-custom basis. The use of semicustom design methods has become prevalent in digital devices, with standard cell libraries and gate arrays readily available from multiple vendors. This paper addresses the application of semicustom design techniques to analog parts. In all cases the emphasis is on bipolar technology, since this provides an optimal combination of precision and radiation hardness. A mixed mode analog/digital (A/D) cell family for implementing semicustom designs is described, together with the fabrication process used. Specific processing and design methods are used to provide circuit hardness against neutron, total gamma dose, and transient gamma environments. Semicustom mixed analog/digital design is seen as an appropriate methodology for implementation of medium-performance mixed mode functions for radiation-hardened applications. This leads to trade-offs in process complexity and performance. Full custom design remains necessary for demanding applications such as high-speed A/D conversion and associated sample/hold functions. An A/D cell family optimized for hardness is described, together with the bipolar process used to implement it

  9. Ecological effects of exposure to enhanced levels of ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geras'kin, Stanislav A

    2016-10-01

    Irradiation of plants and animals can result in disruption of ecological relationships between the components of ecosystems. Such effects may act as triggers of perturbation and lead to consequences that may differ essentially from expected ones based on effects observed at the organismal level. Considerable differences in ecology and niches occupied by different species lead to substantial differences in doses of ionizing radiation absorbed by species, even when they all are present in the same environment at the same time. This is especially evident for contamination with α-emitting radionuclides. Radioactive contamination can be considered an ecological factor that is able to modify the resistance in natural populations. However, there are radioecological situations when elevated radioresistance does not evolve or persist. The complexity and non-linearity of the structure and functioning of ecosystems can lead to unexpected consequences of stress effects, which would appear harmless if they were assessed within the narrower context of organism-based traditional radioecology. Therefore, the use of ecological knowledge is essential for understanding responses of populations and ecosystems to radiation exposure. Integration of basic ecological principles in the design and implementation of radioecological research is essential for predicting radiation effects under rapidly changing environmental conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk evaluation - conventional and low level effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.; Varma, M.N.

    1984-04-01

    Any discussion of the risk of exposure to potentially-hazardous agents in the environment inevitably involves the question of whether the dose effect curve is of the threshold or linear, non-threshold type. A principal objective of this presentation is to show that the function is actually two separate relationships, each representing distinctly different functions with differing variables on the axes, and each characteristic of quite different functions with differing variables on the axes, and each characteristic of quite different disciplines (i.e., the threshold function, of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Medicine [PTM]; the linear, non-threshold function, of Public Health including safety and accident statistics [PHS]). It is shown that low-level exposure (LLE) to radiation falls clearly in the PHS category. A function for cell dose vs. the fraction of single cell quantal responses is characterized, which reflects the absolute and relative sensitivities of cells. Acceptance of this function would obviate any requirement for the use in Radiation Protection of the concepts of a standard radiation, Q, dose equivalent and rem. 9 references, 4 figures

  11. More on direct estimates of low-level radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinsky, R.

    1982-01-01

    In an epidemiologic study of mortality at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard (PNS), the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) found no evidence of excess deaths due to leukemia or other cancers among workers exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. In a subsequent analysis, Bross and Driscoll identified excess lung cancer mortality in PNS workers with lifetime radiation dose of 1 rem or greater and with more than 15 years' latency since first radiation exposure. Although that observation may be important and is currently being examined through case-control analyses, it must be recognized that Bross and Driscoll extracted their observation from matrices of over 4,000 data cells apparently by recombination of innumerable possible permutations of dosage and latency intervals. For that reason, their finding can be regarded as no more than a suggestion for further study. It certainly does not represent a proper scientific conclusion. Bross and Driscoll's analysis illustrates the hazard of performing multiple statistical comparisons on complex data sets in the absence of a priori hypotheses

  12. Measurement of man's exposure to external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1975-01-01

    After outlining briefly the rationale for personnel radiation monitoring with integrating detectors, a review is presented of some developments which have taken place in personnel and environmental dosimetry during the past 3.5 years. The results of a pilot field experiment concerning the stability of film and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) in four Latin-American countries are summarized. It shows that film dosimeters should be used only with caution, and in locations with a moderate climate. A survey is being conducted on the current status and trends in personnel monitoring, involving detailed questioning of over 150 laboratories in about forty countries to obtain information on the type of service and detectors, evaluation and recordkeeping, additional applications, problem and development areas, intercomparisons, practical experiences with different systems, administrative and legal aspects, etc. According to the preliminary results, the trend is away from photographic film and towards mostly automatic TLD systems, not only in the industrialized countries but also in several of the larger and more advanced developing countries. The need for higher quality standards and frequent performance tests under realistic conditions is emphasized. Differences in the requirements for personnel and []stationary environmental dosimeters are outlined. As evidenced by the results of a recent international intercomparison of such dosimeters under laboratory and field conditions, involving 56 dosimeter sets from eleven countries, reasonably accurate results can be obtained with several TLD systems including LiF, CaSO 4 :Dy, and CaF 2 :Mn; however CaF 2 :Dy is less reliable than the others and film is not adequate at all. Transit doses were found to be erratic and frequently high. Limitations in the assessment of population doses from stationary detector readings are discussed. (auth)

  13. Radiation entropy influx as a measure of planetary dissipative processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izakov, M.N.

    1989-01-01

    Dissipative processes including high flows of matter and energy occur at the planets. Radiation negentropy influx, resulting from difference of entropy fluxes of incoming solar and outgoing thermal radiation of the planet, is a measure of all these processes. Large share of radiation negentropy influx is spent in the vertical thermal fluxes which keep the planet temperature conditions. Next share of radiation negentropy consumption at the Earth is water evaporation. It's rest part is used for the dynamics, which is explained by the efficiency insignificant amount of heat engine, which generates movements in the atmosphere and ocean. Essentially higher share of radiation negentropy influx, than at the Earth, is spent at the Venus, where there are practically no water

  14. Development of Software for Measurement and Analysis of Solar Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Idris Taib; Abul Adli Anuar; Noor Ezati Shuib

    2015-01-01

    This software was under development using LabVIEW to be using with StellarNet spectrometers system with USB communication to computer. LabVIEW have capabilities in hardware interfacing, graphical user interfacing and mathematical calculation including array manipulation and processing. This software read data from StellarNet spectrometer in real-time and then processed for analysis. Several measurement of solar radiation and analysis have been done. Solar radiation involved mainly infra-red, visible light and ultra-violet. With solar radiation spectrum data, information of weather and suitability of plant can be gathered and analyzed. Furthermore, optimization of utilization and safety precaution of solar radiation can be planned. Using this software, more research and development in utilization and safety of solar radiation can be explored. (author)

  15. Implementation of organizational measures in radiation protection in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freerk Boersma, H.

    2004-01-01

    The Regulation Administrative and Organizational Measures in Radiation Protection is an important part of new legislation concerning radiation protection in the Netherlands. In this contribution we pay attention to the implementation of two obligations resulting from this regulation, being the creation of a radiation protection organization, and the realization of a system of internal permits. These obligations apply to holders of comprehensive licenses. Relevant aspects of the regulation will be explained in some detail. The first draft of a guideline, initiated by the Dutch Radiation Protection Society and meant to facilitate putting up a system for internal permits, is discussed. We also describe the radiation protection organization and the system of internal permits at Groningen University, and focus on the major successes and flaws of both. (Author) 7 refs

  16. Effective aerosol optical depth from pyranometer measurements of surface solar radiation (global radiation) at Thessaloniki, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Lindfors, A. V.; Kouremeti, N.; Arola, A.; Kazadzis, S.; Bais, A. F.; Laaksonen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Pyranometer measurements of the solar surface radiation (SSR) are available at many locations worldwide, often as long time series covering several decades into the past. These data constitute a potential source of information on the atmospheric aerosol load. Here, we present a method for estimating the aerosol optical depth (AOD) using pyranometer measurements of the SSR together with total water vapor column information. The method, which is based on radiative transfer simulations, w...

