WorldWideScience

Sample records for radiation instrumentation sri

  1. Synchrotron radiation instrumentation collaborative access team SRI-CAT sector 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The research objective for this sector of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is the development of sources and applications of polarized x-rays covering the energy range from 0.5 to 50 keV. Both linearly and circularly polarized x-rays have been very successfully applied to the study of magnetic properties of materials. However, the applications have been limited due primarily to the lack of energy-tunable, high-brilliance x-ray beams with adjustable polarization properties. It is the authors' intention that this sector will to some extent ameliorate that situation. They are confident that optics can be fabricated to simultaneously provide a high-quality beam with adjustable polarization in the energy range above 5 keV using the standard undulator A as a source. That is not the case below 5 keV, and hence they are planning to develop and install a helical undulator that can generate beams of variable (linear or circular) polarization in this lower energy range. Magnetic circular dichroism, resonant and non-resonant magnetic x-ray scattering, and other polarization-dependent phenomena will be investigated using hard x-rays. Techniques similar to those described for the hard x-rays plus spatially resolved, spin-polarized photoemission studies will be developed and used with the intermediate energy x-rays. They have incorporated some features not directly related to polarization studies, which were not available elsewhere on SRI-CAT beamlines. One of those features is a large vacuum tank immediately downstream of the ratchet wall into which high heat load beamline components can be installed and tested. A second feature is a mirror capable of focusing the white beam for high heat flux optical-component development and other uses. The insertion-device development, polarization programs, and beamline component testing all fall well within the existing scope of the SRI CAT programs

  2. Synchrotron radiation instrumentation collaborative access team SRI-CAT sector 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The research objective for this sector of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is the development of sources and applications of polarized x-rays covering the energy range from 0.5 to 50 keV. Both linearly and circularly polarized x-rays have been very successfully applied to the study of magnetic properties of materials. However, the applications have been limited due primarily to the lack of energy-tunable, high-brilliance x-ray beams with adjustable polarization properties. It is the authors` intention that this sector will to some extent ameliorate that situation. They are confident that optics can be fabricated to simultaneously provide a high-quality beam with adjustable polarization in the energy range above 5 keV using the standard undulator A as a source. That is not the case below 5 keV, and hence they are planning to develop and install a helical undulator that can generate beams of variable (linear or circular) polarization in this lower energy range. Magnetic circular dichroism, resonant and non-resonant magnetic x-ray scattering, and other polarization-dependent phenomena will be investigated using hard x-rays. Techniques similar to those described for the hard x-rays plus spatially resolved, spin-polarized photoemission studies will be developed and used with the intermediate energy x-rays. They have incorporated some features not directly related to polarization studies, which were not available elsewhere on SRI-CAT beamlines. One of those features is a large vacuum tank immediately downstream of the ratchet wall into which high heat load beamline components can be installed and tested. A second feature is a mirror capable of focusing the white beam for high heat flux optical-component development and other uses. The insertion-device development, polarization programs, and beamline component testing all fall well within the existing scope of the SRI CAT programs.

  3. Applications of radiation processing: SRI experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Shriram Applied Radiation Centre (SARC) is a part of Shriram Institute for Industrial Research (SRI), and was established in 1986, in collaboration with Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). SARC was established with a objective to popularize the radiation processing technology for various applications. SARC is a fully automatic, computerized plant setup as per the design and norms of BRIT/AERB for round the clock fail safe operations. The capacity of SARC Irradiator is 800 kCi of Cobalt -60 source which can process up to 10,000 cubic meters of material (0.1g/cc) at 25 kGy level

  4. Radiation protection instrument 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Radiation Protection Instrument, 1993 (Legislative Instrument 1559) prescribes the powers and functions of the Radiation Protection Board established under the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission by the Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993 (P.N.D.C. Law 308). Also included in the Legislative Instrument are schedules on control and use of ionising radiation and radiation sources as well as procedures for notification, licensing and inspection of ionising radiation facilities. (EAA)

  5. The latest radiation instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Se Sik; Gwon, Dal Gwan; Kim, Gyeong Geum

    2008-08-01

    This book deals with the latest radiation instrument, which is comprised of eight chapters. It explains X rays instrument for medial treatment, X-ray tube instrument and permissible burden with its history, structure and characteristic high voltage apparatus with high voltage rectifier circuit, X-ray control apparatus for medical treatment, X-ray image equipment X-ray television apparatus and CCD 205, X-ray apparatus of install and types, Digital X-ray apparatus with CR 261 and DR 269, performance management on X-ray for medical treatment with its history, necessity and management in the radiation field.

  6. Research and development on radiation processing in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulatunge, S.S.; Motha, L.; Sultanbawa, Y.; Malavipathirana, S.; Silva, A de; Nanayakkara, S.; Hewajulige, I.G.N.; Silva, K.R.C de

    2008-01-01

    Research on radiation processing of natural polymer such as polysaccharides of chitosan, cellulose, carrageenan has been carried out in Sri Lanka since the year 2004. The research group have been involving in development activities on application of chitin and chitosan for wound dressing, irradiated chitosan on shelf life extension of fruits such as papaya, banana, mangoes, radiation crosslinked super-absorbent hydrogel from sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by radiation processing. Hydrogels prepared with PVA/Carrageenan/Agar has been studied on guinea pigs to determine the wound healing effect. Irradiated chitosan powder and chitosan solution was studied in vitro and found chitosan solution (1%) directly subjected to irradiation dosages even at 5 kGy was highly effective in control of anthracnose causing organism of papaya. In vivo studies with irradiated 1% chitosan solution on Rathana and red lady variety of papaya shows better control of spoilage of papaya to a considerable extent. The government of Sri Lanka (Ministry of Science and Technology and Atomic Energy Authority) is in the process of establishing the first government owned Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility and it will be helpful to transfer the output of R and D in radiation processing. (author)

  7. Calibration of radiation monitoring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    Radiation protection is dependent on good radiation monitoring, and properly calibrated instruments are essential for this work. Simple procedures for periodically checking and recalibrating different kinds of radiation monitoring instruments are shown in this training film

  8. Calibration of radiation monitoring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-12-31

    Radiation protection is dependent on good radiation monitoring, and properly calibrated instruments are essential for this work. Simple procedures for periodically checking and recalibrating different kinds of radiation monitoring instruments are shown in this training film

  9. Radiation measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genrich, V.

    1985-01-01

    A highly sensitive and compactly structured radiation measuring instrument for detecting ionizing radiation, in particular for measuring dose rates and contamination. The laminar structure of the associated counter tube, using only a few, simple plastic parts and a highly elastic counter wire, makes it possible to use the simplest manufacturing techniques. The service life of the counter tube construction, which is completely and permanently sealed and filled with gas, is expected to be more than 12 years. The described counter tube can be adapted in optimal fashion to the available space in a pocket instrument if it is used in combination with a specialized high-voltage generator which is low in interference voltage and with a pulse evaluation circuit having a means of compensating for interference voltage

  10. Traceability of radiation protection instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Y.; Kurosawa, T.

    2007-08-01

    Radiation protection instruments are used in daily measurement of dose and activities in workplaces and environments for safety management. The requirements for calibration certificates with traceability are increasing for these instruments to ensure the consistency and reliabilities of the measurement results. The present traceability scheme of radiation protection instruments for dose and activity measurements is described with related IEC/ISO requirements. Some examples of desirable future calibration systems with recent new technologies are also discussed to establish the traceability with reasonable costs and reliabilities.

  11. Nuclear instrumentation for radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madan, V.K.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear radiation cannot be detected by human senses. Nuclear detectors and associated electronics facilitate detection and measurement of different types of radiation like alpha particles, beta particles, gamma radiation, and detection of neutrons. Nuclear instrumentation has evolved greatly since the discovery of radioactivity. There has been tremendous advancement in detector technology, electronics, computer technology, and development of efficient algorithms and methods for spectral processing to extract precisely qualitative and quantitative information of the radiation. Various types of detectors and nuclear instruments are presently available and are used for different applications. This paper describes nuclear radiation, its detection and measurement and associated electronics, spectral information extraction, and advances in these fields. The paper also describes challenges in this field

  12. New instruments for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, D.; Ciobanu, M.; Constantin, F.; Petcu, M.; Plostinaru, V.D.; Rusu, Al.; Lupu, A.C.; Lupu, F.

    2003-01-01

    Though a century old, the radiation protection is actual by its purpose: a dose as low as reasonable achievable is to be received either by involved professionals or population. This threshold is dependent on the technical progress. Some major developments like surface mounted device technology, consumer almost ideal operational amplifiers, microcontrollers and the news signal digital processing techniques, offer the opportunity to design improved instruments for radioprotection. To put in a light portable instrument both the whole measuring system and the 'intelligence' - a microcontroller and the associated software - are the main ideas applied by the authors. The result is presented: a family of eight members, at least, based on two parents. (authors)

  13. Recent advances in radiation protection instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, D.A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation protection instrumentation plays very important role in radiation protection and surveillance programme. Radiation detector, which appears at the frontal end of the instrument, is an essential component of these instruments. The instrumental requirement of protection level radiation monitoring is different from conventional radiation measuring instruments. Present paper discusses the new type of nuclear radiation detectors, new protection level instruments and associated electronic modules for various applications. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, such as nuclear power plants; mining and milling; medical institutions; educational and research establishments; and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection to workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radioactive materials for different applications. The radiation exposures to the individual radiation workers and records of their cumulative radiation doses need to be routinely monitored and recorded

  14. Specialized instrument for radiation assistance teams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applegate, J.A.

    1985-08-01

    A specialized multiradiation instrument for radiation assistance teams (RAT's) has been designed; a working prototype has been constructed and field tested. The instrument detects alpha, beta, and gamma radiation simultaneously with simple red, yellow, and green meter indications and audio outputs. It is basically intended for DOE radiation assistance teams but would have application to any government, military, or industrial radiation accident team

  15. Radiation dose to Sri Lankan infants from Caesium-137 in contaminated milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewamanna, R.; Dias, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    The radiation dose to infants due to ingestion of milk containing the maximum limit of radioactivity in milk powder imported to Sri Lanka has been calculated. The radioactivity of Cs-137 was used as an index of fission products for setting radioactivity limits. The computation for milk powder was based on an average daily intake of 125 g by infants, (a critical group of population) during the first year after birth. The recommended dose commitment to the general public is 1 mSv/y. The maximum permissible limit of 20 Bq/kg of Cs-137 in milk powder as stipulated by the Atomic Energy Authority for milk powder imported to Sri Lanka would yield a dose equivalent of 12.6 micro seivert/y from Cs-137

  16. Cellular telephone-based radiation detection instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, William W [Pittsburg, CA; Labov, Simon E [Berkeley, CA

    2011-06-14

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  17. Tamper indicating radiation surveillance instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, W.H.; Ney, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    Prototype personnel and shipping dock portal monitors suitable for unattended use were fabricated and tested. The requirement for continuous operation with only periodic inspection along with a desire for minimum costs and minimum interference with normal plant operation imposed unique design constraints. The design, operation, and performance of the detection and data recording instrumentation are described, as well as the tamper indicating techniques required to protect the collected data. The essential elements of either of the two instruments include a gamma detector array, signal conditioning electronics, digital alarm logic circuitry, power supplies, a microwave occupancy monitor, surveillance camera, irreversible electromechanical counters, and the appropriate tamper indicating envelope protecting these elements. Attempts to penetrate the tamper indicating envelope require material removal, and undetectable repair is very difficult, if not impossible. The techniques for joining major subassemblies and providing unique seals are also described. The personnel doorway uses a double pole array of NaI(Tl) detectors, and outputs are taken from a single channel pulse height analyzer with a window set at 60 to 250 keV and the lower level discriminator at greater than 60 keV. A sliding interval counter is used to make comparisons to an accumulated background at the 4sigma level. Logic design, sensitivity for special nuclear materials, false alarm data, and test procedures are described in detail. The shipping dock monitor had different design constraints and therefore uses a single, long, cylindrical plastic scintillator. Some differences in signal conditioning and processing are also described. (auth)

  18. Portable neutron and gamma-radiation instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, W.S.; Butterfield, K.B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the design and building of a smart neutron and gamma-radiation detection systems with embedded microprocessors programmed in the FORTH language. These portable instruments can be battery-powered and can provide many analysis functions not available in most radiation detectors. Local operation of the instruments is menu-driven through a graphics liquid crystal display and hex keypad; remote operation is through a serial communications link. While some instruments simply count particles, others determine the energy of the radiation as well as the intensity. The functions the authors have provided include absolute source-strength determination. Feynmann variance analysis, sequential-probability ratio test, and time-history recording

  19. New generation low power radiation survey instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waechter, D.A.; Bjarke, G.O.; Trujillo, F.; Umbarger, C.J.; Wolf, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    A number of new, ultra-low-powered radiation instruments have recently been developed at Los Alamos. Among these are two instruments which use a novel power source to eliminate costly batteries. The newly developed gamma detecting radiac, nicknamed the Firefly, and the alpha particle detecting instrument, called the Simple Cordless Alpha Monitor, both use recent advances in miniaturization and powersaving electronics to yield devices which are small, rugged, and very power-frugal. The two instruments consume so little power that the need for batteries to run them is eliminated. They are, instead, powered by a charged capacitor which will operate the instruments for an hour or more. Use of a capacitor as a power source eliminates many problems commonly associated with battery-operated instruments, such as having to open the case to change batteries, battery storage life, availability of batteries in the field, and some savings in weight. Both line power and mechanical sources are used to charge the storage capacitors which power the instruments

  20. New type of radiation instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Keichi; Takaoka, Akira; Uranaka, Yasuo

    2000-01-01

    The Mitsubishi Electric Co., Ltd. developed a radiation instrumentation system introduced some recent techniques such as computation technique, network technique and so on into conventional radiation detection aiming at general market except power generation company. In a conventional system, a detector and an operation processing board was placed at a field and center, respectively, and a feeble pulse signal from the detector was transferred to the operation processing board. Then, on establishment of cables, detectors and operation processing board, it is essential to carry out engineering planning and field engineering conceiving on noise countermeasure. Noise resistance of the new type of radiation instrumentation system, not by adding operation processing function and network interface function into a detector unit in a field to transfer feeble signal, but by transferring testing result as a digital signal. And, noise removing function capable of selectively passing only signal pulse waveform from the detector to judge its signal waveform was also added to a detector unit in the field, to carry out a thoroughly removing noise. In addition, by connecting between each apparatus placed at the field with a network a system capable of reducing some cable engineering could be executed. Here were introduced on abstract of this new type of radiation instrumentation system and on noise removing function of its characteristics. (G.K.)

  1. Recent developments in radiation detectors and instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Debashis

    2016-01-01

    Radiation detector is the key component in precise and accurate measurement of the nuclear radiations. The detectors deployed for radiation measurements in broadly classified sectors of Energy, Security, Discovery Science and Health and Environments are in general specific to their applications. The nuclear reactors as well as the fuel processing including waste management in energy sector require wide range/variety of detectors and the instruments for safe and precise generation of power. The security sector has gained importance in radiation monitoring in the present security perspective and there are many challenges in development of detector technology. The Discovery Science or the mega science projects viz CERN, Fermilab, GANIL, INO, MACE telescope, ITER etc have continuously generated new demand on detector related technologies that have been also found to be useful in other applications. Similarly, the health and environment monitoring have been also evolving with new technologies and techniques to address the requirement's arising in projects of new nuclear programs

  2. L-34: EPR-First Responders: Basic Radiation Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This lecture is about radiation basic instrumentation, previous measurements, personnel dosimetry, Geiger Mueller, ionizing chambers, gamma spectrometry, contamination monitoring and radiation detection.

  3. ''Cutie Pie,'' A portable radiation instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, C.O.

    1947-01-01

    A portable beta and gamma radiation meter of exceedingly small dimensions and weight has been developed. User acceptance has been more enthusiastic than any previous instrument of its type. The circuit, using one Victoreen V-32 tube, is the simplest electronic circuit possible for radiation work and gives high sensitivity. Stability exceeds anything of comparable sensitivity which has come to our attention. The short term stability is due to a circuit which prevents emission before the cathode reaches operating temperature. Long term stability has been improved by evacuating the tube enclosure and switch. The complete, one unit instrument, weighs four pounds two ounces, and is carried with a pistol grip. Exclusive of chamber and handle, its dimensions are 3'' wide, 6 1/2'' long, and 5'' high. The case is formed of aluminum and is designed to give excellent visibility of the meter. Three ranges of approximately 50, 500 and 5000 mr/hr have been incorporated in the instruments. The instrument has been named ''Cutie Pie'' due to its diminutive size

  4. Radiation monitoring instrumentation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharath Kumar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of nucleonic signals is required to control and operate the reactor in a safe and reliable manner. To achieve this, parameters like Neutron flux, other radiation fields, contamination levels, source strength, release thru stack etc. are required to be monitored and controlled. The above are required to be monitored throughout the life of the reactor whether it is operational or in shutdown condition. In addition such monitoring is also required during decommissioning phase of the reactor as needed. To measure these parameters a large number of instruments are used in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) which includes sensors and electronics for detecting alpha, beta, gamma and neutron radiation with qualification to withstand harsh environment

  5. Radiation Budget Instrument (RBI) for JPSS-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Elena; Priestley, Kory; Dunn, Barry; Cageao, Richard; Barki, Anum; Osmundsen, Jim; Turczynski, Craig; Abedin, Nurul

    2015-01-01

    Radiation Budget Instrument (RBI) will be one of five instruments flying aboard the JPSS-2 spacecraft, a polar-orbiting sun-synchronous satellite in Low Earth Orbit. RBI is a passive remote sensing instrument that will follow the successful legacy of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments to make measurement of Earth's short and longwave radiation budget. The goal of RBI is to provide an independent measurement of the broadband reflected solar radiance and Earth's emitted thermal radiance by using three spectral bands (Shortwave, Longwave, and Total) that will have the same overlapped point spread function (PSF) footprint on Earth. To ensure precise NIST-traceable calibration in space the RBI sensor is designed to use a visible calibration target (VCT), a solar calibration target (SCT), and an infrared calibration target (ICT) containing phase change cells (PCC) to enable on-board temperature calibration. The VCT is a thermally controlled integrating sphere with space grade Spectralon covering the inner surface. Two sides of the sphere will have fiber-coupled laser diodes in the UV to IR wavelength region. An electrical substitution radiometer on the integrating sphere will monitor the long term stability of the sources and the possible degradation of the Spectralon in space. In addition the radiometric calibration operations will use the Spectralon diffusers of the SCT to provide accurate measurements of Solar degradation. All those stable on-orbit references will ensure that calibration stability is maintained over the RBI sensor lifetime. For the preflight calibration the RBI will view five calibration sources - two integrating spheres and three CrIS (Cross-track Infrared Sounder ) -like blackbodies whose outputs will be validated with NIST calibration approach. Thermopile are the selected detectors for the RBI. The sensor has a requirement to perform lunar calibration in addition to solar calibration in space in a way similar to CERES

  6. Calibration of solar radiation measuring instruments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahm, R J; Nakos, J C

    1979-11-01

    A review of solar radiation measurement of instruments and some types of errors is given; and procedures for calibrating solar radiation measuring instruments are detailed. An appendix contains a description of various agencies who perform calibration of solar instruments and a description of the methods they used at the time this report was prepared. (WHK)

  7. Instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Volume 1. Radiation. Second Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R.J.; Nero, A.V.; Murphy, D.J.; Graven, R.

    1983-01-01

    This volume describes ionizing radiation and the instruments used for measurement. Units, sources, and effects of radiation are introduced, basic detection methods discussed, and measurement of alpha, beta, gamma and x-radiation described. Sources of anthropogenic radiation are discussed in detail: nuclear power plants, spent-fuel processing, and uranium mining and milling

  8. Instrument evaluation no. 10. Scanray radiation meter type 751

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, P H; White, D F

    1978-01-01

    The various radiations encountered in radiological protection cover a wide range of energies and radiation measurements have to be carried out under an equally broad spectrum of environmental conditions. This report is one of a series intended to give information on the performance characteristics of radiological protection instruments, to assist in the selection of appropriate instruments for a given purpose, to interpret the results obtained with such instruments, and, in particular, to know the likely sources and magnitude of errors that might be associated with measurements in the field. The radiation, electrical and environmental characteristics of radiation protection instruments are considered together with those aspects of the construction which make an instrument convenient for routine use. To provide consistent criteria for instrument performance, the range of tests performed on any particular class of instrument, the test methods and the criteria of acceptable performance are based broadly on the a...

  9. Nuclear science training in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewamanna, R.

    2007-01-01

    There are two major levels of obtaining radiation or nuclear education and training in Sri Lanka : the University and training courses in nuclear related technology and radiation protection offered by the Atomic Energy Authority of the Ministry of Science and Technology . This paper summarizes the status, some of the activities and problems of radiation education in Sri Lanka. (author)

  10. Instrument evaluation no. 33. Automess Szintomat 6134 radiation survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, D.R.

    1986-04-01

    The various radiations encountered in radiological protection cover a wide range of energies and radiation measurements have to be carried out under an equally broad spectrum of environmental conditions. This report is one of a series intended to give information on the performance characteristics of radiological protection instruments, to assist in the selection of appropriate instruments for a given purpose, to interpret the results obtained with such instruments, and, in particular, to know the likely sources and magnitude of errors that might be associated with measurements in the field. The radiation, electrical and environmental characteristics of radiation protection instruments are considered together with those aspects of the construction which make an instrument convenient for routine use. To provide consistent criteria for instrument performance, the range of tests performed on any particular class of instrument, the test methods and the criteria of acceptable performance are based broadly on the appropriate Recommendations of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The radiations in the tests are, in general, selected from the range of reference radiations for instrument calibration being drawn up by the International Standards Organisation. Normally, each report deals with the capabilities and limitations of one model of instrument and no direct comparison with other instruments intended for similar purposes is made, since the significance of particular performance characteristics largely depends on the radiations and environmental conditions in which the instrument is to be used. The results quoted here have all been obtained from tests on instruments in routine production, with the appropriate measurements being made by the NRPB. This instrument evaluation report deals with the Automess Szintomat 6134 Radiation Survey Meter

  11. Portable radiation instrumentation traceability of standards and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiserman, A.; Walke, M.

    1995-01-01

    Portable radiation measuring instruments are used to estimate and control doses for workers. Calibration of these instruments must be sufficiently accurate to ensure that administrative and legal dose limits are not likely to be exceeded due to measurement uncertainties. An instrument calibration and management program is established which permits measurements made with an instrument to be traced to a national standard. This paper describes the establishment and maintenance of calibration standards for gamma survey instruments and an instrument management program which achieves traceability of measurement for uniquely identified field instruments. (author)

  12. Design of instrument for monitoring nuclear radiation and baneful gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jianping; Chen Jun; Zhu Wenkai

    2006-01-01

    Counters and ionization chambers are applied to sensors, and microprocessor based on ARM IP is applied to center controller in the instrument. It is achieved to monitor nuclear radiation and baneful gas in an instrument. The instrument is capable of LCD displaying, menu operating and speech alarming. (authors)

  13. Development of the Sri Lankan early teenagers' violence inventory: an instrument to measure peer violence in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeratne, Monika; Seneviratne, Rohini; Gunawardena, Nalika; Østbye, Truls; Lynch, Catherine; Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to develop an inventory to measure peer violence among early teens (13-15 years of age) in schools in Sri Lanka. Development of SLETVI was carried out in two phases. In phase I, development of an operational definition for peer violence, identification, and finalizing violent acts for inventory was done by a combination of qualitative methods: a comprehensive literature review, focus group discussions among 13-15-year-old adolescents, their teachers and parents, and consultative meetings with experts in the field. Inventory was then pretested. In phase II, elaboration of SLETVI was carried out by administering it to a sample of 1700 adolescents (13-15 years old). Exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis was performed separately for experiences of victimization and perpetration. Test-retest reliability of SLETVI was assessed. SLETVI included 37 items in three factors: "less severe violence," "severe physical," and "severe relational" violence. Combined use of qualitative and quantitative methods enabled development of a culturally valid and reliable operational inventory to assess early teenagers' peer violence in Sri Lankan and other South Asian schools.

  14. Electron beam instrumentation techniques using coherent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1997-01-01

    Much progress has been made on coherent radiation research since coherent synchrotron radiation was first observed in 1989. The use of coherent radiation as a bunch length diagnostic tool has been studied by several groups. In this paper, brief introductions to coherent radiation and far-infrared measurement are given, the progress and status of their beam diagnostic application are reviewed, different techniques are described, and their advantages and limitations are discussed

  15. Regulatory requirements and quality assurance of radiation monitoring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimharao, K.L.; Sharma, Ranjit

    2005-01-01

    The successful utilisation of radiation sources in the fields of medicine and industry requires the accurate measurement of activity, exposure rate and dose. Many varieties of instruments are in use for measurement of these parameters and new ones are being developed. The criteria for the design of the radiation monitoring instrument include the type and intensity of the radiation, purpose of measurement and ruggedness of the instrument. Quality and reliability of radiation monitoring instruments ensure that individuals are adequately protected. Accuracy, response time and ruggedness are required to be as per the approved/ prescribed guidelines. Regulatory authorities outline the design and performance criteria for radiation monitoring instruments and prescribe the recommendations of international agencies such as IAEA, ICRU and ISO for radiological measurement assurance programme. National Standards Laboratories all over the world prescribe procedures for calibration of various radiation monitoring instruments. The instruments should be calibrated as per these guidelines and should be traceable to national standards. The calibration traceable to national/ international standards and documentation as well as limits stipulated by the competent authority ensures the expected performance of the instrument. (author)

  16. Development of an instrument to measure patient perception of the quality of nursing care and related hospital services at the national hospital of sri lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senarat, Upul; Gunawardena, Nalika S

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate an instrument to measure patient perception of quality of nursing care and related hospital services in a tertiary care setting. We compiled an instrument with 72 items that patients may perceive as quality of nursing care and related hospital services, following an extensive literature search, discussions with patients and care pro-I viders and a brainstorming session with an expert panel. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the National Hospital of Sri Lanka. A sample (n = 120) of patients stayed in general surgical or medical units responded to the interviewer administered instrument upon discharge. Item analysis and principal component factor analysis were performed to assess validity, and internal consistency was calculated to measure reliability. Of the 72 items, 18 had greater than 20% of responses as 'not relevant'. A further 11 items were eliminated since item-total correlations were less than .2. Factor analysis was performed on remaining 43 items which resulted in 36 items classifying into eight factors accounting for 71% of the variation. Factor loadings in the final solution after Varimax rotation were interpersonal aspects (.68-.85), efficiency (.62-.79), competency (.66-.68), comfort (.60-.84), physical environment (.65-.82), cleanliness (.81-.85), personalized information (.76-.83), and general instructions (.61-.78). The instrument had high Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = .91). We developed a comprehensive, reliable and valid, 36-item instrument that may be used to measure patient perception of quality of nursing care in tertiary care settings. Copyright © 2011 Korean Society of Nursing Science. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Quality assurance of radiation protection monitoring instruments in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, S.M.; Daniel, Liji; Rao, Suresh; Sharma, D.N.

    2008-01-01

    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) is the National Metrology Institute (NMI) for developing, maintaining and disseminating standards for ionizing radiation in India. Radiation Safety Systems Division (RSSD) of BARC has the requisite infrastructure in the form of experts, trained manpower, laboratories, equipment and facilities for providing calibration services to users and ascertaining traceability to international standards. It periodically participates in various international inter-comparisons. RSSD maintains reference radiation fields that are required for calibrating Radiation Protection Monitoring Instruments that form the backbone of the radiation monitoring programme for harnessing the benefits of nuclear energy and ionizing radiations. These instruments are type-tested and periodically calibrated at standard reference radiation fields to ensure their healthy working condition and fitness for their intended use. This paper describes the details of the standardization procedures adopted for reference radiation fields and infrastructure established and maintained at RSSD, BARC in accordance with the recommendations of ISO-4037. The paper describes the various tests that are carried out for radiation protection monitoring instrument to study the variation of the calibration factor with influencing quantities like linearity of response, energy response, angular dependence and overload characteristics. The results of these tests for typical instruments are also discussed. The present work also describes various types of indigenously developed radiation protection monitoring instruments and their performance characteristics. Adaptability of these instruments for the implementation of operational quantities are discussed briefly. It also dwells on the IAEA Quality Audit for radiation protection level calibrations, which RSSD has been participating since 2001. Our results of the quality audit are well within the acceptance limit (±7%) set by IAEA for the

  18. Single-chip microcomputer application in nuclear radiation monitoring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Songshou

    1994-01-01

    The single-chip microcomputer has advantage in many respects i.e. multiple function, small size, low-power consumption,reliability etc. It is widely used now in industry, instrumentation, communication and machinery. The author introduced usage of single-chip microcomputer in nuclear radiation monitoring instruments for control, linear compensation, calculation, changeable parameter presetting and military training

  19. Proceedings of the workshop on radiation survey instruments and calibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.M.; Swinth, K.L.; Vallario, E.J.; Murphy, B.L.

    1985-11-01

    The workshop was held to discuss two topics: first, a performance standard for radiation survey instruments and the potential for a testing program based on that standard; and second, a system of secondary standards laboratories to provide instrument calibrations and related services. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual presentations

  20. Neutron measuring instruments for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzelmann, M.; Schneider, W.; Hoefert, M.; Kuehn, H.; Jahr, R.; Wagner, S.; Piesch, E.

    1979-09-01

    The present report deals with selected topics from the field of neutron dosimetry for radiation protection connected with the work of the subcommittee 6802 in the Standards Committee on Radiology (NAR) of the German Standards Institute (DIN). It is a sort of material collection. The topics are: 1. Measurement of the absorbed-energy dose by a) ionization chambers in fields of mixed radiation and b) recoil-proton proportional counting tubes. 2. Measurement of the equivalent dose, neutron monitors, combination methods by a) rem-meters, b) recoil-proton counting tubes, c) recombination method, tissue-equivalent proportional counters, activation methods for high energies in fields of mixed radiation, d) personnel dosimetry by means of ionization chambers and counting tubes, e) dosimetry by means of activation methods, nuclear track films, nonphotographic nuclear track detectors and solid-state dosimeters. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Portable Radiation Package (PRP) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, R Michael [Remote Measurements and Research Company, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-08-03

    The Portable Radiation Package (PRP) was developed to provide basic radiation information in locations such as ships at sea where proper exposure is remote and difficult, the platform is in motion, and azimuth alignment is not fixed. Development of the PRP began at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the mid-1990s and versions of it were deployed on ships in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Nauru-99 project. The PRP was deployed on ships in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Sensor Intercomparison for Marine Biological and Interdisciplinary Ocean Studies (SIMBIOS) program. Over the years the measurements have remained the same while the post-processing data analysis, especially for the FRSR, has evolved. This document describes the next-generation Portable Radiation Package (PRP2) that was developed for the DOE ARM Facility, under contract no. 9F-31462 from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The PRP2 has the same scientific principles that were well validated in prior studies, but has upgraded electronic hardware. The PRP2 approach is completely modular, both in hardware and software. Each sensor input is treated as a separate serial stream into the data collection computer. In this way the operator has complete access to each component of the system for purposes of error checking, calibration, and maintenance. The resulting system is more reliable, easier to install in complex situations, and more amenable to upgrade.

  2. Current situation and prospect of market on the latest radiation measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Chang Ho; Kim, Wang Geum; Cho, Gyu Seong

    2009-12-01

    This book deals with current situation and prospect of market on the latest radiation measuring instrument. The contents of this book are basic of technology on radiation measuring instrument with basic principle of various measuring instrument, current situation of technology and prospect of radiation measuring instrument, effect of spreading and application field of radiation measuring instrument, facility for making and research and development of radiation measuring instrument, prospect of market about radiation measuring instrument, strategy for market entry with the latest radiation measuring instrument and general prospect for the future.

  3. Basics of radiation physics and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royal, H.D.

    1985-01-01

    Continued technical developments are greatly changing medical diagnosis and medical care. In the field of cardiology, a number of new imaging techniques are currently available. This chapter reviews several topics that are important in the practice of nuclear cardiology. The first section discusses some of the basics of nuclear physics. Familiarity with these fundamentals is essential for an in-depth understanding of nuclear cardiology. The second section presents information on radiotracers and provides dosimetry estimates for commonly performed studies. The third section reviews the instruments used to detect radioactivity. The final section discusses computers and their applications and limitations in nuclear cardiology

  4. INSTRUMENTATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING--Radiation--Vol3Pt1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1972-01-02

    A comprehensive survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring is being carried out by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory originally under a grant from the National Science Foundation and now by the Office of Health and Environmental Research of the Department of Energy. Instruments being investigated are those useful for measurements in Air Quality, Water Quality, Radiation, and Biomedicine related to environmental research and monitoring. Consideration is given to instruments and techniques presently in use and to those developed for other purposes but having possible applications to this work. The results of the survey are given as (a) descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, (b) critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and (c) recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Information is also given regarding the pollutants to be monitored: their characteristics and forms, their sources and pathways, their effects on the ecosystem, and the means of controlling them through process and regulatory controls.

  5. New-generation low-power radiation survey instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waechter, D.A.; Bjarke, G.O.; Wolf, M.A.; Trujillo, F.; Umbarger, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    A number of new, ultra-low-powered radiation instruments have recently been developed at Los Alamos. Among these are two instruments which use a novel power source to eliminate costly batteries. The newly developed gamma detecting radiac, nicknamed the Firefly, and the alpha particle detecting instrument, called the Simple Cordless Alpha Monitor, both use recent advances in miniaturization and power-saving electronics to yield devices which are small, rugged, and very power-frugal. The two instruments consume so little power that the need for batteries to run them is eliminated. They are, instead, powered by a charged capacitor which will operate the instruments for an hour or more. Both line power and mechanical sources are used to charge the storage capacitors which power the instruments

  6. New developments in radiation protection instrumentation via active electronic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    New developments in electronics and radiation detectors are improving on real-time data acquisition of radiation exposure and contamination conditions. Recent developments in low power circuit designs, hybrid and integrated circuits, and microcomputers have all contributed to smaller and lighter radiation detection instruments that are, at the same time, more sensitive and provide more information (e.g., radioisotope identification) than previous devices. New developments in radiation detectors, such as cadmium telluride, gas scintillation proportional counters, and imaging counters (both charged particle and photon) promise higher sensitivities and expanded uses over present instruments. These developments are being applied in such areas as health physics, waste management, environmental monitoring, in vivo measurements, and nuclear safeguards

  7. Activities on calibration of radiation protection instruments in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trijoko, S.

    1995-01-01

    As the use of the ionizing radiation emitted by radionuclides or produced by modern machines in Indonesia has increased significantly in the past two decades, the demand for radiation protection measures has also grown up very rapidly. In the mind of Indonesian people, ionizing radiation is always associated with atomic bombs. Indonesian government has set up National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) through the Act No. 31/1964. The BATAN has responsibility in the research and development, implementation and inspection of the safe use of ionizing radiation for peaceful purposes, and always put a great concern on radiation protection matter. The Center for Standardization and Radiation Safety Research (CSRSR) has been founded to implement research and services in the fields of radiation safety, standardization, dosimetry, radiation health, as well as the application of nuclear techniques to medicine. In order to provide the national reference in terms of radiation dosimetry and calibration, the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory was completely set up in Jakarta by 1984. As available facilities, radiation instruments and radiation sources are described. Calibration and personal monitoring services are reported. (K.I.)

  8. Product ion distributions for the reactions of NO+ with some physiologically significant aldehydes obtained using a SRI-TOF-MS instrument

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mochalski, P.; Unterkofler, K.; Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.; Amann, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 363, APR 2014 (2014), s. 23-31 ISSN 1387-3806 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : aldehydes * SRI-TOF-MS * NO+ reactions Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.972, year: 2014

  9. Control device intended for a gamma radiation measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns a monitoring device for a gamma radiation measuring instrument or radiation meter, in which the radiation to be measured brings about, inter alia, the ionisation of a gas and the generation of current pulses. The dial of this meter is generally calibrated in roentgens per hour, i.e. in radiation rate units. This instrument of very simple design is remarkable for its operating reliability. Preferably placed at the inlet to a radioactive area, it enables every user of a ratemeter to check, over the entire measuring range of this instrument, its proper operation prior to entering the area. To this effect, the monitoring device in question has a thick wall lead castle, having an internal cavity in which is mounted a radioactive source delivering a gamma radiation with given constant characteristics, through a measurement window closed by a calibrated plug. Lead doors articulated on the castle can be superimposed on this window to bring about a given attenuation of the radiation coming from the source and delivered to the exterior of the castle [fr

  10. Toad radiation reveals into-India dispersal as a source of endemism in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossuyt Franky

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High taxonomic level endemism in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot has been typically attributed to the subcontinent's geological history of long-term isolation. Subsequent out of – and into India dispersal of species after accretion to the Eurasian mainland is therefore often seen as a biogeographic factor that 'diluted' the composition of previously isolated Indian biota. However, few molecular studies have focussed on into-India dispersal as a possible source of endemism on the subcontinent. Using c. 6000 base pairs of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, we investigated the evolutionary history and biogeography of true toads (Bufonidae, a group that colonized the Indian Subcontinent after the Indo-Asia collision. Results Contrary to previous studies, Old World toads were recovered as a nested clade within New World Bufonidae, indicating a single colonization event. Species currently classified as Ansonia and Pedostibes were both recovered as being non-monophyletic, providing evidence for the independent origin of torrential and arboreal ecomorphs on the Indian subcontinent and in South-East Asia. Our analyses also revealed a previously unrecognized adaptive radiation of toads containing a variety of larval and adult ecomorphs. Molecular dating estimates and biogeographic analyses indicate that the early diversification of this clade happened in the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka during the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene. Conclusion Paleoclimate reconstructions have shown that the Early Neogene of India was marked by major environmental changes, with the transition from a zonal- to the current monsoon-dominated climate. After arrival in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka hotspot, toads diversified in situ, with only one lineage able to successfully disperse out of these mountains. Consequently, higher taxonomic level endemism on the Indian Subcontinent is not only the result of Cretaceous isolation, but also of invasion

  11. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described

  12. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  13. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised

  14. An Experiment in Radiation Measurement Using the Depron Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benghin, Victor V.; Nechaev, Oleg Y.; Zolotarev, Ivan A.; Amelyushkin, Alexander M.; Petrov, Vasiliy L.; Panasyuk, Milhail I.; Yashin, Ivan V.

    2018-02-01

    Most of the radiation measurements have been made onboard spacecraft flying along orbits with an inclination of up to 51.6 degrees. Due to the prospect of manned missions at orbits with larger inclinations, it is advisable to conduct preliminary detailed dosimetry measurements at a high-inclination orbit; due to its polar orbit, the Lomonosov satellite provides good opportunities for such study. We chose a method of cosmic radiation dosimetry based on semiconductor detectors. This method is widely used onboard spacecraft, including full-time radiation monitoring onboard the International Space Station (ISS). It should be noted that not only did the charged particles contribute significantly in the dose equivalent, but also did the neutrons. Semiconductor detectors have low sensitivity to neutron radiation and are not sufficient for detecting the expected flux of neutrons. We add a thermal neutron counter to the proposed device in order to provide an opportunity for estimation of neutron flux variations along the satellite trajectory. Thus, the design of the instrument DEPRON (Dosimeter of Electrons, PROtons and Neutrons) was determined. DEPRON is intended for registration of the absorbed doses and linear energy transfer spectra for high-energy electrons, protons and nuclei of space radiation, as well as registration of thermal neutrons. The present paper provides a brief description of the DEPRON instrument. Its calibration results and the first mission results of background radiation measurements are also presented.

  15. Field experience in use of radiation instruments in Cirus reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, N.; Sharma, R.C.; Agarwal, S.K.; Sawant, D.K.; Yadav, R.K.B.; Prasad, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Cirus, located at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, is a 40 MW (Th) research reactor fuelled by natural uranium, moderated by heavy water and cooled by de-mineralized light water. Graphite is used as reflector in this reactor. The reactor, commissioned in the year 1960, was in operation with availability factor of about 70% till early nineties. There after signs of ageing started surfacing up. After ageing studies, refurbishment plan was finalized and executed during the period from 1997-2002. after successful refurbishment, the reactor is in operation at full power. A wide range of radiation instruments have been used at Cirus for online monitoring of the radiological status of various process systems and environmental releases. Also, variety of survey meters, counting systems and monitors have been used by the health physics unit of the reactor for radiation hazard control. Many of these instruments, which were originally of Canadian design, have undergone changes due to obsolescence or as part of upgradation. This paper describes the experience with the radiation instruments of Cirus, bringing out their effectiveness in meeting the design intent, difficulties faced in their field use, and modifications carried out based on the performance feed back. Also, this paper highlights the areas where further efforts are needed to develop nuclear instrumentation to further strengthen monitoring and surveillance. (author)

  16. The design of nuclear radiation measuring instrument of embedded network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huaiqiang; Ge Liangquan; Xiong Shengqing

    2009-01-01

    The design and realization of nuclear radiation measuring instrument is introduced. Due to the current nuclear instrument often used serial interface to communicate the PC, it is widely used for simple design and easy operation. However, as the demand of remote data acquisition and the call of sharing resources, the design of embedded the TCP/IP protocol stack into MCU, it may send the nuclear signal in Internet. Some devices that link each other with the network can be networked. The design is not only realizing remote data acquisition and sharing resources, but also reducing costs and improving the maintainability of the system. (authors)

  17. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  18. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor

  19. Radiation-hardened micro-electronics for nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Uffelen, M.

    2007-01-01

    The successful development and deployment of future fission and thermonuclear fusion reactors depends to a large extent on the advances of different enabling technologies. Not only the materials need to be custom engineered but also the instrumentation, the electronics and the communication equipment need to support operation in this harsh environment, with expected radiation levels during maintenance up to several MGy. Indeed, there are yet no commercially available electronic devices available off-the-shelf which demonstrated a satisfying operation at these extremely high radiation levels. The main goal of this task is to identify commercially available radiation tolerant technologies, and to design dedicated and integrated electronic circuits, using radiation hardening techniques, both at the topological and architectural level. Within a stepwise approach, we first design circuits with discrete components and look for an equivalent integrated technology. This will enable us to develop innovative instrumentation and communication tools for the next generation of nuclear reactors, where both radiation hardening and miniaturization play a dominant role

  20. Development of multifunctional radiation monitoring instrument based on PLC technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ziqiang; Zhu Yuye; Zhuang Min

    2007-01-01

    This eight-channel multifunctional Radiation Monitoring Instrument is developed by making use of the built-in high-speed counters and the powerful instruction system of the SIEMES SIMATICS S7 series Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) to record and process the pulse signal output by the detectors. The instrument with functions, such as analog and digital display, digital storage of digital data, pulse signal generator, network communication, can connect various types of pulse detectors. The initial process can be translated between Graduation Apparatus method and Formula method. the logicality of the high-dosage warning system is processed itself. The signal output will drive the alarm lights and bell directly. This paper mainly describes the configuration, programming and feature of the instrument. (authors)

  1. Intercomparison of radiation protection instrumentation in a pulsed neutron field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caresana, M., E-mail: marco.caresana@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, CESNEF, Dipartimento di Energia, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Denker, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Esposito, A. [IFNF-LNF, FISMEL, via E. Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Ferrarini, M. [CNAO, Via Privata Campeggi, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Golnik, N. [Institute of Metrology and Biomedical Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Sw. A. Boboli 8, 02-525 Warsaw (Poland); Hohmann, E. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Radiation Metrology Section, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Leuschner, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Luszik-Bhadra, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Manessi, G. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, L69 7ZE Liverpool (United Kingdom); Mayer, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Radiation Metrology Section, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ott, K. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, BESSYII, Albert-Einstein-Str.15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Röhrich, J. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Silari, M. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Trompier, F. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, F-92262 Fontenay aux Roses (France); Volnhals, M.; Wielunski, M. [Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2014-02-11

    In the framework of the EURADOS working group 11, an intercomparison of active neutron survey meters was performed in a pulsed neutron field (PNF). The aim of the exercise was to evaluate the performances of various neutron instruments, including commercially available rem-counters, personal dosemeters and instrument prototypes. The measurements took place at the cyclotron of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH. The cyclotron is routinely used for proton therapy of ocular tumours, but an experimental area is also available. For the therapy the machine accelerates protons to 68 MeV. The interaction of the proton beam with a thick tungsten target produces a neutron field with energy up to about 60 MeV. One interesting feature of the cyclotron is that the beam can be delivered in bursts, with the possibility to modify in a simple and flexible way the burst length and the ion current. Through this possibility one can obtain radiation bursts of variable duration and intensity. All instruments were placed in a reference position and irradiated with neutrons delivered in bursts of different intensity. The analysis of the instrument response as a function of the burst charge (the total electric charge of the protons in the burst shot onto the tungsten target) permitted to assess for each device the dose underestimation due to the time structure of the radiation field. The personal neutron dosemeters were exposed on a standard PMMA slab phantom and the response linearity was evaluated.

  2. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.

  3. Calibration of radiation protection area monitoring instruments in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, I.I.; Youssif, B.E.; Beineen, A.A.; Hassan, M.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents results of measurements for the calibration of radiation protection area monitoring instruments carried out during the period 2006-2008 at Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of Sudan. The work performed included quality assurance measurements, measurements for the dosimeter calibrations and uncertainty analysis. Calibrations were performed using 137 Cs gamma ray sources produced by OB 85 and OB 34/1 gamma calibrators producing air kerma rate that ranged from 10 μGy/h to 50 mGy/h. Area monitoring instruments were calibrated in terms of ambient dose equivalent, H*(10) derived using air kerma to ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficients. Results are presented for 78 area monitoring instruments representing most commonly used types in Sudan. Radioactive check source measurements for the reference chamber showed deviation within 1% limit. The accuracy in the beam output measurements was within 5% internationally considered as acceptable. The results highlighted the importance of radiation protection calibrations. Regulations are further need to ensure safety aspect really meet the required international standards.

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-01-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  5. The introduction of radiation monitor produced by several nuclear instrument factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Liying

    2005-01-01

    The paper introduce some radiation monitor products of several nuclear instrument factories include Xi'an Nuclear Instrument Factory, MGP Instruments Inc, and Canberra Industries Inc. The introduction aspects include the range, configuration, and application of products. So, the paper is reference for the designer with responsibility for radiation monitoring system of new nuclear project. (authors)

  6. Research in radiation monitoring survey instrumentation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blalock, T.V.; Kennedy, E.J.; Phillips, R.G.; Walker, E.W. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Two low-power solid-state prototype readout units were developed, an LED display and a LCD display. This display output was in a bar-graph format, covering four-decades of information, with 10-segments per decade. The displays accept a frequency input, which is standardly available from several portable radiation-survey instruments. Both readout units will operate on two D-cell batteries (3.0 Volt), with a typical current drain requirement of 0.3 MA for the LED display and 30μA for the LCD display. A wide-range electrometer circuit was also developed. The circuit covers an input current range from 10 -13 A to 10 -8 A. The output signal is a pulse whose frequency is directly proportional to input current. The circuit requires no high-megohm resistors, and is autoranging. Several candidate input amplifiers were analyzed and evaluated for use with the electrometer circuit

  7. Sampled data spectroscopy (SDS): A new technology for radiation instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, D.M.C.

    1992-01-01

    A new instrumentation architecture for radiation spectroscopy is in the early stages of development at Savannah River. Based upon the same digital sampling techniques used in sonar and radar, sampled data spectroscopy (SDS) has produced Na(I)/PMT spectra with resolution comparable to conventional PHA systems. This work has laid the foundation for extending SDS techniques to solid state detector applications as well. Two-dimensional SDS processes raw, unintegrated detector output pulses to produce both energy and shape information that is used to construct a conventional energy spectrum. System advantages include zero electronic deadtime to support very high count rates, elimination of pulse pile-up peaks, high noise immunity, and digital system stability and reliability. Small size and low power requirements make 2-D SDS anideal technology for portable instrumentation and remote monitoring applications. Applications of potential interest at Savannah River include on-the-spot spill analysis, real-time waste stream monitoring, and personnel and area monitoring below background levels. A three-dimensional sampled data architecture is also being developed. Relying on image analysis and enhancement techniques, 3-D SDS identifies spectral peaks without determining the energy of any individual detector pulses. These techniques also open up a new avenue of exploration for reducing or removing Compton effects from the spectra of single detector systems. The intended application for this technique is waste characterization where lower energy isotopes are often obscured by the Compton scattering from dominant isotopes such as Csl37

  8. Intercomparison of radiation protection instrumentation in a pulsed neutron field

    CERN Document Server

    Caresana, M; Esposito, A; Ferrarini, M; Golnik, N; Hohmann, E; Leuschner, A; Luszik-Bhadra, M; Manessi, G; Mayer, S; Ott, K; Röhrich, J; Silari, M; Trompier, F; Volnhals, M; Wielunski, M

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the EURADOS working group 11, an intercomparison of active neutron survey meters was performed in a pulsed neutron field (PNF). The aim of the exercise was to evaluate the performances of various neutron instruments, including commercially available rem-counters, personal dosemeters and instrument prototypes. The measurements took place at the cyclotron of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH. The cyclotron is routinely used for proton therapy of ocular tumours, but an experimental area is also available. For the therapy the machine accelerates protons to 68 MeV. The interaction of the proton beam with a thick tungsten target produces a neutron field with energy up to about 60 MeV. One interesting feature of the cyclotron is that the beam can be delivered in bursts, with the possibility to modify in a simple and flexible way the burst length and the ion current. Through this possibility one can obtain radiation bursts of variable duration and intensity. All instru...

  9. Survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring: major update. Volume 3. Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    This is the third volume of a four-volume (seven-part) series, the culmination of a comprehensive survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Consideration is given to instruments and techniques presently in use and to those developed for other purposes but having possible applications to radiation monitoring. The results of the survey are given as descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Information is also given regarding the pollutants to be monitored, their characteristics and forms, their sources and pathways, their effects on the ecosystem, and the means of controlling them through process and regulatory controls. The discussion is presented under sections entitled radiation sources; instrumentation: by type of radiation or instrument type; and, instrumentation for specific radionuclides. (JGB)

  10. Survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring: major update. Volume 3. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This is the third volume of a four-volume (seven-part) series, the culmination of a comprehensive survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Consideration is given to instruments and techniques presently in use and to those developed for other purposes but having possible applications to radiation monitoring. The results of the survey are given as descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Information is also given regarding the pollutants to be monitored, their characteristics and forms, their sources and pathways, their effects on the ecosystem, and the means of controlling them through process and regulatory controls. The discussion is presented under sections entitled radiation sources; instrumentation: by type of radiation or instrument type; and, instrumentation for specific radionuclides

  11. INSTRUMENTATION FOR MEASURING AND TRANSMISSION THE SOLAR RADIATION THROUGH EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan Toma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sun's energy is distributed over a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum and Sun behaves approximately like a "blackbody" radiating at a temperature of about 5800 K with maximum output in the green-yellow part of the visible spectrum, around 500 nm. Not all solar radiation reaching the top of the atmosphere reaches Earth's surface due to a various optical phenomena in regard to solar radiation crossing the Earth’s atmosphere. In order to investigate them, there are two general categories of instruments used to measure the transmission of solar radiation through Earth's atmosphere: instruments that measure radiation from the entire sky and instruments that measure only direct solar radiation. Within each of these categories, instruments can be further subdivided into those that measure radiation over a broad range of wavelengths and those that measure only specific wavelengths.

  12. Modern instrumentation for radiation introscopic testing of welding quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnin, F.R.

