WorldWideScience

Sample records for radiation generation monitoring

  1. ESA Next Generation Radiation Monitor- NGRM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desorgher, Laurent

    Precise monitoring of the highly dynamic space radiation environment around Earth is crucial for spacecraft safety, as support of radiation belt models, solar particle flux models, and space radiation effects tools. The ESA sponsored SREM is measuring the Earth's radiation belts, solar particle flux, and cosmic ray background more than one decade onboard six different spacecrafts. Recently the development of the follower of SREM, the Next Generation Radiation Monitor (NGRM), has been started within an european consortium led by RUAG space, together with Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), ONERA, EREMS, and IDEAS. NGRM will measure protons from 2 MeV up to 200 MeV, electrons from 100 keV up to 7MeV, as well as LET spectrum of ions. Compared to SREM, NGRM will provide a much better energy resolution, will be smaller (<1L), lighter (<1kg) and consume less energy (<1W). In this paper we describe the design of the instrument, and present calibration tests and Monte Carlo analysis of the instrument.

  2. Summary report of working group 5: Beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, Mike; /Fermilab; Kim, Ki-Yong; /Maryland U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities and presentations of Working Group 5 of the Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held at Annapolis, Maryland in June 2010. Working Group 5 touched on a broad range of topics in the fields of beam and radiation generation and their monitoring and control. These topics were not comprehensively covered in this Workshop, but rather the Working Group concentrated on specific new developments and recent investigations. The Working Group divided its sessions into four broad categories: cathodes and electron guns, radiation generation, beam diagnostics, and beam control and dynamics. This summary is divided into the same structure.

  3. Summary report of working group 5: Beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control

    CERN Document Server

    Church, Mike; 10.1063/1.3520295

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities and presentations of Working Group 5 of the Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held at Annapolis, Maryland in June 2010. Working Group 5 touched on a broad range of topics in the fields of beam and radiation generation and their monitoring and control. These topics were not comprehensively covered in this Workshop, but rather the Working Group concentrated on specific new developments and recent investigations. The Working Group divided its sessions into four broad categories: cathodes and electron guns, radiation generation, beam diagnostics, and beam control and dynamics. This summary is divided into the same structure.

  4. Radiatively Generated $\

    CERN Document Server

    Joshipura, A S; Joshipura, Anjan S.; Rindani, Saurabh D.

    2003-01-01

    We study the consequences of assuming that the mass scale $\\Delta_{odot}$ corresponding to the solar neutrino oscillations and mixing angle $U_{e3}$ corresponding to the electron neutrino oscillation at CHOOZ are radiatively generated through the standard electroweak gauge interactions. All the leptonic mass matrices having zero $\\Delta_{odot}$ and $U_{e3}$ at a high scale lead to a unique low energy value for the $\\Delta_{odot}$ which is determined by the (known) size of the radiative corrections, solar and the atmospheric mixing angle and the Majorana mass of the neutrino observed in neutrinoless double beta decay. This prediction leads to the following consequences: ($i$) The MSSM radiative corrections generate only the dark side of the solar neutrino solutions. ($ii$) The inverted mass hierarchy ($m,-m,0$) at the high scale fails in generating the LMA solution but it can lead to the LOW or vacuum solutions. ($iii$) The $\\Delta_{odot}$ generated in models with maximal solar mixing at a high scale is zero t...

  5. Online Monitoring of Laser-Generated XUV Radiation Spectra by Surface Reflectivity Measurements with Particle Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hoffmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, we present a wavelength-sensitive method for the detection of extreme ultraviolet (XUV photon energies between 30 eV and 120 eV. The method is based on 45° reflectivity from either a cesium iodide-coated or an uncoated metal surface, which directs the XUV beam onto an electron or ion detector and its signal is used to monitor the XUV beam. The benefits of our approach are a spectrally sensitive diagnosis of the XUV radiation at the interaction place of time-resolved XUV experiments and the detection of infrared leak light though metal filters in high-harmonic generation (HHG experiments. Both features were tested using spectrally shaped XUV pulses from HHG in a capillary, and we have achieved excellent agreement with XUV spectrometer measurements and reflectivity calculations. Our obtained results are of interest for time-resolved XUV experiments presenting an additional diagnostic directly in the interaction region and for small footprint XUV beamline diagnostics.

  6. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service.

  7. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service.

  8. Radiation Monitoring Equipment Dosimeter Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Kenneth A.; Golightly, Michael J.; Quam, William

    1992-01-01

    Spacecraft crews risk exposure to relatively high levels of ionizing radiation. This radiation may come from charged particles trapped in the Earth's magnetic fields, charged particles released by solar flare activity, galactic cosmic radiation, energetic photons and neutrons generated by interaction of these primary radiations with spacecraft and crew, and man-made sources (e.g., nuclear power generators). As missions are directed to higher radiation level orbits, viz., higher altitudes and inclinations, longer durations, and increased flight frequency, radiation exposure could well become a major factor for crew stay time and career lengths. To more accurately define the radiological exposure and risk to the crew, real-time radiation monitoring instrumentation, which is capable of identifying and measuring the various radiation components, must be flown. This presentation describes a radiation dosimeter instrument which was successfully flown on the Space Shuttle, the RME-3.

  9. Radiation monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghina, Mauricio A.C.; Farias, Marcos S. de; Lacerda, Fabio de; Heimlich, Adino [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Design of a portable low-power multichannel analyzer with wireless connectivity for remote radiation monitoring, powered from a solar panel with a internal battery to be operated in field. The multichannel analyzer is based on a single microcontroller which performs the digital functions and an analog signal processing board for implementing a Gaussian shaper preamplifier, a Gaussian stretcher, sample and hold, pile-up rejector and a 10 bit ADC. Now this design is to be used with a NaI(Ti) scintillator detector. This multichannel analyzer is designed to be a part of radiation monitoring network. All of them are connected, by radio in a radius of 10 kilometers, to a supervisor computer that collects data from the network of multichannel analyzers and numerically display the latest radiation measurements or graphically display measurements over time for all multichannel analyzers. Like: dose rate, spectra and operational status. Software also supports remotely configuring operating parameters (such as radiation alarm level) for each monitor independently. (author)

  10. Audible radiation monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odell, D.M.C.

    1992-12-31

    This invention consists of a method and apparatus for monitoring ionizing radiation comprising radiation detectors in electrical connection with an isotopic analyzer and a device for producing chords to which each isotope is mapped so that the device produces a unique chord for each isotope. Preferably the chords are pleasing to the ear, except for chords representing unexpected isotopes, and are louder or softer depending on the level of radioactivity produced by each isotope, and musical instrument voices may be simulated in producing the chords as an aid to distinguishing similar-sounding chords. Because of the representation by chords, information regarding the level and composition of the radiation in an area can be conveyed to workers in that area more effectively and yet without distracting them.

  11. Radiation monitoring around accelerator facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Shinichi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The present status of a network of radiation monitors (NORM) working at KEK is described in detail. NORM consists of there parts; stand-alone radiation monitors (SARM), local-monitoring stations (STATION) and a central data-handling system (CENTER). NORM has developed to a large-scaled monitoring system in which more than 250 SARMs are under operation for monitoring the radiation fields and radioactivities around accelerators in KEK. (author)

  12. Radiation dose monitoring in the clinical routine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guberina, Nika [UK Essen (Germany). Radiology

    2017-04-15

    Here we describe the first clinical experiences regarding the use of an automated radiation dose management software to monitor the radiation dose of patients during routine examinations. Many software solutions for monitoring radiation dose have emerged in the last decade. The continuous progress in radiological techniques, new scan features, scanner generations and protocols are the primary challenge for radiation dose monitoring software systems. To simulate valid dose calculations, radiation dose monitoring systems have to follow current trends and stay constantly up-to-date. The dose management software is connected to all devices at our institute and conducts automatic data acquisition and radiation dose calculation. The system incorporates 18 virtual phantoms based on the Cristy phantom family, estimating doses in newborns to adults. Dose calculation relies on a Monte Carlo simulation engine. Our first practical experiences demonstrate that the software is capable of dose estimation in the clinical routine. Its implementation and use have some limitations that can be overcome. The software is promising and allows assessment of radiation doses, like organ and effective doses according to ICRP 60 and ICRP 103, patient radiation dose history and cumulative radiation doses. Furthermore, we are able to determine local diagnostic reference doses. The radiation dose monitoring software systems can facilitate networking between hospitals and radiological departments, thus refining radiation doses and implementing reference doses at substantially lower levels.

  13. Air and radiation monitoring stations

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)582709

    2015-01-01

    CERN has around 100 monitoring stations on and around its sites. New radiation measuring stations, capable of detecting even lower levels of radiation, were installed in 2014. Two members of HE-SEE group (Safety Engineering and Environment group) in front of one of the new monitoring stations.

  14. The LISA Pathfinder Radiation Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wass, P. J.; Araújo, H.; Boatella, C.; Chmeissani, M.; Hajdas, W.; Lobo, A.; Puigdengoles, C.; Sumner, T.

    2006-11-01

    We present the concept, design and testing of the radiation monitor for LISA Pathfinder. Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and solar energetic particles (SEPs) will cause charging of the LISA Pathfinder test masses producing unwanted disturbances which could be significant during a large solar eruption. A radiation monitor on board LISA Pathfinder, using silicon PIN diodes as particle detectors, will measure the particle flux responsible for charging. It will also be able to record spectral information to identify solar energetic particle events. The design of the monitor was supported by Monte Carlo simulations which allow detailed predictions of the radiation monitor performance. We present these predictions as well as the results of high-energy proton tests carried out at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland. The tests show good agreement with our simulations and confirm the capability of the radiation monitor to perform well in the space environment, meeting all science requirements.

  15. The Highly Miniaturised Radiation Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, E F; Daly, E; Guerrini, N; Gunes-Lasnet, S; Griffin, D; Marshall, A; Menicucci, A; Morse, T; Poyntz-Wright, O; Turchetta, R; Woodward, S

    2014-01-01

    We present the design and preliminary calibration results of a novel highly miniaturised particle radiation monitor (HMRM) for spacecraft use. The HMRM device comprises a telescopic configuration of active pixel sensors enclosed in a titanium shield, with an estimated total mass of 52 g and volume of 15 cm$^3$. The monitor is intended to provide real-time dosimetry and identification of energetic charged particles in fluxes of up to 10$^8$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ (omnidirectional). Achieving this capability with such a small instrument could open new prospects for radiation detection in space.

  16. Electricity generation using electromagnetic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2017-08-22

    In general, in one aspect, the invention relates to a system to create vapor for generating electric power. The system includes a vessel comprising a fluid and a complex and a turbine. The vessel of the system is configured to concentrate EM radiation received from an EM radiation source. The vessel of the system is further configured to apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat. The vessel of the system is also configured to transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the fluid to vapor. The vessel of the system is further configured to sending the vapor to a turbine. The turbine of the system is configured to receive, from the vessel, the vapor used to generate the electric power.

  17. MULTI-POINT RADIATION MONITOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, K; Donna Beals, D; Ken Odell, K; Robert Eakle, R; Russell Huffman, R; Larry Harpring, L

    2006-05-12

    A unique radiation monitor has been developed for performing wide-area field surveys for radiation sources. This device integrates the real-time output of multiple radiation detectors into a hand-held personal computer (e.g., a PDA) containing an intuitive graphical user interface. An independent hardware module supplies high voltage to the detectors and contains a rapid sampling system for transferring the detector count rates through an interface to the PDA. The imbedded firmware can be changed for various applications using a programmable memory card. As presently configured, the instrument contains a series of Geiger-Mueller (GM) tubes in a flexible detector string. This linear array of multiple sensors can be used by US Coast Guard and Customs container inspection personnel to measure radiation intensity in stacks of transport containers where physical access is impeded.

  18. Monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, J.B.C. [Radiation Safety Consultancy, Engadine, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    A brief overview is presented of methods of monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation together with reasons for such monitoring and maintaining dose histories of radiation occupationally exposed persons. The various Australian providers of external radiation monitoring services and the types of dosemeters they supply are briefly described together with some monitoring results. Biological monitoring methods, are used to determine internal radiation dose. Whole body monitors, used for this purpose are available at Australian Radiation Lab., ANSTO and a few hospitals. Brief mention is made of the Australian National Radiation Dose Register and its objectives. 8 refs., 9 tabs.

  19. The development of wireless radiation dose monitoring using smart phone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Woo; Jeong, Gyo Seong; Lee, Yun Jong [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chong Yeal [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chai Wan [REMTECH, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Radiation workers at a nuclear facility or radiation working area should hold personal dosimeters. some types of dosimeters have functions to generate audible or visible alarms to radiation workers. However, such devices used in radiation fields these days have no functions to communicate with other equipment or the responsible personnel. our project aims at the development of a remote wireless radiation dose monitoring system that can be utilized to monitor the radiation dose for radiation workers and to notify the radiation protection manager of the dose information in real time. We use a commercial survey meter for personal radiation measurement and a smart phone for a mobile wireless communication tool and a Beacon for position detection of radiation workers using Blue tooth communication. In this report, the developed wireless dose monitoring of cellular phone is introduced.

  20. The L3 radiation monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlen, S.; Goldstein, J.; Marin, A.; Xu, J.; Zhou, B.; Capell, M.; Wu, S.

    1996-02-01

    A radiation monitoring system for the L3 experiment at the Large Electron Positron (LEP) collider is described. This system was installed in the L3 detector in April 1993. It provides information on the instantaneous and integrated radiation dose in the vicinity of the L3 silicon microvertex detector and time expansion chamber, and since April 1994 it has also provided trigger signals for the LEP beam dump in the case of large instantaneous dose rates in the L3 central tracking region.

  1. Towards a novel modular architecture for CERN radiation monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Boukabache, Hamza; Ducos, Gael; Cardines, Nicola; Bellotta, Antonio; Toner, Ciarán; Perrin, Daniel; Forkel-Wirth, Doris

    2017-01-01

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) has the legal obligation to protect the public and the people working on its premises from any unjustified exposure to ionising radiation. In this context, radiation monitoring is one of the main concerns of the Radiation Protection Group. After 30 y of reliable service, the ARea CONtroller (ARCON) system is approaching the end of its lifecycle, which raises the need for new, more efficient radiation monitors with a high level of modularity to ensure better maintainability. Based on these two main principles, new detectors are currently being developed that will be capable of measuring very low dose rates down to 50 nSv h−1, whilst being able to measure radiation over an extensive range of 8 decades without any auto scaling. To reach these performances, CERN Radiation MOnitoring Electronics (CROME), the new generation of CERN radiation monitors, is based on the versatile architecture that includes new read-out electronics developed by the Instrumentation...

  2. Cryogenic semiconductor high-intensity radiation monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Palmieri, V G; Borer, K; Casagrande, L; Da Vià, C; Devine, S R H; Dezillie, B; Esposito, A; Granata, V; Hauler, F; Jungermann, L; Li, Z; Lourenço, C; Niinikoski, T O; O'Shea, V

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a novel technique to monitor high-intensity particle beams by means of a semiconductor detector. It consists of cooling a semiconductor detector down to cryogenic temperature to suppress the thermally generated leakage current and to precisely measure the integrated ionization signal. It will be shown that such a device provides very good linearity and a dynamic range wider than is possible with existing techniques. Moreover, thanks to the Lazarus effect, extreme radiation hardness can be achieved providing in turn absolute intensity measurements against precise calibration of the device at low beam flux.

  3. [Emission of electromagnetic radiation from selected computer monitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyss, T

    1995-01-01

    The emission of electromagnetic fields from computer monitors was analysed. The data were compared with the permissible exposure level. EM radiation of chromatic monitors is higher than that of monochromatic ones. The radiation of magnetic fraction is insignificant. Both electric and magnetic fractions of EM radiation, 50 cm away from the monitor, are very low and do not exceed permissible values. It was observed that screen filters were effective in suppressing EM emission only at a short (up to 30 cm) distance from the monitor. At a distance of 50 cm they proved to be ineffective. Metallic-net filters were more effective than glass filters in suppressing EM radiation. It seems that EM fields generated by computer monitors are not harmful to computer operators if the distance is kept in safe limits.

  4. Biological monitoring of radiation using indicator plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyoo; Chun, Ki Jung; Kim, Kook Chan; Kim, In Kyoo; Song, Heui Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Some clones of Tradescantia had dose response relationship involving somatic mutations such as appearance of pink, colorless or giant cell, and/or loss of reproductive integrity of stamen hair cells when exposed to radiation. Since Tradescantia could respond to radiation level as low as human being could be exposed to, it could play an important role as scientific tool of botanical tester for radiation. Especially TSH system can be easily applied to in situ monitoring of radiation by virtue of its excellent radiation indicator ship and simpleness in detection of mutations by radiation. 10 figs, 6 tabs, 19 refs. (Author).

  5. Development of Nuclide Recognizing Prompt Radiation Distribution Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uk Jae; Yoo, Dong Han; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The geographic data such as latitude, longitude and map image can be obtained by using GPS and digital map. Radiation data can be acquired by detector. Finally simultaneous visibility system can be operated by using CDMA. Existing radiation distribution monitoring system is based on random generated data. However the radiation distribution monitoring system is developed. It is based on real detected data. Connection between the detector and laptop which are located at a site place is operated by using Bluetooth. CDMA is used to simulate visibility system between laptop in a site place and server PC in the control office. Real map image is taken from digital map. Finally radiation distribution contour map on the real map image can be shown by using MATLAB. 5 figures appear which shows natural, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 131}I, artificial and total radiation dose rate. So this system can be used in everywhere to check the distribution of radiation with geographic information.

  6. Radiation generation with pyroelectric crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuther, Jeffrey A.

    2007-12-01

    Pyroelectric crystals heated or cooled in vacuum have been used to produce low-energy x-ray devices since 1992. In the course of this thesis, experiments with lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) and lithium niobate (LiNbO 3) were performed to extend the usefulness of pyroelectric radiation sources. Paired-crystal x-ray generators were shown to double the x-ray energy and yield, and allow the k-shell fluorescence of any metal up to thorium (Z = 90). It was demonstrated that the electron emission from a single pyroelectric crystal could be transmitted through a beryllium window to allow the electron beam to be extracted from the vacuum chamber. The electron emission current and energy were measured, and a mathematical model was developed to predict emission current and energy. Magnetic deflection experiments were used to verify that the electric field produced by the pyroelectric effect in lithium tantalate was sufficient to ionize gas. Finally, a paired-crystal system was used to ionize a deuterium fill gas near a metallic tip mounted to a pyroelectric crystal, and accelerate these ions into a deuterated target mounted to the opposing crystal. This technique was used to produce a compact, low-power fusion neutron source driven by pyroelectric crystals.

  7. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Young Ho

    2000-02-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor are the follows: The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost some level compared with the past years. Gross {alpha}, {beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water sample were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul Research Reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by {gamma}-spectrometry. (author)

  8. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Young Ho; Lee, M.H. [and others

    1999-02-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul research reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul research reactor are the follows : The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with the past years. Gross {alpha}, {beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul research reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by {gamma}-spectrometry. (author). 3 refs., 50 tabs., 12 figs.

  9. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Chang Woo; Joo, Young Hyun [and others

    2005-04-01

    Environmental Radiation Monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment. radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor are the follows : The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with the past years. Gross {alpha} ,{beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul Research Reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by {gamma}-spectrometry.

  10. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Young Ho; Lee, M.H. [and others

    1999-02-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul research reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul research reactor are the follows : The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with the past years. Gross {alpha}, {beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul research reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by {gamma}-spectrometry. (author). 3 refs., 50 tabs., 12 figs.

  11. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Geun Sik and others

    2001-02-01

    Environmental Radiation Monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment. Radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor are the follows : The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with the past years. Gross {alpha}, {beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul Research Reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by {gamma}-spectrometry.

  12. The Juno Radiation Monitoring (RM) Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, H. N.; Alexander, J. W.; Adriani, A.

    2017-01-01

    The Radiation Monitoring Investigation of the Juno Mission will actively retrieve and analyze the noise signatures from penetrating radiation in the images of Juno’s star cameras and science instruments at Jupiter. The investigation’s objective is to profile Jupiter’s > 10-MeV electron environmen...

  13. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Monitoring Manual Volume 2, Radiation Monitoring and Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Aerial Measurement Systems

    2012-07-31

    The FRMAC Monitoring and Sampling Manual, Volume 2 provides standard operating procedures (SOPs) for field radiation monitoring and sample collection activities that are performed by the Monitoring group during a FRMAC response to a radiological emergency.

  14. The development of remote wireless radiation dose monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin-woo [KAERI - Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongup-si (Korea, Republic of); Chonbuk National University, Jeonjoo-Si (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Kyu-hwan [KINS - Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon-Si (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-il [Chonbuk National University, Jeonjoo-Si (Korea, Republic of); Im, Chae-wan [REMTECH, Seoul-Si (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    Internet of things (IoT) technology has recently shown a large flow of IT trends in human life. In particular, our lives are now becoming integrated with a lot of items around the 'smart-phone' with IoT, including Bluetooth, Near Field Communication (NFC), Beacons, WiFi, and Global Positioning System (GPS). Our project focuses on the interconnection of radiation dosimetry and IoT technology. The radiation workers at a nuclear facility should hold personal dosimeters such as a Thermo-Luminescence Dosimeter (TLD), an Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dosimeter (OSL), pocket ionization chamber dosimeters, an Electronic Personal Dosimeter (EPD), or an alarm dosimeter on their body. Some of them have functions that generate audible or visible alarms to radiation workers in a real working area. However, such devices used in radiation fields these days have no functions for communicating with other areas or the responsible personnel in real time. In particular, when conducting a particular task in a high dose area, or a number of repair works within a radiation field, radiation dose monitoring is important for the health of the workers and the work efficiency. Our project aims at the development of a remote wireless radiation dose monitoring system (RWRD) that can be used to monitor the radiation dose in a nuclear facility for radiation workers and a radiation protection program In this project, a radiation dosimeter is the detection device for personal radiation dose, a smart phone is the mobile wireless communication tool, and, Beacon is the wireless starter for the detection, communication, and position of the worker using BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy). In this report, we report the design of the RWRD and a demonstration case in a real radiation field. (authors)

  15. Radiation monitoring in interventional cardiology: a requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, T.; Uruchurtu, E. S.

    2017-01-01

    The increasing of procedures using fluoroscopy in interventional cardiology procedures may increase medical and patients to levels of radiation that manifest in unintended outcomes. Such outcomes may include skin injury and cancer. The cardiologists and other staff members in interventional cardiology are usually working close to the area under examination and they receive the dose primarily from scattered radiation from the patient. Mexico does not have a formal policy for monitoring and recording the radiation dose delivered in hemodynamic establishments. Deterministic risk management can be improved by monitoring the radiation delivered from X-ray devices. The objective of this paper is to provide cardiologist, techniques, nurses, and all medical staff an information on DR levels, about X-ray risks and a simple a reliable method to control cumulative dose.

  16. Radiation safety assessment and development of environmental radiation monitoring technology

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, B H; Kim, S G

    2002-01-01

    The Periodic Safety Review(PSR) of the existing nuclear power plants is required every ten years according to the recently revised atomic energy acts. The PSR of Kori unit 1 and Wolsong unit 1 that have been operating more than ten years is ongoing to comply the regulations. This research project started to develop the techniques necessary for the PSR. The project developed the following four techniques at the first stage for the environmental assessment of the existing plants. 1) Establishment of the assessment technology for contamination and accumulation trends of radionuclides, 2) alarm point setting of environmental radiation monitoring system, 3) Development of Radiation Safety Evaluation Factor for Korean NPP, and 4) the evaluation of radiation monitoring system performance and set-up of alarm/warn set point. A dynamic compartment model to derive a relationship between the release rates of gas phase radionuclides and the concentrations in the environmental samples. The model was validated by comparing ...

  17. ULTRA SECURE HIGH RELIABILITY WIRELESS RADIATION MONITOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordaro, J.; Shull, D.; Farrar, M.; Reeves, G.

    2011-08-03

    Radiation monitoring in nuclear facilities is essential to safe operation of the equipment as well as protecting personnel. In specific, typical air monitoring of radioactive gases or particulate involves complex systems of valves, pumps, piping and electronics. The challenge is to measure a representative sample in areas that are radioactively contaminated. Running cables and piping to these locations is very expensive due to the containment requirements. Penetration into and out of an airborne or containment area is complex and costly. The process rooms are built with thick rebar-enforced concrete walls with glove box containment chambers inside. Figure 1 shows high temperature radiation resistance cabling entering the top of a typical glove box. In some case, the entire processing area must be contained in a 'hot cell' where the only access into the chamber is via manipulators. An example is shown in Figure 2. A short range wireless network provides an ideal communication link for transmitting the data from the radiation sensor to a 'clean area', or area absent of any radiation fields or radioactive contamination. Radiation monitoring systems that protect personnel and equipment must meet stringent codes and standards due to the consequences of failure. At first glance a wired system would seem more desirable. Concerns with wireless communication include latency, jamming, spoofing, man in the middle attacks, and hacking. The Department of Energy's Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a prototype wireless radiation air monitoring system that address many of the concerns with wireless and allows quick deployment in radiation and contamination areas. It is stand alone and only requires a standard 120 VAC, 60 Hz power source. It is designed to be mounted or portable. The wireless link uses a National Security Agency (NSA) Suite B compliant wireless network from Fortress Technologies that is considered robust enough to be

  18. Chernobyl accident. [Radiation monitoring in UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1986-07-01

    A brief report is given of the implications for the UK from the radioactivity released during the Chernobyl accident. Results of radio-activity monitoring around the UK are given and the additional radiation doses to the UK population are evaluated.

  19. Review of Emittance and Stability Monitoring Using Synchrotron Radiation Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Holldack, K; Peatman, W B

    2001-01-01

    Different techniques of emittance and stability monitoring using bend magnet and undulator radiation will be reviewed. Besides imaging methods for emittance monitoring , the problem of XBPM's used for the measurement of the centre of mass position of the undulator beams will be treated in detail. The key feature of these monitors is a careful electron optical design to take account of gap dependent changes of the shape and photon energy of the undulator beam as well as spurious signals from dipoles and high heat load. The reason for the fact that these monitors work well on low energy machines like BESSY II but often fail due in high energy machines will be demonstrated by experimental results obtained on different types of BESSY II insertion devices such as undulators, wavelength shifters, multipole wigglers and electromagnetic undulators. Experimental results of global and local orbit monitoring and a proof of principle of a XBPM-based local feedback will be shown.

  20. Environmental Radiation Monitoring Around the Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Chang Woo

    2008-05-15

    Environmental Radiation Monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment. radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis on the sites of KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactors and their environments. The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by an ERM and the accumulated radiation dose by a TLD were almost same level compared with the previous years. The activity of gross {alpha} and gross {beta}, Tritium, Uraniu and Strontium in environmental samples showed a environmental level. The radioactivities of most {gamma}-radionuclides in air particulate, surface water and ground water were less than MDA except {sup 40}K or {sup 7}Be which are natural radionuclides. However, not only {sup 40}K or {sup 7}Be but also {sup 137}Cs were detected at the background level in surface soil, discharge sediment and fallout or pine needle.

  1. Surfactant monitoring by foam generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Ken I.

    1997-01-01

    A device for monitoring the presence or absence of active surfactant or other surface active agents in a solution or flowing stream based on the formation of foam or bubbles is presented. The device detects the formation of foam with a light beam or conductivity measurement. The height or density of the foam can be correlated to the concentration of the active surfactant present.

  2. Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerke, H. (ed.) (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, NRPA (Norway)); Sigurdsson, T. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Geislavarnir Rikisins, GR (IS)); Meier Pedersen, K. (National Board of Health, Statens Institut for Straalebeskyttelse (SIS) (Denmark)); Grindborg, J.-E.; Persson, L. (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Straalsaekerhetsmyndigheten (SSM) (Sweden)); Siiskonen, T.; Hakanen, A.; Kosunen, A. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Saeteilyturvakeskus (STUK) (Finland))

    2012-01-15

    The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

  3. Onion skin as a radiation monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Marc F.; McLaughlin, William L.

    The ESR spectra of the dry, outer skin of onion, red onion, garlic, and shallot were measured before and after irradiation. In all spectra only a single resonance (g = 2.00) was observed. The ESR signal intensity increased with absorbed dose, however, the radiation-induced signal decayed slowly with time. It was concluded that the outer skin of these foods are not suitable as a long-term postirradiation monitor.

  4. Real Time Radiation Monitoring Using Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing (Inventor); Wilkins, Richard T. (Inventor); Hanratty, James J. (Inventor); Lu, Yijiang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    System and method for monitoring receipt and estimating flux value, in real time, of incident radiation, using two or more nanostructures (NSs) and associated terminals to provide closed electrical paths and to measure one or more electrical property change values .DELTA.EPV, associated with irradiated NSs, during a sequence of irradiation time intervals. Effects of irradiation, without healing and with healing, of the NSs, are separately modeled for first order and second order healing. Change values.DELTA.EPV are related to flux, to cumulative dose received by NSs, and to radiation and healing effectivity parameters and/or.mu., associated with the NS material and to the flux. Flux and/or dose are estimated in real time, based on EPV change values, using measured .DELTA.EPV values. Threshold dose for specified changes of biological origin (usually undesired) can be estimated. Effects of time-dependent radiation flux are analyzed in pre-healing and healing regimes.

  5. Evaluation of area monitor response for neutrons in radiation field generated by a 15 MV clinic accelerator; Avaliacao da resposta dos monitores de area para neutrons em campo de radiacao gerado por um acelerador clinico de 15 MV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, Ana Paula

    2011-07-01

    The clinical importance and usage of linear accelerators in cancer treatment increased significantly in the last years. Coupled with this growth came the concern about the use of accelerators with energies over to 10 MeV which produce therapeutic beam contaminated with neutrons generated when high-energy photons interact with high-atomic-number materials such as tungsten and lead present in the accelerator itself. At these facilities, measurements of the ambient dose equivalent for neutrons present difficulties owing to the existence of a mixed radiation field and possible electromagnetic interference near the accelerator. The Neutron Laboratory of the IRD - Brazilian Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry, aiming to evaluate the survey meters performance at these facilities, initiated studies of instrumentation response in the presence of different neutron spectra. Neutrons sources with average energies ranging from 0.55 to 4.2 MeV, four different survey meters and one ionization chamber to obtain the ratio between the dose due to neutrons and gamma radiation were used in this work. The evaluation of these measurements, performed in a 15 MV linear accelerator room is presented. This work presents results that demonstrate the complexity and care needed to make neutrons measurements in radiotherapy treatment rooms containing high energy clinical accelerators. (author)

  6. The environmental radiation monitoring system in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Salas Collantes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The system of environmental radiation monitoring established in Spain is composed of several networks with different objectives, a monitoring network in the vicinity of the facilities and several national networks financed and managed by public agencies. The operators of the facilities are responsible for the conduct of its Environmental Radiological Surveillance Program as directed by the CSN. Moreover, the Directorate General of Civil Defense and Emergencies has a Radioactivity Warning Network (RAR consisting of over 900 automatic stations measuring dose rate distributed nationwide. The Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring Network (Revira, managed by the CSN, is a nationwide network, consists of a Network of Sampling Stations (REM and a Network of Automatic Stations for continuous monitoring (REA. The autonomous communities of Valencia, Catalonia, Extremadura and the Basque Country have their own automated networks similar to that of the CSN. Revira provides information on the radioactivity in the air, soil, water (drinking, inland and sea and of food. The sampling and analysis programs are tailored to radiological recommendations laid down in the European Union Commission. The REM has the collaboration of laboratories in universities and the Centre for Energy, Environmental and Technological Research (CIEMAT for execution. The monitoring of inland and coastal waters is undertaken by the Centre for Studies and Experimentation of Public Works, Ministry of Public Works (CEDEX.

  7. Network-Oriented Radiation Monitoring System (NORMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmat Aryaeinejad; David F. Spencer

    2007-10-01

    We have developed a multi-functional pocket radiation monitoring system capable of detecting and storing gamma ray and neutron data and then sending the data through a wireless connection to a remote central facility upon request. The device has programmable alarm trigger levels that can be modified for specific applications. The device could be used as a stand-alone device or in conjunction with an array to cover a small or large area. The data is stored with a date/time stamp. The device may be remotely configured. Data can be transferred and viewed on a PDA via direct connection or wirelessly. Functional/bench tests have been completed successfully. The device detects low-level neutron and gamma sources within a shielded container in a radiation field of 10 uR/hr above the ambient background level.

  8. The LISA Pathfinder DMU and Radiation Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canizares, P.; Chmeissani, M.; Conchillo, A.; Diaz–Aguiló, M.; García-Berro, E.; Gesa, L.; Gibert, F.; Grimani, C.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Mateos, I.; Nofrarias, M.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Sanjuán, J.; Sopuerta, Carlos F.; Araújo, H. M.; Wass, P.

    2011-05-01

    The LISA Pathfinder DMU (Data Management Unit) flight model was formally accepted by ESA and ASD on 11 February 2010, after all hardware and software tests had been successfully completed. The diagnostics items are scheduled to be delivered by the end of 2010. In this paper, we review the requirements and performance of this instrumentation, specially focusing on the Radiation Monitor and the DMU, as well as the status of their programmed use during mission operations, on which work is ongoing at the time of writing.

  9. The LISA Pathfinder DMU and Radiation Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canizares, P; Conchillo, A; Gesa, L; Lloro, I; Lobo, A; Mateos, I; Sopuerta, Carlos F [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai, CSIC, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5 parell, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Chmeissani, M [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies (IFAE), Edifici CN, UAB Campus, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Diaz-Aguilo, M; GarcIa-Berro, E; Gibert, F [Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Edifici Nexus, Gran Capita 2-4, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Grimani, C [Universita degli Studi di Urbino, MFI Department, Via Santa Chiara 27, 61029 Urbino, and INFN Florence (Italy); Nofrarias, M [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Callinstrasse 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Ramos-Castro, J [Departament d' Enginyeria Electronica, UPC, Campus Nord, Edifici C4, Jordi Girona 1-3, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Sanjuan, J [Department of Physics, University of Florida, NPB-22258 PO Box 118 440, Gainesville, FL 32611-8440 (United States); Araujo, H M; Wass, P, E-mail: lobo@ieec.fcr.es [High Energy Physics Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-07

    The LISA Pathfinder DMU (Data Management Unit) flight model was formally accepted by ESA and ASD on 11 February 2010, after all hardware and software tests had been successfully completed. The diagnostics items are scheduled to be delivered by the end of 2010. In this paper, we review the requirements and performance of this instrumentation, specially focusing on the Radiation Monitor and the DMU, as well as the status of their programmed use during mission operations, on which work is ongoing at the time of writing.

  10. Radiation Generated by Charge Migration Following Ionization

    CERN Document Server

    Kuleff, Alexander I

    2010-01-01

    Electronic many-body effects alone can be the driving force for an ultrafast migration of a positive charge created upon ionization of molecular systems. Here we show that this purely electronic phenomenon generates a characteristic IR radiation. The situation when the initial ionic wave packet is produced by a sudden removal of an electron is also studied. It is shown that in this case a much stronger UV emission is generated. This emission appears as an ultrafast response of the remaining electrons to the perturbation caused by the sudden ionization and as such is a universal phenomenon to be expected in every multielectron system.

  11. Novel Silicon Devices for Radiation Therapy Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruzzi, Mara, E-mail: mara.bruzzi@unifi.it

    2016-02-11

    Modern radiotherapy techniques pose specific constraints in radiation-monitoring and dosimetry due to the occurrence of small radiation fields with high dose gradients, variation in space and time of the dose rate, variation in space and time of the beam energy spectrum. Novel devices coping with these strict conditions are needed. This paper reviews the most advanced technologies developed with silicon-based materials for clinical radiotherapy. Novel Si diodes as Pt-doped Si, epitaxial Si as well as thin devices have optimized performance, their response being independent of the accumulated dose, thus ensuring radiation tolerance and no need of recalibration. Monolithic devices based on segmented Si detectors can be easily tailored to optimize spatial resolution in the large active areas required in clinical radiotherapy. In particular, a monolithic device based on epitaxial p-type silicon, characterized by high spatial resolution and ability to directly measure temporal variations in dose modulation proved to be best viable solution for pre-treatment verifications in IMRT fields.

  12. Device for Monitoring - Warning Frequency Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Nhu Y

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Power quality was assessed by two parameters voltage and frequency, the voltage changes are of a local property, and change the frequency – systematic. Frequency deviation in the grid due to an imbalance in power between the generator and the load will affect the economic and technical indicators of power stations, as well as consumers. To ensure the stability and reliability of the electric system and generator protection to prevent damage during the operation, it is necessary and indispensable device monitoring – warning frequency generator in power stations.

  13. Radiation-Triggered Surveillance for UF6 Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Michael M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This paper recommends the use of radiation detectors, singly or in sets, to trigger surveillance cameras. Ideally, the cameras will monitor cylinders transiting the process area as well as the process area itself. The general process area will be surveyed to record how many cylinders have been attached and detached to the process between inspections. Rad-triggered cameras can dramatically reduce the quantity of recorded images, because the movement of personnel and equipment not involving UF6 cylinders will not generate a surveillance review file.

  14. RadNet (Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet, formerly Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS), is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air, precipitation,...

  15. GROUNDWATER MONITORING REPORT GENERATION TOOLS - 12005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, N.

    2011-11-21

    Compliance with National and State environmental regulations (e.g. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) aka SuperFund) requires Savannah River Site (SRS) to extensively collect and report groundwater monitoring data, with potential fines for missed reporting deadlines. Several utilities have been developed at SRS to facilitate production of the regulatory reports which include maps, data tables, charts and statistics. Components of each report are generated in accordance with complex sets of regulatory requirements specific to each site monitored. SRS developed a relational database to incorporate the detailed reporting rules with the groundwater data, and created a set of automation tools to interface with the information and generate the report components. These process improvements enhanced quality and consistency by centralizing the information, and have reduced manpower and production time through automated efficiencies.