  17. Radiation hormesis. Stimulatory effects of low level ionizing radiation on plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Shigenobu; Masui, Hisashi; Yoshida, Shigeo; Murata, Isao [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-04-01

    Recently, the study for radiation hormesis has been executed against animals and plants; subharmful doses of radiation may evoke a stimulatory response in any organism. We executed irradiating experiments of dry seeds with fusion (D-T) neutron, fission neutron, cobalt-60 gamma-ray and investigated existence of the radiation hormesis effects by measuring germination, the length of a stalk and the total weight of a seed leaf on the 7th day after starting cultivation. And we estimated radiation hormesis effects by relative effectiveness, the ratio of the mean value of measurement subjects for the irradiated group to that of non-irradiated group. In relation to Raphanus sativus, the hormesis effects on seed leaf growth from irradiated seeds have only turned up in seed groups irradiated by the fusion (D-T) neutron. We have confirmed that absorbed dose range which revealed the effects is from 1 cGy to 10 Gy and the increasing rate is from 5 percent to 25 percent against a control group. (author)

  18. Radiofrequency radiation from nearby base stations gives high levels in an apartment in Stockholm, Sweden: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Hedendahl, Lena K.

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation was classified in 2011 as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organisation. Evidence of the risk of cancer risk has since strengthened. Exposure is changing due to the rapid development of technology resulting in increased ambient radiation. RF radiation of sufficient intensity heats tissues, but the energy is insufficient to cause ionization, hence it is called non-ionizing radiation. These non-thermal exposure levels have resulted in biological effects in humans, animals and cells, including an increased cancer risk. In the present study, the levels of RF radiation were measured in an apartment close to two groups of mobile phone base stations on the roof. A total of 74,531 measurements were made corresponding to ~83 h of recording. The total mean RF radiation level was 3,811 µW/m2 (range 15.2–112,318 µW/m2) for the measurement of the whole apartment, including balconies. Particularly high levels were measured on three balconies and 3 of 4 bedrooms. The total mean RF radiation level decreased by 98% when the measured down-links from the base stations for 2, 3 and 4 G were disregarded. The results are discussed in relation to the detrimental health effects of non-thermal RF radiation. Due to the current high RF radiation, the apartment is not suitable for long-term living, particularly for children who may be more sensitive than adults. For a definitive conclusion regarding the effect of RF radiation from nearby base stations, one option would be to turn them off and repeat the measurements. However, the simplest and safest solution would be to turn them off and dismantle them. PMID:29725476

  19. Radiofrequency radiation from nearby base stations gives high levels in an apartment in Stockholm, Sweden: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Hedendahl, Lena K

    2018-05-01

    Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation was classified in 2011 as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organisation. Evidence of the risk of cancer risk has since strengthened. Exposure is changing due to the rapid development of technology resulting in increased ambient radiation. RF radiation of sufficient intensity heats tissues, but the energy is insufficient to cause ionization, hence it is called non-ionizing radiation. These non-thermal exposure levels have resulted in biological effects in humans, animals and cells, including an increased cancer risk. In the present study, the levels of RF radiation were measured in an apartment close to two groups of mobile phone base stations on the roof. A total of 74,531 measurements were made corresponding to ~83 h of recording. The total mean RF radiation level was 3,811 µW/m 2 (range 15.2-112,318 µW/m 2 ) for the measurement of the whole apartment, including balconies. Particularly high levels were measured on three balconies and 3 of 4 bedrooms. The total mean RF radiation level decreased by 98% when the measured down-links from the base stations for 2, 3 and 4 G were disregarded. The results are discussed in relation to the detrimental health effects of non-thermal RF radiation. Due to the current high RF radiation, the apartment is not suitable for long-term living, particularly for children who may be more sensitive than adults. For a definitive conclusion regarding the effect of RF radiation from nearby base stations, one option would be to turn them off and repeat the measurements. However, the simplest and safest solution would be to turn them off and dismantle them.

  20. Low-level radiation: biological interactions, risks, and benefits. A bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-09-01

    The bibliography contains 3294 references that were selected from the Department of Energy's data base (EDB). The subjects covered are lower-level radiation effects on man, environmental radiation, and other biological interactions of radiation that appear to be applicable to the low-level radiation problem.

  1. Low-level radiation: biological interactions, risks, and benefits. A bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The bibliography contains 3294 references that were selected from the Department of Energy's data base (EDB). The subjects covered are lower-level radiation effects on man, environmental radiation, and other biological interactions of radiation that appear to be applicable to the low-level radiation problem

  2. Radiation Pressure Measurements on Micron Size Individual Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P.D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; Witherow, W. K.; LeClair, A.; West, E.; Sheldon, R.; Gallagher, D. L.; Adrian, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of electromagnetic radiation pressure have been made on individual silica (SiO2) particles levitated in an electrodynamic balance. These measurements were made by inserting single charged particles of known diameter in the 0.2 micron to 6.82 micron range and irradiating them from above with laser radiation focused to beam-widths of approx. 175-400 micron, at ambient pressures approx. 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -4) torr. The downward displacement of the particle due to the radiation force is balanced by the electrostatic force indicated by the compensating dc potential applied to the balance electrodes, providing a direct measure of the radiation force on the levitated particle. Theoretical calculations of the radiation pressure with a least-squares fit to the measured data yield the radiation pressure efficiencies of the particles, and comparisons with Mie scattering theory calculations provide the imaginary part of the refractive index of silica and the corresponding extinction and scattering efficiencies.

  3. Control device intended for a gamma radiation measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns a monitoring device for a gamma radiation measuring instrument or radiation meter, in which the radiation to be measured brings about, inter alia, the ionisation of a gas and the generation of current pulses. The dial of this meter is generally calibrated in roentgens per hour, i.e. in radiation rate units. This instrument of very simple design is remarkable for its operating reliability. Preferably placed at the inlet to a radioactive area, it enables every user of a ratemeter to check, over the entire measuring range of this instrument, its proper operation prior to entering the area. To this effect, the monitoring device in question has a thick wall lead castle, having an internal cavity in which is mounted a radioactive source delivering a gamma radiation with given constant characteristics, through a measurement window closed by a calibrated plug. Lead doors articulated on the castle can be superimposed on this window to bring about a given attenuation of the radiation coming from the source and delivered to the exterior of the castle [fr

  4. Interference pattern period measurement at picometer level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiansong; Wei, Chunlong; Jia, Wei; Zhou, Changhe; Li, Minkang; Lu, Yancong

    2016-10-01

    To produce large scale gratings by Scanning Beam Interference Lithography (SBIL), a light spot containing grating pattern is generated by two beams interfering, and a scanning stage is used to drive the substrate moving under the light spot. In order to locate the stage at the proper exposure positions, the period of the Interference pattern must be measured accurately. We developed a set of process to obtain the period value of two interfering beams at picometer level. The process includes data acquisition and data analysis. The data is received from a photodiode and a laser interferometer with sub-nanometer resolution. Data analysis differs from conventional analyzing methods like counting wave peaks or using Fourier transform to get the signal period, after a preprocess of filtering and envelope removing, the mean square error is calculated between the received signal and ideal sinusoid waves to find the best-fit frequency, thus an accuracy period value is acquired, this method has a low sensitivity to amplitude noise and a high resolution of frequency. With 405nm laser beams interfering, a pattern period value around 562nm is acquired by employing this process, fitting diagram of the result shows the accuracy of the period value reaches picometer level, which is much higher than the results of conventional methods.

  5. Effect-independent measures of tissue response to fractionated radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thames, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    Tissue repair factors are measures of sparing from dose fractionation, in the absence of proliferation. A desirable feature of any repair factor is that it be independent of the level of injury induced in the tissue, since otherwise the comparison of tissues on the basis of the factor would not be meaningful. The repair factors F/sub R/ and F/sub rec/ are increasing functions of D/sub 1/, and depend on level of skin reaction after fractionated radiation. By contrast, β/α is effect-independent as a measure of repair capacity in skin, gut, and bone marrow. For late fibrotic reactions in the kidney, there was an increase in β/α with increased levels of injury that was statistically insignificant. The halftime, T/sub 1/2/, for intracellular repair processes in tissues is a measure of repair kinetics. Effect-independence is defend for T/sub 1/2/ as independence from size of dose per fraction. T/sub 1/2/ is independent of fraction size in skin, gut, and spinal cord, and is longer (1.5 hours) in the late-reacting tissues (lung and spinal cord) than in those that react acutely (less than 1 hour), with skin as the exception (1.3 hours). Therefore, early and late-responding normal tissues may be distinguished in terms of both repair capacity and repair kinetics: repair is slower in late-responding tissues, which are also more sensitive to changes in dose fractionation