    1985-01-01

    Modern instrumenlation used for radiation introscopy of welded joints is discussed. the absolute (relative) sensitivity of radiation testing, resolution range, efficiency are considered as basic parameters of introscopes. The characteristics of fluoroscopes, radiation-television installations with the external scintillator and radiative image converter as well as with X-ray vidicons are given. The characterisitcs of radiation introscopes with manipulators to move objects being tested are analysed as well as digitized radiation introscopes

  13. Tamper and radiation resistant instrumentation for safeguarding special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, B.B.; Wells, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    A tamper-resistant liquid level/accountability instrumentation system for safeguards use has been developed and tested. The tests demonstrate the accuracy of liquid level measurement using TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry) techniques and the accuracy of differential pressure and temperature measurements utilizing a custom designed liquid level sensor probe. The calibrated liquid level, differential pressure, and temperature data provide sufficient information to accurately determine volume, density, and specific gravity. Test solutions used include ordinary tap water, diluted nitric acid in varying concentrations, and diluted uranium trioxide also in varying concentrations. System operations and preliminary test results conducted at the General Electric Midwest Fuel Recovery Plant and the National Bureau of Standards, respectively, suggest that the system will provide the safeguards inspector with an additional tool for real-time independent verification of normal operations and special nuclear materials accountancy data for chemical reprocessing plants. This paper discusses the system design concepts, including a brief description of the tamper and radiation resistant features, the preliminary test results, and the significance of the work

  14. Experience of the use of radiation measuring instruments for Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, S.; Ohshima, T.; Kawaguti, H.

    1994-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, among a series of international cooperations, also from our company T.OHSHIMA visited Russia in October, 1991 as a member of the USSR and Japan Joint Specialist Meeting on Environmental Radiation and Shelter Structure of Chernobyl-4 Nuclear Power Plant, and a few members including H.KAWAGUTI visited there in December, 1991 for the handling instructions of the apparatus delivered to Sasagawa Memorial Health Cooperation Foundation. During these visits to Russia they carried electronic personal dosimeters and pocketsize dose ratemeters, measured the doses and dose rate of some areas including the actual polluted areas and gained interesting data. Especially T.OHSHIMA entered the turbine structure of Chernobyl No.4 Reactor and experienced 7m Sv/h. I introduce these measurement data and the instruments used for the measurement. Also H.KAWAGUTI and others explained the maintenance and handling of the whole body counter loaded into the medical examination car offered to Russia for Chernobyl Sasagawa Medical Care Cooperation Project of Sasagawa Memorial Health Cooperation Foundation. I introduce the outline of this medical examination car laying stress on the whole body counter and present a part of the data by the whole body counter measured during the medical care cooperation. (author)

  15. On the radiative and thermodynamic properties of the cosmic radiations using COBE FIRAS instrument data: I. Cosmic microwave background radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisenko, Anatoliy I.; Lemberg, Vladimir

    2014-07-01

    Using the explicit form of the functions to describe the monopole and dipole spectra of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation, the exact expressions for the temperature dependences of the radiative and thermodynamic functions, such as the total radiation power per unit area, total energy density, number density of photons, Helmholtz free energy density, entropy density, heat capacity at constant volume, and pressure in the finite range of frequencies v 1≤ v≤ v 2 are obtained. Since the dependence of temperature upon the redshift z is known, the obtained expressions can be simply presented in z representation. Utilizing experimental data for the monopole and dipole spectra measured by the COBE FIRAS instrument in the 60-600 GHz frequency interval at the temperature T=2.72548 K, the values of the radiative and thermodynamic functions, as well as the radiation density constant a and the Stefan-Boltzmann constant σ are calculated. In the case of the dipole spectrum, the constants a and σ, and the radiative and thermodynamic properties of the CMB radiation are obtained using the mean amplitude T amp=3.358 mK. It is shown that the Doppler shift leads to a renormalization of the radiation density constant a, the Stefan-Boltzmann constant σ, and the corresponding constants for the thermodynamic functions. The expressions for new astrophysical parameters, such as the entropy density/Boltzmann constant, and number density of CMB photons are obtained. The radiative and thermodynamic properties of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation for the monopole and dipole spectra at redshift z≈1089 are calculated.

  16. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, G.; Colsher, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reviews the parameters which are important to positron-imaging instruments. It summarizes the options which various groups have explored in designing tomographs and the methods which have been developed to overcome some of the limitations inherent in the technique as well as in present instruments. The chapter is not presented as a defense of positron imaging versus single-photon or other imaging modality, neither does it contain a description of various existing instruments, but rather stresses their common properties and problems. Design parameters which are considered are resolution, sampling requirements, sensitivity, methods of eliminating scattered radiation, random coincidences and attenuation. The implementation of these parameters is considered, with special reference to sampling, choice of detector material, detector ring diameter and shielding and variations in point spread function. Quantitation problems discussed are normalization, and attenuation and random corrections. Present developments mentioned are noise reduction through time-of-flight-assisted tomography and signal to noise improvements through high intrinsic resolution. Extensive bibliography. (U.K.)

  17. Parallel Study of HEND, RAD, and DAN Instrument Response to Martian Radiation and Surface Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiniez Sierra, Luz Maria; Jun, Insoo; Litvak, Maxim; Sanin, Anton; Mitrofanov, Igor; Zeitlin, Cary

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear detection methods are being used to understand the radiation environment at Mars. JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) assets on Mars include: Orbiter -2001 Mars Odyssey [High Energy Neutron Detector (HEND)]; Mars Science Laboratory Rover -Curiosity [(Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD); Dynamic Albedo Neutron (DAN))]. Spacecraft have instruments able to detect ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Instrument response on orbit and on the surface of Mars to space weather and local conditions [is discussed] - Data available at NASA-PDS (Planetary Data System).

  18. Sri Lanka, Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. For this special view heights below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events. Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania. The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of the hill country to the

  19. Application of Gamma Radiation to Enhance Heavy Metals Removal Efficiency to Bacteria Isolated from Ronpiboon District, Nakhon Sri Thamarat Province, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrasungkha, Nugul; Wisapan, Walakon; Piadang, Nattayana

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate soil bacteria capable to te move 4 heavy metals, namely, arsenic (As(III)), lead Pb(II) and cadmium f ron old tin mine in Ronpiboon district, Nakhon Sri Thamarat. It was found that there were bacteria which capable to resist arsenic, lead and copper 11, 15, 8 and 2 ileitis, respectively[evacuate;y. The arsenic removal efficiency of these bacteria was evaluated at the low concentration of 1 u g/l. with the results of 7-61%. The lead and copper removal efficiencies at 10 mg/l were found at the range pf 9-98% and 8-40%, respectively. Six isolates of bacteria (KRD, KRH, KRM, KCD13 and KCD14) were selected to be irradiated by gamma radiation at the levels of 2-10 kGy. The heavy metals resistance was found increase in the range of of 125-16% for arsenic, 0-50% for copper, 0-18% for lead and 0-17% for cadmium, respectively. Also ut was found that the low temperature at 4 and -40 degree Celsius can prolong the bacterial survival up to 6 months. Later the arsenic removal experiment in liquid medium was conducted and it was found that the mutants can perform slightly better than wild type only >17%. It was due to the initial concentration of arsenic was too high (10 mg/l). The preliminary study of arsenic removal in soil was also conducted using pack-bed reactor. We found the proper ratio of pack material (soil and gravel) was 1:1 to promote the liquid and air circulation. The suitable medium was found to be acidified mo lass solution which were found promote the growth of tested bacterial isolates.

  20. Design and development of an instrument to measure radiative absorption of seawater. Sumarad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasano, G.; Materassi, A.

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, a low-cost instrument is presented that provides the ratio between underwater radiation and radiation outside water for the four spectral ranges fundamental for photosynthetic activity (Sub Marine Radiometer). The instrument essentially consists of two radiometers which operate in the same four bands: one acquires radiation outside the water, the other underwater radiation at a pre-established depth. The two acquisition systems are synchronized when the instrument is turned on and then, in the course of data elaboration, the ratio is obtained between underwater and outside water radiation for each spectral band, at any determined moment, at a predetermined depth. This ratio, in accordance with the Beer-Lambert equation, represents the transmittance of the medium crossed by radiation. By applying the Linke equation to collected data, it is also possible to determine the turbidity of the considered medium. The system can acquire as many as 1,472 data, with programmable temporal scanning, and can operate at depths up to 50 meters. Applications of this instrument are already in progress in studies concerning the relationship between solar radiation and photosynthetic activity of Posidonia oceanica. The proposed instrument has a relatively low cost, when compared with that of other instruments currently on the market, making it particularly suitable for applications that require numerous instruments to monitor sea, lacustrine or fluvial water in various points at the same time [it

  1. Legal verification of the dosimetric instrumentation using for radiation protection in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walwyn, A.; Morales, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    By April of 1998 the Decree law 183 of Metrology was published at the Gaceta Oficial de la Republica de Cuba. It establishes the principles and general regulations for the organisation and juridical system of the metrological activity in Cuba. In the radiation protection field this legislation promote the establishment of a verification service of radiation measuring instruments used in the practices with radiation sources in the country. The limitations of old Cuban standards of verification related to dosimetric quantities and to the types of instruments for those which these standards are applicable; and in addition, the publication of new international standards that includes the operational quantities used for the measurement of instruments, led to the elaboration of the X and Gamma Radiation Meters Used in Radiation Protection standard. The requirements of metrological aptitude are taken from some test procedures described in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards on photon monitoring equipment. The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of the Centre for Radiation Protection and Higiene will start the verification service of Radiation Protection instruments. The beginning of the service is an essential element in the improvement of the accuracy of ionisation radiation metrology in Cuba, and have an evident impact in the protection of the occupationally exposed workers, because having the instruments in good technical condition became a legal exigency to the users of ionisation radiation

  2. Radiation protection instrumentation at the Andalusian health service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrador Cordoba, M.; Garcia Rotllan, J.

    1997-01-01

    In Andalusia the contributions of radiological risks in the nuclear industry and of natural radiation are small and the same holds for medical applications of individuals and research. The performance models in radiation protection is monitored by the Andalusian Health Service through the public health institutions. This short communication describes the model and results obtained

  3. Radiation protection instrumentation for personnel dosimetry, area and environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.R.

    1978-04-01

    Several kinds of personal dosimeter exist and their performance is reviewed in the light of requirements for an ideal instrument. The requirements of portable instruments are reviewed and the extent to which they are met in one example is described. Where permitted environmental doses are larger than the fluctuations in natural backgrounds, certain types of thermoluminescent dosimeters provide a cheaper and reliable alternative measuring system

  4. Tesla VUPJT instruments for radiation monitoring of working environment and selected aplications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slezak, V.; Kula, J.; Novakova, O.; Jursova, L.; Severa, L.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is presented of the current state of development and production of instruments for ionizing radiation monitoring and detection, also listing possible applications in the national economy. (author)

  5. Standards for radiation protection instrumentation: design of safety standards and testing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes by means of examples the role of safety standards for radiation protection and the testing and qualification procedures. The development and qualification of radiation protection instrumentation is a significant part of the work of TUV NORD SysTec, an independent expert organisation in Germany. The German Nuclear Safety Standards Commission (KTA) establishes regulations in the field of nuclear safety. The examples presented may be of importance for governments and nuclear safety authorities, for nuclear operators and for manufacturers worldwide. They demonstrate the advantage of standards in the design of radiation protection instrumentation for new power plants, in the upgrade of existing instrumentation to nuclear safety standards or in the application of safety standards to newly developed equipment. Furthermore, they show how authorities may proceed when safety standards for radiation protection instrumentation are not yet established or require actualization. (author)

  6. Challenges in Establishing New Regulatory Body in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikkaduwa Liyanage, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Sri Lanka's involvement with Nuclear Science and Technology began in 1957 when it became a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency. This was followed by the establishment of the Radioisotope Centre of the University of Colombo in 1962 and the establishment of the Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) in 1969 by the Atomic Energy Authority Act no. 19 of 1969. The Atomic Energy Authority Act delegated two main responsibilities to the AEA, namely, promotion of the utilization of nuclear technology for the benefit of the people of Sri Lanka, and protection of workers engaged in using radiation and radioisotopes and the public from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Until 2014, the Atomic Energy Authority functioned as the national regulatory authority on use of radiation and radioisotopes, the national organization responsible for facilitating the use of nuclear technology in medical, industrial and agricultural sectors and as the focal point of the International Atomic Energy Agency in Sri Lanka. With the expansion of uses of radiation in Sri Lanka and commencement of use of high activity sources by the AEA for development and business activities, the need for an independent regulatory authority was realized. The importance of establishment of independent regulatory body for Sri Lanka was also emphasized by the IAEA in several advisory missions conducted in Sri Lanka and as results; a new Act on Atomic Energy was promulgated.

  7. Establishment of 137Cs radiation fields for instrument calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, M. da P.P.; Caldas, L.V.E.; Xavier, M.

    1988-09-01

    In order to study the energy dependence of clinical dosemeters, systems constituted of ionization chambers connected to special electrometers, many times their calibration with the gamma radiation of 137 Cs is necessary. In this case, the radiation field characterization is fundamental. The source used presents and activity of 38,8 Tbq and belongs to the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. Dosimetric films, gammagraphy films, ionization chambers and Lucite phantons were used. At the calibration distance, 80 cm (detector-source detection), the homogeneity of a 10 X 10 cm 2 radiation field was equal 68%. (author) [pt

  8. Conception of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Measurement (LACIMRI) of CTMSP - Sao Paulo, SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Raimundo Dias da; Kibrit, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The present work describes the phases of implantation of calibration laboratory of ionizing radiation measurement instruments at the CTMSP, Sao Paulo, in a priory approved by CNEN, Brazil. That laboratory will allow and enhance the present metrological capacity for the attendance to the growing demand for calibration services of the instruments

  9. Trends in instrumentation for environmental radiation measurements at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiebert, R.D.; Wolf, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Recent instruments developed to fulfill radiation monitoring needs at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory are described. Laboratory instruments that measure tritium gas effluents alone, or in the presence of activated air from D-T fusion reactors are discussed. Fully portable systems for gamma, x-ray, and alpha analyses in the field are described. Also included are descriptions of survey instruments that measure low levels of transuranic contaminants and that measure pulsed-neutron dose rates

  10. IAEA eLearning Program: The Use of Radiation Detection Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains a computer based training on Radiation Detection Techniques for Nuclear Security Applications. The IAEA Nuclear Security eLearning tool offers computer based training to Frontline Officers to improve their understanding about key elements of the use of radiation detection instruments. The eLearning program prepares Frontline Officers for the IAEA Detection and Response Frontline Officer course

  11. MGR COMPLIANCE PROGRAM GUIDANCE PACKAGE FOR RADIATION PROTECTION EQUIPMENT, INSTRUMENTATION, AND FACILITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Compliance Program Guidance Package identifies the regulatory guidance and industry codes and standards addressing radiation protection equipment, instrumentation, and support facilities considered to be appropriate for radiation protection at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Included are considerations relevant to radiation monitoring instruments, calibration, contamination control and decontamination, respiratory protection equipment, and general radiation protection facilities. The scope of this Guidance Package does not include design guidance relevant to criticality monitoring, area radiation monitoring, effluent monitoring, and airborne radioactivity monitoring systems since they are considered to be the topics of specific design and construction requirements (i.e., ''fixed'' or ''built-in'' systems). This Guidance Package does not address radiation protection design issues; it addresses the selection and calibration of radiation monitoring instrumentation to the extent that the guidance is relevant to the operational radiation protection program. Radon and radon progeny monitoring instrumentation is not included in the Guidance Package since such naturally occurring radioactive materials do not fall within the NRC's jurisdiction at the MGR

  12. Three Canted Radiator Panels to Provide Adequate Cooling for Instruments on Slewing Spacecraft in LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    Certain free-flying spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) or payloads on the International Space Station (ISS) are required to slew to point the telescopes at targets. Instrument detectors and electronics require cooling. Traditionally a planar thermal radiator is used. The temperature of such a radiator varies significantly when the spacecraft slews because its view factors to space vary significantly. Also for payloads on the ISS, solar impingement on the radiator is possible. These thermal adversities could lead to inadequate cooling for the instrument. This paper presents a novel thermal design concept that utilizes three canted radiator panels to mitigate this problem. It increases the overall radiator view factor to cold space and reduces the overall solar or albedo flux absorbed per unit area of the radiator.

  13. Intercomparison of radiation protection instruments based on microdosimetric principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, G.; Guldbakke, S.; Kluge, H.; Schmitz, T.

    1986-11-01

    Dosemeters based on low-pressure tissue-equivalent proportional counters were developed for the application in radiation protection area monitoring by several groups in Europe. Five different prototypes have been intercompared in a 60 Co photon field, in monoenergetic neutron fields with various energies between 73 keV and 5 MeV and in three neutron fields at a 252 Cf source moderated by a D 2 O sphere. This report describes the radiation fields, the measuring devices and first results of the intercomparison. Additional measurements with a system used in microdosimetry and with a conventional dose equivalent rate meter for neutrons (Rem Counter) were also described. (orig.) [de

  14. Present status of nuclear science education and training in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewamanna, R.

    2007-01-01

    Like others Sri Lankans too have fear of nuclear radiation, probably because of the weak system of proper radiation education. Some National Institutes and few Universities are involved in nuclear science teaching and research. There are two major levels of obtaining radiation or nuclear education and training in Sri Lanka : the University and training courses in nuclear related technology and radiation protection offered by the Atomic Energy Authority of the Ministry of Science and Technology. This paper summarizes the status, some of the activities and problems of radiation education in Sri Lanka. (author)

  15. Determination of alternative conditions for instruments calibration with beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, F.D.G.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of homogenization filter in the determination of chamber calibration factors and transmission factors of beta radiation in air, for obtaining different alternative conditions for beta-gamma portable monitors calibration was studied, using an extrapolation chamber and the beta secondary system at IPEN-CNEN-Brazil. (C.G.C.)

  16. Design of autotrack detecting instrument for solar UV radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangtao; Mao, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jing

    2009-11-01

    In order to autotrack the object and detect the solar UV index, a reliable real-time high-precise instrument is proposed in this paper. This instrument involves two subsystems: the autotrack and detecting modules. The autotrack module consists of four-quadrant photo detector, multi-channel signal processing circuit and precise stepping system. The detecting module designed for dada measurement and acquisition is made up of the ultraviolet sensor UV460 and high precision A/D converter MAX1162. The key component of the entire instrument is ultralow-power microprocessor MSP430 which is used for entire system controlling and data processing. The lower system of autotracking and measurement is communicated with upper PC computer by RS232 module. In the experiment, the tracking precision of two-dimensional motion revolving stage is calibrated to be less than 0.05°. Experimental results indicate that the system designed could realize the precise autotracking and detecting function well, and the measure precision of system has reached the desirable target.

  17. International Intervention in Intra-State Conflicts: The Case in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    the adult franchise .43 With this decision, a controversial question arose about who should be given the voting privilege. The Indian Tamils, who...therefore, of its defense. It possesses unrivalled geographical advantages . Consider its radiating distances towards the west and East, Sri Lanka’s central...with a antagonist attitude in Sri Lankan affairs over strategic concerns. British involvement in Sri Lanka was strategically disadvantageous for

  18. Radiation shielding and health physics instrumentation for PET medical cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Modern Medical Cyclotrons produce a variety of short-lived positron emitting PET radioisotopes, and as a result are the source of intense neutron and gamma radiations. Since such cyclotrons are housed within hospitals or medical clinics, there is significant potential for un-intentional exposure to staff or patients in proximity to cyclotron facilities. Consequently, the radiological hazards associated with Cyclotrons provide the impetus for an effective radiological shielding and continuous monitoring of various radiation levels in the cyclotron environment. Management of radiological hazards is of paramount importance for the safe operation of a Medical Cyclotron facility. This work summarised the methods of shielding calculations for a compact hospital based Medical Cyclotron currently operating in Canada, USA and Australia. The design principle and operational history of a real-time health physics monitoring system (Watchdog) operating at a large multi-energy Medical Cyclotron is also highlighted

  19. IDRC in Sri Lanka

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    in 600 Sri Lankan and 4,000 Indian plantations ... Building a culture of evaluation ... this need in South Asia, universities in ... The boundaries and names shown on the map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by IDRC. Y. O. SE. F.

  20. Collection of radiation resistant characteristics reports for instruments and materials in high dose rate environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusano, Joichi

    2008-03-01

    This document presents the collected official reports of radiation irradiation study for the candidate materials to be used in high dose rate environment as J-PARC facility. The effect of radiation damage by loss-beam or secondary particle beam of the accelerators influences the performance and the reliability of various instruments. The knowledge on the radiation resistivity of the materials is important to estimate the life of the equipments, the maintenance interval and dose evaluation for the personnel at the maintenance period. The radiation damage consists with mechanical property, electrical property and gas-evolution property. (author)

  1. Promoting Nature-Based Tourism for Management of Protected Areas and Elephant Conservation in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Sri Lanka's ten-year development framework aims at accelerating economic growth while ensuring a path of sustainable development and prioritizing conservation of the country's natural heritage. It is in this context that this policy note seeks to examine the scope for enhancing protection of Sri Lanka's natural assets through nature based tourism as an instrument for conservation with a sp...

  2. Building 772 - CERN’s new calibration facility for radiation protection instruments is ready to go

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Building 772 is becoming the new home of CERN’s calibration facility for radiation protection instrumentation. The new laboratory in Prévessin will be a state-of-the-art calibration facility and the first of its kind in both France and Switzerland, offering a wide range of possibilities with respect to radiation fields and instrumentation.   New four-axis calibration bench for radiation protection instruments.   Civil engineering work started in November 2013 in Prévessin and Building 772 is now finished and ready for inauguration. CERN’s calibration facility was previously located in Building 172 in Meyrin. Although still very accurate, the technology used was becoming obsolete and needed replacement. “Having considered different options, the decision was taken to build a new facility fully designed and conceived to meet all international safety and technical requirements of such a laboratory,” says Pie...

  3. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, G.; Nadi, M.; Hedjiedj, A.; Weber, S.

    1995-01-01

    This second chapter on instrumentation gives little general consideration on history and classification of instrumentation, and two specific states of the art. The first one concerns NMR (block diagram of instrumentation chain with details on the magnets, gradients, probes, reception unit). The first one concerns precision instrumentation (optical fiber gyro-meter and scanning electron microscope), and its data processing tools (programmability, VXI standard and its history). The chapter ends with future trends on smart sensors and Field Emission Displays. (D.L.). Refs., figs

  4. The geostationary Earth radiation budget (GERB) instrument on EUMETSAT's MSG satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, M. C. W.; Allan, P. M.; Caldwell, M. E.; Delderfield, J.; Oliver, M. B.; Sawyer, E.; Harries, J. E.; Ashmall, J.; Brindley, H.; Kellock, S.; Mossavati, R.; Wrigley, R.; Llewellyn-Jones, D.; Blake, O.; Butcher, G.; Cole, R.; Nelms, N.; DeWitte, S.; Gloesener, P.; Fabbrizzi, F.

    2003-12-01

    Geostationary Earth radiation budget (GERB) is an Announcement of Opportunity Instrument for EUMETSAT's Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. GERB will make accurate measurements of the Earth Radiation Budget from geostationary orbit, provide an absolute reference calibration for LEO Earth radiation budget instruments and allow studies of the energetics of atmospheric processes. By operating from geostationary orbit, measurements may be made many times a day, thereby providing essentially perfect diurnal sampling of the radiation balance between reflected and emitted radiance for that area of the globe within the field of view. GERB will thus complement other instruments which operate in low orbit and give complete global coverage, but with poor and biased time resolution. GERB measures infrared radiation in two wavelength bands: 0.32-4.0 and 0.32- 30 μm, with a pixel element size of 44 km at sub-satellite point. This paper gives an overview of the project and concentrates on the design and development of the instrument and ground testing and calibration, and lessons learnt from a short time scale low-budget project. The instrument was delivered for integration on the MSG platform in April 1999 ready for the proposed launch in October 2000, which has now been delayed probably to early 2002. The ground segment is being undertaken by RAL and RMIB and produces near real-time data for meteorological applications in conjunction with the main MSG imager—SEVERI. Climate research and other applications which are being developed under a EU Framework IV pilot project will be served by fully processed data. Because of the relevance of the observations to climate change, it is planned to maintain an operating instrument in orbit for at least 3.5 years. Two further GERB instruments are being built for subsequent launches of MSG.

  5. Synchrotron radiation and structure biology. From the instrumentation view point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakabe, N.

    1996-01-01

    Structure Biology is based on a three dimensional macromolecule structures, the most of which are studied by x-ray crystal structure analysis. Synchrotron radiation X-rays are quite strong, tunable, very parallel and pico-second order bunch and are very suitable for diffraction data collection of macromolecular crystals. To collect accurate data at high resolution from large unit cell protein crystals using SR, we made screenless large Weissenberg cameras with imaging plates at the PF. 146 research projects using this data collection system were running in 1995. They include 51 projects from 11 overseas countries. Recently we have developed user-friendly type Weissenberg camera for the structure biology project of TARA (Tsukuba Advanced Research Alliance), and installed it at BL6B of the PF. Cylindrical cassette radius of this new camera is 575.7mm and two large format (400x800mm) imaging plates (IP) can be fixed into the cassette by suction from back side. However, the system is not automatic and manual tasks to be performed are heavy. Therefore an automation of the system is very urgent to maintain accuracy and resolution. We are now developing a high accuracy, high resolution and high speed automated data collection system. This fully automated system consists of a camera, an IP reader equipped with 8 reading heads, an IP eraser, and a cassette transportation mechanism. In the new system, one imaging plate is fixed inside of a movable cylindrical cassette. The cassette presenting 16 rectangular holes, direct beam injection of i.e. 1.0A X-rays would produce 8 images of data at 2.6A resolutions. As 2 cassettes can be used simultaneously on the cassette transportation system, one cassette is being read while the other one is being exposed, therefore completely removing the reading bottleneck problem. This system therefore permits to use the radiation with the maximum of efficiency, and reduce the manpower necessary for data recording. (author)

  6. Calibration methodology for instruments utilized in X radiation beams, diagnostic level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penha, M. da; Potiens, A.; Caldas, L.V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: mppalbu@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    Methodologies for the calibration of diagnostic radiology instruments were established at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. The methods may be used in the calibration procedures of survey meters used in radiation protection measurements (scattered radiation), instruments used in direct beams (attenuated and non attenuated beams) and quality control instruments. The established qualities are recommended by the international standards IEC 1267 and ISO 4037-3. Two ionization chambers were used as reference systems, one with a volume of 30 cm{sup 3} for radiation protection measurements, and the other with a volume of 1 cm{sup 3} for direct beam measurements. Both are traceable to the German Primary Laboratory of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). In the case of calibration of quality control instruments, a non-invasive method using the measurement of the spectrum endpoint was established with a portable gamma and X-ray Intertechnique spectrometer system. The methods were applied to survey meters (radiation protection measurements), ionization chambers (direct beam measurements) and k Vp meters (invasive and non-invasive instruments). (Author)

  7. Calibration methodology for instruments utilized in X radiation beams, diagnostic level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penha, M. da; Potiens, A.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    2004-01-01

    Methodologies for the calibration of diagnostic radiology instruments were established at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. The methods may be used in the calibration procedures of survey meters used in radiation protection measurements (scattered radiation), instruments used in direct beams (attenuated and non attenuated beams) and quality control instruments. The established qualities are recommended by the international standards IEC 1267 and ISO 4037-3. Two ionization chambers were used as reference systems, one with a volume of 30 cm 3 for radiation protection measurements, and the other with a volume of 1 cm 3 for direct beam measurements. Both are traceable to the German Primary Laboratory of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). In the case of calibration of quality control instruments, a non-invasive method using the measurement of the spectrum endpoint was established with a portable gamma and X-ray Intertechnique spectrometer system. The methods were applied to survey meters (radiation protection measurements), ionization chambers (direct beam measurements) and k Vp meters (invasive and non-invasive instruments). (Author)

  8. Measurement of radiation dose with a PC-based instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jangland, L.; Neubeck, R.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate in what way the introduction of Digital Subtraction Angiography has influenced absorbed doses to the patient and personnel. Calculation of the energy imparted to the patient, ε, was based on measurements of the dose-area product, tube potential and tube current which were registered with a PC-based instrument. The absorbed doses to the personnel were measured with TLD. The measurements on the personnel were made only at the digital system. The results indicate large variations in ε between different types of angiographic examinations of the same type. The total ε were similar on both systems, although the relative contribution from image acquisition and fluoroscopy were different. At the conventional system fluoroscopy and image acquisition contributed almost equally to the total ε. At the digital system 25% of the total ε was due to fluoroscopy and 75% to image acquisition. The differences were due to longer fluoroscopic times on the conventional system, mainly due to lack of image memory and road mapping, and lower ε/image, due to lower dose settings to the film changer compared to the image intensifier on the digital system. 11 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs

  9. Instrument evaluation no. 5. Wallac OY universal radiation survey meter type RD-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.F.; Blundell, D.R.; Callowhill, K.; Iles, W.J.

    1976-05-01

    The Wallace RD-8 is a portable, battery-operated survey meter covering an exposure rate range from 0.01 mR/h to 300 R/h. The instrument was designed specifically for military and civil defence applications and is accordingly of particularly rugged construction and claimed to be both waterproof and shockproof. This instrument is unusual in that it has two internally mounted radiation detectors. An end-window GM tube is used to cover the range from 0.01 to 300 mR/h, and a GM tube covers the range from 0.01 to 300 R/h. Both tubes have energy compensation sheaths for the measurement of photon radiation in the forward direction. Only the first tube permits the measurement of β-radiation. The information is given under the following headings; Facilities and controls; radiation characteristics; electrical characteristics; environmental characteristics; mechanical characteristics; summary of performance; calibration procedure; conclusions. (U.K.)

  10. Paper on operation and maintenance experiences on radiation monitoring instrumentation at NAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, J.P.; Vinod Kumar; Sen, S.K.; Malhotra, S.

    2005-01-01

    Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) is the first standardized Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor in India commissioned in the year 1989. Many new Radiation Monitoring Systems like Portal Monitors and Ventilation Exhaust Activity Monitors were first time introduced at NAPS. All the Personnel Contamination Monitors and Area Radiation Monitors used at NAPS were designed and developed by Electronics Division, BARC. Only the Portal Monitor was supplied by M/S Herfurth, Germany. The paper highlights the operation and maintenance experiences on Radiation Monitoring Instrumentation at NAPS in the last 15 years of operation. The paper also highlights the different problems faced in Radiation Instruments and our suggestions for improvement in their design for their better availability and long term reliability. (author)

  11. The radiation budget of stratocumulus clouds measured by tethered balloon instrumentation: Variability of flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, David P.; Stephens, Graeme L.; Cox, Stephen K.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of longwave and shortwave radiation were made using an instrument package on the NASA tethered balloon during the FIRE Marine Stratocumulus experiment. Radiation data from two pairs of pyranometers were used to obtain vertical profiles of the near-infrared and total solar fluxes through the boundary layer, while a pair of pyrgeometers supplied measurements of the longwave fluxes in the cloud layer. The radiation observations were analyzed to determine heating rates and to measure the radiative energy budget inside the stratocumulus clouds during several tethered balloon flights. The radiation fields in the cloud layer were also simulated by a two-stream radiative transfer model, which used cloud optical properties derived from microphysical measurements and Mie scattering theory.

  12. Radiation monitoring and measuring instrument developed by Turkish Atomic Energy Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuecuekarslan, N.; Gueven, A.

    2001-01-01

    Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA), Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Nuclear Electronics Department is working on research, development and production of radiation monitoring and measuring instruments in the aims of TAEA to serve our Country. Advanced micro controller technology is used to cover problems of radiation measurement. Control by micro controller enables reliable, stable measurement and display of low level dose rate fields. It makes possible the simultaneous measurement of both dose and dose rate values

  13. Plan for the testing of radiation measurement instrumentation intended for use at an excavation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, R.J.

    1994-11-01

    This plan describes performance tests to be made with ionizing radiation measurement instrumentation designed and built for in-field assay at an excavation site. One instrument measures gross gamma-ray and neutron fields and the other identifies gamma-ray emitting radionuclides and also is capable of assaying for selected hazardous materials. These instruments will be operationally tested to verify that original specifications have been met and performance tested to establish and verify that they have the potential to function as intended at an excavation site

  14. Nuclear radiation monitoring instruments for personnel in nuclear disaster for defence needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, P.K.; Vaijapurkar, S.G.; Yadav, Ashok

    2005-01-01

    Ever since the tragedy of nuclear device exploding over Japan by USA in 1945 awareness exists amongst the armed forces personnel all over the world that a requirement of implementing radiological protection is imminent. Towards this adoption of radiological safety programme is a criterion. In a nuclear war disaster scenario, one encounters initial nuclear radiation (gamma and neutron radiations), gamma radiations from fallout, heat and blast. At certain distances Tanks/ armoured vehicles will survive and 4 R/s radiation level sensing to actuate relays for closing the ports of vehicles is essential, leading to reduction in inhalation, ingestion of fallout radioactivity and reduction in radiation dose received by occupants of the vehicle. Towards this sturdy radiation monitors to indicate gamma dose rate of the order of 1000 R/h, gamma and neutron dosimeters of the order of 1000 cGy with reading instruments are to be developed. These must work in harsh environment and sustain JSS 55555 conditions of army. Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur over past one decade has been involved in developing personnel, area and field monitoring instruments like dosimeters, survey meters, which are useful, acceptable to army personnel, armoured and personnel carrier vehicles, field structures/shelters. Technology transfer after satisfaction of armed forces, product ionisation and supply, maintenance, training has been the endeavor of the DRDO. Herein it is proposed to highlight the techno electronics nuclear radiation monitoring sensors and associated electronics systems developed first time in the country and productionised in bulk for Services for implementing personnel protection. The sensors developed and described are - Radiophotoluminescent Glass (RPLG) for gamma radiation dosimetry , neutron sensitive PIN diode for fast neutron dosimetry, gamma radiation sensitive PIN diode, superheated liquid neutron and gamma sensors. The dosimeter, dose rate meter and field/area instruments are

  15. Radiation protection commissioning of neutron beam instruments at the OPAL research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkes, Alison; Saratsopoulos, John; Deura, Michael; Kenny, Pat

    2008-01-01

    The neutron beam facilities at the 20 MW OPAL Research Reactor were commissioned in 2007 and 2008. The initial suite of eight neutron beam instruments on two thermal neutron guides, two cold neutron guides and one thermal beam port located at the reactor face, together with their associated shielding were progressively installed and commissioned according to their individual project plans. Radiation surveys were systematically conducted as reactor power was raised in a step-wise manner to 20 MW in order to validate instrument shielding design and performance. The performance of each neutron guide was assessed by neutron energy spectrum and flux measurements. The activation of beam line components, decay times assessments and access procedures for Bragg Institute beam instrument scientists were established. The multiple configurations for each instrument and the influence of operating more than one instrument or beamline simultaneously were also tested. Areas of interest were the shielding around the secondary shutters, guide shield and bunker shield interfaces and monochromator doors. The shielding performance, safety interlock checks, improvements, radiation exposures and related radiation protection challenges are discussed. This paper discusses the health physics experience of commissioning the OPAL Research Reactor neutron beam facilities and describes health physics results, actions taken and lessons learned during commissioning. (author)

  16. Legal instruments for controlling exposure of workers to ionizing radiations in mining and its associated industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusoff Ismail

    1994-01-01

    Briefly, the existing legal instruments for protection of workers in mining and its associated activities are given. Further, major provisions of the laws relevant to the protection of workers against ionizing radiations in mining and its associated activities are detailed. Finally, practical framework developed by the Atomic Energy Licensing Board, for implementation and enforcement is described

  17. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umminger, K.

    2008-01-01

    A proper measurement of the relevant single and two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many complex thermal-hydraulic processes. Reliable instrumentation is therefore necessary for the interaction between analysis and experiment especially in the field of nuclear safety research where postulated accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental facilities and predicted by complex computer code systems. The so-called conventional instrumentation for the measurement of e. g. pressures, temperatures, pressure differences and single phase flow velocities is still a solid basis for the investigation and interpretation of many phenomena and especially for the understanding of the overall system behavior. Measurement data from such instrumentation still serves in many cases as a database for thermal-hydraulic system codes. However some special instrumentation such as online concentration measurement for boric acid in the water phase or for non-condensibles in steam atmosphere as well as flow visualization techniques were further developed and successfully applied during the recent years. Concerning the modeling needs for advanced thermal-hydraulic codes, significant advances have been accomplished in the last few years in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow by the application of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. This paper will give insight into the current state of instrumentation technology for safety-related thermohydraulic experiments. Advantages and limitations of some measurement processes and systems will be indicated as well as trends and possibilities for further development. Aspects of instrumentation in operating reactors will also be mentioned.

  18. Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehrer, W.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs

  19. Tissue bank: Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Human degenerative diseases and congenital defects are common throughout the world. Many people suffer also from burns, fractures and nerve damage resulting from traumatic accidents and outbreaks of violence which occur all too frequently, especially in poorer countries. Far too many people are impaired for life because they have no access to treatment or simply cannot afford it. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Division of Nuclear Medicine, to improve facilities at the Sri Lanka Tissue Bank. (IAEA)

  20. Evaluation of radiation protection instrumentation: the C.T.H.I.R.. Poster and booklet for activity presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicheron, G.; Ginisty, C.

    1998-01-01

    Among all the components required for radiation protection optimization, the evaluation of instrumentation is essential. The instrumentation in radiation protection allows to make the surveillance of personnel, installations and environment against the risk bound to radioactive contamination and ionizing radiations. The different devices can give the following functions: ambient dosimetry, (individual and environmental dosimetry), measurement of surface contaminations, air contamination by aerosols or gas, water contamination by liquid wastes,detection of criticality accidents, measurement of samples radioactivity. (N.C.)

  1. Overview of the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment monitoring by Bulgarian build instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachev, Tsvetan; Tomov, Borislav; Matviichuk, Yury; Dimitrov, Plamen; Spurny, Frantisek; Ploc, Ondrej; Uchihori, Yukio; Flueckiger, Erwin; Kudela, Karel; Benton, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Humans are exposed to ionizing radiation all the time, and it is known that it can induce a variety of harmful biological effects. Consequently, it is necessary to quantitatively assess the level of exposure to this radiation as the basis for estimating risks for their health. Spacecraft and aircraft crews are exposed to elevated levels of cosmic radiation of galactic and solar origin and to secondary radiation produced in the atmosphere, the vehicle structure and its contents. The aircraft crew monitoring is required by the following recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (ICRP 1990), the European Union (EU) introduced a revised Basic Safety Standards Directive (EC 1997) which, inter alia, included the exposure to cosmic radiation. This approach has been also adopted in other official documents (NCRP 2002). In this overview we present the results of ground based, mountain peaks, aircraft, balloon and rocket radiation environment monitoring by means of a Si-diode energy deposition spectrometer Liulin type developed first in Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS) for the purposes of the space radiation monitoring at MIR and International Space Station (ISS). These spectrometers-dosemeters are further developed, calibrated and used by scientific groups in different countries. Calibration procedures of them are performed at different accelerators including runs in the CERN high-energy reference field, simulating the radiation field at 10 km altitude in the atmosphere and with heavy ions in Chiba, Japan HIMAC accelerator were performed also. The long term aircraft data base were accumulated using specially developed battery operated instrument in 2001-2009 years onboard of A310-300 aircrafts of Czech Air Lines, during 24 about 2 months runs with more than 2000 flights and 13500 flight hours on routes over the Atlantic Ocean mainly. The obtained experimental data are compared with computational models like CARI and EPCARD. The

  2. Instrumentation measurement and testing complex for detection and identification of radioactive materials using the emitted radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samossadny, V.T.; Dmitrenko, V.V.; Kadlin, V.V.; Kolesnikov, S.V.; Ulin, S.E.; Grachev, V.M.; Vlasik, K.F.; Dedenko, G.L.; Novikov, D.V.; Uteshev, Z.M.

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of neutron and gamma radiation is a very usefull method for effective nuclear materials identification and control. The gamma-ray-neutron complex described in the paper is based on two multi-layer 3 He neutrons detectors and two High Pressure Xenon gamma-ray spectrometers assembled in one unit. All these detectors were callibrated on neutron and gamma-ray sources. The main characteristics of the instrumentation , its testing results and gamma-ray and neutron radiation parameters, which have been measured are represented in the paper. The gamma-neutron sources and fissile materials reliable detection and identification capability was demonstrated

  3. Radiation protection instruments based on tissue equivalent proportional counters: Part II of an international intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, W.G.; Dietz, E.; Guldbakke, S.; Kluge, H.; Schumacher, H.

    1988-04-01

    This report describes the irradiation conditions and procedures of Part II of an international intercomparison of tissue-equivalent proportional counters used for radiation protection measurements. The irradiations took place in monoenergetic reference neutron fields produced by the research reactor and accelerator facilities of the PTB Braunschweig in the range from thermal neutrons to 14.8 MeV. In addition measurements were performed in 60 Co and D 2 O-moderated 252 Cf radiation fields. Prototype instruments from 7 European groups were investigated. The results of the measurements are summarized and compared with the reference data of the irradiations. (orig.) [de

  4. Design and operation of dust measuring instrumentation based on the beta-radiation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilienfeld, P.

    1975-01-01

    The theory, instrument design aspects and applications of beta-radiation attenuation for the measurement of the mass concentration of airborne particulates are reviewed. Applicable methods of particle collection, beta sensing configurations, source ( 63 Ni, 14 C, 147 Pr, 85 Kr) and detector design criteria, electronic signal processing, digital control and instrument programming techniques are treated. Advantages, limitations and error sources of beta-attenuation instrumentation are analyzed. Applications to industrial dust measurements, source testing, ambient monitoring, and particle size analysis are the major areas of practical utilization of this technique, and its inherent capability for automated and unattended operation provides compatibility with process control synchronization and alarm, telemetry, and incorporation into pollution monitoring network sensing stations. (orig.) [de

  5. A historical review of portable health physics instruments and their use in radiation protection programs at Hanford, 1944 through 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, W.P.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Kress, M.L.; Swinth, K.L.; Corbit, C.D.; Zuerner, L.V.; Fleming, D.M.; DeHaven, H.W.

    1989-09-01

    This historical review covers portable health physics instruments at Hanford from an applications viewpoint. The review provides information on specific instruments and on the general kinds of facility work environments in which the instruments have been and are being used. It provides a short, modestly technical explanation of the types of nuclear radiations, the way radiation units are quantified, and the types of nuclear radiations, the way radiation units are quantified, and the types of detection media used in portable health physics instruments. This document does not, however, cover the history of the entire Hanford program that was required to develop and/or modify the subject instruments. 11 refs., 34 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. A historical review of portable health physics instruments and their use in radiation protection programs at Hanford, 1944 through 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, W.P.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Kress, M.L.; Swinth, K.L.; Corbit, C.D.; Zuerner, L.V.; Fleming, D.M.; DeHaven, H.W.

    1989-09-01

    This historical review covers portable health physics instruments at Hanford from an applications viewpoint. The review provides information on specific instruments and on the general kinds of facility work environments in which the instruments have been and are being used. It provides a short, modestly technical explanation of the types of nuclear radiations, the way radiation units are quantified, and the types of nuclear radiations, the way radiation units are quantified, and the types of detection media used in portable health physics instruments. This document does not, however, cover the history of the entire Hanford program that was required to develop and/or modify the subject instruments. 11 refs., 34 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Performance of the HIRS/2 instrument on TIROS-N. [High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, E. W.

    1980-01-01

    The High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS/2) was developed and flown on the TIROS-N satellite as one means of obtaining atmospheric vertical profile information. The HIRS/2 receives visible and infrared spectrum radiation through a single telescope and selects 20 narrow radiation channels by means of a rotating filter wheel. A passive radiant cooler provides an operating temperature of 106.7 K for the HgCdTe and InSb detectors while the visible detector operates at instrument frame temperature. Low noise amplifiers and digital processing provide 13 bit data for spacecraft data multiplexing and transmission. The qualities of system performance that determine sounding capability are the dynamic range of data collection, the noise equivalent radiance of the system, the registration of the air columns sampled in each channel and the ability to upgrade the calibration of the instrument to maintain the performance standard throughout life. The basic features, operating characteristics and performance of the instrument in test are described. Early orbital information from the TIROS-N launched on October 13, 1978 is given and some observations on system quality are made.

  8. Sri Lanka. Spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M N

    1985-01-01

    Sri Lanka, an island country off the southeastern coast of India, populated by an estimated 16.1 million inhabitants, was one of the 1st developing countries to adopt a population policy aimed at reducing population growth and redistributing the population more equitably throughout the country. Population density is high. There are 636 persons/square mile, and 2/3 of the population lives in the southwestern and central regions of the country. Government redistribution policies seek to increase internal migration flows to the drier and less populated areas. The country's birth rate was 27 in 1982, the death rate was 6 in 1981, and the infant mortality rate was 34.4 in 1980. The rate of natural increase in 1982 was 2.1%, and the population growth rate declined from 2.5% prior to 1970 to 1.7% in 1980. The total fertility rate declined between 1963-74 from 5.0-3.4 and then increased to 3.7 in recent years. Given the age structure of the population, the population is expected to continue growing at a high rate in the coming years; however, the age at marriage is increasing and the proportion of young married women in the population is declining, and these trends will have an impact on population growth. These trends are due in part to increased educational and employment opportunities for women. The delay in marriage may also be linked to the dowry system. Given the high rate of poverty, it is difficult for parents to accummulate sufficient resources to provide dowries for their daughters. Sri lanka's economy is predominantly agricultural, with only 15% of the gross national product derived from manufacturing. Approximately 22% of thepopulation lives in urban areas. In 1981 exports totaled US$1.1 billion, and major export items were tea and rubber. In the same year, imports totaled US$1.8 billion and consisted primarily of food, petroleum, and fertilizers. The per capita gross national product was US$320 in 1982. Sri Lanka receives considerable foreign aid, and the

  9. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  10. Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational eXperiment - University of Washington instrumented C-131A aircraft Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TARFOX_UWC131A is the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational eXperiment (TARFOX) - University of Washington instrumented C-131A aircraft data set. The...

  11. Inconsistencies in net radiation estimates from use of several models of instruments in a desert environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kustas, W.P.; Prueger, J.H.; Hipps, L.E.; Hatfield, J.L.; Meek, D.

    1998-01-01

    Studies of surface energy and water balance generally require an accurate estimate of net radiation and its spatial distribution. A project quantifying both short term and seasonal water use of shrub and grass vegetation in the Jornada Experimental Range in New Mexico prompted a study to compare net radiation observations using two types of net radiometers currently being used in research. A set of 12 REBS net radiometers were compared with each other and one Swissteco, over wet and dry surfaces in an arid landscape under clear skies. The set of REBS exhibited significant differences in output over both surfaces. However, they could be cross calibrated to yield values within 10 W m −2 , on average. There was also a significant bias between the REBS and Swissteco over a dry surface, but not over a wet one. The two makes of instrument could be made to agree under the dry conditions by using regression or autoregression techniques. However, the resulting equations would induce bias for the wet surface condition. Thus, it is not possible to cross calibrate these two makes of radiometer over the range of environmental conditions observed. This result indicates that determination of spatial distribution of net radiation over a variable surface should be made with identical instruments which have been cross calibrated. The need still exists for development of a radiometer and calibration procedures which will produce accurate and consistent measurements over a range of surface conditions. (author)

  12. Instrumentation for characterizing materials and composed semiconductors for ionizing radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoal, Arquimedes J.A.; Leite, Adolfo M.B.; Nazzre, Fabio V.B.; Santos, Luiz A.P.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work is the development of instrumentation for characterizing some type of ionizing radiation detectors. Those detectors are being manufactured by the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory at CRCN/Recife and can be used both on photon beam and with particles. Such detectors consist of semiconductor material in the form of films generated by oxide growing or by means of semiconductor material deposition in a substrate. Those materials can be made of metals, semi-metals, composites or semiconductor polymers. Prior to expose those detectors to ionizing radiation, it must be physically and electrically characterized. In this intention it was developed an electromechanical system. An electrical circuit was built to measure the signal from the detector and another circuit to control the movement of four probes (4-points technique) by using a stepper motor and the micro stepping technique avoiding damage to the detector. This system can be of interest to researchers that work with a sort of semiconductor materials in the form of thin film and in nanotechnological processes aiming the design of radiation ionizing detectors. (author)

  13. Radiation transmission type pipe wall thinning detection device and measuring instruments utilizing ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Yasuhiko

    2009-01-01

    We developed the device to detect thinning of pipe thorough heat insulation in Power Plant, etc, even while the plant is under operation. It is necessary to test many parts of many pipes for pipe wall thinning management, but it is difficult within a limited time of the routine test. This device consists of detector and radiation source, which can detect the pipe (less than 500 mm in external diameter, less than 50 mm in thickness) with 1.6%-reproducibility (in a few-minutes measurement), based on the attenuation rate. Operation is easy and effective without removing the heat insulation. We will expand this thinning detection system, and contribute the safety of the Plant. (author)

  14. A MGy radiation-hardened sensor instrumentation link for nuclear reactor monitoring and remote handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeeck, Jens; Cao, Ying [KU Leuven - KUL, Div. LRD-MAGyICS, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Van Uffelen, Marco; Mont Casellas, Laura; Damiani, Carlo; Morales, Emilio Ruiz; Santana, Roberto Ranz [Fusion for Energy - F4E, c/Josep,n deg. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Ed. B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Meek, Richard; Haist, Bernhard [Oxford Technologies Ltd. OTL, 7 Nuffield Way, Abingdon OX14 1RL (United Kingdom); De Cock, Wouter; Vermeeren, Ludo [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Steyaert, Michiel [KU Leuven, ESAT-MICAS, KasteelparkArenberg 10, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Leroux, Paul [KU Leuven, ESAT-MICAS, KasteelparkArenberg 10, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2015-07-01

    Decommissioning, dismantling and remote handling applications in nuclear facilities all require robotic solutions that are able to survive in radiation environments. Recently raised safety, radiation hardness and cost efficiency demands from both the nuclear regulatory and the society impose severe challenges in traditional methods. For example, in case of the dismantling of the Fukushima sites, solutions that survive accumulated doses higher than 1 MGy are mandatory. To allow remote operation of these tools in nuclear environments, electronics were used to be shielded with several centimeters of lead or even completely banned in these solutions. However, shielding electronics always leads to bulky and heavy solutions, which reduces the flexibility of robotic tools. It also requires longer repair time and produces extra waste further in a dismantling or decommissioning cycle. In addition, often in current reactor designs, due to size restrictions and the need to inspect very tight areas there are limitations to the use of shielding. A MGy radiation-hardened sensor instrumentation link developed by MAGyICS provides a solution to build a flexible, easy removable and small I and C module with MGy radiation tolerance without any shielding. Hereby it removes all these pains to implement electronics in robotic tools. The demonstrated solution in this poster is developed for ITER Remote Handling equipments operating in high radiation environments (>1 MGy) in and around the Tokamak. In order to obtain adequately accurate instrumentation and control information, as well as to ease the umbilical management, there is a need of front-end electronics that will have to be located close to those actuators and sensors on the remote handling tool. In particular, for diverter remote handling, it is estimated that these components will face gamma radiation up to 300 Gy/h (in-vessel) and a total dose of 1 MGy. The radiation-hardened sensor instrumentation link presented here, consists

  15. Measurements of radiation exposure on commercial aircraft with the LIULIN-3M instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stassinopoulos, E.G.; Stauffer, C.A.; Dachev, T.P.; Tomov, B.T.; Dimitrov, P.G.; Brucker, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    The LIULIN-3M evolved from an international cooperative project by a group of Bulgarian, Russian, German, and American scientists. The radiometer is a low power, small size, light weight, and low cost instrument composed of a solid state detector (SSD) with supporting electronics that enable it to operate as a pulse height analyzer of energy deposited in the detector, and to obtain from these measurements the total dose or the dose rate produced by charged particles. The instrument has also been used as a low-LET radiation spectrometer for measuring biological doses of potential human exposures. A flash memory allows self-storage of data during flights and post flight retrieval. Results will be presented and discussed. (author)

  16. Active Radiation Level Measurement on New Laboratory Instrument for Evaluating the Antibacterial Activity of Radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joh, Eunha; Park, Jang Guen

    2014-01-01

    A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. However, it is difficult to measure the antibacterial effect of radioisotopes using a disc method. A disc method is a method for diffusing a drug by placing the drug containing disc on the medium. In this method, radioisotopes are diffused on the medium and it is difficult to measure the exact effect by radiation. Thus, new laboratory equipment needs to evaluate the antibacterial activity by the radioisotopes. In this study, we measured the radiation level of radioisotopes on a new laboratory instrument using a MCNP. A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. This method uses a drug diffusion system for the measurement of anti-bacterial antibiotics. To measure the antimicrobial activity of a radioisotope, a new type of laboratory instrument is necessary to prevent the drug from spreading. The radioisotopes are used to diagnose and treat cancer. However, studies for anti-biotical use have not progressed. The radiation of radioisotopes has the effect of killing bacteria. Before this study proceeds further, it is necessary to be able to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope easily in the laboratory. However, in this study, it was possible to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope in the laboratory using a new laboratory instrument. We intend to start evaluation studies of the antibacterial activity of specific radioisotopes. In addition, it will be possible to develop research to overcome diseases caused by bacteria in the future

  17. Active Radiation Level Measurement on New Laboratory Instrument for Evaluating the Antibacterial Activity of Radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, Eunha; Park, Jang Guen [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. However, it is difficult to measure the antibacterial effect of radioisotopes using a disc method. A disc method is a method for diffusing a drug by placing the drug containing disc on the medium. In this method, radioisotopes are diffused on the medium and it is difficult to measure the exact effect by radiation. Thus, new laboratory equipment needs to evaluate the antibacterial activity by the radioisotopes. In this study, we measured the radiation level of radioisotopes on a new laboratory instrument using a MCNP. A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. This method uses a drug diffusion system for the measurement of anti-bacterial antibiotics. To measure the antimicrobial activity of a radioisotope, a new type of laboratory instrument is necessary to prevent the drug from spreading. The radioisotopes are used to diagnose and treat cancer. However, studies for anti-biotical use have not progressed. The radiation of radioisotopes has the effect of killing bacteria. Before this study proceeds further, it is necessary to be able to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope easily in the laboratory. However, in this study, it was possible to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope in the laboratory using a new laboratory instrument. We intend to start evaluation studies of the antibacterial activity of specific radioisotopes. In addition, it will be possible to develop research to overcome diseases caused by bacteria in the future.