  16. Status of radiation detector and neutron monitor technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y K; Ha, J H; Han, S H; Hong, S B; Hwang, I K; Lee, W G; Moon, B S; Park, S H; Song, M H

    2002-01-01

    In this report, we describe the current states of the radiation detection technology, detectors for industrial application, and neutron monitors. We also survey the new technologies being applied to this field. The method to detect radiation is the measurement of the observable secondary effect from the interaction between incident radiation and detector material, such as ionization, excitation, fluorescence, and chemical reaction. The radiation detectors can be categorized into gas detectors, scintillation detectors, and semiconductor detectors according to major effects and main applications. This report contains the current status and operational principles of these detectors. The application fields of radiation detectors are industrial measurement system, in-core neutron monitor, medical radiation diagnostic device, nondestructive inspection device, environmental radiation monitoring, cosmic-ray measurement, security system, fundamental science experiment, and radiation measurement standardization. The st...

  17. Environmental radiation monitoring from the decommission of TRIGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Chang Woo

    2000-03-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring was carried out with measurement of environmental radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around TRIGA Research Reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around TRIGA Research Reactor are the follows: The average level of environmental radiation measured by potable ERM and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with thepast years. Gross {beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. but only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. (author)

  18. Berkeley Lab's ALS generates femtosecond synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, A L

    2000-01-01

    A team at Berkeley's Advanced Light Source has shown how a laser time-slicing technique provides a path to experiments with ultrafast time resolution. A Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory team has succeeded in generating 300 fs pulses of synchrotron radiation at the ALS synchrotron radiation machine. The team's members come from the Materials Sciences Division (MSD), the Center for Beam Physics in the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division and the Advanced Light Source (ALS). Although this proof-of principle experiment made use of visible light on a borrowed beamline, the laser "time-slicing" technique at the heart of the demonstration will soon be applied in a new bend magnet beamline that was designed specially for the production of femtosecond pulses of X-rays to study long-range and local order in condensed matter with ultrafast time resolution. An undulator beamline based on the same technique has been proposed that will dramatically increase the flux and brightness. The use of X-rays to study the c...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION MONITORING IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - HISTORY AND RESULTS 25 YEARS AFTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes results of the radiation environmental monitoring performed in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) during the period following the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. This article presents a brief overview of five comprehensive reports generated under Contract No. DE-AC09-96SR18500 (Washington Savannah River Company LLC, Subcontract No. AC55559N, SOW No. ON8778) and summarizes characteristics of the ChEZ and its post-accident status and the history of development of the radiation monitoring research in the ChEZ is described. This article addresses characteristics of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ, its major goals and objectives, and changes of these goals and objectives in the course of time, depending on the tasks associated with the phase of mitigation of the ChNPP accident consequences. The results of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ during the last 25 years are also provided.

  20. Design and development of a portable gamma radiation monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munir, M.; Khalid, M. [Health Physics Division, Directorate of Systems and Services, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Ahmad, N.; Sohail, S.; Naveed, R. A.; Rafiq, M. Q. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P. O. Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan)

    2009-07-15

    A portable gamma radiation monitor has been designed and developed. The monitor can be used effectively in the dose range from 0.07 to 500 mGy/h due to gamma rays of energy greater than 65 keV. The monitor overestimated radiation doses and the uncertainty in the measured dose rate has been found to be {<=}30%. The response of the monitor can be considered isotropic within an acceptable error of {+-}30%. Provision has also been added to use the monitor as an installed radiation monitor. In installed mode, it can be operated from a remote location up to 1 km and the timing history can be stored on a personal computer.

  1. B190 computer controlled radiation monitoring and safety interlock system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, D L; Fields, W F; Gittins, D E; Roberts, M L

    1998-08-01

    The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) in the Earth and Environmental Sciences Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operates two accelerators and is in the process of installing two new additional accelerators in support of a variety of basic and applied measurement programs. To monitor the radiation environment in the facility in which these accelerators are located and to terminate accelerator operations if predetermined radiation levels are exceeded, an updated computer controlled radiation monitoring system has been installed. This new system also monitors various machine safety interlocks and again terminates accelerator operations if machine interlocks are broken. This new system replaces an older system that was originally installed in 1988. This paper describes the updated B190 computer controlled radiation monitoring and safety interlock system.

  2. Radiation Fields in the Vicinity of Compact Accelerator Neutron Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester; Brandon W. Blackburn; Augustine J. Caffrey

    2006-10-01

    Intense pulsed radiation fields emitted from sealed tube neutron generators provide a challenge for modern health physics survey instrumentation. The spectral sensitivity of these survey instruments requires calibration under realistic field conditions while the pulsed emission characteristics of neutron generators can vary from conditions of steady-state operation. As a general guide for assessing radiological conditions around neutron generators, experiments and modeling simulations have been performed to assess radiation fields near DD and DT neutron generators. The presence of other materials and material configurations can also have important effects on the radiation dose fields around compact accelerator neutron generators.

  3. A novel mobile system for radiation detection and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biafore, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    A novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance has been developed within the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). The REWARD sensing units are small, mobile portable units with low energy consumption, which consist of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit is integrated by a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station as well as a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system also incorporates middleware and high-level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information. A central monitoring and decision support system has been designed to process the data from the sensing units and to compare them with historical record in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. A security framework ensures protection against unauthorized access to the network and data, ensuring the privacy of the communications and contributing to the overall robustness and reliability of the REWARD system. The REWARD system has been designed for many different scenarios such as nuclear terrorism threats, lost radioactive sources, radioactive contamination or nuclear accidents. It can be deployed in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment, but also inside public/private buildings or infrastructures. The complete system is scalable in terms of complexity and cost and offers very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system allows for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a basic, low cost system and increase the complexity based on their

  4. Monitoring of radiation exposure and registration of doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and working conditions and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently organizing it. In addition, instructions are given for reporting doses to the Dose Register of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Also the procedures are described for situations leading to exceptional exposures. (10 refs., 1 tab.).

  5. Smarter radiation monitors for safeguards and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlau, P. E.; Pratt, J. C.; Markin, J. T.; Scurry, T., Jr.

    Versatile microprocessor systems permit more efficient, and more useful methods for monitoring nuclear materials. One such method is simple stepwise monitoring, which has variable alarm levels to expedite monitoring where extended monitoring periods are required. Another method, sequential probability ratio logic, tests data as it accumulates against two hypothesis - background, or background plus a transient diversion signal - and terminates monitoring as soon as a decision can be made that meets false alarm and detection confidence requirements. A third method, quntitative monitoring for personnel, calculates count ratios of high to low energy gamma ray regions to predict whether the material detected is a small quantity of bare material or a larger quantity of shielded material. Microprocessor system subprograms can assist in detector calibration and trouble shooting. Examples of subprograms are a variance analysis technique to set hias levels in plastic scintillators and a state of health routine for detecting malfunctions in digital circuit components.

  6. ATLAS Pixel Radiation Monitoring with HVPP4 System

    CERN Document Server

    Gorelov, Igor; Seidel, Sally; Toms, Konstantin

    2009-01-01

    In this talk we present the basis for the protocol for radiation monitoring of the ATLAS Pixel Sensors. The monitoring is based on a current measurement system, HVPP4. The status on the ATLAS HVPP4 system development is also presented.

  7. Gamma-radiation monitoring network at sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, Ch.; Schilling, G.; Gruettmueller, M.; Becker, K

    1999-04-01

    A stationary monitoring network to observe the sea for radioactive contaminations, using a newly constructed NaI-detector system, is described. The monitoring efficiency for total-{gamma} counting and {gamma}-spectrometry as well as a method suppressing the registration of natural radioactivity are discussed. On the basis of three accident scenarios with releases of radioactivity into the sea it is demonstrated that under sea conditions the limit of detection of this 'in situ' method is comparable to the regularly performed monitoring by radiochemical {sup 137}Cs analysis of seawater samples.

  8. A wire scanning type position monitor for an undulator radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Ando, Masami; Xia, Shaojian; Shiwaku, Hideaki

    1995-02-01

    A scanning wire position monitor for insertion devices was designed and installed in an x-ray undulator beam line. It consists of a graphite wire, a copper mesh for electric shielding, and a motor-driven linear guide. The wire of the monitor was tested under the undulator radiation thermal load. It has been found that the signal level of the monitor was proportional to the radiation power density on the wire. Even when the wire crossed the beam during the x-ray experiment, no detectable influence on the experiment was observed.

  9. The radiation-tolerant x-ray monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gott, Yu V; Stepanenko, M M

    2008-10-01

    A vacuum photoelectric detector (monitor) (VPD) designed for plasma tomography, megnetohydrodynamics monitoring, and imaging with the help of thermal x-ray radiation on the ITER facility is described. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that VPD has high sensitivity to thermal x rays and low sensitivity to hard gamma rays and neutrons. The results of tests of a prototype of this monitor on a (60)Co source of gamma rays, on nuclear reactor and its calibration using radiation from an x-ray tube, and tests of its serviceability on the T-10 facility are presented.

  10. Biological monitoring of radiation using indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Chun, Ki Jung; Lim, Yong Tak

    1998-06-01

    KAERI and INP(Poland) have been carried out parallel study and joint experiments on the major topics according to MOU about their cooperative project. The experimental materials were T-4430 clones. Main results of the cooperative project were made on {sup r}esponse of TSH mutation to low LET radiation, response of TSH mutation to neutrons, response of TSH to mixed irradiation with different radiations and synergism between radiation and environmental factors such as photo period and diurnal temperature difference. Both institutes have established wide variety of research techniques applicable to tradescantia study through the cooperation. These result of research can make the role of fundamental basis for the better relationship between Korea and Poland. (author). 46 refs., 11 tabs., 31 figs.

  11. Position-sensitive radiation monitoring (surface contamination monitor). Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-06-01

    The Shonka Research Associates, Inc. Position-Sensitive Radiation Monitor both detects surface radiation and prepares electronic survey map/survey report of surveyed area automatically. The electronically recorded map can be downloaded to a personal computer for review and a map/report can be generated for inclusion in work packages. Switching from beta-gamma detection to alpha detection is relatively simple and entails moving a switch position to alpha and adjusting the voltage level to an alpha detection level. No field calibration is required when switching from beta-gamma to alpha detection. The system can be used for free-release surveys because it meets the federal detection level sensitivity limits requires for surface survey instrumentation. This technology is superior to traditionally-used floor contamination monitor (FCM) and hand-held survey instrumentation because it can precisely register locations of radioactivity and accurately correlate contamination levels to specific locations. Additionally, it can collect and store continuous radiological data in database format, which can be used to produce real-time imagery as well as automated graphics of survey data. Its flexible design can accommodate a variety of detectors. The cost of the innovative technology is 13% to 57% lower than traditional methods. This technology is suited for radiological surveys of flat surfaces at US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) sites or similar public or commercial sites.

  12. Personal radiation monitoring and assessment of doses received by radiation workers (1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, N.D.

    1996-12-01

    Since late 1986, all persons monitored by the Australian Radiation Laboratory have been registered on a data base which maintains records of the doses received by each individual wearer. At present, the Service regularly monitors approximately 30,000 persons, which is roughly 90 percent of those monitored in Australia, and maintains dose histories of over 75,000 people. The skin dose for occupationally exposed workers can be measured by using one of the five types of monitor issued by the Service: Thermoluminescent Dosemeter (TLD monitor), Finger TLD 3, Neutron Monitor, Special TLD and Environmental monitor. The technical description of the monitors is provided along with the method for calculating the radiation dose. 5 refs., 7 tabs., 5 figs.

  13. Environmental radiation monitoring; Ueberwachung der Umweltradioaktivitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachmann, Markus

    2012-07-01

    The report includes the following chapters: Development of earth and cosmic radiation - natural radioactivity. Atomic weapon tests and medicine - artificial radioactivity. A disaster and its consequences. From the air to humans; lessons learned from Chernobyl - division of work during measurements. From potatoes to baby food - the routine measuring program. Preparedness for the case of emergency - the intensive program. Three question for Martin Riepenhausen.

  14. Radiative corrections and Monte Carlo generators for physics at flavor factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montagna Guido

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available I review the state of the art of precision calculations and related Monte Carlo generators used in physics at flavor factories. The review describes the tools relevant for the measurement of the hadron production cross section (via radiative return, energy scan and in γγ scattering, luminosity monitoring, searches for new physics and physics of the τ lepton.

  15. CVD Diamonds in the BaBar Radiation Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Bruinsma, M; Edwards, A J; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Kirkby, D; Petersen, B A

    2006-01-01

    To prevent excessive radiation damage to its Silicon Vertex Tracker, the BaBar experiment at SLAC uses a radiation monitoring and protection system that triggers a beam abort whenever radiation levels are anomalously high. The existing system, which employs large area Si PIN diodes as radiation sensors, has become increasingly difficult to operate due to radiation damage. We have studied CVD diamond sensors as a potential alternative for these silicon sensors. Two diamond sensors have been routinely used since their installation in the Vertex Tracker in August 2002. The experience with these sensors and a variety of tests in the laboratory have shown CVD diamonds to be a viable solution for dosimetry in high radiation environments. However, our studies have also revealed surprising side-effects.

  16. Ionising radiation and risk of death from leukaemia and lymphoma in radiation-monitored workers (INWORKS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Bernd

    2015-07-01

    Since July 2015 the study ''ionising radiation and risk of death from leukaemia and lymphoma in radiation-monitored workers (INWORKS) - an international cohort study'' is available. INWORKS comprised data from 300.000 occupational exposed and dosimetric monitored persons from France, USA and UK. The contribution is a critical discussion of this study with respect to the conclusion of a strong evidence of positive associations between protracted low-dose irradiation exposure and leukemia.

  17. Modeling radiation conditions in orbits of projected system of small satellites for radiation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasyuk, M. I.; Podzolko, M. V.; Kovtyukh, A. S.; Osedlo, V. I.; Tulupov, V. I.; Yashin, I. V.

    2016-11-01

    Calculated estimates are presented for the accumulated radiation doses behind the shields of various thicknesses in the orbits of projected at Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University system of small satellites for radiation monitoring. The results are analyzed and compared with the calculation data for other actively exploited near-Earth orbits.

  18. IEC standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytchev, M; Ambrosi, P; Behrens, R; Chiaro, P

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents IEC/SC 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation' and its standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation: IEC 61526 Ed. 3 for active personal dosemeters and IEC 62387-1 for passive integrating dosimetry systems. The transposition of these standards as CENELEC (European) standards is also discussed together with the collaboration between IEC/SC 45B and ISO/TC 85/SC 2.

  19. Research on environment monitoring of radiation emergency

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Y; Otani, N

    2003-01-01

    In a case of a nuclear accident at nuclear facilities, strong radiation such as g-rays and neutrons might radiate at a burst in the initial stage. For the establishment of dose estimation system for such accidents, the experiments were done using the He sup + sup 2 beam accelerated by Tandem in the W-MAST. The following results were obtained. 1) Neutron measurements using a rem counter yielded that dose equivalent was about 9.4 mSv/h at a position 100 cm from the Be target when the beam current of 15 MeV He sup 2 sup + was 0.8 mu A. Neutron measurement by means of Au and In foil activation method and by use of TLD element revealed that dose equivalents were to be 16-27 mu Sv/h for thermal neutron, and 30-41 mu Sv/h for sub-fast neutron (20 keV). Therefore, it was concluded that neutron field was mainly composed by fast neutron. 2) Linearity of the rem-counter out put vs neutron flux was valid under the condition that the count rate of the rem-counter was less than 10 kcps. 3) Computer simulation using NRESP c...

  20. Research on environment monitoring of radiation emergency

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Y

    2002-01-01

    In a case of a nuclear accident at nuclear facilities, radiation such as gamma-rays and neutrons might radiate at a burst in the initial stage. For the establishment of dose estimation system for such accidents, the experiments were carried out using the Tandem/Synchrotron accelerator. The following results were obtained: (1) Measurements of the gamma-ray emission using the NaI detector together with pile up rejection system revealed that the good signals without the pile up phenomena could be obtained in case of count rate less than 7 kc/s. On assumption that energy distribution function of the gamma-rays was proportional to be E exp(- E/T sub e sub f sub f), the effective temperature T sub e sub f sub f was estimated to be 0.8 - 0.9 MeV by use of non-linear least squares. (2) Doses of gamma-rays were measured using the TLD elements shielded by Pb sheets with various widths. The effective temperature T sub e sub f sub f estimated under the same experimental conditions described in (1) was 0.6-3 MeV. In an ac...

  1. Radiation Monitoring System of 30 MeV Cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Woo; Hur, Min-Goo; Jeong, Gyosung; Kim, Jongil

    2017-09-01

    A state-of-the-art radiation monitoring system was implemented at KAERI for a 30-MeV cyclotron. This system consists of several types of radiation measuring systems for ambient dose equivalent rate measurements of outside photon and neutron areas as well as inside the cyclotron, and monitors the alpha and beta particulates released from a stack, as well as the results of worker contamination at the portal of the cyclotron. In addition, an automatic alarm system is also mounted if there are alarms in the measuring systems.

  2. Field test of a post-closure radiation monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, S.E. [Babcock & Wilcox, Alliance, OH (United States); Christy, C.E. [Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States); Heath, R.E. [FERMCO, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The DOE is conducting remedial actions at many sites contaminated with radioactive materials. After closure of these sites, long-term subsurface monitoring is typically required by law. This monitoring is generally labor intensive and expensive using conventional sampling and analysis techniques. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has contracted with Babcock and Wilcox to develop a Long-Term Post-Closure Radiation Monitoring System (LPRMS) to reduce these monitoring costs. The system designed in Phase I of this development program monitors gamma radiation using a subsurface cesium iodide scintillator coupled to above-ground detection electronics using optical waveguide. The radiation probe can be installed to depths up to 50 meters using cone penetrometer techniques, and requires no downhole electrical power. Multiplexing, data logging and analysis are performed at a central location. A prototype LPRMS probe was built, and B&W and FERMCO field tested this monitoring probe at the Fernald Environmental Management Project in the fall of 1994 with funding from the DOE`s Office of Technology Development (EM-50) through METC. The system was used measure soil and water with known uranium contamination levels, both in drums and in situ depths up to 3 meters. For comparison purposes measurements were also performed using a more conventional survey probe with a sodium iodide scintillator directly butt-coupled to detection electronics.

  3. Radiation portal monitor system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Green, J. Andrew; Hogan, Gary E.; Makela, Mark F.; Priedhorsky, William C.; Saunders, Alexander; Schultz, Larry J.; Sossong, Michael J.

    2009-12-15

    A portal monitoring system has a cosmic ray charged particle tracker with a plurality of drift cells. The drift cells, which can be for example aluminum drift tubes, can be arranged at least above and below a volume to be scanned to thereby track incoming and outgoing charged particles, such as cosmic ray muons, whilst also detecting gamma rays. The system can selectively detect devices or materials, such as iron, lead, gold and/or tungsten, occupying the volume from multiple scattering of the charged particles passing through the volume and can also detect any radioactive sources occupying the volume from gamma rays emitted therefrom. If necessary, the drift tubes can be sealed to eliminate the need for a gas handling system. The system can be employed to inspect occupied vehicles at border crossings for nuclear threat objects.

  4. Quality assurance of environmental gamma radiation monitoring in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhec, M; Zorko, B; Mitić, D; Miljanić, S; Ranogajec-Komor, M

    2006-01-01

    Environmental gamma radiation monitoring established in Slovenia consists of a network of multifunctional gamma monitors (MFMs) based on pairs of Geiger-Müller counters and a network of measuring sites with high-sensitive thermoluminiscence dosemeters. The measuring points are evenly spread across Slovenia, located at the meteorological stations and more densely on additional locations around the Krsko NPP. The MFM network has a 2-fold function with one sensor used for the purpose of early warning system in near surroundings of the NPP and the other, more sensitive, for natural radiation monitoring. The paper summarises activities to establish quality assurance of the environmental gamma radiation measurements in Slovenia, with a critical view of the results in comparison with the international standards and recommendations. While the results of linearity and energy dependence tests were satisfying, on-field intercomparison showed that the inherent signal of one of the monitors (MFM) has to be taken into account in the range of environmental background radiation.

  5. Optical Cherenkov radiation in ultrafast cascaded second-harmonic generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Zhou, Binbin

    2010-01-01

    the dispersive wave. Finally, an investigation of recent experimental results uncovers a four-wave-mixing phenomenon related to Cherenkov radiation that is an additional generation mechanism of long-wavelength radiation that can occur during soliton compression. We discuss the conditions that lead......We show through theory and numerics that when few-cycle femtosecond solitons are generated through cascaded (phase-mismatched) second-harmonic generation, these broadband solitons can emit optical Cherenkov radiation in the form of linear dispersive waves located in the red part of the spectrum....... The beating between the dispersive wave and the soliton generates trailing temporal oscillations on the compressed soliton. Insertion of a simple short-wave pass filter after the crystal can restore a clean soliton. On the other hand, bandpass filtering around the dispersive wave peak results in near...

  6. Monitoring of environmental UV radiation by biological dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronto, G; Berces, A; Grof, P; Fekete, A; Kerekgyarto, T; Gaspar, S; Stick, C

    2000-01-01

    As a consequence of the stratospheric ozone layer depletion biological systems can be damaged due to increased UV-B radiation. The aim of biological dosimetry is to establish a quantitative basis for the risk assessment of the biosphere. DNA is the most important target molecule of biological systems having special sensitivity against short wavelength components of the environmental radiation. Biological dosimeters are usually simple organisms, or components of them, modeling the cellular DNA. Phage T7 and polycrystalline uracil biological dosimeters have been developed and used in our laboratory for monitoring the environmental radiation in different radiation conditions (from the polar to equatorial regions). Comparisons with Robertson-Berger (RB) meter data, as well as with model calculation data weighted by the corresponding spectral sensitivities of the dosimeters are presented. Suggestion is given how to determine the trend of the increase in the biological risk due to ozone depletion. c2001 COSPAR Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gadolinium-doped water cerenkov-based neutron and high energy gamma-ray detector and radiation portal monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazeley, Steven A; Svoboda, Robert C; Bernstein, Adam; Bowden, Nathaniel

    2013-02-12

    A water Cerenkov-based neutron and high energy gamma ray detector and radiation portal monitoring system using water doped with a Gadolinium (Gd)-based compound as the Cerenkov radiator. An optically opaque enclosure is provided surrounding a detection chamber filled with the Cerenkov radiator, and photomultipliers are optically connected to the detect Cerenkov radiation generated by the Cerenkov radiator from incident high energy gamma rays or gamma rays induced by neutron capture on the Gd of incident neutrons from a fission source. The PMT signals are then used to determine time correlations indicative of neutron multiplicity events characteristic of a fission source.

  8. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J.; Dicey, B.B.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Sparks, A.R.; Fontana, C.A.; Carroll, L.D.; Phillips, W.G.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program.

  9. Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglis, I. A.; Bourdarie, S.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Santolik, O.; Horne, R.; Mann, I.; Turner, D.

    2012-04-01

    We present the concept, objectives and expected impact of the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization) project, which is being implemented by a consortium of seven institutions (five European, one Canadian and one US) with support from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme. The MAARBLE project employs multi-spacecraft monitoring of the geospace environment, complemented by ground-based monitoring, in order to analyze and assess the physical mechanisms leading to radiation belt particle energization and loss. Particular attention is paid to the role of ULF/VLF waves. A database containing properties of the waves is being created and will be made available to the scientific community. Based on the wave database, a statistical model of the wave activity dependent on the level of geomagnetic activity, solar wind forcing, and magnetospheric region will be developed. Multi-spacecraft particle measurements will be incorporated into data assimilation tools, leading to new understanding of the causal relationships between ULF/VLF waves and radiation belt dynamics. Data assimilation techniques have been proven as a valuable tool in the field of radiation belts, able to guide 'the best' estimate of the state of a complex system. (The members of the MAARBLE team are: I. A. Daglis, S. Bourdarie, Y. Khotyaintsev, O. Santolik, R. Horne, I. Mann, D. Turner, A. Anastasiadis, V. Angelopoulos, G. Balasis, E. Chatzichristou, C. Cully, M. Georgiou, S. Glauert, B. Grison, I. Kolmasova, D. Lazaro, E. Macusova, V. Maget, C. Papadimitriou, G. Ropokis, I. Sandberg, M. Usanova.)

  10. Generation of radiation by intense plasma and electromagnetic undulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, C.

    1991-10-01

    We examine the characteristics of the classical radiation emission resulting from the interaction of a relativistic electron beam that propagates perpendicularly through a large amplitude relativistic plasma wave. Such a study is useful for evaluating the feasibility of using relativistic plasma waves as extremely short wavelength undulators for generating short wavelength radiation. The electron trajectories in a plasma wave undulator and in an ac FEL undulator are obtained using perturbation techniques. The spontaneous radiation frequency spectrum and angular distribution emitted by a single electron oscillating in these two undulators are then calculated. The radiation gain of a copropagating electromagnetic wave is calculated. The approximate analytic results for the trajectories, spontaneous radiation and gain are compared with 3-D simulation results. The characteristics of the plasma wave undulator are compared with the ac FEL undulator and linearly polarized magnetic undulator. 50 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Generation of 35.5-nm coherent radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokor, J; Bucksbaum, P H; Freeman, R R

    1983-04-01

    Tunable coherent radiation was produced at 35.5 nm by seventh-harmonic conversion of 248-nm radiation from a krypton fluoride excimer laser. The nonlinear interaction took place at the intersection of the laser focus and a pulsed, supersonic helium gas jet. Third- and fifth-harmonic generation produced coherent outputs at 83 and 50 nm in both helium and xenon gas jets.

  12. Radiation fields from neutron generators shielded with different materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichester, D. L.; Blackburn, B. W.

    2007-08-01

    As a general guide for assessing radiological conditions around a DT neutron generator numerical modeling has been performed to assess neutron and photon dose profiles for a variety of shield materials ranging from 1 to 100 cm thick. In agreement with accepted radiation safety practices high-Z materials such as bismuth and lead have been found to be ineffective biological shield materials, owing in part to the existence of (n,2n) reaction channels available with 14.1 MeV DT neutrons, while low-Z materials serve as effective shields for these sources. Composite materials such as a mixture of polyethylene and bismuth, or regular concrete, are ideal shield materials for neutron generator radiation because of their ability to attenuate internally generated photon radiation resulting from neutron scattering and capture within the shields themselves.

  13. Anesthesia and monitoring during whole body radiation in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Nilsson, A; Hök, B

    1991-01-01

    During whole body radiation therapy of children, treatment may be done in places not equipped with acceptable scavenging systems for anesthetic gases and where clinical observation of the patient may be impossible. In order to solve this problem, the authors have used a total intravenous (IV) ane....... This anesthetic technique and the stethoscope have been used in seven children. The total IV anesthesia proved to be a useful method for children during whole body radiation. The modified stethoscope functioned very well and was a useful complement to the monitoring equipment....

  14. Anesthesia and monitoring during whole body radiation in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Nilsson, A; Hök, B

    1990-01-01

    During whole body radiation therapy of children, treatment may be done in places not equipped with acceptable scavenging systems for anesthetic gases and where clinical observation of the patient may be impossible. In order to solve this problem, the authors have used a total intravenous (IV) ane....... This anesthetic technique and the stethoscope have been used in seven children. The total IV anesthesia proved to be a useful method for children during whole body radiation. The modified stethoscope functioned very well and was a useful complement to the monitoring equipment....

  15. Monitoring radiation use in cardiac fluoroscopy imaging procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Nathaniel T.; Steiner, Stefan H.; Smith, Ian R.; MacKay, R. Jock [Department of Statistics and Actuarial Sciences, Business and Industrial Statistics Research Group, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); St. Andrew' s Medical Institute, St. Andrew' s War Memorial Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland 4000 (Australia); Department of Statistics and Actuarial Sciences, Business and Industrial Statistics Research Group, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: Timely identification of systematic changes in radiation delivery of an imaging system can lead to a reduction in risk for the patients involved. However, existing quality assurance programs involving the routine testing of equipment performance using phantoms are limited in their ability to effectively carry out this task. To address this issue, the authors propose the implementation of an ongoing monitoring process that utilizes procedural data to identify unexpected large or small radiation exposures for individual patients, as well as to detect persistent changes in the radiation output of imaging platforms. Methods: Data used in this study were obtained from records routinely collected during procedures performed in the cardiac catheterization imaging facility at St. Andrew's War Memorial Hospital, Brisbane, Australia, over the period January 2008-March 2010. A two stage monitoring process employing individual and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts was developed and used to identify unexpectedly high or low radiation exposure levels for individual patients, as well as detect persistent changes in the radiation output delivered by the imaging systems. To increase sensitivity of the charts, we account for variation in dose area product (DAP) values due to other measured factors (patient weight, fluoroscopy time, and digital acquisition frame count) using multiple linear regression. Control charts are then constructed using the residual values from this linear regression. The proposed monitoring process was evaluated using simulation to model the performance of the process under known conditions. Results: Retrospective application of this technique to actual clinical data identified a number of cases in which the DAP result could be considered unexpected. Most of these, upon review, were attributed to data entry errors. The charts monitoring the overall system radiation output trends demonstrated changes in equipment

  16. Prometheus: a next-generation monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Prometheus is an open eco-system that provides an end-to-end approach to infrastructure and application monitoring. It covers all levels beginning with easy instrumentation based on a flexible, multi-dimensional data model. The Prometheus server itself collects and stores time series while trying to maintain operational simplicity while being adaptable to varying scales and layouts of infrastructure. By integrating with a wide range of service discovery systems, it always stays in sync with the world it is monitoring. The powerful query language allows us to ask complex questions and can be applied seamlessly between ad-hoc investigation and static dashboarding. It is also directly applied in the eco-system's alerting layer, which favors a time-series based over and event driven approach. In this talk we will look at all aspects of Prometheus from the high-level philosophy behind its design to its practical concerns of implementation and operation. About the speaker Fabian Reinartz is a software eng...

  17. General Operational Procedure for Pedestrian Radiation Portal Monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belooussov, Andrei V. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-08

    This document outlines the basic conduct of operation (CONOPS) for a pedestrian radiation portal monitor (RPM), provided that the CONOPS is not facility or RPM specific and that it is based on a general understanding of a pedestrian RPM operation. The described CONOPS for a pedestrian RPM is defined by: (1) RPM design and operational characteristics, (2) type of pedestrian traffic, and (3) goal for RPM installation. Pedestrian RPMs normally are deployed for the continuous monitoring of individuals passing through point of control to detect the unauthorized traffic of radioactive/nuclear materials. RPMs generally are designed to detect gamma- and neutron-emitting materials.

  18. Investigation of Electricity Generation by Using Gamma Radiation from Spent Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Haneol; Yim, Man-Sung Yim [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the electric power generation with scale spent fuel. OrigenArp has analyzed gamma radiation environment of spent fuel assembly, MCNPX has analyzed the scintillator behavior, and experimental work has analyzed the electric output of photovoltaic cell. Gamma radiation environment analysis result indicates gamma source rapidly decreases for the early storage period. Scintillator analysis result calculates the photon flux distribution which enters photovoltaic cell. Photovoltaic cell experiment calculates electric current, voltage current generation per each system unit. Generated electric power can be used to cope with existing safety system (i.e. storage monitoring system) under severe accident or to operate security system under external invasion situation (i.e. passive physical barrier system). Several researchers have shown that converting radiation energy into electric energy is possible. Karl Scharf studied the direct electric conversion of radiation energy by using photovoltaic cells. Researchers in University of Massachusetts Lowell have studied radiation-electric energy conversion by using gadolinium oxide scintillator and dye sensitized solar cell (DSSCs) and N. Horuichi et al. studied radiation-electric energy conversion by using inorganic scintillators and amorphous and crystal photovoltaic cells.

  19. FPGA-based prototype of portable environmental radiation monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benahmed, A.; Elkarch, H. [CNESTEN -Centre National de l' Energie des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (Morocco)

    2015-07-01

    This new portable radiological environmental monitor consists of 2 main components, Gamma ionization chamber and a FPGA-based electronic enclosure linked to convivial software for treatment and analyzing. The HPIC ion chamber is the heart of this radiation measurement system and is running in range from 0 to 100 mR/h, so that the sensitivity at the output is 20 mV/μR/h, with a nearly flat energy response from 0,07 to 10 MEV. This paper presents a contribution for developing a new nuclear measurement data acquisition system based on Cyclone III FPGA Starter Kit ALTERA, and a user-friendly software to run real-time control and data processing. It was developed to substitute the older radiation monitor RSS-112 PIC installed in CNESTEN's Laboratory in order to improve some of its functionalities related to acquisition time and data memory capacity. As for the associated acquisition software, it was conceived under the virtual LabView platform from National Instrument, and offers a variety of system setup for radiation environmental monitoring. It gives choice to display both the statistical data and the dose rate. Statistical data shows a summary of current data, current time/date and dose integrator values, and the dose rate displays the current dose rate in large numbers for viewing from a distance as well as the date and time. The prototype version of this new instrument and its data processing software has been successfully tested and validated for viewing and monitoring the environmental radiation of Moroccan nuclear center. (authors)

  20. Development of advanced radiation monitors for pulsed neutron fields

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081895

    The need of radiation detectors capable of efficiently measuring in pulsed neutron fields is attracting widespread interest since the 60s. The efforts of the scientific community substantially increased in the last decade due to the increasing number of applications in which this radiation field is encountered. This is a major issue especially at particle accelerator facilities, where pulsed neutron fields are present because of beam losses at targets, collimators and beam dumps, and where the correct assessment of the intensity of the neutron fields is fundamental for radiation protection monitoring. LUPIN is a neutron detector that combines an innovative acquisition electronics based on logarithmic amplification of the collected current signal and a special technique used to derive the total number of detected neutron interactions, which has been specifically conceived to work in pulsed neutron fields. Due to its special working principle, it is capable of overcoming the typical saturation issues encountere...

  1. Radiative fermion mass matrix generation in supersymmetric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papantonopoulos, E.; Zoupanos, G.

    1984-01-01

    Supersymmetric SU(2)sub(L)xU(1) horizontal models are studied. The non-renormalisation theorems of sypersymmetry are used to make the mass generation and flavour mixing natural. For three families, the fermion mass matrix generation mechanism is studied as a radiative effect due to horizontal interactions, using various representations of the gauge horizontal groups SU(2)sub(H) and SU(3)sub(H). An attractive possibility leading to a realistic mass matrix is found.

  2. Monitoring Radiation Damage in the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Schorlemmer, André Lukas; Große-Knetter, Jörn; Rembser, Christoph; Di Girolamo, Beniamino

    2014-11-05

    Radiation hardness is one of the most important features of the ATLAS pixel detector in order to ensure a good performance and a long lifetime. Monitoring of radiation damage is crucial in order to assess and predict the expected performance of the detector. Key values for the assessment of radiation damage in silicon, such as the depletion voltage and depletion depth in the sensors, are measured on a regular basis during operations. This thesis summarises the monitoring program that is conducted in order to assess the impact of radiation damage and compares it to model predictions. In addition, the physics performance of the ATLAS detector highly depends on the amount of disabled modules in the ATLAS pixel detector. A worrying amount of module failures was observed during run I. Thus it was decided to recover repairable modules during the long shutdown (LS1) by extracting the pixel detector. The impact of the module repairs and module failures on the detector performance is analysed in this thesis.

  3. RADIATION MONITORING EXECUTED BY THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION SUBJECT TERRITORIES IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE RADIATION HYGIENIC PASSPORTISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Barkovsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the issues of radiation monitoring management, done by the Russian Federation subject territories for the assessment of population radiation safety conditions and filling the radiation hygienic passport of the territory. An algorithm of generalized assessment of the radiation monitoring done by the territories is proposed based on the considerations of the scope of measurements and necessity of getting of all foreseen by the territory radiation hygienic passport values. Comparative analysis of radiation monitoring according to the data from radiation hygienic passports dated by 2009 is done with the use of proposed algorithm. On the base of this assessment Russian Federation subject territories were selected, which radiation monitoring were considered as unsatisfactory and needs serious improvement.

  4. Ground-based monitoring of solar radiation in Moldova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aculinin, Alexandr; Smicov, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    Integrated measurements of solar radiation in Kishinev, Moldova have been started by Atmospheric Research Group (ARG) at the Institute of Applied Physics from 2003. Direct, diffuse and total components of solar and atmospheric long-wave radiation are measured by using of the radiometric complex at the ground-based solar radiation monitoring station. Measurements are fulfilled at the stationary and moving platforms equipped with the set of 9 broadband solar radiation sensors overlapping wavelength range from UV-B to IR. Detailed description of the station can be found at the site http://arg.phys.asm.md. Ground station is placed in an urban environment of Kishinev city (47.00N; 28.56E). Summary of observation data acquired at the station in the course of short-term period from 2004 to 2009 are presented below. Solar radiation measurements were fulfilled by using CM11(280-3000 nm) and CH1 sensors (Kipp&Zonen). In the course of a year maximum and minimum of monthly sums of total radiation was ~706.4 MJm-2 in June and ~82.1MJm-2 in December, respectively. Monthly sums of direct solar radiation (on horizontal plane) show the maximum and minimum values of the order ~456.9 MJm-2 in July and ~25.5MJm-2 in December, respectively. In an average, within a year should be marked the predominance of direct radiation over the scattered radiation, 51% and 49%, respectively. In the course of a year, the percentage contribution of the direct radiation into the total radiation is ~55-65% from May to September. In the remaining months, the percentage contribution decreases and takes the minimum value of ~ 28% in December. In an average, annual sum of total solar radiation is ~4679.9 MJm-2. For the period from April to September accounts for ~76% of the annual amount of total radiation. Annual sum of sunshine duration accounts for ~2149 hours, which is of ~ 48% from the possible sunshine duration. In an average, within a year maximum and minimum of sunshine duration is ~ 304 hours in

  5. Overview of non-intercepting beam-size monitoring with optical diffraction radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lumpkin, Alex H

    2012-01-01

    The initial demonstrations over the last several years of the use of optical diffraction radiation (ODR) as non-intercepting electron-beam-parameter monitors are reviewed. Developments in both far-field imaging and near-field imaging are addressed for ODR generated by a metal plane with a slit aperture, a single metal plane, and two-plane interferences. Polarization effects and sensitivities to beam size, divergence, and position will be discussed as well as a proposed path towards monitoring 10-micron beam sizes at 25 GeV.

  6. Overview of nonintercepting beam-size monitoring with optical diffraction radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, Alex H.; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    The initial demonstrations over the last several years of the use of optical diffraction radiation (ODR) as nonintercepting electron-beam-parameter monitors are reviewed. Developments in both far-field imaging and near-field imaging are addressed for ODR generated by a metal plane with a slit aperture, a single metal plane, and two-plane interferences. Polarization effects and sensitivities to beam size, divergence, and position will be discussed as well as a proposed path towards monitoring 10-micron beam sizes at 25 GeV.