  6. Ultra Low Level Environmental Neutron Measurements Using Superheated Droplet Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, A.C. [Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10 - km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa. Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649- 003 Lisboa (Portugal); Felizardo, M.; Girard, T.A.; Kling, A.; Ramos, A.R. [Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa. Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649- 003 Lisboa (Portugal); Marques, J.G.; Prudencio, M.I.; Marques, R.; Carvalho, F.P. [Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10 - km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2015-07-01

    Through the application of superheated droplet detectors (SDDs), the SIMPLE project for the direct search for dark matter (DM) reached the most restrictive limits on the spin-dependent sector to date. The experiment is based on the detection of recoils following WIMP-nuclei interaction, mimicking those from neutron scattering. The thermodynamic operation conditions yield the SDDs intrinsically insensitive to radiations with linear energy transfer below ∼150 keVμm{sup -1} such as photons, electrons, muons and neutrons with energies below ∼40 keV. Underground facilities are increasingly employed for measurements in a low-level radiation background (DM search, gamma-spectroscopy, intrinsic soft-error rate measurements, etc.), where the rock overburden shields against cosmic radiation. In this environment the SDDs are sensitive only to α-particles and neutrons naturally emitted from the surrounding materials. Recently developed signal analysis techniques allow discrimination between neutron and α-induced signals. SDDs are therefore a promising instrument for low-level neutron and α measurements, namely environmental neutron measurements and α-contamination assays. In this work neutron measurements performed in the challenging conditions of the latest SIMPLE experiment (1500 mwe depth with 50-75 cm water shield) are reported. The results are compared with those obtained by detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the neutron background induced by {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th traces in the facility, shielding and detector materials. Calculations of the neutron energy distribution yield the following neutron fluence rates (in 10{sup -8} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}): thermal (<0.5 eV): 2.5; epithermal (0.5 eV-100 keV): 2.2; fast (>1 MeV): 3.9. Signal rates were derived using standard cross sections and codes routinely employed in reactor dosimetry. The measured and calculated neutron count rates per unit of active mass were 0.15 ct/kgd and 0.33 ct/kg-d respectively. As the major

  7. Exposure levels to radiation in a nuclear medicine laboratory: measurements with thermoluminescence dosemeters; Niveles de exposicion a la radiacion en un laboratorio de medicina nuclear: mediciones con dosimetros de termoluminiscencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz J, A. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear del Instituto nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Since 1996 in the Nuclear medicine Department and another routine and research departments of the National Institute of Medical and Nutrition Sciences (INCMNSZ) are working at least with 12 radioactive sources opened and sealed. However, it was unknown if with the Tl personal dosemeters with lithium fluoride crystals (LiF), could be possible to receive information about the equivalent dose for each radionuclide or if there was some radionuclide that by being low energy emissor or beta energy emissor, it did not represent an ionization power sufficient to excite the crystals of the thermoluminescent dosemeters (DTL). In this work the obtained results with control dosemeters of diverse source opened or sealed are shown, which were put at 1 cm of the LiF crystals during a time exposure 18 hours. Therefore the objective of this work is to verify which sources excite or not to DTL crystals and taking the pertinent safety measures for each radionuclide. The conclusion is that the majority of dosemeters were excited by beta or gamma radiation of the radionuclides and that LiF crystals are able to receive equivalent doses until 1200 mSv, being this a guarantee for the staff, that in an any moment could be exposed to high dose in his working day. Also it was corroborated that the radionuclides more energizer are: iodine-131, iodine-125 and sodium-22 while the phosphorus-32 must be managed with careful, since the exposure to hands can result significant, just like the technetium-99m ({sup 99m} Tc). (Author)

  8. Design and Development of transducer for IR radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattarachindanuwong, Surat; Poopat, Bovornchoke; Meethong, Wachira

    2003-06-01

    Recently, IR radiation has many important roles such as for plastics industry, food industry and medical instrumentation. The consequence of exposed irradiation objects from IR can be greatly affected by the quantity of IR radiation. Therefore the objectively this research is to design and develop a transducer for IR radiation measurement. By using a quartz halogen lamp as a IR heat source of IR radiation and a thermopile sensor as a transducer. The thermal conductivity of transducer and air flow, were also considered for design and development of transducer. The study shows that the designed transducer can be used and applied in high temperature process, for example, the quality control of welding, the non-contact temperature measurement of drying oven and the testing of IR source in medical therapy device

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LR Roeder

    2008-12-01

    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  10. Level of knowledge among the population of radiation safety basic issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Zelencova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of research was to determine the level of knowledge among the population on issues like sources of ionising radiation, methods of ionising radiation measurement, measures of self-protection in case of threating or actual radioactive pollution in the district, and to study self-estimation by the population of their knowledge of radiation safety issues. Research was carried out using the method of questioning of population groups in three regions close to the places of previous peaceful nuclear explosions (Arkhangelsk, Murmansk and Tyumen regions, and in five Far East regions of the Russian Federation (Kamchatka, Khabarovsk, Primorsky, Magadan and South-Sakhalin regions after radiation accident in Japan at "Fukushima-1" NPP. This research included processing of 243 questionnaires from the regions close to places of previous peaceful nuclear explosions and 216 questionnaires from the Far East regions.The analysis of obtained questioning results enabled to make the following conclusions: the level of knowledge among the population about the basic concepts of radiation safety appeared to be generally low among respondents of all eight territories. Considerable number of respondents in seven groups correctly mentioned the x-ray device as a source of ionising radiation (from 71 to 88 % of answers. In Murmansk region – only 52 % of the answers. Respondents of the same seven groups often correctly answered the question on how to detect ionising radiation (only with devices – from 68 to 98 % in different groups. The smallest number of correct answers to this question (42 % is also noted among respondents from the Murmansk region.Level of knowledge on self-protection measures at threating or actual radioactive pollution of the places of residence appeared a little higher among the Far East region population, who had actual concerns regarding the threat of radioactive pollution at the present time. However, in all eight investigated groups

  11. Environmental radiation level, radiation anxiety, and psychological distress of non-evacuee residents in Fukushima five years after the Great East Japan Earthquake: Multilevel analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko Fukasawa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to clarify the associations among radiation exposure or psychological exposure to the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident (i.e., fear/anxiety immediately after the accident, current radiation anxiety, and psychological distress among non-evacuee community residents in Fukushima five years after the Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred in March 2011. A questionnaire survey was administered to a random sample of non-evacuee community residents from 49 municipalities of Fukushima prefecture from February to April 2016, and data from 1684 respondents (34.4% were analyzed. Environmental radiation levels at the time of the accident were ascertained from survey meter data, while environmental radiation levels at the time of the survey were ascertained from monitoring post data. In the questionnaire, immediate fear/anxiety after the accident, current radiation anxiety, and psychological distress were measured using a single-item question, a 7-item scale, and K6, respectively. Multilevel linear or logistic regression models were applied to analyze the determinants of radiation anxiety and psychological distress. The findings showed that environmental radiation levels at the time of the survey were more strongly associated with radiation anxiety than radiation levels immediately after the accident. Disaster-related experiences, such as direct damage, disaster-related family stress, and fear/anxiety after the accident, and demographic characteristics (e.g., younger age, being married, low socioeconomic status were significantly associated with radiation anxiety. Environmental radiation levels at the time of the accident or survey were not significantly associated with psychological distress. Radiation anxiety largely mediated the association between fear/anxiety after the accident and psychological distress. In addition to environmental radiation levels, respondents’ radiation anxiety was affected by multiple factors

  12. Measurement of gamma radiation doses in nuclear power plant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochvar, I.A.; Keirim-Markus, I.B.; Sergeeva, N.A.

    1976-01-01

    Considered are the problems of measuring gamma radiation dose values and the dose distribution in the nuclear power plant area with the aim of estimating the extent of their effect on the population. Presented are the dosimeters applied, their distribution throughout the controlled area, time of measurement. The distribution of gamma radiation doses over the controlled area and the dose alteration with the increase of the distance from the release source are shown. The results of measurements are investigated. The conclusion is made that operating nuclear power plants do not cause any increase in the gamma radiation dose over the area. Recommendations for clarifying the techniques for using dose-meters and decreasing measurement errors are given [ru

  13. Recent developments and trends in radiation protection measuring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maushart, R.