  18. Effectiveness of Software Quality Assurance in Offshore Development Enterprises in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Malinda G. Sirisena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of software quality assurance approaches of Sri Lankan offshore software development organizations, and to propose a framework which could be used across all offshore software development organizations. An empirical study was conducted using derived framework from popular software quality evaluation models. The research instrument employed was a questionnaire survey among thirty seven Sri Lankan registered offshore software develop...

  19. Nanopositioning techniques development for synchrotron radiation instrumentation applications at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu Deming

    2010-01-01

    At modern synchrotron radiation sources and beamlines, high-precision positioning techniques present a significant opportunity to support state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation research. Meanwhile, the required instrument positioning performance and capabilities, such as resolution, dynamic range, repeatability, speed, and multiple axes synchronization are exceeding the limit of commercial availability. This paper presents the current nanopositioning techniques developed for the Argonne Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM)/Advanced Photon Source (APS) hard x-ray nanoprobe and high-resolution x-ray monochromators and analyzers for the APS X-ray Operations and Research (XOR) beamlines. Future nanopositioning techniques to be developed for the APS renewal project will also be discussed.

  20. Neutron and synchrotron radiation for condensed matter studies. Volume 1: theory, instruments and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baruchel, J.; Hodeau, J.L.; Lehmann, M.S.; Regnard, J.R.; Schlenker, C.

    1993-01-01

    This book provides the basic information required by a research scientist wishing to undertake studies using neutrons or synchrotron radiation at a Large Facility. These lecture notes result from 'HERCULES', a course that has been held in Grenoble since 1991 to train young scientists in these fields. They cover the production of neutrons and synchrotron radiation and describe all aspects of instrumentation. In addition, this work outlines the basics of the various fields of research pursued at these Large Facilities. It consists of a series of chapters written by experts in the particular fields. While following a progression and constituting a lecture course on neutron and x-ray scattering, these chapters can also be read independently. This first volume will be followed by two further volumes concerned with the applications to solid state physics and chemistry, and to biology and soft condensed matter properties

  1. New portable hand-held radiation instruments for measurements and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehlau, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    Hand-held radiation monitors are often used to search pedestrians and motor vehicles for special nuclear material (SNM) as part of a physical protection plan for nuclear materials. Recently, the Los Alamos Advanced Nuclear Technology group has commercialized an improved hand-held monitor that can be used for both physical-protection monitoring and verification measurements in nuclear material control and waste management. The new monitoring instruments are smaller and lighter; operate much longer on a battery charge; are available with NaI(Tl) or neutron and gamma-ray sensitive plastic scintillation detectors; and are less expensive than other comparable instruments. They also have a second operating mode for making precise measurements over counting times as long as 99 s. This mode permits making basic verification measurements that may be needed before transporting nuclear material or waste outside protected areas. Improved verification measurements can be made with a second new hand-held instrument that has a stabilized detector and three separate gamma-ray energy windows to obtain spectral information for SNM quantity, enrichment, or material-type verification

  2. Interest Rate Pass-through in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Amarasekara, Chandranath

    2005-01-01

    The Central Bank of Sri Lanka has increasingly been relying on interest rates as the instrument for conducting monetary policy. Changes to the key monetary policy variables, the Repo and the Reverse Repo rates, are initially expected to be reflected in the OMO rates and the call money market rates, before being passedthrough to commercial bank retail interest rates. It is important to obtain a good understanding of the speed and magnitude of the interest rate pass-through to make timely monet...

  3. Development of a New Radiation Measuring Instrument for the Column Scanning Technique - NibraS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benahmed, A.; Alami, R.

    2013-06-01

    The radiation measuring instrument, called Nibras, associated to a special data processing software for Column scanning is a new data acquisition system. It was developed to scan and to plot density profiles, inside a distillation column, which illustrates the activity of the radiations able to cross the contents of the column. Nibras is an autonomous data logger with very low power consumption, using only 4 batteries of 1.5 V and can be operated for more than 120 hours continuously; this presents an ecological and economic importance. Another particularity of Nibras consists in its dual functionality to display counting rates indicating the existence and the intensity of radiation; and to perform a real-time control in industrial plant particularly in oil distillation columns, due to its user-friendly software. This last provides essential data to optimize the performance of the columns, extend column run times, track the performance-deteriorating effects of fouling and solids deposition, and to identify maintenance requirements well in advance of scheduled turnarounds. This on-line knowledge can reduce repair downtime significantly. (authors)

  4. Risk-return of Belgian SRI funds

    OpenAIRE

    Van Liedekerke, Luc; De Moor, Lieven; Vanwalleghem, Dieter

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the risk-return profile of Belgian SRI funds versus conventional investment funds. We apply a four-factor conditional Carhart model to establish whether there are significant differences in risk-return profile between an SRI portfolio and a conventional portfolio and test for learning effects in SRI funds. We show that there is no difference in risk-return profile between SRI and conventional funds. If return is not the problem, then what is it that limits the development of an SRI...

  5. Synchrotron radiation microtomography of musical instruments: a non-destructive monitoring technique for insect infestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Bentivoglio-Ravasio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available X-ray computed tomography is becoming a common technique for the structural analysis of samples of cultural relevance, providing luthiers, art historians, conservators and restorators with a unique tool for the characterization of musical instruments. Synchrotron-radiation phase-contrast microtomography is an ideal technique for the non-destructive 3D analysis of samples where small lowabsorbing details such as larvae and eggs can be detected. We report results from the first feasibility studies performed at the Elettra synchrotron laboratory, where the 1494 organ by Lorenzo Gusnasco da Pavia has been studied. Together with important information about the structural conditions, the presence of xylophages could be detected and characterized.

  6. Leptospirosis in rural Sri Lanka:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellung Schønning, Marie; Agampodi, Suneth; Phelps, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Sri Lanka has one of the highest incidences of human leptospirosis worldwide. Outbreaks of this zoonotic infection are related to the monsoons and flooding. The present study investigates risks associated with environmental, animal and occupational exposure. Data was obtained from structured inte...

  7. Characteristics of X ray calibration fields for performance test of radiation measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Shigeru; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sawahata, Tadahiro; Tohnami, Kohichi; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Murayama, Takashi

    1999-02-01

    Performance test and calibration of the radiation measuring instruments for low energy photons are made using the X ray calibration fields which are monochromatically characterized by filtration of continuous X ray spectrum. The X ray calibration field needs to be characterized by some quality conditions such as quality index and homogeneity coefficient. The present report describes quality conditions, spectrum and some characteristics of X ray irradiation fields in the Facility of Radiation Standard of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (FRS-JAERI). Fifty nine X ray qualities with the quality index of 0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9 were set for the tube voltages between 10 kV and 350 kV. Estimation of X ray spectrum measured with a Ge detector was made in terms of exposure, ambient dose equivalent and fluence for all the obtained qualities. Practical irradiation field was determined as the dose distribution uniformity is within ±3%. The obtained results improve the quality of X ray calibration fields and calibration accuracy. (author)

  8. Validation of ultraviolet radiation budgets using satellite observations from the OMI instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Outer, P.N.; Van Dijk, A.; Slaper, H.

    2008-11-15

    Satellite retrieval of ozone, clouds, aerosols and ground albedo allows the modelling of ultraviolet (UV)-doses received at the ground. UV-doses derived from satellite observations are highly useful in analyzing regional differences in the effects of ozone depletion and climate change on the biologically effective UV-radiation levels. RIVM has developed and used UV-mapping and UV-risk mapping techniques in environmental assessments in evaluating the effects of ozone depletion and climate change. This project provides a validation study on the OMUVB product by means of a comparison with ground-based measurements. This validation should demonstrate if the OMUVB product can be used from the perspective of long-term environmental trend assessments. Comparing ground-based UV-measurements with the OMUVB product, we show that the product consistently overestimates the UV-doses received at the ground in Europe. The systematic comparison with data from 8 European sites shows on average a 15% overestimate in the yearly integrated UV with a site-to-site variability of around 8%. For four of the more northern sites the overestimation in yearly doses is between 5-10%, and for the four sites that are more southern the deviation is 20-27%. Using the ozone and reflectivity data from the OMI-instrument (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) in combination with the AMOUR-algorithm (Assessment Model for Ultraviolet radiation and Risks) shows smaller overestimates of on average 5-6% with a similar variability between the sites. The variability between sites is largely caused by aerosol and albedo effects and is reduced to 3% if local data on aerosol and albedo are used. The overestimates in the OMUVB product are primarily due to too low (tropospheric) aerosol loads used for the European sites. In addition, our comparison shows that under heavy clouded conditions the cloud modification factors are too high. This contributes to the overall too high UV-doses of the OMUVB product. Environmental

  9. Validation of ultraviolet radiation budgets using satellite observations from the OMI instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Outer, P.N.; Van Dijk, A.; Slaper, H.

    2008-11-01

    Satellite retrieval of ozone, clouds, aerosols and ground albedo allows the modelling of ultraviolet (UV)-doses received at the ground. UV-doses derived from satellite observations are highly useful in analyzing regional differences in the effects of ozone depletion and climate change on the biologically effective UV-radiation levels. RIVM has developed and used UV-mapping and UV-risk mapping techniques in environmental assessments in evaluating the effects of ozone depletion and climate change. This project provides a validation study on the OMUVB product by means of a comparison with ground-based measurements. This validation should demonstrate if the OMUVB product can be used from the perspective of long-term environmental trend assessments. Comparing ground-based UV-measurements with the OMUVB product, we show that the product consistently overestimates the UV-doses received at the ground in Europe. The systematic comparison with data from 8 European sites shows on average a 15% overestimate in the yearly integrated UV with a site-to-site variability of around 8%. For four of the more northern sites the overestimation in yearly doses is between 5-10%, and for the four sites that are more southern the deviation is 20-27%. Using the ozone and reflectivity data from the OMI-instrument (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) in combination with the AMOUR-algorithm (Assessment Model for Ultraviolet radiation and Risks) shows smaller overestimates of on average 5-6% with a similar variability between the sites. The variability between sites is largely caused by aerosol and albedo effects and is reduced to 3% if local data on aerosol and albedo are used. The overestimates in the OMUVB product are primarily due to too low (tropospheric) aerosol loads used for the European sites. In addition, our comparison shows that under heavy clouded conditions the cloud modification factors are too high. This contributes to the overall too high UV-doses of the OMUVB product. Environmental

  10. Food Crops Breeding in Sri Lanka - Achievements and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayawardena, S D.L.; Peiris, R [Central Agricultural Research Institute, Gannoruwa, Peradeniya (Sierra Leone)

    1988-12-31

    Since Rice is the staple food in Sri Lanka strong emphasis has been given for the improvement of Rice in Sri Lanka. Over the last three decades 36 high yielding rice varieties have been developed. The present yield potential of Sri Lanka`s best varieties have been recorded to be be around 10 mt/ha. At present more than 90% of the total paddy extent is grown with modern high yielding rice varieties and as a result the national paddy production has increased from 1.8 mt/ha to 3.5 mt/ha. Induced mutations is used in plant breeding. Use of radiation to produce haploids and for production of transitory sexuality in apomicts have been done. Under the coarse grains and millet varietal program, maize have recorded increasing attention owing to the fact that is is used for human consumption and as feed grain for poultry. Promising varieties of Soya bean, cowpea, mung bean, black gram and ground nut have been recommended for cultivation. Research attention has also been directed towards Root and Tuber crops which have great potential in providong food for the rapidly increasing population in Sri Lanka. Potato is the most important and popular tuber crop. A number of improved varieties with respect to a number of local fruit crops such as banana, sweet orange, lemonime, avocado, pineapple, rambutan, grapes.have been introduced. New improved varieties of indigenous vegetables such as tomato, brinjal etc. have been produced. Chillies and onions with desirable qualities also have been identified. Mutation breeding provides a novel approach to the plant breeders for raising the productivity of crop plants, thus complementing conventional methods. Any way the use of induced mutations in crop improvement has not been properly exploited in Sri Lanka as yet.

  11. Food Crops Breeding in Sri Lanka - Achievements and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayawardena, S.D.L.; Peiris, R.

    1988-01-01

    Since Rice is the staple food in Sri Lanka strong emphasis has been given for the improvement of Rice in Sri Lanka. Over the last three decades 36 high yielding rice varieties have been developed. The present yield potential of Sri Lanka's best varieties have been recorded to be be around 10 mt/ha. At present more than 90% of the total paddy extent is grown with modern high yielding rice varieties and as a result the national paddy production has increased from 1.8 mt/ha to 3.5 mt/ha. Induced mutations is used in plant breeding. Use of radiation to produce haploids and for production of transitory sexuality in apomicts have been done. Under the coarse grains and millet varietal program, maize have recorded increasing attention owing to the fact that is is used for human consumption and as feed grain for poultry. Promising varieties of Soya bean, cowpea, mung bean, black gram and ground nut have been recommended for cultivation. Research attention has also been directed towards Root and Tuber crops which have great potential in providong food for the rapidly increasing population in Sri Lanka. Potato is the most important and popular tuber crop. A number of improved varieties with respect to a number of local fruit crops such as banana, sweet orange, lemonime, avocado, pineapple, rambutan, grapes.have been introduced. New improved varieties of indigenous vegetables such as tomato, brinjal etc. have been produced. Chillies and onions with desirable qualities also have been identified. Mutation breeding provides a novel approach to the plant breeders for raising the productivity of crop plants, thus complementing conventional methods. Any way the use of induced mutations in crop improvement has not been properly exploited in Sri Lanka as yet

  12. Strategic Role of Sri Lankan Tamil Diaspora in Promoting Separatism in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    Tamil Eelam and the Tamil genocide in Sri Lanka. This campaign tries to achieve its objectives through the boycott of Sri Lankan tourism and products...Lanka campaign.157 The boycott Sri Lanka campaign is not limited to tourism or products. The Tamil Youth Organization (TYO) is conducting a “Boycott...Sri Lankan sports are not accepted in international fora as they 155Tamils Against Genocide

  13. The Sri Lanka tsunami experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Seiji; Gunatilake, Ravindu P; Roytman, Timur M; Gunatilake, Sarath; Fernando, Thushara; Fernando, Lalan

    2006-01-01

    The Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 killed 31,000 people in Sri Lanka and produced morbidity primarily resulting from near-drownings and traumatic injuries. In the immediate aftermath, the survivors brought bodies to the hospitals, which hampered the hospitals' operations. The fear of epidemics led to mass burials. Infectious diseases were prevented through the provision of clean water and through vector control. Months after the tsunami, little rebuilding of permanent housing was evident, and many tsunami victims continued to reside in transit camps without means of generating their own income. The lack of an incident command system, limited funding, and political conflicts were identified as barriers to optimal relief efforts. Despite these barriers, Sri Lanka was fortunate in drawing upon a well-developed community health infrastructure as well as local and international resources. The need continues for education and training in clinical skills for mass rescue and emergency treatment, as well as participation in a multidisciplinary response.

  14. Feasibility study into the use of online instrumentation courses for medical radiation scientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald-Hill, J.L.; Warren-Forward, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    A Medical Radiation Science (diagnostic radiography) instrumentation course historically taught face-to-face was taught fully online. The purpose of this study was to assess differences in academic achievement as well as gather feedback on student experiences. An anonymous online survey relating to student engagement and directions for future course development was distributed to all students who completed the course. The results clearly supports online delivery as students appreciated the ability to pause and rewind (94%) course content and work at their own pace (88%) whilst maintaining almost identical course results (p = 0.96). Future improvements would see the inclusion of interactive on-line modules and the re-introduction of face–face tutorials, appealing to students' desire for more support and human contact (27%) therefore reflecting the flipped classroom approach. - Highlights: • 85% of students accessing lecture capture reported them to be very or mostly useful. • 94% students reported the ability to “pause and rewind” as the most useful aspect. • 43% of students indicated that they lacked motivation to watch lecture captures. • The tutorials were where I learned the most as it is more interactive than a lecture. • Online format of the course was the best thing

  15. Preliminary report on safety aspects on nuclear power generation in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayamanne, D.; Fernando, W.L.W.; Ariyadasa

    1988-01-01

    This document is intended as background information on nuclear energy to contribute to Sri Lanka's comparative study of alternative sources of energy. This study has considered the safety and environmental effects of nuclear power reactors. Basic concepts of nuclear physics are introduced and providing and appreciation of safety considerations and safety aspects of nuclear power plants and the personnel. Radioactive waste management, storage and disposal are also discussed. Natural radiation levels in Sri Lanka are provided as well as information on biological effects of radiation especially occupational exposure licensing procedures for nuclear power plants are outlined strategy for public awareness of nuclear power is proposed

  16. Instrumentation For Multiple Radiation Detection Based On Novel Mercurous Halides For Nuclear Planetology, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation detectors that sense gamma and neutron radiation are critical to the exploration of planetary surface composition. Among the key technological challenges...

  17. Autosomal dominant hereditary ataxia in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Sumathipala, Dulika S; Abeysekera, Gayan S; Jayasekara, Rohan W; Tallaksen, Chantal ME; Dissanayake, Vajira HW

    2013-01-01

    Background Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) are a group of hereditary neurodegenerative disorders. Prevalence of SCA subtypes differ worldwide. Autosomal dominant ataxias are the commonest types of inherited ataxias seen in Sri Lanka. The aim of the study is to determine the genetic etiology of patients with autosomal dominant ataxia in Sri Lanka and to describe the clinical features of each genetic subtype. Methods ...

  18. Radioisotopes and medical imaging in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasinghe, J.M.A.C.

    1993-01-01

    The article deals with the use of X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging in medical diagnosis in its introduction. Then it elaborates on the facilities in the field of medical imaging for diagnosis, in Sri Lanka. The use of Technetium-99m in diagnostic medicine as well as the future of medical imaging in Sri Lanka is also dealt with

  19. Eesti puidufirma laieneb Sri Lankale / Andris Feldmanis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Feldmanis, Andris, 1982-

    2004-01-01

    Eesti puidufirma Hapa Group alustab tootmist Sri Lankal, lootes suurendada kasumit odava toorme ja tööjõu kasutamise läbi. Lisa: Mõned faktid Hapa Groupi kohta. Diagramm: Tööjõud Sri Lankal 10 korda odavam. Kommenteerivad August Kull, Jaak Leimann, Ilmar Petersen ja Alar Kolk

  20. Laboratory for Calibration of Gamma Radiation Measurement Instruments (LabCal) of Institute of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense (IDQBRN) from Brazilian Army Technology Center (CTEx)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, Aneuri de; Balthar, Mario Cesar V.; Santos, Avelino; Vilela, Paulo Ricardo T. de; Oliveira, Luciano Santa Rita; Penha, Paulo Eduardo C. de Oliveira; Gonzaga, Roberto Neves; Andrade, Edson Ramos de; Oliveira, Celio Jorge Vasques de; Fagundes, Luiz Cesar S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the calibration laboratory deployment steps (LABCAL) gamma ionizing radiation measuring instruments in the Army Technology Center, CTEx. Initially the calibration of radiation monitors will be held in the dosimetric quantity air kerma and operational quantity ambient dose equivalent H*(d). The LABCAL / CTEx has not yet authorized by CASEC / CNEN. This laboratory aims to calibrate the ionizing radiation instruments used by the Brazilian Army. (author)

  1. Global Observations of Aerosols and Clouds from Combined Lidar and Passive Instruments to Improve Radiation Budget and Climate Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winker, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Current uncertainties in the effects of clouds and aerosols on the Earth radiation budget limit our understanding of the climate system and the potential for global climate change. Pathfinder Instruments for Cloud and Aerosol Spaceborne Observations - Climatologie Etendue des Nuages et des Aerosols (PICASSO-CENA) is a recently approved satellite mission within NASA's Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program which will address these uncertainties with a unique suite of active and passive instruments. The Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) demonstrated the potential benefits of space lidar for studies of clouds and aerosols. PICASSO-CENA builds on this experience with a payload consisting of a two-wavelength polarization-sensitive lidar, an oxygen A-band spectrometer (ABS), an imaging infrared radiometer (IIR), and a wide field camera (WFC). Data from these instruments will be used to measure the vertical distributions of aerosols and clouds in the atmosphere, as well as optical and physical properties of aerosols and clouds which influence the Earth radiation budget. PICASSO-CENA will be flown in formation with the PM satellite of the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) to provide a comprehensive suite of coincident measurements of atmospheric state, aerosol and cloud optical properties, and radiative fluxes. The mission will address critical uncertainties iin the direct radiative forcing of aerosols and clouds as well as aerosol influences on cloud radiative properties and cloud-climate radiation feedbacks. PICASSO-CENA is planned for a three year mission, with a launch in early 2003. PICASSO-CENA is being developed within the framework of a collaboration between NASA and CNES.

  2. Observations of Infrared Radiative Cooling in the Thermosphere on Daily to Multiyear Timescales from the TIMED/SABER Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Hunt, Linda A.; Marshall, B. Thomas; Martin-Torres, F. Javier; Mertens, Christopher J.; Russell, James M., III; Remsberg, Ellis E.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Picard, Richard; Winick, Jeremy; hide

    2009-01-01

    We present observations of the infrared radiative cooling by carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitric oxide (NO) in Earth s thermosphere. These data have been taken over a period of 7 years by the SABER instrument on the NASA TIMED satellite and are the dominant radiative cooling mechanisms for the thermosphere. From the SABER observations we derive vertical profiles of radiative cooling rates (W/cu m), radiative fluxes (W/sq m), and radiated power (W). In the period from January 2002 through January 2009 we observe a large decrease in the cooling rates, fluxes, and power consistent with the declining phase of solar cycle. The power radiated by NO during 2008 when the Sun exhibited few sunspots was nearly one order of magnitude smaller than the peak power observed shortly after the mission began. Substantial short-term variability in the infrared emissions is also observed throughout the entire mission duration. Radiative cooling rates and radiative fluxes from NO exhibit fundamentally different latitude dependence than do those from CO2, with the NO fluxes and cooling rates being largest at high latitudes and polar regions. The cooling rates are shown to be derived relatively independent of the collisional and radiative processes that drive the departure from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) in the CO2 15 m and the NO 5.3 m vibration-rotation bands. The observed NO and CO2 cooling rates have been compiled into a separate dataset and represent a climate data record that is available for use in assessments of radiative cooling in upper atmosphere general circulation models.

  3. Magnetic Measuring Instrumentation with Radiation-Resistant Hall Sensors for Fusion Reactors: Experience of Testing at JET

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bolshakova, I.; Quercia, A.; Coccorese, V.; Murari, A.; Holyaka, R.; Ďuran, Ivan; Viererbl, L.; Konopleva, R.; Yerashok, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2012), s. 1224-1231 ISSN 0018-9499. [International Conference on Advancements in Nuclear Instrumentation, Measurement Methods and their Applications. Ghent, 06.06.2011-09.06.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/2055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma * tokamak * JET * Hall probes * radiation resistance Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.219, year: 2012

  4. Spices as a source of lead exposure: a market-basket survey in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, M P; Perera, R; Liyanaarachchi, L A; Dassanayake, M P

    2013-12-01

    We performed a laboratory analysis of spices sold in Sri Lanka for lead content. Samples of curry powder, chili powder and turmeric powder from seven provinces, collected using the market basket survey method, underwent atomic absorption spectrometry. Blanks and standards were utilised for instrument calibration and measurement accuracy. The results were validated in two different laboratories. All samples were found to have lead levels below the US Food and Drug Administration's action level of 0.5 μg/g. Spices sold in Sri Lanka contain lead concentrations that are low and within the stipulated safety standards.

  5. Radiation budget studies using collocated observations from advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, High-Resolution Infrared Sounder/2, and Earth Radiation Budget Experiment instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Steven A.; Frey, Richard A.; Smith, William L.

    1992-01-01

    Collocated observations from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), High-Resolution Infrared Sounder/2 (HIRS/2), and Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) instruments onboard the NOAA 9 satellite are combined to describe the broadband and spectral radiative properties of the earth-atmosphere system. Broadband radiative properties are determined from the ERBE observations, while spectral properties are determined from the HIRS/2 and AVHRR observations. The presence of clouds, their areal coverage, and cloud top pressure are determined from a combination of the HIRS/2 and the AVHRR observations. The CO2 slicing method is applied to the HIRS/2 to determine the presence of upper level clouds and their effective emissivity. The AVHRR data collocated within the HIRS/2 field of view are utilized to determine the uniformity of the scene and retrieve sea surface temperature. Changes in the top of the atmosphere longwave and shortwave radiative energy budgets, and the spectral distribution of longwave radiation are presented as a function of cloud amount and cloud top pressure. The radiative characteristics of clear sky conditions over oceans are presented as a function of sea surface temperature and atmospheric water vapor structure.

  6. Survey and analysis of radiation safety management systems at medical institutions. Second report. Radiation measurement, calibration of radiation survey meters, and periodic check of installations, equipment, and protection instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Aburano, Tamio

    2006-01-01

    We carried out a questionnaire survey to determine the actual situation of radiation safety management measures in all medical institutions in Japan that had nuclear medicine facilities. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning the evaluation of shielding capacity; radiation measurement; periodic checks of installations, equipment, and protection instruments; and the calibration of radiation survey meters. The analysis was undertaken according to region, type of establishment, and number of beds. The overall response rate was 60 percent. For the evaluation of shielding capacity, the outsourcing rate was 53 percent of the total. For the radiation measurements of ''leakage radiation dose and radioactive contamination'' and contamination of radioactive substances in the air'', the outsourcing rates were 28 percent and 35 percent of the total, respectively (p<0.001, according to region and establishment). For the periodic check of radiation protection instruments, the implementation rate was 98 percent, and the outsourcing rate was 32 percent for radiation survey meters and 47 percent for lead aprons. The non-implemented rate for calibration of radiation survey meters was 25 percent of the total (p<0.001, according to region and establishment). The outsourcing rate for calibration of radiation survey meters accounted for 87 percent of the total, and of these medical institutions, 72 percent undertook annual calibration. The implementation rate for patient exposure measurement was 20 percent of the total (p<0.001, according to number of beds), and of these medical institutions 46 percent recorded measurement outcome. (author)

  7. Evaluation of Differences in Response of DOD Portable Instruments and Solid-State Detectors used by MEXT for Measurement of External Radiations with Attention to the Cosmic Radiation Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Defense Threat Reduction Agency 8725 John J. Kingman Road, MS-6201 Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201...Attention to the Cosmic Radiation Component DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution is unlimited March 2014...Portable Instruments and Solid-State Detectors used by MEXT for Measurement of External Radiations with Attention to the Cosmic Radiation Component 5a

  8. Sri Lanka drops leading condom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Sri Lanka's Family Planning Association has stopped selling its Preethi Regular condom, the backbone of its social marketing program for nearly a decade. Last year nearly 7 times as many Preethi condoms were sold as all other brands combined. The decision was reported to be caused by budget constraints following the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) new policy of limiting the number of Preethi Regular condoms supplied to Sri Lanka. IPPF's Asian Regional Officer reported that the Preethi condom is a costly product, and that as many as needed of a US Agency for International Development (USAID) supplied product will be sent to Sri Lanka. The Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) program has devised a new sales strategy, based partly on the introduction of a high-priced condom to fill the gap left by the discontinuation of the Preethi Regular. The new Preethi Gold condom is expected to help the project become more financially self-reliant while taing advantage of Preethi's marketplace popularity. Preethi Gold is manufactured by the Malaysia Rubber Company and costs the project US $4.85/gross. It is sold for US $.14 for 3, about 3 times the price of a Preethi Regular. The project is also pushing the Panther condom, donated to IPPF by USAID. 2 Panther condoms sell for about 3.6U, about the cost of Preethi Regulars. The project also sells Moonbeam, Rough Rider, and Stimula condoms, the latter 2 at full commercial prices. A smooth transfer of demand from Preethi to Panther had been desired, but by the end of 1983 some retailers were hesitating to make the product switch because some Preethi Regulars were still available. Total condom sales in 1983 were down by nearly 590,000 from the approximately 6,860,000 sold in 1982. Total condom sales for the 1st quarter of 1984 were slightly over 1,218,000 pieces, compared to about 1,547,000 for the same quarter in 1983, a decline of 21%. The Family Planning Association is gearing up to reverse the downward trend

  9. New technique for radiation detection by instruments based on microchannel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammosov, V.V.; Bolozdynya, A.I.; Kubantsev, M.A.; Lebedenko, V.N.; Suvorov, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    Coordinate information can be obtained directly from microchanel plates (MCP) as storage matrix in MCP based radiation detectors, which is proved using as an example the registering of pulsed laser ultraviolet radiation. For read-out and representation of the information the TV channel was used: the vidicon electron-optical system - TV transmission camera - TV monitor

  10. Implementation of quality assurance in the manufacture of radiation measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erath, W.; Maushart, R.

    1993-01-01

    Contrary to a general belief, quality assurance in an instrument manufacturing plant comprises considerably more than the testing of instruments and components. Quality assurance programs according to the ISO 9000 standards are part of the general quality policy of a company, comprising management, manufacturing, sales, and service. A description of the quality assurance research and development is given, and the practical execution with regard to calibration of contamination monitors is pointed out in detail. (orig.) [de

  11. Evaluating musical instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-01-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians

  12. Instruments for radiation measurement in biosciences. Series 3. radioluminography. 13. Application of imaging plate for radiation control works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamadera, Akira

    2000-01-01

    The imaging plate (IP) is useful for measurement of both distribution and intensity of radiation. This paper described application of IP in radiation control works. Since IP has the 500 times higher sensitivity than the film badge for X-ray-range radiation of 12-120 keV, it can be useful as a personnel dosemeter in medical field. IP is suitable for measurement of radioactivity in a lot of samples and it can be useful for measurement of smear test papers although a problem concerning 3 H monitoring remains. Since IP gives the two-dimensional information of radiation distribution, IP can be useful for monitoring of contamination status such as its site and area. A contamination accident occurred by 68 Ge in PET apparatus is described for instance. IP can be also useful for measurement of the low level radioactivity in solutions, such as waste water. The author made an apparatus for drain monitoring which composed from acryl-box and IP. The surface of the former box, containing the water, is stuck by various shields of acryl- and lead-plates and is in contact with IP. Both measurement of radioactivity concentration and identification of radionuclide are possible. The important defect is pointed out to be fading phenomenon in those works above. (K.H.)

  13. The Economic Virtues of SRI and CSR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Derwall (Jeroen)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractFinancial markets and company managers are increasingly acknowledging the concepts of socially responsible investing (SRI) and corporate social responsibility (CSR), but not without reservations. These hesitations are largely attributable to ongoing debates about a potential conflict

  14. New opportunities for aquaculture in Sri Lanka

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Context. In Sri Lanka, fish are a vital food source, ... of disease and degradation of water bodies ... specific better management practices to address ... This was integrated in a pilot knowledge ... result, 80% of farmers took actions to implement.

  15. Instruments for radiation measurement in biosciences. Series 3. radioluminography. 1. Results of questionnaires to the scientists using radioluminographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Norio; Nakajima, Eiichi; Takahashi, Sentaro

    1998-01-01

    Radioluminography (RLG) is a method to detect radioactivity with its photostimulated luminescence phenomenon. This paper describes major results of questionnaires to the scientists using RLG technique which was performed by the technical subcommittee for research instruments for isotope tracer of Life Science Section, Japan Radioisotope Association. The main purpose was to find the advantage and problems of RLG recognized by users. Questionnaires were sent to 271 users and 101 answers were obtained from pharmaceutical companies, universities and other public research facilities. RLG was found mainly used in gel electrophoresis in the molecular biology field, thin layer chromatography and quantitative whole body autoradiography. RLG technology itself of the instrument, imaging plate and standard usage was found to be in progress as well. Problems were those on the fundamental handling (e.g., ROI definition), on instruments, on quantitativeness, on different nuclides, on value for formal data and on radiation control. The major instrument manufacturers were Fuji Film Co., BioRad Co. and Molecular Dynamics Co. Results of the questionnaire will be published in more detailed form in future. (K.H.)

  16. Photon Activation Analysis Of Light Elements Using 'Non-Gamma' Radiation Spectroscopy - The Instrumental Determination Of Phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segebade, Christian; Goerner, Wolf

    2011-01-01

    Unlike metal determinations the analysis of light elements (e.g., carbon, oxygen, phosphorus) is frequently problematic, in particular if analysed instrumentally. In photon activation analysis (PAA) the respective activation products do not emit gamma radiation in the most cases. Usually, annihilation quanta counting and subsequent decay curve analysis have been used for determinations of C, N, O, and F. However, radiochemical separation of the respective radioisotopes mostly is indispensable. For several reasons, some of the light elements cannot be analysed following this procedure, e.g. phosphorus. In this contribution the instrumental PAA of phosphorus in organic matrix by activation with bremsstrahlung of an electron linear accelerator and subsequent beta spectroscopy is described. The accuracy of the results was excellent as obtained by analysis of a BCR Reference Material.

  17. Analysis of the Failures and Corrective Actions for the LHC Cryogenics Radiation Tolerant Electronics and its Field Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Balle, Ch; Vauthier, N

    2014-01-01

    The LHC cryogenic system radiation tolerant electronics and their associated field instruments have been in nominal conditions since before the commissioning of the first LHC beams in September 2008. This system is made of about 15’000 field instruments (thermometers, pressure sensors, liquid helium level gauges, electrical heaters and position switches), 7’500 electronic cards and 853 electronic crates. Since mid-2008 a software tool has been deployed, this allows an operator to report a problem and then lists the corrective actions. The tool is a great help in detecting recurrent problems that may be tackled by a hardware or software consolidation. The corrective actions range from simple resets, exchange of defective equipment, repair of electrical connectors, etc. However a recurrent problem that heals by itself is present on some channels. This type of fault is extremely difficult to diagnose and it appears as a temporary opening of an electrical circuit; its duration can range from a few minutes to ...

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE, REAL-TIME ALPHA RADIATION MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR LIQUID STREAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    Thermo Power Corporation has proven the technical viability of an on-line, real-time alpha radionuclide instrument for aqueous sample analysis through laboratory and initial field tests of the instrument. The instrument has been shown to be isotonically sensitive to extremely low (ten parts per trillion, or femto Curies per liter) levels of a broad range of radioisotopes. Performance enhancement and other scaling data obtained during the course of this investigation have shown that on-line, real-time operation is possible, with a sub 30-minute response time analyzing 20 ppb (30 pCi/1) natural uranium. Now that these initial field tests in Oak Ridge, Tennessee have been successfully completed, Thermo Power plans to conduct comprehensive field tests of the instrument. The purpose of these endurance tests will be to determine the endurance characteristics of the Thermo Alpha Monitor for Water when it is used by non-Thermo Power personnel in a series of one or more extended field tests. Such endurance testing is the vital next step towards the commercialization of the Alpha Monitor. Subsequently, it will be possible to provide the DOE with an instrument that has the capability of obtaining rapid feedback about the concentrations of alpha-emitting isotope contamination in effluent water streams (Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area). It will also be useful for process control of remediation and D and D operations such as monitoring scrubber/rinse water radioactivity levels (Mixed Waste, Plutonium and D and D Focus Areas)

  19. The SILENE reactor: an instrument suitable for studying the impact of intermediate and high radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verray, B.; Leo, Y.; Fouillaud, P.

    2002-01-01

    Designed in 1974 to study the phenomenology and consequences of a criticality accident, the SILENE experimental reactor, an intense source of mixed neutron and gamma radiation, is also suited to radiobiological studies. (author)

  20. Measurement of new operational quantities with radiation protection instruments designed for working area monitoring and for individual monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigent, R.; Chary, J.; Chemtob, M.

    1992-01-01

    The ICRP recommended a dose limitation system based on numerical evaluation of the dose equivalent to organs or tissues, H T , which are used to calculate the effective dose, H E , by weighting. The ICRU proposed new operational quantities accessible to measurement which are conservative with respect to these recommendations. The objective of this paper is to recall briefly the basic recommendations and to find out if radiation protection instruments presently used calibrated in terms of the previous quantities are capable to measure these new quantities. A dozen of practical cases are presented. (author)

  1. Measurement of new operational quantities with radiation protection instruments designed for working area monitoring and for individual monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigent, R.; Chary, J.; Chemtob, M.; Lebouleux, P.

    1992-01-01

    The ICRP recommended a dose limitation system based on numerical evaluation of the dose equivalent to organs or tissues, H T , which are used to calculate the effective dose, H E , by weighting. The ICRU proposed new operational quantities accessible to measurement which are conservative with respect to these recommendations. The objective of this paper is to recall briefly the basic recommendations and to find out if radiation protection instruments presently used calibrated in terms of the previous quantities are capable to measure these new quantities. A dozen of practical cases are presented

  2. Development of scintillators on the basis of AIIBVI compounds for radiation instruments used in medical and technical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starzhinskiy N. G.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Physico-technological problems of preparation and main properties of scintillation materials based on zinc selenide and other AIIBVI compounds are considered. Effects have been determined of dopant properties on formation processes of complex lattice defects playing the role of luminescence centers. It is shown that such property features as high light output and very low afterglow level, as well as a unique combination of scintillation and semiconductor properties allow application of these materials in different fields of radiation instrument technologies.

  3. Radiation induced charge transfer inefficiencies in the Sentinel 4 instrument: modeling, performance, and correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizar, J.; Gulde, S.; Skegg, M.; Levillain, Y.; Weber, H.

    2017-09-01

    Sentinel 4 is an imaging UVN (UV-VIS-NIR) dispersive spectrometer, developed by Airbus DS under an ESA contract in the frame of the joint EU/ESA COPERNICUS program. The instrument is introduced in a dedicated presentation in this conference.

  4. Suggestions of radiation protection instruments in ships used for transporting spent fuel elements from nuclear power plants to central stores and further to fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warenmo, G.

    1979-01-01

    Some radiation protection measures are necessary in ships which will be used for transporting spent fuel elements from nuclear power plants to central stores and further to fuel reprocessing plants in order to protect the crew from unnecessarily high radiation doses and to ensure that not allowable values occur. Such measures are discussed in this report as well as suitable radiation protection instruments for such ships. (E.R.)

  5. Instruments and methods of scintillation spectra processing for radiation control tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antropov, S.Yu.; Ermilov, A.P.; Ermilov, S.A.; Komarov, N.A.; Krokhin, I.I.

    2005-01-01

    On gamma-spectrometer the response function could be calculated on the base of sensitivity data, energy resolution and form of Compton spectrum part. On the scintillation gamma-spectrometer with Na-I(Tl) crystal 63x63 mm the method allows to divide the 5-10 components mixtures, and on the beta-spectrometer of 2-3 component mixtures. The approach is realized in the 'Progress' program-instrumental complexes

  6. A new method for the radiation representation of musical instruments in auralizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Otondo, Felipe

    2005-01-01

    A new method for the representation of sound sources that vary their directivity in time in auralizations is introduced. A recording method with multi-channel anechoic recordings is proposed in connection with the use of a multiple virtual source reproduction system in auralizations. Listening ex...... to be significant. Further applications of the method are considered for ensembles within room auralizations as well as in the field of studio recording techniques for large instruments....

  7. Biological effects of radiation from dental radiography. Council on Dental Materials, Instruments, and Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    Clearly, there is ample evidence of adverse effects of radiation in sufficient doses. There is at present no proof of such effects from doses commonly employed in dental practice; however, it has not been possible to prove the absence of such effects. Most experts now agree that there may be a small, difficult to quantify risk of cancer or genetic mutation from diagnostic exposure in patients and in personnel exposed during work. Prudence dictates acceptance of this position until proof to the contrary is available. This report has presented recent attempts to quantify the risk to patients based on speculative calculations and extrapolations. Indices of population risks indicate that medical radiology is the largest source of human-made genetic and leukemogenic radiation burden to the American public. Dental radiology contributes a small-but not necessarily insignificant-portion. Of major concern is the increasing use of radiation for diagnostic purposes in both medicine and dentistry. Technological advances have reduced exposure per examination; presumably this trend will continue so that total exposure of populations to radiation in the healing arts will not increase. Recent analyses suggest that the cancer risk to a patient from a dental radiographic examination is of the order of one in a million; the genetic risk is substantially less, about one in a billion. The risks appear to be essentially equal for full-mouth intraoral and for panoramic examinations. These estimates are numerically quite small, but the effects are severe. Thus, these risks cannot be ignored. However, we currently accept risks of similar magnitude in our daily lives [Table 9]50,51 In addition, the risk of failure to make an accurate diagnosis may be greater than the risk from exposure to the radiation from a justified and properly conducted radiographic examination

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE, REAL-TIME ALPHA RADIATION MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR LIQUID STREAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has expressed a need for an on-line, real-time instrument for assaying alpha-emitting radionuclides (uranium and the transuranics) in effluent waters leaving DOE sites to ensure compliance with regulatory limits. Due to the short range of alpha particles in water (approximately40 Im), it is necessary now to intermittently collect samples of water and send them to a central laboratory for analysis. A lengthy and costly procedure is used to separate and measure the radionuclides from each sample. Large variations in radionuclide concentrations in the water may go undetected due to the sporadic sampling. Even when detected, the reading may not be representative of the actual stream concentration. To address these issues, the Advanced Technologies Group of Thermo Power Corporation (a Thermo Electron company) is developing a real-time, field-deployable alpha monitor based on a solid-state silicon wafer semiconductor (US Patent 5,652,013 and pending, assigned to the US Department of Energy). The Thermo Water Alpha Monitor will serve to monitor effluent water streams (Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area) and will be suitable for process control of remediation as well as decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) operations, such as monitoring scrubber or rinse water radioactivity levels (Mixed Waste, Plutonium, and D and D Focus Area). It would be applicable for assaying other liquids, such as oil, or solids after proper preconditioning. Rapid isotopic alpha air monitoring is also possible using this technology. This report details the program's accomplishments to date. Most significantly, the Alpha Monitoring Instrument was successfully field demonstrated on water 100X below the Environmental Protection Agency's proposed safe drinking water limit--down to under 1 pCi/1. During the Field Test, the Alpha Monitoring Instrument successfully analyzed isotopic uranium levels on a total of five different surface water, process water, and

  9. Metrological certification of aerosol and iodine channels in instrumentation for radiation monitoring at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkina, S.K.; Zalmanzon, Yu.E.; Ivanova, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    The method for converting the value of a volume activity unit of radioactive aerosols using the state special standard for operating measurement devices by means of aerosol sources is suggested. The sources are aerosol samples selected for a filter by means of the proper type of a detection unit or a radiometer and, thus, providing full coincidence of measurement geometry of aerosol sample activity during radiation monitoring. Application of aerosol samples permits to solve the problem of metrological certification and verification of aerosol and iodine channels of radiation safety monitoring systems under operating conditions without their dismantling and to establish the unity and correctness in the field of measurement of volume activity of 131 I aerosols at NPP

  10. Computer-based nuclear radiation detection and instrumentation teaching laboratory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, W.H.; He, Q.

    1993-01-01

    The integration of computers into the University of Florida's Nuclear Engineering Sciences teaching laboratories is based on the innovative use of MacIntosh 2 microcomputers, IEEE-488 (GPIB) communication and control bus system and protocol, compatible modular nuclear instrumentation (NIM) and test equipment, LabVIEW graphics and applications software, with locally prepared, interactive, menu-driven, HyperCard based multi-exercise laboratory instruction sets and procedures. Results thus far have been highly successful with the majority of the laboratory exercises having been implemented

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE, REAL-TIME ALPHA RADIATION MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR LIQUID STREAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has expressed a need for an on-line, real-time instrument for assaying alpha-emitting radionuclides (uranium and the transuranics) in effluent waters leaving DOE sites to ensure compliance with regulatory limits. Due to the short range of alpha particles in water (approximately40 Tm), it is necessary now to intermittently collect samples of water and send them to a central laboratory for analysis. A lengthy and costly procedure is used to separate and measure the radionuclides from each sample. Large variations in radionuclide concentrations in the water may go undetected due to the sporadic sampling. Even when detected, the reading may not be representative of the actual stream concentration. To address these issues, Tecogen, a division of Thermo Power Corporation, a Thermo Electron company, is developing a real-time, field-deployable, alpha monitor based on a solid-state silicon wafer semiconductor (patent pending, to be assigned to the Department of Energy). The Thermo Alpha Monitor (TAM) will serve to monitor effluent water streams (Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area) and will be suitable for process control of remediation as well as decontamination and decommissioning operations, such as monitoring scrubber or rinse water radioactivity levels (Mixed Waste Focus Area and D and D Focus Area). It would be applicable for assaying other liquids, such as oil, or solids after proper preconditioning. Rapid isotopic alpha air monitoring is also possible using this technology. This instrument for direct counting of alpha-emitters in aqueous streams is presently being developed by Thermo Power under a development program funded by the DOE Environmental Management program (DOE-EM), administered by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). Under this contract, Thermo Power has demonstrated a solid-state, silicon-based semiconductor instrument, which uses a proprietary film-based collection system to quantitatively extract the

  12. CERES Top-of-Atmosphere Earth Radiation Budget Climate Data Record: Accounting for in-Orbit Changes in Instrument Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman G. Loeb

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES project provides observations of Earth’s radiation budget using measurements from CERES instruments onboard the Terra, Aqua and Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP satellites. As the objective is to create a long-term climate data record, it is necessary to periodically reprocess the data in order to incorporate the latest calibration changes and algorithm improvements. Here, we focus on the improvements and validation of CERES Terra and Aqua radiances in Edition 4, which are used to generate higher-level climate data products. Onboard sources indicate that the total (TOT channel response to longwave (LW radiation has increased relative to the start of the missions by 0.4% to 1%. In the shortwave (SW, the sensor response change ranges from −0.4% to 0.6%. To account for in-orbit changes in SW spectral response function (SRF, direct nadir radiance comparisons between instrument pairs on the same satellite are made and an improved wavelength dependent degradation model is used to adjust the SRF of the instrument operating in a rotating azimuth plane scan mode. After applying SRF corrections independently to CERES Terra and Aqua, monthly variations amongst these instruments are highly correlated and the standard deviation in the difference of monthly anomalies is 0.2 Wm−2 for ocean and 0.3 Wm−2 for land/desert. Additionally, trends in CERES Terra and Aqua monthly anomalies are consistent to 0.21 Wm−2 per decade for ocean and 0.31 Wm−2 per decade for land/desert. In the LW, adjustments to the TOT channel SRF are made to ensure that removal of the contribution from the SW portion of the TOT channel with SW channel radiance measurements during daytime is consistent throughout the mission. Accordingly, anomalies in day–night LW difference in Edition 4 are more consistent compared to Edition 3, particularly for the Aqua land/desert case.

  13. High spectral resolution fourier transform infrared instruments for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revercomb, H.E.; Smith, W.L.; Knuteson, R.O.; Best, F.A.; Dedecker, R.G.; Dirkx, T.P.; Herbsleb, R.A.; Short, J.F.; Howell, H.B.; Murcray, D.

    1994-01-01

    Major accomplishments of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Instrument Development Program (IDP) effort have been to (1) develop and extensively test a new radiometric calibration subsystem with improved accuracy and robustness; (2) interact with Bomem, Inc., leading to the development of a two-channel interferometer with the required software characteristics; (3) develop new operational control software and network interfaces; (4) develop new analysis techniques to handle the complete calibration, including a detector nonlinearity correction, wavelength scale standardization, and a finite field-of-view correction; (5) integrate the required hardware, operational control software, and analysis software into a complete system which interfaces to the CART data system and operates remotely; and (6) perform extensive field testing of the AERI system prototype

  14. The Relationship Between Radiative Forcing and Temperature. What Do Statistical Analyses of the Instrumental Temperature Record Measure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, R.K.; Kauppi, H.; Stock, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Comparing statistical estimates for the long-run temperature effect of doubled CO2 with those generated by climate models begs the question, is the long-run temperature effect of doubled CO2 that is estimated from the instrumental temperature record using statistical techniques consistent with the transient climate response, the equilibrium climate sensitivity, or the effective climate sensitivity. Here, we attempt to answer the question, what do statistical analyses of the observational record measure, by using these same statistical techniques to estimate the temperature effect of a doubling in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide from seventeen simulations run for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 2 (CMIP2). The results indicate that the temperature effect estimated by the statistical methodology is consistent with the transient climate response and that this consistency is relatively unaffected by sample size or the increase in radiative forcing in the sample

  15. Analysis of the failures and corrective actions for the LHC cryogenics radiation tolerant electronics and its field instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balle, Christoph; Casas, Juan; Vauthier, Nicolas [CERN, TE Department, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-01-29

    The LHC cryogenic system radiation tolerant electronics and their associated field instruments have been in nominal conditions since before the commissioning of the first LHC beams in September 2008. This system is made of about 15’000 field instruments (thermometers, pressure sensors, liquid helium level gauges, electrical heaters and position switches), 7’500 electronic cards and 853 electronic crates. Since mid-2008 a software tool has been deployed, this allows an operator to report a problem and then lists the corrective actions. The tool is a great help in detecting recurrent problems that may be tackled by a hardware or software consolidation. The corrective actions range from simple resets, exchange of defective equipment, repair of electrical connectors, etc. However a recurrent problem that heals by itself is present on some channels. This type of fault is extremely difficult to diagnose and it appears as a temporary opening of an electrical circuit; its duration can range from a few minutes to several months. This paper presents the main type of problems encountered during the last four years, their evolution over time, the various hardware or software consolidations that have resulted and whether they have had an impact in the availability of the LHC beam.

  16. Applications of Laminar Weak-Link Mechanisms for Ultraprecision Synchrotron Radiation Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Toellner, T. S.; Alp, E. E.; Maser, J.; Ilavsky, J.; Shastri, S. D.; Lee, P. L.; Narayanan, S.; Long, G. G.