  7. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J; Daigler, D.M.; Davis, M.G. [and others

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1993 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs); by biological monitoring of foodstuffs including animal tissues and food crops; and by measurement of radioactive material deposited in humans.

  8. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Hennessey, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (OREMP) conducted during 1997 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPAs), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling and analyzing milk, water, and air; by deploying and reading thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) to measure ambient gamma exposure rates with a sensitivity capable of detecting low level exposures not detected by other monitoring methods.

  9. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S. C.; Grossman, R. F.; Mullen, A. A.; Potter, G. D.; Smith, D. D. [comps.

    1983-07-01

    A principal activity of the Offsite Radiological Safety Program is routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests. It is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. This report summarizes these activities for CY 1982.

  10. INSTRUMENTATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING--Radiation--Vol3Pt1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1972-01-02

    A comprehensive survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring is being carried out by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory originally under a grant from the National Science Foundation and now by the Office of Health and Environmental Research of the Department of Energy. Instruments being investigated are those useful for measurements in Air Quality, Water Quality, Radiation, and Biomedicine related to environmental research and monitoring. Consideration is given to instruments and techniques presently in use and to those developed for other purposes but having possible applications to this work. The results of the survey are given as (a) descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, (b) critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and (c) recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Information is also given regarding the pollutants to be monitored: their characteristics and forms, their sources and pathways, their effects on the ecosystem, and the means of controlling them through process and regulatory controls.

  11. Observations from Juno's Radiation Monitoring Investigation during Juno's Early Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Heidi N.; Jorgensen, John L.; Adriani, Alberto; Mura, Alessandro; Connerney, John E. P.; Santos-Costa, Daniel; Bolton, Scott J.; Levin, Steven M.; Alexander, James W.; Adumitroaie, Virgil; Manor-Chapman, Emily A.; Daubar, Ingrid J.; Lee, Clifford; Benn, Mathias; Denver, Troelz; Sushkova, Julia; Cicchetti, Andrea; Noschese, Raffaella; Thorne, Richard M.

    2017-04-01

    Juno's Radiation Monitoring (RM) Investigation profiles Jupiter's >10-MeV electron environment throughout unexplored regions of the Jovian magnetosphere. RM's measurement approach involves active retrieval of the characteristic noise signatures from penetrating radiation in images obtained by Juno's heavily shielded star cameras and science instruments. Collaborative observation campaigns of "radiation image" collection and penetrating particle counts are conducted at targeted opportunities within the magnetosphere during each of Juno's perijove passes using the spacecraft Stellar Reference Unit, the Magnetic Field Investigation's Advanced Stellar Compass Imagers, and the JIRAM infrared imager. Simultaneous observations gathered from these very different instruments provide comparative spectral information due to substantial differences in instrument shielding. Juno's orbit provides a unique sampling of energetic particles within Jupiter's innermost radiation belts and polar regions. We present a survey of observations of the high energy radiation environment made by Juno's SRU and ASC star cameras and the JIRAM infrared imager during Juno's early perijove passes on August 27 and December 11, 2016; and February 2 and March 27, 2017. The JPL author's copyright for this publication is held by the California Institute of Technology. Government Sponsorship acknowledged.

  12. Generation of auroral kilometric radiation in inhomogeneous magnetospheric plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burinskaya, T. M.; Shevelev, M. M.

    2017-01-01

    The generation of auroral kilometric radiation in a narrow 3D plasma cavity, in which a weakly relativistic electron flow is propagated along the magnetic field against a low-density cold background plasma, is studied. The time dynamics of the propagation and intensification of waves are analyzed using geometric optics equations. The waves have different wave vector components and start from the cavity center at an altitude of about the Earth's radius at plasma parameters typical for the auroral zone at this altitude. It is shown that the global inhomogeneity of the Earth's magnetic field is of key importance in shaping the auroral kilometric radiation spectra.

  13. IEC International Standards Under Development For Radiation-Generating Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voytchev, M; Radev, R; Chiaro, P; Thomson, I; Dray, C; Li, J

    2007-12-06

    The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading and oldest global organization with over 100 years history of developing and publishing international standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies, including radiation detection instrumentation. Subcommittee 45B 'Radiation Protection Instrumentation' of the IEC has recently started the development of two standards on radiation-generating devices. IEC 62463 'Radiation protection instrumentation--X-ray Systems for the Screening of Persons for Security and the Carrying of Illicit Items' is applicable to X-ray systems designed for screening people to detect if they are carrying objects such as weapons, explosives, chemical and biological agents and other concealed items that could be used for criminal purposes, e.g. terrorist use, drug smuggling, etc. IEC 62523 'Radiation protection instrumentation--Cargo/Vehicle radiographic inspection systems' applies to cargo/vehicle imaging inspection systems using accelerator produced X-ray or gamma radiation to obtain images of the screened objects (e.g. cargo containers, transport and passenger vehicles and railroad cars). The objective of both standards is to specify standard requirements and general characteristics and test procedures, as well as, radiation, electrical, environmental, mechanical, and safety requirements and to provide examples of acceptable methods to test these requirements. In particular the standards address the design requirements as they relate to the radiation protection of the people being screened, people who are in the vicinity of the equipment and the operators. The standard IEC 62463 does not deal with the performance requirements for the quality of the object detection. Compliance with the standards requirements will provide the manufacturers with internationally acceptable specifications and the device users with assurance of the rigorous quality and accuracy of the measurements in

  14. The radiation monitoring system for the LHC experiments and experimental areas

    CERN Document Server

    Ilgner, C

    2004-01-01

    With the high energies stored in the beams of the LHC, special attention needs to be paid to accident scenarios involving beam losses which may have an impact on the installed experiments. Among others, an unsynchronized beam abort and a D1 magnet failure are considered serious cases. According to simulations, the CMS inner tracker in such accident scenarios can be damaged by instantaneous rates which are many orders of magnitude above normal conditions. Investigations of synthetic diamond as a beam condition monitor sensor, capable of generating a fast beam dump signal, will be presented. Furthermore, a system to monitor the radiation fields in the experimental areas is being developed. It must function in the radiation fields inside and around the experiments, over a large dynamic range. Several new active and passive sensors, such as RadFET, OSL (Optically Stimulated Luminescence) sensors, p-i-n diodes, Polymer-Alanine Dosimeters and TLDs (Thermoluminescent Dosimeters) are under investigation. Recent resul...

  15. Offsite environmental monitoring report; radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, Calendar Year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Huff, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs). No nuclear weapons testing was conducted in 1996 due to the continuing nuclear test moratorium. During this period, R and IE personnel maintained readiness capability to provide direct monitoring support if testing were to be resumed and ascertained compliance with applicable EPA, DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no airborne radioactivity from diffusion or resuspension detected by the various EPA monitoring networks surrounding the NTS. There was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater and no radiation exposure above natural background was received by the offsite population. All evaluated data were consistent with previous data history.

  16. Network-based real-time radiation monitoring system in Synchrotron Radiation Research Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, R J; Wang, J P; Chen, C R; Liu, J; Chang, F D; Jiang, S H

    2003-10-01

    The real-time radiation monitoring system (RMS) in the Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (SRRC) has been upgraded significantly during the past years. The new framework of the RMS is built on the popular network technology, including Ethernet hardware connections and Web-based software interfaces. It features virtually no distance limitations, flexible and scalable equipment connections, faster response time, remote diagnosis, easy maintenance, as well as many graphic user interface software tools. This paper briefly describes the radiation environment in SRRC and presents the system configuration, basic functions, and some operational results of this real-time RMS. Besides the control of radiation exposures, it has been demonstrated that a variety of valuable information or correlations could be extracted from the measured radiation levels delivered by the RMS, including the changes of operating conditions, beam loss pattern, radiation skyshine, and so on. The real-time RMS can be conveniently accessed either using the dedicated client program or World Wide Web interface. The address of the Web site is http:// www-rms.srrc.gov.tw.

  17. The LISA PathFinder DMU and Radiation Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Canizares, Priscilla; Diaz--Aguilo, Marc; Garcia-Berro, Enrique; Gesa, Lluis; Gibert, Ferran; Grimani, Catia; Lloro, Ivan; Lobo, Alberto; Mateos, Ignacio; Nofrarias, Miquel; Ramos-Castro, Juan; Sanjuan, Josep; Sopuerta, Carlos F

    2010-01-01

    The LISA PathFinder DMU (Data Management Unit) flight model was formally accepted by ESA and ASD on 11 February 2010, after all hardware and software tests had been successfully completed. The diagnostics items are scheduled to be delivered by the end of 2010. In this paper we review the requirements and performance of this instrumentation, specially focusing on the Radiation Monitor and the DMU, as well as the status of their programmed use during mission operations, on which work is ongoing at the time of writing.

  18. Citizen radiation monitoring program for the TMI area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratta, A.J.; Gricar, B.G.; Jester, W.A.

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of the program was to develop a system for citizens to independently measure radiation levels in and around their communities. This report describes the process by which the Program was developed and operated. It also presents the methods used to select and train the citizens in making and interpreting the measurements. The test procedures used to select the equipment for the program are described as are the results of the testing. Finally, the actual monitoring results are discussed along with the citizens' reactions to the program.

  19. Visits by Nuclear-Powered Warships to Australian Ports: Report on Radiation Monitoring During 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    the Leader of the Radiation Monitoring Group is always a radiation protection officer of Ansto . 13. The marine environmental monitoring program is a...no radionuclide was detected that would be characteristic of the radioactive waste associated with NPW operations. Training 30. Ansto provided...and HMAS MORETON personnel were used to assist Ansto in impiementing the monitoring program. CONCLUSIONS 31. The program of radiation monitoring and

  20. Study Regarding Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure Generated By Mobile Phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marica, Lucia; Moraru, Luminita

    2011-12-01

    Number of mobile phone users reached to 5 billion subscribers in 2010 [ABI Research, 2010]. A large number of studies illustrated the public concern about adverse effects of mobile phone radiation and possible health hazards. Position of mobile phone use in close proximity to the head leads the main radiation between the hand and the head. Many investigations studying the possible effects of mobile phone exposure, founded no measurable effects of short-term mobile phone radiation, and there was no evidence for the ability to perceive mobile phone EMF in the general population. In this study, field radiation measurements were performed on different brand and different models of mobile phones in active mode, using an EMF RF Radiation Field Strength Power Meter 1 MHz-8 GHz. The study was effectuated on both the 2G and 3G generations phones connected to the providers operating in the frequency range 450 MHz-1800 MHz. There were recorded values in outgoing call and SMS mode, incoming call and SMS mode. Results were compared with ICNIRP guidelines for exposure to general public.

  1. Generation and Amplification of Terahertz Radiation in Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Abukari, S. S.; Mensah, S. Y.; Mensah, N. G.; Adu, K. W.; Rabiu, M; Dompreh, K. A.; Twum, A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the feasibility of generation and amplification of terahertz radiation in aligned achiral carbon nanotubes (zigzag and armchair) in comparison with a superlattice in the presence of a constant (dc) and high-frequency (ac) electric fields. The electric current density expression is derived using the semiclassical Boltzmann transport equation with a constant relaxation time with the electric field applied along the nanotube axis. Our analysis on the current density ...

  2. Negative differential resistance devices for generation of terahertz radiation

    OpenAIRE

    H. Eisele

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the principles of operation, state of the art, and future potential of active two-terminal devices for generation of low-noise, continuous-wave terahertz radiation. These devices use transit-time, transferred-electron, and quantum-mechanical effects (or a combination of them) to create a negative differential resistance (NDR) at the frequency of interest. Many different types of NDR devices have been proposed since the earliest days of semiconductor devices and studied in...

  3. Testing of environmental radiation monitors using the Risø low-level radiation measurement stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    2000-01-01

    a simulation of a radioactive plume passing over the monitors during a certain time was made using a specially designed source set up in the field that was able to vary the air kerma rate from low activity Cs-137 sources additional to the natural air kerma rate. It is demonstrated that a typical environmental...... radiation detector can distinguish an increase of the ambient air kerma rate of less than 3%....

  4. Radiation pressure induced difference-sideband generation beyond linearized description

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Hao; Yang, X; Wu, Y

    2016-01-01

    We investigate radiation-pressure induced generation of the frequency components at the difference-sideband in an optomechanical system, which beyond the conventional linearized description of optomechanical interactions between cavity fields and the mechanical oscillation. We analytically calculate amplitudes of these signals, and identify a simple square-root law for both the upper and lower difference-sideband generation which can describe the dependence of the intensities of these signals on the pump power. Further calculation shows that difference-sideband generation can be greatly enhanced via achieving the matching conditions. The effect of difference-sideband generation, which may have potential application for manipulation of light, is especially suited for on-chip optomechanical devices, where nonlinear optomechanical interaction in the weak coupling regime is within current experimental reach.

  5. Examination of spent fuel radiation energy conversion for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Haneol; Yim, Man-Sung, E-mail: msyim@kaist.ac.kr

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Utilizing conversion of radiation energy of spent fuel to electric energy. • MCNPX modeling and experiment were used to estimate energy conversion. • The converted energy may be useful for nuclear security applications. • The converted energy may be utilized for safety applications through energy storage. - Abstract: Supply of electricity inside nuclear power plant is one of the most important considerations for nuclear safety and security. In this study, generation of electric energy by converting radiation energy of spent nuclear fuel was investigated. Computational modeling work by using MCNPX 2.7.0 code along with experiment was performed to estimate the amount of electric energy generation. The calculation using the developed modeling work was validated through comparison with an integrated experiment. The amount of electric energy generation based on a conceptual design of an energy conversion module was estimated to be low. But the amount may be useful for nuclear security applications. An alternative way of utilizing the produced electric energy could be considered for nuclear safety application through energy storage. Further studies are needed to improve the efficiency of the proposed energy conversion concept and to examine the issue of radiation damage and economic feasibility.

  6. Preliminary Study of Position-Sensitive Large-Area Radiation Portal Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chang Hwy; Kim, Hyunok; Moon, Myung Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jongyul [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Won; Lim, Yong Kon [Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    An RPM, which is a passive inspection method, is a system for monitoring the movement of radioactive materials at an airport, seaport, border, etc. To detect a γ-ray, an RPM using the plastic scintillator is generally used. The method of γ-ray detection using an RPM with a plastic scintillator is to measure lights generated by an incident γ-ray in the scintillator. Generally, a large-area RPM uses one or two photomultiplier tubes (PMT) for light collection. However, in this study, we developed a 4-ch RPM that can measure the radiation signal using 4 PMTs. The reason for using 4 PMTs is to calculate the position of the radiation source. In addition, we developed an electric device for acquisition of a 4-ch output signal at the same time. To estimate the performance of the developed RPM, we performed an RPM test using a {sup 60}Co γ-ray check source. In this study, we performed the development of a 4-ch RPM. The major function of the typical RPM is to measure the radiation. However, we developed a position-sensitive 4-ch RPM, which can be used to measure the location of the radiation source, as well as the radiation measurement, at the same time. In the future, we plan to develop an algorithm for a position detection of the radiation. In addition, an algorithm will be applied to an RPM.

  7. Comparative Measurements of Cosmic Radiation Monitors for Aircrew Exposure Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getley, I. L.; Bennett, L. G. I.; Boudreau, M. L.; Lewis, B. J.; Green, A. R.; Butler, A.; Takada, M.; Nakamura, T.

    Various commercially available electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) have recently been flown on numerous scheduled airline flights in order to determine their viability as small, convenient monitors to measure cosmic radiation at altitude. Often, frequent flyers or airline crew will acquire such dosimeters and report the readings from their flights, without due regard for the mixed radiation field at altitude, which is different from the intended fields on land. A sampling of EPDs has been compared to two types of spectrometers, which measure the total radiation spectrum. The "HAWK" tissue equivalent proportional counter is considered a reference instrument and measures the total dose equivalent H*(10). The Liulin-4N and 4SN linear energy transfer spectrometers each have a silicon semiconductor-based PIN diode detector which provides an absorbed dose, D, but have been further developed to provide H*(10). A Thermo Electron FH41B and B-10, and EPD-N2, and several personal dosimeters (Fuji NRY-21 and NRF-20, and RADOS DIS-100) were also flown.

  8. Comparative Measurements of Cosmic Radiation Monitors for Aircrew Exposure Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getley, I. L.; Bennett, L. G. I.; Boudreau, M. L.; Lewis, B. J.; Green, A. R.; Butler, A.; Takada, M.; Nakamura, T.

    Various commercially available electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) have recently been flown on numerous scheduled airline flights in order to determine their viability as small, convenient monitors to measure cosmic radiation at altitude. Often, frequent flyers or airline crew will acquire such dosimeters and report the readings from their flights, without due regard for the mixed radiation field at altitude, which is different from the intended fields on land. A sampling of EPDs has been compared to two types of spectrometers, which measure the total radiation spectrum. The “HAWK” tissue equivalent proportional counter is considered a reference instrument and measures the total dose equivalent H * (10). The Liulin-4N and 4SN linear energy transfer spectrometers each have a silicon semiconductor-based PIN diode detector which provides an absorbed dose, D, but have been further developed to provide H * (10). A Thermo Electron FH41B and B-10, and EPD-N2, and several personal dosimeters (Fuji NRY-21 and NRF-20, and RADOS DIS-100) were also flown.

  9. Radiation monitoring of the GEM muon detectors at CMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, L.; Iaydjiev, P.; Mitev, G.; Vankov, I.

    2016-09-01

    The higher energy and luminosity of future High Luminosity (HL) LHC, determines a significant increasing of the radiation background around the CMS subdetectors, and especially in the higher pseudorapidity region. Under such heavy conditions, the RPC (used in muon trigger) most probably could not operate effectively. GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) detectors have been identified as a suitable technology to operate in the high radiation environment in that region and test at CMS will start in 2016. A monitoring system to control the absorbed radiation dose by the GEM under test is developed. Two types of sensors are used in it: RadFETs for total absorbed dose and p-i-n diodes for particle (proton and neutron) detection. The basic detector unit, called RADMON, contains two sensors of each type and can be installed at each GEM detector. The system has a modular structure, permitting to increase easily the number of controlled RADMONs: one module controls up to 12 RADMONs, organized in three group of four and communicates outside by RS 485 and CANBUS interfaces.

  10. Reactive intermediates in the gas phase generation and monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Setser, D W

    2013-01-01

    Reactive Intermediates in the Gas Phase: Generation and Monitoring covers methods for reactive intermediates in the gas phase. The book discusses the generation and measurement of atom and radical concentrations in flow systems; the high temperature flow tubes, generation and measurement of refractory species; and the electronically excited long-lived states of atoms and diatomic molecules in flow systems. The text also describes the production and detection of reactive species with lasers in static systems; the production of small positive ions in a mass spectrometer; and the discharge-excite

  11. Individual Dose Monitor of External Radiation Personnel in IMP (1996~2001)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    For evaluating the individual annual effective dose of eternal radiation personnel in IMP, we monitored individual dose of external radiation personnel every year. The monitoring results are shown in Table 1, from which it is known from 1998 to 2001, we monitored 1099 workers, the mean annual effective dose is 0.13 mSv.

  12. Citizen Monitoring during Hazards: The Case of Fukushima Radiation after the 2011 Japanese Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultquist, C.; Cervone, G.

    2015-12-01

    Citizen-led movements producing scientific environmental information are increasingly common during hazards. After the Japanese earthquake-triggered tsunami in 2011, the government produced airborne remote sensing data of the radiation levels after the Fukushima nuclear reactor failures. Advances in technology enabled citizens to monitor radiation by innovative mobile devices built from components bought on the Internet. The citizen-led Safecast project measured on-ground levels of radiation in the Fukushima prefecture which total 14 million entries to date in Japan. This non-authoritative citizen science collection recorded radiation levels at specific coordinates and times is available online, yet the reliability and validity of the data had not been assessed. The nuclear incident provided a case for assessment with comparable dimensions of citizen science and authoritative data. To perform a comparison of the datasets, standardization was required. The sensors were calibrated scientifically but collected using different units of measure. Radiation decays over time so temporal interpolation was necessary for comparison of measurements as being the same time frame. Finally, the GPS located points were selected within the overlapping spatial extent of 500 meters. This study spatially analyzes and statistically compares citizen-volunteered and government-generated radiation data. Quantitative measures are used to assess the similarity and difference in the datasets. Radiation measurements from the same geographic extents show similar spatial variations which suggests that citizen science data can be comparable with government-generated measurements. Validation of Safecast demonstrates that we can infer scientific data from unstructured and not vested data. Citizen science can provide real-time data for situational awareness which is crucial for decision making during disasters. This project provides a methodology for comparing datasets of radiological measurements

  13. Calibration of the radiation monitor onboard Akebono using Geant4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Keiko; Takashima, Takeshi; Koi, Tatsumi; Nagai, Tsugunobu

    Natural high-energy electrons and protons (keV-MeV) in the space contaminate the data re-ciprocally. In order to calibrate the energy ranges and to remove data contamination on the radiation monitor (RDM) onboard the Japanese satellite, Akebono (EXOS-D), the detector is investigated using the Geant4 simulation toolkit of computational particle tracing. The semi-polar orbiting Akebono, launched in February 1989, is active now. This satellite has been observed the space environment at altitudes of several thousands km. The RDM instrument onboard Akebono monitors energetic particles in the Earth's radiation belt and gives important data accumulated for about two solar cycles. The data from RDM are for electrons in three energy channels of 0.3 MeV, protons in three energy channels of ¿ 30 MeV, and alpha particles in one energy channels of 15-45 MeV. The energy ranges are however based on information of about 20 years ago so that the data seem to include some errors actuary. In addition, these data include contamination of electrons and protons reciprocally. Actuary it is noticed that the electron data are contaminated by the solar protons but unknown quantitative amount of the contamination. Therefore we need data calibration in order to correct the energy ranges and to remove data contamination. The Geant4 simulation gives information of trajectories of incident and secondary particles whose are interacted with materials. We examine the RDM monitor using the Geant4 simulation. We find from the results that relativistic electrons of MeV behave quite complicatedly because of particle-material interaction in the instrument. The results indicate that efficiencies of detection and contamination are dependent on energy. This study compares the electron data from Akebono RDM with the simultaneous observation of CRRES and tries to lead the values of correction for each of the energy channels.

  14. Online fault diagnostics and testing of area gamma radiation monitor using wireless network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Padi Srinivas; Kumar, R. Amudhu Ramesh; Mathews, M. Geo; Amarendra, G.

    2017-07-01

    Periodical surveillance, checking, testing, and calibration of the installed Area Gamma Radiation Monitors (AGRM) in the nuclear plants are mandatory. The functionality of AGRM counting electronics and Geiger-Muller (GM) tube is to be monitored periodically. The present paper describes the development of online electronic calibration and testing of the GM tube from the control room. Two electronic circuits were developed, one for AGRM electronic test and another for AGRM detector test. A dedicated radiation data acquisition system was developed using an open platform communication server and data acquisition software. The Modbus RTU protocol on ZigBee based wireless communication was used for online monitoring and testing. The AGRM electronic test helps to carry out the three-point electronic calibration and verification of accuracy. The AGRM detector test is used to verify the GM threshold voltage and the plateau slope of the GM tube in-situ. The real-time trend graphs generated during these tests clearly identified the state of health of AGRM electronics and GM tube on go/no-go basis. This method reduces the radiation exposures received by the maintenance crew and facilitates quick testing with minimum downtime of the instrument.

  15. Synthetic Training Data Generation for Activity Monitoring and Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monekosso, Dorothy; Remagnino, Paolo

    This paper describes a data generator that produces synthetic data to simulate observations from an array of environment monitoring sensors. The overall goal of our work is to monitor the well-being of one occupant in a home. Sensors are embedded in a smart home to unobtrusively record environmental parameters. Based on the sensor observations, behavior analysis and modeling are performed. However behavior analysis and modeling require large data sets to be collected over long periods of time to achieve the level of accuracy expected. A data generator - was developed based on initial data i.e. data collected over periods lasting weeks to facilitate concurrent data collection and development of algorithms. The data generator is based on statistical inference techniques. Variation is introduced into the data using perturbation models.

  16. Nonlinear Ultrasonic Techniques to Monitor Radiation Damage in RPV and Internal Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Laurence [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kim, Jin-Yeon [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Qu, Jisnmin [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wall, Joe [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-11-02

    The objective of this research is to demonstrate that nonlinear ultrasonics (NLU) can be used to directly and quantitatively measure the remaining life in radiation damaged reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and internal components. Specific damage types to be monitored are irradiation embrittlement and irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). Our vision is to develop a technique that allows operators to assess damage by making a limited number of NLU measurements in strategically selected critical reactor components during regularly scheduled outages. This measured data can then be used to determine the current condition of these key components, from which remaining useful life can be predicted. Methods to unambiguously characterize radiation related damage in reactor internals and RPVs remain elusive. NLU technology has demonstrated great potential to be used as a material sensor – a sensor that can continuously monitor a material’s damage state. The physical effect being monitored by NLU is the generation of higher harmonic frequencies in an initially monochromatic ultrasonic wave. The degree of nonlinearity is quantified with the acoustic nonlinearity parameter, β, which is an absolute, measurable material constant. Recent research has demonstrated that nonlinear ultrasound can be used to characterize material state and changes in microscale characteristics such as internal stress states, precipitate formation and dislocation densities. Radiation damage reduces the fracture toughness of RPV steels and internals, and can leave them susceptible to IASCC, which may in turn limit the lifetimes of some operating reactors. The ability to characterize radiation damage in the RPV and internals will enable nuclear operators to set operation time thresholds for vessels and prescribe and schedule replacement activities for core internals. Such a capability will allow a more clear definition of reactor safety margins. The research consists of three tasks: (1

  17. Radiatively generated hierarchy of lepton and quark masses

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, A E Cárcamo; Schmidt, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a model for radiatively generating the hierarchy of the Standard Model (SM) fermion masses: tree-level top quark mass; 1-loop bottom, charm, tau and muon masses; 2-loop masses for the light up, down and strange quarks as well as for the electron; and 4-loop masses for the light active neutrinos. Our model is based on a softly-broken $S_{3}\\times Z_{2}$ discrete symmetry. Its scalar sector consists only of one SM Higgs doublet and three electrically neutral SM-singlet scalars. We do not need to invoke neither electrically charged scalar fields, nor an extra $SU_{2L}$ scalar doublet, nor the spontaneous breaking of the discrete group, which are typical for other radiative models in the literature. The model features a viable scalar dark matter candidate.

  18. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, July--September 1993: Volume 13, No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1993-11-01

    This report provides the status and results of the NRC Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. It presents the radiation levels measured in the vicinity of NRC licensed facilities throughout the country for the third quarter of 1993.

  19. The World Radiation Monitoring Center of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network: Status 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driemel, Amelie; König-Langlo, Gert; Sieger, Rainer; Long, Charles N.

    2017-04-01

    The World Radiation Monitoring Center (WRMC) is the central archive of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN). The BSRN was initiated by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Working Group on Radiative Fluxes and began operations in 1992. One of its aims is to provide short and long-wave surface radiation fluxes of the best possible quality to support the research projects of the WCRP and other scientific projects. The high quality, uniform and consistent measurements of the BSRN network can be used to monitor the short- and long-wave radiative components and their changes with the best methods currently available, to validate and evaluate satellite-based estimates of the surface radiative fluxes, and to verify the results of global climate models. In 1992 the BSRN/WRMC started at ETH Zurich, Switzerland with 9 stations. Since 2007 the archive is hosted by the Alfred-Wegener-Institut (AWI) in Bremerhaven, Germany (http://www.bsrn.awi.de/) and comprises a network of currently 59 stations in contrasting climatic zones, covering a latitude range from 80°N to 90°S. Of the 59 stations, 23 offer the complete radiation budget (down- and upwelling short- and long-wave data). In addition to the ftp-service access instituted at ETH Zurich, the archive at AWI offers data access via PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science (https://www.pangaea.de). PANGAEA guarantees the long-term availability of its content through a commitment of the operating institutions. Within PANGAEA, the metadata of the stations are freely available. To access the data itself an account is required. If the scientist accepts to follow the data release guidelines of the archive (http://bsrn.awi.de/data/conditions-of-data-release/) he or she can get an account from amelie.driemel@awi.de. Currently, more than 9,400 station months (>780 years) are available for interested scientists (see also https://dataportals.pangaea.de/bsrn/?q=LR0100 for an overview on available data

  20. Generation of VUV/XUV coherent radiation in molecular gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢晓波; 王鹏谦; 操传顺; 孙陶亨

    2000-01-01

    Tunable coherent radiation of wavelength between 92 nm and 122 nm has been produced in molecular gases of N2, CO, H2 and CH4 by resonant and nonresonant third harmonic generation. Factors with respect to the frequency conversion efficiency, including the line strength of the nonlinear susceptibility, the density of the media and the phase-matching, are discussed. By analyzing the characteristics of the four-wave mixing spectra in molecular gases, some physical parameters and the population of the energy levels are obtained. This indicates that nonlinear optical frequency conversion process provides a useful method to study the structure and spectra of molecules.

  1. PRD3000: A novel Personnel Radiation Detector with Radiation Exposure Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallu-Labruyere, A.; Micou, C.; Schulcz, F.; Fellinger, J. [Mirion Technologies - MGPI SA (France)

    2015-07-01

    PRD3000{sup TM} is a novel Personal Radiation Detector (PRD) with personnel radiation dose exposure monitoring. It is intended for First Responders, Law Enforcement, Customs Inspectors protecting critical infrastructures for detecting unexpected radioactive sources, who also need real time Hp(10) dose equivalent information. Traditional PRD devices use scintillator materials instrumented through either a photomultiplier tube or a photodiode photodetector. While the former is bulky and sensitive to magnetic fields, the latter has to compromise radiation sensitivity and energy threshold given its current noise per unit of photo-detection surface. Recently, solid state photodetectors (SiPM), based on arrays of Geiger operated diodes, have emerged as a scalable digital photodetector for photon counting. Their strong breakdown voltage temperature dependence (on the order of tens of milli-volts per K) has however limited their use for portable instruments where strong temperature gradients can be experienced, and limited power is available to temperature stabilize. The PRD3000 is based on the industry standard DMC3000 active dosimeter that complies with IEC 61526 Ed. 3 and ANSI 42.20 for direct reading personal dose equivalent meters and active personnel radiation monitors. An extension module is based on a CsI(Tl) scintillator readout by a temperature compensated SiPM. Preliminary nuclear tests combined with a measured continuous operation in excess of 240 hours from a single AAA battery cell indicate that the PRD3000 complies with the IEC 62401 Ed.2 and ANSI 42.32 without sacrificing battery life time. We present a summary of the device test results, starting with performance stability over a temperature range of - 20 deg. C to 50 deg. C, false alarm rates and dynamic response time. (authors)

  2. Handling radiation generated during an ion source commissioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, H. T.; Zhao, J.; Peng, S. X.; Lu, P. N.; Zhou, Q. F.; Xu, Y.; Chen, J.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, A. L.; Guo, Z. Y.; Chen, J. E.

    2014-02-01

    Radiation is an important issue, which should be carefully treated during the design and commissioning of an ion source. Measurements show that X-rays are generated around the ceramics column of an extraction system when the source is powered up to 30 kV. The X-ray dose increases greatly when a beam is extracted. Inserting the ceramic column into a metal vacuum box is a good way to block X-ray emission for those cases. Moreover, this makes the online test of an intense H+ ion beam with energy up to 100 keV possible. However, for deuteron ion source commissioning, neutron and gamma-ray radiation become a serious topic. In this paper, we will describe the design of the extraction system and the radiation doses of neutrons and gamma-rays measured at different D+ beam energy during our 2.45 GHz deuteron electron cyclotron resonance ion source commissioning for PKUNIFTY (PeKing University Neutron Imaging FaciliTY) project at Peking University.

  3. Public radiation exposures from a CANDESAL Co-generation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaloo, R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, ON (Canada); Simanjuntak, A. [PRSG-BATAN, Tangerang (Indonesia)

    1998-07-01

    As part of an evaluation of the practical and economic viability of using the CANDESAL (CANDU DESALINATION) approach to desalinate water in an Indonesian environment, radiation doses to members of the public were conservatively calculated. The calculations show there is a negligible radiological impact on the public. Conservative radiation doses to members of the critical group (an adult male and a 1-year-old infant) were calculated, according to the CAN/CSA N288.1-M87 compartmental pathways analysis methodology, and show that use of the desalinated water supply would increase the dose to a member of the critical group (adult or infant) by less than 20 {mu}Sv{center_dot}a{sup -1}. About 99% of the dose from the CANDESAL facility is from tritiated heavy water (DTO or HTO) and the rest is from trace concentrations of beta and gamma emitters. The doses to a member of the critical group from a combined CANDU 6 and CANDESAL Co-generation Facility will be less than 4% of the ICRP-60 recommended effective dose limit of 1000 {mu}Sv{center_dot}a{sup -1} to a member of the public. These doses are not only a small fraction of the regulatory dose limits, but are also within the normal variations of natural background radiation levels. (author)

  4. Moscow State University near-Earth radiation monitoring satellite system: current status and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasyuk, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    Radiation measurements using instruments have been designed and manufacturing in the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University and installed onboard different satellites,i.e. LEO -"Meteor", ISS, GPS - GLONASS, GEO - "Electro" are presented as a basis of radiation monitoring system for control of radiation condition with a goal for to decrease radiation risk of spacecraft's damage on different orbits. Development of this system including radiation measurements onboard "Lomonosov"(LEO) satellite will be presented as well together with future project of multispacecraft LEO system for radiation monitoring.

  5. Acoustic radiation field of the truncated parametric source generated by a piston radiator model and experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiaoliang; ZHU Zhemin; DU Gonghuan; TANG Haiqing; LI Shui; MIAO Rongxing

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical model is presented to describe the parametric acoustic field generated by a piston radiator. In the model, the high-frequency primary wave interaction region that is truncated by a low-pass acoustic filter can be viewed as a cylindrical source within the Rayleigh distance of the piston. When the radius of the piston is much smaller than the length of the parametric region, this model is reduced to the Berketey's End-Fire Line Array model. Comparison between numerical calculations and experimental measurement show that the generated parametric sound field (especially near the axis) agrees well with the experiment results.

  6. Cost efficient SAGD heave monitoring: new generation radar technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granda, Johanna; Arnaud, Alain; Payas, Blanca; Katsuris, Dimitra; Cooksley, Geraint [Altamira Information (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Oil sands operations are subject to various regulations, one of them being the obligation to monitor heave monuments or other surfaces. Besides meeting the Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB) requirements, heave monitoring is efficient in steam chamber monitoring and guaranteeing the safety of SAGD operations. Several techniques exist for heave monitoring, such as GPS-measurement and Interferometry for synthetic aperture readar (InSAR). This paper aimed at presenting the InSAR technology and the advances made with the new generation X-band satellite technology. Two studies were conducted: one in an SAGD steam injection area in Alberta, Canada, and the other in a CO2 storage site in In Salah, Algeria. The new generation X-band radar satellites showed some advantages over traditional techniques, with: redundancy of satellites, frequency of images, measurement precision, a higher resolution and a smaller size of corner reflectors. The InSAR technology presented herein is a cost efficient technique allowing heavy oil operators to comply with ERCB requirements.

  7. NRC TLD direct radiation monitoring network: Progress report, July--September 1997. Volume 17, Number 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1998-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network is operated by the NRC in cooperation with participating states to provide continuous measurement of the ambient radiation levels around licensed NRC facilities, primarily power reactors. Ambient radiation levels result from naturally occurring radionuclides present in the soil, cosmic radiation constantly bombarding the earth from outer space, and the contribution, if any, from the monitored facilities and other man-made sources. The Network is intended to measure radiation levels during routine facility operations and to establish background radiation levels used to assess the radiological impact of an unusual condition, such as an accident. This report presents the radiation levels measured around all facilities in the Network for the third quarter of 1996. A complete listing of the site facilities monitored is included. In some instances, two power reactor facilities are monitored by the same set of dosimeters (e.g., Kewaunee and Point Beach).

  8. Electromagnetic radiation generated by arcing in low density plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayner, Boris V.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Snyder, David B.; Doreswamy, C. V.

    1996-01-01

    An unavoidable step in the process of space exploration is to use high-power, very large spacecraft launched into Earth orbit. Obviously, the spacecraft will need powerful energy sources. Previous experience has shown that electrical discharges occur on the surfaces of a high-voltage array, and these discharges (arcs) are undesirable in many respects. Moreover, any high voltage conductor will interact with the surrounding plasma, and that interaction may result in electrical discharges between the conductor and plasma (or between two conductors with different potentials, for example, during docking and extravehicular activity). One very important aspect is the generation of electromagnetic radiation by arcing. To prevent the negative influence of electromagnetic noise on the operation of spacecraft systems, it seems necessary to determine the spectra and absolute levels of the radiation, and to determine limitations on the solar array bias voltage that depend on the parameters of LEO plasma and the technical requirements of the spacecraft equipment. This report describes the results of an experimental study and computer simulation of the electromagnetic radiation generated by arcing on spacecraft surfaces. A large set of high quality data was obtained during the Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment (SAMPIE, flight STS-62) and ground test. These data include the amplitudes of current, pulse forms, duration of each arc, and spectra of plasma waves. A theoretical explanation of the observed features is presented in this report too. The elaborated model allows us to determine the parameters of the electromagnetic noise for different frequency ranges, distances from the arcing site, and distinct kinds of plasma waves.

  9. Investigation of Next-Generation Earth Radiation Budget Radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Katherine L.; Mahan, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    The current effort addresses two issues important to the research conducted by the Thermal Radiation Group at Virginia Tech. The first research topic involves the development of a method which can properly model the diffraction of radiation as it enters an instrument aperture. The second topic involves the study of a potential next-generation space-borne radiometric instrument concept. Presented are multiple modeling efforts to describe the diffraction of monochromatic radiant energy passing through an aperture for use in the Monte-Carlo ray-trace environment. Described in detail is a deterministic model based upon Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and the particle theory of light. This method is applicable to either Fraunhofer or Fresnel diffraction situations, but is incapable of predicting the secondary fringes in a diffraction pattern. Also presented is a second diffraction model, based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle with a correcting obliquity factor. This model is useful for predicting Fraunhofer diffraction, and can predict the secondary fringes because it keeps track of phase. NASA is planning for the next-generation of instruments to follow CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System), an instrument which measures components of the Earth's radiant energy budget in three spectral bands. A potential next-generation concept involves modification of the current CERES instrument to measure in a larger number of wavelength bands. This increased spectral partitioning would be achieved by the addition of filters and detectors to the current CERES geometry. The capacity of the CERES telescope to serve for this purpose is addressed in this thesis.