    1993-01-01

    Measuring instruments used in radiation protection have undergone dramatic changes over the past decade. But also the attitude of users vis-a-vis this equipment is changing. This is reflected in changes in equipment concepts, the trend being towards 'considerate equipment' which does not absorb the user's attention, but reserves it for the real proposes of radiation protection. Just measuring is no longer enough. Measured data acquisition and evaluation must be integrated more closely, and more specifically, into an overall process of optimized in-plant radiation protection. A key role in this scheme is played by the application-oriented user interface, while measurement and testing routines become more and more automated. The technology now available for storing programs and data, interconnecting and displaying them in many ways, offers almost unlimited possibilities

  14. Radiation protection measures in case of 125I incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobelt, W.

    1976-01-01

    Thyroid measurements were performed on members of the scientific staff in the whole body counter of the Giessen Radiation Center with an aluminium encapsulated 3'' x 3'' dia. NaI(T1) detector; the personnel under investigation comprised those persons who either handled major quantities of 125 I or worked in the controlled area. The measuring setup, phantom calibration and the limits of measurement that can be attained are discussed. In a few cases of incorporation the effective halflife was determined. The radiation exposure was calculated by the absorbed fractions concept. A hazard is encountered almost exclusively in the iodization of the test substances. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Radiation protection measures for the handling of unsealed radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehrle, G.

    1975-03-01

    The radiation protective medical measures are described which are required after contamination by radioactive materials or their incorporation. In the case of skin contamination, penetration by diffusion is explained and the maximum permissible value with regard to the various types of radiation is given. A detailed description of the decontamination measures including the necessary equipment follows. Indications for the treatment of injuries are given. In addition, incorporation due to inhalation, ingestion with intake through the skin are described, direct and indirect incorporation detection are explained, and the therapeutical possibilities and measures are gone into. (ORU/LH) [de

  16. Coordinated weather balloon solar radiation measurements during a solar eclipse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R G; Marlton, G J; Williams, P D; Nicoll, K A

    2016-09-28

    Solar eclipses provide a rapidly changing solar radiation environment. These changes can be studied using simple photodiode sensors, if the radiation reaching the sensors is unaffected by cloud. Transporting the sensors aloft using standard meteorological instrument packages modified to carry extra sensors, provides one promising but hitherto unexploited possibility for making solar eclipse radiation measurements. For the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse, a coordinated campaign of balloon-carried solar radiation measurements was undertaken from Reading (51.44°N, 0.94°W), Lerwick (60.15°N, 1.13°W) and Reykjavik (64.13°N, 21.90°W), straddling the path of the eclipse. The balloons reached sufficient altitude at the eclipse time for eclipse-induced variations in solar radiation and solar limb darkening to be measured above cloud. Because the sensor platforms were free to swing, techniques have been evaluated to correct the measurements for their changing orientation. In the swing-averaged technique, the mean value across a set of swings was used to approximate the radiation falling on a horizontal surface; in the swing-maximum technique, the direct beam was estimated by assuming that the maximum solar radiation during a swing occurs when the photodiode sensing surface becomes normal to the direction of the solar beam. Both approaches, essentially independent, give values that agree with theoretical expectations for the eclipse-induced radiation changes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'. © 2016 The Authors.

  17. Radiation (UV-IR) measurements in the TRIAM-1 tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K; Nakamura, Y; Hiraki, N; Itoh, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1981-07-01

    Scaling law is presented that the ratio P sub(R)/P sub(I) (P sub(R): radiation loss, P sub(I): input power) is proportional to the parameter a sup(3/2)/R (a: minor radius, R: major radius). The discussion is presented about the design of the apparatus for measuring the radiation (ultraviolet to infrared) from the TRIAM-1 tokamak plasma.

  18. Ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses. Annual report 2014; Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung. Jahresbericht 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trugenberger-Schnabel, Angela; Loebke-Reinl, Angelika; Peter, Josef (comps.) [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    The annual report 2014 on ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses covers the following topics: (1) Actual data and their evaluation: natural environmental radioactivity, artificial environmental radioactivity, occupational radiation exposure, radiation exposures from medical applications, handling of radioactive materials and sources of ionizing radiation, non-ionizing radiation. (2) Fundamentals and general information: legal basis and explanations, basic information on natural environmental radioactivity, basic information on artificial radioactivity in the environment, basic information on occupational radiation exposure, basic information on radiation exposures from medical applications, basic information on the handling of radioactive materials and sources of ionizing radiation, basic information on non-ionizing radiation. (3) Tables.

  19. Effectiveness estimation of camouflage measures with solar radiation and longwave radiation considered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, J.S. [LG Electronics Corporation (Korea); Kauh, S.K. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Yoo, H.S. [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-11-01

    Camouflage measures in military purpose utilizes the apparent temperature difference between the target and background, so it is essential to develop thermal analysis program for apparent temperature predictions and to apply some camouflage measures to real military targets for camouflage purpose. In this study, a thermal analysis program including conduction, convection and radiation is developed and the validity of radiation heat transfer terms is examined. The results show that longwave radiation along with solar radiation should be included in order to predict apparent temperature as well as physical temperature exactly. Longwave emissivity variation as an effective camouflage measures is applied to a real M2 tank. From the simulation results, it is found that an effective surface treatment, such as painting of a less emissive material or camouflage, clothing, may provide a temperature similarity or a spatial similarity, resulting in an effective camouflage. (author). 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Satellite data sets for the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, L.; Bernstein, R.L. [SeaSpace Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This abstract describes the type of data obtained from satellite measurements in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The data sets have been widely used by the ARM team to derive cloud-top altitude, cloud cover, snow and ice cover, surface temperature, water vapor, and wind, vertical profiles of temperature, and continuoous observations of weather needed to track and predict severe weather.

  1. Measurement of Gamma Radiation in an Automobile Mechanic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental radiation measurement was carried out in an automobile mechanic village, Apo, Abuja, Nigeria. An in-situ measurement approach was adopted using RDS-200 Universal Survey Meter and a handheld Global Positioning System (Garmin GPS 76S) equipment. It was observed that the dose equivalent varied ...

  2. Alpha radiation gauge for the measurement of gas density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lech, M.

    1977-01-01

    Alpha gauge for the measurement of gas density with thick alfa source, has been developed. The gauge is based on radiation transmission through a space filled with gas and total-count principle. Air density can be measured in the range 1,2 - 1,27 kg m -3 with a maximum standard deviation of 2 x 10 -3 kg m -3 . (author)

  3. Measurement and modeling of external radiation during 1984 from LAMPF atmospheric emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, B.M.; Olsen, W.A.; Van Etten, D.; Chen, I.

    1986-07-01

    An array of three portable, pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) measured short-term external radiation levels produced by air activation products from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The monitoring was at the closet offsite location, 700-900 m north and northeast of the source, and across a large, deep canyon. A Gaussian-type atmospheric dispersion model, using onsite meteorological and stack release data, was tested during their study. Monitoring results indicate that a persistent, local up-valley wind during the evening and early morning hours is largely responsible for causing the highest radiation levels to the northeast and north-northeast of LAMPF. Comparison of predicted and measured daily external radiation levels indicates a high degree of correlation. The model also gives accurate estimates of measured concentrations over longer periods of time

  4. Serum testosterone levels after external beam radiation for clinically localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagars, Gunar K.; Pollack, Alan

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether serum total testosterone levels change after external beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Eighty-five men with clinically localized prostate cancer (T1-T3, N0/NX, M0) who underwent external beam radiation therapy without androgen ablation had pretreatment and 3-month posttreatment total serum testosterone levels determined by radioimmunoassay. Scattered doses to the testicles were measured with thermoluminescent dosimetry in 10 men. Results: Pretreatment serum testosterone levels ranged from 185 to 783 ng/dl, with a mean of 400 ng/dl and a median of 390 ng/dl. The coefficient of variation was 30%. Postradiation 3-month testosterone levels ranged from 163 ng/dl to 796 ng/dl, with mean and median values of 356 ng/dl and 327 ng/ml, respectively. The coefficient of variation was 34%. The 3-month value was significantly lower than the pretreatment value (Wilcoxon paired p = 0.0001). The mean absolute fall was 94 ng/dl and the mean percentage fall was 9%. Although the fall in testosterone level was statistically significant, the difference was very small quantitatively. In contrast, serum prostate-specific antigen levels fell dramatically by 3 months after radiation. Testicular scattered doses ranged from 1.84 to 2.42 Gy, with a mean of 2.07 Gy for a prostatic tumor dose of 68 Gy. Conclusions: Although significant, the fall in serum testosterone level after radiation for localized prostate cancer was small and likely of no pathophysiologic consequence. It is unlikely that scattered testicular radiation plays any significant role in the genesis of this change in testosterone level, which most likely occurs as a nonspecific stress response