    2007-01-01

    Unlike traditional kinematic flexure mechanisms, laminar overconstrained weak-link mechanisms provide much higher structure stiffness and stability. Using a laminar structure configured and manufactured by chemical etching and lithography techniques, we are able to design and build linear and rotary weak-link mechanisms with ultrahigh positioning sensitivity and stability for synchrotron radiation applications. Applications of laminar rotary weak-link mechanism include: high-energy-resolution monochromators for inelastic x-ray scattering and x-ray analyzers for ultra-small-angle scattering and powder-diffraction experiments. Applications of laminar linear weak-link mechanism include high-stiffness piezo-driven stages with subnanometer resolution for an x-ray microscope. In this paper, we summarize the recent designs and applications of the laminar weak-link mechanisms at the Advanced Photon Source

  17. Instrumentation for beam radiation and luminosity measurement in the CMS experiment using novel detector technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Guthoff, Moritz

    2017-01-01

    The higher energy and luminosity of the LHC initiated the development of dedicated technologies for radiation monitoring and luminosity measurement. A pixelated luminosity detector counts coincidences in several three layer telescopes of silicon pixel detectors to measure the luminosity for each colliding LHC bunch pair. In addition, charged particle tracking allows to monitor the location of the collision point.The upgraded fast beam conditions monitor measures the particle flux using 24 two pad single crystalline diamond sensors, equipped with a fast front-end ASIC produced in 130 nm CMOS technology. The excellent time resolution is used to separate collision products from machine induced background.A new beam-halo monitor at larger radius exploits Cerenkov light produced by relativistic charged particles in fused quartz crystals to provide direction sensitivity and time resolution to separate incoming and outgoing particles. The back-end electronics of the beam monitoring systems includes dedicated modules...

  18. Development of a head and neck companion module for the quality of life-radiation therapy instrument (QOL-RTI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotti, Andy; Johnson, Darlene J.; Gwede, Clement; Casey, Linda; Sauder, Bonnie; Cantor, Alan; Pearlman, James

    1998-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: A review of available head and neck quality of life (QOL) instruments reveals them to inadequately address important radiation related side effects, or to be too cumbersome for routine use. The purpose of this study was to develop a head and neck disease specific module as a companion to the previously developed quality of life - radiation therapy instrument (QOL-RTI). The goal was to create a more complete, yet concise, head and neck site-specific module geared toward patients receiving radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Methods and Materials: This exploratory study included 34 consecutive patients undergoing definitive radiotherapy over a 6-7 week course (60-79.8 Gy). We developed and administered a 14-item questionnaire to all eligible patients treated with radiotherapy for head and neck cancer who were not already registered in another research study assessing quality of life (e.g., RTOG). During the treatment period, the QOL-RTI general tool and the head and neck (H and N) module were administered as follows: at baseline, at week four (for test-retest), and at the end of the treatment period. For validation purposes the QOL-RTI/H and N was compared to the functional assessment cancer tool head and neck (FACT-H and N) questionnaire. The FACT-H and N was administered one time at week 4, on the same day as the QOL-RTI/H and N. This report includes the treatment phase of the study (during the course of radiation). Results: Mean age was 62 years (range 40-75). Internal consistency of the module was satisfactory (Chronbach's α = 0.85). Test-retest yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.90 (p < 0.001). Concurrent validity, established by comparing the module to the FACT/H and N , yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.85. Significant changes in quality of life scores during a course of radiation was noted for both general quality of life tool and the site specific module. For the head and neck module, the difference in the mean baseline

  19. Validation of the quality of life-radiation therapy instrument (QOL-RTI) in patients receiving definitive radiation therapy for locally advanced prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwede, Clement; Friedland, Jay L.; Johnson, Darlene J.; Casey, Linda; Cantor, Alan; Sauder, Bonnie; Beres, Kathleen L.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The incidence of prostate cancer has tripled over the last 10 years, doubled over the last four years and continues to increase. A common method of treating prostate cancer is with external beam radiotherapy with or without hormones. Accurate and comprehensive documentation through prospective studies with long term follow-up is necessary to reduce the negative impact of treatment on a patient's quality of life. While it is increasingly recognized that radiation therapy treatment for prostate cancer may result in permanent alteration of the patient's quality of life, the extent and timing of this change in quality of life has not been adequately investigated in a comprehensive and prospective manner. Furthermore, there are limited instruments developed for use with patients undergoing definitive radiotherapy. The purpose of this paper is to report on the validation of the Quality of Life Radiation Therapy Instrument (QOL-RTI), a 24-item visual analogue general quality of life tool developed for use with patients receiving radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Health related quality of life was assessed in a prospective study of 62 patients treated with either combined hormonal therapy (HT) plus external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or EBRT alone for locally advanced prostate cancer. Quality life was measured prospectively before, during, and after radiation therapy. Results: The estimated reliability of the subscales was assessed with coefficient alpha which ranged from 0.57 to 0.68. Internal consistency was calculated using initial questionnaires for the entire sample, yielding a Cronbach's alpha of 0.82. Test-retest produced a correlation coefficient of 0.75 (p<0.0001) [n=60]. Construct validity was assessed by a repeated measures design to look for time effect, group effect, group and time interaction effect. We examined quality of life total scores, subscale total scores and performance status scores for patients who were treated with HT+ EBRT and

  20. Sri Lanka : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    The framework for public financial accountability in Sri Lanka is founded in the principles of governance associated with the model inherited from the British, widely accepted as appropriate for the country. The primary accountability institutions, and organizations for financial management, control, audit and legislative scrutiny have, however, not evolved in line with the changes in the ...

  1. Lyssavirus in Indian Flying Foxes, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Panduka S; Marston, Denise A; Ellis, Richard J; Wise, Emma L; Karawita, Anjana C; Breed, Andrew C; McElhinney, Lorraine M; Johnson, Nicholas; Banyard, Ashley C; Fooks, Anthony R

    2016-08-01

    A novel lyssavirus was isolated from brains of Indian flying foxes (Pteropus medius) in Sri Lanka. Phylogenetic analysis of complete virus genome sequences, and geographic location and host species, provides strong evidence that this virus is a putative new lyssavirus species, designated as Gannoruwa bat lyssavirus.

  2. Instrumentation for beam radiation and luminosity measurement in the CMS experiment using novel detector technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthoff, Moritz

    2017-02-11

    The higher energy and luminosity of the LHC initiated the development of dedicated technologies for radiation monitoring and luminosity measurement. A dedicated pixelated luminosity detector measures coincidences in several three-layer telescopes of silicon pixel detectors to arrive at a luminosity for each colliding LHC bunch pair. In addition, charged particle tracking allows to monitor the location of the collision point. The upgraded fast beam conditions monitor measures the particle flux using 24 two-pad single crystalline diamond sensors, equipped with a fast front-end ASIC produced in 130 nm CMOS technology. The excellent time resolution is used to separate collision products from machine induced background. A new beam-halo monitor at larger radius exploits Cherenkov light produced by relativistic charged particles in fuzed quartz crystals to provide direction sensitivity and time resolution to separate incoming and outgoing particles. The back-end electronics of the beam monitoring systems includes dedicated modules with high bandwidth digitizers developed in both VME and microTCA standards for per bunch beam measurements and gain monitoring. All new and upgraded sub-detectors have been taking data from the first day of LHC operation in April 2015. Results on their commissioning and essential characteristics using data since the start-up of LHC will be presented.

  3. Simulation and Performance Test Technology Development for Semiconductor Radiation Detection Instrument Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Kyung; Lee, W. G.; Kim, S. Y.; Shin, C. H.; Kim, K. O.; Park, J. M.; Jang, D. Y.; Kang, J. S.

    2010-06-01

    - Analysis on the Absorbed Dose and Electron Generation by Using MCNPX Code - Analysis on the Change of Measured Energy Spectrum As a Function of Bias Voltage Applied in Semiconductor Detector - Comparison of Monte Carlo Simulation Considering the Charge Collection Efficiency and Experimental Result - Development of Semiconductor Sensor Design Code Based on the Graphic User Interface - Analysis on Depth Profile of Ion-implanted Semiconductor Wafer Surface and Naturally Generated SiO2 Insulation Layer Using Auger Electron Spectroscopy - Measurement of AFM Images and Roughness to Abalyze Surface of Semiconductor Wafer with respect to Annealing and Cleaning Process - Measurement of Physical Properties for Semiconductor Detector Surface after CZT Passivation Process - Evaluation of Crystal Structure and Specific Resistance of CZT - Measurement/Analysis on Band Structure of CZT Crystal - Evaluation of Neutron Convertor Layer with respect to Change in Temperature - Measurement/Evaluation of physical characteristics for lattice parameter, specific resistance, and band structure of CZT crystal - Measurement/Evaluation of lattice transition of SiC semiconductor detector after radiation irradiation - Measurement/Evaluation of performance of semiconductor detector with respect to exposure in high temperature environment

  4. Neutron activation analysis, gamma ray spectrometry and radiation environment monitoring instrument concept: GEORAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, R.M.; Talboys, D.L.; Sims, M.R.; Bannister, N.P.; Makarewicz, M.; Stevenson, T.; Hutchinson, I.B.; Watterson, J.I.W.; Lanza, R.C.; Richter, L.; Mills, A.; Fraser, G.W.

    2005-01-01

    Geological processes on Earth can be related to those that may have occurred in past epochs on Mars, if analytical methods used on Earth can be operated remotely on the surface of the Red Planet. Nuclear analytical techniques commonly used in terrestrial geology are neutron activation analysis (NAA) and gamma-ray spectroscopy (GRS), which determine the elemental composition, elemental concentration and stratigraphical distribution of water in rocks and soils. We describe a detector concept called GEORAD (GEOlogical and RADiation environment package) for the proposed ExoMars rover within the ESA's Aurora Programme for the exploration of the Solar System. GEORAD consists of a compact neutron source for the NAA of rocks and soils and a GRS. The GRS has a dual role since it can be used for natural radioactivity studies and NAA. A fully depleted silicon detector coupled to neutron sensitive converters measures the solar particle and neutron flux interacting with the Martian surface. We describe how the GEORAD detector suite could contribute to the geological and biological characterisation of Mars both for the detection of extinct or extant life and to evaluate potential hazards facing future manned missions. We show how GEORAD measurements complement the astrobiological objectives of the Aurora programme

  5. Radiation Tests on the Complete System of the Instrumentation of the LHC Cryogenics at the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Gousiou, E; Casas Cubillos, J; de la Gama Serrano, J

    2009-01-01

    There are more than 6000 electronic cards for the instrumentation of the LHC cryogenics, housed in crates and distributed around the 27 km tunnel. Cards and crates will be exposed to a complex radiation field during the 10 years of LHC operation. Rad-tol COTS and rad-hard ASIC have been selected and individually qualified during the design phase of the cards. The test setup and the acquired data presented in this paper target the qualitative assessment of the compliance with the LHC radiation environment of an assembled system. It is carried out at the CNGS test facility which provides exposure to LHC-like radiation field.

  6. Changing demography of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, S

    1986-06-01

    The point to be made in this article about the changing demography of Sri Lanka is that demographic conditions (an older population and growth rate of 1.6) are favorable for economic growth. Planning for economic growth is demonstrated in discussing trends and their relationship to economic development rather than providing a macroeconomic analysis. The 1st demographic characteristic of importance is the age structure of the population, which identifies labor force potential, dependents, and those not economically active in order to calculate required social services. Consumer expenditure patterns are affected, as well as educational costs. The rapid mortality decline of the 1940's and the high fertility up to the 1960's created a broad based age structure that swelled student populations and labor force (unemployment). The 1980's is marked by 39% 15 years in 1981 versus 35% in 1971, and 6.4$ 60 years in 1981 versus 6.6% in 1971. Anticipated trends based on either 2.1, 2.5, or 2.9 children/mother indicate that the population structure would remain the same except for those 0-14 years. This amounts to 20-21.3 million by 2001 and 5.5-6.7 million 15 years. Economic planning is affected by the following age groups: preschoolers, school age children, working population, and old age population. A gradual decline in preschoolers would eventually lead to a 9% population versus a 13% in 2001. 23% of the current population of 5-14 year olds will decrease after 1996 with slow or medium growth to 19-21%. The next 2 decades will experience a swelling of the working age population from 9.56 million to 12.7 million, which was 15 years ago the total population figure. The rate change is from 58.2% to 60-63%. By 2001 the 60 year old population will be 9% (1.8 million) or equal to those 5 years. Attention, thus, needs to be paid to the equitability of distribution of services and improvement in quality rather than expansion. New jobs need to be created to prevent high unemployment

  7. DOSIS & DOSIS 3D: radiation measurements with the DOSTEL instruments onboard the Columbus Laboratory of the ISS in the years 2009-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Thomas; Burmeister, Sönke; Matthiä, Daniel; Przybyla, Bartos; Reitz, Günther; Bilski, Pawel; Hajek, Michael; Sihver, Lembit; Szabo, Julianna; Ambrozova, Iva; Vanhavere, Filip; Gaza, Ramona; Semones, Edward; Yukihara, Eduardo G.; Benton, Eric R.; Uchihori, Yukio; Kodaira, Satoshi; Kitamura, Hisashi; Boehme, Matthias

    2017-03-01

    The natural radiation environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) differs significantly in composition and energy from that found on Earth. The space radiation field consists of high energetic protons and heavier ions from Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR), as well as of protons and electrons trapped in the Earth's radiation belts (Van Allen belts). Protons and some heavier particles ejected in occasional Solar Particle Events (SPEs) might in addition contribute to the radiation exposure in LEO. All sources of radiation are modulated by the solar cycle. During solar maximum conditions SPEs occur more frequently with higher particle intensities. Since the radiation exposure in LEO exceeds exposure limits for radiation workers on Earth, the radiation exposure in space has been recognized as a main health concern for humans in space missions from the beginning of the space age on. Monitoring of the radiation environment is therefore an inevitable task in human spaceflight. Since mission profiles are always different and each spacecraft provides different shielding distributions, modifying the radiation environment measurements needs to be done for each mission. The experiments "Dose Distribution within the ISS (DOSIS)" (2009-2011) and "Dose Distribution within the ISS 3D (DOSIS 3D)" (2012-onwards) onboard the Columbus Laboratory of the International Space Station (ISS) use a detector suite consisting of two silicon detector telescopes (DOSimetry TELescope = DOSTEL) and passive radiation detector packages (PDP) and are designed for the determination of the temporal and spatial variation of the radiation environment. With the DOSTEL instruments' changes of the radiation composition and the related exposure levels in dependence of the solar cycle, the altitude of the ISS and the influence of attitude changes of the ISS during Space Shuttle dockings inside the Columbus Laboratory have been monitored. The absorbed doses measured at the end of May 2016 reached up to 286

  8. Pengaruh Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono I pada Seni Karawitan Kraton Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raharja -

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gamelan sebagai alat musik atau karawitan sebagai produk musikal dari Kraton Yogyakartamempunyai beberapa karakter yang sangat khas. Karawitan masih dipergunakan sebagai suatu identitasdan diakui oleh masyarakat hingga saat ini. Pengembangan musikal ini bermula dari Sri SultanHamengku Buwono I. Ada dua alasan penting yang mendorong gagasan penciptaan karaktergamelan. Pertama, konsepsi kedudukan raja telah mendudukkan gamelan sebagai salah satu pusakapenting. Kedua, kepribadian Sultan yang maskulin, heroik, dan patriotik menjadi model pengembangan,memberi ciri khas pada masing-masing ricikan gamelan dan musikalitasnya. Gamelan KratonYogyakarta mempunyai kesan rasa musikal: agung, gagah, tegas, mantap, berwibawa, mrabu (sepertiraja, dan ngratoni (seperti suasana di kraton.   The Effect of Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono I on Kraton Yogyakarta Karawitan. Gamelan asmusical instrument or karawitan as a musical product of Kraton Yogyakarta has some specific characters. Itis still used as an identity and is recognized by karawitan society until now. This musical development wasfirstly introduced by Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono I. There are two important reasons which stimulatethe ideas of creating gamelan characters. First, the king’s authority conception puts the gamelan as one ofthe important heirloom. Second, Sultan’s personalities which are masculine, heroic, and patriotic becomethe influencing model of its development, and give some specific characters on each gamelan instrument andits musicality as well. Kraton Yogyakarta gamelan has many musical rasa(s/feelings: glorious, strong, clear,steady, prestigious, ‘mrabu’ (like a king, and ‘ngratoni’ (such an atmosphere of Kraton.

  9. A comparison of RANZCR and Singapore-designed radiation oncology practice audit instruments: how does reproducibility affect future approaches to revalidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jiade J.; Wynne, Christopher J.; Kumar, Mahesh B.; Shakespeare, Thomas P.; Mukherjee, Rahul; Back, Michael F.

    2004-01-01

    Physician competency assessment requires the use of validated methods and instruments. The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists (RANZCR) developed a draft audit form to be evaluated as a competency assessment instrument for radiation oncologists (ROs) in Australasia. We evaluated the reliability of the RANZCR instrument as well as a separate The Cancer Institute (TCI) Singapore-designed instrument by having two ROs perform an independent chart review of 80 randomly selected patients seen at The Cancer Institute (TCI), Singapore. Both RANZCR and TCI Singapore instruments were used to score each chart. Inter- and intra-observer reliability for both audit instruments were compared using misclassification rates as the primary end-point. Overall, for inter-observer reproducibility, 2.3% of TCI Singapore items were misclassified compared to 22.3% of RANZCR items (P < 0.0001, 100.00% confidence that TCI instrument has less inter-observer misclassification). For intra-observer reproducibility, 2.4% of TCI Singapore items were misclassified compared to 13.6% of RANZCR items (P < 0.0001, 100.00% confidence that TCI instrument has less intra-observer misclassification). The proposed RANZCR RO revalidation audit instrument requires further refinement to improve validity. Several items require modification or removal because of lack of reliability, whereas inclusion of other important and reproducible items can be incorporated as demonstrated by the TCI Singapore instrument. The TCI Singapore instrument also has the advantage of incorporating a simple scoring system and criticality index to allow discrimination between ROs and comparisons against future College standards Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  10. Health physics instrument manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupton, E.D.

    1978-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide apprentice health physics surveyors and other operating groups not directly concerned with radiation detection instruments a working knowledge of the radiation detection and measuring instruments in use at the Laboratory. The characteristics and applications of the instruments are given. Portable instruments, stationary instruments, personnel monitoring instruments, sample counters, and miscellaneous instruments are described. Also, information sheets on calibration sources, procedures, and devices are included. Gamma sources, beta sources, alpha sources, neutron sources, special sources, a gamma calibration device for badge dosimeters, and a calibration device for ionization chambers are described

  11. Suicide in Sri Lanka 1975-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knipe, Duleeka W; Metcalfe, Chris; Fernando, Ravindra

    2014-01-01

    pesticides. We investigate these changes in suicide rates in relation to age, gender, method specific trends and birth-cohort and period effects, with the aim of informing preventative strategies. METHODS: Secular trends of suicide in relation to age, sex, method, birth-cohort and period effects were......BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka has experienced major changes in its suicide rates since the 1970s, and in 1995 it had one of the highest rates in the world. Subsequent reductions in Sri Lanka's suicide rates have been attributed to the introduction of restrictions on the availability of highly toxic...... investigated graphically using police data (1975-2012). Poisoning case-fatality was investigated using national hospital admission data (2004-2010). RESULTS: There were marked changes to the age-, gender- and method-specific incidence of suicide over the study period. Year on year declines in rates began in 17...

  12. Perimenopausal symptoms in Sri Lankan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonaratna, C; Fonseka, P; Wijeywardene, K

    1999-06-01

    To determine the types of perimenopausal symptoms (PMS) associated with the natural menopause and to make a preliminary assessment of the influence of PMS on household work, employment duties and social life, since no published data are available regarding these aspects in Sri Lankan women. A cross-sectional descriptive study of 403 women after natural menopause chosen randomly from four selected groups. A pre-tested coded questionnaire administered by trained women medical students to consenting menopausal women. An overwhelming majority of menopausal women (87.1%) had one or more PMS. The principal PMS reported were insomnia (57.8%), joint pains (55.8%), night sweats (55.6%), hot flushes (40.2%), irritability (35.3%) and headaches (33.3%). Of the 171 women employed outside the home, 38% noted some interference with employment duties. PMS causes much morbidity in Sri Lankan perimenopausal women.

  13. Role of Military in Post-Conflict Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    state of Tamil Eelam based on the rights of self- determination .”30 They protested restricted citizenship and franchise rights for South Indian Tamils...Lankan terrorist organizations from August 1983 for several reasons,38 beginning with New Delhi’s objection to Sri Lanka’s pro -Western policy after 1977...nonTaxnom. (accessed August 15, 2011) 35 Government of Sri Lanka, “The Parliament of Sri Lanka, 1978 Constitution,” http://www.priu.gov.lk/ Cons

  14. Mission from Anti-Terrorism to Peace in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-24

    citizens working together. Endnotes 1 Asoka Bandarage, “The Sri Lankan Conflict a Multi-Polar Approach,” Harvard International Review, 15 June 2008...8 Asoka Bandarage, “The Sri Lankan Conflict a Multi-Polar Approach”, Harvard International Review, 15 June 2008, available from...Eastern University Press, 2003), 222. 24 H. Kaunaratna. BA (Ceylon) University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, interviewed by author, 25 November 2008. 25 Asoka

  15. The Economic Virtues of SRI and CSR

    OpenAIRE

    Derwall, Jeroen

    2007-01-01

    textabstractFinancial markets and company managers are increasingly acknowledging the concepts of socially responsible investing (SRI) and corporate social responsibility (CSR), but not without reservations. These hesitations are largely attributable to ongoing debates about a potential conflict between social responsibility goals and the traditional financial objectives of investors and companies. This thesis bundles six empirical studies that deepen our understanding of the economic value o...

  16. Sustainability of Government Debt in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OG Dayaratna-Banda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of government budget deficit on debt sustainability in Sri Lanka by using a novel methodological approach. The study used annual time series data from 1960 to 2012 in Sri Lanka for empirical testing. Sustainability of government debt is tested by using face value, market value and discounted market value of government debt as a proportion of GDP. Discounted market value of debt to GDP ratio was calculated using weighted average interest rate. Results of Augmented Dickey Fuller and Phillips-Perron tests indicate that debt ratios are non-stationary implying the existence of an unsustainable debt outlook. Results of the Chow test, employed to test if a structural break can be observed in 1978 as a result of moving away from the command economy to a market-oriented economy, indicate that the policy change has not led to have any fixed change in the mean of debt serials. The results compel us to conclude that public debt in Sri Lankan is not sustainable, so that a switch is required from foreign debt to other sources of financing of fiscal deficit or deficit reduction.

  17. Wind and wave dataset for Matara, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yao; Wang, Dongxiao; Priyadarshana Gamage, Tilak; Zhou, Fenghua; Madusanka Widanage, Charith; Liu, Taiwei

    2018-01-01

    We present a continuous in situ hydro-meteorology observational dataset from a set of instruments first deployed in December 2012 in the south of Sri Lanka, facing toward the north Indian Ocean. In these waters, simultaneous records of wind and wave data are sparse due to difficulties in deploying measurement instruments, although the area hosts one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world. This study describes the survey, deployment, and measurements of wind and waves, with the aim of offering future users of the dataset the most comprehensive and as much information as possible. This dataset advances our understanding of the nearshore hydrodynamic processes and wave climate, including sea waves and swells, in the north Indian Ocean. Moreover, it is a valuable resource for ocean model parameterization and validation. The archived dataset (Table 1) is examined in detail, including wave data at two locations with water depths of 20 and 10 m comprising synchronous time series of wind, ocean astronomical tide, air pressure, etc. In addition, we use these wave observations to evaluate the ERA-Interim reanalysis product. Based on Buoy 2 data, the swells are the main component of waves year-round, although monsoons can markedly alter the proportion between swell and wind sea. The dataset (Luo et al., 2017) is publicly available from Science Data Bank (https://doi.org/10.11922/sciencedb.447).

  18. Wind and wave dataset for Matara, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Luo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a continuous in situ hydro-meteorology observational dataset from a set of instruments first deployed in December 2012 in the south of Sri Lanka, facing toward the north Indian Ocean. In these waters, simultaneous records of wind and wave data are sparse due to difficulties in deploying measurement instruments, although the area hosts one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world. This study describes the survey, deployment, and measurements of wind and waves, with the aim of offering future users of the dataset the most comprehensive and as much information as possible. This dataset advances our understanding of the nearshore hydrodynamic processes and wave climate, including sea waves and swells, in the north Indian Ocean. Moreover, it is a valuable resource for ocean model parameterization and validation. The archived dataset (Table 1 is examined in detail, including wave data at two locations with water depths of 20 and 10 m comprising synchronous time series of wind, ocean astronomical tide, air pressure, etc. In addition, we use these wave observations to evaluate the ERA-Interim reanalysis product. Based on Buoy 2 data, the swells are the main component of waves year-round, although monsoons can markedly alter the proportion between swell and wind sea. The dataset (Luo et al., 2017 is publicly available from Science Data Bank (https://doi.org/10.11922/sciencedb.447.

  19. Calibration of "Babyline" RP instruments

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

      If you have old RP instrumentation of the “Babyline” type, as shown in the photo, please contact the Radiation Protection Group (Joffrey Germa, 73171) to have the instrument checked and calibrated. Thank you. Radiation Protection Group

  20. Evaluation by instrumented indentation of the damage caused by gamma radiation on polymeric materials; Avaliacao por indentacao instrumentada dos danos causados pela radiacao gama em materiais polimericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, M.P.; Azevedo, E.C.; Miquelin, C.A.; Soboll, D.S., E-mail: helunica@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (DAFIS/UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. Academico de Fisica

    2010-07-01

    Several materials with densities close to water are used as phantoms in dosimetry. Such materials are damaged because they are exposed to radiation, the surface layers suffer the largest changes. This damage can be assessed by instrumented indentation. This paper investigates the variations in hardness and elastic modulus of samples of polymethyl-methacrylate, polyvinyl chloride, polyacetal and polypropylene before and after being irradiated with gamma radiation dose 500 Gy, using a Nanoindeter XP, with applied loads between 1 mN and 400 mN. The results are discussed correlating the variations in the mechanical properties of polymers with their applications. (author)

  1. Validity and reliability of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-Student Version in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Nuwan Darshana; Dissanayake, Devani Sakunthala; Abeywardena, Gihan Sajiwa

    2018-05-04

    The present study was aimed at assessing the validity and the reliability of the Sinhala version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-Student Version (UWES-S) among collegiate cycle students in Sri Lanka. The 17-item UWES-S was translated to Sinhala and the judgmental validity was assessed by a multi-disciplinary panel of experts. Construct validity of the UWES-S was appraised by using multi-trait scaling analysis and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) on data obtained from a sample of 194 grade thirteen students in the Kurunegala district, Sri Lanka. Reliability of the UWES-S was assessed by using internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Except for item 13, all other items showed good psychometric properties in judgemental validity, item-convergent validity and item-discriminant validity. EFA using principal component analysis with Oblimin rotation, suggested a three-factor solution (including vigor, dedication and absorption subscales) explaining 65.4% of the total variance for the 16-item UWES-S (with item 13 deleted). All three subscales show high internal consistency with Cronbach's α coefficient values of 0.867, 0.819, and 0.903 and test-retest reliability was high (p valid and a reliable instrument to assess work engagement among collegiate cycle students in Sri Lanka.

  2. Sri Lanka: In peace or in pieces? A critical approach to peace education in Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes Cardozo, M.T.A.

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to explore the 'two faces of education' through a critical analysis of peace education in Sri Lanka. It aims to contribute to the wider debate on the complex role of education in situations of conflict. The article starts with an overview of what peace education is, or should be.

  3. Increased Y-chromosome detection by SRY duplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Høgh; Clausen, Frederik Banch; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2012-01-01

    Determining fetal sex noninvasively is dependent of a robust assay. We designed a novel SRY assay and combined it with a SRY assay from literature forming a duplex assay with the same fluorescent dye to increase detection of Y-chromosome at low cell-free fetal DNA or chimeric DNA concentrations....

  4. Sri Lanka Telecentre Family Network Project | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sri Lanka Telecentre Family Network Project. There has been dramatic growth in telecentres and other local information and communication technology (ICT) projects in Sri Lanka. The largest of these, the Nanasala (rural knowledge centres) program, aims to reach 1 000 villages across the nation. Sarvodaya, an early ...

  5. Non-economic gains of Sri Lanka's FTAs with neighbours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandara, Jayatilleke S.; Yu, Wusheng

    2012-01-01

    were not explicitly outlined in Sri Lanka's two FTAs with its big rival neighbours (India and Pakistan), the FTAs helped Sri Lanka to successfully execute the war against the LTTE (the Tamil Tigers) by neutralising India on the one hand and gaining military assistance from Pakistan on the other...

  6. Reducing fruit losses in India and Sri Lanka using nanotechnology

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Reducing fruit losses in India and. Sri Lanka using ... The post-harvest losses — between 35 and 40% and valued at about ... Industrial Technology Institute in Sri Lanka has a bio-wax ... Better jobs and entrepreneurial opportunities for women.

  7. All projects related to sri lanka | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Women face many barriers to political participation in conflict zones across South ... perpetuate a culture of impunity and lack of justice for victims of violence and abuse ... INDIA, PAKISTAN, BANGLADESH, SRI LANKA, LEGISLATIVE POWER, Gender ... Sri Lanka is turning to aquaculture to diversify its rural economy and ...

  8. L2 Reading Motivation among Sri Lankan University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Kusumi Vasantha; Hirakawa, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the extent of the motivational processes that facilitated the text comprehension among 406 Sri Lankan university students in Sri Lanka. Students' L2 text comprehension and reading motivation were assessed using a reading comprehension test and a reading motivation and attitude questionnaire. The Principal Componential…

  9. Lõputu sõda Sri Lankal / Agu Karelsohn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karelsohn, Agu

    2008-01-01

    Ülevaade Sri Lankal aastakümneid kestnud ja umbes 70 000 tapetut nõudnud kodusõjast, kus omavahel võitlevad võimul olevad singalid ja vähemuses olevad ning mässuliste organisatsiooniks Tamili Tiigrid koondunud tamilid. Kaart: Sri Lanka

  10. Present status of ambient dose equivalent rate and radioactive substance concentration measurements in working environment. (3) Measuring instruments for ionizing radiation in working environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Shohei

    2006-01-01

    In order to measure the airborne radioactive substance concentration in working environments, some kinds of sampler such as dust sampler and iodine sampler, measuring instruments (alpha and beta spectrometer, and liquid scintillation counter), monitor (dust-, iodine- and gas-monitor), survey meter for measuring gamma ray dose rate are stated. The measurement method of α, β and γ-ray nuclides and ambient dose-equivalent at 10 mm was explained. Some examples of the list of dust sampler, filter, tritium sampler, dust monitor, iodine monitor, gas monitor, and survey meter on the market are shown. There are so many kinds of measuring instruments for ionizing radiation in working environment that the best instrument for measurement should be selected. The environment conditions such as sample form, temperature and humidity have to be considered in order to evaluate the measurement values. (S.Y.)

  11. Troubleshooting in nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This report on troubleshooting of nuclear instruments is the product of several scientists and engineers, who are closely associated with nuclear instrumentation and with the IAEA activities in the field. The text covers the following topics: Preamplifiers, amplifiers, scalers, timers, ratemeters, multichannel analyzers, dedicated instruments, tools, instruments, accessories, components, skills, interfaces, power supplies, preventive maintenance, troubleshooting in systems, radiation detectors. The troubleshooting and repair of instruments is illustrated by some real examples

  12. Learning Peace (and Conflict): The Role of Primary Learning Materials in Peacebuilding in Post-War Afghanistan, South Sudan and Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanner, Catherine; Akseer, Spogmai; Kovinthan, Thursica

    2017-01-01

    Post-war education is usually considered a positive contributor to peacebuilding; however, it can also reinforce divisive perspectives. Textbooks and learning materials can be instrumental in maintaining or exacerbating existing inequalities. This paper uses case study literature reviews of Afghanistan, South Sudan and Sri Lanka to explore the…

  13. Development of a head and neck companion module for the quality of life - radiation therapy instrument (QOL-RTI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotti, Andy; Johnson, Darlene J.; Gwede, Clement; Casey, Linda; Cantor, Alan

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The purpose of this study is to develop a Likert version, disease specific module for the Quality of Life - Radiation Therapy Instrument (QOL-RTI) for head and neck patients. This module combined with the QOL-RTI may help us to determine what changes, if any, occur in the quality of life of patients receiving primary radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. A compelling reason to study head and neck patients is because of the extensive difficulties these patients experience while undergoing radiotherapy. Their psychological and emotional well-being may also have an adverse affect on their quality of life as they strive to cope with both a life-threatening disease and with the prospect of disfigurement or dysfunction that cannot be hidden from view. Many tools have been developed to measure quality of life, however, previously published literature has focused on quantifying functional status and toxicity assessment rather than the alteration of quality of life as perceived by the patient. This study, limited to patients receiving primary radiation, is expected to yield a tool that is applicable to the patient receiving multi-modality treatment for head and neck cancer and will be useful to the physician/nurse in determining interventions for these patients. Materials and Methods: This study is an uncontrolled, non-randomized exploratory study, including fifty (50) consecutive eligible patients undergoing definitive primary radiotherapy. The questionnaires were given to all eligible patients being treated with radiotherapy for head and neck cancer who are not already registered on another research study assessing Quality of Life (i.e. RTOG). During the 5-8 week treatment period, the QOL-RTI/H and N instrument is administered as follows: at baseline evaluation (immediately prior to the beginning of radiotherapy), at week four (4) two days in a row (for test-retest) and at the end of the treatment period. For validation purposes the QOL-RTI/H and

  14. An Empirical Study of the Fisher Effect and the Dynamic Relationship between Inflation and Interest Rate in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navoda Dhananjika Edirisinghe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining price stability is one of the primary objectives of monetary policy in any economy as price instability, particularly high inflation, will cause to reduce economic growth by reducing investments and productivity growth. Therefore, investigating the existence of Fisher Effect and Price Puzzle is a necessary requirement in order to understand the nature, extent and dynamics of effective monetary policies in Sri Lanka. The main objective of this study is to investigate the existence of short run and long run Fisher Effect and Price Puzzle in Sri Lanka. The results from co-integration technique, Error Correction Model (ECM which employed in the study suggest that in Sri Lanka, nominal interest rates fully adjust for expected inflation in long-run. But in short-run, a significant positive association between nominal interest rates and expected inflation is there with absence of full Fisher Effect. Moreover the analysis has been extended and identified the existence of the Price Puzzle both in a short run and long run. Therefore, changes in monetary instruments do not appear to be completely effective in meeting the goal of low inflation. In order to solve this problem what we can recommend is, Sri Lanka should move towards inflation-targeting monetary policy system.

  15. Recent disasters in Sri Lanka: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, Daya

    2013-09-01

    Sri Lanka has faced several disasters in the recent past, both manmade and natural. The mental health and psychosocial consequences have been felt at the individual, family, and collective levels. Individuals developed normal distress, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, or alcohol abuse. There were changes in family and social processes causing a tearing of the social fabric, lack of social cohesion, disconnection, mistrust, hopelessness, dependency, lack of motivation, powerlessness, and despondency. Because of the widespread nature of mental health needs, a community approach would reach the most number of people. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cost of malaria control in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, F; Steele, P; Perera, D

    1999-01-01

    The study provides estimates of the cost of various malaria control measures in an area of North-Central Province of Sri Lanka where the disease is endemic. We assumed that each measure was equally effective. In these terms, impregnating privately purchased bednets with insecticide was estimated...... to cost Rs 48 (US(40.87) per individual protected per year, less than half the cost of spraying houses with residual insecticides. Larviciding of vector breeding sites and especially the elimination of breeding habitats by flushing streams through seasonal release of water from upstream reservoirs...

  17. Measurement of dose equivalent with personal dosemeters and instrumentation of radiological protection in the new operative magnitudes ICRU, for external fields of radiation beta. Part IV. Survey of the angular response of instruments used in radiological protection in secondary patron fields of beta radiation (90Sr/90Y (1850 MBq and 74 MBq), 204TI (18.5 MBq) and 147Pm (518 MBq)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.

    1994-02-01

    Tests type were made (type test) in the following commercial instrumentation commonly used in radiological protection: Geiger-Mueller Counters (FH40 FE), Plastic Scintillators (NE-BP/6/4A), Ionization Chambers (RO-5) and Proportional Counters (HP-100A; gas:P-10). With object of checking the possibility that these they can carry out the new operative unit ICRU, H' (0.07; α). The tests consisted on determining the energy and angular response of the detectors in secondary patron fields of beta radiation, for isotopes of 90 Sr/ 90 Y (1850 MBq and 74 MBq and 147 Pm(518 MBq). The results show the inadequate of these commercial instruments for the realization of the H' operative unit (0.07; α) in beta external fields. Due to flaws in the design, construction and calibration of the instruments for this type of radiation fields (Author)

  18. 100th anniversary of the discovery of cosmic radiation: the role of Günther and Tegetmeyer in the development of the necessary instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. A. Fricke

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The year 2012 marks the 100th anniversary of the discovery of cosmic radiation by the Austrian physicist Victor Franz Hess (1883–1964, obtained onboard manned balloons, one of them launched up to an altitude of 5.3 km. His discovery earned him the Nobel Prize in 1936. The discovery follows in the context of the investigation of atmospheric electricity and of the newly discovered radioactivity, in particular with respect to γ rays. Starting from simple ionization chambers, the instruments were developed during an interplay between functional requirements, scientific progress and available manufacturing technologies.

    The authors of this contribution take this anniversary as an opportunity to describe the instrumentation used by Hess, as well as further developments in the instrumentation which took place in the decades following Hess' discovery. This manuscript also discusses details of the company who manufactured Hess' instrument, ''Günther & Tegetmeyer'' based in Braunschweig, Germany. This company did not only build instruments for Hess and the research on cosmic rays, but also for other scientific disciplines and for well-known researchers and discoverers.

  19. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  20. Statutory Instruments No 144 of 1994. European Communities (Protection of outside workers from ionising radiation) Regulations, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    These Regulations implement Council Directive 90/641 EURATOM of 4 December, 1990 on the operational protection of outside workers exposed to the risk of ionising radiation during their activities in controlled areas. The Regulations provide for the radiation protection of workers liable to receive an exposure of high radiation levels while working away from their employers' premises. The Regulations also apply to workers who come from, or who go to work in, another Member State of the European Community

  1. Energy efficiency and conservation in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samarasekura, S W.R.

    1983-01-01

    Sri Lanka is a tropical, predominantly agricultural island with a mixed population. The economy is rapidly expanding since 1977. So far the country is self-sufficient in rice, which is the staple food of the population. Indiscriminate cutting of forests for firewood resulted in a disastrous upsetting of the rain pattern. The existing capacity of hydro-electric power plants is not adequate to meet the demands of the rapidly growing industries and of households where the use of appliances increases dramatically with the progress of the economy. Periodic cut-offs of electric power supply became necessary. These are very harmful to industry. In order to keep the balance of payments in equilibrium, the government is fostering the development of new sources of foreign income, such as tourism and export of gems and spices. Remedies used to master the energy crisis are: the building of new hydroelectric plants, reforestation; introduction of ''kerosene stamps'' which will restrict the sale of this product at subsidized prices to the needy only; encouraging the use of fuel-efficient motorcycles in preference to automobiles; introduction (in cooperation with Honda) of alcohol-powered motorcycles; appointment of a Ministerial Committee endowed with broad powers to formulate and implement national energy policy. Although the general energy situation in Sri Lanka is rather bleak for the moment, it is confidently hoped that these measures will bear fruit in the long run.

  2. Iron deficiency anaemia in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liyanage, K.D.C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The commonest cause of nutritional anaemia in the Sri Lankan population is iron deficiency. The diets of the population belonging to the lower socio-economic groups contain little food of animal origin. Thus, their diets are deficient in easily absorbable (haem) iron; and are also heavily cereal-based. Therefore interference in the absorption of dietary iron also occurs. Iron-deficiency anaemia is not restricted to the so-called ''vulnerable groups'' in Sri Lanka, however, their greater demands make the problem not only commoner but also more severe. Among pregnant and lactating women anaemia is often associated with folate deficiency. It must also be noted that the low availability of dietary iron is compounded in large population groups. Malaria, presently raging on an epidemic scale is also a major contributory factor to the incidence of anaemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the iron status of pre-school children and pregnant women; to establish normal levels of biochemical indices at different trimesters; to record the effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy; and to record the bioavailability of iron from weaning foods and common adult diets. 6 figs, 14 tabs

  3. A profile of biomass stove use in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elledge, Myles F; Phillips, Michael J; Thornburg, Vanessa E; Everett, Kibri H; Nandasena, Sumal

    2012-04-01

    A large body of evidence has confirmed that the indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuel use is a major cause of premature deaths, and acute and chronic diseases. Over 78% of Sri Lankans use biomass fuel for cooking, the major source of IAP in developing countries. We conducted a review of the available literature and data sources to profile biomass fuel use in Sri Lanka. We also produced two maps (population density and biomass use; and cooking fuel sources by district) to illustrate the problem in a geographical context. The biomass use in Sri Lanka is limited to wood while coal, charcoal, and cow dung are not used. Government data sources indicate poor residents in rural areas are more likely to use biomass fuel. Respiratory diseases, which may have been caused by cooking emissions, are one of the leading causes of hospitalizations and death. The World Health Organization estimated that the number of deaths attributable to IAP in Sri Lanka in 2004 was 4300. Small scale studies have been conducted in-country in an attempt to associate biomass fuel use with cataracts, low birth weight, respiratory diseases and lung cancer. However, the IAP issue has not been broadly researched and is not prominent in Sri Lankan public health policies and programs to date. Our profile of Sri Lanka calls for further analytical studies and new innovative initiatives to inform public health policy, advocacy and program interventions to address the IAP problem of Sri Lanka.

  4. Radiation protection instrumentation at the Andalusian health service; Instrumentalizacion de la proteccion radiologica en el servicio Andaluz de salud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrador Cordoba, M [Servicio de Radiofisica, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Sevilla (Spain); Garcia Rotllan, J [Servicios Centrales del Servicio Andaluz de Salud, Sevilla (Spain)

    1997-11-01

    In Andalusia the contributions of radiological risks in the nuclear industry and of natural radiation are small and the same holds for medical applications of individuals and research. The performance models in radiation protection is monitored by the Andalusian Health Service through the public health institutions. This short communication describes the model and results obtained. 3 refs.

  5. Statutory instruments: 1984 No. 1261 Medicines - The Medicines (Committee on Radiation from Radioactive Medicinal Products) (Revocation) Order 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Order, which came into force on 6 September 1984, revokes the Medicines (Committee on Radiation from Radioactive Medicinal Products) Order 1978 thereby abolishing the Committee, which was established for the purpose of giving advice on safety, quality and efficacy in relation to radiation involving any substance or article for human use to which the Medicins Act 1968 is applicable. (NEA) [fr

  6. Intercomparison of radiation protection protection devices in a high-energy stray neutron field. Part III: Instrument response

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Silari, M.; Agosteo, S.; Beck, P.; Bedogni, R.; Cale, E.; Caresana, M.; Domingo, C.; Donadille, L.; Dubourg, N.; Esposito, A.; Fehrenbacher, G.; Fernández, F.; Ferrarini, M.; Fiechtner, A.; Fuchs, A.; García, M. J.; Golnik, N.; Gutermuth, F.; Khurana, S.; Klages, T.; Latocha, M.; Mares, V.; Mayer, S.; Radon, T.; Reithmeier, H.; Rollet, S.; Roos, H.; Rühm, W.; Sandri, S.; Schardt, D.; Simmer, G.; Spurný, František; Trompier, F.; Villa-Grasa, C.; Weitzenegger, E.; Wiegel, B.; Wielunski, M.; Wissmann, F.; Zechner, A.; Zielczyński, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, 7-8 (2009), s. 673-691 ISSN 1350-4487 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100480902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : radiation protection devices * radiation field * detectors * dosemeters Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2009

  7. Ionizing Radiation Measurements Using Low Cost Instruments for Teaching in College or High-School in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M. C.; Vilela, D. C.; Migoto, V. G.; Gomes, M. P.; Martin, I. M.; Germano, J. S. E.

    2017-01-01

    Ionizing radiation one of modern physics experimental teaching in colleges and high school can be easily implemented today due to low coasts of detectors and also electronic circuits and data acquisition interfaces. First it is interesting to show to young's students what is ionizing radiation and from where they appears near ground level? How it…

  8. European Communities (Foodstuffs treated with ionising radiation) Regulations, 2000. Statutory Instrument S.I. No. 297 of 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These Regulations give effect to Directive 1999/2/EC (the framework Directive) of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 February 1999 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation and Directive 1999/3/EC (the implementing Directive) of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 February 1999 on the establishment of a Community list of foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation. The effect of these Regulations is to lay down the general provisions for the treatment of foodstuffs with ionising radiation. Provisions concerning the approval and control of irradiation facilities and rules on labelling are also included. A positive list of foodstuffs authorised for treatment with ionising radiation and their maximum radiation doses are defined in the implementing Directive. These Regulations should be read together with the two Directives (author)

  9. Intercomparison of radiation protection devices in a high-energy stray neutron field. Part III: Instrument response

    CERN Document Server

    Silari, M; Beck, P; Bedogni, R; Cale, E; Caresana, M; Domingo, C; Donadille, L; Dubourg, N; Esposito, A; Fehrenbacher, G; Fernández, F; Ferrarini, M; Fiechtner, A; Fuchs, A; García, M J; Golnik, N; Gutermuth, F; Khurana, S; Klages, Th; Latocha, M; Mares, V; Mayer, S; Radon, T; Reithmeier, H; Rollet, S; Roos, H; Rühm, W; Sandri, S; Schardt, D; Simmer, G; Spurný, F; Trompier, F; Villa-Grasa, C; Weitzenegger, E; Wiegel, B; Wielunski, M; Wissmann, F; Zechner, A; Zielczyński, M

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission has funded within its 6th Framework Programme a three-year project (2005–2007) called CONRAD, COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry. The organizational framework for this project was provided by the European radiation Dosimetry Group EURADOS. Work Package 6 of CONRAD dealt with “complex mixed radiation fields at workplaces” and in this context it organised a benchmark exercise, which included both measurements and calculations, in a stray radiation field at a high-energy particle accelerator at GSI, Germany. The aim was to intercompare the response of several types of active detectors and passive dosemeters in a well-characterised workplace field. The Monte Carlo simulations of the radiation field and the experimental determination of the neutron spectra with various Bonner Sphere Spectrometers are discussed in Rollet et al. (2008) and in Wiegel et al. (2008). This paper focuses on the intercomparison of the response of the dosemeters in terms of ambient dose equivalent. Th...

  10. Use of an improved radiation amplification factor to estimate the effect of total ozone changes on action spectrum weighted irradiances and an instrument response function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Jay R.

    2010-12-01

    Multiple scattering radiative transfer results are used to calculate action spectrum weighted irradiances and fractional irradiance changes in terms of a power law in ozone Ω, U(Ω/200)-RAF, where the new radiation amplification factor (RAF) is just a function of solar zenith angle. Including Rayleigh scattering caused small differences in the estimated 30 year changes in action spectrum-weighted irradiances compared to estimates that neglect multiple scattering. The radiative transfer results are applied to several action spectra and to an instrument response function corresponding to the Solar Light 501 meter. The effect of changing ozone on two plant damage action spectra are shown for plants with high sensitivity to UVB (280-315 nm) and those with lower sensitivity, showing that the probability for plant damage for the latter has increased since 1979, especially at middle to high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. Similarly, there has been an increase in rates of erythemal skin damage and pre-vitamin D3 production corresponding to measured ozone decreases. An example conversion function is derived to obtain erythemal irradiances and the UV index from measurements with the Solar Light 501 instrument response function. An analytic expressions is given to convert changes in erythemal irradiances to changes in CIE vitamin-D action spectrum weighted irradiances.

  11. Relance de l'aquaculture au Sri Lanka | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 avr. 2016 ... Aquaculture au Sri Lanka. L'adoption de l'ostréiculture dans deux collectivités côtières du Sri Lanka a donné lieu aux premières exportations d'huîtres du pays. Au Sri Lanka, le gouvernement a pour objectif de doubler la consommation de poisson par personne, de 11 kilos à 22 kilos par année, d'ici à la fin ...

  12. The Training Requirements for the Workers a Legal Instrument to Ensure the Safety Use of the Ionizing Radiation Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosca, G.; Coroianu, A.; Stanescu, G.

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing the need for a graded and commensurate with the practice associated risk approach, the Romanian Regulatory Authority developed the legal framework for defining the roles, duties and responsibilities for the radiation workers (RWs) and the radiological safety officer (RPO). The licensee is responsible to provide for the RWs basic knowledge and understanding of radiation proprieties, good knowledge of the local rules and the operational radiation protection methods and the safety features of the devices, on the job training under the supervision of a RPO or a qualified expert (RPE). Every 5 years the participation to a refresher course is required

  13. Conception of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Measurement (LACIMRI) of CTMSP - Sao Paulo, SP; Concepcao do Laboratorio de Calibracao de Instrumentos de Medicao de Radiacao Ionizante (LACIMRI) do CTMSP, Sao Paulo, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Raimundo Dias da; Kibrit, Eduardo, E-mail: raimundo@ctmsp.mar.mil.b, E-mail: kibrit@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The present work describes the phases of implantation of calibration laboratory of ionizing radiation measurement instruments at the CTMSP, Sao Paulo, in a priory approved by CNEN, Brazil. That laboratory will allow and enhance the present metrological capacity for the attendance to the growing demand for calibration services of the instruments

  14. Measurement techniques and safety culture in radiation protection -reflections after 37 years of occupation with measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maushart, R.

    1994-01-01

    Safety Culture in radiation use and radiation protection implies primarily knowledge and competence of the decision makers. As the measuring techniques are basic for practical radiation protection, only such person can be called competent who has sufficient expertise on measuring techniques, and is able to evaluate its application and results. Safety Culture also implies the readiness to expose errors, and to learn from them. ''Believing in infallibility'' excludes Safety Culture. Therefore, correctly applied measuring technique contributes to recognize weak points early. How far it is used consciously and actively to prevent undesirable developments and exceeding of limits, can be considered outright as a yardstick for a high-ranking safety culture. Safety Culture as a whole, however, needs more than more measuring techniques. It requires its own and adequate Measurement Culture, presupposing also motivation and determination to measure. Therefore, education, training, knowledge and consciousness of safety of the people who are responsible for measurements are decisive for successful radiation protection. (orig.) [de

  15. A new species of Aspidura Wagler, 1830 (Squamata: Colubridae: Natricinae) from Sri Pada sanctuary (Peak Wilderness), Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, L J Mendis; Vidanapathirana, Dulan Ranga; Kandambi, H K Dushantha; Pyron, R Alexander; Wickramasinghe, Nethu

    2017-11-13

    We describe a new species, Aspidura ravanai sp. nov., representing the eighth species of the genus known from Sri Lanka. The new species is readily distinguished from all other congeners by its colour pattern, scalation, and genetic distinctiveness. Our molecular results indicated that Aspidura began diversifying in the Miocene approximately 18 Ma, and A. ravanai sp. nov. diverged from its likely sister lineage A. trachyprocta at least 6.2 Ma. The species is currently known only from the type locality, on the western slopes of Sri Pada Peak in the central highlands of Sri Lanka.

  16. MDS G(N) fast differentiation between natural and artificial gamma radiation with a new class of mobile instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzung, W.; Bottcher, J.