  10. Negative differential resistance devices for generation of terahertz radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisele, H.

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses the principles of operation, state of the art, and future potential of active two-terminal devices for generation of low-noise, continuous-wave terahertz radiation. These devices use transit-time, transferred-electron, and quantum-mechanical effects (or a combination of them) to create a negative differential resistance (NDR) at the frequency of interest. Many different types of NDR devices have been proposed since the earliest days of semiconductor devices and studied in detailed simulations for their power generation potential, but have yet to be demonstrated experimentally. The paper focuses on NDR devices that not only yielded significant output powers at millimeter waves frequencies and higher, but also have the strong potential of generating radiation at terahertz frequencies. Examples of such NDR devices are resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs), superlattice electronic devices (SLEDs), and InP Gunn devices. Examples of their state-of-the-art results are output powers of 0.2 mW at 443 GHz and 5 μW at 1.53 THz from InGaAs/AlAs double barrier RTDs on InP substrate; 5.0 mW at 123.3 GHz, 1.1 mW at 155.1 GHz, and 0.52 mW at 252.8 GHz from GaAs/AlAs superlattice electronic devices on GaAs substrate; and 330 μW at 412 GHz, 86 μW at 479 GHz, and 18 μW at 502 GHz from InP Gunn devices.

  11. Neutron monitor generated data distributions in quantum variational Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussainov, A. S.; Pya, N.

    2016-08-01

    We have assessed the potential applications of the neutron monitor hardware as random number generator for normal and uniform distributions. The data tables from the acquisition channels with no extreme changes in the signal level were chosen as the retrospective model. The stochastic component was extracted by fitting the raw data with splines and then subtracting the fit. Scaling the extracted data to zero mean and variance of one is sufficient to obtain a stable standard normal random variate. Distributions under consideration pass all available normality tests. Inverse transform sampling is suggested to use as a source of the uniform random numbers. Variational Monte Carlo method for quantum harmonic oscillator was used to test the quality of our random numbers. If the data delivery rate is of importance and the conventional one minute resolution neutron count is insufficient, we could always settle for an efficient seed generator to feed into the faster algorithmic random number generator or create a buffer.

  12. Automatic national network of radiation environmental monitoring in Mexico; Red nacional automatica de monitoreo radiologico ambiental en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre, Jaime; Delgado, Jose L.; Lopez, Manuel; Zertuche, Jorge V., E-mail: jaguirre@cnsns.gob.mx, E-mail: jldelgado@cnsns.gob.mx, E-mail: mlopez@cnsns.gob.mx, E-mail: jorge.zertuche@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS), D.F. (Mexico). Direccion de Vigilancia Radiologica

    2013-07-01

    The Direccion de Vigilancia Radiologica (DVR) of the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) de Mexico, performs several function for environmental radiation monitoring. One of these functions is the permanent monitoring of the environmental gamma radiation. For this, it implemented the Red Nacional Automatica de Monitoreo Radiologico Ambiental (RENAMORA) - the National Automated Network for Environmental Radiation Monitoring,which currently comprises 60 detector probes for gamma radiation which with a programmable system that includes information technologies, data transmission and software can send the information in real time to a primary center of data located in the facilities of CNSNS. - When the data are received, the system performs the verification and extraction of the information organized in Tables and charts, and generates a report of environmental gamma radiation dose rate average for each of the probes and for each period of time determined bu CNSNS. The RENAMORA covers the main cities and allows to establish the bases of almost the entire country, as well as to warn about abnormal situations caused by incidents or natural events generated by human activities inside or outside the country which involves radioactive materials; paying special attention to main radiological sites, such as the surroundings of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plants, research centers and the radioactive waste disposal sites.

  13. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, October--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1996. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 74 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network progress report, October--December 1994. Volume 14, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1994. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program.

  15. Tritium contamination and monitoring at Frascati Neutron Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucci, F.; Sandri, S.; Ianni, A. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Dipartimento Ambiente; Vasselli, R. [ANPA, Roma (Italy); Pillon, M.; Bettinali, L. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Dipartimento Energia

    1994-11-01

    The Frascati Neutron Generator (FGN) is a specialised 300 keV, 3 mA direct electrostatic deuteron accelerator which produces about 5-10{sup 1}1 14 MeV neutrons per second by D-T reactions on a tritium-titanium fixed target. This paper concerns the tritium contamination control and monitoring aspects after some months of testing and a preliminary period of operation of the plant. The tritium monitoring system is composed of both on-line and off-line devices to control the tritium concentration in the atmosphere measured from different parts of the plant: vacuum exhaust clean up (VECU) system, stack, etc. The on-line devices are three flux monitors, that sample continuosly the air from up to eight different points in the plant. The passive sampling system is designed to select the chemical form of tritium and to collect respectively HTO and HT in two different cartridges filled with an appropriate drying material. The response of the on-line tritium monitor system are exposed and discussed: some measurements performed with atmosphere dehumidifying apparatus of this system are described and the relevant results are analysed.

  16. Radiation monitoring and beam dump system of the OPAL silicon microvertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    Braibant, S

    1997-01-01

    The OPAL microvertex silicon detector radiation monitoring and beam dump system is described. This system was designed and implemented in order to measure the radiation dose received at every beam crossing and to induce a fast beam dump if the radiation dose exceeds a given threshold.

  17. Silicon carbide detector for laser-generated plasma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuccio, Giuseppe; Puglisi, Donatella; Torrisi, Lorenzo; Lanzieri, Claudio

    2013-05-01

    We present the performance of a Silicon Carbide (SiC) detector in the acquisition of the radiation emitted by laser generated plasmas. The detector has been employed in time of flight (TOF) configuration within an experiment performed at the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS). The detector is a 5 mm2 area 100 nm thick circular Nisbnd SiC Schottky junction on a high purity 4Hsbnd SiC epitaxial layer 115 μm thick. Current signals from the detector with amplitudes up to 1.6 A have been measured, achieving voltage signals over 80 V on a 50 Ω load resistance with excellent signal to noise ratios. Resolution of few nanoseconds has been experimentally demonstrated in TOF measurements. The detector has operated at 250 V DC bias under extreme operating conditions with no observable performance degradation.

  18. Radiative neutrino mass generation from WIMP dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Lineros, Roberto A

    2016-01-01

    The minimal seesaw extension of the Standard Model requires two electroweak singlet fermions in order to accommodate the neutrino oscillation parameters at tree level. Here we consider a next to minimal extension where light neutrino masses are generated radiatively by two electroweak fermions: one singlet and one triplet under SU(2). These should be odd under a parity symmetry and their mixing gives rise to a stable weakly interactive massive particle dark matter candidate. For mass in the GeV-TeV range, it reproduces the correct relic density, and provides an observable signal in nuclear recoil direct detection experiments. The fermion triplet component of the dark matter has gauge interactions, making it potentially detectable at present and near future collider experiments.

  19. Radiation-induced peroxidation of small unilamellar vesicles of phosphatidylcholine generated by sonication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitrac, H. [Univ. Paris, CNRS, Lab. de Chimie Physique, Paris CEDEX (France)]. E-mail: Heidi.Vitrac@univ-paris5.fr; Courregelongue, M. [CNRS, Groupe de Recherche en Physique et Biophysique, Paris (France); Couturier, M. [Hopital Kremlin Bicetre, Lab. de Biochimie et INSERM (France); Collin, F. [Univ. Paris, CNRS, Lab. de Chimie Physique, Paris CEDEX (France); Therond, P. [Hopital Kremlin Bicetre, Lab. de Biochimie et INSERM (France); Remita, S. [Univ. Paris, CNRS, Lab. de Chimie Physique, Paris CEDEX (France); Peretti, P.; Jore, D.; Gardes-Albert, M. [Univ. Paris, CNRS, Lab. de Chimie Physique, Paris CEDEX (France)

    2004-02-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the peroxidation of model membranes constituted of liposomes of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PLPC) submitted to hydroxyl free radicals (generated by {gamma}-radiolysis) attack. Liposomes of PLPC were prepared using the sonication technique, and dynamic light-scattering (DLS) measurements allowed characterization of the liposomal dispersions. Irradiation damages in sonication-generated liposomes were assessed by monitoring several oxidation products, such as conjugated dienes (by means of UV-visible spectrophotometry) and hydroperoxides (using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) associated with chemiluminescence detection). It has been shown that three different families of hydroperoxides are formed: the first one (at low radiation doses) results from HO{center_dot} attack on the linoleyl chain of PLPC, giving phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides possessing a conjugated dienic structure; the two others (at high radiation doses) are obtained by the secondary HO{center_dot} attack on the primary hydroperoxide family. The quantification of these products associated with the comparison of their radiation-dose-dependent formation has provided valuable information concerning the mechanisms of their formation. Analysis by HPLC - mass spectrometry has confirmed the presence of hydroperoxides and underlined various other products, like chain-shortened fragments and oxygenated derivatives of polyunsaturated sn-2 fatty acyl chain residues. Structural assignment proposals of some oxidation products have been proposed. (author)

  20. A phase-space beam position monitor for synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samadi, Nazanin, E-mail: nazanin.samadi@usask.ca [University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Bassey, Bassey; Martinson, Mercedes [University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Belev, George; Dallin, Les; Jong, Mark de [Canadian Light Source, 44 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Chapman, Dean [University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2015-06-25

    A system has been developed to measure the vertical position and angle of the electron beam at a single location from a synchrotron source. The system uses a monochromator tuned to the absorption edge of a contrast material and has a sensitivity comparable with other beam position monitors. The stability of the photon beam position on synchrotron beamlines is critical for most if not all synchrotron radiation experiments. The position of the beam at the experiment or optical element location is set by the position and angle of the electron beam source as it traverses the magnetic field of the bend-magnet or insertion device. Thus an ideal photon beam monitor would be able to simultaneously measure the photon beam’s position and angle, and thus infer the electron beam’s position in phase space. X-ray diffraction is commonly used to prepare monochromatic beams on X-ray beamlines usually in the form of a double-crystal monochromator. Diffraction couples the photon wavelength or energy to the incident angle on the lattice planes within the crystal. The beam from such a monochromator will contain a spread of energies due to the vertical divergence of the photon beam from the source. This range of energies can easily cover the absorption edge of a filter element such as iodine at 33.17 keV. A vertical profile measurement of the photon beam footprint with and without the filter can be used to determine the vertical centroid position and angle of the photon beam. In the measurements described here an imaging detector is used to measure these vertical profiles with an iodine filter that horizontally covers part of the monochromatic beam. The goal was to investigate the use of a combined monochromator, filter and detector as a phase-space beam position monitor. The system was tested for sensitivity to position and angle under a number of synchrotron operating conditions, such as normal operations and special operating modes where the photon beam is intentionally altered

  1. OPTICAL DIFFERENCE FREQUENCY GENERATION OF FAR INFRARED RADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J.R.

    1977-07-01

    Three investigations of difference frequency generation (DFG) of far-infrared radiation by optical mixing are described: a theory of DFG by monochromatic, focused Gaussian pump laser beams, a theory of DFG by a picosecond pump laser pulse, and an experiment using ruby-pumped dye lasers. First, the theory of far-infrared generation by optical mixing of monochromatic, focused Gaussian beams in a uniaxial crystal is developed, taking into account the effects of diffraction, absorption, double refraction, and multiple reflections and total reflection at the boundary surfaces. (Reflection and transmission coefficients of a uniaxial crystal slab are derived by a new matrix technique.) Results of numerical calculations are presented. Focusing the pump beams appreciably enhances the far-infrared output despite the strong far-infrared diffraction. In a 1-cm long crystal, the optimum focal spot size is approximately equal to or smaller than the far-infrared wavelength for output frequencies less than 100 cm{sup -1}. Double refraction of the pump beams is relatively unimportant. Both far-infrared absorption and boundary reflections have major effects on the far-infrared output and its angular distribution. The former is often the factor which limits the output power. We show that a simple model treating the nonlinear polarization as a constant lie-radius Gaussian distribution of radiating dipoles adequately describes the effect of pump-beam focusing. We also compare the results of our calculations with those for second-harmonic generation. Second, a theoretical calculation of far-infrared power spectra generated by picosecond pulses in a nonlinear crystal is developed. The results are illustrated with two practical examples: LiNbO{sub 3} slabs oriented for rectification of the optical e-ray and for beating of the optical o-ray with the optical e-ray. The former is phase matched at 0 cm{sup -1}; the latter, at both the forward-(FCPM) and backward-collinear phase

  2. Radiation Tolerance of Cryogenic Beam Loss Monitor Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kurfuerst, C; Bartosik, M; Dehning, B; Eisel, T; Sapinski, M; Eremin, V; Verbitskaya, E; Fabjan, C; Griesmayer, E

    2013-01-01

    At the triplet magnets, close to the interaction regions of the LHC, the current Beam Loss Monitoring system is sensitive to the particle showers resulting from the collision of the two beams. For the future, with beams of higher energy and intensity resulting in higher luminosity, distinguishing between these interaction products and possible quench-provoking beam losses from the primary proton beams will be challenging. Investigations are therefore underway to optimise the system by locating the beam loss detectors as close as possible to the superconducting coils of the triplet magnets. This means putting detectors inside the cold mass in superfluid helium at 1.9 K. Previous tests have shown that solid state diamond and silicon detectors as well as liquid helium ionisation chambers are promising candidates. This paper will address the final open question of their radiation resistance for 20 years of nominal LHC operation, by reporting on the results from high irradiation beam tests carried out at CERN in a...

  3. Web design and development for centralize area radiation monitoring system in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Yussup, Nolida; Haris, Mohd Fauzi; Soh @ Shaari, Syirrazie Che; Azman, Azraf; Razalim, Faizal Azrin B. Abdul; Yapp, Raymond; Hasim, Harzawardi; Aslan, Mohd Dzul Aiman

    2017-01-01

    One of the applications for radiation detector is area monitoring which is crucial for safety especially at a place where radiation source is involved. An environmental radiation monitoring system is a professional system that combines flexibility and ease of use for data collection and monitoring. Nowadays, with the growth of technology, devices and equipment can be connected to the network and Internet to enable online data acquisition. This technology enables data from the area monitoring devices to be transmitted to any place and location directly and faster. In Nuclear Malaysia, area radiation monitor devices are located at several selective locations such as laboratories and radiation facility. This system utilizes an Ethernet as a communication media for data acquisition of the area radiation levels from radiation detectors and stores the data at a server for recording and analysis. This paper discusses on the design and development of website that enable all user in Nuclear Malaysia to access and monitor the radiation level for each radiation detectors at real time online. The web design also included a query feature for history data from various locations online. The communication between the server's software and web server is discussed in detail in this paper.

  4. EICT Based Diagnostic Tool and Monitoring System for EMF Radiation to Sustain Environmental Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Parandham

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available the adverse effects of electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and communication towers on health issues are being well documented today. However, exact correlation between radiation of communication towers and their radiation levels, are not monitored. Aim of this paper is to study, analyze, apply networking and data mining technologies to develop an EICT based Diagnostic tool and Monitoring system for electromagnetic radiation levels into environment. This system is to network all mobile towers of each service provider as a single entity and then connect all service providers to a central monitoring agency online for continuous monitoring. Since very large numbers of mobile towers exist in India, each state can have its own regional network which is further networked with national central network. This can be enlarged to entire world for monitoring the EMF radiation levels near every mobile tower. For these regional national and international networks the connectivity is to be instituted by the respective service provider. In this paper an attempt is made to logically apply Data Mining and networking technologies to develop a central EICT based diagnostic tool and monitoring system for EMF radiation from each transmission tower. With this system regional, national and international agencies/authorities can monitor the EMF radiation at each and every transmission tower area continuously and verify them with exposure standards. It is proposed to display this information using Integrated Display System in front of monitoring authority at appropriate levels.

  5. Using ACIS on the Chandra X-ray Observatory as a particle radiation monitor II

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, C E; Bautz, M W; O'Dell, S L

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer is an instrument on the Chandra X-ray Observatory. CCDs are vulnerable to radiation damage, particularly by soft protons in the radiation belts and solar storms. The Chandra team has implemented procedures to protect ACIS during high-radiation events including autonomous protection triggered by an on-board radiation monitor. Elevated temperatures have reduced the effectiveness of the on-board monitor. The ACIS team has developed an algorithm which uses data from the CCDs themselves to detect periods of high radiation and a flight software patch to apply this algorithm is currently active on-board the instrument. In this paper, we explore the ACIS response to particle radiation through comparisons to a number of external measures of the radiation environment. We hope to better understand the efficiency of the algorithm as a function of the flux and spectrum of the particles and the time-profile of the radiation event.

  6. Top of Atmosphere Radiation MVIRI/SEVIRI Data Record within the Climate Monitoring SAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, Manon; Clerbaux, Nicolas; Ipe, Alessandro; Tornow, Florian; Hollmann, Rainer; Baudrez, Edward; Velazquez Blazquez, Almudena; Moreels, Johan; Trentmann, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    The CM SAF Top of Atmosphere (TOA) Radiation MVIRI/SEVIRI Data Record provides a homogeneous satellite-based climatology of the TOA Reflected Solar (TRS) and Emitted Thermal (TET) radiation in all-sky conditions. The continuous monitoring of these two components of the Earth Radiation Budget is of prime importance to study climate variability and change. The Meteosat Visible and InfraRed Imager (MVIRI - from 1983 until 2004) and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI - from 2004 onward) on board the Meteosat First and Second Generation satellites are combined to generate a long Thematic Climate Data Record (TCDR). Combining MVIRI and SEVIRI allows an unprecedented temporal (30 minutes / 15 minutes) and spatial (2.5 km / 3 km) resolution compared to the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) products. This is a step forward as it helps to increase the knowledge of the diurnal cycle and the small-scale spatial variations of radiation. The MVIRI/SEVIRI Data Record covers a 32 years time period from 1 February 1983 to 30 April 2015. The TOA radiation products are provided as daily mean, monthly mean and monthly averages of the hourly integrated values (diurnal cycle). To ensure consistency with other CM SAF products, the data is provided on a regular grid at a spatial resolution of 0.05 degrees (i.e. about 5.5 km) and covers the region between +/- 70° longitude and +/- 70° latitude. Validation of the MVIRI/SEVIRI Data Record has been performed by intercomparison with several references such as the CERES products (EBAF, SYN1deg-Day and SYN1deg-M3Hour), the HIRS OLR Climate Data Record (Daily and Monthly), the reconstructed ERBS WFOV-CERES (or DEEP-C) dataset and the ISCCP FD products. CERES is considered as the best reference from March 2000 onward. The quality of the early part of the Data Record is verified against the other references. In general, the stability of all the TOA radiation products is estimated to be better than 4 W.m-2

  7. Adaptive Multichannel Radiation Sensors for Plant Parameter Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhauer, Hannes; Remmler, Paul; Schuhmann, Gudrun; Lausch, Angela; Merbach, Ines; Assing, Martin; Mollenhauer, Olaf; Dietrich, Peter; Bumberger, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Nutrients such as nitrogen are playing a key role in the plant life cycle. They are much needed for chlorophyll production and other plant cell components. Therefore, the crop yield is strongly affected by plant nutrient status. Due to the spatial and temporal variability of soil characteristics or swaying agricultural inputs the plant development varies within a field. Thus, the determination of these fluctuations in the plant development is valuable for a detection of stress conditions and optimization of fertilisation due to its high environmental and economic impact. Plant parameters play crucial roles in plant growth estimation and prediction since they are used as indicators of plant performance. Especially indices derived out of remote sensing techniques provide quantitative information about agricultural crops instantaneously, and above all, non-destructively. Due to the specific absorption of certain plant pigments, a characteristic spectral signature can be seen in the visible and IR part of the electromagnetic spectrum, known as narrow-band peaks. In an analogous manner, the presence and concentration of different nutrients cause a characteristic spectral signature. To this end, an adequate remote sensing monitoring concept is needed, considering heterogeneity and dynamic of the plant population and economical aspects. This work will present the development and field investigations of an inexpensive multichannel radiation sensor to observe the incoming and reflected specific parts or rather distinct wavelengths of the solar light spectrum on the crop and facilitate the determination of different plant indices. Based on the selected sensor wavelengths, the sensing device allows the detection of specific parameters, e.g. plant vitality, chlorophyll content or nitrogen content. Besides the improvement of the sensor characteristic, the simple wavelength adaption, and the price-performance ratio, the achievement of appropriate energy efficiency as well as a

  8. Radiation tolerance assurance of technical equipment in the LHC radiation monitoring for technical equipment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnands, Thijs; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2005-01-01

    In contrast with other accelerators at CERN, a large amount of technical equipment will be located in the LHC tunnel, the underground areas and in the experimental caverns where they will be exposed to radiation. Nearly all this equipment makes, to a certain extent, use of commercial microelectronics which is extremely sensitive to radiation damage, both instantaneous damage and cumulative damage. Examples in the TS Department are the electronics for the position sensors of the low beta quadrupoles, the access system, the cooling and ventilation units, the electronics for the electrical distribution, the oxygen deficiency monitors and fire detection systems. The basic effects of radiation on electronic systems and components are well understood because similar problems with radiation are encountered in the aerospace and aviation industry. Since 1998, an efficient and original Radiation Tolerance Assurance approach for the LHC machine has been established. Its aim is to minimise the effects of radiation damage...

  9. Monitoring of increased natural occuring radiation exposure; Arbeitsplatzueberwachung bei erhoehter natuerlicher Strahlenexposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guhr, Andreas [ALTRAC Radon-Messtechnik, Berlin (Germany); Leissring, Nick [Bergtechnisches Ingenieurbuero GEOPRAX, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The radiation exposure due to natural occurring sources is a special challenge for the health and safety protection at workplaces. The monitoring of the radon exposure of employees in mines, radon-spa and in water works is regulated by prescription of radiation protection. The relevant compounds of the radiation exposure are the inhalation of radon and radon daughter products; terrestrial irradiation; ingestion of radioactive contaminated materials and the inhalation of contaminated dust. The monitoring of the radiation workers is realized essentially by measurements by radiation safety officer of the performing company, by an external engineering firm as well as by control measurements of experts of local authorities. The experiences in the practice have shown that in the field of operational radiation protection only a combination of personal- and operational dosimetry is suitable to avoid health hazards by work in fields with increased natural occurring radiation exposures.

  10. [Experimental research on the electromagnetic radiation immunity of a kind of portable monitor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jun; Xiao, Dongping; Jian, Xin

    2010-11-01

    The paper is focused on a kind of portable monitor that is widely used in military hospitals. In order to study the electromagnetic radiation immunity of the monitor, the experiments of electromagnetic radiation caused by radio frequency continuous wave in reverberation chamber and by ultra wide band (UWB) electromagnetic pulse have been done. The study results show that UWB electromagnetic pulse interferes observably the operating state of the monitor. It should be paid high attention to take protective measures. The monitor tested has some electromagnetic immunity ability for radio frequency continuous wave radiation. The frequent abnormal phenomena are baseline drift and waveform distortion. The electromagnetic sensitivity of the monitor is related to the frequency of interference source. The monitor tested is most sensitive to the frequency of 390 MHz.

  11. Toward the Next Generation of Air Quality Monitoring Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Angel; Reuben, Aaron; Shindell, Drew; deSherbinin, Alex; Levy, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces an initiative to bridge the state of scientific knowledge on air pollution with the needs of policymakers and stakeholders to design the "next generation" of air quality indicators. As a first step this initiative assesses current monitoring and modeling associated with a number of important pollutants with an eye toward identifying knowledge gaps and scientific needs that are a barrier to reducing air pollution impacts on human and ecosystem health across the globe. Four outdoor air pollutants were considered e particulate matter, ozone, mercury, and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) e because of their clear adverse impacts on human and ecosystem health and because of the availability of baseline data for assessment for each. While other papers appearing in this issue will address each pollutant separately, this paper serves as a summary of the initiative and presents recommendations for needed investments to provide improved measurement, monitoring, and modeling data for policyrelevant indicators. The ultimate goal of this effort is to enable enhanced public policy responses to air pollution by linking improved data and measurement methods to decision-making through the development of indicators that can allow policymakers to better understand the impacts of air pollution and, along with source attribution based on modeling and measurements, facilitate improved policies to solve it. The development of indicators represents a crucial next step in this process.

  12. A radiation belt monitor for the High Energy Transient Experiment Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, D. H.; Wenzel, K. W.; Petrasso, R. D.; Prigozhin, G. Y.; Doty, J.; Ricker, G.

    1993-01-01

    A Radiation Belt Monitor (RBM) sensitive to protons and electrons with energy approximately greater than 0.5 MeV has been designed for the High Energy Transient Experiment (HETE) satellite in order to: first, control the on-off configuration of the experiments (i.e. those susceptible to proton damage); and second, to indicate the presence of proton and/or electron events that could masquerade as legitimate high energy photon events. One of the two RBM channels has an enhanced sensitivity to electrons. Each channel of the RBM, based on a PIN silicon diode, requires a typical power of 6 milliwatts. Tests have been performed with protons with energies from approximately 0.1 to 2.5 MeV (generated by a Cockcroft-Walton linear accelerator via the d(d,p)t reaction), and with electrons with energies up to 1 MeV (from a 1.0 microcurie Bi-207 source).

  13. 105KE Basin Area Radiation Monitor System (ARMS) Acceptance Test Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KINKEL, C.C.

    1999-12-14

    This procedure is intended for the Area Radiation Monitoring System, ARMS, that is replacing the existing Programmable Input-Output Processing System, PIOPS, radiation monitoring system in the 105KE basin. The new system will be referred to as the 105KE ARMS, 105KE Area Radiation Monitoring System. This ATP will ensure calibration integrity of the 105KE radiation detector loops. Also, this ATP will test and document the display, printing, alarm output, alarm acknowledgement, upscale check, and security functions. This ATP test is to be performed after completion of the 105KE ARMS installation. The alarm outputs of the 105KE ARMS will be connected to the basin detector alarms, basin annunciator system, and security Alarm Monitoring System, AMS, located in the 200 area Central Alarm Station (CAS).

  14. 105KE Basin Area Radiation Monitor System (ARMS) Acceptance Test Procedure

    CERN Document Server

    Kinkel, C C

    1999-01-01

    This procedure is intended for the Area Radiation Monitoring System, ARMS, that is replacing the existing Programmable Input-Output Processing System, PIOPS, radiation monitoring system in the 105KE basin. The new system will be referred to as the 105KE ARMS, 105KE Area Radiation Monitoring System. This ATP will ensure calibration integrity of the 105KE radiation detector loops. Also, this ATP will test and document the display, printing, alarm output, alarm acknowledgement, upscale check, and security functions. This ATP test is to be performed after completion of the 105KE ARMS installation. The alarm outputs of the 105KE ARMS will be connected to the basin detector alarms, basin annunciator system, and security Alarm Monitoring System, AMS, located in the 200 area Central Alarm Station (CAS).

  15. Environmental monitoring in emergency situations. On the measurements of environmental gamma rays and radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriuchi, Shigeru [Nuclear Safety Technology Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    This report describes the present situations, the previously developed technique and the future problems on the monitoring of environmental radiation at emergency. The present maintenance conditions of surveying systems for environmental radiation monitoring and measuring apparatuses for low-level radiation in an environment are extremely satisfactory in Japan. With the accident of TMI-2 reactor in U.S.A. the studies on monitoring and assessment systems for environmental radiation at emergency have been extensively progressed as a priority subject for environmental safety research. Here, an aerial radiological survey and assessment system, which is a block diagram example for aerial survey system developed by JAERI was presented. Also an observation pattern of {sup 41}Ar plume {gamma}-ray at a site under the lee several hundred meters apart from the source was obtained. It was found that there remain many problems to be taken into consideration to practically perform environmental monitoring. (M.N.)

  16. Development of NORM determination Algorithm for Radiation Portal Monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hwan; Kim, Ye Won; Yoo, Hyun Jun; Kim, Chan Kyu; Lee, Sang Heon; Cho, Gyu Seong [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, probability of distinguishing nuclide analysis is proposed by measuring compton energy spectrum of gamma ray with large-area PVT scintillator to solve fundamental problem. US coast guard (USCG) suggested the methods for which terrorism could be prevented to international maritime organization (IMO) and the bill in which container safety was assured was suggested by U.S customs officials. However, radiation portal monitors (RPMs) running at the airport and the harbor cannot distinguish special cargo material (SNM) from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NOMR) containing a small dose of radioisotope from nature. Consequently, cargo sorted out by RPM using polyvinyl-toluene (PVT) scintillator contains approximately 99% of NORM (such as cat litter, potash, tableware and etc.) Many research institutes are under way to reduce such a nuisance alarm. Tom Burr conducted pattern recognition methods with extracted 184 features (46 features from each of four panels) from 235 profiles out of 406 profiles representing gamma alarm. But this method is more like statistical analysis using the data of low and high gamma than practical nuclide analysis. So it has limitation to reduce nuisance alarm. Regarding to the experimental result for difference distances between the source and the scintillator using large-area PVT based plastic scintillator, the linearity was not secured when the distance is from 0cm to 20cm. It is expected that, for these cases, the scintillation areas in which photon is emitted were small. The distance between PMTs and these areas was too far to detect every emitted photon because the photons were attenuated by plastic scintillator. Because of this reason, energy spectra were shifted to relatively lower channel. While, no more spectrum shifting occurred for 50cm and 100cm. It is considered that the increase of the gamma source solid angle makes scintillation area larger and no more spectrum shifting occur. With this experiment, it was

  17. Design of second generation Hanford tank corrosion monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgemon, G.L.

    1998-04-02

    small amplitude signals that are spontaneously generated by electrochemical reactions occurring at corroding or other surfaces. Laboratory studies and recent reports on field applications have reported that EN analysis is well suited for monitoring and identifying the onset of localized corrosion, and for measuring uniform corrosion rates. A two year laboratory study was started at Hanford in 1995 to provide a technical basis for using EN in Hanford nuclear waste tanks. Based on this study, a prototype system was constructed and deployed in DST 241-AZ-101 in August, 1996. Based on the successful demonstration of this prototype for more than a year, a first-generation full-scale system was designed and installed into DST 241-AN-107 in September 1997. This document summarizes the design and operational requirements of the second-generation full-scale system scheduled for deployment into 241-AY-102.

  18. Practice and assessment for the young generation's understanding of the radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Dong Han; Kim, Hee Re Young [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Rok; Noh, Seong Kee [Korea Science and Technology Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    This study is to develop effective educational contents for the young generation to understand radiation correctly. To achieve it, the first hand measurements of natural background radiation with the aid of radiation detectors were conducted. Provided are provided radiation detectors, cloud chambers, radiation measuring kit, and various teaching materials. Students participated in the first hand measurements have been subjected to the relevant Q and A in order to assess the consequent impact on the understanding of radiation before and after the implementation. The representative results are represented and analyzed.

  19. Visits by Nuclear-Powered Warships to Australian Ports: Report on Radiation Monitoring During 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Groups which consist of members from the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation ( ANSTO ), the Health and Environmental authorities of...different ports; however, the Leader of the Radiation Monitoring Group is always a radiation protection officer from ANSTO . 13. The marine environmental

  20. Visits by Nuclear Powered Warships to Australian Ports. Report on Radiation Monitoring During 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Technology Organisation ( ANSTO ), the Health and Environmental authorities of the host State or Territory and the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) undertake the...always a radiation protection officer from ANSTO . 13. The marine environmental monitoring program is a joint undertaking by the Australian Radiation

  1. Status of the OPAL microvertex detector and new radiation monitoring and beam dump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Sijbrand de

    1998-11-01

    The status of the OPAL Phase III microvertex detector is discussed briefly. This is followed by a more detailed description of the OPAL microvertex detector radiation monitoring and beam dump system. This system measures AC currents induced by radiation on each passing of the beams in silicon diodes mounted close to the microvertex detector front-end electronics. Examples are shown for incidents leading to a beam dump trigger. The integrated radiation dose is also discussed.

  2. Development of a Pedestrian Special Nuclear Material Radiation Monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Special nuclear material (SNM) monitor equipped at the exits of a protected SNM area can offer a rapid, effective means to search and prevent from unauthorized movement of SNM. In order to apply the detecting technique for SNM to nuclear field and improve the ability to nuclear material control, a pedestrian SNM monitor and a vehicle SNM monitor both with plastic scintillate detector will be developed during the years from 2001 to 2005. The overall design of the pedestrian SNM monitors, the design of relative electronics and control unit and relative mechanical design and machining has been performed in the year 2001. This equipment will be established by the end

  3. Optical Real-Time Space Radiation Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Real-time dosimetry is needed to provide immediate feedback, so astronauts can minimize their exposure to ionizing radiation during periods of high solar activity....

  4. Nonintercepting electron beam size monitor using optical diffraction radiation interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cianchi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of diffraction radiation (DR, emitted when a charged particle beam passes through a rectangular slit, has been proposed and successfully tested as a nonintercepting diagnostic of high brightness beams. However, some problems related to the control of the particle trajectory through the slit still remain. If an additional slit is placed in front of the first one, at a distance shorter than the radiation formation length, interference between the forward diffraction radiation from the upstream slit and the backward diffraction radiation from the downstream slit can be observed. In this paper we report the first experimental observation of this effect, which we call here optical diffraction radiation interference (ODRI. If the two slits have different dimensions and are not aligned on the same axis, the properties of the ODRI pattern can be effectively used for nonintercepting beam diagnostics, especially for the unambiguously determination of the beam size. Indeed, the advantage of ODRI compared with a single aperture DR screen is due to the reduction of synchrotron radiation background, the increase of sensitivity for transverse beam dimensions, and the possibility to separate effects caused by the beam size and by beam offset within the slit.

  5. Emergency monitoring strategy and radiation measurements document of the NKS project emergency management and radiation monitoring in nuclear and radiological accidents (EMARAD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, J. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) (Finland)

    2006-04-15

    This report is one of the deliverables of the NKS Project Emergency management and radiation monitoring in nuclear and radiological accidents (EMARAD) (20022005). The project and the overall results are briefly described in the NKS publication 'Emergency Management and Radiation Monitoring in Nuclear and Radiological Accidents. Summary Report on the NKS Project EMARAD' (NKS-137, April 2006). In a nuclear or radiological emergency, all radiation measurements must be performed efficiently and the results interpreted correctly in order to provide the decision-makers with adequate data needed in analysing the situation and carrying out countermeasures. Managing measurements in different situations in a proper way requires the existence of pre-prepared emergency monitoring strategies. Preparing a comprehensive yet versatile strategy is not an easy task to perform because there are lots of different factors that have to be taken into account. The primary objective of this study was to discuss the general problematics concerning emergency monitoring strategies and to describe a few important features of an efficient emergency monitoring system as well as factors affecting measurement activities in practise. Some information concerning the current situation in the Nordic countries has also been included. (au)

  6. Emergency monitoring strategy and radiation measurements document of the NKS project emergency management and radiation monitoring in nuclear and radiological accidents (EMARAD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, J. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) (Finland)

    2006-04-15

    This report is one of the deliverables of the NKS Project Emergency management and radiation monitoring in nuclear and radiological accidents (EMARAD) (20022005). The project and the overall results are briefly described in the NKS publication 'Emergency Management and Radiation Monitoring in Nuclear and Radiological Accidents. Summary Report on the NKS Project EMARAD' (NKS-137, April 2006). In a nuclear or radiological emergency, all radiation measurements must be performed efficiently and the results interpreted correctly in order to provide the decision-makers with adequate data needed in analysing the situation and carrying out countermeasures. Managing measurements in different situations in a proper way requires the existence of pre-prepared emergency monitoring strategies. Preparing a comprehensive yet versatile strategy is not an easy task to perform because there are lots of different factors that have to be taken into account. The primary objective of this study was to discuss the general problematics concerning emergency monitoring strategies and to describe a few important features of an efficient emergency monitoring system as well as factors affecting measurement activities in practise. Some information concerning the current situation in the Nordic countries has also been included. (au)

  7. Environmental Radiation Monitoring During Visits of Nuclear Powered Warships to Australian Ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    through the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation ( ANSTO ), is to ensure that an appropriately qualified officer is available for each...monitoring equipment, * Radiation Monitoring Handbook for Visits by Nuclear Powered Warships to Australian Ports, ANSTO , 1985 L.ai 6 c. communication

  8. Controlling and monitoring exposure to radiation from medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Above a certain threshold dose, ionising radiation invariably provokes harmful effects such as burns, nausea and aplasia. Their severity increases with the dose received. There is no known threshold dose below which long-term harmful effects, such as cancer and genetic defects, do not occur. Ionising radiation comes from both natural and man-made sources. Worldwide, medical exposure accounts for 98% of the dose received from man-made sources. In France, the average dose per person received from diagnostic radiological examinations increased by more than 50% between 2002 and 2007. This increase was due to more frequent use of computed tomography (CT) and diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. The internationally defined individual dose limits for the general population do not apply to the medical uses of ionising radiation, but medical exposure must comply with the principles of radiation protection: the examination must be justified and the dose optimised. In France, shortcomings are observed in the application of these principles. In 2012, the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) received 345 reports of "significant radiation protection incidents" affecting patients: 75% involving external beam radiotherapy, 15% involving nuclear medicine, 6% involving CT scans, and 4% involving radiology. In 2011, reference levels were established for the doses received by children during CT imaging and nuclear medicine procedures. When deciding whether to order a diagnostic procedure using ionising radiation, the harm-benefit balance of both the procedure and the chosen technique must be taken into account. When two procedures have the same performance, the technique that exposes the patient to the lowest dose of radiation should be chosen.

  9. Integral Radiators for Next Generation Thermal Control Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Integral radiators integrate the primary structural system and the thermal rejection system into a dual function subsystem allowing for reduced weight. The design of...