  5. The problem of the detection threshold in radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, E.; Wueneke, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    In all cases encountered in practical radiation measurement, the basic problem is to differentiate between the lowest measured value and the zero value (background, natural background radiation, etc.). For this purpose, on the mathematical side, tests based on hypotheses are to be applied. These will show the probability of differentiation between two values having the same random spread. By means of these tests and the corresponding error theory, a uniform treatment of the subject, applicable to all problems relating to measuring technique alike, can be found. Two basic concepts are found in this process, which have to be defined in terms of semantics and nomenclature: Decision threshold and detection threshold, or 'minimum detectable mean value'. At the decision threshold, one has to decide (with a given statistical error probability) whether a measured value is to be attributed to the background radiation, accepting the zero hypothesis, or whether this value differs significantly from the background radiation (error of 1rst kind). The minimum detectable mean value is the value which, with a given decision threshold, can be determined with sufficient significance to be a measured value and thus cannot be mistaken as background radiation (alternative hypothesis, error of 2nd kind). Normally, the two error types are of equal importance. It may happen, however, that one type of error gains more importance, depending on the approach. (orig.) [de

  6. An Experiment in Radiation Measurement Using the Depron Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benghin, Victor V.; Nechaev, Oleg Y.; Zolotarev, Ivan A.; Amelyushkin, Alexander M.; Petrov, Vasiliy L.; Panasyuk, Milhail I.; Yashin, Ivan V.

    2018-02-01

    Most of the radiation measurements have been made onboard spacecraft flying along orbits with an inclination of up to 51.6 degrees. Due to the prospect of manned missions at orbits with larger inclinations, it is advisable to conduct preliminary detailed dosimetry measurements at a high-inclination orbit; due to its polar orbit, the Lomonosov satellite provides good opportunities for such study. We chose a method of cosmic radiation dosimetry based on semiconductor detectors. This method is widely used onboard spacecraft, including full-time radiation monitoring onboard the International Space Station (ISS). It should be noted that not only did the charged particles contribute significantly in the dose equivalent, but also did the neutrons. Semiconductor detectors have low sensitivity to neutron radiation and are not sufficient for detecting the expected flux of neutrons. We add a thermal neutron counter to the proposed device in order to provide an opportunity for estimation of neutron flux variations along the satellite trajectory. Thus, the design of the instrument DEPRON (Dosimeter of Electrons, PROtons and Neutrons) was determined. DEPRON is intended for registration of the absorbed doses and linear energy transfer spectra for high-energy electrons, protons and nuclei of space radiation, as well as registration of thermal neutrons. The present paper provides a brief description of the DEPRON instrument. Its calibration results and the first mission results of background radiation measurements are also presented.

  7. Ambient radiation levels in a microPET/CT research laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmento, D.M.; Rodrigues, D.L.; Sanches, M.P.; Carneiro, J.C.G.G., E-mail: janetegc@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleres (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This study focuses on initial radiological evaluation and the exposure situation related to the worker task in a micro-positron emission tomography/computed tomography laboratory (microPET/CT). Selected and calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters, TLD, of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy were used to measure room radiation levels. The detectors were placed in several selected points inside the microPET/CT laboratory and adjacent rooms. In addition, the occupationally exposed workers were monthly evaluated for external and internal exposures. In none of the selected points the dose values exceeded the radiation dose limit established for supervised area, as well as the values obtained in individual monitoring. (author)

  8. Ambient radiation levels in a microPET/CT research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmento, D.M.; Rodrigues, D.L.; Sanches, M.P.; Carneiro, J.C.G.G.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on initial radiological evaluation and the exposure situation related to the worker task in a micro-positron emission tomography/computed tomography laboratory (microPET/CT). Selected and calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters, TLD, of CaSO 4 :Dy were used to measure room radiation levels. The detectors were placed in several selected points inside the microPET/CT laboratory and adjacent rooms. In addition, the occupationally exposed workers were monthly evaluated for external and internal exposures. In none of the selected points the dose values exceeded the radiation dose limit established for supervised area, as well as the values obtained in individual monitoring. (author)

  9. Elevated blood lead levels from exposure via a radiator workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble, R G; Thompson, T S; Morton, D N

    1998-04-01

    Elevated lead levels were discovered in blood samples collected from family members where both the father and the mother worked in a radiator repair workshop. The father and mother were found to have blood lead levels of 2.0 and 0.5 mumol/L (41.7 and 10.4 micrograms/dL), respectively. The father's blood lead level was just below the Canadian occupational health and safety intervention level (2.5 mumol/L or 52.1 micrograms/dL). The two children had blood lead levels of 1.0 and 0.8 mumol/L (20.8 and 16.7 micrograms/dL), both of which are in excess of the recommended guideline for intervention in the case of children (0.5 mumol/L or 10.4 micrograms/dL). The exposure of the two children was possibly due to a combination of pathways including exposure at the workshop itself during visits and also the transportation of lead-containing dust to the home environment.

  10. Diffuse radiation increases global ecosystem-level water-use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, A. M.; Reichstein, M.; Cescatti, A.; Knohl, A.; Zaehle, S.

    2012-12-01

    Current environmental changes lead not only to rising atmospheric CO2 levels and air temperature but also to changes in air pollution and thus the light quality of the solar radiation reaching the land-surface. While rising CO2 levels are thought to enhance photosynthesis and closure of stomata, thus leading to relative water savings, the effect of diffuse radiation on transpiration by plants is less clear. It has been speculated that the stimulation of photosynthesis by increased levels of diffuse light may be counteracted by higher transpiration and consequently water depletion and drought stress. Ultimately, in water co-limited systems, the overall effect of diffuse radiation will depend on the sensitivity of canopy transpiration versus photosynthesis to diffuse light, i.e. whether water-use efficiency changes with relative levels of diffuse light. Our study shows that water-use efficiency increases significantly with higher fractions of diffuse light. It uses the ecosystem-atmosphere gas-exchange observations obtained with the eddy covariance method at 29 flux tower sites. In contrast to previous global studies, the analysis is based directly on measurements of diffuse radiation. Its effect on water-use efficiency was derived by analyzing the multivariate response of carbon and water fluxes to radiation and air humidity using a purely empirical approach based on artificial neural networks. We infer that per unit change of diffuse fraction the water-use efficiency increases up to 40% depending on diffuse fraction levels and ecosystem type. Hence, in regions with increasing diffuse radiation positive effects on primary production are expected even under conditions where water is co-limiting productivity.

  11. Instruments for radiation measurement in biosciences. Series 3. radioluminography. 13. Application of imaging plate for radiation control works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamadera, Akira

    2000-01-01

    The imaging plate (IP) is useful for measurement of both distribution and intensity of radiation. This paper described application of IP in radiation control works. Since IP has the 500 times higher sensitivity than the film badge for X-ray-range radiation of 12-120 keV, it can be useful as a personnel dosemeter in medical field. IP is suitable for measurement of radioactivity in a lot of samples and it can be useful for measurement of smear test papers although a problem concerning 3 H monitoring remains. Since IP gives the two-dimensional information of radiation distribution, IP can be useful for monitoring of contamination status such as its site and area. A contamination accident occurred by 68 Ge in PET apparatus is described for instance. IP can be also useful for measurement of the low level radioactivity in solutions, such as waste water. The author made an apparatus for drain monitoring which composed from acryl-box and IP. The surface of the former box, containing the water, is stuck by various shields of acryl- and lead-plates and is in contact with IP. Both measurement of radioactivity concentration and identification of radionuclide are possible. The important defect is pointed out to be fading phenomenon in those works above. (K.H.)