    2009-01-01

    A State-of-the-Art tool used for detecting and tracking artificial gamma radiation out of a helicopter or a vehicle is the MDS G(N) - Mobile Detection System. A highly sensitive scintillation detector detects a significant artificial gamma radiation on the ground even if the helicopter is travelling at high speed. The GPS-aided system visualizes the measured values on a moveable map displayed on the screen of a notebook every second. The colours of the continuously entered points do represent adjustable alarm thresholds. This way, location and intensity of an unknown radioactive source or a radioactive contamination can be determined very quickly. The NBR-technology (Natural Background Rejection) which is used here leads to expressive measurement results differentiating between artificial and natural gamma radiation. Additional He-3 detectors allow simultaneously the detection of neutrons. The NBR principle - developed by Thermo Scientific - stands out for its very short response times. Thus, artificial radiation can be detected reliably within seconds - even when the unit is operated by untrained staff. Unlike traditional analytic measuring techniques, the NBR method is able to detect artificial radiation sources hidden or strongly shielded gamma sources clearly from the natural background radiation. The measuring range from 1 nSv/h to 20 ?Sv/h and is extended to 1 Sv/h with a Geiger Mueller counting tube. The sensitivity amounts to max. 20000 cps (referred to 1 ?Sv/h for Cs-137). The NBR- technique is well-proven and tested for: tracking hidden radiation sources, even such ones with low activity or which are shielded, detection of artificial radiation portions in the range of the natural background, reliably measuring the ambient equivalent dose rate in the range of the natural background, fast detection of artificial radioactivity out of helicopters and vehicles.(author)

  17. Climate change mitigation studies in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramaratne, Rupa

    1998-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, Climate Change Mitigation Studies have received low priority and have been limited to an ADB-sponsored preliminary study followed by an initial assessment of some mitigation options in the energy and agricultural sectors, with technical assistance from the US Country Studies Program. The major focus was on options of the mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector. Owing to funding constraints, only the potential for reduction of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the various mitigation options were quantified; analysis of monetary costs and benefits or policy/programs for adoption of the options were not undertaken. For the non-energy sector, a very limited study on mitigation of methane emissions from rice fields was carried out. (au)

  18. Scaling-up Sustainable Aquaculture Development in Sri Lanka ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... of Sri Lanka is increasingly emphasizing aquaculture development as a means to foster ... Pilot interventions tested the effectiveness of mobile short text messaging to ... Building on this project, researchers will test three ways of scaling-up ...

  19. All projects related to sri lanka | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC's Focus Cities Research Initiative (FCRI) is supporting research teams in nine ... Region: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Sri Lanka, Indonesia ... it was reported that mangrove wetlands and other thick coastal vegetation served to ...

  20. All projects related to Sri Lanka | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia ... Peace and Development : Democratization, Poverty Reduction and Risk Mitigation in ... Global Network : Integration and Harmonization of ICT Policy and Regulation ...

  1. Investigations on Piper betle grown in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambewela, L S R; Arawwawala, L D A M; Kumaratunga, K G; Dissanayake, D S; Ratnasooriya, W D; Kumarasingha, S P

    2011-07-01

    Piper betle is an economically important plant cultivated in Sri Lanka. Although more than 12 cultivars of betel are reported in Sri Lanka, very few scientific investigations have been carried out on them. Studies on the chemical constituents indicated that safrole is the major constituent, followed by chavibitol acetate, in the essential oil of common betel leaves of Sri Lanka. Investigations on the bioactivities of P. betle revealed the presence of antimicrobial, insecticidal, antioxidant, antinociceptive, antidiabetic and gastroprotective activities. In addition, P. betle was found to be safe in terms of hepatotoxicity, renotoxicity, hematotoxicity, gross morphology, weights of organs, stress or aversive behaviors in rats. The above findings indicate the vast potential of P. betle yet to be harnessed for the benefit of mankind and the betel industry of Sri Lanka.

  2. Sri Lanka Telecentre Family Network Project | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sri Lanka Telecentre Family Network Project ... will require telecentre manager training, technical and business support, and knowledge-sharing across programs. ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  3. All projects related to Sri Lanka | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Involuntary resettlement: A cross-country study on urban inequality and poverty ... INDIA, Poverty, SOUTH ASIA, SRI LANKA, SOCIAL CONFLICTS, Gender ... LOW INCOME GROUPS, WOMEN, RESEARCH CAPACITY, Social Policy, POLICY ...

  4. Mobile technology detects, prevents disease outbreaks in Sri Lanka ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-02

    May 2, 2016 ... Researchers used innovative ways to reduce the spread of ... the role of their veterinarians into areas such as antibiotic resistance and farm practices. ... with Sri Lanka's Ministry of Livestock and Rural Development and the ...

  5. All projects related to sri lanka | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Harnessing big data to meet the Sustainable Development Goals – Building capacity in the ... and facilitate development in sectors such as health, urban development, ... North and Central America, South America, Mexico, Rwanda, Sri Lanka.

  6. Plantation Patriarchy and Structural Violence: Women Workers in Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kurian (Rachel); K. Jayawardena (Kumari)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Plantation production began in Sri Lanka in the early 19th century under British colonial rule, when the government provided financial incentives and infrastructural support for the commercialisation and export of agricultural crops in line with promoting

  7. Time Demand and Radiation Dose in 3D-Fluoroscopy-based Navigation-assisted 3D-Fluoroscopy-controlled Pedicle Screw Instrumentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balling, Horst

    2018-05-01

    Prospective single-center cohort study to record additional time requirements and radiation dose in navigation-assisted O-arm-controlled pedicle screw (PS) instrumentations. The aim of this study was to evaluate amount of extra-time and radiation dose for navigation-assisted PS instrumentations of the thoracolumbosacral spine using O-arm 3D-real-time-navigation (O3DN) compared to non-navigated spinal procedures (NNSPs) with a single C-arm and postoperative computed tomography (CT) scan for controlling PS positions. 3D-navigation is reported to enhance PS insertion accuracy. But time-consuming navigational steps and considerable additional radiation doses seem to limit this modern technique's attraction. A detailed analysis of additional time demand and extra-radiation dose in 3D-navigated spine surgery is not provided in literature, yet. From February 2011 through July 2015, 306 consecutive posterior instrumentations were performed in vertebral levels T10-S1 using O3DN for PS insertion. The duration of procedure-specific navigational steps of the overall collective (I) and the last cohort of 50 consecutive O3DN-surgeries (II) was compared to the average duration of analogous surgical steps in 100 consecutive NNSP using a single C-arm. 3D-radiation dose (dose-length-product, DLP) of navigational and postinstrumentation O-arm scans in group I and II was compared to the average DLP of 100 diagnostic lumbar CT scans. The average presurgical time from patient positioning on the operating table to skin incision was 46.2 ± 10.1 minutes (O3DN, I) and 40.6 ± 9.8 minutes (O3DN, II) versus 30.6 ± 8.3 minutes (NNSP) (P demand of 13.0 minutes compared to NNSP, and with a total DLP below that of a diagnostic lumbar CT scan (P ≈ 0.81). 4.

  8. The politics of citizenship and difference in Sri Lankan schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the links that exist between education and conflict in Sri Lanka and examines recent curriculum changes directed at fostering national social cohesion. The article argues that the reforms only have a minimum impact, because teachers' and pupils' everyday experiences with the...... with the education system contradict the values communicated in the new curriculum. Through their efforts to secure proper education, the pupils engage in discussions about the meaning of citizenship in presentday Sri Lanka....

  9. Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Sri Lanka and the Maldives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; George, R.

    2003-08-01

    The Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) wind resource group identifies the wind characteristics and distribution of the wind resource in Sri Lanka and the Maldives. The detailed wind resource maps and other information contained in the atlas facilitate the identification of prospective areas for use of wind energy technologies, both for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications.

  10. The M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory-Head and Neck Module, a Patient-Reported Outcome Instrument, Accurately Predicts the Severity of Radiation-Induced Mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, David I.; Mendoza, Tito R.; Chambers, Mark; Burkett, V. Shannon; Garden, Adam S.; Hessell, Amy C.; Lewin, Jan S.; Ang, K. Kian; Kies, Merrill S.; Gning, Ibrahima; Wang, Xin S.; Cleeland, Charles S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory-Head and Neck (MDASI-HN) module, a symptom burden instrument, with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck (FACT-HN) module, a quality-of-life instrument, for the assessment of mucositis in patients with head-and-neck cancer treated with radiotherapy and to identify the most distressing symptoms from the patient's perspective. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients with head-and-neck cancer (n = 134) completed the MDASI-HN and FACT-HN before radiotherapy (time 1) and after 6 weeks of radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy (time 2). The mean global and subscale scores for each instrument were compared with the objective mucositis scores determined from the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. Results: The global and subscale scores for each instrument showed highly significant changes from time 1 to time 2 and a significant correlation with the objective mucositis scores at time 2. Only the MDASI scores, however, were significant predictors of objective Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events mucositis scores on multivariate regression analysis (standardized regression coefficient, 0.355 for the global score and 0.310 for the head-and-neck cancer-specific score). Most of the moderate and severe symptoms associated with mucositis as identified on the MDASI-HN are not present on the FACT-HN. Conclusion: Both the MDASI-HN and FACT-HN modules can predict the mucositis scores. However, the MDASI-HN, a symptom burden instrument, was more closely associated with the severity of radiation-induced mucositis than the FACT-HN on multivariate regression analysis. This greater association was most likely related to the inclusion of a greater number of face-valid mucositis-related items in the MDASI-HN compared with the FACT-HN

  11. Ionizing radiation measurements using low cost instruments for teaching in college or high-school in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M. C.; Vilela, D. C.; Migoto, V. G.; Gomes, M. P.; Martin, I. M.; Germano, J. S. E.

    2017-11-01

    Ionizing radiation one of modern physics experimental teaching in colleges and high school can be easily implemented today due to low coasts of detectors and also electronic circuits and data acquisition interfaces. First it is interesting to show to young’s students what is ionizing radiation and from where they appears near ground level? How it is possible to measure these radiations and how to check intensities variation during day, night, dry and wet periods in the same school? For increasing interest and stimulation in others students how to proceed in making the graphics of the ionizing radiation and presenting him in real time using Web internet facilities? Many others facilities like calibration of the detector using low intensities radioactive ionizing radiation sources, make comparison of the measurements and discussions of the results should be possible between many groups of students from several schools in the region of Brazil. This paper presents the experimental procedures including detectors and associated electronic including data acquisition, graphics elaboration and Web internet procedures to discuss and exchanging data measurements from several schools.

  12. Intercomparison of radiation protection devices in a high-energy stray neutron field. Part III: Instrument response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silari, M.; Agosteo, S.; Beck, P.; Bedogni, R.; Cale, E.; Caresana, M.; Domingo, C.; Donadille, L.; Dubourg, N.; Esposito, A.; Fehrenbacher, G.; Fernandez, F.; Ferrarini, M.; Fiechtner, A.; Fuchs, A.; Garcia, M.J.; Golnik, N.; Gutermuth, F.; Khurana, S.; Klages, Th.

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission has funded within its 6th Framework Programme a three-year project (2005-2007) called CONRAD, COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry. The organizational framework for this project was provided by the European radiation Dosimetry Group EURADOS. Work Package 6 of CONRAD dealt with 'complex mixed radiation fields at workplaces' and in this context it organised a benchmark exercise, which included both measurements and calculations, in a stray radiation field at a high-energy particle accelerator at GSI, Germany. The aim was to intercompare the response of several types of active detectors and passive dosemeters in a well-characterised workplace field. The Monte Carlo simulations of the radiation field and the experimental determination of the neutron spectra with various Bonner Sphere Spectrometers are discussed in Rollet et al. (2008) and in Wiegel et al. (2008). This paper focuses on the intercomparison of the response of the dosemeters in terms of ambient dose equivalent. The paper describes in detail the detectors employed in the experiment, followed by a discussion of the results. A comparison is also made with the H*(10) values predicted by the Monte Carlo simulations and those measured by the BSS systems.

  13. Conservation Priorities for Tree Ferns (Cyatheaceae in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. G. Ranil

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Diversity, phytogeography and conservation status of Sri Lankan tree-ferns are discussed in this paper. The family Cyatheaceae is represented by eight taxa (seven species and one doubtful variety in Sri Lanka with a high rate of endemism of 75%. Apart from Cyathea walkerae and C. gigantea, the other species are restricted to geographically isolated areas in the country with limited population sizes. Fortunately, all Sri Lankan species of Cyathea occur within the protected areas of the wet zone. However, ex situ conservation is limited to C. walkerae and C. crinita at Botanic Gardens in Hakgala. Despite the family being listed in Annex II of CITES, its species have not yet been assessed in Sri Lanka for the Red Listing criteria. Identification of the nature and level of threat to Sri Lankan Cyathea species is therefore a major priority, followed by the monitoring of populations in situ in protected areas in the wet zone. Ex situ conservation of rare species and cultivation of Cyathea species from spores have also been identified as priority areas. A strong programme should be developed with the National Herbarium to explore little known forest patches in the wet zone to enhance our knowledge of Cyathea species in Sri Lanka. Such information will provide a strong basis for preparing a conservation and management plan for tree-ferns in the country.

  14. The Political Economy of Postwar Economic Development in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna-Perera Welgamage Lalith Prasanna-Perera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty years of civil war in Sri Lanka has affected economic, political, social, cultural and psychological aspects of the society significantly. This paper presents an overview of postwar development strategies in Sri Lanka and compares it with the prewar economy from a political economic perspective. The paper specifically examines the progress of the overall postwar development in the war affected Northern Province of Sri Lanka. Using mixed methodologies data was gathered on critical aspects related to political economy. According to the current study, no clear progress has been made in the areas of economic growth, FDI growth, household income, and poverty and income inequality in the postwar economy of Sri Lanka when compared with the prewar economy. Government fiscal policy targets the postwar reconstruction works while monetary policy enjoys the amalgamation of North and East provinces to country’s aggregate supply apart from introducing very few loan schemes. Security phobia of the government of Sri Lanka limits local, national, regional and international none-government organizations especially in the North and East. There is a considerable amount of progress made in the area of infrastructure development and resettlement of displaced persons. However, primary data from the study indicates these strategies lack conflict sensitivity and public trust. This study emphasizes that postwar economic development strategies should address the critical determinants of sustainable recovery, peace and development aiming at protecting human rights, ensuring rule of law, establishing efficient public service system and finally offering constitutional reforms in Sri Lanka.

  15. Differences in selected lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular disease between Sri Lankans in Oslo, Norway, and in Kandy, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennakoon, Sampath U B; Kumar, Bernadette N; Meyer, Haakon E

    2015-03-01

    Sri Lankans in Oslo have previously been shown to have lower risk of cardiovascular disease compared with those in Kandy, Sri Lanka. Here we present lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular diseases: frequency and type of fat consumed, frequency of fruit and vegetable intake, alcohol consumption, and leisure time physical activity between 1145 Sri Lankans living in Oslo and 678 Tamils and Sinhalese Sri Lankans living in Kandy as possible explanatory factors for the differences observed. Those in Oslo were consuming healthier fats and reported higher levels of physical activity but frequency of vegetable and fruit consumption was lower. Alcohol consumption among women was negligible. Type of fats consumed might be protective for Oslo group compared with predominantly saturated fat diet in Kandy. Higher leisure time physical activity may also be protective for the Oslo group. Higher frequency of consumption of vegetables and fruits may be beneficial in Kandy. © 2013 APJPH.

  16. Standard operational radiation protection instructions for process instrumentation and control engineering applying radiometric equipment containing sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    According to article 16(3) of the Ordinance on the Implementation of Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection of 11 October 1984, operational radiation protection instructions have to be worked out for each type of nuclear energy application. Based on the valid legal provisions of the GDR and on experience and knowledge gained in practice, the most important operational instructions and procedures for the operation of radiometric equipment containing sealed sources were compiled. The example should enable the management to make the instructions directly applicable and, if necessary, to modify or supplement them

  17. Methods and apparatus for cleaning objects in a chamber of an optical instrument by generating reactive ions using photon radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Delgado, Gildardo R.; Hollenshead, Jeromy T.; Umstadter, Karl R.; Starodub, Elena; Zhuang, Guorong V.

    2015-10-13

    An optical instrument, including a chamber, an object exposed to an interior of the chamber, a source of low-pressure gas, the gas comprising at least one of low-pressure molecular hydrogen gas, low-pressure molecular oxygen and a low-pressure noble gas, the source of low pressure gas being fluidly coupled to the chamber, a low voltage source electrically coupled between the object and a remaining portion of the instrument that is exposed to the interior of the chamber so as to maintain the object at a low voltage relative to the remaining portion, and an EUV/VUV light source adapted to direct EUV/VUV light through the low pressure gas in the chamber onto the object. In such a system, when the EUV/VUV light source is activated ions of the low-pressure gas are formed and directed to the object. The ions may be ions of Hydrogen, Oxygen or a noble gas.

  18. Challenges of analysing suspected over exposed subjects using biological dosimetry at Sri Ramachandra University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayalakshimi, J.; Venkatachalam, P.; Solomon, F.D. Paul

    2016-01-01

    Biological dosimetry based on the analysis of dicentric chromosomes has become a routine component of the radiological protection programmes and has a valuable role to contribute in suspected over exposed subjects who perform diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The Department of Human Genetics, Sri Ramachandra University, Porur, Chennai, has been involved in the standardization of chromosomal aberration analysis as a biological dosimeter for investigating accidental ionising radiation exposure since 1998. Our laboratory has been accredited since 2007 by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board. The initial process was to establish the in vitro dose response curve for various type of low LET ionizing radiation. Since accreditation, a total of 61 subjects have been referred to Sri Ramachandra University from SRRC, Kalpakkam. Brief social/medical history and informed consent are being obtained prior to blood samplings. The dose estimates expressed in sievert (Sv) measured by Thermoluminescence badges was in the range of 0.05-2779.05 mSv. Chromosomal aberration assay was used for analysis which allows direct detection of aberration in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The test was performed as per the standard operating protocol on peripheral blood lymphocyte. Currently the dose response curve for the automated scoring process in under way and we hope to improve upon quality and turnaround time using the automation available. Future challenge would be to establish an in vitro dose response curve with automated scoring technique and developing inter-laboratory comparison of dose response generated using automation

  19. Problems with radiological surveillance instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Fleming, D.M.

    1984-09-01

    Many radiological surveillance instruments are in use at DOE facilities throughout the country. These instruments are an essential part of all health physics programs, and poor instrument performance can increase program costs or compromise program effectiveness. Generic data from simple tests on newly purchased instruments shows that many instruments will not meet requirements due to manufacturing defects. In other cases, lack of consideration of instrument use has resulted in poor acceptance of instruments and poor reliability. The performance of instruments is highly variable for electronic and mechanical performance, radiation response, susceptibility to interferences and response to environmental factors. Poor instrument performance in these areas can lead to errors or poor accuracy in measurements

  20. Problems with radiological surveillance instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Fleming, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Many radiological surveillance instruments are in use at DOE facilities throughout the country. These instruments are an essential part of all health physics programs, and poor instrument performance can increase program costs or compromise program effectiveness. Generic data from simple tests on newly purchased instruments shows that many instruments will not meet requirements due to manufacturing defects. In other cases, lack of consideration of instrument use has resulted in poor acceptance of instruments and poor reliability. The performance of instruments is highly variable for electronic and mechanical performance, radiation response, susceptibility to interferences and response to environmental factors. Poor instrument performance in these areas can lead to errors or poor accuracy in measurements

  1. Validity and reliability testing of two instruments to measure breast cancer patients' concerns and information needs relating to radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristjanson Linda J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is difficult to determine the most effective approach to patient education or tailor education interventions for patients in radiotherapy without tools that assess patients' specific radiation therapy information needs and concerns. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop psychometrically sound tools to adequately determine the concerns and information needs of cancer patients during radiation therapy. Patients and Methods Two tools were developed to (1 determine patients concerns about radiation therapy (RT Concerns Scale and (2 ascertain patient's information needs at different time point during their radiation therapy (RT Information Needs Scale. Tools were based on previous research by the authors, published literature on breast cancer and radiation therapy and information behaviour research. Thirty-one breast cancer patients completed the questionnaire on one occasion and thirty participants completed the questionnaire on a second occasion to facilitate test-retest reliability. One participant's responses were removed from the analysis. Results were analysed for content validity, internal consistency and stability over time. Results Both tools demonstrated high internal consistency and adequate stability over time. The nine items in the RT Concerns Scale were retained because they met all pre-set psychometric criteria. Two items were deleted from the RT Information Needs Scale because they did not meet content validity criteria and did not achieve pre-specified criteria for internal consistency. This tool now contains 22 items. Conclusion This paper provides preliminary data suggesting that the two tools presented are reliable and valid and would be suitable for use in trials or in the clinical setting.

  2. Non-cognitive characteristics predicting academic success among medical students in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Ellawela, Amaya; Gunatilake, Saman B

    2012-08-03

    To identify non-cognitive and socio-demographic characteristics determining academic success of Sri Lankan medical undergraduates. A retrospective study among 90 recently graduated students of the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka. Students were stratified into two equal groups; 'High-achievers' (honours degree at the final MBBS examination) and 'Low-achievers' (repeated one or more subjects at the same examination). A revised version of the Non-cognitive Questionnaire (NQ) with additional socio-demographic data was the study instrument. Academic performance indicator was performance at the final MBBS examinations. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed using the dichotomous variable 'Honours degree at final MBBS' as the dependant factor. Males were 56.7%. Mean age ± SD was 26.4 ± 0.9 years. 'High-achievers' were significantly younger than 'Low-achievers'. Significant proportion of 'High-achievers' were from the Western province and selected to university from Colombo district. A significant majority of 'High-achievers' entered medical school from their first attempt at GCE A/L examination and obtained 'Distinctions' at the GCE A/L English subject. 'High-achievers' demonstrated a significantly higher mean score for the following domains of NQ; Positive self-concept and confidence, realistic self-appraisal, leadership, preference of long range goals and academic familiarity.The binary logistic regression indicates that age, being selected to university from Colombo district, residency in Western province, entering university from GCE A/L first attempt, obtaining a 'Distinction' for GCE A/L English subject, higher number of patient-oriented case discussions, positive self-concept and confidence, leadership qualities, preference of long range goals and academic familiarity all significantly increased the odds of obtaining a Honours degree. A combined system incorporating both past academic performance and non

  3. Seminar-meeting on maintenance of nuclear instruments, 24 October -3 November 1980, Quezon City, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This collection is composed of twenty (20) papers on the repair, maintenance and maintenance plans, of nuclear instruments, training programs for maintenance technicians, and experiences in the maintenance of nuclear instruments in Indonesia, Japan, Philippines, India, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Korea and Malaysia. (author)

  4. ITER TASK T252 (1995):Gamma radiation testing of a GaAs operational amplifier for instrument applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiemstra, D.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this 1995 ITER task was : to build an improved operational amplifier using GaAs MESFET technology, to build a reference voltage subcircuit using GaAs MESFET technology and to investigate the potential of GaAs HBT's to improve the noise performance of the GaAs MESFET operational amplifier. This work addresses the need for instrumentation-grade components to read sensors in an experimental fusion reactor, where the anticipated total dose for a useful service life is 3Grad(GaAs). It is an extension of our 1994 work. 3 tabs., 6 figs

  5. Radiological instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Seibentritt, C.R. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An instrument is described for measuring radiation, particularly nuclear radiation, comprising: a radiation sensitive structure pivoted toward one end and including a pair of elongated solid members contiguously joined together along their length dimensions and having a common planar interface therebetween. One of the pairs of members is comprised of radiochromic material whose index of refraction changes due to anomolous dispersion as a result of being exposed to nuclear radiation. The pair of members further has mutually different indices of refraction with the member having the larger index of refraction further being transparent for the passage of light and of energy therethrough; means located toward the other end of the structure for varying the angle of longitudinal elevation of the pair of members; means for generating and projecting a beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction. The beam of light is projected toward the planar interface where it is reflected out of the other end of the same member as a first output beam; means projecting a portion of the beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction where it traverses therethrough without reflection and out of the other end of the same member as a second output beam; and means adjacent the structure for receiving the first and second output beams, whereby a calibrated change in the angle of elevation of the structure between positions of equal intensity of the first and second output beams prior to and following exposure provides a measure of the radiation sensed due to a change of refraction of the radiochromic material

  6. Sri Lanka : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN, POLITICAL PARTICIPATION, MARGINALISM, INDIA, PAKISTAN, BANGLADESH, SRI LANKA, LEGISLATIVE POWER. Région: Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia. Programme: Gouvernance et justice. Financement total : CA$ 315,800.00.

  7. Child Abuse in Northern Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiadas, M G; Mayoorathy, S; Varuni, K; Ranganathan, Shalini Sri

    2017-02-01

    To identify areas of deficiencies and gaps in child protection services in Northern Sri Lanka. Also, to help in recommending strategies, programmes of interventions for addressing issues of child abuse and advice the legal system. A retrospective study was done to determine the socio-demographic details, type of abuse, clinical profile, relationship of the perpetrator and nature of abuse among children admitted to a tertiary care centre from 2009 through 2014, a period after cessation of a 60-y conflict. Data were obtained from hospital based records and records maintained at the district probation office. Seven hundred twenty cases were referred to the tertiary care centre with abuse. Majority of the children were from the Jaffna district, the northern city of the war affected area and mean age of the children affected was 14.5 ± 2.6 y. Females were affected more than the males and 352 children were seen following sexual abuse. The clinical examination showed penetrative injury in 15 %. The perpetrator was known in 70 % of the situations and the victim was coerced into a relationship for abuse. Attempted suicide was seen in significant numbers during the immediate post war period and school dropout and delinquent behaviour was seen in later years. The problem of child abuse is considerable in this region and there is an urgent need to strengthen the services offered to the victims. Urgent steps are needed to safeguard these children, especially in the war affected areas.

  8. Instrumentation for Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and coordinate nuclear instrumentation standards with resulting economies for the nuclear and radiation fields. There was particular emphasis on coordination and management of the Nuclear Instrument Module (NIM) System, U.S. activity involving the CAMAC international standard dataway system, the FASTBUS modular high-speed data acquisition and control system and processing and management of national nuclear instrumentation and detector standards, as well as a modest amount of assistance and consultation services to the Pollutant Characterization and Safety Research Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The principal accomplishments were the development and maintenance of the NIM instrumentation system that is the predominant instrumentation system in the nuclear and radiation fields worldwide, the CAMAC digital interface system in coordination with the ESONE Committee of European Laboratories, the FASTBUS high-speed system and numerous national and international nuclear instrumentation standards

  9. Performance of the transition radiation detector flown on the NMSU/WIZARD TS93 balloon-borne instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aversa, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy); Basini, G.; Brancaccio, F.M. [INFN, Laboratori nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Bellotti, R. [Bari Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Bidoli, V. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Bronzini, F. [Rome Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `La Sapienza` Rome (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    It is built and tested a transition radiation detector (TRD) to discriminate positrons from protons in the balloon flight TS 93 experiment. It is presented the TRD performance using flight data obtaining a proton-positron rejection factor of the order of 10{sup -3}. During the 24 hour flight, the data in the momentum range 4-50 GeV/c are collected. Using the TRD together with the Silicon calorimeter, it is achieved an overall rejection factor of about 10{sup -5} of positron against the proton background over the entire momentum range.

  10. Perspective of radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Manwei

    1987-01-01

    The area of the applications of radiation techniques is very wide. This paper only relates to the applications of radiation techniques in industries including radiation chemical industry, radiation processing of foods and environmental protection by radiation, but the nuclear instruments and the instrumentations of radiation are out-side of our study. (author)

  11. Synergistic effect of SRY and its direct target, WDR5, on Sox9 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Xu

    Full Text Available SRY is a sex-determining gene that encodes a transcription factor, which triggers male development in most mammals. The molecular mechanism of SRY action in testis determination is, however, poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that WDR5, which encodes a WD-40 repeat protein, is a direct target of SRY. EMSA experiments and ChIP assays showed that SRY could bind to the WDR5 gene promoter directly. Overexpression of SRY in LNCaP cells significantly increased WDR5 expression concurrent with histone H3K4 methylation on the WDR5 promoter. To specifically address whether SRY contributes to WDR5 regulation, we introduced a 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen-inducible SRY allele into LNCaP cells. Conditional SRY expression triggered enrichment of SRY on the WDR5 promoter resulting in induction of WDR5 transcription. We found that WDR5 was self regulating through a positive feedback loop. WDR5 and SRY interacted and were colocalized in cells. In addition, the interaction of WDR5 with SRY resulted in activation of Sox9 while repressing the expression of β-catenin. These results suggest that, in conjunction with SRY, WDR5 plays an important role in sex determination.

  12. On-farm impact of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI): Evidence and knowledge gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, E.D.; Glover, D.B.A.; Kuyvenhoven, A.

    2015-01-01

    The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is being promoted worldwide, but relatively little is yet known about its impacts at farm level. This article reviews available evidence on the impact of SRI practices in terms of yield and productivity. Adoption of SRI practices necessarily changes the mix

  13. Organizational health and the achievement level of students in science at the secondary-level schools in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakkeer-Jaufar, Pakkeer Cadermohideen

    This study sought to identify those organizational health factors that might have overriding influence on the achievement level of students in science in Sri Lankan secondary schools. This study involved 752 students, 33 science teachers, and 10 principals from two different districts, Ampara and Colombo, in Sri Lanka. Ten Tamil medium, secondary level, public schools were selected to participate in this study. Data were collected using four types of instruments: a questionnaire for pupils; interview schedules for science teachers and principals; checklists for classroom/school facilities, science laboratory facilities, and science practicals; and a science achievement test. The analysis focused on the collective perceptions of students, science teachers, and principals. Regression and path analyses were used as major analysis techniques, and the qualitative data provided by science teachers and principals were considered for a crosschecking of the quantitative inferences. The researcher found teacher affiliation, academic emphasis, and instructional leadership of the principal, in descending order, were the overriding influential factors on the achievement level of students in science in Sri Lankan secondary schools. At the same time a similar descending order was found in their mean values and qualities. The researcher concluded that increasing the quality of the organizational health factors in Sri Lankan secondary schools would result in improved better achievement in science. The findings further indicate that instructional leadership of the principal had both direct and indirect effects on students' achievement in science when academic emphasis and teacher affiliation were taken into account. In addition, the resource support of the principal did not make any difference in students' science achievement and the findings stress the availability of the resources for individual students instead of assuming the general facilities of the school are available to all

  14. Seroepidemiololgy of rickettsioses in Sri Lanka: a patient based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyanapathirana Veranja

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rickettsioses are emerging infections in Sri Lanka as shown by the increase in the number of clinically diagnosed rickettsial patients being reported to the Epidemiology Unit, Sri Lanka. However, mapping the disease for the whole island with laboratory confirmed cases has not been previously carried out. Methods 615 samples received from 23 hospital representing 8 provinces were tested using ELISA or IFA methods and clinical data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Results Rash was found among more spotted fever seropositive patients than scrub typhus seropositive patients while the opposite was true for the presence of eschar. Spotted fever and scrub typhus was found in a geographically restricted manner. Consistent temporal patterns were seen for the presentation of patients with rickettsioses in Kandy and Kurunegala districts for 2009 and 2010. Conclusions This study expanded knowledge on the distribution of rickettsioses in Sri Lanka and their clinical profiles which in turn helps in the clinical diagnosis of these infections.

  15. Social Geology and Landslide Disaster Risk Reduction in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasingha P

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractLandslide disaster risk reduction is presently a challenging task facing by Sri Lankangeologists. Increasing trend of population growth in Sri Lanka has adversely affected thestability of central highland due to various human activities. Among them establishment ofhuman settlements and change in land use pattern have become a serious issue in triggeringland instabilities in central highland of the country. National Building Research Oragnisationwhich is the main focal point in land slide disaster risk reduction in Sri Lanka has takenvaluable and timely needed actions including preparation of landslide hazard zonation maps,early warnings and mitigations. Though the landslide is a geological phenomenon, it is highlyinteracted with human societies. Hence managing the issues arising with the landslideoccurrence should be addressed with a sociological approach. This new approach is known asSocio Geological approach which is discussed here.Key words: Landslide, Geology, Socio Geology, Social Geologist

  16. Political Economy of Epidemic Kidney Disease in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asoka Bandarage

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD, taking the lives of thousands in poor farming communities in Sri Lanka, is commonly seen as a problem peculiar to the island’s north central dry zone agricultural region. The prevailing bio-medical focus is on identifying one or more “environmental nephrotoxins.” While delineating important controversies on the etiology of the disease, this article seeks to broaden the discourse on the hitherto neglected political economy of CKD in Sri Lanka. In so doing, it seeks to bring together the bio-medical debate on the impact of widespread and unregulated use of agrochemicals on public health and kidney disease with broader global interdisciplinary perspectives on the industrialization of agriculture and the consolidation of food production by transnational agribusiness corporations. The article concludes pointing out environmentally sustainable and socially equitable development and organic agriculture as the long-term solutions to CKD in Sri Lanka and elsewhere.

  17. Solar photovoltaics in Sri Lanka: a short history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunaratne, L.

    1994-01-01

    With a significant unelectrified rural population, Sri Lanka has followed the evolution of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology in the West very closely since the 1970s as terrestrial applications for photovoltaics were developed. It was not until 1980 that the Sri Lankan government embarked on the promotion of solar photovoltaics for rural domestic use when the Ceylon Electricity Board formed the Energy Unit. In addition, Australian and Sri Lankan government-funded pilot projects have given the local promoters further valuable insight into how and how not to promote solar photovoltaics. The establishment of community-based solar photovoltaic programmes by non-governmental organizations has developed a novel approach to bridge the gap between this state-of-the-art technology and the remotely located end-users. (author)

  18. Instruments for radiation measurement in life sciences (5). Development of imaging technology in life science. 4. Real-time bioradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toru; Iwamoto, Akinori; Tsuboi, Hisashi; Katoh, Toru; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Kazawa, Erito; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Real-time bioradiography, new bioradiography method, can collect and produce image of metabolism and function of cell in real-time. The principles of instrumentation, development process and the application examples of neuroscience and biomedical gerontology are stated. The bioradiography method, the gas-tissue live-cell autoradiography method and the real-time bioradiography method are explained. As the application examples, the molecular mechanism of oxidative stress at brain ischemia and the analysis of SOD gene knockout animals are reported. Comparison between FDG-PET of epileptic brain and FDG- bioradiography image of live-cell of brain tissue, the real-time bioradiography system, improvement of image by surface treatment, the detection limit of β + ray from F 18 , image of living-slices of brain tissue by FDG-real-time bioradiography and radioluminography, continuous FDG image of living-slices of rat brain tissue, and analysis of carbohydrate metabolism of living-slices of brain tissue of mouse lacking SOD gene during aerophobia and reoxygenation process are reported. (S.Y.)

  19. Lung function parameters of healthy Sri Lankan Tamil young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, M; Sivapalan, K; Thuvarathipan, R

    2014-06-01

    To establish reference norms of lung function parameters for healthy Sri Lankan Tamil young adults. Cross sectional study of Tamil students at the Faculty of Medicine, Jaffna. Healthy non smoking students of Sri Lankan Tamil ethnic group were enrolled. Age, height, weight, BMI and spirometric measurements (Micro Quark) were recorded in 267 participants (137 females and 130 males). Height was significantly correlated with (pTamils. When mean values were compared, these parameters were significantly higher in Tamil males (pTamil females (pTamils. However, our study sample was confined to medical students of 20-28 years which may explain the differences with Sinhalese.

  20. Self, other, and astrology: esoteric therapy in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinbanayagam, R S

    1981-02-01

    HARRY STACK SULLIVAN'S argument that anxiety as a fundamental human experience is alleviated by the use of various procedures that he called "security operations" is used in this paper to examine the meaning of astrology in Sri Lanka. Astrology and the doctrine of karma provide the relevant framework in which various forms of misfortune are understood and handled. An examination of cases in Sri Lanka reveals that astrology and the doctrine of karma enable a person of that culture to create a number of structures which have a therapeutic effect.

  1. The impact of pesticide regulations on suicide in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnell, D; Fernando, R; Hewagama, M

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Between 1950 and 1995 suicide rates in Sri Lanka increased 8-fold to a peak of 47 per 100,000 in 1995. By 2005, rates had halved. We investigated whether Sri Lanka's regulatory controls on the import and sale of pesticides that are particularly toxic to humans were responsible...... with these declines. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that in countries where pesticides are commonly used in acts of self-poisoning, import controls on the most toxic pesticides may have a favourable impact on suicide. In Asia, there are an estimated 300,000 deaths from pesticide self-poisoning annually. National...

  2. ITRAP - International laboratory and field test site exercise for radiation detection instruments and monitoring systems at border crossings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.; Schmitzer, C.; Duftschmid, K.E.; Arlt, R.

    2001-01-01

    Illicit trafficking in nuclear materials has become more and more a problem, due to the circulation of a high number of radioactive sources and the big amount of nuclear material. The IAEA database counts at present more than 300 verified cases. The endangering cased thereby ranges from possible health defect for the publication to terrorists activities and production of nuclear weapons. In addition to the primary criminal reasons the illegal disposal of radioactive sources as salvage, scrap and others show a further problem, which has lead to severe accidents and lethal effects in the past (e.g. Goiana, Mexico). Some countries have already under taken countermeasures (e.g. Monitoring at the Finnish-Russian and German- Polish border, border monitoring in Italy). The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has reacted on this actual problem by setting up a new program to fight against nuclear criminality and has suggested a pilot study for the practical test of border monitoring systems. Co-ordinated by the Federal Ministry of Economy and Labour the Austrian Government financed the pilot study ITRAP (Illicit Trafficking Radiation Detection Assessment Program) carried out by the Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf (ARCS). Aim of the study was to work out the technical requirements and the practicability of an useful monitoring system at border crossings. The results of the study will be offered by the IAEA to the member states as international recommendations for border monitoring systems

  3. Adaptación del Inventario de Resiliencia ante el Suicidio (SRI-25 en adolescentes y jóvenes de Colombia Adapting the Suicide Resilience Inventory (SRI-25 for adolescents and young adults in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Hernán Villalobos-Galvis

    2012-03-01

    confirmed that in all the groups, the items are weighted on the same factors as in the original test: namely, internal protection, emotional stability, and external protection. A Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.922 was obtained for the total test. Concerning the validity of the construct, the SRI-25 presented significant correlations with measurements of self-esteem, social support, problem-solving skills, reasons for living, depression, despair, and suicidal ideas. CONCLUSIONS: It was proved that the SRI-25 is a useful instrument for measuring resilience to suicide among adolescents and young people pursuing their education in San Juan de Pasto, Colombia.

  4. Mithuri users surveyed in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The Family Planning Association (FPA) of Sri Lanka completed a survey of Mithuri (oral contraceptive) users to determine consumer characteristics. The survey addressed issues such as purchasing habits, user patterns, dealer consumer relationships, levels of consumer satisfaction and motivation, prevalence of side effects, degree and level of medical consultations, and attitudes toward mass media product advertising. A mail survey was used to conduct this quantitative research to reduce the cost of collecting the data. Mail surveys offer the advantage of being able to reach a large number of respondents at a very reasonable cost, but they also require an accurate list of respondents who are representative of the population to be examined. Of the 681 questionnaires delivered, 442 were completed and returned. The majority of those surveyed (86%) purchased Mithuri at pharmacies that are within 5 miles of their residence. 73.2% of the women asked their husbands to make the purchase, and 67.6% purchased 2 cycles at a time. Most respondents reported experiencing no side effects from Mithuri. The majority of the few who experienced side effects considered them to be very slight. 2.7% of the respondents reported becoming pregnant while using Mithuri, 11 of whom ascribed the pregnancy to their failure to take the pill regularly. Most respondents said that they never missed a day. Husbands or "Western" medical practitioners were most often cited as the motivators to use Mithuri. Of the 82% of the respondents who had read the Mithuri newspaper advertisements, 87% indicated they approved of mass media advertising about contraceptives, primarily because they felt that making such information available was an urgent matter. Although advertisements and package circulars urged 1st time users to consult a physician before using Mithuri, less than half the respondents reported consulting any medical person, nurses, and midwives included. They also reported that the dealer gave no

  5. Utilization of Boxes for Pesticide Storage in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieris, Ravi; Weerasinghe, Manjula; Abeywickrama, Tharaka

    2017-01-01

    Pesticide self-poisoning is now considered one of the two most common methods of suicide worldwide. Encouraging safe storage of pesticides is one particular approach aimed at reducing pesticide self-poisoning. CropLife Sri Lanka (the local association of pesticide manufacturers), with the aid of ...

  6. The Impact of Education Investment on Sri Lankan Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganegodage, K. Renuka; Rambaldi, Alicia N.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the contribution of investment on education to Sri Lanka's economic growth during the period 1959-2008. Physical capital, economic policy changes and the ethnic war are also evaluated due to their substantial importance. This study uses a framework encompassing both the neoclassical and endogenous growth model. The impact of education…

  7. Research with Sri Lankan fish farmers brings best practices home ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-01-11

    Jan 11, 2013 ... The resulting sustainable aquaculture practices could lead to fewer disease ... shrimp, and mussels) holds great promise for improving nutrition and reducing rural poverty in Sri Lanka. ... The challenge: Communicating best practices to farmers. Disease, poor information sharing, and a lack of measureable ...

  8. International Enterprise Education in Sri Lanka: A Blended Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasturiratne, Dulekha; Lean, Jonathan; Phippen, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how enterprise education was adapted from a UK higher education institution (HEI) setting into an international context through collaboration with two Sri Lankan universities. It demonstrates the value of enterprise education in different cultures, and presents learning from the challenges faced by…

  9. Sri Lankan English O Level: Lever for Change. Practical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Ethel; Webber, Richard

    A discussion of the new Sri Lankan General Certificate of Education (GCE) O-Level standardized test of English focuses on how new ideas in testing have been implemented in the test and on their effect on classroom practice and the quality of English instruction. The discussion begins with a brief outline of the history and context in which the new…

  10. All projects related to Sri Lanka | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2006-05-27

    There has been dramatic growth in telecentres and other local information and communication technology (ICT) projects in Sri Lanka. Start Date: May 27, 2006. End Date: March 17, 2010. Topic: COMMUNITY FACILITIES, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, INFORMATION SERVICES, INFORMATION NETWORKS. Region: ...

  11. All projects related to sri lanka | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Sri Lanka, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Canada. Program: Agriculture and Food Security. Total Funding: CA$ 410,300.00. Involuntary resettlement: A cross-country study on urban inequality and poverty. Project. Involuntary displacement in urban areas takes place when people are forced to leave and do ...

  12. Providing choice for poor farmers: Harsha de Silva (Sri Lanka ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The work we are doing is really cutting-edge. Through this research we are talking about creating choices for farmers, giving them power using mobile phones as a tool. We just completed an extensive and comprehensive study of how 10 000 poor people use ICTs in Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Thailand, and ...

  13. Learning Organization Dimensions of the Sri Lanka Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahanayake, Nishada Dhananjaya; Gamlath, Sharmila

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study intends to investigate the extent to which the Sri Lanka Army can be described as a learning organization. Design/methodology/approach: The main tool of analysis used was the Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) developed by Marsick and Watkins, with the exclusion of the sections on financial and…

  14. Entanglements of Politics and Education in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund

    2011-01-01

    In this article I argue that in Sri Lanka the field of education has been a constant and significant element in the relationship between population and politicians, and it plays an important role in most people's experiences and understandings of politics, just as it affects their own political...

  15. A jurassic-cretaceous dolerite dike from Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, M.; Vitanage, P.W.

    1989-01-01

    A dolerite dike from southwestern Sri Lanka gave whole-rock K-Ar ages of 152.6 ± 7.6 Ma and 143.3 ± 7.2 Ma. Many of the other dolerite dikes of Sri Lanka are considered to be of Mesozoic ages judging from the present age data and tectonometamorphic history of Sri Lanka. Petrographic similarities should not be used for age correlations, because dolerites of different age may have the same petrography. Preliminary natural remanent magnetization (NRM) after AF and thermal demagnetization gave a mean inclination of 24.6deg and declination of 67.5deg with α95=21.7deg. A virtual geomagnetic pole position calculated from the mean NRM was rotated relative to Antarctica so as to fit with that obtained from the Jurassic Ferrar dolerite of Antarctica. This rotation results in the location and attitude of Sri Lanka to attach with Antarctica at Lutzow-Holm Bay as suggested by Barron et al. (1978). (author). 18 refs

  16. Impact of natural disasters on income inequality in Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keerthiratne, Subhani; Tol, Richard S.J.

    We explore the relationship between natural disasters and income inequality in Sri Lanka as the first study of this nature for the country. The analysis uses a unique panel data set constructed for the purpose of this paper. It contains district inequality measures based on household income reported

  17. Traditional Roots of Sri Aurobindo’s Integral Yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashish Banerji

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sri Aurobindo’s teachings on Integral Yoga are couched in a universal and impersonal language, and could be considered an early input to contemporary transpersonal psychology. Yet, while he was writing his principal works in English, he was also keeping a diary of his experiences and understandings in a personal patois that hybridized English and Sanskrit. A hermeneutic perusal of this text, The Record of Yoga, published by the Sri Aurobindo Ashram, uncovers the semiotics of Indian yoga traditions, showing how Sri Aurobindo utilizes and furthers their discourse, and where he introduces new elements which may be considered “modern.” This essay takes a psycho-biographical approach to the life of Sri Aurobindo (1872-1950, tracing his encounters with texts and situated traditions of Indian yoga from the period of his return to India from England (1893 till his settlement in Pondicherry (1910, to excavate the traditional roots and modern ruptures of his own yoga practice, which goes to inform his non-sectarian yoga teachings.

  18. Sri Lanka: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-04

    account for about four-fifths of the country’s exports, including garments , textiles, gems, as well as agricultural goods. Tourism and repatriated...May 28, 2009. Sri Lanka: Background and U.S. Relations Congressional Research Service 13 reform and privatization of state-owned industries in...port facilities in Gwadar, Pakistan; Chittagong, Bangladesh ; and Sittwe, Burma.75 Colombo was also

  19. SIMMER analysis of SRI high pressure bubble expansion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rexroth, P.E.; Suo-Anttila, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    SIMMER-II was used to analyze the results of the SRI nitrogen bubble expansion experiments. Good agreement was found for all of the experiments analyzed as well as the theoretical isentropic limiting case. Scaling to a full size CRBR reactor reveals no significant scaling effects for the structureless core

  20. Instrument development for atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM): Status of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer - extended Resolution (AERI-X), the Solar Radiance Transmission Interferometer (SORTI), and the Absolute Solar Transmission Inferometer (ASTI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murcray, F.; Stephen, T.; Kosters, J. [Univ. of Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes three instruments currently under developemnt for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program at the University of Denver: the AERI-X (Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer-Extended Resolution) and the SORTI (Solar R adiance Transmission Interferometer), and ASTI (Absolute Solar transmission Interferometer).

  1. Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol Mora, J.

    1999-01-01

    The exposition to ionizing radiations is a constant fact in the life of the human being and its utilization as diagnostic and therapeutic method is generalized. However, it is notorious how as years go on, the fear to the ionizing radiation seems to persist too, and this fact is not limited to the common individual, but to the technical personnel and professional personnel that labors with them same. (S. Grainger) [es

  2. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The basic facts about radiation are explained, along with some simple and natural ways of combating its ill-effects, based on ancient healing wisdom as well as the latest biochemical and technological research. Details are also given of the diet that saved thousands of lives in Nagasaki after the Atomic bomb attack. Special comment is made on the use of radiation for food processing. (U.K.)

  3. Mirror mounts designed for the Advanced Photon Source SRI-CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Benson, C.; Chang, J.; Barraza, J.; Kuzay, T.M.; Alp, E.E.; Sturhahn, W.; Lai, B.; McNulty, I.; Randall, K.; Srajer, G.; Xu, Z.; Yun, W.

    1997-01-01

    Use of a mirror for beamlines at third-generation synchrotron radiation facilities, such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory, has many advantages. [Yun et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67(9)(1996)CD-ROM] A mirror as a first optical component provides significant reduction in the beam peak heat flux and total power on the downstream monochromator and simplifies the bremsstrahlung shielding design for the beamline transport. It also allows us to have a system for multibeamline branching and switching. More generally, a mirror is used for beam focusing and/or low-pass filtering. Six different mirror mounts have been designed for the SRI-CAT beamlines. Four of them are designed as water-cooled mirrors for white or pink beam use, and the other two are for monochromatic beam use. Mirror mount designs, including vacuum vessel structure and precision supporting stages, are presented in this paper. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  4. Mirror mounts designed for the Advanced Photon Source SRI-CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Benson, C.; Chang, J.; Barraza, J.; Kuzay, T. M.; Alp, E. E.; Sturhahn, W.; Lai, B.; McNulty, I.; Randall, K.; Srajer, G.; Xu, Z.; Yun, W.

    1997-01-01

    Use of a mirror for beamlines at third-generation synchrotron radiation facilities, such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory, has many advantages. [Yun et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67(9)(1996)CD-ROM] A mirror as a first optical component provides significant reduction in the beam peak heat flux and total power on the downstream monochromator and simplifies the bremsstrahlung shielding design for the beamline transport. It also allows us to have a system for multibeamline branching and switching. More generally, a mirror is used for beam focusing and/or low-pass filtering. Six different mirror mounts have been designed for the SRI-CAT beamlines. Four of them are designed as water-cooled mirrors for white or pink beam use, and the other two are for monochromatic beam use. Mirror mount designs, including vacuum vessel structure and precision supporting stages, are presented in this paper

  5. Sri Lankan FRAX model and country-specific intervention thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekamwasam, Sarath

    2013-01-01

    There is a wide variation in fracture probabilities estimated by Asian FRAX models, although the outputs of South Asian models are concordant. Clinicians can choose either fixed or age-specific intervention thresholds when making treatment decisions in postmenopausal women. Cost-effectiveness of such approach, however, needs to be addressed. This study examined suitable fracture probability intervention thresholds (ITs) for Sri Lanka, based on the Sri Lankan FRAX model. Fracture probabilities were estimated using all Asian FRAX models for a postmenopausal woman of BMI 25 kg/m² and has no clinical risk factors apart from a fragility fracture, and they were compared. Age-specific ITs were estimated based on the Sri Lankan FRAX model using the method followed by the National Osteoporosis Guideline Group in the UK. Using the age-specific ITs as the reference standard, suitable fixed ITs were also estimated. Fracture probabilities estimated by different Asian FRAX models varied widely. Japanese and Taiwan models showed higher fracture probabilities while Chinese, Philippine, and Indonesian models gave lower fracture probabilities. Output of remaining FRAX models were generally similar. Age-specific ITs of major osteoporotic fracture probabilities (MOFP) based on the Sri Lankan FRAX model varied from 2.6 to 18% between 50 and 90 years. ITs of hip fracture probabilities (HFP) varied from 0.4 to 6.5% between 50 and 90 years. In finding fixed ITs, MOFP of 11% and HFP of 3.5% gave the lowest misclassification and highest agreement. Sri Lankan FRAX model behaves similar to other Asian FRAX models such as Indian, Singapore-Indian, Thai, and South Korean. Clinicians may use either the fixed or age-specific ITs in making therapeutic decisions in postmenopausal women. The economical aspects of such decisions, however, need to be considered.