  10. Development and performance characteristics of personal gamma spectrometer for radiation monitoring applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye Min; Kim, Jeong Ho; Park, Chan Jong; Joo, Koan Sik [University of Myongji, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The direct detection method uses a semiconductor device that generates an electrical signal immediately, with no intermediate stage, through gamma-ray absorption. The indirect detection method is a scintillation detection system, in which a photoelectric device detects photons having wavelengths in the visible region, which are produced through interactions between gamma-rays and the scintillator, as electrical signals. HPGe, CdZnTe, CdTe, and HgI2 are primarily used in semiconductor devices employing the direct detection method. These materials are preferred in gamma-ray spectrometry analysis because of their excellent energy resolution compared to that of the scintillator detector. However, the maintenance of materials with this composition is relatively expensive compared to that of scintillator crystals, and reduction in sensitivity and resolution as a result of radiation damage within a highly irradiated environment can prove problematic. Currently, compound semiconductor materials are more expensive than scintillator crystals. The compactness, low-voltage supply, and high resolution of the developed prototype are very useful features as regards its application in a variety of fields, such as homeland security (HLS) and environmental radiation monitoring systems (ERMS)

  11. Measurements of terahertz radiation generated using a metallic, corrugated pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bane, Karl; Stupakov, Gennady; Antipov, Sergey; Fedurin, Mikhail; Kusche, Karl; Swinson, Christina; Xiang, Dao

    2017-02-01

    A method for producing narrow-band THz radiation proposes passing an ultra-relativistic beam through a metallic pipe with small periodic corrugations. We present results of a measurement of such an arrangement at Brookhaven's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). Our pipe was copper and was 5 cm long; the aperture was cylindrically symmetric, with a 1 mm (radius) bore and a corrugation depth (peak-to-peak) of 60 μm. In the experiment we measured both the effect on the beam of the structure wakefield and the spectral properties of the radiation excited by the beam. We began by injecting a relatively long beam compared to the wavelength of the radiation, but with short rise time, to excite the structure, and then used a downstream spectrometer to infer the radiation wavelength. This was followed by injecting a shorter bunch, and then using an interferometer (also downstream of the corrugated pipe) to measure the spectrum of the induced THz radiation. For the THz pulse we obtain and compare with calculations: the central frequency, the bandwidth, and the spectral power-compared to a diffraction radiation background signal.

  12. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 20: Radiation Monitoring Techniques (Radiochemical).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  13. Pollen and spores as a passive monitor of ultraviolet radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraser, W.T.; Lomax, B.H.; Jardine, P.E.; Gosling, W.D.; Sephton, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Sporopollenin is the primary component of the outer walls of pollen and spores. The chemical composition of sporopollenin is responsive to levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure, via a concomitant change in the concentration of phenolic compounds. This relationship offers the possibility of

  14. DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) Data Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nimi; Hagemeyer, Derek

    2012-05-05

    This slide show presents the 2011 draft data for DOE occupational radiation exposure.Clarification is given on Reporting Data regarding: reporting Total Organ Dose (TOD); reporting Total Skin Dose (TSD), and Total Extremity Dose (TExD) ; and Special individuals reporting.

  15. Response of radiation monitoring labels to gamma rays and electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahim, F. Abdel; Miller, Arne; McLaughlin, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    , and differences in dose rate and radiation type (gamma rays and electron beams) were made on 15 kinds of labels. The results show that, for many types of indicators, diverse effects may give misleading conclusions unless countermeasures are taken. For example, some of the most commonly used labels, which contain...

  16. Measurements of Terahertz Radiation Generated using a Metallic, Corrugated Pipe

    CERN Document Server

    Bane, Karl; Antipov, Sergey; Fedurin, Mikhail; Kusche, Karl; Swinson, Christina; Xiang, Dao

    2016-01-01

    A method for producing narrow-band THz radiation proposes passing an ultra-relativistic beam through a metallic pipe with small periodic corrugations. We present results of a measurement of such an arrangement at Brookhaven's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). Our pipe was copper and was 5 cm long; the aperture was cylindrically symmetric, with a 1 mm (radius) bore and a corrugation depth (peak-to-peak) of 60 um. In the experiment we measured both the effect on the beam of the structure wakefield and the spectral properties of the radiation excited by the beam. We began by injecting a relatively long beam compared to the wavelength of the radiation, but with short rise time, to excite the structure, and then used a downstream spectrometer to infer the radiation wavelength. This was followed by injecting a shorter bunch, and then using an interferometer (also downstream of the corrugated pipe) to measure the spectrum of the induced THz radiation. For the THz pulse we obtain and compare with calculations: the cen...

  17. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Goodman, M.; Hardin, D. M.; Hall, J.; Yubin He, M.; Regner, K.; Conover, H.; Smith, T.; Meyer, P.; Lu, J.; Garrett, M.

    2009-12-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decision-making for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  18. Upgrading of data acquisition software for centralized radiation monitoring system in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yussup, F.; Ibrahim, M. M.; Haris, M. F.; Soh, S. C.; Hasim, H.; Azman, A.; Razalim, F. A. A.; Yapp, R.; Ramli, A. A. M.

    2016-01-01

    With the growth of technology, many devices and equipments can be connected to the network and internet to enable online data acquisition for real-time data monitoring and control from monitoring devices located at remote sites. Centralized radiation monitoring system (CRMS) is a system that enables area radiation level at various locations in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia) to be monitored centrally by using a web browser. The Local Area Network (LAN) in Nuclear Malaysia is utilized in CRMS as a communication media for data acquisition of the area radiation levels from radiation detectors. The development of the system involves device configuration, wiring, network and hardware installation, software and web development. This paper describes the software upgrading on the system server that is responsible to acquire and record the area radiation readings from the detectors. The recorded readings are called in a web programming to be displayed on a website. Besides the main feature which is acquiring the area radiation levels in Nuclear Malaysia centrally, the upgrading involves new features such as uniform time interval for data recording and exporting, warning system and dose triggering.

  19. Upgrading of data acquisition software for centralized radiation monitoring system in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yussup, F., E-mail: nolida@nm.gov.my; Ibrahim, M. M., E-mail: maslina-i@nm.gov.my; Soh, S. C.; Hasim, H. [Instrumentation and Automation Centre, Technical Support Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang. Selangor (Malaysia); Haris, M. F. [Information Technology Centre, Technical Support Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang. Selangor (Malaysia); Azman, A. [Prototype and Development Centre, Technical Support Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang. Selangor (Malaysia); Razalim, F. A. A.; Yapp, R. [Health Physics Group, Radiation Safety and Health Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang. Selangor (Malaysia); Ramli, A. A. M. [Technical Support Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang. Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    With the growth of technology, many devices and equipments can be connected to the network and internet to enable online data acquisition for real-time data monitoring and control from monitoring devices located at remote sites. Centralized radiation monitoring system (CRMS) is a system that enables area radiation level at various locations in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia) to be monitored centrally by using a web browser. The Local Area Network (LAN) in Nuclear Malaysia is utilized in CRMS as a communication media for data acquisition of the area radiation levels from radiation detectors. The development of the system involves device configuration, wiring, network and hardware installation, software and web development. This paper describes the software upgrading on the system server that is responsible to acquire and record the area radiation readings from the detectors. The recorded readings are called in a web programming to be displayed on a website. Besides the main feature which is acquiring the area radiation levels in Nuclear Malaysia centrally, the upgrading involves new features such as uniform time interval for data recording and exporting, warning system and dose triggering.

  20. Monitoring of Human Exposure to Radiation With the Binucleated Lymphocyte Micronucleus Assay 

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEJI-LINANG; JINHAI-YAN; 等

    2000-01-01

    The micronuclei(MN) of peripheral blood lymphocytes from radiation-exposed people were monitroed with the binucleated lymphocyte micronucleus assay(CBMN),MN rates in people with radiation-disease,radiation exposed and a control group were 12.57%,4.20%and 3.26%,respectively.The MN rate of patients with radiation-disease was significantly higher than those of other groups(P0.05),Meanwhile,chromosome aberrations(CA) of 3 groups were determined.The results were similar to those seen while the MN assay,CA rates were 2.06%,0.93%,and 0.69%,respectively,CA rate of the radiation-disease group was significantly higher than that of other groups(P0.05),The study indicates that the CBMN assay is a rapid,sensitive and accurate method which can be used to monitor a large population exposed to radiation.

  1. Generation of terahertz radiation by hot electrons in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibis, O V; da Costa, M Rosenau; Portnoi, M E

    2007-11-01

    We demonstrate theoretically that quasi-metallic carbon nanotubes emit terahertz radiation induced by an applied voltage. It is shown that in the ballistic transport regime their spontaneous emission spectra have a universal frequency and bias voltage dependence, which raises the possibility of utilizing this effect for high-frequency nanoelectronic devices.

  2. Radiation Internal Monitoring by In Vivo Scanning in Operation Tomodachi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    and energy of the radiation to cause stochastic effects (e.g. cancer). Equivalent Dose HT = �, The equivalent dose to a tissue or organ...prolonged excretion, resulting in a thyroid dose a little larger than normal. On the contrary, hyperthyroid adults exhibit a shorter iodine half-time in the...shown in Table 18. Uncertainty was introduced by using the clean human phantom concept because people vary in size causing different shielding

  3. Laser weld process monitoring and control using chromatic filtering of thermal radiation from a weld pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk; Baik, Sung Hoon; Chung, Chin Man

    2000-06-01

    The application of high power Nd: YAG lasers for precision welding in industry has been growing quite fast these days in diverse areas such as the automobile, the electronics and the aerospace industries. These diverse applications also require the new developments for the precise control and the reliable process monitoring. Due to the hostile environment in laser welding, a remote monitoring is required. The present development relates in general to weld process monitoring techniques, and more particularly to improved methods and apparatus for real-time monitoring of thermal radiation of a weld pool to monitor a size variation and a focus shift of the weld pool for weld process control, utilizing the chromatic aberration of focusing lens or lenses. The monitoring technique of the size variation and the focus shift of a weld pool is developed by using the chromatic filtering of the thermal radiation from a weld pool. The monitoring of weld pool size variation can also be used to monitor the weld depth in a laser welding. Furthermore, the monitoring of the size variation of a weld pool is independent of the focus shift of a weld pool and the monitoring of the focus shift of a weld pool is independent of the size variation of a weld pool.

  4. Generation of high-power electromagnetic radiation by a beam-driven plasma antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annenkov, V. V.; Volchok, E. P.; Timofeev, I. V.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we study how efficiently electromagnetic radiation can be generated by a relativistic electron beam with a gigawatt power level during its injection into a thin magnetized plasma. It is shown that, if the transverse beam and plasma size is compared with the radiation wavelength and the plasma density is modulated along the magnetic field, such a beam-plasma system can radiate electromagnetic waves via the antenna mechanism. We propose a theoretical model describing generation of electromagnetic waves by this plasma antenna and calculate its main radiation characteristics. In the two-dimensional case theoretical predictions on the radiation efficiency are shown to be confirmed by the results of particle-in-cell simulations, and the three-dimensional variant of this theory is used to estimate the peak power of sub-terahertz radiation that can be achieved in beam-plasma experiments in mirror traps.

  5. Efficient generation of linearly polarized Cerenkov radiation in a photonic crystal fiber with suspended rectangle core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xing; Cheng, Lan; Peng, Jinggang; Yang, Luyun; Dai, Nengli; Li, Haiqing; Li, Jinyan

    2017-10-01

    We report high efficiency linearly polarized Cerenkov radiation (CR) generation in a photonic crystal fiber with suspended rectangle core. The frequency up-conversion via the Cerenkov radiation upon pumping of Yb-doped femtosecond fiber laser is discussed in details. Experiment results show that the output spectrum contains, besides the infrared supercontinuum, intense green Cerenkov radiation around 536 nm, which carry about 43% of the pump energy at best. The influence of the high birefringence and dispersion character on the Cerenkov radiation generation is discussed. Experiment and simulation results indicate that the rectangle core photonic crystal fiber acts like single-mode single-polarization fiber at the pump wavelength. Only the pulse component along with the slow axis could be confined in the rectangle core well and release Cerenkov radiation efficiently. The Output green Cerenkov radiation is also demonstrated to be linearly polarized. Experiments results agree well with the theoretical predictions.

  6. Range monitoring proton therapy by means of secondary radiation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Espallardo, I.; Gillam, J. E.; Garcia Ortega, P.; Cabello, J.; Oliver, J.; Llosa, G.; Trovato, M.; Solaz, C.; Lacasta, C.; Rafecas, M.

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this work is to study the ability of the open ring PET geometries with TOF and of the proposed Compton Camera for assessing range shifts below 5 mm. All this work is part of the ENVISION project which is directed towards on-line dose monitoring in hadron therapy. (Author)

  7. Status of contamination monitoring in radiation activities of National Atomic Energy Agency (NAEA) in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhariyono, Gatot [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1997-06-01

    National Atomic Energy Agency (NAEA) or Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional (BATAN) is a non departmental governmental agency, headed by a Director General who is directly responsible to the President. Center for Standardization and Radiation Safety Research (CSRSR) is one of the research centers within the deputy for the assessment of nuclear science and technology of the NAEA. The main task of the CSRSR is to implement research and development program, development and services in the field of radiation safety, standardization, dosimetry, radiation health as well as the application of nuclear techniques in medicine, according to the policy confirmed by the director general of BATAN. Task of radiation protection division is to set up programs and to develop radiation protection, personal monitoring system and radiation level of the working areas and their surroundings as well as dose limitation system, to carry out technical up grading of radiation protection officials skill and to help coping with radiation accident. The key factor on contamination monitoring is to reduce human error and mechanical failures. These problems can be achieved to the highest degree by developing knowledge and skill of staffs via trainings or courses on contamination and decontamination, so that they are hoped to become trained and qualified staffs. (G.K.)

  8. SYSTEM OF RADIATION HYGIENIC MONITORING AND RADIATION HYGIENIC PASSPORTIZATION WITHIN THE TERRITORY OF THE ROSTOV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Soloviev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents interaction of the Administration of Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being in the Rostov region and the other Authorities executing radiation control within the territory of the region, as well as with other institutions responsible for supervising of facilities operating with ionizing irradiation sources. Brief characterization of environmental radiation contamination (water, soil, foodstuffs, characterization of facilities operating in the field of ionizing irradiation sources within the region territory, population exposure doses due to the artificial radiation sources (personnel of group A, medical exposure is being presented.

  9. Thermoelectric generator hidden in a shirt with a fabric radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, Vladimir; Vullers, Ruud J. M.; Hoof, Chris Van

    2012-06-01

    Integration of thermopiles in garments has been performed in this work in different ways. It is shown that textile has a minor effect on power generation, which enables completely hidden and unobtrusive energy harvester. A one-milliwatt thermoelectric generator is then integrated between two layers of a shirt and its characteristics are reported.

  10. Thermoelectric generator hidden in a shirt with a fabric radiator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leonov, V.; Vullers, R.J.M.; Hoof, C.V.

    2012-01-01

    Integration of thermopiles in garments has been performed in this work in different ways. It is shown that textile has a minor effect on power generation, which enables completely hidden and unobtrusive energy harvester. A one-milliwatt thermoelectric generator is then integrated between two layers

  11. Thermoelectric generator hidden in a shirt with a fabric radiator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leonov, V.; Vullers, R.J.M.; Hoof, C.V.

    2012-01-01

    Integration of thermopiles in garments has been performed in this work in different ways. It is shown that textile has a minor effect on power generation, which enables completely hidden and unobtrusive energy harvester. A one-milliwatt thermoelectric generator is then integrated between two layers

  12. Generation of ordinary mode electromagnetic radiation near the upper hybrid frequency in the magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Okuda, H.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown by means of plasma numerical simulations that long-wavelength ordinary mode electromagnetic radiation can be generated from short-wavelength electrostatic waves near the upper hybrid resonance frequency in an inhomogeneous plasma. A possible relation of this process to nonthermal continuum radiation in the magnetosphere is discussed.

  13. Survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring: major update. Volume 3. Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    This is the third volume of a four-volume (seven-part) series, the culmination of a comprehensive survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Consideration is given to instruments and techniques presently in use and to those developed for other purposes but having possible applications to radiation monitoring. The results of the survey are given as descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Information is also given regarding the pollutants to be monitored, their characteristics and forms, their sources and pathways, their effects on the ecosystem, and the means of controlling them through process and regulatory controls. The discussion is presented under sections entitled radiation sources; instrumentation: by type of radiation or instrument type; and, instrumentation for specific radionuclides. (JGB)

  14. Megagray Dosimetry (or Monitoring of Very Large Radiation Doses)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Uribe, R.M.; Miller, Arne

    1983-01-01

    A number of suitably calibrated plastic and dyed films and solid-state systems can provide mapping of very intense radiation fields with high spatial resolution and reasonable limits of uncertainty of absorbed dose assessment. Although most systems of this type suffer from rate dependence...... and temperature dependence of response when irradiated with charged particle beams at high dose rates, a few are stable, easily calibrated, and capable of faithful imaging of detailed dose profiles, even at doses up to 106 Gy and dose rates up to 108 Gy·s−1. Candidates include certain undyed plastic films (e...

  15. Response of radiation monitoring labels to gamma rays and electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahim, F. Abdel; Miller, Arne; McLaughlin, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    dyes that indicate changes of pH due to release of halogen from halogenated substrates, have limited shelf life and must be protected from extreme environmental conditions. Some also show a marked rate dependence of response. Readings of color reflection optical densities on labels or long paper strips......Many kinds of coated or impregnated reflecting papers change color or become colored by large radiation doses. Such papers or “labels” do not generally supply dosimetry information, but may give useful inventory information, namely a visual indication of whether or not an industrial product...

  16. TH-C-17A-09: Direct Visualization and Monitoring of Medical Radiation Beams in Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahimian, B; Ceballos, A; Turkcan, S; Kapp, D; Pratx, G [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy errors are rare but potentially catastrophic. Recent fatal incidents could have been avoided by utilizing real-time methods of monitoring delivery of radiation during treatment. However, few existing methods are practical enough to be used routinely. The study presents the first experimental demonstration of a novel non-perturbing method of monitoring radiation therapy through the phenomena of air scintillation. Methods: Monitoring of radiation delivery was devised by leveraging the phenomena of nitrogen excitation in air by ionizing radiation. The excitation induced weak luminescence in the 300–400 nm range, a process called air scintillation. An electron-multiplication charge-coupled device camera (f/0.95 lens; 440 nm shortpass) was set-up in a clinical treatment vault and was used to capture air scintillation images of kilovoltage and megavoltage beams. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to determine the correlation of radiation dose to air scintillation. Results: Megavoltage beams from a Varian Clinac 21EX and kilovoltage beams from an orthovoltage unit (50 kVp, 30 mA) were visualized with a relatively short exposure time (10 s). Cherenkov luminescence produced in a plastic transparent phantom did not interfere with detection of air scintillation. The image intensity displayed an inverse intensity falloff (r{sup 2} = 0.89) along the central axis and was proportional to dose rate (r{sup 2} = 0.9998). As beam energy increased, the divergence of the imaged beam decreased. Last, air scintillation was visualized during a simulated total skin irradiation electron treatment. Conclusion: Air scintillation can be clinically detected to monitor a radiation beam in an inexpensive and non-perturbing manner. This new method is advantageous in monitoring for gross delivery and uniquely capable of wide area in a single acquisition, such as the case for online verification of total body / skin / lymphoid irradiation treatments.

  17. Generation of GW-Level, Sub-Angstrom Radiation in the LCLS Using a Second-Harmonic Radiator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z

    2004-09-14

    Electron beams are strongly microbunched near the high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) saturation with a rich harmonic content in the beam current. While the coherent harmonic emission is possible in a planar undulator, the third-harmonic radiation typically dominates with about 1% of the fundamental power at saturation. In this paper, we discuss the second-harmonic radiation in the Linac Coherent Light Source. We show that by a suitable design of an second-stage undulator with its fundamental frequency tuned to the second harmonic of the first undulator, coherent second-harmonic radiation much more intense than the third-harmonic is emitted. Numerical simulations predict that GW-level, sub-Angstrom x-ray pulses can be generated in a relatively short second-harmonic radiator.

  18. MO-F-16A-06: Implementation of a Radiation Exposure Monitoring System for Surveillance of Multi-Modality Radiation Dose Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, B; Kanal, K; Dickinson, R; Zamora, D [University Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: We have implemented a commercially available Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) to enhance the processes of radiation dose data collection, analysis and alerting developed over the past decade at our sites of practice. REMS allows for consolidation of multiple radiation dose information sources and quicker alerting than previously developed processes. Methods: Thirty-nine x-ray producing imaging modalities were interfaced with the REMS: thirteen computed tomography scanners, sixteen angiography/interventional systems, nine digital radiography systems and one mammography system. A number of methodologies were used to provide dose data to the REMS: Modality Performed Procedure Step (MPPS) messages, DICOM Radiation Dose Structured Reports (RDSR), and DICOM header information. Once interfaced, the dosimetry information from each device underwent validation (first 15–20 exams) before release for viewing by end-users: physicians, medical physicists, technologists and administrators. Results: Before REMS, our diagnostic physics group pulled dosimetry data from seven disparate databases throughout the radiology, radiation oncology, cardiology, electrophysiology, anesthesiology/pain management and vascular surgery departments at two major medical centers and four associated outpatient clinics. With the REMS implementation, we now have one authoritative source of dose information for alerting, longitudinal analysis, dashboard/graphics generation and benchmarking. REMS provides immediate automatic dose alerts utilizing thresholds calculated through daily statistical analysis. This has streamlined our Closing the Loop process for estimated skin exposures in excess of our institutional specific substantial radiation dose level which relied on technologist notification of the diagnostic physics group and daily report from the radiology information system (RIS). REMS also automatically calculates the CT size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) as well as provides

  19. On the role of radiation monitors on board LISA Pathfinder and future space interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimani, C.; Boatella, C.; Chmeissani, M.; Fabi, M.; Finetti, N.; Laurenza, M.; Lobo, A.; Mateos, I.; Storini, M.

    2012-05-01

    LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) and its precursor mission LISA Pathfinder (LISA-PF) will carry particle monitors for noise diagnostics. It was proposed to build and place radiation detectors on board the ASTROD missions as well. We present here a study of the solar energetic particle (SEP) events that the LISA-PF radiation monitors are able to detect above the galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) background predicted at the time of the mission data taking in 2015. In order to optimize the correlation between radiation monitor measurements and gravitational sensor test-mass charging, the energy threshold for particles traversing both detectors should be approximately the same. In LISA-PF, the radiation monitor particle energy cut-off was conservatively set at 75 MeV per nucleon (MeV/n) for protons and ion normal incidence, while the minimum energy of the same particles reaching the test masses is 100 MeV/n. We find that SEP events detectable on LISA-PF are characterized by peak fluxes and fluences at energies >75 MeV/n larger than about 45%, on average, with respect to those at energies >100 MeV/n. We conclude that for an accurate correlation between radiation monitor count rates and test-mass charging, it is mandatory to benefit from absolute flux measurements of both galactic and high-energy solar particles provided by experiments carrying magnetic spectrometers in space at the time of LISA-PF (PAMELA, AMS). On the other hand, the role of the radiation detectors on board LISA-PF is crucial allowing for SEP event onset and dynamics monitoring.

  20. Investigation of Solar Hybrid Electric/Thermal System with Radiation Concentrator and Thermoelectric Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Arturo Chávez Urbiola; Yuri Vorobiev

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study of a solar-concentrating system based on thermoelectric generators (TEGs) was performed. The system included an electrical generating unit with 6 serially connected TEGs using a traditional semiconductor material, Bi2Te3, which was illuminated by concentrated solar radiation on one side and cooled by running water on the other side. A sun-tracking concentrator with a mosaic set of mirrors was used; its orientation towards the sun was achieved with two pairs of radiation ...

  1. EXPERIENCE OF RADIATION-HYGIENIC MONITORING MANAGEMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF RADIATION SITUATION IN THE BRYANSK REGION TERRITORY AFTER 25 YEARS SINCE THE DAY OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Trapeznikova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly presents the experience of the radiation-hygienic monitoring system creation in the territory contaminated with the radionuclides due to the Chernobyl accident and application of the radiation hygienic monitoring data for the assessment of protective measures efficiency. Radiation situation data for the territory of the Bryansk region after 25 years of Chernobyl accident and dynamics of the population average annual effective exposure dose are being presented.

  2. Transition in occupational radiation exposure monitoring methods in diagnostic and interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnroth, Nadja; Hirvonen-Kari, Mirja; Timonen, Marjut; Savolainen, Sauli; Kortesniemi, Mika

    2012-08-01

    Radiation exposure monitoring is a traditional keystone of occupational radiation safety measures in medical imaging. The aim of this study was to review the data on occupational exposures in a large central university hospital radiology organisation and propose changes in the radiation worker categories and methods of exposure monitoring. An additional objective was to evaluate the development of electronic personal dosimeters and their potential in the digitised radiology environment. The personal equivalent dose of 267 radiation workers (116 radiologists and 151 radiographers) was monitored using personal dosimeters during the years 2006-2010. Accumulated exposure monitoring results exceeding the registration threshold were observed in the personal dosimeters of 73 workers (59 radiologists' doses ranged from 0.1 to 45.1 mSv; 14 radiographers' doses ranged from 0.1 to 1.3 mSv). The accumulated personal equivalent doses are generally very small, only a few angiography radiologists have doses >10 mSv per 5 y. The typical effective doses are dosimeters. An active real-time dosimetry system is warranted to support radiation protection strategy where optimisation aspects, including improving working methods, are essential.

  3. Efficient femtosecond mid-infrared pulse generation by dispersivewave radiation in bulk lithium niobate crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Guo, Hairun; Bache, Morten

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate efficient mid-infrared pulse generation by dispersive wave radiation in bulk lithium niobate crystal. Femtosecond mid-IR pulses centering from 2.8–2.92 µm are generated using the single pump wavelengths from 1.25–1.45 µm.......We experimentally demonstrate efficient mid-infrared pulse generation by dispersive wave radiation in bulk lithium niobate crystal. Femtosecond mid-IR pulses centering from 2.8–2.92 µm are generated using the single pump wavelengths from 1.25–1.45 µm....

  4. A system for monitoring the radiation effects of a proton linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skorkin, V. M., E-mail: skorkin@inr.ru; Belyanski, K. L.; Skorkin, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The system for real-time monitoring of radioactivity of a high-current proton linear accelerator detects secondary neutron emission from proton beam losses in transport channels and measures the activity of radionuclides in gas and aerosol emissions and the radiation background in the environment affected by a linear accelerator. The data provided by gamma, beta, and neutron detectors are transferred over a computer network to the central server. The system allows one to monitor proton beam losses, the activity of gas and aerosol emissions, and the radiation emission level of a linear accelerator in operation.

  5. EVOLUTION OF THE IEC AND EN STANDARDS FOR INDIVIDUAL MONITORING OF IONISING RADIATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytchev, M; Behrens, R; Ambrosi, P; Radev, R; Chiaro, P

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the evolution of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the European standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation issued, respectively, from the committees IEC/Sub Committee 45B and European Committee for Electro-technical Standardization/Technical Committee 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation'. Standards for passive individual photon and beta dosimetry systems as well as those for active individual monitors are discussed. A neutron ambient dose equivalent (rate) meter standard and a technical report concerning the determination of uncertainty in measurement are also covered. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Kalman filtration of radiation monitoring data from atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drews, M.; Lauritzen, B.; Madsen, H.;

    2004-01-01

    A Kalman filter method using off-site radiation monitoring data is proposed as a tool for on-line estimation of the source term for short-range atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials. The method is based on the Gaussian plume model, in which the plume parameters including the source term...... exhibit a ‘random walk’ process. The embedded parameters of the Kalman filter are determined through maximum-likelihood estimation making the filter essentially free of external parameters. The method is tested using both real and simulated radiation monitoring data. For simulated data, the method...

  7. Data Quality Objectives Supporting the Environmental Direct Radiation Monitoring Program for the INL Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundell, J. F. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Magnuson, S. O. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scherbinske, P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Case, M. J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This document presents the development of the data quality objectives (DQOs) for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Environmental Direct Radiation Monitoring Program and follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) DQO process (EPA 2006). This document also develops and presents the logic to determine the specific number of direct radiation monitoring locations around INL facilities on the desert west of Idaho Falls and in Idaho Falls, at locations bordering the INL Site, and in the surrounding regional area. The selection logic follows the guidance from the Department of Energy (DOE) (2015) for environmental surveillance of DOE facilities.

  8. Frequency and quality of radiation monitoring of construction workers at two gaseous diffusion plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Eula; Ringen, Knut; Dement, John; Cameron, Wilfrid; McGowan, William; Welch, Laura; Quinn, Patricia

    2006-09-01

    Construction workers were and are considered temporary workers at many construction sites. Since World War II, large numbers of construction workers were employed at U.S. Department of Energy nuclear weapons sites for periods ranging from a few days to over 30 years. These workers performed tasks during new construction and maintenance, repair, renovation, and demolition of existing facilities. Such tasks may involve emergency situations, and may entail opportunities for significant radiation exposures. This paper provides data from interviews with more than 750 construction workers at two gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) at Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio regarding radiation monitoring practices. The aim was to determine the extent to which workers believed they were monitored during tasks involving potential radiation exposures. The adequacy of monitoring practices is important for two reasons: (a) Protecting workers from exposures: Construction workers were employed by sub-contractors, and may frequently been excluded from safety and health programs provided to permanent employees; and (b) Supporting claims for compensation: The Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act (EEOICPA) requires dose reconstruction of radiation exposures for most workers who file a claim regarding cancer. The use of monitoring data for radiation to qualify a worker means that there should be valid and complete monitoring during the work time at the various nuclear plants or workers may be unfairly denied compensation. The worker interviews from Paducah and Portsmouth were considered especially useful because these sites were designated as Special Exposure Cohorts (SECs) and the workers did not have to have a dose reconstruction to qualify for compensation for most cancers. Therefore, their responses were less likely to be affected by compensation concerns. Interview questions included asking for information regarding whether monitoring was performed, how

  9. Modeling of ultrasonic and terahertz radiations in defective tiles for condition monitoring of thermal protection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri Rahani, Ehsan

    Condition based monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) is necessary for safe operations of space shuttles when quick turn-around time is desired. In the current research Terahertz radiation (T-ray) has been used to detect mechanical and heat induced damages in TPS tiles. Voids and cracks inside the foam tile are denoted as mechanical damage while property changes due to long and short term exposures of tiles to high heat are denoted as heat induced damage. Ultrasonic waves cannot detect cracks and voids inside the tile because the tile material (silica foam) has high attenuation for ultrasonic energy. Instead, electromagnetic terahertz radiation can easily penetrate into the foam material and detect the internal voids although this electromagnetic radiation finds it difficult to detect delaminations between the foam tile and the substrate plate. Thus these two technologies are complementary to each other for TPS inspection. Ultrasonic and T-ray field modeling in free and mounted tiles with different types of mechanical and thermal damages has been the focus of this research. Shortcomings and limitations of FEM method in modeling 3D problems especially at high-frequencies has been discussed and a newly developed semi-analytical technique called Distributed Point Source Method (DPSM) has been used for this purpose. A FORTRAN code called DPSM3D has been developed to model both ultrasonic and electromagnetic problems using the conventional DPSM method. This code is designed in a general form capable of modeling a variety of geometries. DPSM has been extended from ultrasonic applications to electromagnetic to model THz Gaussian beams, multilayered dielectrics and Gaussian beam-scatterer interaction problems. Since the conventional DPSM has some drawbacks, to overcome it two modification methods called G-DPSM and ESM have been proposed. The conventional DPSM in the past was only capable of solving time harmonic (frequency domain) problems. Time history was

  10. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Holzheimer, Clous

    2014-09-01

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS's) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS's. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS).

  11. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S. [National Center for Radiation Protection, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, 11442 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Holzheimer, Clous [ENVINET GmbH, Environmental Radiation Detection, Hans-Pinsel-Straße 4, 85540 Haar (Munich) (Germany)

    2014-09-30

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS’s) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS’s. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS)

  12. Evaluation of emplacement sensors for detecting radiation and volatile organic compounds and for long-term monitoring access tubes for the BWCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, D.L.; Averill, R.H.

    1997-10-01

    This document evaluates sensors for detecting contaminants in the excavated waste generated by the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS). The Barrier Placement Machine (BPM) removes spoils from under a landfill or plume and places it on a conveyor belt on the left and right sides of the BPM. The spoils will travel down the conveyor belts past assay monitors and be deposited on top of the site being worked. The belts are 5 ft wide and transport approximately 15 ft3 /minute of spoils. This corresponds to a 10 ft per hour BPM advance rate. With a 2 in. spoils height the belt speed would be 3.6 in. per second. The spoils being removed are expected to be {open_quotes}clean{close_quotes} (no radiation or volatile organics above background levels). To ensure that the equipment is not digging through a contaminated area, assay equipment will monitor the spoils for mg radiation and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The radiation monitors will check for gross radiation indication. Upon detection of radiation levels above a predetermined setpoint, further evaluation will be performed to determine the isotopes present and their quantity. This will require hand held monitors and a remote monitoring station. Simultaneously, VOC monitors will monitor for predetermined volatile/semi-volatile organic compounds. A Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) monitor is recommended for this operation. Specific site requirements and regulations will determine setpoints and operation scenarios. If VOCs are detected, the data will be collected and recorded. A flat panel display will be mounted in the BPM operator`s cab showing the radio nuclide and VOC monitoring data. As the BPM advances, a 3-in. diameter PVC tube will be placed on the bottom of the barrier slot in front of the 12 to 16-in. containment barrier being emplaced.

  13. Radiation monitoring and beam dump system of the OPAL silicon microvertex detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biebel, O.; Braibant, S.; de Jong, S. J.; Hammarström, R.; Hilgers, R.; Honma, A. K.; Jovanovic, P.; Lauber, J. A.; Neal, H. A.

    1998-02-01

    The radiation monitoring and beam dump system of the OPAL silicon microvertex detector is described. This system was designed and implemented to measure the radiation dose over time scales varying from a millisecond to a year, and to induce a fast beam dump if the radiation exceeds a given threshold in dose and in dose rate within a very small time interval. The system uses reverse-biased silicon diodes as sensitive elements and good stability is achieved by AC coupling of the amplifiers to the sensors.

  14. Monitoring system for testing the radiation hardness of a KINTEX-7 FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojocariu, L. N.; Placinta, V. M.; Dumitru, L.

    2016-03-01

    A much more efficient Ring Imaging Cherenkov sub-detector system will be rebuilt in the second long shutdown of Large Hadron Collider for the LHCb experiment. Radiation-hard electronic components together with Commercial Off-The-Shelf ones will be used in the new Cherenkov photon detection system architecture. An irradiation program was foreseen to determine the radiation tolerance for the new electronic devices, including a Field Programmable Gate Array from KINTEX-7 family of XILINX. An automated test bench for online monitoring of the XC7K70T KINTEX-7 device operation in radiation conditions was designed and implemented by the LHCb Romanian group.

  15. Generation of UV radiation by vapors of complex molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkova, L.A.; Gruzinskii, V.V.; Danilova, V.I.; Degtiarenko, K.M.; Kopylova, T.N.; Kuznetsov, A.L.

    1981-08-01

    Laser action has been obtained in the following organic compounds under pumping by XeCl excimer laser radiation at 308 nm: para-terphenyl, 2-phenylbenzoxazole, 2-(n-tolyl)-benzoxaxole, 2-(n-methoxyphenyl)-benzoxazole, 2-(n-dimethylaminophenyl)-benzoxazole, 2-biphenylbenzoxazole, (2-alpha-naphthyl)-benzoxazole, 1.4-di(n-phenylethynyl)-benzole, and paraquaterphenyl. The nontuning lasing bands covered the range of 330-370 nm, and the most short-wavelength maximum (333.5 nm) was found for 2(n-methoxyphenyl)-benzoxazole. The lasing capability of the molecules was analyzed.

  16. Pollen and spores as a passive monitor of ultraviolet radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Toby Fraser

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sporopollenin is the primary component of the outer walls of pollen and spores. The chemical composition of sporopollenin is responsive to levels of ultraviolet (UV radiation exposure, via a concomitant change in the concentration of phenolic compounds. This relationship offers the possibility of using fossil pollen and spore chemistry as a novel proxy for past UV flux. Phenolic compounds in sporopollenin can be quantified using Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy. The high potential for preservation of pollen and spores in the geologic record, and the conservative nature of sporopollenin chemistry across the land plant phylogeny, means that this new proxy has the potential to reconstruct UV flux over much longer timescales than has previously been possible. This new tool has important implications for understanding the relationship between UV flux, solar insolation and climate in the past, as well as providing a possible means of assessing paleoaltitude, and ozone thickness.

  17. Circularly polarized carrier-envelope-phase stable attosecond pulse generation based on coherent undulator radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Gy; Tibai, Z; Nagy-Csiha, Zs; Márton, Zs; Almási, G; Hebling, J

    2015-09-15

    In this Letter, we present a new method for generation of circularly polarized attosecond pulses. According to our calculations, shape-controlled, carrier-envelope-phase stable pulses of several hundred nanojoule energy could be produced by exploitation of the coherent undulator radiation of an electron bunch. Our calculations are based on an existing particle accelerator system (FLASH II in DESY, Germany). We investigated the energy dependence of the attosecond pulses on the energy of electrons and the parameters of the radiator undulator, which generate the electromagnetic radiation.

  18. Monitoring of the atmospheric ozone layer and natural ultraviolet radiation: Annual report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendby, T.M.; Myhre, C.L.; Stebel, K.; Edvardsen, K; Orsolini, Y.; Dahlback, A.

    2012-07-01

    This is an annual report describing the activities and main results of the monitoring programme: Monitoring of the atmospheric ozone layer and natural ultraviolet radiation for 2011. 2011 was a year with generally low ozone values above Norway. A clear decrease in the ozone layer above Norway during the period 1979-1997 stopped after 1998 and the ozone layer above Norway seems now to have stabilized.(Author)

  19. Visits by Nuclear Powered Warships to Australian Ports; Report on Radiation Monitoring During 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    is undertaken by groups made up from the Australian Nuclear Science and Technical Organisation ( ANSTO ). the health and environmental authorities of...Monitoring Group is always a radiation protection officer of the ANSTO . 13. The marine environmental monitoring program is a joint undertaking by the...Centre and was manned continuously for the period of the visit. TRAINING 14. A refresher course was conducted in January by ANSTO staff for an RAN

  20. Novel OSNR Monitoring Technique in Dense WDM Systems using Inherently Generated CW Monitoring Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Nordal

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple, yet effective OSNR monitoring technique based on an inherent effect in the optical modulator. Highly accurate OSNR monitoring is demonstrated in a 40 Gb/s dense WDM system with 50 GHz channel spacing....