  12. Measurement and control systems using nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Jose Altino Tupinamba; Madi Filho, Tufic

    2007-01-01

    Non-destructive Assay is applied to machines and components quality tests. These elements would not have a good performance if they were conceived without concern about the mechanical project quality, used materials, manufacture processes and inspection and maintenance methodology. In this work, a measure and control system of non destructive processes was developed, using a radioactive source with a defined energy in function of the material to be analyzed. This system involves: interface of input/output (I/O) (hardware) and graphical interface (software). In the non destructive analysis, it is made the comparison of the signal proceeding from the sensor with a signal preset (set point) or analogical signal of reference (Base Line), which is adjusted in the I/O interface. Analyzed the signal, the system will make the decision: to reject or to accept the analyzed material. The I/O interface is implemented by electronic equipment with a MCS51. The purpose of this interface is to supply conditions to exchange information, using serial RS232, between the sensor and the microcomputer. The graphical interface (software) is written in visual C++ language. (author)

  13. Highlights in radiation measuring technique's - Serial Micro Channel SMC 2100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandler, M.; Hoffmann, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    The Serial Micro Channel SMC 2100 offers an ''intelligent stand alone'' electronics for the radiation measuring technique's. First it is designed of being connected to a serial interface RS232 of a PC. With a RS485 serial interface on a PC, a network structure can be generated. It has all functional modules which are necessary for the measurement of detector signals. Hence it is possible to directly connect any detector for radiation measurement to a PC, laptop, or notebook. All variations can be operated without PC support too. It has a modular structure and consists of two blocks, the functional modules and the basic modules. The Serial Micro Channel SMC 2100 may be directly coupled to a detector, which therefore makes the realisation of an ''intelligent radiation detector'' with serial link RS232 or RS485. (orig.)

  14. Assessment of Aircrew Radiation Exposure by further measurements and model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B. J.; Desormeaux, M.; Green, A. R.; Bennett, L. G. I.; Butler, A.; McCall, M.; Saez Vergara, J. C.

    2004-01-01

    A methodology is presented for collecting and analysing exposure measurements from galactic cosmic radiation using a portable equipment suite and encapsulating these data into a semi-empirical model/Predictive Code for Aircrew Radiation Exposure (PCAIRE) for the assessment of aircrew radiation exposure on any flight over the solar cycle. The PCAIRE code has been validated against integral route dose measurements at commercial aircraft altitudes during experimental flights made by various research groups over the past 5 y with code predictions typically within ±20% of the measured data. An empirical correlation, based on ground-level neutron monitoring data, is detailed further for estimation of aircrew exposure from solar particle events. The semi-empirical models have been applied to predict the annual and career exposure of a flight crew member using actual flight roster data, accounting for contributions from galactic radiation and several solar energetic-particle events over the period 1973-2002. (authors)

  15. Snowpack snow water equivalent measurement using the attenuation of cosmic gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterhuber, R.; Condreva, K.

    1998-01-01

    Incoming, background cosmic radiation constantly fluxes through the earth's atmosphere. The high energy gamma portion of this radiation penetrates many terrestrial objects, including the winter snowpack. The attenuation of this radiation is exponentially related to the mass of the medium through which it penetrates. For the past three winters, a device measuring cosmic gamma radiation--and its attenuation through snow--has been installed at the Central Sierra Snow Laboratory, near Donner Pass, California. This gamma sensor, measuring energy levels between 5 and 15 MeV, has proved to be an accurate, reliable, non-invasive, non-mechanical instrument with which to measure the total snow water equivalent of a snowpack. This paper analyzes three winters' worth of data and discusses the physics and practical application of the sensor for the collection of snow water equivalent data from a remote location

  16. Environmental radiation levels around Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad during 1981-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Navnit; Lakshmanan, A.R.; Kathuria, S.P.; Nambi, K.S.V.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents environmental radiation monitoring results around Nuclear Ffuel Complex (NFC) at Hyderabad for the period, 1981-'88. During 1981-'83 only indoor radiations were monitored at 12 locations in the region of about 15 km. radius around NFC plant. However, during 1984-'88 both indoor and outdoor monitoring was done in a standardised manner at 8 locations. In this routine monitoring programme, environmental thermoluminescent dosimeters were used in quarterly integrating cycles. The average outdoor natural radiation level around NFC during 1984-'88 is found to be 227 ± 34 (σ) mR/y, which is the highest among the various sites in the country where DAE units are located. Such a high level of natural background radiation in and around Hyderabad is due to granitic terrains which normally have significant amounts of primordial radioactivity. The indoor to outdoor radiation ratio is found to be 1.35 ± 0.1 (σ). Application of this ratio on all the available indoor radiation monitoring results of 1981-'88 gives an estimate of 230 ± 26 mR/y as the average outdoor radiation level, and this is in very close agreement with the directly measured value mentioned earlier. The temporal variations seen in the quarterly results of each location have been tested for Normal and Log-Normal distributions and found to yield satisfactory correlations, although the plots reveal slight skewness; the latter however, could not be attributed to the NFC operations. (author). 7 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs

  17. Influence of Ceiling Suspended Screen Positioning to the Scatter Radiation Levels in Interventional Cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arandjic, D.; Bozovic, P.; Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Antic, V.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the effects of the ceiling suspended screen position to the scatter radiation levels in the interventional cardiology. The scatter radiation in terms of ambient dose equivalent H * (10) was measured for various positions of protective screen in the positions of the first operator, nurse and radiographer, at elevations 100-190 cm and in four different angulations of the x-ray tube. To assess the effectiveness of the protective screen, the scattered dose was also measured in the absence of any protection in all four angulations and elevations. To simulate real clinical situation the measurements were performed in the presence of 30 cm PMMA phantom using standard clinical protocol. The utility of protective screen varied for different positions and angulations. Scatter radiation levels varied in the range 70 - 3400 μSv/h for the first operator, 140 - 3200 μSv/h for the nurse and 50 - 560 μSv/h for radiographer. Ceiling suspended screens can provide a substantial level of protection (up to factor 18) in interventional cardiology, but they have to be properly managed and positioned to achieve sufficient level of protection. The guidance for optimal protection is provided in the paper.(author)

  18. Transition probabilities and radiative decay constants of the excited levels of Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wosinski, L.

    1981-01-01

    Transition probabilities for eight optical transitions between the 3p and 3d neon levels have been measured by the ''plasma transparency method''. The transitions probabilities are placed on an absolute scale by use of the recently reported values for the 4p→3s transitions. The measurements of induced changes in populations allowed the determination of the ratios of the radiative decay constants for the 4p and 3d levels. The experimental results are compared with the theoretically calculated transitions probabilities of Murphy and Lilly. (author)

  19. Fire and earthquake counter measures in radiation handling facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    'Fire countermeasures in radiation handling facilities' published in 1961 is still widely utilized as a valuable guideline for those handling radiation through the revision in 1972. However, science and technology rapidly advanced, and the relevant laws were revised after the publication, and many points which do not conform to the present state have become to be found. Therefore, it was decided to rewrite this book, and the new book has been completed. The title was changed to 'Fire and earthquake countermeasures in radiation handling facilities', and the countermeasures to earthquakes were added. Moreover, consideration was given so that the book is sufficiently useful also for those concerned with fire fighting, not only for those handling radiation. In this book, the way of thinking about the countermeasures against fires and earthquakes, the countermeasures in normal state and when a fire or an earthquake occurred, the countermeasures when the warning declaration has been announced, and the data on fires, earthquakes, the risk of radioisotopes, fire fighting equipment, the earthquake counter measures for equipment, protectors and radiation measuring instruments, first aid, the example of emergency system in radiation handling facilities, the activities of fire fighters, the example of accidents and so on are described. (Kako, I.)

  20. Accredited dose measurements for validation of radiation sterilized products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1993-01-01

    for control of radiation sterilization. The accredited services include: 1. 1. Irradiation of dosimeters and test samples with cobalt-60 gamma rays. 2. 2. Irradiation of dosimeters and test samples with 10 MeV electrons. 3. 3. Issue of and measurement with calibrated dosimeters. 4. 4. Measurement...... of the dosimetric parameters of an irradiation facility. 5. 5. Measurement of absorbed dose distribution in irradiated products. The paper describes these services and the procedures necessary for their execution....

  1. Mobile Handset Performance Evaluation Using Radiation Pattern Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2006-01-01

    The mean effective gain is an attractive performance measure of mobile handsets, since it incorporates both directional and polarization properties of the handset and environment. In this work the mean effective gain is computed from measured spherical radiation patterns of five different mobile...... pattern is reduced. Furthermore, the frequency dependence of the mean effective gain is investigated, and a method is proposed for reducing the required number of measurements on different frequencies....