  6. XX males SRY negative: a confirmed cause of infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetro, Annalisa; Ciccone, Roberto; Giorda, Roberto; Patricelli, Maria Grazia; Della Mina, Erika; Forlino, Antonella; Zuffardi, Orsetta

    2011-10-01

    SOX9 is a widely expressed transcription factor playing several relevant functions during development and essential for testes differentiation. It is considered to be the direct target gene of the protein encoded by SRY and its overexpression in an XX murine gonad can lead to male development in the absence of Sry. Recently, a family was reported with a 178 kb duplication in the gene desert region ending about 500 kb upstream of SOX9 in which 46,XY duplicated persons were completely normal and fertile whereas the 46,XX ones were males who came to clinical attention because of infertility. We report a family with two azoospermic brothers, both 46,XX, SRY negative, having a 96 kb triplication 500 kb upstream of SOX9. Both subjects have been analyzed trough oligonucleotide array-CGH and the triplication was confirmed and characterised through qPCR, defining the minimal region of amplification upstream of SOX9 associated with 46,XX infertile males, SRY negative. Our results confirm that even in absence of SRY, complete male differentiation may occur, possibly driven by overexpression of SOX9 in the gonadal ridge, as a consequence of the amplification of a gene desert region. We hypothesize that this region contains gonadal specific long-range regulation elements whose alteration may impair the normal sex development. Our data show that normal XX males, with alteration in copy number or, possibly, in the critical sequence upstream to SOX9 are a new category of infertility inherited in a dominant way with expression limited to the XX background.

  7. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winther, J.F.; Ulbak, K.; Dreyer, L.; Pukkala, E.; Oesterlind, A.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic countries occurs at an average effective dose per capita per year of about 3 mSv (Iceland, 1.1 mSv) from natural sources, and about 1 mSv from man-made sources. While the natural sources are primarily radon in indoor air, natural radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation and gamma radiation from soil and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180 cases of lung cancer (1% of all lung cancer cases) per year could be avoided in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 if indoor exposure to radon were eliminated, and that an additional 720 cases (6%) could be avoided annually if either radon or tobacco smoking were eliminated. Similarly, it was estimated that the exposure of the Nordic populations to natural sources of ionizing radiation other than radon and to medical sources will each give rise to an annual total of 2120

  8. A simple solar radiation index for wildlife habitat studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Kim A.; Gogan, Peter J.; Vore, John N.; Irby, Lynn R.

    2007-01-01

    Solar radiation is a potentially important covariate in many wildlife habitat studies, but it is typically addressed only indirectly, using problematic surrogates like aspect or hillshade. We devised a simple solar radiation index (SRI) that combines readily available information about aspect, slope, and latitude. Our SRI is proportional to the amount of extraterrestrial solar radiation theoretically striking an arbitrarily oriented surface during the hour surrounding solar noon on the equinox. Because it derives from first geometric principles and is linearly distributed, SRI offers clear advantages over aspect-based surrogates. The SRI also is superior to hillshade, which we found to be sometimes imprecise and ill-behaved. To illustrate application of our SRI, we assessed niche separation among 3 ungulate species along a single environmental axis, solar radiation, on the northern Yellowstone winter range. We detected no difference between the niches occupied by bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and elk (Cervus elaphus; P = 0.104), but found that mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) tended to use areas receiving more solar radiation than either of the other species (P solar radiation component.

  9. Heights integrated model as instrument for simulation of hydrodynamic, radiation transport, and heat conduction phenomena of laser-produced plasma in EUV applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizyuk, V.; Hassanein, A.; Morozov, V.; Sizyuk, T.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2007-01-16

    The HEIGHTS integrated model has been developed as an instrument for simulation and optimization of laser-produced plasma (LPP) sources relevant to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The model combines three general parts: hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and heat conduction. The first part employs a total variation diminishing scheme in the Lax-Friedrich formulation (TVD-LF); the second part, a Monte Carlo model; and the third part, implicit schemes with sparse matrix technology. All model parts consider physical processes in three-dimensional geometry. The influence of a generated magnetic field on laser plasma behavior was estimated, and it was found that this effect could be neglected for laser intensities relevant to EUV (up to {approx}10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}). All applied schemes were tested on analytical problems separately. Benchmark modeling of the full EUV source problem with a planar tin target showed good correspondence with experimental and theoretical data. Preliminary results are presented for tin droplet- and planar-target LPP devices. The influence of three-dimensional effects on EUV properties of source is discussed.

  10. Charged particles radiation measurements with Liulin-MO dosimeter of FREND instrument aboard ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter during the transit and in high elliptic Mars orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkova, Jordanka; Koleva, Rositza; Benghin, Victor; Dachev, Tsvetan; Matviichuk, Yuri; Tomov, Borislav; Krastev, Krasimir; Maltchev, Stephan; Dimitrov, Plamen; Mitrofanov, Igor; Malahov, Alexey; Golovin, Dmitry; Mokrousov, Maxim; Sanin, Anton; Litvak, Maxim; Kozyrev, Andrey; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Nikiforov, Sergey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Fedosov, Fedor; Grebennikova, Natalia; Zelenyi, Lev; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav; Drobishev, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    ExoMars is a joint ESA-Rosscosmos program for investigating Mars. Two missions are foreseen within this program: one consisting of the Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO), that carries scientific instruments for the detection of trace gases in the Martian atmosphere and for the location of their source regions, plus an Entry, Descent and landing demonstrator Module (EDM), launched on March 14, 2016; and the other, featuring a rover and a surface platform, with a launch date of 2020. On October 19, 2016 TGO was inserted into high elliptic Mars' orbit. The dosimetric telescope Liulin-MO for measuring the radiation environment onboard the ExoMars 2016 TGO is a module of the Fine Resolution Epithermal Neutron Detector (FREND). Here we present first results from measurements of the charged particle fluxes, dose rates, Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra and estimation of dose equivalent rates in the interplanetary space during the cruise of TGO to Mars and first results from dosimetric measurements in high elliptic Mars' orbit. A comparison is made with the dose rates obtained by RAD instrument onboard Mars Science Laboratory during the cruise to Mars in 2011-2012 and with the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) count rates provided by other particle detectors currently in space. The average measured dose rate in Si from GCR during the transit to Mars for the period April 22-September 15, 2016 is 372 ± 37 μGy d-1 and 390 ± 39 μGy d-1 in two perpendicular directions. The dose equivalent rate from GCR for the same time period is about 2 ± 0.3 mSv d-1. This is in good agreement with RAD results for radiation dose rate in Si from GCR in the interplanetary space, taking into account the different solar activity during the measurements of both instruments. About 10% increase of the dose rate, and 15% increase of the dose equivalent rate for 10.5 months flight is observed. It is due to the increase of Liulin-MO particle fluxes for that period and corresponds to the overall GCR intensity

  11. Interpreting the ultraviolet aerosol index observed with the OMI satellite instrument to understand absorption by organic aerosols: implications for atmospheric oxidation and direct radiative effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Hammer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Satellite observations of the ultraviolet aerosol index (UVAI are sensitive to absorption of solar radiation by aerosols; this absorption affects photolysis frequencies and radiative forcing. We develop a global simulation of the UVAI using the 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem coupled with the Vector Linearized Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer model (VLIDORT. The simulation is applied to interpret UVAI observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI for the year 2007. Simulated and observed values are highly consistent in regions where mineral dust dominates the UVAI, but a large negative bias (−0.32 to −0.97 exists between simulated and observed values in biomass burning regions. We determine effective optical properties for absorbing organic aerosol, known as brown carbon (BrC, and implement them into GEOS-Chem to better represent observed UVAI values over biomass burning regions. The inclusion of absorbing BrC decreases the mean bias between simulated and OMI UVAI values from −0.57 to −0.09 over West Africa in January, from −0.32 to +0.0002 over South Asia in April, from −0.97 to −0.22 over southern Africa in July, and from −0.50 to +0.33 over South America in September. The spectral dependence of absorption after including BrC in the model is broadly consistent with reported observations for biomass burning aerosol, with absorbing Ångström exponent (AAE values ranging from 2.9 in the ultraviolet (UV to 1.3 across the UV–Near IR spectrum. We assess the effect of the additional UV absorption by BrC on atmospheric photochemistry by examining tropospheric hydroxyl radical (OH concentrations in GEOS-Chem. The inclusion of BrC decreases OH by up to 30 % over South America in September, up to 20 % over southern Africa in July, and up to 15 % over other biomass burning regions. Global annual mean OH concentrations in GEOS-Chem decrease due to the presence of absorbing BrC, increasing the methyl chloroform

  12. Interpreting the Ultraviolet Aerosol Index Observed with the OMI Satellite Instrument to Understand Absorption by Organic Aerosols: Implications for Atmospheric Oxidation and Direct Radiative Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Melanie S.; Martin, Randall V.; Donkelaar, Aaron van; Buchard, Virginie; Torres, Omar; Ridley, David A.; Spurr, Robert J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Satellite observations of the ultraviolet aerosol index (UVAI) are sensitive to absorption of solar radiation by aerosols; this absorption affects photolysis frequencies and radiative forcing. We develop a global simulation of the UVAI using the 3-D chemical transport model GEOSChem coupled with the Vector Linearized Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer model (VLIDORT). The simulation is applied to interpret UVAI observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for the year 2007. Simulated and observed values are highly consistent in regions where mineral dust dominates the UVAI, but a large negative bias (-0.32 to -0.97) exists between simulated and observed values in biomass burning regions. We determine effective optical properties for absorbing organic aerosol, known as brown carbon (BrC), and implement them into GEOS-Chem to better represent observed UVAI values over biomass burning regions. The inclusion of absorbing BrC decreases the mean bias between simulated and OMI UVAI values from -0.57 to -0.09 over West Africa in January, from -0.32 to +0.0002 over South Asia in April, from -0.97 to -0.22 over southern Africa in July, and from -0.50 to +0.33 over South America in September. The spectral dependence of absorption after including BrC in the model is broadly consistent with reported observations for biomass burning aerosol, with absorbing Angstrom exponent (AAE) values ranging from 2.9 in the ultraviolet (UV) to 1.3 across the UV-Near IR spectrum. We assess the effect of the additional UV absorption by BrC on atmospheric photochemistry by examining tropospheric hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations in GEOS-Chem. The inclusion of BrC decreases OH by up to 30% over South America in September, up to 20% over southern Africa in July, and up to 15% over other biomass burning regions. Global annual mean OH concentrations in GEOS-Chem decrease due to the presence of absorbing BrC, increasing the methyl chloroform lifetime from 5.62 to 5.68 years, thus

  13. Surface circulation and upwelling patterns around Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, A.; Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Wijeratne, E. M. S.

    2013-09-01

    Sri Lanka occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side. The region is characterised by bi-annually reversing monsoon winds resulting from seasonal differential heating and cooling of the continental land mass and the ocean. This study explored elements of the dynamics of the surface circulation and coastal upwelling in the waters around Sri Lanka using satellite imagery and the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) configured to the study region and forced with ECMWF interim data. The model was run for 2 yr to examine the seasonal and shorter term (∼10 days) variability. The results confirmed the presence of the reversing current system in response to the changing wind field: the eastward flowing Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC) during the Southwest (SW) monsoon transporting 11.5 Sv and the westward flowing Northeast Monsoon Current (NMC) transporting 9.5 Sv during the Northeast (NE) monsoon, respectively. A recirculation feature located to the east of Sri Lanka during the SW monsoon, the Sri Lanka Dome, is shown to result from the interaction between the SMC and the Island of Sri Lanka. Along the eastern and western coasts, during both monsoon periods, flow is southward converging along the south coast. During the SW monsoon the Island deflects the eastward flowing SMC southward whilst along the east coast the southward flow results from the Sri Lanka Dome recirculation. The major upwelling region, during both monsoon periods, is located along the south coast and is shown to be due to flow convergence and divergence associated with offshore transport of water. Higher surface chlorophyll concentrations were observed during the SW monsoon. The location of the flow convergence and hence the upwelling centre was dependent on the relative strengths of wind driven flow along the east and west coasts: during the SW (NE) monsoon the flow along the

  14. High Sr/Y rocks are not all adakites!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyen, Jean-François

    2010-05-01

    The name of "adakite" is used to describe a far too large group of rocks, whose sole common feature is high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios. Defining adakites only by this criterion is misleading, as the definition of this group of rocks does include many other criteria, including major elements. In itself, high (or commonly moderate!) Sr/Y ratios can be achieved via different processes: melting of a high Sr/Y (and La/Yb) source; deep melting, with abundant residual garnet; fractional crystallization or AFC; or interactions of felsic melts with the mantle, causing selective enrichment in LREE and Sr over HREE. A database of the compositions of "adakitic" rocks - including "high silica" and "low silica" adakites, "continental" adakites and Archaean adakites—was assembled. Geochemical modeling of the potential processes is used to interpret it, and reveals that (1) the genesis of high-silica adakites requires high pressure evolution (be it by melting or fractionation), in equilibrium with large amounts of garnet; (2) low-silica adakites are explained by garnet-present melting of an adakite-metasomatized mantle, i.e at depths greater than 2.5 GPa; (3) "Continental" adakites is a term encompassing a huge range of rocks, with a corresponding diversity of petrogenetic processes, and most of them are different from both low- and high- silica adakites; in fact in many cases it is a complete misnomer and the rocks studied are high-K calc-alkaline granitoids or even S-type granites; (4) Archaean adakites show a bimodal composition range, with some very high Sr/Y examples (similar to part of the TTG suite) reflecting deep melting (> 2.0 GPa) of a basaltic source with a relatively high Sr/Y, while lower Sr/Y rocks formed by shallower (1.0 GPa) melting of similar sources. Comparison with the Archaean TTG suite highlights the heterogeneity of the TTGs, whose composition spreads the whole combined range of HSA and Archaean adakites, pointing to a diversity of sources and processes

  15. Non-cognitive characteristics predicting academic success among medical students in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranasinghe Priyanga

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify non-cognitive and socio-demographic characteristics determining academic success of Sri Lankan medical undergraduates. Methods A retrospective study among 90 recently graduated students of the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka. Students were stratified into two equal groups; ‘High-achievers’ (honours degree at the final MBBS examination and ‘Low-achievers’ (repeated one or more subjects at the same examination. A revised version of the Non-cognitive Questionnaire (NQ with additional socio-demographic data was the study instrument. Academic performance indicator was performance at the final MBBS examinations. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed using the dichotomous variable ‘Honours degree at final MBBS’ as the dependant factor. Results Males were 56.7%. Mean age ± SD was 26.4 ± 0.9 years. ‘High-achievers’ were significantly younger than ‘Low-achievers’. Significant proportion of ‘High-achievers’ were from the Western province and selected to university from Colombo district. A significant majority of ‘High-achievers’ entered medical school from their first attempt at GCE A/L examination and obtained ‘Distinctions’ at the GCE A/L English subject. ‘High-achievers’ demonstrated a significantly higher mean score for the following domains of NQ; Positive self-concept and confidence, realistic self-appraisal, leadership, preference of long range goals and academic familiarity. The binary logistic regression indicates that age, being selected to university from Colombo district, residency in Western province, entering university from GCE A/L first attempt, obtaining a ‘Distinction’ for GCE A/L English subject, higher number of patient-oriented case discussions, positive self-concept and confidence, leadership qualities, preference of long range goals and academic familiarity all significantly increased the odds of

  16. Radiation instrumentation-radiological chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    During the past year, major efforts in this program have concentrated on lowering the backgoround for the measurement of small amounts of radioactivity by beta and gamma counting, on the design of specialized systems, on specific procedures for the measurement of certain radionuclides, on improved computer programs for the analysis of gamma-ray spectral data, and on the development of X-ray fluorescence techniques that permit concentrations to be measured without the weight of the sample being known

  17. Clinical diagnosis of uncomplicated malaria in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoek, W; Premasiri, D A; Wickremasinghe, A R

    1998-06-01

    To assess the possibility of developing a protocol for the clinical diagnosis of malaria, a study was done at the regional laboratory of the Anti-Malaria Campaign in Puttalam, Sri Lanka. Of a group of 502 patients, who suspected they were suffering from malaria, 97 had a positive blood film for malaria parasites (71 Plasmodium vivax and 26 P. falciparum). There were no important differences in signs and symptoms between those with positive and those with negative blood films. It is argued that it is unlikely that health workers can improve on the diagnosis of malaria made by the patients themselves, if laboratory facilities are not available. For Sri Lanka the best option is to expand the number of facilities where microscopic examination for malaria parasites can take place.

  18. Risk factors for acute pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of patients with acute pesticide poisoning in a rural area of Sri Lanka and, for intentional self-poisoning cases, explores the relative importance of the different determinants. Data were collected for 239 acute pesticide-poisoning cases, which were...... admitted to two rural hospitals in Sri Lanka. Sociodemographic characteristics, negative life events and agricultural practices of the intentional self-poisoning cases were compared with a control group. Most cases occurred among young adults and the large majority (84%) was because of intentional self-poisoning....... Case fatality was 18% with extremely high case fatality for poisoning with the insecticide endosulfan and the herbicide paraquat. Cases were generally younger than controls, of lower educational status and were more often unemployed. No agricultural risk factors were found but a family history...

  19. Adaptive COIN in Sri Lanka: What Contributed to the Demise of the LTTE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    significant socio -ethnic division in Sri Lankan society is between the numerical majority, the Sinhalese, and the numerical minority, the Sri Lankan...37 K. M. De Silva, Universal Franchise , 1931–1981: The Sri Lankan Experience (Colombo: Dept. of Information, Ministry of State...ethnic conflict due to socio -demographic electoral dynamics and constitutional constraints.118 This did not occur within the GoSL during the CFA period

  20. Demand for private tuition classes under the free education policy. Evidence based on Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Pallegedara, Asankha

    2011-01-01

    Private tuition classes are growing phenomenon in Sri Lanka especially among students who prepare for competitive national school qualifying examinations. It is one of major education issues under the free education policy in Sri Lanka. It can tarnish the real purpose of free education policy. In this paper, we examine the demand for private tuition classes in Sri Lanka by using two waves of Household Income and Expenditure Surveys (HIES) conducted by the Department of Census and Statistics (...

  1. A study of culture and how it affects Sri Lankan organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, Ethmadalage Dineeli Nadeesha

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation presents a study of culture by bifurcating it into two parts: National and Organisational Culture. Through research, a profile of the Sri Lankan National Culture and the Organisational Culture of 3 selected companies is arrived at. Consequently, the research findings are analysed to distinguish if the National Culture of Sri Lanka has had an influence on the Organisational Culture of Sri Lankan companies.

  2. Impact of changing external conditions on counterinsurgency: the Sri Lankan experience

    OpenAIRE

    Premaratne, Nilantha P.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited After thirty years of protracted war against the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), Sri Lanka defeated its long-lasting terrorist insurgency in May 2009. Sri Lanka’s victory surprised the world. This thesis examines why Sri Lanka’s counterterrorism strategy succeeded in 2009 when it had previously failed. Discriminatory government policies, the economic liberalization in the 1980s, and external support fueled Tamil insurgency and...

  3. Laboratory for Calibration of Gamma Radiation Measurement Instruments (LabCal) of Institute of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense (IDQBRN) from Brazilian Army Technology Center (CTEx); Laboratorio de Calibracao de Instrumentode Medicao de Radiacao Gama (LabCal) do IDQBRN do CTEx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Aneuri de; Balthar, Mario Cesar V.; Santos, Avelino; Vilela, Paulo Ricardo T. de; Oliveira, Luciano Santa Rita; Penha, Paulo Eduardo C. de Oliveira; Gonzaga, Roberto Neves; Andrade, Edson Ramos de; Oliveira, Celio Jorge Vasques de; Fagundes, Luiz Cesar S., E-mail: aneurideamorim@gmail.com [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (DQBRN/CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Defesa Quimica, Biologica, Radiologica e Nuclear

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the calibration laboratory deployment steps (LABCAL) gamma ionizing radiation measuring instruments in the Army Technology Center, CTEx. Initially the calibration of radiation monitors will be held in the dosimetric quantity air kerma and operational quantity ambient dose equivalent H*(d). The LABCAL / CTEx has not yet authorized by CASEC / CNEN. This laboratory aims to calibrate the ionizing radiation instruments used by the Brazilian Army. (author)

  4. Aquaculture en milieu rural au Sri Lanka | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le Sri Lanka se tourne vers l'aquaculture pour diversifier son économie rurale et accroître sa production alimentaire, particulièrement dans les provinces du nord et de l'est du pays, qui se relèvent du conflit civil. Bien que l'aquaculture représente une stratégie de sécurité alimentaire prometteuse, elle doit être gérée de ...

  5. Legal aspects of motor traffic trauma in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford Perera

    2016-12-01

    Legislation plays a critical role in regulating motor traffic in a country. The Motor Traffic Act of Sri Lanka has undergone many revisions in the recent past to accommodate new provisions to regularize road traffic effectively. However implementation of such provisions is heavily dependent on the rapid and effective action of the police on road traffic offences and awareness and attitudes of courts towards penalizing offenders in view of streamlining the legislation on road traffic.

  6. LEADER WITH GOLDEN HEART - SRI CA. A. RAGHAVENDRA RAO

    OpenAIRE

    Aithal Sreeramana P.; Suresh Kumar P.M.; Shailashri V.T.; Prithi Jeevan

    2015-01-01

    Srinivas group of colleges has come into being from a humble beginning in1988, into a chain of institutions due to its visionary founder Sri CA A Raghavendra Rao. Today it spreads over 18 colleges with 70 courses and over 12000 students generating livelihood to 3500 employees and their families. His leadership qualities and values are distinct. He is wired like business people but bottom line oriented and extraordinarily committed to results. The steep ascend from humble person to an accompl...

  7. Sociopolitical Instability and Economic Growth Empirical Evidence from Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Changsheng Xu; Santhirasegaram Selvarathinam; Wen X. Li

    2007-01-01

    Sociopolitical instability severely affects economic growth in short and long run. This study analyzes that sociopolitical instability measured by proxy measure; annual growth rate of tourist arrivals in Sri Lanka during 1960-2005 adversely affects economic growth. Our empirical findings based on ordinary lease square econometric estimation, show that sociopolitical instability negatively and significantly affect economic growth. Reduction of economic growth rate (-0.032) due to the sociopoli...

  8. Top-of-Atmosphere Direct Radiative Effect of Aerosols from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Satellite Instrument (CERES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.

    2002-01-01

    Nine months of CERES/TRMM broadband fluxes combined with VIRS high-resolution imager measurements are used to estimate the daily average direct radiative effect of aerosols for clear-sky conditions over the tropical oceans. On average, aerosols have a cooling effect over the tropics of 4.6 +/- 1 W/sq m. The magnitude is approx.2 W/sq m smaller over the southern tropical oceans than it is over northern tropical oceans. The direct effect derived from CERES is highly correlated with coincident aerosol optical depth retrievals inferred from 0.63 microns VIRS radiances (correlation coefficient of 0.96). The slope of the regression line is approx. -32 W/sq m/t over the equatorial Pacific Ocean, but changes both regionally and seasonally, depending on the aerosol characteristics. Near sources of biomass burning and desert dust, the aerosol direct effect reaches -25 W sq m to -30 W/sq m. The direct effect from CERES also shows a dependence on wind speed. The reason for this dependence is unclear-it may be due to increased aerosol (e.g. sea-salt or aerosol transport) or increased surface reflection (e.g. due to whitecaps). The uncertainty in the tropical average direct effect from CERES is approx. 1 W/sq m (approx. 20%) due mainly to cloud contamination, the radiance-to-flux conversion, and instrument calibration. By comparison, uncertainties in the direct effect from the ERBE and CERES "ERBE-Like" products are a factor of 3 to 5 larger.

  9. The first case of 38,XX (SRY-positive) disorder of sex development in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczerbal, Izabela; Stachowiak, Monika; Dzimira, Stanislaw; Sliwa, Krystyna; Switonski, Marek

    2015-01-01

    SRY-positive XX testicular disorder of sex development (DSD) caused by X;Y translocations was not yet reported in domestic animals. In humans it is rarely diagnosed and a majority of clinical features resemble those which are typical for Klinefelter syndrome (KS). Here we describe the first case of SRY-positive XX DSD in a tortoiseshell cat with a rudimentary penis and a lack of scrotum. Molecular analysis showed the presence of two Y-linked genes (SRY and ZFY) and a normal sequence of the SRY gene. Application of classical cytogenetic techniques revealed two X chromosomes (38,XX), but further FISH studies with the use of the whole X chromosome painting probe and BAC probes specific to the Yp chromosome facilitated identification of Xp;Yp translocation. The SRY gene was localised at a distal position of Xp. The karyotype of the studied case was described as: 38,XX.ish der(X)t(X;Y)(p22;p12)(SRY+). Moreover, the X inactivation status assessed by a sequential R-banding and FISH with the SRY-specific probe showed a random inactivation of the derivative X(SRY) chromosome. Our study showed that among DSD tortoiseshell cats, apart from XXY trisomy and XX/XY chimerism, also SRY-positive XX cases may occur. It is hypothesized that the extremely rare occurrence of this abnormality in domestic animals, when compared with humans, may be associated with a different organisation of the Yp arm in these species.

  10. Prospects for a wind pump industry in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernando, S.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1977 considerable effort has been made in Sri Lanka to develop and disseminate wind pumping systems primarily in the small-scale agricultural sector in the island's dry zone. Through close cooperation with the Consultancy Services Wind Energy Developing Countries (CWD) in the Netherlands this programme has been successful in developing the necessary hardware but the broad objective of promoting wide spread use of wind pumping in Sri Lanka is yet to materialize. In analyzing probable reasons for this, the paper highlights that the basic arguments underlying the origin of the project in 1976, such as foreign exchange savings and local industrial development, became irrelevant to the post 1977 political and economic policies of the new government. Thus, the general economic framework adopted in Sri Lanka since 1977 does not seem to provide the necessary pre-conditions for development of a local industry for wind pumps. Due to this reason and the fact that kerosene oil used in conventional agriculturla pumps is subsidized, the ability of wind pumps to compete in the wind pump market seems highly constrained. It is concluded that under such conditions the prospects for the manufacturing and marketing of wind pumps on an industrial scale are not very favourable

  11. The nursing profession in Sri Lanka: time for policy changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluwihare-Samaranayake, D; Ogilvie, L; Cummings, G G; Gellatly, Ian R

    2017-09-01

    We address issues and challenges in nursing in Sri Lanka with the aim of identifying where and how policy changes need to be made. Increased global interconnectivity calls for professional leadership, research, education, and policy reform in nursing as these are identified as enhancing health workforce performance and professionalization, thereby improving health systems. We draw on first-hand knowledge of health care and nursing in Sri Lanka and a recent survey of nurses at a large urban government hospital in Sri Lanka, followed by discussion and proposed action on themes identified through analysis of published and unpublished literature about the nursing profession. Policy and action are needed to: (a) establish mandatory nurse licensure in the public and private healthcare sectors; (b) implement realistic policies to further develop nursing education; (c) develop a professionalization process to support nursing autonomy and voice; and (d) promote systematic processes for educational accreditation, curriculum revision, continuing professional development, evidence-based practice, research, leadership, and information systems. There is a policy vacuum that requires careful analysis and strategic planning by formal nurse leaders. Implementing change will require political and professional power and strategic, innovative, and evolutionary policy initiatives as well as organizational infrastructure modifications best achieved through committed multidisciplinary collaboration, augmented research capacity, bolstered nursing leadership, and promotion of partnerships with policy makers. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  12. Tourism Economics in Sri Lanka: An Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna-Perera Lalith Welgamage

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sri Lanka aims to transform its tourism sector into one of the largest foreign exchange earners in 2016 by attracting 2.5 million high spending tourists. Tourism was ranked as the fifth largest source of foreign exchange earnings in 2012, and third largest in 2013 contributing 5.2 percent to total foreign earnings of the country. Further to this, the Sri Lankan government also identified tourism as a major hub of the country’s economy. Given the multi-dimensional impact the sector has on the country’s economy, it has to be examined systematically. This paper develops an econometric model based on the Cobb-Douglas function to analyze the relation between foreign exchange earnings, tourist arrivals, tourist prices, and tourist spending and direct employment in tourism. These variables of tourism are estimated utilizing model parameters such as R-Studio based on data from the sample period from 2002 to 2013. The formula presented in this study can be used by policy makers to calculate future foreign exchange earnings, employment, arrivals and prices related to tourism in Sri Lanka.

  13. Prevalence of Organophosphate Poisoning In Batticaloa, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maheswaran umakanth

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deliberate self-harm (DSH is a global problem which has steadily increased over the past few years in developing countries and has become as one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in these countries. The aim of this prospective study was to analyze the prevalence of organophosphate poisoning among other acute DSH cases admitted to the medical ward at Batticaloa Teaching Hospital, Sri Lanka. We report the socio-demographic, and outcome of organophosphate poisoning. Method: The prospective study comprises of 121 cases of acute poisoning admitted at Batticaloa Teaching Hospital (BTH, Sri Lanka. This study was conducted for a period of three months from April 12 through July 12, 2017. Results: Among the subjects, 119 (98.34% cases had intentional poisoning and only two cases (1.65% accidental poisoning. Poisoning with organophosphate compounds (OP 23 (19% was the second leading type. There were 13 (56.5% males and 10 (43.5% females. Most of the patients were under the age group of 20-29 years old. 21 cases lived in rural areas and 2 in urban areas. Out of 23 patients, there were 2 (8.7% deaths, 18 (78.3% were discharged without any complications. Conclusion: DSH in Sri Lanka is reported to be associated with interpersonal conflict, short premeditation, as well as alcohol misuse among males.

  14. Lighting energy efficiency in office buildings: Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijayatunga, Priyantha D.C.; Fernando, W.J.L.S.; Ranasinghe, S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a study conducted in the lighting sector of office buildings as a part of a broader research study aimed at developing building codes for Sri Lanka addressing lighting as well as thermal comfort in order to optimise the use of electricity within these buildings. The study covered different tasks performed in office buildings and the optimum lighting levels required to perform these tasks in the office environment in Sri Lanka. Also, it included assessing the visual performance of people involved in different activities under varying illumination levels in a controlled environment and a comparison of these optimum lighting levels with international standards. It can be seen that the required optimum lighting levels are generally lower in Sri Lanka in comparison to specified standard levels, and this scenario is likely to be similar in other developing countries too. These findings clearly emphasise the need to adopt lighting standards most appropriate to local conditions, in turn helping improve the energy efficiency within buildings

  15. Post-Disaster Housing Reconstruction in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuwani Amaratunga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Research methodology is the procedural framework within which the research is conducted. This includes the overall approach to a problem that could be put into practice in a research process, from the theoretical underpinning to the collection and analysis of data. Choice of methodology depends on the primary drivers: topic to be researched and the specific research questions. Hence, methodological perspectives of managing stakeholder expectations of PDHR context are composed of research philosophies, research strategy, research design, and research techniques. This research belonged to social constructivism or interpretivism within a philosophical continuum. The nature of the study was more toward subjectivism where human behavior favored voluntary stance. Ontological, methodological, epistemological, and axiological positioning carried the characteristics of idealism, ideographic, anti-positivism, and value laden, respectively. Data collection comprises two phases, preliminary and secondary. Exploratory interviews with construction experts in the United Kingdom and Sri Lanka were carried out to refine the interview questions and identify the case studies. Case study interviews during the secondary phase took place in Sri Lanka. Data collected at the preliminary stage were used to assess the attributes of power, legitimacy/proximity, and urgency of stakeholders to the project using Stakeholder Circle™ software. Moreover, the data collected at secondary phase via case studies will be analyzed with NVivo 8. This article aims to discuss these methodological underpinnings in detail applied in a post-disaster housing reconstruction context in Sri Lanka.

  16. Instrumental interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani , Annie

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The expression instrumental interaction as been introduced by Claude Cadoz to identify a human-object interaction during which a human manipulates a physical object - an instrument - in order to perform a manual task. Classical examples of instrumental interaction are all the professional manual tasks: playing violin, cutting fabrics by hand, moulding a paste, etc.... Instrumental interaction differs from other types of interaction (called symbolic or iconic interactio...

  17. Advanced instrumentation and teleoperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    1998-01-01

    SCK-CEN's advanced instrumentation and teleoperation project aims at evaluating the potential of a telerobotic approach in a nuclear environment and, in particular, the use of remote-perception systems. Main achievements in 1997 in the areas of R and D on radiation tolerance for remote sensing, optical fibres and optical-fibre sensors, and computer-aided teleoperation are reported

  18. Health physics instrumentation needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.M.; Swinth, K.L.; Kenoyer, J.L.

    1984-10-01

    Deficiencies and desirable improvements can be identified in every technical area in which health physics instruments are employed. The needed improvements cover the full spectrum including long-term reliability, human factors, accuracy, ruggedness, ease of calibration, improved radiation response, and improved mixed field response. Some specific areas of deficiency noted along with needed improvements. 17 references

  19. STATUS GIZI PADA BALITA DAN ANAK VEGETARIAN DI KOMUNITAS ASRAM SRI SRI RADHA MADHAVA, DESA SIANGAN, KABUPATEN GIANYAR TAHUN 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Risma Pramita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Masalah gizi adalah salah satu permasalahan kesehatan masyarakat yang belum tuntas ditanggulangi di dunia. Berdasarkan data Riskesdas 2010, prevalensi balita yang mengalami gizi buruk secara nasional adalah 4,9%, gizi kurang 13%, dan gizi lebih 5,8%. Asram Sri Sri Radha Madhava berada di wilayah kerja Puskesmas Gianyar II. Masyarakat tersebut adalah kelompok vegetarian lakto mulai dari remaja, hamil, sampai pada anak yang dilahirkan. Berdasarkan laporan tahunan Puskesmas Gianyar II tahun 2012 terjadi masalah gizi kurang sebesar 2,3%. Pada tahun 2013 di Puskesmas Gianyar II tercatat masalah gizi kurang pada balita meningkat menjadi 5%, sedangkan jumlah balita gizi buruk adalah sebesar 2%. Puskesmas Gianyar II belum dapat mencapai target yakni 0% untuk balita gizi buruk maupun gizi kurang. Balita dan anak-anak Asram jarang mengikuti kegiatan Posyandu sehingga pertumbuhan dan perkembangannya sulit untuk dipantau. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui status gizi bayi dan balita serta anak vegetarian di komunitas Asram Sri Sri Radha Madhava. Desain penelitian yang digunakan adalah studi potong lintang (cross-sectional deskriptif. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan pengukuran langsung tinggi badan dan berat badan serta wawancara. Status gizi pada 36 orang yang termasuk kelompok balita dan anak vegetarian dilihat berdasarkan indeks berat badan terhadap umur (BB/U, tinggi badan terhadap umur (TB/U, berat badan terhadap tinggi badan (BB/TB, dan indeks masa tubuh terhadap umur (IMT/U dari grafik WHO. Sebagian besar tergolong gizi baik berdasarkan BB/U (80,6%, TB/U normal (72,2%, BB/TB normal (63,9%, dan IMT/U normal (72,2%. Sebanyak 2,8% termasuk kategori obese, 11,1% kategori gemuk (overweight dan 13,9% kategori kurus (underweight.

  20. Analysis of the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) in sex reversed patients: point-mutation in SRY causing sex-reversion in a 46,XY female

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Jørn; Schwartz, M; Skakkebaek, N E

    1992-01-01

    The first and essential step in normal sexual differentiation takes place during the 5th-6th week of gestation. The testis determining factor (TDF) directs the undifferentiated gonad into a testis, which secretes hormones responsible for normal male development. A new candidate for TDF has recently...... been reported, and it has been called the sex determining region of the Y (SRY). The hypothesis has been supported by the finding of XX individuals with SRY, and two females with 46,XY karyotype and a mutation in SRY. However, XX males without SRY has been reported, and the role of SRY still has...... to be determined. We have tested three human females with 46,XY karyotype and gonadal dysgenesis and two 46,XX males for the presence of SRY using the polymerase chain reaction and subsequent DNA sequencing. Both 46,XX males contained SRY, whereas one of the 46,XY females had suffered a point mutation in SRY...

  1. Technological considerations in emergency instrument preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The types of emergency instrumentation systems necessary to characterize the severity and extent of radiation accidents and to aid in the protection of operating personnel and personnel living near the plant are discussed. These include instruments for direct measurement of the airborne radioactive material within the facility, fixed instrumentation for ambient dose rate monitoring or area monitoring, and portable instruments for environmental monitoring

  2. DOSIS & DOSIS 3D: radiation measurements with the DOSTEL instruments onboard the Columbus Laboratory of the ISS in the years 2009–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural radiation environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO differs significantly in composition and energy from that found on Earth. The space radiation field consists of high energetic protons and heavier ions from Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR, as well as of protons and electrons trapped in the Earth’s radiation belts (Van Allen belts. Protons and some heavier particles ejected in occasional Solar Particle Events (SPEs might in addition contribute to the radiation exposure in LEO. All sources of radiation are modulated by the solar cycle. During solar maximum conditions SPEs occur more frequently with higher particle intensities. Since the radiation exposure in LEO exceeds exposure limits for radiation workers on Earth, the radiation exposure in space has been recognized as a main health concern for humans in space missions from the beginning of the space age on. Monitoring of the radiation environment is therefore an inevitable task in human spaceflight. Since mission profiles are always different and each spacecraft provides different shielding distributions, modifying the radiation environment measurements needs to be done for each mission. The experiments “Dose Distribution within the ISS (DOSIS” (2009–2011 and “Dose Distribution within the ISS 3D (DOSIS 3D” (2012–onwards onboard the Columbus Laboratory of the International Space Station (ISS use a detector suite consisting of two silicon detector telescopes (DOSimetry TELescope = DOSTEL and passive radiation detector packages (PDP and are designed for the determination of the temporal and spatial variation of the radiation environment. With the DOSTEL instruments’ changes of the radiation composition and the related exposure levels in dependence of the solar cycle, the altitude of the ISS and the influence of attitude changes of the ISS during Space Shuttle dockings inside the Columbus Laboratory have been monitored. The absorbed doses measured at the end of May 2016

  3. Common mental disorders among adult members of 'left-behind' international migrant worker families in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Wickramage, Kolitha; Siribaddana, Sisira; Vidanapathirana, Puwalani; Jayasekara, Buddhini; Weerawarna, Sulochana; Pannala, Gayani; Adikari, Anushka; Jayaweera, Kaushalya; Pieris, Sharika; Sumathipala, Athula

    2015-03-28

    Nearly one-in-ten Sri Lankans are employed abroad as International migrant workers (IMW). Very little is known about the mental health of adult members in families left-behind. This study aimed to explore the impact of economic migration on mental health (common mental disorders) of left-behind families in Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional survey using multistage sampling was conducted in six districts (representing 62% of outbound IMW population) of Sri Lanka. Spouses and non-spouse caregivers (those providing substantial care for children) from families of economic migrants were recruited. Adult mental health was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire. Demographic, socio-economic, migration-specific and health utilization information were gathered. A total of 410 IMW families were recruited (response rate: 95.1%). Both spouse and a non-spouse caregiver were recruited for 55 families with a total of 277 spouses and 188 caregivers included. Poor general health, current diagnosed illness and healthcare visit frequency was higher in the non-spouse caregiver group. Overall prevalence of common mental disorder (CMD; Depression, somatoform disorder, anxiety) was 20.7% (95%CI 16.9-24.3) with 14.4% (95%CI 10.3-18.6) among spouses and 29.8% (95%CI 23.2-36.4) among non-spouse caregivers. Prevalence of depression (25.5%; 95%CI 19.2-31.8) and somatoform disorder 11.7% (95%CI 7.0-16.3) was higher in non-spouse caregiver group. When adjusted for age and gender, non-returning IMW in family, primary education and low in-bound remittance frequency was associated with CMD for spouses while no education, poor general health and increased healthcare visits was significantly associated in the non-spouse caregiver group. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to explore specific mental health outcomes among adult left-behind family members of IMW through standardized diagnostic instruments in Sri Lanka and in South Asian region. Negative impact of economic migration is

  4. A national upgrade of the climate monitoring grid in Sri Lanka. The place of Open Design, OSHW and FOSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemin, Yann; Bandara, Niroshan; Eriyagama, Nishadi

    2015-04-01

    The National Climate Observatory of Sri lanka is a proposition designed for the Government of Sri Lanka in September and discussed with private and public stakeholders in November 2014. The idea was initially to install a networked grid of weather instruments from locally-made open source hardware technology, on land and seas, that report live the state of climate. After initial stakeholder meetings, it was agreed to first try to connect any existing weather stations from different governmental and private sector agencies. This would bring existing information to a common ground through the Internet. At this point, it was realized that extracting information from various vendors set up would take a large amount of efforts, that is still the best and fastest anyway, as considerations from ownership and maintenance are the most important issues in a tropical humid country as Sri Lanka. Thus, the question of Open Design, open source hardware (OSHW) and free and open source software (FOSS) became a pivotal element in considering operationalization of any future elements of a national grid. Reasons range from ownership, to low-cost and customization, but prominently it is about technology ownership, royalty-free and local availability. Building on previous work from (Chemin and Bandara, 2014) we proposed to open design specifications and prototypes for weather monitoring for various kinds of needs, the Meteorological Department clearly specified that the highest variability observed spatially in Sri Lanka is rainfall, and their willingness to investigate OSHW electronics using their new team of electronics and sensors specialists. A local manufacturer is providing an OSHW micro-controller product, a start up is providing additional sensor boards under OSHW specifications and local manufacture of the sensors (tipping-bucket and other wind sensors) is under development and blueprints have been made available in the Public Domain for CNC machine, 3D printing or Plastic

  5. Language Policy, Ethnic Tensions and Linguistic Rights in Post War Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, Sreemali

    2015-01-01

    As in many former colonies, language policy and planning in Sri Lanka has been largely shaped by and continues to be overshadowed by its history of colonial rule. Sri Lanka experienced colonization under three different western powers for over four centuries. This situation was further muddied by the three-decades long ethnic-based civil war which…

  6. Rates and Psychological Effects of Exposure to Family Violence among Sri Lankan University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; de Zoysa, Piyanjli

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The study had two objectives: to examine the rates of exposure to family violence among students in a non-Western society, with Sri Lanka as a case study and to examine the psychological effects of their exposure. Method: Four hundred seventy six medical students in Sri Lanka were surveyed. A self-administered questionnaire was…

  7. Voormalige kindsoldaten in Sri Lanka, een onopgeloste erfenis van een bloedig conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stöpler, L.; Frerks, G.E.

    2010-01-01

    Lucien Stopler & Georg Frerks discuss the plight of the Tamil ex-child soldiers in Sri Lanka, an unresolved heritage of a bloody war. In the wake of the defeat of the LTTE, the Sri Lankan government has not shown much effort in addressing the root causes of the conflict and in building peace. It

  8. How Old Is Old? Employing Elderly Teachers in the Private Sector Schools in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhuwanthi, L. A. P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore why private sector schools in Sri Lanka employ elderly teachers (ETs). This paper used semi-structured in-depth interviews with 9 employers/principals in the private sector schools in Sri Lanka. The study found that the reasons for employing ETs in the private sector schools were shortfall of English medium…

  9. Immigration And Its Effects On The National Security Of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Tourism Council. Travel & Tourism : Economic Impact 2015, Sri Lanka. London, UK: Author, 2015. https://www.wttc.org/- / media /files/reports/economic...release. Distribution is unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Immigration has social , political, economic, and...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ABSTRACT Immigration has social , political, economic, and security significance in Sri Lanka. Immigrants bring economic

  10. ANALISISI AMANAT DAN NILAI-NILAI GURINDAM KEDUA BELAS DONGENG BUJANG SRI LADANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhardi Suhardi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the values ​​Gurindam Twelfth contained in Bujang Sri Ladang fairy tale. This study uses an objective approach, the approach that focuses only on work study itself (fairy tale Bujang Sri Ladang. The method used is descriptive method, which describe the values ​​Gurindam Twelfth contained in Bujang Sri Ladang fairy tale. Data collected by interview, the interviewing community leaders in the city of Tanjungpinang fairytale owner, to obtain data related to the fairy tale Bujang Sri Ladang. Data analysis technique conducted by: (1 describe the synopsis legend Ship Island, (2 describe the mandate of the fabled Bujang Sri Ladang, (3 describe the values ​​Gurindam Twelfth contained in a fairy tale Bujang Sri Ladang, and (4 interprets the value -value Gurindam Twelfth contained in Bujang Sri Ladang fairy tale. The results obtained: Bujang Sri Ladang fairytale field contains: Islamic values, the value of faith, social values, manners and character, introspective, benefits, and ethical values. It is as the result of analyzes performed. Those values ​​are the essential values ​​and become a lifeline of society, especially the Malay community Tanjungpinang city

  11. Losing Ground: A Critical Analysis of Teachers' Agency for Peacebuilding Education in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A.; Hoeks, Celine C. M. Q.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the "agency" of teachers for peacebuilding education in Sri Lanka through a critical multiscalar analysis of the interplay between "context"--education policies and governance--and "agent"--teachers as strategic political actors. It draws on two studies conducted in Sri Lanka in 2006 and…

  12. Losing ground: a critical analysis of teachers' agency for peacebuilding education in Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes Cardozo, M.T.A.; Hoeks, C.C.M.Q.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the agency of teachers for peacebuilding education in Sri Lanka through a critical multiscalar analysis of the interplay between context - education policies and governance - and agent - teachers as strategic political actors. It draws on two studies conducted in Sri Lanka

  13. Neurological symptoms among Sri Lankan farmers occupationally exposed to acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting insecticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, L.A.M.; Wendel- de Joode, B.N. van; Heederik, D.; Peiris-John, R.J.; Hoek, W. van der

    2003-01-01

    Background: In many agricultural districts in Sri Lanka, pesticide poisoning is a leading cause of death. This study aims to evaluate the impact of pesticide use on Sri Lankan farmers' health. Methods: A total of 260 subjects were surveyed in both a low and a high exposure period.

  14. Instrumentation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides instrumentation support for flight tests of prototype weapons systems using a vast array of airborne sensors, transducers, signal conditioning and encoding...

  15. Attitudes of Sri Lankan medical students toward learning communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marambe, Kosala N; Edussuriya, D H; Dayaratne, K M P L

    2012-01-01

    The General Medical Council of the UK, advocates that by the end of their undergraduate course, medical students should be proficient in communicating with patients. However, the attitude of some medical students toward formal training in communication skills seems lukewarm. Although several studies on assessing attitudes of medical students on learning communication skills have been carried out in Europe and America, Asian studies are very few and literature in the Sri Lankan context is lacking. To explore the attitudes of first to fourth year medical students of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya (FOMUP), Sri Lanka on learning communication skills and to identify possible factors that may influence student attitudes. A total of 675 students from year 1 to 4 of the FOMUP were asked to complete a modified version of the Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Items of its positive attitude scale (PAS) were analyzed together while negative items were considered individually. Response rates ranged from 70% to 98% for the various year groups. There were no significant differences between the PAS for males and females and for those exposed to formal training and those who were not. The junior students scored significantly higher on the PAS than seniors. Most students of all the groups disagreed with the item "I don't see why I should learn communication skills". Approximately one-quarter of the students of each group endorsed the statement "Nobody is going to fail their medical degree for having poor communication skills". Out of the students who have undergone formal communication training, almost one-third agreed that they find it difficult to take communication skills learning seriously. Although medical students seem to have realized the importance of communication skills training for the practice of medicine, a significant minority have reservations on attending such sessions. Sri Lanka faculty will need to make a concerted effort to change this

  16. Analysis of Polymorphisms in the Merozoite Surface Protein-3a Gene and Two Microsatellite Loci in Sri Lankan Plasmodium vivax: Evidence of Population Substructure in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Mette L; Rajakaruna, Rupika S; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. The geographical distribution of genetic variation in Plasmodium vivax samples (N = 386) from nine districts across Sri Lanka is described using three markers; the P. vivax merozoite surface protein-3a (Pvmsp-3a) gene, and the two microsatellites m1501 and m3502. At Pvmsp-3a, 11 alleles....... The results show evidence of high genetic diversity and possible population substructure of P. vivax populations in Sri Lanka....

  17. Brain Sexual Differentiation and Requirement of SRY: Why or Why Not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl S. Rosenfeld

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Brain sexual differentiation is orchestrated by precise coordination of sex steroid hormones. In some species, programming of select male brain regions is dependent upon aromatization of testosterone to estrogen. In mammals, these hormones surge during the organizational and activational periods that occur during perinatal development and adulthood, respectively. In various fish and reptiles, incubation temperature during a critical embryonic period results in male or female sexual differentiation, but this can be overridden in males by early exposure to estrogenic chemicals. Testes development in mammals requires a Y chromosome and testis determining gene SRY (in humans/Sry (all other therian mammals, although there are notable exceptions. Two species of spiny rats: Amami spiny rat (Tokudaia osimensis and Tokunoshima spiny rat (Tokudaia tokunoshimensis and two species of mole voles (Ellobius lutescens and Ellobius tancrei, lack a Y chromosome/Sry and possess an XO chromosome system in both sexes. Such rodent species, prototherians (monotremes, who also lack Sry, and fish and reptile species that demonstrate temperature sex determination (TSD seemingly call into question the requirement of Sry for brain sexual differentiation. This review will consider brain regions expressing SRY/Sry in humans and rodents, respectively, and potential roles of SRY/Sry in the brain will be discussed. The evidence from various taxa disputing the requirement of Sry for brain sexual differentiation in mammals (therians and prototherians and certain fish and reptilian species will be examined. A comparative approach to address this question may elucidate other genes, pathways, and epigenetic modifications stimulating brain sexual differentiation in vertebrate species, including humans.

  18. Integrated approach for coastal hazards and risks in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcin, M.; Desprats, J. F.; Fontaine, M.; Pedreros, R.; Attanayake, N.; Fernando, S.; Siriwardana, C. H. E. R.; de Silva, U.; Poisson, B.

    2008-06-01

    The devastating impact of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 on the shores of the Indian Ocean recalled the importance of knowledge and the taking into account of coastal hazards. Sri Lanka was one of the countries most affected by this tsunami (e.g. 30 000 dead, 1 million people homeless and 70% of the fishing fleet destroyed). Following this tsunami, as part of the French post-tsunami aid, a project to establish a Geographical Information System (GIS) on coastal hazards and risks was funded. This project aims to define, at a pilot site, a methodology for multiple coastal hazards assessment that might be useful for the post-tsunami reconstruction and for development planning. This methodology could be applied to the whole coastline of Sri Lanka. The multi-hazard approach deals with very different coastal processes in terms of dynamics as well as in terms of return period. The first elements of this study are presented here. We used a set of tools integrating a GIS, numerical simulations and risk scenario modelling. While this action occurred in response to the crisis caused by the tsunami, it was decided to integrate other coastal hazards into the study. Although less dramatic than the tsunami these remain responsible for loss of life and damage. Furthermore, the establishment of such a system could not ignore the longer-term effects of climate change on coastal hazards in Sri Lanka. This GIS integrates the physical and demographic data available in Sri Lanka that is useful for assessing the coastal hazards and risks. In addition, these data have been used in numerical modelling of the waves generated during periods of monsoon as well as for the December 2004 tsunami. Risk scenarios have also been assessed for test areas and validated by field data acquired during the project. The results obtained from the models can be further integrated into the GIS and contribute to its enrichment and to help in better assessment and mitigation of these risks. The coastal

  19. SIZE CHART FOR SOCKS FOR SCHOOL BOYS IN SRI LANKA

    OpenAIRE

    Lanarolle W.D.G*, Jeewandara V.K., Amadoru R.S., Wijayarathna E.K.B. and Randike H.M.

    2017-01-01

    The structure of the body of human depends on many factors. Hence the sizes and size charts for garments need to be developed for a specific nation/human group. This paper presents a size chart developed for socks for school boys in Sri Lanka. The foot and leg measurements of 2650 school boys in six different provinces of the country is used in the analysis in order to get a reasonable sample size as the foot and leg measurements may have many influences. Correlation between different f...

  20. [Cutaneous diphtheria after a minor injury in Sri Lanka].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, L; Mechlin, A; Schultz, E S

    2016-02-01

    Cutaneous dipththeria is an infectious bacterial disease endemic in tropical regions, but rarely diagnosed in Germany. Following travel in Sri Lanka, a 60-year-old German presented to our dermatological clinic with a skin ulcer and extensive erythematous erosive edema of his left foot. Corynebacterium diphtheriae was isolated from a swab of the lesion. There were no clinical signs of toxic diphtheria. The patient was treated with penicillin G and erythromycin, followed by a slow healing of the lesion. The isolated strain could be identified as toxigenic C. diphtheriae mitis. Due to increased travel activity, dermatologists should have uncommon infections like cutaneous diphtheria in mind.