  1. Grid Monitoring and Advanced Control of Distributed Power Generation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Timbus, Adrian Vasile

    2007-01-01

    The movement towards a clean technology for energy production and the constraints in reducing the CO2 emissions are some factors facilitating the growth of distributed power generation systems based on renewable energy resources. Consequently, large penetration of distributed generators has been reported in some countries creating concerns about power system stability. This leads to a continuous evolution of grid interconnection requirements towards a better controllability of generated power...

  2. Application of the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor in a power radiation monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Gao; Jing, Yang; Si, Jiang; Debo, Wang

    2016-08-01

    A power radiation monitoring system based on thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensors is studied. This monitoring system consists of three modules: a data acquisition module, a data processing and display module, and a data sharing module. It can detect the power radiation in the environment and the date information can be processed and shared. The measured results show that the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor and the power radiation monitoring system both have a relatively good linearity. The sensitivity of the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor is about 0.101 mV/mW, and the sensitivity of the monitoring system is about 0.038 V/mW. The voltage gain of the monitoring system is about 380 times, which is relatively consistent with the theoretical value. In addition, the low-frequency and low-power module in the monitoring system is adopted in order to reduce the electromagnetic pollution and the power consumption, and this work will extend the application of the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor in more areas. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11304158), the Province Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu (No. BK20140890), the Open Research Fund of the Key Laboratory of MEMS of Ministry of Education, Southeast University (No. 3206005302), and the Scientific Research Foundation of Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (Nos. NY213024, NY215139).

  3. Optimization of in-vivo monitoring program for radiation emergency response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Wi Ho; Kim, Jong Kyung [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In case of radiation emergencies, internal exposure monitoring for the members of public will be required to confirm internal contamination of each individual. In-vivo monitoring technique using portable gamma spectrometer can be easily applied for internal exposure monitoring in the vicinity of the on-site area. In this study, minimum detectable doses (MDDs) for '1'3'4Cs, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 131}I were calculated adjusting minimum detectable activities (MDAs) from 50 to 1,000 Bq to find out the optimal in-vivo counting condition. DCAL software was used to derive retention fraction of Cs and I isotopes in the whole body and thyroid, respectively. A minimum detectable level was determined to set committed effective dose of 0.1 mSv for emergency response. We found that MDDs at each MDA increased along with the elapsed time. 1,000 Bq for {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs, and 100 Bq for {sup 131}I were suggested as optimal MDAs to provide in-vivo monitoring service in case of radiation emergencies. In-vivo monitoring program for emergency response should be designed to achieve the optimal MDA suggested from the present work. We expect that a reduction of counting time compared with routine monitoring program can achieve the high throughput system in case of radiation emergencies.

  4. Development of an alpha/beta/gamma detector for radiation monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Hatazawa, Jun

    2011-11-01

    For radiation monitoring at the site of nuclear power plant accidents such as Fukushima Daiichi, radiation detectors not only for gamma photons but also for alpha and beta particles are needed because some nuclear fission products emit beta particles and gamma photons and some nuclear fuels contain plutonium that emits alpha particles. We developed a radiation detector that can simultaneously monitor alpha and beta particles and gamma photons for radiation monitoring. The detector consists of three-layered scintillators optically coupled to each other and coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The first layer, which is made of a thin plastic scintillator (decay time: 2.4 ns), detects alpha particles. The second layer, which is made of a thin Gd(2)SiO(5) (GSO) scintillator with 1.5 mol.% Ce (decay time: 35 ns), detects beta particles. The third layer made of a thin GSO scintillator with 0.4 mol.% Ce (decay time: 70 ns) detects gamma photons. By using pulse shape discrimination, the count rates of these layers can be separated. With individual irradiation of alpha and beta particles and gamma photons, the count rate of the first layer represented the alpha particles, the second layer represented the beta particles, and the third layer represented the gamma photons. Even with simultaneous irradiation of the alpha and beta particles and the gamma photons, these three types of radiation can be individually monitored using correction for the gamma detection efficiency of the second and third layers. Our developed alpha, beta, and gamma detector is simple and will be useful for radiation monitoring, especially at nuclear power plant accident sites or other applications where the simultaneous measurements of alpha and beta particles and gamma photons are required. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  5. Testing of environmental radiation monitors using the Risø low-level radiation measurement stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    2000-01-01

    To harmonise the measurement of environmental dose rates from photon radiation within the EU countries. an EU sponsored intercomparison of environmental dose rate meters used for early warning of nuclear accidents was performed in June 1999. The intercomparison was organised by the EURADOS......, Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany) and the Riso National Laboratory (Denmark). This paper describes the free-field irradiation facilities at Rise and some details of the field intercomparison experiments performed at the Riso Natural Environmental Radiation Measurement Station during 3rd and 4th...... June, 1999. The chief aims of such experiments are to allow the participants to check their home calibrations of their detectors and to compare the responses of the individual environmental radiation measurement systems used in the different EU member states and making a link between the different...

  6. Radiation health consequences for astronauts: mechanisms, monitoring and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyfakh, E.

    During space flights crews are exposed chronically to uneven irradiation of enhanced bioefficiency following with significant elevation for chromosomal aberrations as minimum. To protect in space rationally monitoring and preventing of health radiogenic individual primary consequences for astronauts are of high importance. Majority of Chernobyl-touched population has some common etiologic radiogenic mechanisms and radioloads with astronauts ones during long-term missions and former is able to be used well as the close ground-level model. Primary radiogenic deviations. Two radiogenic pathologies as lipoperoxic ( LP ) stress with coupled deficits for essential bioantioxidants ( BAO ) were typical for chronic low-dose Chernobyl-touched contingents. When BAO expenditure had led to their subnormal levels, radiogenic free radical chain -b ranched LP processes occurred in vivo hyperbolically. Catabolites and their free radicals of the abnormal LP cascade are known to be toxic, mutagenic / carcinogenic and teratogenic factors as such, as they are for retinol and tocopherol deficiencies. Both coupled pathogenic factors interrelated synergistically. Simultaneous dysbalances for LP and / or BAO systems were evaluated as the cause and markers for metabolic disregulations. Human LP stress was proved to be the most radiosensible known marker to mo nitor least invasively of blood microsamples in a ground lab via the developed PC Program. But for capsule conditions the best approach is assumed to be LP monitoring via skin ultraweak green-blue chemiluminescence ( CL ) caused by recombination of peroxyl radicals. CL from surfaces of organs was embedded first ( E. Neyfakh, 1964 - 71 ) to reflect their internal LP velocities in vivo and it is the non-invasive on-line simple method of the highest sensitivity, supplying with data transmissible to the ground directly. Related deviations. a) Radiogenic hypermutagenesis: LP catabolites and their free radicals are responsible for direct DNA

  7. Annihilation Radiation Gauge for Relative Density and Multiphase Fluid Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the multi-phase flow parameters are important for the petroleum industry, specifically during the transport in pipelines and network related to exploitation’s wells. Crude oil flow is studied by Monte Carlo simulation and experimentally to determine transient liquid phase in a laboratory system. Relative density and fluid phase time variation is monitored employing a fast nuclear data acquisition setup that includes two large volume BaF2 scintillator detectors coupled to an electronic chain and data display in a LabView® environment. Fluid parameters are determined by the difference in count rate of coincidence pulses. The operational characteristics of the equipment indicate that 2 % deviation in the CCR corresponds to a variation, on average, of 20 % in the fraction of liquid of the multiphase fluid.

  8. Fiber optical magnetic field sensor for power generator monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willsch, Michael; Bosselmann, Thomas; Villnow, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Inside of large electrical engines such as power generators and large drives, extreme electric and magnetic fields can occur which cannot be measured electrically. Novel fiber optical magnetic field sensors are being used to characterize the fields and recognize inner faults of large power generators.

  9. Inner Radiation Belt Generation of Light Nuclei Isotope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galper, A. M.; Koldashov, S. V.; Leonv, A. A.; Mikhailov, V. V.

    2003-07-01

    Nuclear interactions between inner zone protons and atoms in the upper atmosphere provide the essential source of H and He isotop es nuclei in radiation belt. This paper reports the calculations of these isotop es intensities from the inner zone proton intensity model AP-8, the atmosphere drift-averaged composition and densities model MSIS-90, and cross sections for the various interaction processes. To calculate drift-averaged densities and energy losses of secondaries the particles are traced in geomagnetic field according IGRF-95 model by numerical solution of motion equation. The calculations account for nuclear interactions kinematic along the whole trapped protons trajectories. The results of calculations are compared with experimental data from SAMPEX, CRRES, RESURS-04 and MITA satellites taken during different solar activity phases. The comparison with observational data shows that the atmosphere is sufficient source for inner zone 4 He, 3 He,2 H and 3 H for L-shell less than 1.3.

  10. Cytogenetic monitoring of nuclear workers occupationally exposed to ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gricienė, B; Slapšytė, G; Mierauskienė, J

    2014-06-01

    Chromosome aberration (CA) analysis using Giemsa techniques was performed in blood lymphocytes of 84 nuclear workers with cumulative doses of 1-632 mSv during employment periods of 1-25 y. The control group comprised 82 healthy male donors. An estimated CA frequency in the total radiation-exposed group was significantly higher when compared with the controls (2.27 vs. 1.76 CA/100 cells, p 0.05). However, significant increase in the total CA frequency was determined in workers with additional internal exposure (2.54 CA/100 cells, p < 0.05) and those with registered neutron doses (2.95 CA/100 cells, p < 0.01). No correlation was found between CA frequency and occupational exposure dose. Borderline significant correlation was found between duration of employment and total CA (r = 0.218, p = 0.046, Fig. 2) and chromosome-type aberration (r = 0.265, p = 0.015) frequency.

  11. Nuclear Track Detectors for Environmental Studies and Radiation Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzoor, S. [Department of Physics of the University of Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); PRD, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: manzoor@bo.infn.it; Balestra, S.; Cozzi, M.; Errico, M.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M. [Department of Physics of the University of Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Kumar, A. [Department of Physics of the University of Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Dept. of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Eng. and Tech., Longowal 148 106 India (India); Margiotta, A.; Medinaceli, E.; Patrizii, L. [Department of Physics of the University of Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Popa, V. [Department of Physics of the University of Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Institute of Space Sciences, Bucharest R-77125 (Romania); Qureshi, I.E. [PRD, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Islamabad (Pakistan); Togo, V. [Department of Physics of the University of Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    Several improvements were made for Nuclear Track Detectors (NTDs) used for environmental studies and for particle searches. A new method was used to determine the bulk etch rate of CR39 and Makrofol NTDs. It is based on the simultaneous measurement of the diameter and of the height of etch-pit cones caused by relativistic heavy ions (158 A GeV Pb{sup 82+} and In{sup 49+} ions) and their fragments. The use of alcohol in the etching solution improves the surface quality of NTDs and it raises their thresholds. The detectors were used for the determination of nuclear fragmentation cross sections of Iron and Silicon ions of 1.0 and 0.41 GeV/nucleon. These measurements are important for the determination of doses in hadrontherapy and for doses received by astronauts. The detectors were also used in the search of massive particles in the cosmic radiation, for the determination of the mass spectrum of cosmic rays and for the evaluation of Po{sup 210}{alpha}-decay and of natural radon concentrations.

  12. Feasibility study of generating ultra-high harmonic radiation with a single stage echo-enabled harmonic generation scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kaishang; Feng, Chao; Wang, Dong

    2016-10-01

    The echo enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) scheme holds the ability for the generation of fully coherent soft x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) pulses directly from external UV seeding sources. In this paper, we study the feasibility of using a single stage EEHG to generate coherent radiation in the "water window" and beyond. Using the high-order operating modes of the EEHG scheme, intensive numerical simulations have been performed considering various three-dimensional effects. The simulation results demonstrated that coherent soft x-ray radiation at 150th harmonic (1.77 nm) of the seed can be produced by a single stage EEHG. The decreasing of the final bunching factor at the desired harmonic caused by intra beam scattering (IBS) effect has also been analyzed.

  13. Accuracy of soil water content estimates from gamma radiation monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jie; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Reemt Bogena, Heye; Vereecken, Harry

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial gamma radiation is known to be sensitive to soil water content, and could be promising for soil water content determination because of the availability of continental-scale gamma radiation monitoring networks. However, the accuracy of soil water content estimates that can be obtained from this type of data is currently unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of soil water content estimates from measured time series of gamma radiation. For this, four gamma radiation monitoring stations were each equipped with four soil water content sensors at 5 and 15 cm depth to provide reference soil water content measurements. The contributions of terrestrial radiation and secondary cosmic radiation were separated from the total amount of measured gamma radiation by assuming that the long-term contribution of secondary cosmic radiation was constant, and that variations were related to changes in air pressure and incoming neutrons. In addition, precipitation effects related to atmospheric washout of radon progenies to the ground that cause an increase of gamma radiation were considered by excluding time periods with precipitation and time periods less than three hours after precipitation. The estimated terrestrial gamma radiation was related to soil water content using an exponential function with two fit parameters. For daily soil water content estimates, the goodness of fit ranged from R2= 0.21 to 0.48 and the RMSE ranged from 0.048 to 0.117 m3m-3. The accuracy of the soil water content estimates improved considerably when a weekly resolution was used (RMSE ranged from 0.029 to 0.084 m3m-3). Overall, these results indicate that gamma radiation monitoring data can be used to obtain useful soil water content information. The remaining differences between measured and estimated soil water content can at least partly be explained by the fact that the terrestrial gamma radiation is strongly determined by the upper few centimeters of the soil

  14. Operating a Microwave Radiation Detection Monitor. Module 10. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on operating a microwave radiation detection monitor. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) testing the…

  15. Development of a portable monitor for detecting gamma radiation and X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Neto, Paulo J. da [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/NE-CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lira, Carlos A.B. de O., E-mail: cabol@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Oliveira, Arno H. de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    There are several ways to prevent individuals from receiving excessive or unnecessary doses of radiation, and area monitoring contributes to the radiation protection in the assessment whether these means are really efficient. The area monitoring is used to give an indication of radiation levels in certain locations. Using this method, one can estimate the dose received by staff occupying a particular area for a certain period of time. Hence, the purpose of this work was the construction of a portable monitor, consisting of an ionization chamber, with a volume of approximately 517 cc and built from tissue-equivalent material, and of its associated electronics. Radiation measurements of gamma and X-rays beams were then possible. The results showed a linear response of the monitor for different dose rates. The stability test of the response also showed a good reproducibility within {+-} 1%. A low energy dependence for energies between 16 - 200keV was observed, and complied well with the IEC 60846 standard. However, for the energy range 200 - 1250keV, the discrepancies to the IEC standard are considerable, so that the interposition of filters is necessary and may improve the energy response curve to within acceptable limits. (author)

  16. Mechanisms of Radiation Damage Generated by Ionizing Radiation in Optical Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    SUMMARY OF APPENDIX B "Optical scattering and SPR study of ZBLAN glass : Dependence on preparation and processing methods" LMater. Sci. Forum 19-20...studied the types of centers created by ionizing radiation in ZBLAN (ZrF 4, BaF 2 , LaF 3, AlF 3 , and NaF) glass . Samples of ZBLAN were prepared using...radiation-induced centers in ZBLAN glass depend strongly on the glass -processing conditions. For example, ZBLAN glasses processed with CC14 yield paramagnetic

  17. Generation of coherent electromagnetic radiation by superconducting films at nitrogen temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Lykov, A N

    2001-01-01

    One detected generation of coherent electromagnetic radiation by GdBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - sub x superconducting films within 1-10 MHz range at temperature of liquid nitrogen boiling. This type generation is caused by synchronization realized due to the feedback of abrupt changes of the Abrikosov's vortices produced by the external low-frequency magnetic field. Possibility to reach more intensive radiation due to increase of the area of superconducting film, as well as, via increase of amplitude and of frequency of electromagnetic field exciting a vortex system in films is the most important advantage of the given technique of generation

  18. Generation of high-field narrowband terahertz radiation by counterpropagating plasma wakefields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, I. V.; Annenkov, V. V.; Volchok, E. P.

    2017-10-01

    It is found that nonlinear interaction of plasma wakefields driven by counterpropagating laser or particle beams can efficiently generate high-power electromagnetic radiation at the second harmonic of the plasma frequency. Using a simple analytical theory and particle-in-cell simulations, we show that this phenomenon can be attractive for producing high-field ( ˜10 MV/cm) tunable terahertz radiation with a narrow line width. For laser drivers produced by existing petawatt-class systems, this nonlinear process opens the way to the generation of gigawatt, multi-millijoule terahertz pulses which are not presently available for any other generating schemes.

  19. Radiative generation of neutrino mixing: degenerate masses and threshold corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Hollik, Wolfgang Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Degenerate neutrino masses are excluded by experiment. The experimentally measured mass squared differences together with the yet undetermined absolute neutrino mass scale allow for a quasi-degenerate mass spectrum. For the lightest neutrino mass larger than roughly 0.1 eV, we analyse the influence of threshold corrections at the electroweak scale. We show that typical one-loop corrections can generate the observed neutrino mixing as well as the mass differences starting from exactly degenerate masses at the tree-level. Those threshold corrections have to be explicitly flavour violating. Flavour diagonal, non-universal corrections are not sufficient to simultaneously generate the correct mixing and the mass differences. We apply the new insights to an extension of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with non-minimal flavour violation in the soft breaking terms and discuss the low-energy threshold corrections to the light neutrino mass matrix in that model.

  20. Belle-II VXD radiation monitoring and beam abort with sCVD diamond sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, T.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C.; Kandra, J.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnička, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rao, K. K.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sandilya, S.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thalmeier, R.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, Lorenzo; Volpi, M.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.

    2016-07-01

    The Belle-II VerteX Detector (VXD) has been designed to improve the performances with respect to Belle and to cope with an unprecedented luminosity of 8 ×1035cm-2s-1 achievable by the SuperKEKB. Special care is needed to monitor both the radiation dose accumulated throughout the life of the experiment and the instantaneous radiation rate, in order to be able to promptly react to sudden spikes for the purpose of protecting the detectors. A radiation monitoring and beam abort system based on single-crystal diamond sensors is now under an active development for the VXD. The sensors will be placed in several key positions in the vicinity of the interaction region. The severe space limitations require a challenging remote readout of the sensors.

  1. Micro Penning Trap for Continuous Magnetic Field Monitoring in High Radiation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Javiera; Bollen, Georg; Gulyuz, Kerim; Ringle, Ryan; Bado, Philippe; Dugan, Mark; Lebit Team; Translume Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    As new facilities for rare isotope beams, like FRIB at MSU, are constructed, there is a need for new instrumentation to monitor magnetic fields in beam magnets that can withstand the higher radiation level. Currently NMR probes, the instruments used extensively to monitor magnetic fields, do not have a long lifespans in radiation-high environments. Therefore, a radiation-hard replacement is needed. We propose to use Penning trap mass spectrometry techniques to make high precision magnetic field measurements. Our Penning microtrap will be radiation resistant as all of the vital electronics will be at a safe distance from the radiation. The trap itself is made from materials not subject to radiation damage. Penning trap mass spectrometers can determine the magnetic field by measuring the cyclotron frequency of an ion with a known mass and charge. This principle is used on the Low Energy Beam Ion Trap (LEBIT) minitrap at NSCL which is the foundation for the microtrap. We have partnered with Translume, who specialize in glass micro-fabrication, to develop a microtrap in fused-silica glass. A microtrap is finished and ready for testing at NSCL with all of the electronic and hardware components setup. DOE Phase II SBIR Award No. DE-SC0011313, NSF Award Number 1062410 REU in Physics, NSF under Grant No. PHY-1102511.

  2. Monitoring of Solar Radiation Intensity using Wireless Sensor Network for Plant Growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, B.; Fadli, F.; Andayani, U.; Harahap, LA; Fahmi, F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract— Plant growth is highly depending on the sunlight, if the consumption of sunlight is enough, it will grow well. The plant will be green because of its chlorophyll and it can perform photosynthesis at maximum; but if the plants get less sunlight, it will make the plants be yellowing. Radiation is electromagnetic waves that are good for plants, so-called visible light. In the electromagnetic wave spectrum the best wavelength range from 400-700 nm for the plant. A monitoring of sun intensity is needed in order to obtain sufficient solar radiation consumption and provide notification if there is a high radiation. In this study, several sensors and devices were combined such as photosynthetic solar radiation sensors, GSM / GPRS and waspmote as a main board or a microcontroller. The test was carried out on at least three occasions; the system has a stable radiation in the morning with an average of 505.51 micrometers. IN this study, we have successfully developed a monitoring tools for solar radiation intensity applied on plant growth by using wireless sensor network.

  3. Evaluating a radiation monitor for mixed-field environments based on SRAM technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiligiannis, G.; Dilillo, L.; Bosio, A.; Girard, P.; Pravossoudovitch, S.; Todri, A.; Virazel, A.; Mekki, J.; Brugger, M.; Wrobel, F.; Saigne, F.

    2014-05-01

    Instruments operating in particle accelerators and colliders are exposed to radiations that are composed of particles of different types and energies. Several of these instruments often embed devices that are not hardened against radiation effects. Thus, there is a strong need for monitoring the levels of radiation inside the mixed-field radiation areas, throughout different positions. Different metrics exist for measuring the radiation damage induced to electronic devices, such as the Total Ionizing Dose (TID), the Displacement Damage (DD) and of course the fluence of particles for estimating the error rates of the electronic devices among other applications. In this paper, we propose an SRAM based monitor, that is used to define the fluence of High Energy Hadrons (HEH) by detecting Single Event Upsets in the memory array. We evaluated the device by testing it inside the H4IRRAD area of CERN, a test area that reproduces the radiation conditions inside the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) tunnel and its shielded areas. By using stability estimation methods and presenting experimental data, we prove that this device is proper to be used for such a purpose.

  4. The Austrian radiation monitoring network ARAD - best practice and added value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olefs, Marc; Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Obleitner, Friedrich; Bichler, Christoph; Foelsche, Ulrich; Pietsch, Helga; Rieder, Harald E.; Weihs, Philipp; Geyer, Florian; Haiden, Thomas; Schöner, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The Austrian RADiation monitoring network (ARAD) has been established to advance the national climate monitoring and to support satellite retrieval, atmospheric modeling and the development of solar energy techniques. Measurements cover the downward solar and thermal infrared radiation using instruments according to Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) standards. A unique feature of ARAD is its vertical dimension of five stations, covering an altitude range between about 200 m a.s.l (Vienna) and 3100 m a.s.l. (BSRN site Sonnblick). The paper outlines the aims and scopes of ARAD, its measurement and calibration standards, methods, strategies and station locations. ARAD network operation uses innovative data processing for quality assurance and quality control, utilizing manual and automated control algorithms. A combined uncertainty estimate for the broadband shortwave radiation fluxes at all five ARAD stations, using the methodology specified by the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement indicates that relative accuracies range from 1.5 to 2.9 % for large signals (global, direct: 1000 W m-2, diffuse: 500 W m-2) and from 1.7 to 23 % (or 0.9 to 11.5 W m-2) for small signals (50 W m-2) (expanded uncertainties corresponding to the 95 % confidence level). If the directional response error of the pyranometers and the temperature response of the instruments and the data acquisition system (DAQ) are corrected, this expanded uncertainty reduces to 1.4 to 2.8 % for large signals and to 1.7 to 5.2 % (or 0.9-2.6 W m-2) for small signals. Thus, for large signals of global and diffuse radiation, BSRN target accuracies are met or nearly met (missed by less than 0.2 percentage points, pps) for 70 % of the ARAD measurements after this correction. For small signals of direct radiation, BSRN targets are achieved at two sites and nearly met (also missed by less than 0.2 pps) at the other sites. For small signals of global and diffuse radiation, targets are achieved

  5. A comparison of different entransy flow definitions and entropy generation in thermal radiation optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Bing; Cheng Xue-Tao; Liang Xin-Gang

    2013-01-01

    In thermal radiation,taking heat flow as an extensive quantity and defining the potential as temperature T or the blackbody emissive power U will lead to two different definitions of radiation entransy flow and the corresponding principles for thermal radiation optimization.The two definitions of radiation entransy flow and the corresponding optimization principles are compared in this paper.When the total heat flow is given,the optimization objectives of the extremum entransy dissipation principles (EEDPs) developed based on potentials T and U correspond to the minimum equivalent temperature difference and the minimum equivalent blackbody emissive power difference respectively.The physical meaning of the definition based on potential U is clearer than that based on potential T,but the latter one can be used for the coupled heat transfer optimization problem while the former one cannot.The extremum entropy generation principle (EEGP) for thermal radiation is also derived,which includes the minimum entropy generation principle for thermal radiation.When the radiation heat flow is prescribed,the EEGP reveals that the minimum entropy generation leads to the minimum equivalent thermodynamic potential difference,which is not the expected objective in heat transfer.Therefore,the minimum entropy generation is not always appropriate for thermal radiation optimization.Finally,three thermal radiation optimization examples are discussed,and the results show that the difference in optimization objective between the EEDPs and the EEGP leads to the difference between the optimization results.The EEDP based on potential T is more useful in practical application since its optimization objective is usually consistent with the expected one.

  6. An online technique for condition monitoring the induction generators used in wind and marine turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenxian; Tavner, P. J.; Court, R.

    2013-07-01

    Induction generators have been successfully applied to a variety of industries. However, their operation and maintenance in renewable wind and marine energy industries still face challenges due to harsh environments, limited access to site and relevant reliability issues. Hence, further enhancing their condition monitoring is regarded as one of the essential measures for improving their availability. To date, much effort has been made to monitor induction motors, which can be equally applied to monitoring induction generators. However, the achieved techniques still have constrains in particular when dealing with the condition monitoring problems in wind and marine turbine generators. For example, physical measurements of partial discharge, noise and temperature have been widely applied to monitoring induction machinery. They are simple and cost-effective, but unable to be used for fault diagnosis. The spectral analysis of vibration and stator current signals is also a mature technique popularly used in motor/generator condition monitoring practice. However, it often requires sufficient expertise for data interpretation, and significant pre-knowledge about the machines and their components. In particular in renewable wind and marine industries, the condition monitoring results are usually coupled with load variations, which further increases the difficulty of obtaining a reliable condition monitoring result. In view of these issues, a new condition monitoring technique is developed in this paper dedicated for wind and marine turbine generators. It is simple, informative and less load-dependent thus more reliable to deal with the online motor/generator condition monitoring problems under varying loading conditions. The technique has been verified through both simulated and practical experiments. It has been shown that with the aid of the proposed technique, not only the electrical faults but also the shaft unbalance occurring in the generator become detectable

  7. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Volume 15, No. 4: Quarterly progress report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1995. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program.

  8. Scientific goals achievable with radiation monitor measurements on board gravitational wave interferometers in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimani, C.; Boatella, C.; Chmeissani, M.; Fabi, M.; Finetti, N.; Lobo, A.; Mateos, I.

    2012-06-01

    Cosmic rays and energetic solar particles constitute one of the most important sources of noise for future gravitational wave detectors in space. Radiation monitors were designed for the LISA Pathfinder (LISA-PF) mission. Similar devices were proposed to be placed on board LISA and ASTROD. These detectors are needed to monitor the flux of energetic particles penetrating mission spacecraft and inertial sensors. However, in addition to this primary use, radiation monitors on board space interferometers will carry out the first multipoint observation of solar energetic particles (SEPs) at small and large heliolongitude intervals and at very different distances from Earth with minor normalization errors. We illustrate the scientific goals that can be achieved in solar physics and space weather studies with these detectors. A comparison with present and future missions devoted to solar physics is presented.

  9. Generation and monitoring of a discrete stable random process

    CERN Document Server

    Hopcraft, K I; Matthews, J O

    2002-01-01

    A discrete stochastic process with stationary power law distribution is obtained from a death-multiple immigration population model. Emigrations from the population form a random series of events which are monitored by a counting process with finite-dynamic range and response time. It is shown that the power law behaviour of the population is manifested in the intermittent behaviour of the series of events. (letter to the editor)

  10. Modeling of DSBs Generation and Repair Process under Ion Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Jin-peng; SHAO Shi-huang; XIE Jin-li; BAI Hui

    2007-01-01

    Under acute perturbations from outside, cell can trigger the self-defense mechanisms in fighting against these genome stresses. To simulate the investigation of the complicated mechanisms of cellular responding DNA damage at single cell level, a model of the double strand breaks (DSBs) generation and repair process is proposed under continuous effect of acute IR. Under different IR dose domains, this model can be used to simulate the complicated interactions among vital components within the cell, and the plausible outcomes of cellular response in fighting against DNA damage.

  11. The monitoring results of electromagnetic radiation of 110-kV high-voltage lines in one urban location in Chongqing P.R. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qi-Zhong; Chen, Yu; Fu, Ting-Ting; Ding, Li; Han, Ling-Li; Li, Jian-Chao

    2012-03-01

    To understand electromagnetic radiation field strength and its influencing factors of certain 110-kV high-voltage lines in one urban area of Chongqing by measuring 110-kV high-voltage line's electromagnetic radiation level. According to the methodology as determined by the National Hygienic Standards, we selected certain adjacent residential buildings, high-voltage lines along a specific street and selected different distances around its vertical projection point as monitoring points. The levels of electromagnetic radiations were measured respectively. In this investigation within the frequency of 5-1,000 Hz both the electric field strength and magnetic field strength of each monitoring sites were lower than the public exposure standards as determined by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. However, the electrical field strength on the roof adjacent to the high-voltage lines was significantly higher than that as measured on the other floors in the same buildings (p electromagnetic radiation measurements of different monitoring points, under the same high-voltage lines, showed the location which is nearer the high-voltage line maintain a consistently higher level of radiation than the more distant locations (p Electromagnetic radiation generated by high-voltage lines decreases proportionally to the distance from the lines. The buildings can to some extent shield (or absorb) the electric fields generated by high-voltage lines nearby. The electromagnetic radiation intensity near high-voltage lines may be mitigated or intensified by the manner in which the high-voltage lines are set up, and it merits attention for the potential impact on human health.

  12. Study of LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL detectors for individual monitoring for weakly penetrating radiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P.

    1993-01-01

    The results are described of a study of three commercially available LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL materials aiming at using this phosphor for individual monitoring for weakly penetrating radiations. Due to the high radiation sensitivity of the material it is suitable for application as thin detectors which...... are necessary for monitoring weakly penetrating radiations. Furthermore, the good energy response characteristics of the material for exposure to photons makes it also attractive for monitoring strongly penetrating radiations. Results are given on glow curve analyses of the LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL phosphor and data...

  13. Generation of Z mode radiation by diffuse auroral electron precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Lyons, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    The generation of Z mode waves by diffuse auroral electron precipitation is investigated assuming that a loss cone exists in the upgoing portion of the distribution due to electron interactions with the atmosphere. The waves are generated at frequencies above, but very near, the local electron cyclotron frequency omega(e) and at wave normal angles larger than 90 deg. In agreement with Hewitt et al. (1983), the group velocity is directed downward in regions where the ratio of the upper hybrid frequency omega(pe) to Omega(e) is less than 0.5, so that Z mode waves excited above a satellite propagate toward it and away from the upper hybrid resonance. Z mode waves are excited in a frequency band between Omega(e) and about 1.02 Omega(e), and with maximum growth rates of about 0.001 Omega(e). The amplification length is about 100 km, which allows Z mode waves to grow to the intensities observed by high-altitude satellites.

  14. Glance traceability – Web system for equipment traceability and radiation monitoring for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos de Azevedo Evora, L H; Pommes, K; Galvão, K K; Maidantchik, C

    2010-01-01

    During the operation, maintenance, and dismantling periods of the ATLAS Experiment, the traceability of all detector equipment must be guaranteed for logistic and safety matters. The running of the Large Hadron Collider will expose the ATLAS detector to radiation. Therefore, CERN must follow specific regulations from both the French and Swiss authorities for equipment removal, transport, repair, and disposal. GLANCE Traceability, implemented in C++ and Java/Java3D, has been developed to fulfill the requirements. The system registers and associates each equipment part to either a functional position in the detector or a zone outside the underground area through a 3D graphical user interface. Radiation control of the equipment is performed using a radiation monitor connected to the system: the local background gets stored and the threshold is automatically calculated. The system classifies the equipment as non radioactive if its radiation dose does not exceed that limit value. History for both location traceabi...

  15. Monitoring proton radiation therapy with in-room PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuping; España, Samuel; Daartz, Juliane; Liebsch, Norbert; Ouyang, Jinsong; Paganetti, Harald; Bortfeld, Thomas R; El Fakhri, Georges

    2011-07-07

    We used a mobile positron emission tomography (PET) scanner positioned within the proton therapy treatment room to study the feasibility of proton range verification with an in-room, stand-alone PET system, and compared with off-line equivalent studies. Two subjects with adenoid cystic carcinoma were enrolled into a pilot study in which in-room PET scans were acquired in list-mode after a routine fractionated treatment session. The list-mode PET data were reconstructed with different time schemes to generate in-room short, in-room long and off-line equivalent (by skipping coincidences from the first 15 min during the list-mode reconstruction) PET images for comparison in activity distribution patterns. A phantom study was followed to evaluate the accuracy of range verification for different reconstruction time schemes quantitatively. The in-room PET has a higher sensitivity compared to the off-line modality so that the PET acquisition time can be greatly reduced from 30 to proton therapy. Better accuracy in Monte Carlo predictions, especially for biological decay modeling, is necessary.

  16. A Radiation-Triggered Surveillance System for UF6 Cylinder Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Michael M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Myjak, Mitchell J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-23

    This report provides background information and representative scenarios for testing a prototype radiation-triggered surveillance system at an operating facility that handles uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders. The safeguards objective is to trigger cameras using radiation, or radiation and motion, rather than motion alone, to reduce significantly the number of image files generated by a motion-triggered system. The authors recommend the use of radiation-triggered surveillance at all facilities where cylinder paths are heavily traversed by personnel. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has begun using surveillance cameras in the feed and withdrawal areas of gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). The cameras generate imagery using elapsed time or motion, but this creates problems in areas occupied 24/7 by personnel. Either motion-or-interval-based triggering generates thousands of review files over the course of a month. Since inspectors must review the files to verify operator material-flow-declarations, a plethora of files significantly extends the review process. The primary advantage of radiation-triggered surveillance is the opportunity to obtain full-time cylinder throughput verification versus what presently amounts to part-time verification. Cost savings should be substantial, as the IAEA presently uses frequent unannounced inspections to verify cylinder-throughput declarations. The use of radiation-triggered surveillance allows the IAEA to implement less frequent unannounced inspections for the purpose of flow verification, but its principal advantage is significantly shorter and more effective inspector video reviews.

  17. Analysis of the operation of a diffraction-radiation generator with preliminary HF modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarova, A. G.

    1991-05-01

    The excitation conditions and output characteristics of a diffraction-radiation generator with preliminary HF modulation are determined. Attention is given to the effects of the modulation parameter, the phase shift, and the aiming distance on the displacement of the generation zone, variations of the minimum starting current, the frequency shift, the oscillation amplitude, and the efficiency of the generator. It is shown that the efficiency of a generator with preliminary HF modulation can be twice as high as that of a generator without modulation.

  18. Laer Pulse Driven THz Generation via Resonant Transition Radiation in Inhomogeneous Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Miao, Chenlong; Antonsen, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    An intense, short laser pulse propagating across a plasma boundary ponderomotively drives THz radiation. Full format PIC simulations and theoretical analysis are conducted to investigate the properties of this radiation. Simulation results show the THz emission originates in regions of varying density and covers a broad spectrum with maximum frequency close to the maximum plasma frequency. In the case of a sharp vacuum-plasma boundary, the radiation is generated symmetrically at the plasma entrance and exit, and its properties are independent of plasma density when the density exceeds a characteristic value determined by the product of the plasma frequency and the laser pulse duration. For a diffuse vacuum-plasma boundary, the emission from the plasma entrance and exit is asymmetric: increasing and decreasing density ramps enhance and diminish the radiated energy respectively. Enhancements by factors of 50 are found and simulations show that a 1.66 J, 50 fs driver pulse can generate ~400 \\mu J of THz radiatio...

  19. Application of a wrist dosimeter prototype for radiation monitoring ({sup 153}Sm) during a therapeutic procedure simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecatti, S G P [Fundacentro, Ministerio do Trabalho e Emprego, Rua Capote Valente, 710, 05409-002, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Guimaraes, M I C C [Centro de Medicina Nuclear, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Travessa da Rua Dr. Ovidio Pires de Campos s/n, 05403-010, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Caldas, L V E [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Avenida Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: scecatti@fundacentro.gov.br, E-mail: ines@hcnet.usp.br, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br

    2009-12-01

    Gamma and beta radiation emitting radiopharmaceuticals are handled in nuclear medicine services, and in many cases there is only individual monitoring of gamma radiation. In this paper, the results obtained using a wrist dosimeter prototype (CaSO{sub 4}:Dy+Teflon pellets) show that the doses for workers occupationally exposed to beta radiation from {sup 153}Sm are not negligible. It is important that this dose is evaluated, and it has to be taken into consideration in the individual monitoring system.