  2. Measurement of global solar radiation over Brunei Darussalam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, A.Q.; Ak Abd Malik Abd Raub Pg Ghani

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of global solar radiation on a horizontal surface were carried out for a period of 11 months starting from June 2001 to April 2002. The pyrano meter (Kipp and Zonen) was placed at the top of the library building of University of Brunei Darussalam, which affords optimum exposure to the instrument sensor without appreciable obstacle for incoming global radiation. The maximum and minimum monthly-averaged global irradiations of 553 W/m 2 and 433 W/m 2 were recorded for the months of March and October respectively. The variation of global solar radiation can be divided into two distinct groups - the low radiation values being associated with cloud and turbidity while the high values are associated with less turbid and cloudy periods

  3. Spectral measurements of gamma radiation streaming through ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meenakshisundaram, P.K.; Bhatnagar, V.M.; Raghunath, V.M.; Gopinath, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents the spectral measurements of gamma radiation streaming through multi-legged rectangular concrete ducts for cesium-137 and cobald-60 sources. Effect of lead lining the inner surface of the duct on the streaming radiation spectrum and optimization of liner thickness for minimum streaming radiation dose have been studied. For three-legged ducts, a comparative analysis of lead lining the entire duct as against lining any one or both the corners of the duct is reported. It is seen that lead lining any one of the corners would reduce the streaming radiation dose by a factor of 5 to 12. Lining both the corners which is nearly as effective as lining the entire duct reduces the dose by a factor of 16 to 60 depending on the soruce energy and duct dimensions. (orig.)

  4. Online Radiation Dose Measurement System for ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Mandić, I; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Particle detectors and readout electronics in the high energy physics experiment ATLAS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN operate in radiation field containing photons, charged particles and neutrons. The particles in the radiation field originate from proton-proton interactions as well as from interactions of these particles with material in the experimental apparatus. In the innermost parts of ATLAS detector components will be exposed to ionizing doses exceeding 100 kGy. Energetic hadrons will also cause displacement damage in silicon equivalent to fluences of several times 10e14 1 MeV-neutrons per cm2. Such radiation doses can have severe influence on the performance of detectors. It is therefore very important to continuously monitor the accumulated doses to understand the detector performance and to correctly predict the lifetime of radiation sensitive components. Measurements of doses are important also to verify the simulations and represent a crucial input into the models used for predicting future ...

  5. Methods for measuring of fuel can deformation under radiation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenchuk, A.V.; Fetisov, B.V.; Lakin, Yu.G.; Tonkov, V.Yu.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility for measuring fuel can deformation under radiation conditions by means of the acoustic method and tensoresistors is considered. The construction and operation of the in-pile facility for measuring creep of the fuel can specimen loaded by the internal pressure is described. The data on neutron radiation effect on changes in creep rate for zirconium fuel can are presented. The results obtained with tensoresistors are in a good agreement with those obtained by the acoustic method, which enables to recommend the use of both methods for the irradiation creep investigation of the fuel element cans

  6. An intercomparison of detectors for measurement of background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.P.; Boetter-Jensen, L.

    1981-04-01

    Measurements of the background radiation were made in 1978 at 14 locations with a high-pressure ionization chamber, thermoluminiscence dosimeters (TLD's), two NaI(Tl) detectors, and a Ge(Li) spectrometer system. Simultaneous measurements with the ionization chamber and the spectrometer system provide reliable estimates of the total background exposure rate, of the individual contributors to the terrestrial exposure rate, and of the exposure rate from the secondary cosmic radiation. The TLD results agree with those of the ionization chamber. The NaI(Tl) detector results show that accurate estimates of the terrestrial exposure rate can be obtained if empirical corrections are applied. (author)

  7. New study sees greater low-level radiation threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobsenz, G.

    1992-01-01

    A new analysis of Energy Department medical records has found higher than expected cancer rates among workers at DOE's Hanford nuclear weapons plant, suggesting occupational exposure to low-level radiation may be more dangerous than previously thought. The study, released Tuesday by the Philadelphia-based Three Mile Island Public Health Fund, is important not only because of its controversial conclusions, but also because it represents the first independent review of DOE's long-secret worker medical records. The new study done by Stewart and Kneale looked at Hanford worker health records dating up to 1986 - part of a huge trove of data withheld by DOE from independent researchers until two years ago. In their re-analysis of the Hanford worker records, Stewart and Kneale found increased cancer rates among older workers who were over 40 years of age when exposed. And they said that increased susceptibility of older people to radiation-induced cancer was not reflected in the highly influential Japanese atomic bomb studies because people over 50 years of age were open-quotes grossly under-representedclose quotes in the A-bomb analyses, possibly because many bomb victims suffered early deaths from high doses

  8. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winther, J.F.; Ulbak, K.; Dreyer, L.; Pukkala, E.; Oesterlind, A.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic countries occurs at an average effective dose per capita per year of about 3 mSv (Iceland, 1.1 mSv) from natural sources, and about 1 mSv from man-made sources. While the natural sources are primarily radon in indoor air, natural radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation and gamma radiation from soil and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180 cases of lung cancer (1% of all lung cancer cases) per year could be avoided in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 if indoor exposure to radon were eliminated, and that an additional 720 cases (6%) could be avoided annually if either radon or tobacco smoking were eliminated. Similarly, it was estimated that the exposure of the Nordic populations to natural sources of ionizing radiation other than radon and to medical sources will each give rise to an annual total of 2120

  9. The technique on handling radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This book describes measurement of radiation and handling radiation. The first part deals with measurement of radiation. The contents of this part are characteristic on measurement technique of radiation, radiation detector, measurement of energy spectrum, measurement of radioactivity, measurement for a level of radiation and county's statistics on radiation. The second parts explains handling radiation with treating of sealed radioisotope, treating unsealed source and radiation shield.

  10. Are we at risk from level radiation - DNA repair capacity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riklis, E.; Kol, R.; Heimer, Y.M.

    1979-01-01

    A new biochemical method, based on determination of DNA repair capability, which will enable predetermination of radiation sensitivity and further - an indication of inherent sensitivity which may be expressed only in the future when a cell will be faced with a situation in which its repair capacity will have to function to its full capability was developed. Cells are treated with trioxalen (trimethylpsoralen, TMP) and near ultraviolet light (NUV), bringing about an almost complete cessation of semiconservative DNA synthesis, 99.5 to 99.8 % inhibition. This method enabled the accurate measurement of incorporation of labelled thymidine into DNA following assaults by radiation or chemicals, indicating that repair synthesis is occurring. The method has been found suitable for the following cells: human fibroblasts, human breast cancer cells, chinese hamster V-79 cells, human lymphocytes. Since the method is applicable also for lymphocytes, it will enable carrying out a world-wide interlaboratory comparative study in which the range of 'repair capacity' of 'normal healthy' humans will be established. Individuals showing no repair capacity will not be permitted to be exposed to any level of radiation above natural background. These are the persons 'at risk' from radiation, while the general public, showing normal repair capacity may be considered safe from the effects of low-level radiations. (B.G.)

  11. Low level radiation testing of micro-electronic components. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farren, J.; Stephen, J.H.; Mapper, D.; Sanderson, T.K.; Hardman, M.

    1984-05-01

    A review of the existing literature has been carried out, dealing with the current technology relating to low level radiation testing of microelectronic devices, as used in space satellite systems. After consideration of the space radiation environment, the general effects of cosmic radiation on MOSFET structures and other MOS devices have been assessed. The important aspect of annealing phenomena in relation to gamma-ray induced damage has also been reviewed in detail. The experimental and theoretical aspects of radiation testing have been assessed, with particular reference to the Harwell LORAD low level irradiation test facility. In addition, a review of modern dosimetry methods has been carried out, with specific regard to the problems of accurately measuring low radiation fields (1 to 10 R/hour) over periods of many months. Finally, a detailed account of the proposed experimental programme to be carried out in the LORAD facility is presented, and aspects of the experimental set-up discussed. The particular types of test circuits to be studied are dealt with, and full consideration is given to the various CMOS memory devices of special interest in the ESA space satellite programme. (author)