  1. Integrated approach for coastal hazards and risks in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Garcin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The devastating impact of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 on the shores of the Indian Ocean recalled the importance of knowledge and the taking into account of coastal hazards. Sri Lanka was one of the countries most affected by this tsunami (e.g. 30 000 dead, 1 million people homeless and 70% of the fishing fleet destroyed. Following this tsunami, as part of the French post-tsunami aid, a project to establish a Geographical Information System (GIS on coastal hazards and risks was funded. This project aims to define, at a pilot site, a methodology for multiple coastal hazards assessment that might be useful for the post-tsunami reconstruction and for development planning. This methodology could be applied to the whole coastline of Sri Lanka.

    The multi-hazard approach deals with very different coastal processes in terms of dynamics as well as in terms of return period. The first elements of this study are presented here. We used a set of tools integrating a GIS, numerical simulations and risk scenario modelling. While this action occurred in response to the crisis caused by the tsunami, it was decided to integrate other coastal hazards into the study. Although less dramatic than the tsunami these remain responsible for loss of life and damage. Furthermore, the establishment of such a system could not ignore the longer-term effects of climate change on coastal hazards in Sri Lanka.

    This GIS integrates the physical and demographic data available in Sri Lanka that is useful for assessing the coastal hazards and risks. In addition, these data have been used in numerical modelling of the waves generated during periods of monsoon as well as for the December 2004 tsunami. Risk scenarios have also been assessed for test areas and validated by field data acquired during the project. The results obtained from the models can be further integrated into the GIS and contribute to its enrichment and to help in better assessment and mitigation

  2. Vascular brachytherapy with 90Sr/Y versus 192Ir: A health physics perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, E.S.; Butker, E.K.; Miner, M.S.; Wang, C.K.; Crocker, I.R.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Currently there are two ongoing trials of catheter based radiation therapy in the United States, the BERT Trial (Emory University, Atlanta, GA) and the SCRIPPS Trial (Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, CA). The BERT method involved the use of a treatment system to manually deliver a source train consisting of 12, encapsulated 90 Sr/Y seeds of 3 cm total active length. The total activity of the source train was approximately 3.7 GBq. The SCRIPPS trial involved the use of a hand delivered 192 Ir (BEST Industries) source train of either 5 or 9 sources with 1 mm spacing between the sources. The average total activity of the source train was 3.6 GBq ± 1.08 GBq. It is the purpose of this study to compare the patient dose and staff exposures from the above source trains. A comparison with exposures from use of fluoroscopy in the catheterization laboratory will also be made. Materials and Methods: Measurements made with a GM meter at specified locations around the BERT patients during the insertion of the seeds were compared with published information from the SCRIPPS Trial. Monte Carlo modeled measurements of the equivalent dose in humans from insertion of the source trains were also compared for both methods. The above were contrasted with GM measurements from use of fluoroscopy in the catheterization laboratory. Results: Average exposure rates recorded at the patient's chest and groin from the BERT method were 4.9x10 -4 and 1.29x10 -4 C/kg·hr respectively. Average exposures to the operator from the BERT method and the SCRIPPS method were 8.6x10 -6 and 1.03x10 -3 C/kg respectively. A typical exposure rate for conventional cardiac fluoroscopy is 3.9x10 -3 C/kg·hr. Monte Carlo modeled calculations of patient dose equivalent for the BERT method and the SCRIPPS method were 0.43 μSv and 6.41 mSv respectively. Conclusions: Vascular brachytherapy performed with 90 Sr/Y sources resulted in staff exposures of at least a factor of 120 less and patient doses of a factor of

  3. Invitation to tender for performing studies in the field of 'development and performance of radiation protection measures, and development of instruments and methods for radiotherapy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Tenders are invited for the following work: Measurment of radiation exposure in aircraft. Further development of electron dosemeters. Statistical analysis of the area distribution of precipitations in the various geographical regions of Germany. Description and evaluation of acute radiation syndrome. Diagnostic evaluation of the thyroid as a possible indicator of exposure to radioactive iodine as a result of accidents. (orig./HP) [de

  4. The Effective Use of Elements of National Power in Counterinsurgency: A Study on the Lessons from Sri Lanka 1983-2004 and 2005-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    book by Asoka Bandarage titled, The Separatist Conflict in Sri Lanka: Terrorism, Ethnicity, Political Economy examined the conflict in Sri Lanka...population, including the Tamil Diaspora, 23 Asoka Bandarage, The Separatist Conflict in Sri Lanka...Books Bandarage, Asoka . The Separatist Conflict in Sri Lanka: Terrorism, Ethnicity, Political Economy. New York: IUniverse, Inc., 2009. Books LLC

  5. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information September 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  6. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information April 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, JW

    2009-05-07

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  7. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information August 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-09-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  8. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information July 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-08-13

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  9. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information - June 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  10. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information May 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  11. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubbes, W.F.; Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Instrumentation is developed for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to meet several different (and sometimes conflicting) objectives. This paper addresses instrumentation development for data needs that are related either directly or indirectly to a repository site, but does not touch on instrumentation for work with waste forms or other materials. Consequently, this implies a relatively large scale for the measurements, and an in situ setting for instrument performance. In this context, instruments are needed for site characterization to define phenomena, develop models, and obtain parameter values, and for later design and performance confirmation testing in the constructed repository. The former set of applications is more immediate, and is driven by the needs of program design and performance assessment activities. A host of general technical and nontechnical issues have arisen to challenge instrumentation development. Instruments can be classed into geomechanical, geohydrologic, or other specialty categories, but these issues cut across artificial classifications. These issues are outlined. Despite this imposing list of issues, several case histories are cited to evaluate progress in the area

  12. Spatial epidemiology of suspected clinical leptospirosis in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, C; Nelson, T A; Stephen, C

    2012-04-01

    Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. A large outbreak of suspected human leptospirosis began in Sri Lanka during 2008. This study investigated spatial variables associated with suspected leptospirosis risk during endemic and outbreak periods. Data were obtained for monthly numbers of reported cases of suspected clinical leptospirosis for 2005-2009 for all of Sri Lanka. Space-time scan statistics were combined with regression modelling to test associations during endemic and outbreak periods. The cross-correlation function was used to test association between rainfall and leptospirosis at four locations. During the endemic period (2005-2007), leptospirosis risk was positively associated with shorter average distance to rivers and with higher percentage of agriculture made up of farms <0·20 hectares. Temporal correlation analysis of suspected leptospirosis cases and rainfall revealed a 2-month lag in rainfall-case association during the baseline period. Outbreak locations in 2008 were characterized by shorter distance to rivers and higher population density. The analysis suggests the possibility of household transmission in densely populated semi-urban villages as a defining characteristic of the outbreak. The role of rainfall in the outbreak remains to be investigated, although analysis here suggests a more complex relationship than simple correlation.

  13. Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Senaka; Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan Chrishan; Selvarajah, Mathu

    2016-07-01

    In the last two decades, chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) has emerged as a significant contributor to the burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in rural Sri Lanka. It is characterized by the absence of identified causes for CKD. The prevalence of CKDu is 15.1-22.9% in some Sri Lankan districts, and previous research has found an association with farming occupations. A systematic literature review in Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and Lilacs databases identified 46 eligible peer-reviewed articles and one conference abstract. Geographical mapping indicates a relationship between CKDu and agricultural irrigation water sources. Health mapping studies, human biological studies, and environment-based studies have explored possible causative agents. Most studies focused on likely causative agents related to agricultural practices, geographical distribution based on the prevalence and incidence of CKDu, and contaminants identified in drinking water. Nonetheless, the link between agrochemicals or heavy metals and CKDu remains to be established. No definitive cause for CKDu has been identified. Evidence to date suggests that the disease is related to one or more environmental agents, however pinpointing a definite cause for CKDu is challenging. It is plausible that CKDu is multifactorial. No specific guidelines or recommendations exist for treatment of CKDu, and standard management protocols for CKD apply. Changes in agricultural practices, provision of safe drinking water, and occupational safety precautions are recommended by the World Health Organization.

  14. Plant Poisoning among Children in Rural Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kavinda Chandimal Dayasiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant poisoning is a common presentation in paediatric practice and an important cause of preventable mortality and morbidity in Sri Lanka. The burden of plant poisoning is largely underexplored. The current multicenter study based in rural Sri Lanka assessed clinical profiles, poison related factors, clinical management, complications, outcomes, and risk factors associated with plant poisoning in the paediatric age group. Among 325 children, 57% were male with 64% being below five years of age. 99.4% had ingested the poison. Transfer rate was 66.4%. Most had unintentional poisoning. Commonest poison plant was Jatropha circus and poisoning event happened mostly in home garden. 29% of parents practiced harmful first-aid practices. 32% of children had delayed presentations to which the commonest reason was lack of parental concern regarding urgency of seeking medical care. Presence of poisonous plants in home garden was the strongest risk factor for plant poisoning. Mortality rate was 1.2% and all cases had Oleander poisoning. The study revealed the value of community awareness regarding risk factors and awareness among healthcare workers regarding the mostly benign nature of plant poisoning in children in view of limiting incidence of plant poisoning and reducing expenditure on patient management.

  15. Neurological manifestations of snake bite in Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seneviratne U

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Snake bite is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in certain parts of Sri Lanka. This study was designed to determine the offending snakes, neurological manifestations, disease course, and outcome in neurotoxic envenomation. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Fifty six consecutive patients admitted with neurological manifestations following snake bite were studied prospectively. Data were obtained regarding the offending snakes, neurological symptoms, time taken for onset of symptoms, neurological signs, and time taken for recovery. RESULTS: The offending snake was Russell′s viper in 27(48.2%, common and Sri Lankan krait in 19(33.9%, cobra in 3(5.4%, and unidentified in 7(12.5%. Ptosis was the commonest neurological manifestation seen in 48(85.7% followed by ophthalmoplegia (75%, limb weakness (26.8%, respiratory failure (17.9%, palatal weakness (10.7%, neck muscle weakness (7.1%, and delayed sensory neuropathy (1.8%. Neurological symptoms were experienced usually within 6 hours after the bite. Following administration of antivenom, the signs of recovery became evident within a few hours to several days. The duration for complete recovery ranged from four hours to two weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Complete recovery of neuromuscular weakness was observed in all patients except for one who died with intracerebral haemorrhage shortly after admission.

  16. The Health Consequences Of Child Labour In Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumesh Weerakoon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There are various cases and impacts of child labour and it has been a universal problem and remains as one of polemical challenge faced by the world. The problem of child labour not only causes to damage their physical and mental health but also their education right freedom development of childhood etc. Both developing countries and developed countries are faced to the phenomenon of child labour. 28 of Working children have faced injuries or fallen ill at least once in a year due to work in Sri Lanka. The main objective of the study is to examine the impact of child labours on their health. 200 primary data were collected in Peta Sri Lanka using simple random sampling method. Binary Logistic regression was employed to identify the health effects of child labour. According to the study child labors have faced some illnesses or injuries due to employment. Hours of working carrying of heavy loads operate heavy machines and equipment place of work and expose to things were highly correlated with physical harm of child labors. Carrying heavy load operate heavy machines and equipment and working place highly affected to physical harm of child labor. Many of them are employed on the street as street vendors construction sites factory and hotel and restaurant. Injuries and physical harms are highly related to the working place. Therefor the study recommends to empower the families provide the better formal education and vocational training to overcome this issue.

  17. Eloquent bodies: conflict and ritual in northern Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derges, Jane

    2009-04-01

    It is increasingly apparent that hostilities continue in the aftermath of war and conflict, where presuppositions of peace and safety are rarely reflected on the ground. In Sri Lanka, the 2002 ceasefire agreement between the Sri Lankan government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) has recently collapsed. This collapse developed slowly over a period of several years, beginning with cautious optimism before descending into deep pessimism with increasingly high levels of violence brought about by the absence of any real progress. Efforts to rebuild and reintegrate both rural and urban communities in the north of the country have had to take place within an atmosphere of silence, suspicion and a marked escalation towards the renewed outbreak of war. This article, following sixteen months of fieldwork in the northern Jaffna peninsula, examines how Tamil youths - many of whom were imprisoned and tortured during the war - have transformed a well-known ritual that has seen a dramatic increase since occupation of the far north by government troops in 1996. The ritual, previously an act of devotion to a popular Tamil god, Murugan, has transformed into a demonstration of strength and youthful challenge. This article examines how toleration of ritual pain can be contrasted with the pain and suffering of war, and articulated not only for the self, but also for the entire community.

  18. Two Atypical Cases of Hantavirus Infections from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. B. Ehelepola

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two categories of hantaviruses resulting in two distinct illnesses. The Old World (Asia and Europe viruses give rise to hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS, and the New World (Americas viruses cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS. Hantavirus infections have very similar clinical pictures and epidemiology to leptospirosis. Here, we present two cases of hantavirus infections from Sri Lanka (in South Asia initially misdiagnosed as leptospirosis and later further investigated and diagnosed as hantavirus infections with serological confirmation of the diagnosis. They had clinical pictures of a combination of both HFRS and HPS as well as the involvement of the central nervous system. Hantavirus infections are rarely diagnosed in South Asia. Reports on such atypical clinical pictures of hantavirus infections are extremely rare. Having arrived at the correct diagnosis late/retrospectively, both these patients recovered notwithstanding being seriously ill, indicating adequate supportive therapy can save lives in such cases. The emergence of the hantavirus, an infection seriously affecting multiple organ systems with a high case fatality rate that is spread by aerosol and other routes, could become a serious public health issue in Sri Lanka.

  19. An undercurrent off the east coast of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anutaliya, Arachaporn; Send, Uwe; McClean, Julie L.; Sprintall, Janet; Rainville, Luc; Lee, Craig M.; Priyantha Jinadasa, S. U.; Wallcraft, Alan J.; Metzger, E. Joseph

    2017-12-01

    The existence of a seasonally varying undercurrent along 8° N off the east coast of Sri Lanka is inferred from shipboard hydrography, Argo floats, glider measurements, and two ocean general circulation model simulations. Together, they reveal an undercurrent below 100-200 m flowing in the opposite direction to the surface current, which is most pronounced during boreal spring and summer and switches direction between these two seasons. The volume transport of the undercurrent (200-1000 m layer) can be more than 10 Sv in either direction, exceeding the transport of 1-6 Sv carried by the surface current (0-200 m layer). The undercurrent transports relatively fresher water southward during spring, while it advects more saline water northward along the east coast of Sri Lanka during summer. Although the undercurrent is potentially a pathway of salt exchange between the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, the observations and the ocean general circulation models suggest that the salinity contrast between seasons and between the boundary current and interior is less than 0.09 in the subsurface layer, suggesting a small salt transport by the undercurrent of less than 4 % of the salinity deficit in the Bay of Bengal.

  20. Kerosene Oil Poisoning among Children in Rural Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayasiri, M B Kavinda Chandimal; Jayamanne, Shaluka F; Jayasinghe, Chamilka Y

    2017-01-01

    Kerosene oil poisoning is one of common presentations to emergency departments among children in rural territories of developing countries. This study aimed to describe clinical manifestations, reasons for delayed presentations, harmful first aid practices, complications, and risk factors related to kerosene oil poisoning among children in rural Sri Lanka. This multicenter study was conducted in North-Central province of Sri Lanka involving all in-patient children with acute kerosene oil poisoning. Data were collected over seven years from thirty-six hospitals in the province. Data collection was done by pretested, multistructured questionnaires and a qualitative study. Male children accounted for 189 (60.4%) while 283 (93%) children were below five years. The majority of parents belonged to farming community. Most children ingested kerosene oil in home kitchen. Mortality rate was 0.3%. Lack of transport facilities and financial resources were common reasons for delayed management. Hospital transfer rate was 65.5%. Thirty percent of caregivers practiced harmful first aid measures. Commonest complication was chemical pneumonitis. Strongest risk factors for kerosene oil poisoning were unsafe storage, inadequate supervision, and inadequate house space. Effect of safe storage and community education in reducing the burden of kerosene oil poisoning should be evaluated. Since many risk factors interact to bring about the event of poisoning in a child, holistic approaches to community education in rural settings are recommended.

  1. Kerosene Oil Poisoning among Children in Rural Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kavinda Chandimal Dayasiri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Kerosene oil poisoning is one of common presentations to emergency departments among children in rural territories of developing countries. This study aimed to describe clinical manifestations, reasons for delayed presentations, harmful first aid practices, complications, and risk factors related to kerosene oil poisoning among children in rural Sri Lanka. Methods. This multicenter study was conducted in North-Central province of Sri Lanka involving all in-patient children with acute kerosene oil poisoning. Data were collected over seven years from thirty-six hospitals in the province. Data collection was done by pretested, multistructured questionnaires and a qualitative study. Results. Male children accounted for 189 (60.4% while 283 (93% children were below five years. The majority of parents belonged to farming community. Most children ingested kerosene oil in home kitchen. Mortality rate was 0.3%. Lack of transport facilities and financial resources were common reasons for delayed management. Hospital transfer rate was 65.5%. Thirty percent of caregivers practiced harmful first aid measures. Commonest complication was chemical pneumonitis. Strongest risk factors for kerosene oil poisoning were unsafe storage, inadequate supervision, and inadequate house space. Conclusions. Effect of safe storage and community education in reducing the burden of kerosene oil poisoning should be evaluated. Since many risk factors interact to bring about the event of poisoning in a child, holistic approaches to community education in rural settings are recommended.

  2. Evaluation of Asoka Aristha, an indigenous medicine in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelkoop, T B; Labadie, R P

    1983-09-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation of Asoka Aristha, an indigenous medicine used in rural Sri Lanka for menstrual disorders. This investigation was part of a broader evaluation of ayurvedic drugs aimed at establishing the botanic identity of drug ingredients, establishing possible modes of action, and identifying the chemical constituents responsible for the drug effects. It is projected that the results of this research can be used to standardize ayurvedic drugs and optimize the quality and production procedures. Asoka Aristha, a fermented potion composed largely of Asoka bark, is produced on a large scale by the state-owned Ayurvedic Drugs Corporation. It has been indicated for women in cases of menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, leukorrhea, primary amenorrhea, general menstrual disorders, and skin disorders. 3 types of experiments are projected to evaluate the biologic activity of Asoka Aristha: measurement of the occurrence of cornification of the uterus epithelium in hypophysectomized rats after administration of the drug to determine the estrogenic mode of action, in vitro measurement of the direct uterine activity of the drug to determinme the oxytocic effect, and testing of the inhibiting properties of the drug in prostaglandin synthetase enzyme reactions in vitro. Experiments carried out on rat uteri so far seem to rule out the mechanism based on oxytocic action. It is urged that clinical trials on the therapeutic effect of Asoka Aristha be carried out in Sri Lanka.

  3. Musculoskeletal symptoms among female garment factory workers in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Sarah R; Vijitha de Silva, P; Lipscomb, Hester J; Ostbye, Truls

    2012-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and their association with sociodemographic risk factors among female garment factory workers in Sri Lanka. 1058 randomly selected female garment factory workers employed in the free trade zone of Kogalla, Sri Lanka were recruited to complete two interviewer-administered questionnaires assessing musculoskeletal symptoms and health behaviors. Musculoskeletal complaints among female garment workers in the FTZ of Kogalla are less common than expected. Sociocultural factors may have resulted in underreporting and similarly contribute to the low rates of healthcare utilization by these women. 164 (15.5%) of workers reported musculoskeletal symptoms occurring more than 3 times or lasting a week or more during the previous 12-month period. Back (57.3%) and knee (31.7%) were the most common sites of pain. Although most symptomatic women reported that their problems interfered with work and leisure activities, very few missed work as a result of their pain. Prevalence correlated positively with increased age and industry tenure of less than 12 months. Job type, body mass index, and education were not significant predictors of musculoskeletal symptoms.

  4. Instrumental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-15

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  5. Instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-01

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  6. LOFT instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixby, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    A description of instrumentation used in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) large break Loss-of-Coolant Experiments is presented. Emphasis is placed on hydraulic and thermal measurements in the primary system piping and components, reactor vessel, and pressure suppression system. In addition, instrumentation which is being considered for measurement of phenomena during future small break testing is discussed. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 BRE [de

  7. Comparison of cardiovascular risk factors between Sri Lankans living in Kandy and Oslo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennakoon, Sampath U B; Kumar, Bernadette N; Nugegoda, Danasela B; Meyer, Haakon E

    2010-10-29

    South Asians living in western countries are known to have unfavourable cardiovascular risk profiles. Studies indicate migrants are worse off when compared to those living in country of origin. The purpose of this study was to compare selected cardiovascular risk factors between migrant Sri Lankans living in Oslo, Norway and Urban dwellers from Kandy, Sri Lanka. Data on non fasting serum lipids, blood pressure, anthropometrics and socio demographics of Sri Lankan Tamils from two almost similar population based cross sectional studies in Oslo, Norway between 2000 and 2002 (1145 participants) and Kandy, Sri Lanka in 2005 (233 participants) were compared. Combined data were analyzed using linear regression analyses. Men and women in Oslo had higher HDL cholesterol. Men and women from Kandy had higher Total/HDL cholesterol ratios. Mean waist circumference and body mass index was higher in Oslo. Smoking among men was low (19.2% Oslo, 13.1% Kandy, P = 0.16). None of the women smoked. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in Kandy than in Oslo. Our comparison showed unexpected differences in risk factors between Sri Lankan migrants living in Oslo and those living in Kandy Sri Lanka. Sri Lankans in Oslo had favorable lipid profiles and blood pressure levels despite being more obese.

  8. Internet-based media coverage on dengue in Sri Lanka between 2007 and 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelies Wilder-Smith

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internet-based media coverage to explore the extent of awareness of a disease and perceived severity of an outbreak at a national level can be used for early outbreak detection. Dengue has emerged as a major public health problem in Sri Lanka since 2009. Objective: To compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lana with references to other diseases (malaria and influenza in Sri Lanka and to compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lanka with notified cases of dengue in Sri Lanka. Design: We examined Internet-based news media articles on dengue queried from HealthMap for Sri Lanka, for the period January 2007 to November 2015. For comparative purposes, we compared hits on dengue with hits on influenza and malaria. Results: There were 565 hits on dengue between 2007 and 2015, with a rapid rise in 2009 and followed by a rising trend ever since. These hits were highly correlated with the national epidemiological trend of dengue. The volume of digital media coverage of dengue was much higher than of influenza and malaria. Conclusions: Dengue in Sri Lanka is receiving increasing media attention. Our findings underpin previous claims that digital media reports reflect national epidemiological trends, both in annual trends and inter-annual seasonal variation, thus acting as proxy biosurveillance to provide early warning and situation awareness of emerging infectious diseases.

  9. Crystal growth and scintillation properties of Pr-doped SrI2 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Yuui; Ito, Tomoki; Yoshino, Masao; Yamaji, Akihiro; Ohashi, Yuji; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Kamada, Kei; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2018-04-01

    Pr-doped SrI2 (Pr:SrI2) single crystals with various Pr concentrations were grown by the halide-micro-pulling-down (H-μ-PD) method, and the scintillation properties were investigated. Pr1%:SrI2 single crystal with high transparency could be grown by the H-μ-PD method while Pr2, 3 and 5%:SrI2 single crystals included some cracks and opaque parts. In the photoluminescence spectrum of the Pr1%:SrI2 single crystal, an emission peak originated from the Pr3+ ion was observed around 435 nm while the radioluminescence spectra showed an emission peak around 535 nm for the undoped SrI2 and Pr:SrI2 single crystals. Light yields of Pr1, 2, 3 and 5%:SrI2 single crystals under γ-ray irradiation were 7700, 8700, 7200 and 6700 photons/MeV, respectively. Decay times of Pr1 and 2%:SrI2 single crystals under γ-ray irradiation were 55.9 and 35.0 ns of the fast decay component, and 435 and 408 ns of the slow decay component, respectively.

  10. Design and implementation of a radiation hardened silicon on sapphire (SOS) embedded signal conditioning unit controller (SCUC) for the RAPID instrument on the Cluster satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersland, L.

    1992-07-01

    The Cluster mission consistens of four spacecrafts equipped with instruments capable of making comprehensive measurements of plasma particles and electromagnetic fields. The RAPID (Research with Adaptive Particle Imaging Detectors) spectrometer is one of many instruments on board the Cluster satellites. It is designed for fast analysis of energetic electrons and ions with a complete coverage of the unit sphere in phase space. This thesis describes the development and testing of an embedded controller for the Spectroscopic Camera for Electrons, Neutral and Ion Compositions (SCENIC), which is a part of the RAPID instrument. The design is implemented in two different CMOS circuit technologies, namely Actel's Field Programmable Gate Arrays and GEC Plessey's CMOS Silicon On Sapphire (SOS) gate array. The prototypes of the SOS gate array have been verified and characterized. This includes measurements of DC and AC parameters under different conditions, including total dose of gamma irradiation. 42 refs., 92 figs., 44 tabs

  11. Assessment and Comparison of salt Content in Mangrove Plants in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Dissanayake

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the predicted threats of global warming and sea level rise, the salt tolerance and salt accumulative abilities of plants have become popular contentious topics. Mangroves are one of the major groups of salt tolerant plants and several mechanisms are known as instrumental in their salt tolerance. Salt excretion through leaf drop is given as one, but its validity is questioned by some recent works compelling the necessity for further studies. Knowledge of the salt contents in different mangrove plants is a pre requisite for such studies. Hence, this study aimed to quantify and compare the salt content in mature leaves of nine mangrove species in Sri Lanka., i.e. Aegiceras corniculatum, Avicennia marina, Avicennia officinalis, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Bruguiera sexangula, Ceriops tagal, Excoecaria agallocha, Lumnitzera racemosa, Rhizophora apiculata and Rhizophora mucronata which are growing in the same mangrove system; the Rekawa lagoon in Sri Lanka. Two species of non mangrove plants, Gliricidia sepium and Artocarpus heterophyllus, which were growing in inland areas were also selected for comparison. The concentration of Na+ in leaves was considered as a measure of the salt concentration. The Na+ in leaves was extracted by acid digestion and quantified by flame photometry. The salt content of mangroves was measured under two contrasting hydrological situations: at the highest and lowest water levels of the lagoon. Rekawa lagoon can be considered as a ‘barrier built estuary’, the highest water level occurs when the lagoon mouth is blocked due to the formation of the sand bar and the water level is increased by fresh water inflow, inundating the total mangrove area and decreasing the soil/water salinity. The water level of the lagoon becomes lowest when the lagoon mouth is opened (naturally or by dredging and lagoon water is flushed out to the sea. Then the salinity of lagoon water becomes high due to sea water influx. The results showed

  12. Neutron instrumentation for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, S.A. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    1994-12-31

    In the October 1994 round of proposals at the ILL, the external biology review sub- committee was asked to allocate neutron beam time to a wide range of experiments, on almost half the total number of scheduled neutron instruments: on 3 diffractometers, on 3 small angle scattering instruments, and on some 6 inelastic scattering spectrometers. In the 3.5 years since the temporary reactor shutdown, the ILL`s management structure has been optimized, budgets and staff have been trimmed, the ILL reactor has been re-built, and many of the instruments up-graded, many powerful (mainly Unix) workstations have been introduced, and the neighboring European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has established itself as the leading synchrotron radiation source and has started its official user program. The ILL reactor remains the world`s most intense dedicated neutron source. In this challenging context, it is of interest to review briefly the park of ILL instruments used to study the structure and energetics of small and large biological systems. A brief summary will be made of each class of experiments actually proposed in the latest ILL proposal round.

  13. Tourism and Economic Growth in Sri Lanka: An ARDL Bounds Testing Approach

    OpenAIRE

    P. Srinivasan; Santhosh Kumar P. K; L. Ganesh

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the impact of tourism on economic growth in Sri Lanka through the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach. The analysis was carried out for the period from 1969 to 2009. By and large, our analysis reveals that the tourism has a positive impact on economic growth in Sri Lanka both in the short-run and long-run. Hence, it is crucial for the Sri Lankan government to achieve unification and stability by focusing on political solutions t...

  14. Mutations of the SRY-responsive enhancer of SOX9 are uncommon in XY gonadal dysgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georg, I; Bagheri-Fam, S; Knower, K C; Wieacker, P; Scherer, Gerd; Harley, V R

    2010-01-01

    During mouse sex determination, SRY upregulates the core testis-specific enhancer of Sox9, TESCO. Mutations in human SRY are found in one third of cases with XY pure gonadal dysgenesis (XY GD; Swyer syndrome), while two thirds remain unexplained. Heterozygous SOX9 mutations can cause XY GD in association with the skeletal malformation syndrome campomelic dysplasia. We hypothesized that human TESCO mutations could cause isolated XY GD. Sixty-six XY GD cases with an intact SRY were analyzed for TESCO point mutations or deletions. No mutations were identified. We conclude that TESCO mutations are not a common cause of XY GD. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Fibre Bragg grating encapted with no-core fibre sensors for SRI and temperature monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Daud

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a Fibre Bragg grating (FBG encapted with no-core fibre (NCF as surrounding refractive index (SRI and temperature sensors are practically demonstrated. A FBG with 1550 nm wavelength was attached with 5 cm length of no-core fibre (NCF is used as SRI and temperature sensing probe. The change of temperature and SRI induced the wavelength shift in FBG. The wavelength shift in FBG reacts directly proportional to the temperature with a sensitivity of while the sensitivity of NCF was measured as 13.13 pm °C−1. Keywords: FBG, No-core fibre (NCF, Temperature, Sensor

  16. Smart instrumentation development at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkkila, B.

    1984-01-01

    For several years Los Alamos has incorporated microprocessors into instruments to expand the capability of portable survey type equipment. Beginning with portable pulse height analyzers, the developments have expanded to small dedicated instruments which handle the measurement and interpretation of various radiation fields. So far, instruments to measure gamma rays, neutrons, and beta particles have been produced. The computer capability built into these instruments provides significant computational power into the instruments. Capability unheard of a few years ago in small portable instruments is routine today. Large computer-based laboratory measurement systems which required much space and electrical power can now be incorporated in a portable hand-held instrument. The microprocessor developments at Los Alamos are now restricted to radiation monitoring equipment but can be expanded to chemical and biological applications as well. Applications for radiation monitoring equipment and others are discussed

  17. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future January 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljegren, JC

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  18. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future October 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  19. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  20. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future February 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development

  1. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  2. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  3. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - February 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  4. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - March 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  5. Instrumental Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Valerio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the history of human kind, since our first ancestors, tools have represented a mean to reach objectives which might otherwise seemed impossibles. In the called New Economy, where tangibles assets appear to be losing the role as the core element to produce value versus knowledge, tools have kept aside man in his dairy work. In this article, the author's objective is to describe, in a simple manner, the importance of managing the organization's group of tools or instruments (Instrumental Capital. The characteristic conditions of this New Economy, the way Knowledge Management deals with these new conditions and the sub-processes that provide support to the management of Instrumental Capital are described.

  6. Innovative instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    At this year's particle physics conference at Brighton, a parallel session was given over to instrumentation and detector development. While this work is vital to the health of research and its continued progress, its share of prime international conference time is limited. Instrumentation can be innovative three times — first when a new idea is outlined, secondly when it is shown to be feasible, and finally when it becomes productive in a real experiment, amassing useful data rather than operational experience. Hyams' examples showed that it can take a long time for a new idea to filter through these successive stages, if it ever makes it at all

  7. Innovative instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1983-11-15

    At this year's particle physics conference at Brighton, a parallel session was given over to instrumentation and detector development. While this work is vital to the health of research and its continued progress, its share of prime international conference time is limited. Instrumentation can be innovative three times — first when a new idea is outlined, secondly when it is shown to be feasible, and finally when it becomes productive in a real experiment, amassing useful data rather than operational experience. Hyams' examples showed that it can take a long time for a new idea to filter through these successive stages, if it ever makes it at all.

  8. Instrumental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Navid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Every neutron scattering experiment requires the choice of a suited neutron diffractometer (or spectrometer in the case of inelastic scattering with its optimal configuration in order to accomplish the experimental tasks in the most successful way. Most generally, the compromise between the incident neutron flux and the instrumental resolution has to be considered, which is depending on a number of optical devices which are positioned in the neutron beam path. In this chapter the basic instrumental principles of neutron diffraction will be explained. Examples of different types of experiments and their respective expectable results will be shown. Furthermore, the production and use of polarized neutrons will be stressed.

  9. Reactor instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wach, D.; Beraha, D.

    1980-01-01

    The methods for measuring radiation are shortly reviewed. The instrumentation for neutron flux measurement is classified into out-of-core and in-core instrumentation. The out-of-core instrumentation monitors the operational range from the subcritical reactor to full power. This large range is covered by several measurement channels which derive their signals from counter tubes and ionization chambers. The in-core instrumentation provides more detailed information on the power distribution in the core. The self-powered neutron detectors and the aeroball system in PWR reactors are discussed. Temperature and pressure measurement devices are briefly discussed. The different methods for leak detection are described. In concluding the plant instrumentation part some new monitoring systems and analysis methods are presented: early failure detection methods by noise analysis, acoustic monitoring and vibration monitoring. The presentation of the control starts from an qualitative assessment of the reactor dynamics. The chosen control strategy leads to the definition of the part-load diagram, which provides the set-points for the different control systems. The tasks and the functions of these control systems are described. In additiion to the control, a number of limiting systems is employed to keep the reactor in a safe operating region. Finally, an outlook is given on future developments in control, concerning mainly the increased application of process computers. (orig./RW)

  10. Financing of internal displacement: excerpts from the Sri Lankan experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirthalingam, Kopalapillai; Lakshman, Rajith W D

    2010-04-01

    This paper investigates how internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Batticaloa, Sri Lanka, financed their first year of displacement. We conducted extensive fieldwork in August 2007 in numerous welfare centres in Batticaloa that have received persons displaced from the Mutur divisional secretariat (DS) in the Trincomalee district. The sample was selected from the village of Sampur in Mutur DS. The displaced from Sampur are of Tamil origin and our findings reveal certain coping strategies that may be particular to this community, including the selling or mortgaging of gold jewellery to address the effects of displacement. We found that the IDPs in this region rely heavily on jewellery and other forms of savings to ensure their survival. There is also strong evidence to support the critically important coping role played by livelihoods. These coping strategies have enabled the IDP households in the present sample to live marginally above the poverty line.

  11. Birds of Sabaragamuwa University campus, Buttala, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Surasinghe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a bird survey in the Sabaragamuwa University premises in southeastern Sri Lanka between 2001 and 2004. We recorded 145 bird species, representing 17 orders and 51 families from the campus. The birdlife included Red-faced Malkoha, a globally Vulnerable species and four Near Threatened taxa. The university premises suffer from severe habitat alteration largely owing to fire, filling-up of aquatic habitats, resource over-extraction, improper waste management, invasion by exotic species and livestock grazing. Several conservation measures, including habitat management strategies such as restoration of riparian vegetation, and wetlands, increasing plant diversity in home gardens and prevention of secondary successions in grasslands are recommended to protect the campus environment and to conserve its avifaunal diversity.

  12. Post-Tsunami Reconstruction in Sri Lanka: Houses or Housing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazai, B.; Franco, G.; Ingram, J. C.; Rumbaitis del Rio, C.

    2005-12-01

    Reconstruction can be an opportunity to address longer-term livelihood vulnerability within poor communities and households, and to empower the most vulnerable. The post-tsunami reconstruction efforts in Sri Lanka can be seen on two disconnected scales. On a local scale there seems to be a growing recognition by district-level government and NGOs on the importance of households in creating social, human and financial capital, as demonstrated by many programs targeted at rebuilding livelihoods and income-generating activities. On a national scale, however, programs have revealed an emphasis on houses as the physical capital rather than housing as the arena of social and economic life. The aim of national-scale programs is to deliver tangible and quantifiable products, in the form of houses built, often without regard of whether this complements or disrupts livelihoods. One example of such a directive is the implementation of a coastal buffer zone which will ban any new construction within a 100 to 200 meter band from the ocean and allowing only structures that sustained less than 40 percent damage to remain and rebuild. In general these kind of surviving structures along the coast are businesses such as hotels and restaurants. In an island nation such as Sri Lanka, where beach front property is by and large considered low-income housing, typically inhabited by fishermen who rely on the ocean for their livelihoods, the buffer zone constitutes a drastic oversight of local processes shaping these households. The product-oriented solution on the national scale has resulted in building permanent houses for fishery communities in resettlement sites kilometers away from the ocean. The focus of this presentation will be on reconciling the need for immediate shelter needs with a long-term perspective of livelihood rehabilitation using Sri Lanka as a case study. Houses themselves are often not an immediate priority for local people, whose first need is likely to resume income

  13. Nuclear Knowledge Management Implementation Issues In Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandara, H.M.N.R.

    2014-01-01

    About Knowledge Management: Process of organizing and distributing an Organization’s collective wisdom so the right information gets to the right people at the right time. NKM Implementation Problems in Sri Lanka: • Difficulty of identifying nuclear knowledge holders; • NKM has not been given considerable importance; • Many nuclear science experts are in retirement age; • No proper mechanism is available to replace young personnel for their positions; • Unawareness of general public about his technology. • Capacity building through training and education and transferring knowledge from centers of knowledge to centers of growth are key issues. • Development of new courses related to nuclear science is a key issue to be highly considered. • The tendency towards the training and educations of nuclear personnel in the country is becoming less and less

  14. Humanitarian NGOs and Mediations of Political Order in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that international and national humanitarian NGOs have a far more fundamental bearing on the social reconstitution of Sri Lankan society as a political, cultural, and moral entity than is usually acknowledged. Through their interventions, humanitarian agencies affect the power...... relationship between state and non-state actors and between local organizations and the war-affected populations that make up their constituencies. But NGOs also affect the political order by introducing new understandings of the citizen and providing alternative moral arguments to legitimize power...... and authority. What is taking place, the author contends, is best conceived of as mediations, since the global and the local, the modern and the traditional are coexistent as sources to be strategically drawn upon by the actors....

  15. Malaria in Sri Lanka: one year post-tsunami

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briët, Olivier J T; Galappaththy, Gawrie N L; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H

    2006-01-01

    One year ago, the authors of this article reported in this journal on the malaria situation in Sri Lanka prior to the tsunami that hit on 26 December 2004, and estimated the likelihood of a post-tsunami malaria outbreak to be low. Malaria incidence has decreased in 2005 as compared to 2004 in most...... districts, including the ones that were hit hardest by the tsunami. The malaria incidence (aggregated for the whole country) in 2005 followed the downward trend that started in 2000. However, surveillance was somewhat affected by the tsunami in some coastal areas and the actual incidence in these areas may...... have been higher than recorded, although there were no indications of this and it is unlikely to have affected the overall trend significantly. The focus of national and international post tsunami malaria control efforts was supply of antimalarials, distribution of impregnated mosquito nets...

  16. Some emergency instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, P H

    1986-10-01

    The widespread release of activity and the resultant spread of contamination after the Chernobyl accident resulted in requests to NRPB to provide instruments for, and expertise in, the measurement of radiation. The most common request was for advice on the usefulness of existing instruments, but Board staff were also involved in their adaptation or in the development of new instruments specially to meet the circumstances of the accident. The accident occurred on 26 April. On 1 May, NRPB was involved at Heathrow Airport in the monitoring of the British students who had returned from Kiev and Minsk. The main purpose was to reassure the students by checking that their persons and belongings did not have significant surface contamination. Additional measurements were also made of iodine activity in thyroid using hand-held detectors or a mobile body monitor. This operation was arranged with the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, which had also received numerous requests for instruments from embassies and consulates in countries close to the scene of the accident. There was concern for the well-being of staff and other United Kingdom nationals who resided in or intended to visit the most affected countries. The board supplied suitable instruments, and the FCO distributed them to embassies. The frequency of environmental monitoring was increased from 29 April in anticipation of contamination and appropriate Board instrumentation was deployed. After the Chernobyl cloud arrived in the UK on 2 May, there were numerous requests from local government, public authorities, private companies and members of the public for information and advice on monitoring equipment and procedures. Some of these requirements could be met with existing equipment but members of the public were usually advised not to proceed. At a later stage, the contamination of foodstuffs and livestock required the development of an instrument capable of detecting low levels of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs in food

  17. Are Green Jobs Sustainable for Sri Lankan Economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jayaweera

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is imperative that Sri Lanka grasps the concepts of green jobs to meet the most vital but intricatechallenge of the 21st Century, which is the transformation to a sustainable and a low-carbon economy.Such a transformation or a paradigm shift, which can be gradual or rapid depending on the circumstances,will undoubtedly have a considerable positive effect on the way we produce and/or consume goods andservices. The speed at which this transformation would occur is likely to accelerate in the near future asthere is a trend of global transition from a traditional to a low-carbon economy, in order to attainsustainable economies. Such trends will help create an array of different forms of green jobs across manysectors, and most probably can become a catalyst for further development. The International LabourOrganization (ILO has defined green jobs as “Jobs created when they help in reducing the negativeenvironmental impacts ultimately leading to environmentally, economically and socially sustainableenterprises and economies”. Green jobs, in general, stand on two pillars: decent work and environmentalsustainability. Thus, green jobs can be defined as decent work that contributes to environmentalsustainability. In a broader sense decent work needs to address the core of international labour standardssuch as freedom of association and effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining, eliminationof all forms of forced or compulsory labour, effective abolition of child labour, elimination ofdiscrimination in respect of employment and occupation, occupational health and safety, etc. whilstaligning to laws applicable to Sri Lanka. Environmental sustainability addresses issues such as effectivelycombating climate change, pollution prevention and control, conservation of eco-systems and biodiversityetc. (ILO, 2007.

  18. Decentralizing provision of mental health care in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Neil; Suveendran, Thirupathy; de Silva, Chithramalee

    2017-04-01

    In the past, mental health services in Sri Lanka were limited to tertiary-care institutions, resulting in a large treatment gap. Starting in 2000, significant efforts have been made to reconfigure service provision and to integrate mental health services with primary health care. This approach was supported by significant political commitment to establishing island-wide decentralized mental health care in the wake of the 2004 tsunami. Various initiatives were consolidated in The mental health policy of Sri Lanka 2005-2015, which called for implementation of a comprehensive community-based, decentralized service structure. The main objectives of the policy were to provide mental health services of good quality at primary, secondary and tertiary levels; to ensure the active involvement of communities, families and service users; to make mental health services culturally appropriate and evidence based; and to protect the human rights and dignity of all people with mental health disorders. Significant improvements have been made and new cadres of mental health workers have been introduced. Trained medical officers (mental health) now provide outpatient care, domiciliary care, mental health promotion in schools, and community mental health education. Community psychiatric nurses have also been trained and deployed to supervise treatment adherence in the home and provide mental health education to patients, their family members and the wider community. A total of 4367 mental health volunteers are supporting care and raising mental health literacy in the community. Despite these important achievements, more improvements are needed to provide more timely intervention, combat myths and stigma, and further decentralize care provision. These, and other challenges, will be targeted in the new mental health policy for 2017-2026.

  19. Adolescents perception of reproductive health care services in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agampodi, Suneth B; Agampodi, Thilini C; Ukd, Piyaseeli

    2008-05-03

    Adolescent health needs, behaviours and expectations are unique and routine health care services are not well geared to provide these services. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived reproductive health problems, health seeking behaviors, knowledge about available services and barriers to reach services among a group of adolescents in Sri Lanka in order to improve reproductive health service delivery. This qualitative study was conducted in a semi urban setting in Sri Lanka. A convenient sample of 32 adolescents between 17-19 years of age participated in four focus group discussions. Participants were selected from four midwife areas. A pre-tested focus group guide was used for data collection. Male and female facilitators conducted discussions separately with young males and females. All tape-recorded data was fully transcribed and thematic analysis was done. Psychological distresses due to various reasons and problems regarding menstrual cycle and masturbation were reported as the commonest health problems. Knowledge on existing services was very poor and boys were totally unaware of youth health services available through the public health system. On reproductive Health Matters, girls mainly sought help from friends whereas boys did not want to discuss their problems with anyone. Lack of availability of services was pointed out as the most important barrier in reaching the adolescent needs. Lack of access to reproductive health knowledge was an important reason for poor self-confidence among adolescents to discuss these matters. Lack of confidentiality, youth friendliness and accessibility of available services were other barriers discussed. Adolescents were happy to accept available services through public clinics and other health infrastructure for their services rather than other organizations. A demand was made for separate youth friendly services through medical practitioners. Adolescent health services are inadequate and available services

  20. Bank Finance For Small And Medium-Sized Enterprises In Sri Lanka: Issues And Policy Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamage Pandula

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Access to bank finance is necessary to create an economic environment that enables Small and Medium-sized enterprises (SMEs to grow and prosper. The SMEs in Sri Lanka, however, face significant constraints to access bank finance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the access to bank finance and related issues in the SME sector of Sri Lanka. The paper is exploratory in nature and reviews the bank financing situation for SMEs in Sri Lanka, as well as provides an overview of constraints faced by the banks (supply-side and SMEs (demand-side. The paper also highlights some good practices in SME lending from international experience and outlines some recommendations to help overcome the constraints faced by the banks and SMEs. The recommendations discussed in this paper may be of importance to policymakers, not only in Sri Lanka, but in many other developing countries in a similar stage of economic growth.

  1. Two males with SRY-positive 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Sezgin; Asci, Ramazan; Okten, Gülsen; Atac, Fatih; Onat, Onur E; Ogur, Gonul; Aydin, Oguz; Ozcelik, Tayfun; Bagci, Hasan

    2013-02-01

    The 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development (46,XX testicular DSD) is a rare phenotype associated with disorder of the sex chromosomes. We describe the clinical, molecular, and cytogenetic findings of a 16- and a 30-year-old male patient with sex-determining region Y (SRY)-positive 46,XX testicular DSD. Chromosomal analysis revealed 46,XX karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the SRY region translocated to the short arm of the X chromosome. The presence of the SRY gene was also confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The X chromosome inactivation (XCI) assay showed that both patients have a random pattern of X chromosome inactivation. This report compares the symptoms and features of the SRY-positive 46,XX testicular DSD patients.

  2. New Mutation Identified in the SRY Gene High Mobility Group (HMG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feride İffet Şahin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the SRY gene prevent the differentiation of the fetal gonads to testes and cause developing female phenotype, and as a result sex reversal and pure gonadal dysgenesis (Swyer syndrome can be developed. Different types of mutations identified in the SRY gene are responsible for 15% of the gonadal dysgenesis. In this study, we report a new mutation (R132P in the High Mobility Group (HMG region of SRY gene was detected in a patient with primary amenorrhea who has 46,XY karyotype. This mutation leads to replacement of the polar and basic arginine with a nonpolar hydrophobic proline residue at aminoacid 132 in the nuclear localization signal region of the protein. With this case report we want to emphasize the genetic approach to the patients with gonadal dysgenesis. If Y chromosome is detected during cytogenetic analysis, revealing the presence of the SRY gene and identification of mutations in this gene by sequencing analysis is become important in.

  3. Assessment of ambient dose equivalent rate performance of an automatic survey meter as an instrument to quantify the presence of radiation in soils

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshimura, E M; Okuno, E

    2002-01-01

    Those who work in radiation protection are faced with various quantities that were created to account for the effects of ionizing radiation in the human body. As far as the experimental point of view is concerned, each available equipment is planned to measure a distinct quantity, for a specific radiation protection application, and it is not always clear which one it is. This paper shows a series of tests, planned and applied to a portable gamma ray spectrometer, in order to assure that the monitoring low dose levels of radiation with it is reliable. The equipment is fully automated and does not allow modifications of the conversion factors from counts to ambient dose equivalent. It is therefore necessary to assure that the values provided by the equipment are correct and refer to the actual situation one expects to find in practice. The system is based on an NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, mounted with its electronics in a portable case, suitable for field measurements. It measures ambient dose equivalent r...

  4. Surgical Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankelman, J.; Horeman, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a surgical instrument for minimall-invasive surgery, comprising a handle, a shaft and an actuating part, characterised by a gastight cover surrounding the shaft, wherein the cover is provided with a coupler that has a feed- through opening with a loskable seal,

  5. Weather Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  6. Validity and reliability testing of two instruments to measure breast cancer patients' concerns and information needs relating to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halkett, Georgia KB; Kristjanson, Linda J

    2007-01-01

    It is difficult to determine the most effective approach to patient education or tailor education interventions for patients in radiotherapy without tools that assess patients' specific radiation therapy information needs and concerns. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop psychometrically sound tools to adequately determine the concerns and information needs of cancer patients during radiation therapy. Two tools were developed to (1) determine patients concerns about radiation therapy (RT Concerns Scale) and (2) ascertain patient's information needs at different time point during their radiation therapy (RT Information Needs Scale). Tools were based on previous research by the authors, published literature on breast cancer and radiation therapy and information behaviour research. Thirty-one breast cancer patients completed the questionnaire on one occasion and thirty participants completed the questionnaire on a second occasion to facilitate test-retest reliability. One participant's responses were removed from the analysis. Results were analysed for content validity, internal consistency and stability over time. Both tools demonstrated high internal consistency and adequate stability over time. The nine items in the RT Concerns Scale were retained because they met all pre-set psychometric criteria. Two items were deleted from the RT Information Needs Scale because they did not meet content validity criteria and did not achieve pre-specified criteria for internal consistency. This tool now contains 22 items. This paper provides preliminary data suggesting that the two tools presented are reliable and valid and would be suitable for use in trials or in the clinical setting

  7. The delaying effect of stigma on mental health help‐seeking in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, Sunera M.; Deane, Frank P.; McLeod, Hamish J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mental health stigma has been associated with delays in seeking treatment.\\ud Aims: To describe perceived stigma experienced by patients and carers in Sri Lanka and to determine the effects of stigma on help‐seeking delay.\\ud Methods: Survey of outpatients and family carers (n = 118 dyads) attending two psychiatric hospitals in Sri Lanka, using the Disclosure and Discrimination subscales of the Stigma Scale.\\ud Results: Stigma was positively related to help‐seeking delay for carer...

  8. Scrub Typhus among Pediatric Patients in Dambadeniya:A Base Hospital in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    De Silva, Nalika; Wijesundara, Sarojini; Liyanapathirana, Veranja; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Stenos, John

    2012-01-01

    Data on pediatric scrub typhus is uncommon in Sri Lanka and other countries. The objective of this study was to identify the clinical features of patients with scrub typhus at a Base Hospital in Sri Lanka. Sixty patients presenting with suspected scrub typhus were included in the study. Their blood samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against rickettsioses using the reference method. Twenty patients had confirmed scrub typhus and 24 had possible scrub typhus. Their clinical feat...

  9. Biomass Development in SRI Field Under Unmaintained Alternate Wetting-Drying Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiansyah; Chusnul, A.; Krissandi, W.; Asna, M.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this research is to observe biomass development of SRI on farmers practice in three plots with different level. This research observes the farmer practice of SRI and Non-SRI during the uncertainty of irrigation water supply and its effects on paddy biomass development during growth stages and final stage of crop. A farmer group that already understand the principle of SRI, applied this method into several plots of their rented paddy field. Researcher interventions were eliminated from their action, so it is purely on farmers decision on managing their SRI plots. Three plots from both SRI and Non-SRI were chosen based on the position of the plot related their access to water. First plots had direct access to water from tertiary irrigation channel (on farm). Second plots were received water from previous upper plots and drainage water into other plots. Third plots were in the bottom position, where they received water from upper plot, and drainage water into farm drainage channel. Result shows there are similar patterns of root, straw, and leaves of biomass during crop growth. On the other hand, during generative phase, grain development shows different pattern and resulting different biomass in harvest time. Second plot, (of SRI) that has water from first plot has the average of biomass grain per plant of 54.4, higher than first plot and third plot, which are 33.8 g and 38.4. Average biomass in second plot is 74.6 g, higher than first and third plot, which are 49.9 g and 52.3 g.