  20. Gamma radiation monitoring at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA), Graciosa Island ARM facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Susana; Miranda, Pedro; Azevedo, Eduardo B.; Nitschke, Kim

    2016-04-01

    Continuous monitoring of gamma radiation is often performed in nuclear facilities and industrial environments as a way to control the ambient radioactivity and give warning of potential accidents. However, gamma radiation is also ubiquitous in the natural environment. The main sources are i) cosmic radiation from space, including secondary radiation from the interaction with atoms in the atmosphere, ii) terrestrial sources from mineral grains in soils and rocks, particularly Potassium (K-40), Uranium (U-238) and Thorium (Th-232) and their decay products (e.g. Radium, Ra-226) , and iii) airborne Radon gas (Rn-222), which is the dominant source of natural environmental radioactivity. The temporal variability of this natural radiation background needs to be well understood and quantified in order to discriminate non-natural sources of radiation in the environment and artificial radionuclides contamination. To this end, continuous gamma radiation monitoring is being performed at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) facility located in the Graciosa island (Azores, 39N; 28W), a fixed site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement programme (ARM), established and supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of America with the collaboration of the local government and University of the Azores. The site is unique for the study of the natural radioactivity background on one hand due to the remote oceanic geographical location, in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean and clear of direct continental influence, and on the other hand because of the comprehensive dataset of atmospheric parameters that is available for enhancing the interpretation of the radiation measurements, as a result of the vast array of very detailed and high-quality atmospheric measurements performed at the ARM-ENA facility. Gamma radiation in the range 475 KeV to 3000 KeV is measured continuously with a 3" x 3" NaI(Tl) scintillator. The campaign started started in May 2015, with gamma

  1. Design and Fabrication of an Integrated Circuit for Monitoring UV Radiation for Health Physics Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazififard, Mohammad; Faghihi, Reyhaneh [Kashan Univ., Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Champiri, Afshin Mahmoudieh [Shahid Chamran Univ., Ahwaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Norov, Enkhbat [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Kune Y. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A particularly important term in the clinical photobiology is the standard erythemal dose (SED), which is a measure of the erythemal effectiveness of a UV exposure. However, both the quality and quantity of the UV radiation are important factors for the UV monitoring. This paper aims to introduce and investigate a UV radiation meter in order to establish its applicability for non-ionizing radiation detection. The ultraviolet (UV) radiation is part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The biological effects of UV radiation vary enormously with wavelength and for this reason the UV spectrum is further divided into three regions: UVA, UVB, and UVC. There is increasing evidence that long wave UV radiation plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of photo-dermatoses such as polymorphous light eruption as well as photo-aging. UVA, UVB, and UVC can all damage collagen fibers and, therefore, accelerate aging of the skin. Both UVA and UVB destroy vitamin A in the skin, which may cause further damage. The quantities of the UV radiation are generally expressed using the radiometric terminology.

  2. Operational control of radiation conditions in Space Monitoring Data Center of Moscow State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalegaev, Vladimir; Shugay, Yulia; Bobrovnikov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Nikolay; Barinova, Vera; Myagkova, Irina; Panasyuk, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    Space Monitoring Data Center (SMDC) of Moscow State University provides mission support for Russian satellites and give operational analysis of radiation conditions in space. SMDC Web-sites (http://smdc.sinp.msu.ru/ and http://swx.sinp.msu.ru/) give access to current data on the level of solar activity, geomagnetic and radiation state of Earth's magnetosphere and heliosphere in near-real time. For data analysis the models of space environment factors working online have been implemented. Interactive services allow one to retrieve and analyze data at a given time moment. Forecasting applications including solar wind parameters, geomagnetic and radiation condition forecasts have been developed. Radiation dose and SEE rate control are of particular importance in practical satellite operation. Satellites are always under the influence of high-energy particle fluxes during their orbital flight. The three main sources of particle fluxes: the Earth's radiation belts, the galactic cosmic rays, and the solar energetic particles (SEP), are taken into account by SMDC operational services to estimate the radiation dose caused by high-energy particles to a satellite at LEO orbits. ISO 15039 and AP8/AE8 physical models are used to estimate effects of galactic cosmic rays and radiation belt particle fluxes. Data of geosynchronous satellites (GOES or Electro-L1) allow to reconstruct the SEP fluxes spectra at a given low Earth orbit taking into account the geomagnetic cut-off depending on geomagnetic activity level.

  3. Radionuclide identification algorithm for organic scintillator-based radiation portal monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paff, Marc Gerrit; Di Fulvio, Angela; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2017-03-01

    We have developed an algorithm for on-the-fly radionuclide identification for radiation portal monitors using organic scintillation detectors. The algorithm was demonstrated on experimental data acquired with our pedestrian portal monitor on moving special nuclear material and industrial sources at a purpose-built radiation portal monitor testing facility. The experimental data also included common medical isotopes. The algorithm takes the power spectral density of the cumulative distribution function of the measured pulse height distributions and matches these to reference spectra using a spectral angle mapper. F-score analysis showed that the new algorithm exhibited significant performance improvements over previously implemented radionuclide identification algorithms for organic scintillators. Reliable on-the-fly radionuclide identification would help portal monitor operators more effectively screen out the hundreds of thousands of nuisance alarms they encounter annually due to recent nuclear-medicine patients and cargo containing naturally occurring radioactive material. Portal monitor operators could instead focus on the rare but potentially high impact incidents of nuclear and radiological material smuggling detection for which portal monitors are intended.

  4. Environmental radiation monitoring of low-level wastes by the State of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conklin, A.W.; Mooney, R.R.; Erickson, J.L. [Dept. of Health, Olympia, WA (United States). Div. of Radiation Protection

    1989-11-01

    The Washington State Department of Health, as the state`s regulatory agency for radiation, monitors several forms of low-level radioactive wastes. The monitoring is done to assess the potential impact on the environment and on public health. The emphasis of the monitoring program is placed on the solid and liquid wastes from defense activities on the Hanford Reservation, commercial wastes at the site located on leased land at Hanford and uranium mill tailings in Northeastern Washington. Although not classified as low-level waste, monitoring is also periodically conducted at selected landfills and sewage treatment facilities and other licensees, where radioactive wastes are known or suspected to be present. Environmental pathways associated with waste disposal are monitored independently, and/or in conjunction with the waste site operators to verify their results and evaluate their programs. The Department also participates in many site investigations conducted by site operators and other agencies, and conducts it`s own special investigations when deemed necessary. Past investigations and special projects have included allegations of adverse environmental impact of I-129, uranium in ground water, impacts of wastes on the agricultural industry, radioactivity in seeps into the Columbia River from waste sites, identifying lost waste sites at Hanford, differentiating groundwater contamination from defense versus commercial sources, and radioactivity in municipal landfills and sewers. The state`s environmental radiation monitoring program has identified and verified a number of environmental problems associated with radioactive waste disposal, but has, to date, identified no adverse offsite impacts to public health.

  5. Parametric generation of radiation in a dynamic cavity with frequency dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosanov, N N; Fedorov, E G; Matskovsky, A A [Federal State Unitary Enterprise ' Scientific and Industrial Corporation ' Vavilov State Optical Institute' , St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-31

    A numerical simulation of the parametric generation of electromagnetic radiation in a cavity with periodically oscillating mirrors and Lorentz-type frequency dispersion has been performed. It is shown that initially weak seed radiation can be transformed into intense short pulses, the shape of which under steady-state conditions changes periodically when reflecting from mirrors and, depending on the dispersion characteristics, corresponds to uni- or bipolar pulses. (letters)

  6. Simulation of Coherent Diffraction Radiation Generation by Pico-Second Electron Bunches in an Open Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhikh, L. G.; Potylitsyn, A. P.; Verigin, D. A.

    2016-07-01

    In this report we present new approach for calculation of processes of diffraction radiation generation, storage and decay in an open resonator based on generalized surface current method. The radiation characteristics calculated using the developed approach were compared with those calculated using Gaussian-Laguerre modes method. The comparison shows reasonable coincidence of the results that allows to use developed method for investigation of more complicated resonators.

  7. Generation of linearly polarized resonant transition radiation X-ray beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yajima, Kazuaki; Awata, Takaaki; Ikeda, Mitsuharu; Ikeda, Kenichi; Yogo, Akifumi; Itoh, Akio; Imanishi, Nobutsugu [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2000-03-01

    We have proposed a method to generate almost linearly polarized resonant transition radiation X rays by using a rectangular slit placed on an electron beam axis. Our calculation predicted that the linearity is 93.5% for the resonant transition radiation X-ray beam extracted through a slit of 0.5 mrad long and 0.2 mrad wide in case of 1-GeV electron beam irradiating a 7.5-{mu}m thick Kapton foil stack. (author)

  8. Standard guide for application of radiation monitors to the control and physical security of special nuclear material

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This guide briefly describes the state-of-the-art of radiation monitors for detecting special nuclear material (SNM) (see 3.1.11) in order to establish the context in which to write performance standards for the monitors. This guide extracts information from technical documentation to provide information for selecting, calibrating, testing, and operating such radiation monitors when they are used for the control and protection of SNM. This guide offers an unobtrusive means of searching pedestrians, packages, and motor vehicles for concealed SNM as one part of a nuclear material control or security plan for nuclear materials. The radiation monitors can provide an efficient, sensitive, and reliable means of detecting the theft of small quantities of SNM while maintaining a low likelihood of nuisance alarms. 1.2 Dependable operation of SNM radiation monitors rests on selecting appropriate monitors for the task, operating them in a hospitable environment, and conducting an effective program to test, calibrat...

  9. Experimental Research of the Diffraction and Vavilov-Cherenkov Radiation Generation in a Teflon Target

    CERN Document Server

    Shevelev, M; Potylitsyn, A; Popov, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Geometry of Vavilov-Cherekov (VChR) radiation when an electron moves close to a dielectric target is in analogy to diffraction radiation (DR) geometry. In this case we may expect DR generation from the upstream face of the target besides that VChR. The joint observation of these booth types of radiation is very interesting from the pseudo-photon viewpoint, which is applicable for relativistic electrons. Unexpected results obtained in our experiment insist on reflection about nature both DR and VChR. The experiment was performed on the relativistic electron beam of the microtron of Tomsk Polytechnic University.

  10. On the possibility of phosphenes being generated by the energetic radiation from lightning flashes and thunderstorms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooray, Vernon, E-mail: Vernon.Cooray@angstrom.uu.se [Division for Electricity, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Cooray, Gerald [Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Dwyer, Joseph [Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States)

    2011-10-03

    After the first report of this phenomenon by Apollo 11 astronauts, experiments conducted in space and on the ground confirmed the creation of phosphenes by the interaction of energetic radiation with the human visual system. The aim of this Letter is to show that the energetic radiation generated in the form of X-rays, gamma rays, electrons and neutrons by thunderstorms and lightning is strong enough for the creation of phosphenes in humans. It is also pointed out that some of the visual observations reported during thunderstorms might be attributable to phosphenes excited by this energetic radiation. -- Highlights: → Radiation in space consists of X-rays, γ-rays, protons, neutrons and electrons. → Studies of NASA confirm creation of phosphene in humans by such energetic radiation. → Energetic radiation also exists in the vicinity of thunderstorms and lightning. → It is shown that this radiation is strong enough to generate phosphene in humans. → Some of these visual experiences could be misinterpreted as ball lightning.

  11. Polymer-based triphenyl tetrazolium chloride films for ultraviolet radiation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebraheem, S.; Abdel-Fattah, A. A.; Said, F. I.; Ali, Z. I.

    2000-02-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation monitoring films were prepared from solutions of polymers (polyvinyl, alcohol, PVA, or polyvinyl butyral, PVB), containing triphenyl tetrazolium chloride dye (TTC). These films have a pronounced response to the main UV radiation spectral regions [UV-A (400-320 nm), UV-B (320-280 nm), and UV-C (280-180 nm)] showing different sensitivities. PVA/TTC film has its maximum sensitivity in the UV-A region, while PVB/TTC film has its maximum sensitivity in the UV-C region. Both films have almost the same sensitivity in the UV-B region. The radiation-induced colour change is analysed spectrophotometrically at the maximum of the visible absorption band peaking at 492 nm wavelength. The measurement uncertainty of estimating ultraviolet radiation energy incident per unit area on the films is found to be about 3.5% (1 σ). The study of the effect of radiance exposure, incident wavelength, and storage conditions have been carried out to characterise the use of these films for actinometric monitoring artificial ultraviolet radiation sources which are used for medical and industrial applications.

  12. Probing Radiative Neutrino Mass Generation through Monotop Production

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, John N

    2014-01-01

    We present a generalization of a model where the right-handed up-type quarks serve as messengers for neutrino mass generation and as a portal for dark matter. Within this framework the Standard Model is extended with a single Majorana neutrino, a coloured electroweak-singlet scalar and a coloured electroweak-triplet scalar. We calculate the relic abundance of dark matter and show that we can match the latest experimental results. Furthermore, the implications from the scattering between nuclei and the dark matter candidate are studied and we implement the latest experimental constraints arising from flavour changing interactions, Higgs production and decay and LHC collider searches for a single jet and jets plus missing energy. In addition, we implement constraints arising from scalar top quark pair-production. We also study the production of a single top in association with missing energy and calculate the sensitivity of the LHC to the top quark hadronic and semi-leptonic decay modes with the current $20$ fb...

  13. The Austrian radiation monitoring network ARAD - best practice and added value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olefs, Marc; Baumgartner, Dietmar; Obleitner, Friedrich; Bichler, Christoph; Foelsche, Ulrich; Pietsch, Helga; Rieder, Harald; Weihs, Philipp; Geyer, Florian; Haiden, Thomas; Schöner, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The Austrian RADiation monitoring network (ARAD) has been established to advance the national climate monitoring and to support satellite retrieval, atmospheric modelling and solar energy techniques development. Measurements cover the downwelling solar and thermal infrared radiation using instruments according to Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) standards. A unique feature of ARAD is its vertical dimension of five stations, covering an air column between about 200 m a.s.l. (Vienna) and 3100 m a.s.l. (BSRN site Sonnblick). The contribution outlines the aims and scopes of ARAD, its measurement and calibration standards, methods, strategies and station locations. ARAD network operation uses innovative data processing for quality assurance and quality control, applying manual and automated control algorithms. A combined uncertainty estimate for the broadband shortwave radiation fluxes at all five ARAD stations indicates that accuracies range from 1.5 to 23 %. If a directional response error of the pyranometers and the temperature response of the instruments and the data acquisition system (DAQ) is corrected, this expanded uncertainty reduces to 1.4 to 5.2 %. Thus, for large signals (global: 1000 W m-2, diffuse: 500 W m-2) BSRN target accuracies are met or closely met for 70 % of valid measurements at the ARAD stations after this correction. For small signals (50 W m-2), the targets are not achieved as a result of uncertainties associated with the DAQ or the instrument sensitivities. Additional accuracy gains can be achieved in future by additional measurements and corrections. However, for the measurement of direct solar radiation improved instrument accuracy is needed. ARAD could serve as a powerful example for establishing state-of-the-art radiation monitoring at the national level with a multiple-purpose approach. Instrumentation, guidelines and tools (such as the data quality control) developed within ARAD are best practices which could be adopted in other

  14. Radiation monitoring handbook for visits by nuclear powered warships to Australian ports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, D.A

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to detail the Radiation Monitoring (RMG) roles and procedures, and to provide technical and background information useful to RMG personnel. It has been written on the assumption that all members of the RMG have had appropriate radiation safety (Health Physics) training. Separate standing procedures, for both routine and emergency activities, are required for each port. These are incorporated in Port Safety Plans and specify the routine monitoring requirements for individual berths or anchorages and the procedures to be followed after indication of a reactor accident to a nuclear powered warship. A Visit Operation Order, issued for each Nuclear Powered warships (NPW) visit, presents information specific to that visit. Routine monitoring is performed to confirm normal conditions. The objectives of emergency radiation monitoring are: to provide early detection of a reactor accident of sufficient severity to possibly cause a major release of fission products to the environment; to determine the nature and extent of any fission product release; to provide information to assist in evaluating the accident; to assess the need and extent of required countermeasures; and to determine when the release has terminated and when affected areas have returned to normal Prepared on behalf of the Visiting Ship Panel (Nuclear), Department of Defence; 11 refs., 11 tabs., 21 figs.

  15. Experimental and theoretical study of red-shifted solitonic resonant radiation in photonic crystal fibers and generation of radiation seeded Raman solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Surajit; Chattopadhyay, Rik; Pal, Mrinmay; Bhadra, Shyamal K

    2015-01-01

    The red shifted solitonic resonant radiation is a fascinating phase matching phenomenon that occurs when an optical pulse, launched in the normal dispersion regime of photonic crystal fiber, radiates across the zero dispersion wavelength. The formation of such phase-matched radiation is independent of the generation of any optical soliton and mainly governed by the leading edge of input pump which forms a shock front. The radiation is generated at the anomalous dispersion regime and found to be confined both in time and frequency domain. We experimentally investigate the formation of such radiations in photonic crystal fibers with detailed theoretical analysis. Our theoretical predictions corroborate well with experimental results. Further we extend our study for long length fiber and investigate the interplay between red-shifted solitonic resonant radiation and intrapulse Raman scattering (IPRS). It is observed that series of radiation-seeded Raman solitons are generated in anomalous dispersion regime.

  16. Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from GSM Mobile Phones Decreases the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Smj; Gholampour, M; Haghani, M; Mortazavi, G; Mortazavi, Ar

    2014-09-01

    Mobile phones are two-way radios that emit electromagnetic radiation in microwave range. As the number of mobile phone users has reached 6 billion, the bioeffects of exposure to mobile phone radiation and mobile phone electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment have received more attention, globally. As self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes control, home blood glucose testing kits are very popular. The main goal of this study was to investigate if radiofrequency radiation emitted from a common GSM mobile phone can alter the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Forty five female nondiabetic students aged 17-20 years old participated in this study. For Control-EMF group (30 students), blood glucose concentration for each individual was measured in presence and absence of radiofrequency radiation emitted by a common GSM mobile phone (HTC touch, Diamond 2) while the phone was ringing. For Control- Repeat group (15 students), two repeated measurements were performed for each participant in the absence of electromagnetic fields. The magnitude of the changes between glucose levels in two repeated measurements (|ΔC|) in Control-Repeat group was 1.07 ± 0.88 mg/dl while this magnitude for Control-EMF group was 7.53 ± 4.76 mg/dl (P < 0.001, two-tailed test). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors.

  17. A Monitor and Control System for the Synchrotron Radiation Beam Lines at DAΦNE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Three synchrotron radiation beam lines have been built on DAΦNE,the Frascati electron-positron accelerator.It is Possible to monitor and control all the elements on the beam lines using a modular network distributed I/O system by National Instrunments (FieldPoint) with Bridge VIEW/Lab VIEW programs,Two of these beam lines have radiation safety problems solved by two independent and redundant systems,using mechanical switches ,and S7-200 PLC's by Siemens.In this article our solution will be described in details.

  18. Marine environmental radioactivity monitoring by ''in-situ'' {gamma}-radiation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, C.; Becker, K. [Bundesamt fuer Seeschiffahrt und Hydrographie, Hamburg (Germany); Schilling, G.; Gruettmueller, M. [Bundesamt fuer Seeschiffahrt und Hydrographie, Rostock (Germany)

    2000-08-01

    A monitoring system to observe continuously the artificial part of {gamma}-radiation in the sea by valuation of the {gamma}-energy measured is described. By discrimination against the natural part of {gamma}-radiation, a limit of detection is obtained for contaminations originating from nuclear accidents which is comparable to the detection limit of common chemical analysis methods for tracer nuclides. In addition, the type of radioactive source involved can be identified by {gamma}-spectra taken simultaneously. The measuring system and its application in practice are described. (orig.)

  19. Application of MODIS-Derived Active Fire Radiative Energy to Fire Disaster and Smoke Pollution Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Hao, Wei Min; Habib, Shahid

    2004-01-01

    The radiative energy emitted by large fires and the corresponding smoke aerosol loading are simultaneously measured from the MODIS sensor from both the Terra and Aqua satellites. Quantitative relationships between the rates of emission of fire radiative energy and smoke are being developed for different fire-prone regions of the globe. Preliminary results are presented. When fully developed, the system will enable the use of MODIS direct broadcast fire data for near real-time monitoring of fire strength and smoke emission as well as forecasting of fire progression and smoke dispersion, several hours to a few days in advance.

  20. Explosive Device for Generation of Pulsed Fluxes of Soft X-Ray Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selemir, V. D.; Demidov, V. A.; Ivanovsky, A. V.; Yermolovich, V. F.; Kornilov, V. G.; Chelpanov, V. I.; Kazakov, S. A.; Vlasov, Y. V.; Orlov, A. P.

    2004-11-01

    The concept and realization of the explosive electrophysical device EMIR to generate soft x-ray radiation pulses are described. EMIR is based on the development of VNIIEF technologies in high-power flux compression generators, and on transforming systems based on lines with distributed parameters and current opening switches. Vacuum lines with magnetic insulation or water coaxial lines are considered for transmission of the energy pulses to the load. Transformation of magnetic energy to kinetic energy, thermalization and soft x-ray radiation are performed in a z-pinch with a double liner system.

  1. Mechanism analysis of radiation generated by the beam-plasma interaction in a vacuum diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengchao, Ji; Shixiu, Chen; Shen, Gao

    2017-01-01

    When we were studying the vacuum switch, we found that the vacuum diode can radiate a broadband microwave. The vacuum diode is comprised of a cathode with a trigger device and planar anode, there is not a metallic bellows waveguide structure in this device, so the radiation mechanism of the vacuum diode is different from the plasma filled microwave device. It is hard to completely imitate the theory of the plasma filled microwave device. This paper analyzes the breakdown process of the vacuum diode, establishes the mathematical model of the radiating microwave from the vacuum diode. Based on the analysis of the dispersion relation in the form of a refractive index, the electromagnetic waves generated in the vacuum diode will resonate. The included angle between the direction of the electromagnetic radiation and the initial motion direction of electron beam is 45 degrees. The paper isolates the electrostatic effect from the beam-plasma interaction when the electromagnetic radiation occurs. According to above analyses, the dispersion relations of radiation are obtained by solving the wave equation. The dispersion curves are also obtained based on the theoretical dispersion relations. The theoretical dispersion curves are consistent with the actual measurement time-frequency maps of the radiation. Theoretical deduction and experiments indicate that the reason for microwave radiating from the vacuum diode can be well explained by the interaction of the electron beam and magnetized plasma. Supported by National Nature Science Foundation of China (No. 11075123), the Young Scientists Fund of Nature Science Foundation of China (No. 51207171).

  2. Wireless and chip-less passive radiation sensors for high dose monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debourg, E.; Aubert, H.; Pons, P. [CNRS, LAAS, 7 Av. Roche, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Univ de Toulouse, LAAS, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Augustyniak, I.; Knapkiewicz, P.; Dziuban, J. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland); Matusiak, M.; Olszacki, M. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Otwock (Poland)

    2015-07-01

    The safety of nuclear infrastructures may involve the monitoring of many parameters in harsh environments (high radiation level, high temperature, high pressure,..). If technological solutions exist for transducers part in such environments, the electronic part used in reader is not appropriate and still a challenging task. Well-known solutions to remove the electronic part from the harsh environment consist of connecting the transducer and the reader by long electrical wires or performing ex situ remote sensing. However wires may practically be difficult to implement while ex situ measurements are not compatible with on line monitoring. Wireless and passive sensors working in harsh environments could be an appropriate solution for the remote sensing of critical parameters. Passive sensors without electronics in the sensing unit are available (e.g., SAW sensors) but they suffer from short reading range (typically lower than 10 meters). In order to overcome this range limitation a new class of electromagnetic transducers was developed in the mid-2000's. The operating principle is based on the modification of the properties of high-frequency (>> 1 GHz) passive electromagnetic devices by the quantity to be measured. Based on this principle a wide range of sensing properties can be addressed and a large number of materials can be chosen. Moreover the use of high frequency allows reducing the size of the sensor elements (antenna, transducer) and enhancing the immunity to multi-path. Several principles of RF transducers have been already validated by LAAS-CNRS (e;g; pressure, temperature, stress) as well as radar-based solution for the wireless long-range sensors interrogation. The sensor dosimeter exploit here the known property of Hydrogen-Pressure Dosimeters (HPD) for which the polymer material dehydrogenates under nuclear irradiation. The transducer principle is described. The irradiation will generate the out-gazing (hydrogen) of the polymer inside a micro

  3. Automated high-volume aerosol sampling station for environmental radiation monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toivonen, H.; Honkamaa, T.; Ilander, T.; Leppaenen, A.; Nikkinen, M.; Poellaenen, R.; Ylaetalo, S

    1998-07-01

    An automated high-volume aerosol sampling station, known as CINDERELLA.STUK, for environmental radiation monitoring has been developed by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Finland. The sample is collected on a glass fibre filter (attached into a cassette), the airflow through the filter is 800 m{sup 3}/h at maximum. During the sampling, the filter is continuously monitored with Na(I) scintillation detectors. After the sampling, the large filter is automatically cut into 15 pieces that form a small sample and after ageing, the pile of filter pieces is moved onto an HPGe detector. These actions are performed automatically by a robot. The system is operated at a duty cycle of 1 d sampling, 1 d decay and 1 d counting. Minimum detectable concentrations of radionuclides in air are typically 1Ae10 x 10{sup -6} Bq/m{sup 3}. The station is equipped with various sensors to reveal unauthorized admittance. These sensors can be monitored remotely in real time via Internet or telephone lines. The processes and operation of the station are monitored and partly controlled by computer. The present approach fulfils the requirements of CTBTO for aerosol monitoring. The concept suits well for nuclear material safeguards, too 10 refs.

  4. Use of radiation detectors in remote monitoring for containment and surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupree, S.A.; Ross, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bonino, A. [Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Lucero, R.; Hasimoto, Yu [PNC Oarai Engineering Center, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Radiation detectors have been included in several remote monitoring field trial systems to date. The present study considers detectors at Embalse, Argentina, and Oarai, Japan. At Embalse four gamma detectors have been operating in the instrumentation tubes of spent fuel storage silos for up to three years. Except for minor fluctuations, three of the detectors have operated normally. One of the detectors appears never to have operated correctly. At Oarai two gamma detectors have been monitoring a spent-fuel transfer hatch for over 18 months. These detectors have operated normally throughout the period, although one shows occasional noise spikes.

  5. Evaluating a radiation monitor for mixed-field environments based on SRAM technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tsiligiannis, G; Bosio, A; Girard, P; Pravossoudovitch, S; Todri, A; Virazel, A; Mekki, J; Brugger, M; Wrobel, F; Saigne, F

    2014-01-01

    Instruments operating in particle accelerators and colliders are exposed to radiations that are composed of particles of different types and energies. Several of these instruments often embed devices that are not hardened against radiation effects. Thus, there is a strong need for mon- itoring the levels of radiation inside the mixed-field radiation areas, throughout different positions. Different metrics exist for measuring the radiation damage induced to electronic devices, such as the Total Ionizing Dose (TID), the Displacement Damage (DD) and of course the fluence of parti- cles for estimating the error rates of the electronic devices among other applications. In this paper, we propose an SRAM based monitor, that is used to define the fluence of High Energy Hadrons (HEH) by detecting Single Event Upsets in the memory array. We evaluated the device by testing it inside the H4IRRAD area of CERN, a test area that reproduces the radiation conditions inside the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) tunnel and its shield...

  6. Monitoring of electron bunch length by using Terahertz coherent transition radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaolu; Yan, Lixin; Du, Yingchao; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Zheng; Wang, Dong; Zheng, Lianmin; Tian, Qili; Huang, Wenhui; Tang, Chuanxiang

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, ultrashort bunch length monitoring was demonstrated based on Terahertz (THz) coherent transition radiation (CTR) in Tsinghua Thomson scattering X-ray (TTX) source. The radiation produced by electron bunch is split into three paths: one of them is used to detect the total energy, while the other two paths are filtered with different THz band-pass filters before detection. The bunch length variation can be obtained by calculating the ratio between the filtered energy and the total energy. The bunch is compressed by a chicane and via changing the current of chicane, the ratio of filtered energy and total energy changed correspondingly. It is a simple supplemental approach to monitor the bunch length during beam conditioning and facility operation. Bunch arrival-time jitter and nonlinear effects in chicane are observed in the experiment during the measurement of filtered energy and total energy.

  7. A novel fast response and radiation-resistant scintillator detector for beam loss monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Y.; Tang, Z.; Li, C.; Li, X.; Shao, M.

    2017-07-01

    At high luminosity area, beam loss monitor with fast response and high radiation resistance is crucial for accelerator operation. In this article, we report the design and test results of a fast response and radiation-resistant scintillator detector as the beam loss monitor for high luminosity collider, especially at low energy region such as RFQ. The detector is consisted of a 2 cm× 2 cm× 0.5 cm LYSO crystal readout by a 6 mm × 6 mm Silicon photomultiplier. Test results from various radioactive sources show that the detector has good sensitivity to photons from tens of keV to several MeV with good linearity and energy resolution (23% for 60 keV γ-ray). For field test, two such detectors are installed outside of the vacuum chamber shell of an 800 MeV electron storage ring. The details of the test and results are introduced.

  8. Crustaceous lichens sensitive monitor of caesium-137 radiation level in terrestrial environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Chunguang; Zhao Ye; Zhang Jing; Xu Cuihua

    2005-01-01

    The activity of caesium-137 (Bq/kg) in the crustaceous lichens and other samples was determined to prove the feasibility that crustaceous lichens work as a sensitive biology monitor to record the caesium-137 (Bq/kg) radiation levels of terrestrial environment. The measurements were performed with GEM series HPGe (high-purity Germanium) coaxial detector system (ADCAM -100) made by EC & GORTEC Company in USA. It was found that the activity of caesium-137 (Bq/kg) in the crustaceous lichens was one order of magnitude higher than that found in surface soil,and was over three orders of magnitude higher than those found in the familiar biological samples. These results proved that crustaceous lichens may be one of the most sensitive biological monitors about the remote transmission and environmental radiation levels of caesium-137.

  9. Proposal for the award of an industrial support contract for radiation monitoring services for LEP dismantling

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This document concerns the award of an Industrial Service contract for radiation monitoring services for LEP dismantling. Following a market survey carried out among 34 firms in nine Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2769/SL/LEP) was sent on 13 March 2000 to seven firms and three consortia in five Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received six tenders from three firms and three consortia in four Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium ISS MULTISERVICE (CH), NFI (SE) and ISS GEBÄUDESERVICE (DE), the lowest technically qualified bidder, for radiation monitoring services for LEP dismantling for a total amount of 990 792 Swiss francs, not subject to revision. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: CH-59%, DE-26%, SE-15%.

  10. Electrical impedance spectroscopy as electrical biopsy for monitoring radiation sequelae of intestine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Pei-Ju; Huang, Eng-Yen; Cheng, Kuo-Sheng; Huang, Yu-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Electrical impedance is one of the most frequently used parameters for characterizing material properties. The resistive and capacitive characteristics of tissue may be revealed by electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) as electrical biopsy. This technique could be used to monitor the sequelae after irradiation. In this study, rat intestinal tissues after irradiation were assessed by EIS system based on commercially available integrated circuits. The EIS results were fitted to a resistor-capacitor circuit model to determine the electrical properties of the tissue. The variations in the electrical characteristics of the tissue were compared to radiation injury score (RIS) by morphological and histological findings. The electrical properties, based on receiver operation curve (ROC) analysis, strongly reflected the histological changes with excellent diagnosis performance. The results of this study suggest that electrical biopsy reflects histological changes after irradiation. This approach may significantly augment the evaluation of tissue after irradiation. It could provide rapid results for decision making in monitoring radiation sequelae prospectively.

  11. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy as Electrical Biopsy for Monitoring Radiation Sequelae of Intestine in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ju Chao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical impedance is one of the most frequently used parameters for characterizing material properties. The resistive and capacitive characteristics of tissue may be revealed by electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS as electrical biopsy. This technique could be used to monitor the sequelae after irradiation. In this study, rat intestinal tissues after irradiation were assessed by EIS system based on commercially available integrated circuits. The EIS results were fitted to a resistor-capacitor circuit model to determine the electrical properties of the tissue. The variations in the electrical characteristics of the tissue were compared to radiation injury score (RIS by morphological and histological findings. The electrical properties, based on receiver operation curve (ROC analysis, strongly reflected the histological changes with excellent diagnosis performance. The results of this study suggest that electrical biopsy reflects histological changes after irradiation. This approach may significantly augment the evaluation of tissue after irradiation. It could provide rapid results for decision making in monitoring radiation sequelae prospectively.

  12. Radiative generation of quark masses and mixing angles in the two Higgs doublet model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra, Alejandro [Physik-Department T30d, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße, 85748 Garching (Germany); Solaguren-Beascoa, Ana [Physik-Department T30d, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße, 85748 Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)

    2014-09-07

    We present a framework to generate the quark mass hierarchies and mixing angles by extending the Standard Model with one extra Higgs doublet. The charm and strange quark masses are generated by small quantum effects, thus explaining the hierarchy between the second and third generation quark masses. All the mixing angles are also generated by small quantum effects: the Cabibbo angle is generated at zeroth order in perturbation theory, while the remaining off-diagonal entries of the Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix are generated at first order, hence explaining the observed hierarchy |V{sub ub}|,|V{sub cb}|≪|V{sub us}|. The values of the radiatively generated parameters depend only logarithmically on the heavy Higgs mass, therefore this framework can be reconciled with the stringent limits on flavor violation by postulating a sufficiently large new physics scale.

  13. Radiative generation of quark masses and mixing angles in the two Higgs doublet model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ibarra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a framework to generate the quark mass hierarchies and mixing angles by extending the Standard Model with one extra Higgs doublet. The charm and strange quark masses are generated by small quantum effects, thus explaining the hierarchy between the second and third generation quark masses. All the mixing angles are also generated by small quantum effects: the Cabibbo angle is generated at zeroth order in perturbation theory, while the remaining off-diagonal entries of the Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix are generated at first order, hence explaining the observed hierarchy |Vub|,|Vcb|≪|Vus|. The values of the radiatively generated parameters depend only logarithmically on the heavy Higgs mass, therefore this framework can be reconciled with the stringent limits on flavor violation by postulating a sufficiently large new physics scale.

  14. Radiative Generation of Quark Masses and Mixing Angles in the Two Higgs Doublet Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ibarra, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework to generate the quark mass hierarchies and mixing angles by extending the Standard Model with one extra Higgs doublet. The charm and strange quark masses are generated by small quantum effects, thus explaining the hierarchy between the second and third generation quark masses. All the mixing angles are also generated by small quantum effects: the Cabibbo angle is generated at zero-th order in perturbation theory, while the remaining off-diagonal entries of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix are generated at first order, hence explaining the observed hierarchy $|V_{ub}|,|V_{cb}|\\ll |V_{us}|$. The values of the radiatively generated parameters depend only logarithmically on the heavy Higgs mass, therefore this framework can be reconciled with the stringent limits on flavor violation by postulating a sufficiently large new physics scale.

  15. Toward the next generation of air quality monitoring: Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrone, Nicola; Aas, Wenche; Cinnirella, Sergio; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Pacyna, Jozef; Sprovieri, Francesca; Sunderland, Elsie M.

    2013-12-01

    understanding the link between the magnitude of mercury emissions and the concentrations found in the fish that we consume. For air quality monitoring, priorities include expanding the existing data collection network and widening the scope of atmospheric mercury measurements (elemental, oxidised, and particulate species as well as mercury in precipitation). Presently, the only accurate indicators of mercury impacts on human and biological health are methylmercury concentrations in biota. However, recent advances in analytical techniques (stable mercury isotopes) and integrated modelling tools are allowing greater understanding of the relationship between atmospheric deposition, concentrations in water, methylation and uptake by biota. This article recommends an expansion of the current atmospheric monitoring network and the establishment of new coordinated measurements of total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in seawater and concurrent concentrations and trends in marine fish.

  16. ARTICLES: Some features of parametric conversion of infrared radiation in a system generating a difference frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaĭchuk, Yu A.; Strizhevskiĭ, V. L.; Yashkir, Yu N.

    1984-11-01

    A fluctuation theory is developed for the parametric conversion of infrared radiation utilizing four-photon difference frequency generation processes. An analysis is made of some features of optical parametric oscillation in this system allowing for sum frequency generation. Parametric "conversion" of quantum fluctuations to the frequency range of the infrared signal is discussed and it is shown that this effect increases the noise level.

  17. Radiation and environmental monitoring at the nuclear legacy sites in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shandala, N.; Kiselev, S.; Titov, A.; Seregin, V.; Akhromeev, S.; Aladova, R.; Isaev, D. [SRC Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center (Russian Federation); Sneve, M. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    In 1960's, in the Northwest and Far East regions of Russia the technical bases of the Navy Fleet were built to maintain nuclear submarines by performing reloading of nuclear fuel, receiving and storing radioactive waste (RW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). In 2000, SevRAO enterprise in the northwest of Russia and DalRAO enterprise in the Far East were set up for the purposes of environmental remediation of the nuclear legacy sites. Regulatory supervision for radiation protection and safety at the nuclear legacy sites in Russian Far east and Northwest regions is one of regulatory functions of the Federal medical biological agency (FMBA of Russia). Improvement of the normative and regulatory basis has significant impact on effectiveness and efficiency of industrial projects aimed at reduction of nuclear and radiation hazard risk at the sites for the SNF and RW temporary storage (STS).To get unbiased comprehensive information on the current radiation conditions at the STSs and provide the effective response to changing radiation situation, the environmental radiation monitoring of the SevRAO and DalRAO facilities has been carried out during 2005-2013. The nature and peculiarity of the STS area radioactive contamination on the Kola Peninsula and in the Far East are the following: 1) high levels of radioactive contamination on the industrial site; 2) non-uniformity of the contamination distribution; 3) spread of contamination in the area of health protection zone. The following environmental components are contaminated: soil, vegetation, bottom sediments and seaweeds at the offshore sea waters. The dominant radionuclides are cesium-137 and strontium-90. At the facilities under inspection for the purpose of the dynamic control of the radiation situation the radio-ecological monitoring system was arranged. It presupposes regular radiometry inspections in-situ, their analysis and assessment of the radiation situation forecast in the course of the STS remediation main

  18. Monitoring late radiation damage in normal muscle tissue with electrical impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, Kendra Sunshine

    During radiation treatment for cancer, normal tissue will be exposed to radiation and it is the response of this tissue and the risk of complications that limits the prescribed dose and the efficacy of treatment. The response to radiation exposure is dose, time and tissue-type dependent and has been studied extensively in animal and human systems. However, there remains significant heterogeneity among individuals. Systematic and quantitative monitoring of tissue response with electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) might providing insight into early warning signs of late effects which could be used to alter the course of therapy on an individual patient basis. The implementation of EIS in three clinically relevant radiation settings is described. A kilovolt unit (orthovoltage, x-ray), a linear accelerator (x-ray), and an implantable radionuclide source (high dose rate, iridium-192 seed) were employed for the irradiation of muscle in the hind leg of rats. Doses of 70 Gy, 90 Gy, and 150 Gy were delivered with orthovoltage, nominal doses of 70 and 90 Gy which translate to doses of approximately 50 and 63 Gy at a 5mm distance from the center were employed with the linear accelerator, and doses of 26 and 52 Gy, at 5mm, were employed with the HDR system. The responses were monitored from 1--4 months post-irradiation. In all cases, EIS was capable of detecting a dose and time response, suggesting that EIS may indeed have a role to play in three of the most common irradiation procedures.