  12. Does exposure to very high levels of natural radiation induce hematological alterations in humans?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiassi-Nejad, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: It has long been known that total body exposure to moderate doses decrease the number of circulating erythrocytes, platelets, granulocytes, and lymphocytes. However, data on hematopoietic effects of exposure to very low doses of ionizing radiation in humans are scarce. Recently it has been reported that hematological parameters have significant positive associations with the radiation dose received by residents lived near a nuclear power plant. Ramsar, a city in northern Iran, has some inhabited areas with the highest levels of natural radiation studied so far. A population of about 2000 is exposed to average annual radiation levels of 10.2 mGy y -1 and the highest recorded external gamma dose rates are about 130 mGy y -1 . In this study, hematological parameters such as counts of leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW, PLT, and MPV were measured in the inhabitants. The results of this study indicated that there was no any statistically significant alteration in hematological parameters of the inhabitants of very high background radiation areas of Ramsar compared to those of a neighboring control area

  13. Performance of ionization chambers in X radiation beams, radioprotection level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessa, Ana C.M.; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2005-01-01

    Narrow beams, radioprotection level, were implanted in an X ray system, based on ISO 4037-1, as recommended by IAEA (SRS 16). Energy dependency tests were carried out and short-term stability in ionization chambers for use in radiation protection of trademark Physikalisch-Technische Werkstaetten (PTW), 32002 and 23361 models. The ionization chambers were studied with regard to short-term stability within the program of quality control of the laboratory, with a 90 Sr + 90 Y. The results of the short-term stability test were compared with the recommendations of IEC 60731, respect to dosemeters used in radiotherapy, since this standard presents the more restrictive limits with regard to the behaviour of ionization chambers. All cameras showed results within the limits recommended by this standard. With respect to the energy dependency of the response, the model Chamber 32002 presented a maximum dependence of only 2.7%, and the model Chamber 23361, 4.5%

  14. Experience and problems of the automated measuring and sorting of sealed radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmidt, G.

    1979-01-01

    It has been shown that with the help of a serial device for samples changing and a mini-computer with a suitable software it is possible to organize the radioactivity measuring and sorting of sealed gamma-sources with activity in the microcuri region. Application of the computer permits to rise accuracy of the data on the radiation sources radioactivity, sorted according to the preset activity level groups and, in the casa of necessity, to perform the activity measurements with lower error. The method listed, gives the working-time economy of nearly 4 hours in measuring and sorting of some 500 sealed radiation sources [ru

  15. Studying and measuring the gamma radiation doses in Homs city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofaan, A. H.

    2001-01-01

    The gamma radiation dose was measured in Homs city by using many portable dosimeters (electronic dosimeter and Geiger-Muller). The measurements were carried out in the indoor and outdoor buildings, for different time period, through one year (1999-2000). High purity germanium detector with low back ground radiation (HpGe) was used to determine radiation element contained in some building and the surrounding soil. The statistical analysis laws were applied to make sure that the measured dose distribution around average value is normal distribution. The measurement indicates that the gamma indoor dose varies from 312μSv/y to 511μSv/y, with the average annual dose of 385μSv/y. However the gamma outdoor dose rate varies from 307μSv/y to 366μSv/y with an average annual dose 385μSv/y. The annual outdoor gamma radiation dose is about %16 lower than the outdoor dose in Homs City. These measurements have indicated that environmental gamma doses in Homs City are relatively low. This is because that most of the soils and rocks in the area are limestone. (author)

  16. Health effects of low-level ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1979-04-01

    It is now assumed that any exposure to radiaton at low levels of dose carries some risk of deleterious effects. How low this level may be, or the probability or magnitude of the risk, still are not known. Our best scientific knowledge and advice are essential for the protection of the public health, for the effective application of new technologies in medicine and industry and for guidance in the production of nuclear energy. Unless man wishes to dispense with those activities which inevitably involve exposure to low levels of ionizing radiations, he must recognize that some degree of risk to health, however small, exists. A pragmatic appraisal of how man wishes to continue to derive the benefits of health and happiness from such activities involving ionizing radiaton in times of everchanging conditions and public attitudes in our resource-limited society is the task which lies before all of us - all men and women of our society, of science and of medicine, and of law and government - now and in the future

  17. Design and testing of an innovative solar radiation measurement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badran, Omar; Al-Salaymeh, Ahmed; El-Tous, Yousif; Abdala, Wasfi

    2010-01-01

    After review of studies conducted on the solar radiation measuring systems, a new innovative instrument that would help in measuring the accurate solar radiation on horizontal surfaces has been designed and tested. An advanced instrument with ease of use and high precision that would enable the user to take the readings in terms of solar intensity (W/m 2 ) has been tested. Also, the innovative instrument can record instantaneous readings of the solar intensities as well as the averages value of the solar radiation flux during certain periods of time. The instrument based in its design on being programmed by programmable interfacing controller (PIC). Furthermore, the power supply circuit is fed by the solar energy cells and does not need an external power source.

  18. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, September 2001.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    Our Changing Climate-Is our climate really changing? How do we measure climate change? How can we predict what Earth's climate will be like for generations to come? One focus of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to improve scientific climate models enough to achieve reliable regional prediction of future climate. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the global mean surface temperature has increased by 0.5-1.0 F since the late 19th century. The 20th century's 10 warmest years all occurred in the last 15 years of the century, with 1998 being the warmest year of record. The global mean surface temperature is measured by a network of temperature-sensing instruments distributed around the world, including ships, ocean buoys, and weather stations on land. The data from this network are retrieved and analyzed by various organizations, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the World Meteorological Organization. Worldwide temperature records date back to 1860. To reconstruct Earth's temperature history before 1860, scientists use limited temperature records, along with proxy indicators such as tree rings, pollen records, and analysis of air frozen in ancient ice. The solar energy received from the sun drives Earth's weather and climate. Some of this energy is reflected and filtered by the atmosphere, but most is absorbed by Earth's surface. The absorbed solar radiation warms the surface and is re-radiated as heat energy into the atmosphere. Some atmospheric gases, called greenhouse gases, trap some of the re-emitted heat, keeping the surface temperature regulated and suitable for sustaining life. Although the greenhouse effect is natural, some evidence indicates that human activities are producing increased levels of some greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Scientists believe that the combustion of fossil fuels is

  19. The Australasian radiation protection society's position statement on risks from low levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Don, Higson; Ches, Mason; Andrew, McEwan; Peter, Burns; Riaz, Akber; Ron, Cameron; Pamela, Sykes; Joe, Young

    2006-01-01

    At its Annual General Meeting in 2004, the Australasian Radiation Protection Society (A.R.P.S.) set up a working group to draft a statement of the Society's position on risks from low levels of exposure to ionizing radiation. The resulting position statement was adopted by the Society at its Annual General Meeting in 2005. Its salient features are as follows: First, there is insufficient evidence to establish a dose-effect relationship for doses that are less than a few tens of milli sieverts in a year. A linear extrapolation from higher dose levels should be assumed only for the purpose of applying regulatory controls. Secondly, estimates of collective dose arising from individual doses that are less than some tens of milli sieverts in a year should not be used to predict numbers of fatal cancers. Thirdly, the risk to an individual of doses significantly less than 100 micro sieverts in a year is so small, if it exists at all, that regulatory requirements to control exposure at this level are not warranted. (authors)

  20. Heated junction thermocouple level measurement apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.; Burger, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid level sensing apparatus senses the level of liquid surrounding the apparatus. A plurality of axially spaced sensors are enclosed in a separator tube. The separator tube tends to collapse the level of a two-phase fluid within the separator tube into essentially a liquid phase and a gaseous phase where the collapsed level bears a relationship to the coolant inventory outside the separator tube. The level of the liquid phase is sensed by level sensing apparatus. The separator tube contains inlet-outlet ports near the top and bottom thereof to equalize the liquid level inside and outside the separator tube when the level fluctuates or the water within the separator tube flashes to steam. Each sensor is comprised of a heater, a heated thermocouple junction and an unheated thermocouple junction within an elongated heat conductive housing. The heated portion of housing is enclosed in a splash guard with inlet-outlet ports near the top and bottom to equalize the liquid level inside and outside the splash guardand to eliminate the spurious indications of liquid level change which may arise if water droplets contact the housing in the region of the heater. To prevent steam bubbles entrained in a two-phase fluid cross flow from entering the lateral inlet-outlet ports of the separator tube, the separator tube is enclosed in support tube which may in turn be enclosed in an otherwise unused control element assembly shroud. The lateral inlet-outlet ports of separator tube are axially offset from lateral inlet-outlet ports of support tube at least where support tube is subjected to cross flow. The shroud is open on the bottom and has lateral inlet-outlet ports to facilitate liquid level fluctuations to equalize inside and outside shroud