  10. Behavioral Pattern of Endemic Sri Lanka Grey Hornbill (Ocyceros gingalensis) within the Breeding and Nonbreeding Seasons

    OpenAIRE

    Wijerathne, Iresha; Wickramasinghe, Sriyani

    2018-01-01

    The hornbills are among the most extraordinary looking birds in the world. Out of two species of hornbill, the Ocyceros gingalensis is the only endemic grey hornbill in Sri Lanka. This study was conducted in Mihintale Sanctuary which is comprised of secondary dry mixed evergreen forest patches and semiurbanized area from 2013 to 2015. Ad libitum focal animal sampling was used to construct an ethogram for the behavior of Sri Lanka grey hornbill (SLGh). The study recorded 35 behavioral events i...

  11. Neoclassical and Behavioural Asset Pricing Models : The Case of Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, Shenali Anne

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to provide a better understanding of the Sri Lankan stock market in terms of asset pricing models. In order to achieve this goal this research evaluates the Fama and French three-factor model and a behavioural asset pricing model to investigate which framework is better suited for security valuation in Sri Lanka. Accordingly findings reveal that small stocks with low book-to-market equity generate high realized returns. But results indicate that superior returns on these stock...

  12. In vitro Antiglycation and Cross-Link Breaking Activities of Sri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antiglycation and cross-link breaking activities of Sri Lankan low-grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L) Methods: Five concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25.0, 50.0 or 100.0 ìg/ml) of Black tea brew (BTB) were made using Sri Lankan low-grown Orange Pekoe (O.P.) grade ...

  13. Comparison of the performance of Islamic, Sri and green mutual funds

    OpenAIRE

    Paradinovic, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    This paper measures and compares performance of Islamic, SRI and Green mutual equity funds worldwide in the period from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2015. The sample consists of 611 mutual equity funds and their performance was assessed by using traditional risk-adjusted measures, namely Sharpe ratio, Modified Sharpe Ratio, Adjusted Sharpe Ratio, Treynor measure, Information ratio and Jensen’s alpha. The main findings show that Green mutual equity funds, on average, outperform both SRI and I...

  14. The use and abuse of female domestic workers from Sri Lanka in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-habib, L

    1998-03-01

    Women who migrate from Sri Lanka to become domestic workers in Lebanon face gender, class, and race discrimination that often results in abuse, yet the predicament of these women is largely ignored by local and international humanitarian and human rights agencies. Public consciousness about the plight of Asian domestic workers in the Persian Gulf region was raised in 1990 when domestic workers were repatriated in the wake of the Gulf War. In Lebanon, nearly half of the work permits granted to foreigners in 1997 were to women from Sri Lanka. This migration began in the 1970s and is sanctioned by the Sri Lanka government because of the economic benefits accruing from wages sent home by these women. Lebanese families procure domestic positions through an employment agency that arranges transportation and entry for the Sri Lankan women. These women, especially minors, often have to bribe Sri Lankan government agents to falsify travel documents. Upon arrival in Lebanon, the women have no support systems or job security. Most employment contracts last 3 years and pay $100/month with no benefits or protection from local labor laws. Domestic workers are made vulnerable by employers who withhold salaries or travel documents. Upon return to Sri Lanka, former domestic workers face social disapproval and marital problems. To redress this situation, the governments of sending and receiving countries must take action to protect female migrant workers, and nongovernmental organizations must publicize the plight of these women and take action to address the abuses they face.

  15. Characteristics of Un doped and Europium-doped SrI2 Scintillator Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, Benjamin; Cherepy, Nerine; Drury, Owen; Thelin, P.; Fisher, S.E.; O'Neal, S.P.; Payne, Stephen A.; Burger, Arnold; Boatner, Lynn A.; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine; Shah, Kanai; Hawrami, Rastgo

    2012-01-01

    High energy resolution gamma-ray detectors that can be formed into relatively large sizes while operating at room temperature offer many advantages for national security applications. We are working toward that goal through the development of SrI 2 (Eu) scintillator detectors, which routinely provide ;10 cm 3 . In this study, we have tested pure, undoped SrI 2 to gain a better understanding of the scintillation properties and spectroscopic performance achievable without activation. An undoped crystal grown from 99.999% pure SrI 2 pellets was tested for its spectroscopic performance, its light yield, and uniformity of scintillation light collection as a function of gamma-ray interaction position relative to the crystal growth direction. Undoped SrI 2 was found to provide energy resolution of 5.3% at 662 keV, and the light collection nonuniformity varied by only 0.72% over the length of the crystal. Measurements of both a 3% Eu-doped and the undoped SrI 2 crystal were carried out in the SLYNCI facility and indicate differences in their light yield non-proportionality. The surprisingly good scintillation properties of the pure SrI 2 crystal suggests that with high-purity feedstock, further reduction of the Eu concentration can be made to grow larger crystals while not adversely impacting the spectroscopic performance.

  16. Composition of Mix Species Foraging Flocks of Birds in Riverstan of Montane Region, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.G.D.D.M. Shermila

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Montane zone mixed-species bird flock system is distinct from that of low-land wet zone of SriLanka, although some species are present in both systems. The present study identified the mixed speciesflocks of birds in Riverstan at Knuckles Region, Sri Lanka. Monthly transect counts and opportunisticobservations were made between January and May, 2012. A total of 78 flocks and 27 bird species wereencountered at Riverstan during the study period. The flock size varied between 2 to 13 species and 4 to58 individuals. The mean number of species per flock was 6.03 ± 2.25 and the mean number ofindividuals in a flock was 18.41±9.87. The flock size was positively correlated with the number of speciespresent (r = 0.756, P <0.05. Grey-headed Canary Flycatcher was the most abundant species (mean2.68±1.02 birds per flocks while Sri Lanka White-eye was the most frequent species (mean 5.69±3.92birds per flocks. Grey-headed Canary Flycatcher and Sri Lanka Scimitar-babbler were the nuclear speciesin Riverstan. The leading species were Sri Lanka white-eye and Sri Lanka Yellow-eared Bulbul. Differentbird species used different heights within flocks.Keywords: Mixed-species flock, Nuclear species, Abundance, Foraging flocks

  17. The science and art of learning about cultures: Descriptions, explanations, and reflections In conversation with Sri Sri Ravi Shankar, Founder, Art of Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Tripathi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available National cultural differences pose major obstacles to global business expansion. Managers, therefore, seek to learn more about cultures. Conventional managerial learning mostly draws from descriptive scientific models which have potential drawbacks such as unidimensionality, decontextualisation, and culture-level information. Explanatory models of cultural psychology can help overcome these limitations. Further, insights from a cross-culturally fluent authority provide reflective learnings. Toward this end, I engage in a conversation with Sri Sri Ravi Shankar, the founder of the Art of Living organization, on issues related to cultural identity in the global workplace in the Indian context.

  18. Strategies to overcome barriers for cleaner generation technologies in small developing power systems: Sri Lanka case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijayatunga, Priyantha D.C.; Siriwardena, Kanchana; Fernando, W.J.L.S.; Shrestha, Ram M.; Attalage, Rahula A.

    2006-01-01

    The penetration of cleaner and energy efficient technologies in small power systems such as the one in Sri Lanka has encountered many problems. This has caused major concerns among the policy makers, mainly in the context of the growing need to reduce harmful emissions in the electricity supply industry from the point of view of both local environmental pollution as well as the global warming concerns. This paper presents the outcome of a study involved in identifying and ranking the barriers to the promotion of cleaner and energy efficient technologies and strategies to overcome these barriers in Sri Lanka. Barriers for renewable energy based systems such as wind and wood fuel fired plants (dendro thermal power) and cleaner technologies such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) fired combined cycle and IGCC (coal) were identified based on a survey. A direct assessment multi-criteria decision making method called Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to rank the barriers. The most effective strategies are proposed to address the three major barriers for each of these technologies based on extensive discussions with all the stakeholders in the electricity industry. It was found that lack of financing instruments, high initial cost and lack of assurance of resource supply or availability are the main barriers for renewable technologies. As for cleaner fuel and technology options associated with conventional generation systems, the lack of a clear government policy, uncertainty of fuel supplies and their prices and the reliability of the technologies themselves are the major barriers. Strategies are identified to overcome the above barriers. Establishment of a proper feed in tariff, geographical diversification of installations and capacity building in commercial banks are suggested for wind power. Investment incentives, streamlining of wood production and research on site identification are proposed for wood fuel fired plants. Also the study suggests delayed

  19. DOSIS & DOSIS 3D: radiation measurements with the DOSTEL instruments onboard the Columbus Laboratory of the ISS in the years 2009-2016

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berger, T.; Burmeister, S.; Matthiae, D.; Przybyla, B.; Reitz, G.; Bilski, P.; Hajek, M.; Sihver, L.; Szabó, J.; Ambrožová, Iva; Vanhavere, F.; Gaza, R.; Semones, E.; Yukihara, E. G.; Benton, E.; Uchihori, Y.; Kodaira, S.; Kitamura, H.; Böhme, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, MAR (2017), č. článku A8. ISSN 2115-7251 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-16622Y Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : International Space Station * Columbus * space radiation * DOSTEL * DOSIS 3D Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics, space science) Impact factor: 2.446, year: 2016

  20. Nuclear electronic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez J, F. J.

    2010-01-01

    The activities carried out in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in the field of the nuclear electronic instrumentation included those activities corresponding to the design and production of nuclear instruments in a first stage, as well as the internal activities of design, repair and maintenance that have supported to other projects of the institution during many years. It is mentioned of the presence and constant collaboration of the ININ with the IAEA in different projects and programs. Also, it is mentioned on the establishment of the Radiation Detectors Laboratory, which for their characteristics and repair capacities of radiation detectors of cooled semiconductor, it is only in their specialty. It is emphasized the investigation and the development in the field of new radiation detectors and applications, as well as the important contribution in this field, in institutions like: Mexican Petroleum, National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards and Federal Commission of Electricity. Finally a position of the future of these activities is made, considering the speed of the advances of the electronic and nuclear technology. (Author)

  1. Nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, Jacky; Fabre, Rene.

    1981-01-01

    This article sums up the Research and Development effort at present being carried out in the five following fields of applications: Health physics and Radioprospection, Control of nuclear reactors, Plant control (preparation and reprocessing of the fuel, testing of nuclear substances, etc.), Research laboratory instrumentation, Detectors. It also sets the place of French industrial activities by means of an estimate of the French market, production and flow of trading with other countries [fr

  2. Divided Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, A.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Although the division of the zodiac into 360° probably derives from Egypt or Assyria around 2000 BC, there is no surviving evidence of Mesopotamian cultures embodying this division into a mathematical instrument. Almost certainly, however, it was from Babylonia that the Greek geometers learned of the 360° circle, and by c. 80 BC they had incorporated it into that remarkably elaborate device gener...

  3. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Areas being investigated for instrumentation improvement during low-level pollution monitoring include laser opto-acoustic spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, optical fluorescence spectroscopy, liquid crystal gas detectors, advanced forms of atomic absorption spectroscopy, electro-analytical chemistry, and mass spectroscopy. Emphasis is also directed toward development of physical methods, as opposed to conventional chemical analysis techniques for monitoring these trace amounts of pollution related to energy development and utilization

  4. Instrumentation maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, D.A.

    1976-09-01

    It is essential to any research activity that accurate and efficient measurements be made for the experimental parameters under consideration for each individual experiment or test. Satisfactory measurements in turn depend upon having the necessary instruments and the capability of ensuring that they are performing within their intended specifications. This latter requirement can only be achieved by providing an adequate maintenance facility, staffed with personnel competent to understand the problems associated with instrument adjustment and repair. The Instrument Repair Shop at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is designed to achieve this end. The organization, staffing and operation of this system is discussed. Maintenance policy should be based on studies of (1) preventive vs. catastrophic maintenance, (2) records indicating when equipment should be replaced rather than repaired and (3) priorities established to indicate the order in which equipment should be repaired. Upon establishing a workable maintenance policy, the staff should be instructed so that they may provide appropriate scheduled preventive maintenance, calibration and corrective procedures, and emergency repairs. The education, training and experience of the maintenance staff is discussed along with the organization for an efficient operation. The layout of the various repair shops is described in the light of laboratory space and financial constraints

  5. How does the conflict influence the development and the situation of women in Trincomalee district, Sri Lanka?

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyarathne, Nisanka Sanjeewani

    2009-01-01

    Masteroppgave i development management- Universitetet i Agder 2009 In thirty years period conflict became as main actor in Sri Lankan socio economic and political back grounds. As the consequences of the conflict, Sri Lankan mainstreams had harmful damages. These damages directly affected to the development. North and Eastern province are most conflict affected regions in Sri Lanka. North was the first conflict affected region. Eastern is the totally different form when compari...

  6. IMPACT OF SRI ORGANIC AS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM OF PT MEDCO E&P INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lita Ayudia Fitriyani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is an agricultural country that has majority occupation as farmer. Unfortunately, farmers still become the biggest contributor to poverty in Indonesia around 62.25% in 2012. As a country that has a vision to become an independent country, Indonesia should be able to meet the welfare of its people, including farmers. This can be achieved if the cooperation between the government and the perpetrators of activities in Indonesia; such as natural resource companies that perform social responsibility programs as a contribution to society. One form of social responsibility is a community development program which is considered to be more useful. System of Rice Intensification or SRI Organic Organic is one of the community development programs that were developed to improve the welfare of farmers. The aim of this study were 1 to evaluate the impact of a given Organic SRI as a community development programs; 2 measuring the level of Organic SRI farmers' income; 3 Organic SRI analyze opportunities in the future as an independent and sustainable program. By doing a case study on community development programs conducted by PT Medco E & P Indonesia in the dusun parit 9, Banyuasin District, the authors analyze and evaluate the impact of using SEAGA to 20 respondents. The results of these studies are intended to provide input in order to make the community development program more effective in the future.Keywords: welfare, corporate social responsibility, community development, SRI organic, SEAGAABSTRAKIndonesia adalah negara agraris dimana petani merupakan mayoritas pekerjaan namun menjadi penyumbang kemiskinan terbesar di Indonesia sekitar 62,25% pada 2012.  Sebagai negara yang memiliki visi untuk menjadi negara mandiri, Indonesia harus mampu memenuhi kesejahteraan rakyatnya termasuk petani. Hal tersebut dapat tercapai jika adanya kerjasama antara pemerintah dan pelaku aktivitas di Indonesia; seperti perusahaan sumber daya alam yang melakukan

  7. Integrating Nephelometer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uin, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Integrating Nephelometer (Figure 1) is an instrument that measures aerosol light scattering. It measures aerosol optical scattering properties by detecting (with a wide angular integration – from 7 to 170°) the light scattered by the aerosol and subtracting the light scattered by the carrier gas, the instrument walls and the background noise in the detector (zeroing). Zeroing is typically performed for 5 minutes every day at midnight UTC. The scattered light is split into red (700 nm), green (550 nm), and blue (450 nm) wavelengths and captured by three photomultiplier tubes. The instrument can measure total scatter as well as backscatter only (from 90 to 170°) (Heintzenberg and Charlson 1996; Anderson et al. 1996; Anderson and Ogren 1998; TSI 3563 2015) At ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement), two identical Nephelometers are usually run in series with a sample relative humidity (RH) conditioner between them. This is possible because Nephelometer sampling is non-destructive and the sample can be passed on to another instrument. The sample RH conditioner scans through multiple RH values in cycles, treating the sample. This kind of setup allows to study how aerosol particles’ light scattering properties are affected by humidification (Anderson et al. 1996). For historical reasons, the two Nephelometers in this setup are labeled “wet” and “dry”, with the “dry” Nephelometer usually being the one before the conditioner and sampling ambient air (the names are switched for the MAOS measurement site due to the high RH of the ambient air).

  8. A teacher's decade passed with pupils and a simple radiometric instrument. Could junior and senior high school pupils see the radiation with their eyes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    The author, a teacher of Naragakuen Junior High School-High School in Nara Prefecture, looks back the history of his given education about radiation to 3rd year pupils for the decade from 2002. The main theme of the education includes an actual radiometric study of the already attained, naturally cleaned-up radioactivity derived from A-bomb from the ground of Hiroshima City, and an asking investigation to know how many people misunderstand, as pupils have done so, that Hiroshima ground surface is still radio-contaminated. In 2011, pupils stayed at Fukushima, not Hiroshima. For the radiometric study, pupils first learn the movement of substances in the ground by rain with a model of naturally abundant 40 KCl using a simple radiometer, HAKARUKUN. Then in Hiroshuma, they measure the ambient dose at >600 spots to compare with the doses in other cities like Nara and Kyoto, and the beta-ray of A-bomb-exposed buildings and air dust to see the same half life as that measured in Nara. Their asking investigation revealed that 32.2% and 31.5% of Hiroshima citizen and the resident in other cities, respectively, misunderstand that radiation in the City is higher than other cities. These results have been presented at the conference for pupils mainly held by the Kinki Branch of Chemical Society of Japan. The author expects the exchange of radiological information between learned pupils and parents who have probably not been taught about radiation as its education has been absent during these 30 years. Though, the education is to be given to all pupils hereafter in Japan. (T.T.)

  9. Observations of 50/60 Hz Power Line Radiation in the Low Latitude Ionosphere Detected by the Electric Field Instrument on the C/NOFS Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Freudenreich, H. T.; Simoes, F. A.; Liebrecht, M. C.; Farrell, W.

    2017-12-01

    One of the most ubiquitous forms of EM radiation emanating from the earth's surface is that of power line radiation. Associated with AC electric power generation, such emissions are typically launched along conducting power lines that may travel hundreds, or even thousands of km, from generating stations. The fundamental frequencies of such emissions are characteristically 50 Hz or 60 Hz, depending on the regional standards for power generation/consumption. The frequency of this radiation is well below that of the plasma frequency of the ionosphere (typically several MHz) and hence is expected to reflect back to the earth and propagate in the waveguide formed by the earth's surface and the bottom ledge of the ionosphere, typically near 100 km. Given that such power lines are widespread on the exposed lithosphere, the leakage of some ELF emissions associated with electric power generation might nevertheless be expected in the ionosphere, in the same manner in which a small fraction of the power associated with ELF Schumann resonances and lightning sferics have been shown to penetrate into the ionosphere. We present direct measurements of 50/60 Hz power line radiation detected by in situ probes on an orbiting satellite in the earth's ionosphere. The data were gathered by the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) tri-axial double probe detector flown on the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite. C/NOFS was launched in April, 2008 into a low latitude (13 deg inclination) orbit with perigee and apogee of 400 km and 850 km, respectively. The electric field wave data were gathered by ELF receivers comprised of two orthogonal broadband channels sampled at 512 s/sec each, and digitized with 16 bit A/D converters. The data show distinct 60 Hz emissions while the satellite sampled within the Brazilian sector whereas distinct 50 Hz emissions were detected over India. Other, less distinct, emissions were observed over Africa and southeast Asia

  10. Current Knowledge on Moderate Malnutrition in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernando, Peter Hiram Prasantha

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Many studied have been conducted on the nutritional status of children in Sri Lanka. Among which the Demographic and Health Surveys of the Ministry of Health, Government of Sri Lanka takes a leading position. Other studies have gone into details of different aspects of malnutrition in children In the Demographic and Health Surveys, 6,555 children have been studied in the 2007 survey and for all indices of nutrition, -2SD or below from the median are taken as the affected group. Comparing the data from 1993 onwards shows that there is a general reduction in both stunting and underweight . During 1–5 month age both these indices are less than 5% However after one year to 5 years a similar level of stunting (12.9 %) and wasted (14.1%) and underweight (26.9%) could be seen. In both males and females stunting was present in 12.9%, wasting males 14.4 and females 13.8 under weight males 26.5 and females 27.4. All indices shows that the in the Colombo metropolitan area the nutritional status is much better than in rural and estate sectors. In all sectors stunting and underweight has improved when compared to the 1993 data however weight for height i.e. wasting is poor when compared to 1993 data. An independent study conducted in 2002 showed that 16% of school girls in Colombo municipality area were under nourished and were 2% stunted. Another study conducted in the same year demonstrated that children of employed mothers are not receiving adequate amount of energy. A descriptive cross sectional study carried out in 2003 to assess the nutritional status of children of 1-5 years belonging to fishing families of Ambalangoda area, revealed that the prevalence of underweight was 31% while stunting and wasting were 23% and 11.3% respectively. Another study conducted in 2003 showed the association between parents ability to read and understand written material, father's habit of smoking and or alcohol consumption, frequent quarrels and family disputes with the three

  11. Medical geology of endemic goiter in Kalutara, Sri Lanka; distribution and possible causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, G W A R; Liyanage, P L C L; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Vithanage, Meththika

    2017-12-01

    This study assesses the distribution of goiter in the Kalutara District, Sri Lanka in order to find causative factors for the occurrence of goiter even after the salt iodization. A questionnaire survey was conducted at the household level and at the same time iodine and selenium levels of the water sources were analyzed. Questionnaire survey results indicated the highest numbers of goiter patients in the northern part where the lowest were found in the southern sector which may be due to the presence of acid sulfate soils. Females were more susceptible and it even showed a transmittance between generations. Average iodine concentrations in subsurface water of goiter endemic regions are 28.25 ± 15.47 μg/L whereas non-goiter regions show identical values at 24.74 ± 18.29 μg/L. Surface water exhibited relatively high values at 30.87 ± 16.13 μg/L. Endemic goiter was reported in some isolated patches where iodine and selenium concentrations low, latter was <10 μg/L. The formation of acid sulfate soils in the marshy lands in Kalutara district may lead to transformation of biological available iodine oxidation into volatile iodine by humic substances, at the same time organic matter rich peaty soil may have strong held of iodine and selenium which again induced by low pH and high temperature were suggested as the instrumental factors in the endemic goiter in Kalutara district. Hence, geochemical features such as soil pH, organic matter and thick lateritic cap in the Kalutara goiter endemic area play a role in controlling the available selenium and iodine for food chain through plant uptake and in water.

  12. The use of child soldiers in war with special reference to Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harendra de Silva, D G

    2013-11-01

    Throughout history, the involvement of children in military operations has been extensively documented. The issue of child conscription is multi-faceted, with very few medical but more sociological aspects, including terrorism, politics, economics, history, culture and religion amongst other factors. Many United Nations Instruments as well as the International Criminal Court have documented that child conscription is detrimental to a child's development, violates Child Rights, and is a war crime. Efforts by international bodies to address conscription as child abuse have failed since the process is undertaken by groups rather than individuals, and because the law has no access to the perpetrators. The background to a conflict in Sri Lanka and various ethno-religious and political factors are discussed. The role of the diaspora community, the internet and various fund-raising mechanisms for war are discussed. The history of child conscription and studies examining reasons and the tasks assigned to them as conscripts as well as abusive aspects, especially in relation to emotional abuse, neglect and physical harm, are discussed. Documentation of conscription as child abuse needing a definition including a new definition of 'suicide by proxy' is stressed. The importance of culture and history, and the manipulation of the idealistic mind are discussed in the context of 'setting the stage' for child conscription. The toy weapon industry and the real arms industry, especially small arms, are important in maintaining conflicts, especially in the developing world. The conflicts of interests of members of the UN Security Council and the 'peace-keepers' of the world is discussed.

  13. Environmental instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritschen, L.J.; Gay, L.W.

    1979-01-01

    This book is designed to be used as a text for advanced students and a guide or manual for researchers in the field. The purpose is to present the basic theory of environmental variables and transducers, to report experiences with methodology and use, and to provide certain essential tables. Attention is given to measurements of temperature, soil heat flux, radiation, humidity and moisture, wind speed and direction, and pressure. Data acquisition concepts are summarized

  14. Maintenance of nuclear instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Rebelo, A.M. de; Santos, C.J.F. dos; Jesus, E.F.O. de; Silva, L.E.M.C.; Borges, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    A program to design and repairing of nuclear instruments for teaching and research was founded in the UFRJ to find solutions for technical support problem - The GEMD-RADIACOES. This group has assisted to several groups of the University in recuperation and conservation of devices like: Linear scanner, Cromatograph and system of radiation detection in general. Recuperation of these devices had required a study of theirs operations modes, to make it possible the setting up of a similar system. Recuperation also involves operation tests, calibration and technical for users, orienting them to get the best performance. (Author) [pt

  15. Diamonds for beam instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griesmayer, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Diamond is perhaps the most versatile, efficient and radiation tolerant material available for use in beam detectors with a correspondingly wide range of applications in beam instrumentation. Numerous practical applications have demonstrated and exploited the sensitivity of diamond to charged particles, photons and neutrons. In this paper, a brief description of a generic diamond detector is given and the interaction of the CVD diamond detector material with protons, electrons, photons and neutrons is presented. Latest results of the interaction of sCVD diamond with 14 MeV mono-energetic neutrons are shown.

  16. Productivity cost due to maternal ill health in Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneth Agampodi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The global impact of maternal ill health on economic productivity is estimated to be over 15 billion USD per year. Global data on productivity cost associated with maternal ill health are limited to estimations based on secondary data. Purpose of our study was to determine the productivity cost due to maternal ill health during pregnancy in Sri Lanka. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied 466 pregnant women, aged 24 to 36 weeks, residing in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. A two stage cluster sampling procedure was used in a cross sectional design and all pregnant women were interviewed at clinic centers, using the culturally adapted Immpact tool kit for productivity cost assessment. Of the 466 pregnant women studied, 421 (90.3% reported at least one ill health condition during the pregnancy period, and 353 (83.8% of them had conditions affecting their daily life. Total incapacitation requiring another person to carry out all their routine activities was reported by 122 (26.1% of the women. In this study sample, during the last episode of ill health, total number of days lost due to absenteeism was 3,356 (32.9% of total loss and the days lost due to presenteeism was 6,832.8 (67.1% of the total loss. Of the 353 women with ill health conditions affecting their daily life, 280 (60% had coping strategies to recover loss of productivity. Of the coping strategies used to recover productivity loss during maternal ill health, 76.8% (n = 215 was an intra-household adaptation, and 22.8% (n = 64 was through social networks. Loss of productivity was 28.9 days per episode of maternal ill health. The mean productivity cost due to last episode of ill health in this sample was Rs.8,444.26 (95% CI-Rs.6888.74-Rs.9999.78. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal ill health has a major impact on household productivity and economy. The major impact is due to, generally ignored minor ailments during pregnancy.

  17. Adolescents perception of reproductive health care services in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agampodi, Suneth B; Agampodi, Thilini C; UKD, Piyaseeli

    2008-01-01

    Background Adolescent health needs, behaviours and expectations are unique and routine health care services are not well geared to provide these services. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived reproductive health problems, health seeking behaviors, knowledge about available services and barriers to reach services among a group of adolescents in Sri Lanka in order to improve reproductive health service delivery. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in a semi urban setting in Sri Lanka. A convenient sample of 32 adolescents between 17–19 years of age participated in four focus group discussions. Participants were selected from four midwife areas. A pre-tested focus group guide was used for data collection. Male and female facilitators conducted discussions separately with young males and females. All tape-recorded data was fully transcribed and thematic analysis was done. Results Psychological distresses due to various reasons and problems regarding menstrual cycle and masturbation were reported as the commonest health problems. Knowledge on existing services was very poor and boys were totally unaware of youth health services available through the public health system. On reproductive Health Matters, girls mainly sought help from friends whereas boys did not want to discuss their problems with anyone. Lack of availability of services was pointed out as the most important barrier in reaching the adolescent needs. Lack of access to reproductive health knowledge was an important reason for poor self-confidence among adolescents to discuss these matters. Lack of confidentiality, youth friendliness and accessibility of available services were other barriers discussed. Adolescents were happy to accept available services through public clinics and other health infrastructure for their services rather than other organizations. A demand was made for separate youth friendly services through medical practitioners. Conclusions and recommendations

  18. Adolescents perception of reproductive health care services in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agampodi Thilini C

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent health needs, behaviours and expectations are unique and routine health care services are not well geared to provide these services. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived reproductive health problems, health seeking behaviors, knowledge about available services and barriers to reach services among a group of adolescents in Sri Lanka in order to improve reproductive health service delivery. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in a semi urban setting in Sri Lanka. A convenient sample of 32 adolescents between 17–19 years of age participated in four focus group discussions. Participants were selected from four midwife areas. A pre-tested focus group guide was used for data collection. Male and female facilitators conducted discussions separately with young males and females. All tape-recorded data was fully transcribed and thematic analysis was done. Results Psychological distresses due to various reasons and problems regarding menstrual cycle and masturbation were reported as the commonest health problems. Knowledge on existing services was very poor and boys were totally unaware of youth health services available through the public health system. On reproductive Health Matters, girls mainly sought help from friends whereas boys did not want to discuss their problems with anyone. Lack of availability of services was pointed out as the most important barrier in reaching the adolescent needs. Lack of access to reproductive health knowledge was an important reason for poor self-confidence among adolescents to discuss these matters. Lack of confidentiality, youth friendliness and accessibility of available services were other barriers discussed. Adolescents were happy to accept available services through public clinics and other health infrastructure for their services rather than other organizations. A demand was made for separate youth friendly services through medical practitioners

  19. Development of instrumentation and technological procedures for industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Final project report, October 2001 - September 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmera, B.; Posta, S.; Jansky, B.

    2004-01-01

    The project consisted of the following stages (Stage symbol; Stage name; Stage output; Fields of application): E01; Neutron detection and spectrometry using doped scintillators; A spectrometry system for fast neutron measurements in low neutron intensity fields; Fuel storage facilities, analysis of samples contaminated by uranium and transuranium elements, university teaching. E02; Neutron and gamma spectrometry in mixed neutron/gamma fields; A system for the spectrometry of mixed neutron/gamma fields; Neutron and gamma spectrometry in working environment, radiation protection of military equipment, metrology in neutron/gamma fields, university teaching. E03; Neutron detection methods based on fission fragment track counting; A system for neutron fluence determination based on fission fragment track counting; Storage cask monitoring, radiation protection, university teaching. E04; Calibration methods for gamma scanning of fuel assemblies; A calibration system for fuel pin inspection via gamma distribution measurement; Nuclear fuel burnup assessment, BUC technology implementation, spent fuel processing. E05; Optimization of the neutron capture therapy method at the LVR-15 reactor; Treatment of selected tumorous and non-tumorous diseases; Radiotherapy - novel therapy methods in oncology, novel methods of non-tumorous disease therapy, operation of the irradiation facilities of the LVR-15 reactor with simultaneous neutron capture therapy procedures. Details of each of the stages are given. (P.A.)

  20. Cosmic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capdevielle, J N

    1984-01-01

    First, the different instruments and techniques of cosmic particle detection are presented. Then the passage of the cosmic particles through the atmosphere is studied: electrons, photons, muons. The collective behavior of the different categories is also studied, the electromagnetic cascade is distinguished from the hadron cascade. Through the principal physical properties of the radiation and the medium, the ''mean'' aspects of the radiation are then successively dealt with out of the atmosphere, at different altitudes until the sea level, then at great depths. A chapter is devoted to cosmic radiation of more than 10,000 GeV, studied separately. Then solar radiation in universe is studied through their propagation in solar system and their origin. At last, the cosmic radiation effects are studied in environment (cosmic biophysics) and some applications of cosmic radiation are presented.

  1. Radiation shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, D.D.

    1979-01-01

    Details are given of a cylindrical electric penetration assembly for carrying instrumentation leads, used in monitoring the performance of a nuclear reactor, through the containment wall of the reactor. Effective yet economical shielding protection against both fast neutron and high-energy gamma radiation is provided. Adequate spacing within the assembly allows excessive heat to be efficiently dissipated and means of monitoring all potential radiation and gas leakage paths are provided. (UK)

  2. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, D.; Walker, R.P.; Durham, P.J.; Ridley, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on synchrotron radiation is the appendix to the Daresbury (United Kingdom) annual report, 1985/86. The bulk of the volume is made up of the progress reports for the work carried out during the year under review using the Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) at Daresbury. The Appendix also contains: the scientific programmes at the the SRS, progress on beamlines, instrumentation and computing developments, and activities connected with accelerator development. (U.K.)

  3. Negative Trauma Appraisals and PTSD Symptoms in Sri Lankan Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnamperuma, Thyagi; Nicolson, Nancy A

    2016-02-01

    The cognitive model posits that negative appraisals play an important role in posttraumatic stress disorder, in children as well as in adults. This study examined correlates of negative appraisals in relation to trauma exposure and their relationship to posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in 414 Sri Lankan adolescents, aged 12 to 16, living in areas impacted in varying degrees by the 2004 tsunami. In 2008, participants completed measures of negative appraisals, lifetime traumatic events, posttraumatic stress symptoms, internalizing symptoms, ongoing adversity, and social support. The majority (70 %) of the participants reported multiple traumatic events; 25 % met DSM-IV criteria for full or partial PTSD. Adolescents who had experienced more severe events, abusive events, greater cumulative trauma, or greater current adversity reported more negative appraisals. In regression analyses controlling for known risk factors such as female gender, cumulative trauma, ongoing adversity, and low social support, negative appraisals were the best predictor of PTSS, explaining 22 % of the variance. This relationship appeared specific to PTSS, as negative appraisals did not predict internalizing symptoms. Findings confirm the link between negative cognitions concerning traumatic events and persistent PTSS in adolescents, but longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether appraisals contribute to symptom maintenance over time.

  4. Arterial stiffness &Sri Lankan chronic kidney disease of unknown origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Fiona; Kimmitt, Robert; Herath, Chula; Webb, David J; Melville, Vanessa; Siribaddana, Sisira; Eddleston, Michael; Dhaun, Neeraj

    2016-09-02

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common and independently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Arterial stiffness contributes to CVD risk in CKD. In many developing countries a considerable proportion of CKD remains unexplained, termed CKDu. We assessed arterial stiffness in subjects with Sri Lankan CKDu, in matched controls without CKD and in those with defined CKD. Aortic blood pressure (BP), pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx) were assessed in 130 subjects (50 with CKDu, 45 with CKD and 35 without CKD) using the validated TensioMed™ Arteriograph monitor. Brachial and aortic BP was lower in controls than in CKDu and CKD subjects but no different between CKDu and CKD. Controls had a lower PWV compared to subjects with CKDu and CKD. Despite equivalent BP and renal dysfunction, CKDu subjects had a lower PWV than those with CKD (8.7 ± 1.5 vs. 9.9 ± 2.2 m/s, p CKDu vs. CKD: 6.7 ± 0.9 vs. 8.7 ± 1.5 vs. 10.4 ± 1.5 m/s, p CKDu is associated with less arterial stiffening than defined causes of CKD. Whether this translates to lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality long term is unclear and should be the focus of future studies.

  5. Human body donation programs in Sri Lanka: Buddhist perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasinghe, Sandeepani Kanchana; Jones, D Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Considerable attention is being given to the availability of bodies for anatomical education. This raises the question of the manner in which they are obtained, that is, whether they are unclaimed or donated. With increasing emphasis upon the ethical desirability of using body bequests, the spotlight tends to be focused on those countries with factors that militate against donations. However, little attention has been paid to cultures where donations are readily available. One such country is Sri Lanka where the majority of the Buddhist population follows Theravada Buddhism. Within this context, the expectation is that donations will be given selflessly without expecting anything in return. This is because donation of one's body has blessings for a better outcome now and in the afterlife. The ceremonies to honor donors are outlined, including details of the "Pirith Ceremony." The relevance for other cultures of these features of body donation is discussed paying especial attention to the meaning of altruism and consent, and justification for the anonymization of cadavers. The degree to which anatomy is integrated into the surrounding culture also emerges as significant. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. Disaster Recovery Framework for Commercial Banks in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueen Uddin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The banking sector is the backbone of the entire financial economy of a country. In today’s globalized world, most organizations use online transaction processing systems for transferring money and doing business. Natural or man-made disasters can lead to data loss which in turn can cause millions of dollars of money lost. This study focuses on disaster recovery practices in commercial banks in Sri Lanka. From our preliminary findings, it was concluded that commercial banks only have ad-hoc disaster recovery standards and practices, as there is no standard framework available. Fourteen (14 banks were selected for data collection and relevant authorities were interviewed. The results were translated as qualitative observations to understand the best practices. Similarly, international standards, compliance requirements of the central bank, and existing researches were used to develop a disaster recovery practice framework. The proposed framework was then validated for its efficiency and usefulness among commercial banks and found to be acceptable by the banking industry.  

  7. Individuation, Cosmogenesis and Technology: Sri Aurobindo and Gilbert Simondon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashish Banerji

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The turn of the 19th/20th centuries saw a number of philosophers of conscious evolution emerging from different cultural backgrounds. This paper argues that this phenomenon, which has sometimes been seen as a philosophical consequence of Darwin’s evolutionary theory in the life sciences, is more importantly related to the enhanced scope of human subjectivity made possible by technology at this time. Yet technology remains the “unthought within the thought” of its times, an ambiguous presence, derided for its alienating effects and praised for its enhancement of human capacities and comforts. A later generation of thinkers, belonging to the post World War II era renews the thought of conscious evolution, now in engagement with new technologies of a planet spanning scope. This essay considers the ideas of these two generations of thinkers, focusing on Sri Aurobindo (1872-1950 from the earlier generation and Gilbert Simondon (1924-1989 from the more recent era, questioning the consequences of contemporary technology in their thoughts, goals and practices. In developing the historical continuity of ideas, it tracks the question of technology from the earlier to the later generation, highlighting the understanding of both its promise and its ills and engaging with it the possibilities of conscious evolution.

  8. Antioxidant properties of selected fruit cultivars grown in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, K D R R; Sirasa, M S F

    2018-01-01

    Extracts of twenty locally available Sri Lankan fruits were analysed for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, ferrous reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and vitamin C content. The results showed that gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica 'local') exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging activity (111.25mg ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC)/g), FRAP (1022.05μmol FeSO 4 /g), TPC (915.7mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100g), TFC (873.2mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100g) and vitamin C (136.8mg ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE)/100g), respectively. Sugar apple (Annona squamosa 'local') and star fruit (Averrhoa carambola 'Honey Sweet') obtained the second and third highest antioxidant activities in terms of rankings of FRAP, DPPH activities, TPC, TFC and vitamin C content. Strong correlation between vitamin C, TPC and TFC with FRAP and DPPH showed their contribution to antioxidant capacity. Among the selected fruits, underutilized fruit cultivar gooseberry showed the highest overall antioxidant potential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tobacco smoking among school children in Colombo district, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katulanda, Prasad; Liyanage, Isurujith Kongala; Wickramasinghe, Kremlin; Piyadigama, Indunil; Karunathilake, Indika M; Palmer, Paula H; Matthews, David R

    2015-03-01

    Tobacco smoking is an important problem among schoolchildren. The authors studied the patterns of tobacco smoking among schoolchildren in Colombo, Sri Lanka, using a self-administered questionnaire. Multistaged stratified random sampling was used to select 6000 students. Response rate was 90.7% (5446), out of which 53.4% were males. Prevalence rates for males and females, respectively, were as follows: having smoked at least 1 complete cigarette: 27.0% and 13.3%, smoked more than 100 cigarettes: 2.3% and 0.3%, daily smoking: 1.8% and 0.2%. Mean age of starting to smoke was 14.16 years. The tobacco products most used were cigarettes (91.5%) and bidis (3.8%). In univariate analysis, male gender, parental smoking, studying non-science subjects, peer smoking, and participating in sports were significantly associated with smoking of at least 1 complete cigarette (P < .05). In multivariate analysis, the most significant correlates were having close friends (odds ratio = 3.29, confidence interval = 2.47-4.37) or parents who smoked (odds ratio = 1.86, confidence interval = 1.28-2.71). Female smoking has increased from previously reported values. These high-risk groups can be targets for preventive programs. © 2013 APJPH.

  10. UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY PARTNERSHIPS FOR INNOVATION: SRI LANKAN EXPERIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukmal Nishantha WEERASINGHE

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The University sector in the national innovation system (NIS is considered as one of the key players which links new knowledge with the industry for the purpose of diffusing new knowledge for economic and social benefits through commercialization of products, services, processes and other artifacts. This paper inquires the role of Sri Lankan universities in the innovation process by paying special attention on the strength of university-industry linkages. Responses from the industrial sector obtained through a surveys and interviews with respondents. Data presented and analyzed through descriptive statistics using summery statistics and figures.  Social Network Analysis (SNA was employed to determine the strength of the networking relationship among the Universities and the Firms Qualitative data were analyzed employing the method of content analysis. The study revealed a positive trend in the higher education sector towards performing effective role in the future towards innovation. However, it was evident that these relationships are still remained very weak. The industrial sector remains inward oriented with little intention to innovation while universities still prioritize their traditional teaching role in higher education.

  11. GoAmazon 2014/15. SRI-PTR-ToFMS Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, A. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Our science team, including Dr. Alex Guenther (previously at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and now at the University of California, Irvine) Dr. Saewung Kim and Dr. Roger Seco, and Dr. Jim Smith (previously at NCAR and now at UC Irvine), deployed a selected reagent ion – proton transfer reaction – time-of-flight mass spectrometer (SRI-PTR-TOFMS) to the T3 site during the GoAmazon study. One of the major uncertainties in climate model simulations is the effects of aerosols on radiative forcing, and a better understanding of the factors controlling aerosol distributions and life cycle is urgently needed. Aerosols contribute directly to the Earth’s radiation balance by scattering or absorbing light as a function of their physical properties and indirectly through particle-cloud interactions that lead to cloud formation and the modification of cloud properties. On a global scale, the dominant source of organic aerosol is biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) emitted from terrestrial ecosystems. These organic aerosols are a major part of the total mass of all airborne particles and are currently not sufficiently represented in climate models. To incorporate quantitatively the effects of BVOCs and their oxidation products on biogenic organic aerosol (BOA) requires parameterization of their production in terrestrial ecosystems and their atmospheric transformations. This project was designed to reduce the gaps in our understanding of how these processes control BVOCs and BOAs, and their impact on climate. This was accomplished by wet and dry season measurements at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility T3 site along with a comprehensive suite of complementary measurements. The specific goals were to 1) measure and mechanistically understand the factors affecting aerosol distributions over a tropical rain forest, especially the effects of anthropogenic pollution as a perturbation to

  12. Genetic diversity of merozoite surface antigens in Babesia bovis detected from Sri Lankan cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Okubo, Kazuhiro; Igarashi, Ikuo; de Silva, Weligodage Kumarawansa; Kothalawala, Hemal; Silva, Seekkuge Susil Priyantha; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2013-10-01

    Babesia bovis, the causative agent of severe bovine babesiosis, is endemic in Sri Lanka. The live attenuated vaccine (K-strain), which was introduced in the early 1990s, has been used to immunize cattle populations in endemic areas of the country. The present study was undertaken to determine the genetic diversity of merozoite surface antigens (MSAs) in B. bovis isolates from Sri Lankan cattle, and to compare the gene sequences obtained from such isolates against those of the K-strain. Forty-four bovine blood samples isolated from different geographical regions of Sri Lanka and judged to be B. bovis-positive by PCR screening were used to amplify MSAs (MSA-1, MSA-2c, MSA-2a1, MSA-2a2, and MSA-2b), AMA-1, and 12D3 genes from parasite DNA. Although the AMA-1 and 12D3 gene sequences were highly conserved among the Sri Lankan isolates, the MSA gene sequences from the same isolates were highly diverse. Sri Lankan MSA-1, MSA-2c, MSA-2a1, MSA-2a2, and MSA-2b sequences clustered within 5, 2, 4, 1, and 9 different clades in the gene phylograms, respectively, while the minimum similarity values among the deduced amino acid sequences of these genes were 36.8%, 68.7%, 80.3%, 100%, and 68.3%, respectively. In the phylograms, none of the Sri Lankan sequences fell within clades containing the respective K-strain sequences. Additionally, the similarity values for MSA-1 and MSA-2c were 40-61.8% and 90.9-93.2% between the Sri Lankan isolates and the K-strain, respectively, while the K-strain MSA-2a/b sequence shared 64.5-69.8%, 69.3%, and 70.5-80.3% similarities with the Sri Lankan MSA-2a1, MSA-2a2, and MSA-2b sequences, respectively. The present study has shown that genetic diversity among MSAs of Sri Lankan B. bovis isolates is very high, and that the sequences of field isolates diverged genetically from the K-strain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethics Review Committee approval and informed consent: an analysis of biomedical publications originating from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriwardhana Chesmal

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International guidelines on research have focused on protecting research participants. Ethical Research Committee (ERC approval and informed consent are the cornerstones. Externally sponsored research requires approval through ethical review in both the host and the sponsoring country. This study aimed to determine to what extent ERC approval and informed consent procedures are documented in locally and internationally published human subject research carried out in Sri Lanka. Methods We obtained ERC approval in Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom. Theses from 1985 to 2005 available at the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine (PGIM library affiliated to the University of Colombo were scrutinised using checklists agreed in consultation with senior research collaborators. A Medline search was carried out with MeSH major and minor heading 'Sri Lanka' as the search term for international publications originating in Sri Lanka during 1999 to 2004. All research publications from CMJ during 1999 to 2005 were also scrutinized. Results Of 291 theses, 34% documented ERC approvals and 61% documented obtaining consent. From the international journal survey, 250 publications originated from Sri Lanka of which only 79 full text original research publications could be accessed electronically. Of these 38% documented ERC approval and 39% documented obtaining consent. In the Ceylon Medical Journal 36% documented ERC approval and 37% documented obtaining consent. Conclusion Only one third of the publications scrutinized recorded ERC approval and procurement of informed consent. However, there is a positive trend in documenting these ethical requirements in local postgraduate research and in the local medical journal.

  14. Medical support to Sri Lanka in the wake of tsunamis: planning considerations and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, David A

    2006-10-01

    When massive tsunamis affected the coast of Sri Lanka and other Indian Ocean littorals, elements of the Third Force Service Support Group and assigned Navy, Air Force, Army, and Coast Guard units from the U.S. Pacific Command were "task organized" to form Combined Support Group-Sri Lanka (CSG-SL), charged to conduct humanitarian assistance/disaster relief (HA/DR) operations. The specific mission was to provide immediate relief to the affected population of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, to minimize loss of life, and to mitigate human suffering. A 30-person health care team deployed to the northern province of Jaffna and provided medical assistance to that chronically underserved and acutely overstressed region. For a 12-day period, the team served as the principal medical staff of an under-resourced government hospital and conducted mobile primary care clinics at nearby welfare camps housing > 7,000 internally displaced persons made homeless by the tsunamis. By every measurable standard, CSG-SL accomplished its assigned HA/DR task in Sri Lanka, including the medical mission. In doing so, the medical team learned many important lessons, including five of particular value to planners of similar relief operations in the future. This article discusses the context in which CSG-SL planned and executed the medical aspects of its HA/DR operations in Sri Lanka, and it describes the most significant medical lessons learned.

  15. Examining Adaptations to Water Stress Among Farming Households in Sri Lanka's Dry Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, N. E.; Carrico, A.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is increasing water scarcity in Sri Lanka's primary rice-farming zone. Whether these changes will undermine the national-level food security that Sri Lanka has worked to develop since their independence depends upon the ability of the small-scale farmers that dominate rice production and the institutions that support them to overcome the challenges presented by changing water availability. Using household survey data collected in 13 rice farming communities throughout Sri Lanka, this research explores how water stressed farmers are working to adapt to changing conditions and how the strategies they employ impact rice yields. Our analyses reveal that farmers' abilities to access irrigation infrastructure is the most important factor shaping the rice yields of water stressed Sri Lanka farmers. Notably, however, our research also identified farmers' use of hybrid, 'short duration' seed varietals to be the only climate adaptation strategy being promoted by agricultural extension services to have a significant positive impact on farmers' yields. These findings provide encouraging evidence for policies that promote plant breeding and distribution in Sri Lanka as a means to buffer the food system to climate change.

  16. Radiation detection and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    The book is a complete, clear and up-to-date text that provides a basic review of instruments and methods of ionizing radiation. The text covers detailed discussion of all detector types introductory discussions of radiation sources, interactions, and counting statistics functional analysis of the electronics and pulse processing aspects of radiation detectors in instrumentation systems and consideration of shielding and background potentially vital in low-level counting. A total of 350 figures and approximately 900 references to current scientific literature is included. The book is largely intended as a textbook for a junior/senior or first-year graduate course in nuclear instrumentation and radiation measurements

  17. Health physics instrumentation - a progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maushart, R.

    1992-01-01

    Health Physics Instruments have changed rather dramatically in the past decade. On the one hand, technological innovations like Microprocessors, data storage facilities and imaging displays have altered shape, size and appearance of the classical devices, particularly the hand-held ones. On the other hand, instruments are increasingly being considered as an integral part of Radiation Protection procedures and organizations, supporting a smooth and reliable implementation of all necessary measures. This implies ease of operation, and extensive self-checking and performance control features. Since there are different categories of users with quite different degrees of motivation and training, the measuring instruments of the future will have to be adapted to specific types of users. Instruments for 'professional' radiation protection - for example in nuclear power plants and nuclear technology - will differ from instruments used in the radionuclide laboratory, where radiation protection will necessarily have to be done as a 'side-job'. (author)

  18. Instrumentation for environmental monitoring in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, N.M.; Graven, R.M.; Budnitz, R.J.; Mack, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    A brief review of the status of instrumentation for monitoring environmental pollutants is given. Pollutants are divided into six broad categories: trace elements, pesticides and herbicides, ionizing radiation and radionuclides, asbestos and other microparticulates, and gaseous pollutants. (U.S.)

  19. Instruments for radiation measurement in life sciences (4). VI. Use of Accelerator mass spectrometry in studies on drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Toshihiko

    2005-01-01

    Non-clinical and clinical uses of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) are described mainly on studies of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics from a view of new drug development. AMS is applicable as a highly sensitive method to measure plasma drug concentrations. Measurement of 14 C-labeled compounds less than 1 dpm/sample or of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), in combination of AMS and radioimmunoassay without radioactive waste release is described as an example. Cases of measuring DNA-adduct are also described involving human studies using 14 C-mutagen (a quinoxaline derivative derived from burned amino acid, given in a microdose of 304 ng/kg, 4.3 μCi/body). Plasma concentration measurement, mass balance study and metabolite identification of 14 C-GI1817771 (a drug candidate) are a typical AMS application for a pharmacokinetic study in human in a microdose (121 Bq/body). Metabolites of 14 C-compound A in rat platelet are identified by the author. As above, AMS makes it possible to conduct the pharmacokinetic study in human at a microdose with no significant radiation exposure, which will promote the efficient new drug development. (N.I.)

  20. Radiation accidents and defence of population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memmedov, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Development of nuclear physics, the fundamental and the applied researches in the field of radioactive insured wide possibility for application of radionuclides and ionizing radiation source in the different fields of national economy. Application of radionuclides in chemical, metallurgical, food industry, in agriculture and etc. Fields provide a large economic profit. It's hard to apprise significance of ionizing radiation source using in medicine for diagnostics and treatment of different disease. Nuclear power engineering and nuclear industry are developing intensively. At same time nuclear power, ionizing radiation sources incur potential treat for surroundings and health of population. As even that stage of protective measure development: there is no possibility of that happening of radiation accidents. A radiation accident qualifies as loss of ionizing radiation sources direction, which provoked by disrepair equipment, natural calamity or other causes which could bring to unplanned irradiation of population or radioactive pollution of surroundings. At present some following typical cases connected with radiation accident have been chosen: Contentious using or keeping of ionizing radiation source with breach of established requires; Loss, theft of ionizing radiation sources or radiation plants, instruments; Leaving the sources of ionizing radiation in the holes; Refusal radiation technic exploited in industry, medicine, SRI and etc; Disrepair in nuclear transport means of conveyance; Crashes and accidents at NPP and at other enterprises of nuclear industry. The radiation accidents according to character, degree and scales have been divided into two groups: Radiation accidents not connected with NPP; Accidents in the nuclear engineering and industry; The radiation accidents not connected with NPP according their consequence divide into 5 groups; accidents which do not come to irradiation of personal, persons from population (more PN-permissible norm