  19. Radiation monitoring for the HTTR rise-to-power test (1) and (2)'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, Takashi; Yoshino, Toshiaki; Yasu, Katsuji; Ashikagaya, Yoshinobu; Kikuchi, Toshiki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    2001-02-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) is the first high temperature gas-cooled research reactor in Japan. This reactor is a helium-gas-cooled and graphite-moderated reactor with a thermal output of 30 MW. The rated operation temperature of the outlet coolant is 850degC. (During high temperature test operation, this reaches 950degC). The first criticality of the HTTR was attained in November 1998. The single loaded, parallel loaded operation with a thermal output of 9 MW (called the HTTR Rise-to-Power Test (1)) was completed between September 16, 1999 and July 8, 2000. The single loaded, parallel loaded continuous operation with a thermal output of 20 MW (called the HTTR Rise-to-Power Test (2)) has also been carried out, but it was shutdown at the halfway stage by a single from the reactor, when the thermal output was 16.5 MW and the reactor outlet coolant temperature was 500degC. This report describes the radiation monitoring carried out during the HTTR Rise-to-Power Tests (1) and (2)'. The data measured by the various radiation monitors is also reported. These data will be used for the estimation of radiation levels (such as the radiation dose equivalent rate, the radioactive concentration in effluents, etc.) for the next HTTR Rise-to-Power Test, and for periodic inspections. (author)

  20. The novel application of Benford's second order analysis for monitoring radiation output in interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournane, S; Sheehy, N; Cooke, J

    2014-06-01

    Benford's law is an empirical observation which predicts the expected frequency of digits in naturally occurring datasets spanning multiple orders of magnitude, with the law having been most successfully applied as an audit tool in accountancy. This study investigated the sensitivity of the technique in identifying system output changes using simulated changes in interventional radiology Dose-Area-Product (DAP) data, with any deviations from Benford's distribution identified using z-statistics. The radiation output for interventional radiology X-ray equipment is monitored annually during quality control testing; however, for a considerable portion of the year an increased output of the system, potentially caused by engineering adjustments or spontaneous system faults may go unnoticed, leading to a potential increase in the radiation dose to patients. In normal operation recorded examination radiation outputs vary over multiple orders of magnitude rendering the application of normal statistics ineffective for detecting systematic changes in the output. In this work, the annual DAP datasets complied with Benford's first order law for first, second and combinations of the first and second digits. Further, a continuous 'rolling' second order technique was devised for trending simulated changes over shorter timescales. This distribution analysis, the first employment of the method for radiation output trending, detected significant changes simulated on the original data, proving the technique useful in this case. The potential is demonstrated for implementation of this novel analysis for monitoring and identifying change in suitable datasets for the purpose of system process control.

  1. Method to generate a pulse train of few-cycle coherent radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Bryant; Hemsing, Erik; Raubenheimer, Tor; Campbell, Lawrence T.; McNeil, Brian W. J.

    2016-09-01

    We develop a method to generate a long pulse train of few-cycle coherent radiation by modulating an electron beam with a high power laser. The large energy modulation disperses the beam in a radiating undulator and leads to the production of phase-locked few-cycle coherent radiation pulses. These pulses are produced at a high harmonic of the modulating laser, and are longitudinally separated by the modulating laser wavelength. We discuss an analytical model for this scheme and investigate the temporal and spectral properties of this radiation. This model is compared with numerical simulation results using the unaveraged code Puffin. We examine various harmful effects and how they might be avoided, as well as a possible experimental realization of this scheme.

  2. Method to generate a pulse train of few-cycle coherent radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Garcia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We develop a method to generate a long pulse train of few-cycle coherent radiation by modulating an electron beam with a high power laser. The large energy modulation disperses the beam in a radiating undulator and leads to the production of phase-locked few-cycle coherent radiation pulses. These pulses are produced at a high harmonic of the modulating laser, and are longitudinally separated by the modulating laser wavelength. We discuss an analytical model for this scheme and investigate the temporal and spectral properties of this radiation. This model is compared with numerical simulation results using the unaveraged code Puffin. We examine various harmful effects and how they might be avoided, as well as a possible experimental realization of this scheme.

  3. Reservoir engineering of a mechanical resonator: generating a macroscopic superposition state and monitoring its decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asjad, Muhammad; Vitali, David

    2014-02-01

    A deterministic scheme for generating a macroscopic superposition state of a nanomechanical resonator is proposed. The nonclassical state is generated through a suitably engineered dissipative dynamics exploiting the optomechanical quadratic interaction with a bichromatically driven optical cavity mode. The resulting driven dissipative dynamics can be employed for monitoring and testing the decoherence processes affecting the nanomechanical resonator under controlled conditions.

  4. Generation of broadband and multiple-peak THz radiation in aperiodically poled lithium niobate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fucheng Chen; Xianfeng Chen; Yuping Chen; Yuxing Xia

    2005-01-01

    @@ We theoretically analyze the generation of broadened and multi-peak terahertz (THz) radiation in aperiodically poled lithium niobate (APPLN), whose sequence of opposite domains is optimized by simulated annealing (SA) algorithm. The full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of the broadened THz radiation in our simulation is 0.26 THz. Both of the central wavelength and FWHM can be easily tuned by choosing proper objective functions. THz radiation with wider and flatter FWHM can be achieved by increasing the length of the lithium niobate crystal. The two-peak THz generation is also provided as an example of multi-peak with the central wavelengths at 1.68 and 1.80 THz, respectively.

  5. Generation of tunable 16 m radiation from CO2 by cascade lasing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Utpal Nundy; Manoj Kumar

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we propose a scheme to generate tunable 16 m radiation from CO2 molecules by cascade lasing. The stimulating 9.5 m radiation is generated internally by the fast rotating mirror Q-switching technique. The optical scheme proposed by us uses an intracavity prism to separate the 9.5 m and the 16 m beams. This facilitates independent tuning of the two beams if required. In the present configuration, only the 16 m cavity is dispersive. The 9.5 m beam grows spontaneously in a stable semiconfocal resonator. We have developed a theoretical model to simulate the proposed scheme. The model predicts the energy and power of 16 m radiation. The calculated values are much higher than the previously obtained experimental values. The results point out the feasibility of developing a laser system based on the theoretical design parameters presented in this paper. Such laser systems can find application in uranium isotope separation studies.

  6. Modeling the spectrum of infrasonic hydroacoustic radiation generated by the sea surface under storm conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapevalov, A. S.; Pokazeev, K. V.

    2016-09-01

    Generation of infrasonic radiation into a water medium by sea surface waves is analyzed. The analysis is carried out for the situation in which the infrasound is generated by surface waves with frequencies close to those of dominant waves. The presence of two wave systems on the sea surface is assumed: swell and wind waves. It is shown that if the frequencies of spectral peaks of wind waves and swell diverge by 20%, the maximum value of the radiation spectrum decreases by approximately 40% (if the general directions of the two wave systems are oriented strictly towards each other). A deviation of the general directions of the two wave systems from the opposite direction by 45° leads to a decrease in the maximum value of the radiation spectrum by more than two times.

  7. Infrared radiation scene generation of stars and planets in celestial background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Hong, Yaohui; Xu, Xiaojian

    2014-10-01

    An infrared (IR) radiation generation model of stars and planets in celestial background is proposed in this paper. Cohen's spectral template1 is modified for high spectral resolution and accuracy. Based on the improved spectral template for stars and the blackbody assumption for planets, an IR radiation model is developed which is able to generate the celestial IR background for stars and planets appearing in sensor's field of view (FOV) for specified observing date and time, location, viewpoint and spectral band over 1.2μm ~ 35μm. In the current model, the initial locations of stars are calculated based on midcourse space experiment (MSX) IR astronomical catalogue (MSX-IRAC) 2 , while the initial locations of planets are calculated using secular variations of the planetary orbits (VSOP) theory. Simulation results show that the new IR radiation model has higher resolution and accuracy than common model.

  8. High Harmonic Radiation Generation and Attosecond pulse generation from Intense Laser-Solid Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Alexander Roy [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Krushelnick, Karl [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-09-08

    We have studied ion motion effects in high harmonic generation, including shifts to the harmonics which result in degradation of the attosecond pulse train, and how to mitigate them. We have examined the scaling with intensity of harmonic emission. We have also switched the geometry of the interaction to measure, for the first time, harmonics from a normal incidence interaction. This was performed by using a special parabolic reflector with an on axis hole and is to allow measurements of the attosecond pulses using standard techniques. Here is a summary of the findings: First high harmonic generation in laser-solid interactions at 1021 Wcm-2, demonstration of harmonic focusing, study of ion motion effects in high harmonic generation in laser-solid interactions, and demonstration of harmonic amplification.

  9. Testing and analysis of tube voltage and tube current in the radiation generator for mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hong Ryang; Hong, Dong Hee [Dept. of Health Care, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Beom Hui [Dept. of Radiological Science, Seonam University, Namwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Breast shooting performance management and quality control of the generator is applied to the amount of current IEC(International Electrotechnical Commission) 60601-2-45 tube voltage and tube current are based on standards that were proposed in the analysis of the test results were as follows. Tube voltage according to the value of the standard deviation by year of manufacture from 2001 to 2010 as a 42-3.15 showed the most significant, according to the year of manufacture by tube amperage value of the standard deviation to 6.38 in the pre-2000 showed the most significant , manufactured after 2011 the standard deviation of the devices, the PAE(Percent Average Error) was relatively low. This latest generation device was manufactured in the breast of the tube voltage and tube diagnosed shooting the correct amount of current to maintain the performance that can be seen. The results of this study as the basis for radiography diagnosed breast caused by using the device's performance and maintain quality control, so the current Food and Drug Administration 'about the safety of diagnostic radiation generator rule' specified in the test cycle during three years of self-inspection radiation on a radiation generating device ensure safety and performance of the device using a coherent X-ray(constancy) by two ultimately able to keep the radiation dose to the public to reduce the expected effect is expected.

  10. ELRADGEN: Monte Carlo generator for radiative events in elastic electron-proton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, A V; Ilyichev, A N; Niczyporuk, B B

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the theoretical approach and practical algorithms for simulation of radiative events in elastic ep-scattering. A new Monte Carlo generator for real photon emission events in the process of elastic electron-proton scattering is presented. We perform a few consistency checks and present numerical results.

  11. High-current CW beam profile monitors using transition radiation at CEBAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piot, P.; Denard, J.-C.; Adderley, P.; Capek, K.; Feldl, E.

    1997-01-01

    One way of measuring the profile of CEBAF's low-emittance, high-power beam is to use the optical transition radiation (OTR) emitted from a thin foil surface when the electron beam passes through it. We present the design of a monitor using the forward OTR emitted from a 0.25-μm carbon foil. We believe that the monitor will resolve three main issues: i) whether the maximum temperature of the foil stays below the melting point, ii) whether the beam loss remains below 0.5%, in order not to trigger the machine protection system, and iii) whether the monitor resolution (unlike that of synchrotron radiation monitors) is better than the product λγ. It seems that the most serious limitation for CEBAF is the beam loss due to beam scattering. We present results from Keil's theory and simulations from the computer code GEANT as well as measurements with aluminum foils with a 45-MeV electron beam. We also present a measurement of a 3.2-GeV beam profile that is much smaller than λγ, supporting Rule and Fiorito's calculations of the OTR resolution limit due to diffraction.

  12. Development and Optimisation of the SPS and LHC beam diagnostics based on Synchrotron Radiation monitors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081364; Roncarolo, Federico

    Measuring the beam transverse emittance is fundamental in every accelerator, in particular for colliders, where its precise determination is essential to maximize the luminosity and thus the performance of the colliding beams.
 Synchrotron Radiation (SR) is a versatile tool for non-destructive beam diagnostics, since its characteristics are closely related to those of the source beam. At CERN, being the only available diagnostics at high beam intensity and energy, SR monitors are exploited as the proton beam size monitor of the two higher energy machines, the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The thesis work documented in this report focused on the design, development, characterization and optimization of these beam size monitors. Such studies were based on a comprehensive set of theoretical calculations, numerical simulations and experiments. A powerful simulation tool has been developed combining conventional softwares for SR simulation and optics design, thus allowing t...

  13. Continuous electromagnetic radiation monitoring in the environment: analysis of the results in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassas, Athanasios; Boursianis, Achilles; Samaras, Theodoros; Sahalos, John N

    2012-09-01

    Non-ionising radiation-monitoring networks were initiated as a result of the public concerns about the potential health effects from telecommunication emissions. In the present study, the data acquired from such networks in Greece are used to assess the changes in the outdoor electromagnetic environment with respect to location and time. The study shows that there is a statistically significant difference between the urban (median electric field: 1.1 V m(-1)) and the rural (median electric field: 0.3 V m(-1)) installations of monitoring units and also shows that there is a median diurnal variation (daily maximum to minimum) of 20.2 and 33.8 % for the broadcasting and mobile telecommunication emissions, respectively. Moreover, there is a difference in the electric field between daytime and night, but not between morning and afternoon. The results are in line with previously published data from spot measurements, monitoring networks and personal exposimeter studies performed in several European countries.

  14. Online Monitoring Technical Basis and Analysis Framework for Emergency Diesel Generators - Interim Report for FY 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binh T. Pham; Nancy J. Lybeck; Vivek Agarwal

    2012-12-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability program at Idaho National Laboratory is actively conducting research to develop and demonstrate online monitoring capabilities for active components in existing nuclear power plants. Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Power Research Institute are working jointly to implement a pilot project to apply these capabilities to emergency diesel generators and generator step-up transformers. The Electric Power Research Institute Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management Software Suite will be used to implement monitoring in conjunction with utility partners: Braidwood Generating Station (owned by Exelon Corporation) for emergency diesel generators, and Shearon Harris Nuclear Generating Station (owned by Duke Energy Progress) for generator step-up transformers. This report presents monitoring techniques, fault signatures, and diagnostic and prognostic models for emergency diesel generators. Emergency diesel generators provide backup power to the nuclear power plant, allowing operation of essential equipment such as pumps in the emergency core coolant system during catastrophic events, including loss of offsite power. Technical experts from Braidwood are assisting Idaho National Laboratory and Electric Power Research Institute in identifying critical faults and defining fault signatures associated with each fault. The resulting diagnostic models will be implemented in the Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management Software Suite and tested using data from Braidwood. Parallel research on generator step-up transformers was summarized in an interim report during the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2012.

  15. Third harmonic generation of CO2 laser radiation in AgGaSe2 crystal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gopal C Bhar; Pathik Kumbhakar; D V Satyanarayana; N S N Banerjee; U Nundy; C G Chao

    2000-09-01

    Generation of third harmonic of CO2 laser radiation has been obtained in a type-II, =57° cut 9 mm thick AgGaSe2 crystal for the first time by sum-frequency-mixing of the fundamental with its second harmonic, the latter being obtained using another type-I, =55° cut 11 mm thick AgGaSe2 crystal. The energy conversion efficiencies obtained for second harmonic and third harmonic generations are 6.3% and 2.4% respectively with the input fundamental pump power density of 5.9 MW/cm2 only. The wavelength of the fundamental CO2 laser radiation used for the generation of harmonics is 10.6 m, (20) line. A compact TEA CO2 laser source has been built in the laboratory.

  16. Analysis of the hydrothermal behavior and entropy generation in a regenerative cooling channel considering thermal radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoodi, M., E-mail: mostafamahmoodi@engineer.com [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Malek-Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kandelousi, Sh., E-mail: m.Kandelousi.sh@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Heat transfer enhancement of kerosene–alumina nanofluid is studied. • DTM is applied to solve the governing equations. • Nu is an increasing function of Rd, ϕ. • Be is a decreasing function of R, Ec. - Abstract: A semi-analytical investigation is performed into the force convection heat transfer characteristics and entropy generation of kerosene–alumina nanofluid in a channel of semi cryogenic engine. Thermal radiation effect is considered in energy equation. The governing equations are reduced to ordinary equation by means of similarity solution and solve by Differential Transformation Method. Velocity, temperature and concentration profiles as well as the skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Bejan number are determined for different values of pertinent parameters such as Radiation parameter, nanofluid volume fraction, Viscosity parameter and Eckert number. Results indicate that entropy generation is an increasing function of Viscosity parameter and Eckert number while it is a decreasing function of Radiation parameter. Also it can be concluded that Nusselt number enhances with augment of Radiation parameter and nanofluid volume fraction while it decreases with increase of Radiation and Viscosity parameter parameters.

  17. Envitonmental monitoring and radiation protection in Škocjan Caves, Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec Gerjeviè, V.; Jovanovič, P.

    2012-04-01

    Škocjan Caves were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1986, due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage. Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park Škocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data. Relation of background radiation to carrying capacity will be explained. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. A system of education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection will be presented as well.

  18. Towards photodynamic therapy with ionizing radiation: nanoparticle-mediated singlet oxygen generation (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Sandhya; Deng, Wei; Camilleri, Elizabeth; Wilson, Brian; Goldys, Ewa

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved method for the treatment of cancer by using singlet oxygen, a highly reactive oxygen generated from a photosensitizer drug upon photoactivation. Limited light penetration depth into to the tissue means that PDT is unsuitable for deep tissue cancer treatments. This can be overcome by using X-ray /gamma rays activated nanoparticles able to trigger the photosensitizer drug and generate singlet oxygen. Additionally, inorganic nanoparticles interact more strongly with X and/or gamma rays than the tissue, allowing to concentrate the effects of radiation near nanoparticle surface and they can also be molecularly targeted to cancer cells. In this work we synthesized and characterized CeF3 nanoparticles, a well-known scintillator material. The nanoparticles were conjugated with Verteporfin, a photosensitizer drug by electrostatic interaction. We assessed the performance of CeF3 and the conjugates to generate singlet oxygen exposed to X-ray radiation. The X-ray singlet oxygen quantum yield of the nanoparticle-photosensitizer system was accurately quantified for the first time. This provided realistic estimates of the singlet oxygen dose taking into consideration the dose partition of the radiation between CeF3 and the tissue. Furthermore, we investigated gold nanoparticle-photosensitizer systems. We confirmed that pure gold nanoparticles itself generate singlet oxygen which is attributed to plasmonic effects. We found enhanced singlet oxygen generation from gold-Rose Bengal conjugates and gold nanorod-verteporfin conjugates. These singlet-oxygen-generating nanomaterials add a new dimension to radiation-assisted PDT.

  19. Radiation Effects on the On-line Monitoring System of a Hadrontherapy Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolkazem Ansarinejad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Today, there is a growing interest in the use of hadrontherapy as an advanced radiotherapy technique. Hadrontherapy is considered a promising tool for cancer treatment, given its high radiobiological effectiveness and high accuracy of dose deposition due to the physical properties of hadrons. However, new radiation modalities of dose delivery and on-line beam monitoring play crucial roles in a successful treatment. In hadrontherapy, through interactions between the primary beam and patient’s tissue, secondary neutrons are produced. Materials and Methods This study, by using FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations, assessed the level of secondary neutron radiation, produced during patient treatment. In addition,  the evaluation included secondary neutron radiation, which was produced while hitting the on-line detectors of beam delivery system by the Italian National Center for Hadrontherapy (CNAO. This study assessed the effects of secondary neutron radiation on an electronics rack (including a data acquisition system, a power supply, and a gas system and a nozzle, where two monitoring boxes (each one consisting of two or three parallel plate ionization chambers were installed. Results The resulting neutron energy spectra and radiation doses were used to determine the life performance and the probability of damage to these devices. Findings showed that by using carbon ions of 400 MeV/u, the fluence rate of secondary neutrons will be approximately 3.4×1010 n/cm2 in a year. Conclusion This value is lower than the experimental threshold, which is responsible for less than 1% of changes in electrical characteristics, and would cause no single event upsets.

  20. Echo-enabled tunable terahertz radiation generation with a laser-modulated relativistic electron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A new scheme to generate narrow-band tunable terahertz (THz radiation using a variant of the echo-enabled harmonic generation is analyzed. We show that by using an energy chirped beam, THz density modulation in the beam phase space can be produced with two lasers having the same wavelength. This removes the need for an optical parametric amplifier system to provide a wavelength-tunable laser to vary the central frequency of the THz radiation. The practical feasibility and applications of this scheme are demonstrated numerically with a start-to-end simulation using the beam parameters at the Shanghai Deep Ultraviolet Free-Electron Laser facility (SDUV. The central frequency of the density modulation can be continuously tuned by either varying the chirp of the beam or the momentum compactions of the chicanes. The influence of nonlinear rf chirp and longitudinal space charge effect have also been studied in our article. The methods to generate the THz radiation in SDUV with the new scheme and the estimation of the radiation power are also discussed briefly.

  1. Radiation Environment at LEO in the frame of Space Monitoring Data Center at Moscow State University - recent, current and future missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myagkova, Irina; Kalegaev, Vladimir; Panasyuk, Mikhail; Svertilov, Sergey; Bogomolov, Vitaly; Bogomolov, Andrey; Barinova, Vera; Barinov, Oleg; Bobrovnikov, Sergey; Dolenko, Sergey; Mukhametdinova, Ludmila; Shiroky, Vladimir; Shugay, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Radiation Environment of Near-Earth space is one of the most important factors of space weather. Space Monitoring Data Center of Moscow State University provides operational control of radiation conditions at Low Earth's Orbits (LEO) of the near-Earth space using data of recent (Vernov, CORONAS series), current (Meteor-M, Electro-L series) and future (Lomonosov) space missions. Internet portal of Space Monitoring Data Center of Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University (SINP MSU) http://swx.sinp.msu.ru/ provides possibilities to control and analyze the space radiation conditions in the real time mode together with the geomagnetic and solar activity including hard X-ray and gamma- emission of solar flares. Operational data obtained from space missions at L1, GEO and LEO and from the Earth's magnetic stations are used to represent radiation and geomagnetic state of near-Earth environment. The models of space environment that use space measurements from different orbits were created. Interactive analysis and operational neural network forecast services are based on these models. These systems can automatically generate alerts on particle fluxes enhancements above the threshold values, both for SEP and relativistic electrons of outer Earth's radiation belt using data from GEO and LEO as input. As an example of LEO data we consider data from Vernov mission, which was launched into solar-synchronous orbit (altitude 640 - 83 0 km, inclination 98.4°, orbital period about 100 min) on July 8, 2014 and began to receive scientific information since July 20, 2014. Vernov mission have provided studies of the Earth's radiation belt relativistic electron precipitation and its possible connection with atmosphere transient luminous events, as well as the solar hard X-ray and gamma-emission measurements. Radiation and electromagnetic environment monitoring in the near-Earth Space, which is very important for space weather study, was also realised

  2. Radiation monitoring system for EAST tokamak%EAST托卡马克装置的核辐射监测系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凯; 钟国强; 胡立群; 刘光柱; 周瑞杰; 普能

    2015-01-01

    Background:During the experiment of Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), reaction of D-D may generate neutrons with energy of 2.45 MeV, and bremsstrahlung gamma rays and neutron activated gamma rays as well.Purpose:The aim is tostudy the radiation of neutrons and gamma rays in the EAST hall during the running of EAST tokamak and obtain the radiation doses under different modes and parameters by implementing a radiation monitoring system to diagnose some plasma parameters and ensure the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment around EAST.Methods:In consideration of the highly and transient radiation doses of neutrons and gamma rays contrast to the lowly environmental background during the plasma discharge in the EAST hall, the combination of high ranging and fast responding detectors are adopted in the EAST hall whilst high sensitivity and stability detectors are deployed in the environment. Thirteen monitoring points were selected around the EAST, each point contains a neutron detector and a gamma ray detector. Combination of Ethernet and twisted pair are adopted for the data transmission, and the radiation monitoring software based on LabVIEW was developed. Results:A radiation monitoring system of EAST tokamak was successfully built to monitor and save the real-time radiation dose rates of each detector, and to produce an alarm signal when abnormal dose rate happens. The radiation monitoring system had run stably for more than three months during the EAST experiment in the spring of 2015, and obtained many useful experimental data on fusion radiation safety and protection.Conclusion:The radiation monitoring system can well monitor the radiation around the EAST tokamak, and provide a platform for the future study of radiation safety and protection of the fusion reactor.%EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak)现阶段D-D运行产生2.45 MeV聚变中子及次级核反应γ射线,为了解 EAST 运行期间辐射场的

  3. A critical experimental test of synchrotron radiation theory with 3rd generation light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    A recent ''beam splitting'' experiment at LCLS apparently demonstrated that after a microbunched electron beam is kicked on a large angle compared to the divergence of the FEL radiation, the microbunching wave front is readjusted along the new direction of motion of the kicked beam. Therefore, coherent radiation from an undulator placed after the kicker is emitted along the kicked direction without suppression. This strong emission of coherent undulator radiation in the kicked direction cannot be explained in the framework of conventional synchrotron radiation theory. In a previous paper we explained this puzzle. We demonstrated that, in accelerator physics, the coupling of fields and particles is based, on the one hand, on the use of results from particle dynamics treated according to the absolute time convention and, on the other hand, on the use of Maxwell equations treated according to the standard (Einstein) synchronization convention. Here lies the misconception which led to the strong qualitative disagreement between theory and experiment. After the ''beam splitting'' experiment at LCLS, it became clear that the conventional theory of synchrotron radiation cannot ensure the correct description of coherent and spontaneous emission from a kicked electron beam, nor the emission from a beam with finite angular divergence, in an undulator or a bending magnet. However, this result requires further experimental confirmation. In this publication we propose an uncomplicated and inexpensive experiment to test synchrotron radiation theory at 3rd generation light sources.

  4. Graphene on nanoscale gratings for the generation of terahertz Smith-Purcell radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tantiwanichapan, Khwanchai; Wang, Xuanye; Swan, Anna K.; Paiella, Roberto, E-mail: rpaiella@bu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary' s Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Generation of THz radiation based on the Smith-Purcell effect in graphene is investigated numerically. The specific device geometry considered involves an electrically biased single-layer sheet of graphene deposited on a periodic array of holes in a solid substrate. Rigorous electrodynamic simulations combined with a basic model of charge transport are presented, showing that technologically significant output power levels can be obtained at geometrically tunable THz frequencies. These results suggest that graphene is a uniquely suited materials platform for the demonstration of THz electron-beam radiation mechanisms in compact solid-state systems.

  5. Condition Monitoring and Faults Diagnosis for Synchronous Generator Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Elfaki Elbashir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Early detection and diagnosis of incipient fault is desirable for on line condition assessment production quality assurance and improved operational efficiency of synchronous generator running of power supply. Artificial Intelligent techniques are increasly used for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of machines. In this paper, Artificial Neural Network (ANN approach employed for fault diagnosis in the generator, based on monitoring generator currents to give indication of the winding faults. Feed-forward Network, error back propagation training algorithm are used to perform the generator faults diagnosis and their values. NN which has been trained for all possible operating condition of the machine used to classify the incoming data. The inputs of the NN are the stator and rotor currents, and the output represents the running condition of the generator. The training of the NN achieved by the data through a mathematical model based approach to simulate the generator faults at various degree of severity.This paper evaluates through simulation line currents magnitude of the generator .The final results have been represented on a monitoring unit, built using matlab program, to give early warning of the generator failure.

  6. Nailfold Capillaroscopic Monitoring as Preventive Medicine in Subjects Exposed to Ionising Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennarola, R.; Perdereau, B.; Trenta, G.; Cosset, J. M.

    2004-07-01

    Capillaroscopy consists of in vivo observation of microvessels using special microscopes with a short focal length. Normally, when looking at the nail fold, where capillaroscopy is commonly used, the capillaries ares arranged like hairpins, lined up in parallel or obliquely to the field of vision in three or four layers above the subpapillary venous network, approximately 20 loops per mm''2. Ionising radiation can badly damage the skin and underlying tissues. The capillary network is among the first structures to show an effect. Moderate doses of radiation cause damage endothelial cells with hypertrophy or hyperplasia of endothelial cells, which can block capillaries while having little effect on larger vessels. Occlusion of capillaries impedes blood flow no only in nearby tissue but also in areas farther away. Capillaroscopic examination of the nail fold is irreplaceable in the field of radioprotection especially in cases of exposure of the hands. Nailfold capillaroscopic monitoring lets us observe the degree to which qualitative and quantitative alterations of the capillaries are a function of the evolution of the lesion. Therefore, for biological monitoring of subjects exposed to radiation the authors propose to use this microvascular quantitative analysis of the nailfold region. Experience, matured over many years by our team, highlights the relation between the sum of repeated exposure and the importance of tissue alterations evidenced by microcirculation. (Author) 9 refs.

  7. High-power ELF radiation generated by modulated HF heating of the ionosphere can cause Earthquakes, Cyclones and localized heating

    OpenAIRE

    De Aquino, Fran

    2011-01-01

    The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) is currently the most important facility used to generate extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic radiation in the ionosphere. In order to produce this ELF radiation the HAARP transmitter radiates a strong beam of high-frequency (HF) waves modulated at ELF. This HF heating modulates the electrons' temperature in the D region ionosphere and leads to modulated conductivity and a time-varying current which then radiates at the modu...

  8. High-power ELF radiation generated by modulated HF heating of the ionosphere can cause Earthquakes, Cyclones and localized heating

    OpenAIRE

    De Aquino, Fran

    2011-01-01

    The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) is currently the most important facility used to generate extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic radiation in the ionosphere. In order to produce this ELF radiation the HAARP transmitter radiates a strong beam of high-frequency (HF) waves modulated at ELF. This HF heating modulates the electrons' temperature in the D region ionosphere and leads to modulated conductivity and a time-varying current which then radiates at the modu...

  9. Review of Legislation and Regulatory Framework in Ukraine with Regard to Environmental Radiation Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldammer, Wolfgang; Batandjieva, Borislava (Private Consultants (Ukraine)); Nasvit, Oleg (National Security and Defence Council of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine)); German, Olga (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    The aim of this review is to compare the current legal basis and regulatory framework in Ukraine to the relevant international safety requirements and to identify shortcomings, such as deficiencies and internal contradictions. However, no assessment of its practical implementation is made beyond the aspects related to environmental radiation monitoring. The report focuses on 13 areas present in the in the Ukrainian legislation and regulatory framework: R-1 Radiation monitoring R-2 Definition of responsibilities R-3 Normal situations R-4 Emergencies R-5 Long-term monitoring R-6 Intervention in cases of lasting exposure R-7 Use of monitoring data R-8 Record keeping R-9 Reporting to the regulatory authority R-10 Public information R-11 Human and financial resources R-12 Transboundary aspects R-13 Quality assurance. For each topic a description of the current situation and an evaluation is carried out. Ranking is then supplied supported by its evaluation. In brief these categories are: A: The national legal and regulatory documents are harmonised in substance with the international safety requirements; B: Substantial differences exist between the national and international requirements which should be addressed with the view to harmonise the legislation; C: Substantial deficiencies exist in the legal and/or regulatory bases which results in no or at least partial compliance with international safety requirements. P: In addition practical issues are also provided to indicates where practical implementation of the legislation and regulatory basis is not adequate in all respects. This report then presents main observations and conclusions of the review. On this basis, the report derives general suggestions for improvement of the legal and regulatory bases. These should be considered by the Ukrainian Government and the regulatory authorities within an action plan to improve the legal basis for radiological monitoring of the environment and to facilitate its implementation

  10. Induction of gene expression as a monitor of exposure to ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, S A; Bittner, M; Meltzer, P; Trent, J; Fornace, A J

    2001-11-01

    The complex molecular responses to genotoxic stress are mediated by a variety of regulatory pathways. The transcription factor TP53 plays a central role in the cellular response to DNA-damaging agents such as ionizing radiation, but other pathways also play important roles. In addition, differences in radiation quality, such as the exposure to high-LET radiation that occurs during space travel, may influence the pattern of responses. The premise is developed that stress gene responses can be employed as molecular markers for radiation exposure using a combination of informatics and functional genomics approaches. Published studies from our laboratory have already demonstrated such transcriptional responses with doses of gamma rays as low as 2 cGy, and in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) irradiated ex vivo with doses as low as 20 cGy. We have also found several genes elevated in vivo 24 h after whole-body irradiation of mice with 20 cGy. Such studies should provide insight into the molecular responses to physiologically relevant doses, which cannot necessarily be extrapolated from high-dose studies. In addition, ongoing experiments are identifying large numbers of potential biomarkers using microarray hybridization and various irradiation protocols including expression at different times after exposure to low- and high-LET radiation. Computation-intensive informatics analysis methods are also being developed for management of the complex gene expression profiles resulting from these experiments. With further development of these approaches, it may be feasible to monitor changes in gene expression after low-dose radiation exposure and other physiological stresses that may be encountered during manned space flight, such as the planned mission to Mars.

  11. GdBr3: CE in a glass wafer as a nuclear radiation monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhitao; Rosson, Robert; Barta, M Brooke; Nadler, Jason; Wagner, Brent; Kahn, Bernd

    2013-05-01

    A glass wafer that contains cerium-activated gadolinium-based scintillator has been tested as a nuclear radiation monitor. The detector is prepared by mixing powdered gadolinium and cerium (3+) bromides with alumina, silica, and lithium fluoride, melting the mixture at 1,400°C, and then quenching and annealing the glass. The resulting clear glass matrix emits stimulated blue light that can be collected by a conventional photomultiplier tube. Spectral analysis of radionuclides with this detector shows the energy peaks for alpha particles, the energy continuum for beta particles, the Compton continuum and full-energy peaks for gamma rays, and an energy continuum with specific reaction-product peaks for neutrons. Energy resolution for the 5.5-MeV alpha particle and 0.662-MeV gamma-ray peaks is about 20%. This resolution, although threefold poorer than for single-crystal NaI(Tl) scintillators, contributes to radionuclide identification and quantification. Application of this detector to radiation monitoring is proposed, as well as approaches for improving light collection and energy resolution that will facilitate radionuclide identification and monitoring, especially for alpha particles, beta particles, and low-energy gamma rays.

  12. Steady-State Microbunching in a Storage Ring for Generating Coherent Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratner, Daniel F.; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Chao, Alexander W.; /SLAC

    2011-05-19

    Synchrotrons and storage rings deliver radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum at high repetition rates, and free electron lasers (FELs) produce radiation pulses with high peak brightness. However, at present few light sources can generate both high repetition rate and high brightness outside the optical range. We propose to create steady-state microbunching (SSMB) in a storage ring to produce coherent radiation at a high repetition rate or in continuous wave (CW) mode. In this paper we describe a general mechanism for producing SSMB and give sample parameters for EUV lithography and sub-millimeter sources. We also describe a similar arrangement to produce two pulses with variable spacing for pump-probe experiments. With technological advances, SSMB could reach the soft X-ray range (< 10 nm).

  13. Monitoring of radiation exposure. Annual report 2000; Saeteilyn kaeyttoe ja muu saeteilytoiminta. Vuosiraportti 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantanen, E. [ed.

    2001-03-01

    At the end of 2000, there were 1,779 valid safety licenses in Finland for the use of radiation. In addition, there were 2,038 responsible parties for dental x-ray diagnostics. The registry Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) listed 13,754 radiation sources and 270 radionuclide laboratories. In the year 2000 360 inspections were made concerning the safety licences and 53 concerning dental x-ray diagnostics. The import of radioactive substances amounted to 175,836 GBq and export to 74,420 GBq. Short-lived radionuclides produced in Finland amounted to 55,527 GBq. In the year 2000 there were 10,846 workers monitored for radiation exposure at 1,171 work sites. Of these employees, 27% received an annual dose exceeding the recording level. The annual effective dose limit was not exceeded. The total dose recorded in the dose registry(sum of the individual dosemeter readings) was 6.5 Sv in 2000.

  14. Real-time fibre optic radiation dosimeters for nuclear environment monitoring around thermonuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A. Fernandez; Brichard, B. [SCK .CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); O' Keeffe, S.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Lewis, E. [Electronic and Computer Engineering Department, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Vaille, J.-R.; Dusseau, L. [CEM2-Universite Montpellier II, cc083 place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France); Jackson, D.A. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Kent, Kent CT2 7NR (United Kingdom); Ravotti, F.; Glaser, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN, TS-LEA-RAD/PH-DT2-SD, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); El-Rabii, H. [Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique, ENSMA/CNRS, 1 av. Clement Ader, 86961 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France)], E-mail: afernand@sckcen.be

    2008-01-15

    The ability of fibre optic sensors to operate in hazardous nuclear environments and their intrinsic immunity to electro-magnetic interference make fibre optic sensing a very promising technology for the future ITER thermonuclear fusion reactor. In this paper, we evaluate fibre optic sensing technology for monitoring radiation dose in the vicinity of ITER during its operation and during the maintenance periods. First, the performance of an OSL dosimeter interrogated remotely using radiation tolerant optical fibres is evaluated both for real-time and integrating measurements for doses exceeding 100 Gy. We demonstrate its satisfactory operation in a mixed gamma neutron field. Second, we discuss the successful calibration of a new scintillating fibre optic radiation probe based on CsI(TI) crystals for operation in the dose-rate range 0.3-3000 mGy/h. The CsI(TI) crystal scintillator is mounted at the end of a 10-m long multimode fibre transceiver link to allow for remote deployment. The probes can detect and measure gamma dose rates ranging from 1 to 1000 mGy/h. Finally, we investigate the possible use of commercially available PMMA plastic optical fibres as on-line dosimeters up to 34 kGy. The dose measurement is derived from the radiation-induced attenuation in the optical fibre itself. A novel interrogation scheme based on a ratiometric technique is proposed for real-time dosimetry.

  15. 福岛核事故期间西藏地区辐射环境应急监测%Emergency Environmental Radiation Monitoring in Tibet in the intermediate aftermath of Japan Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓锋; 孟玲玲; 黄琼中

    2012-01-01

    In the intermediate aftermath of Japan Fukushima Nuclear Accident, an emergency radiation monitoring was launched by the Tibet Radiation Monitoring Station in Lhasa. Through two months of monitoring gamma radiation dose rate and the aerosol of artificial radionuclide such as 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 131 I, the results show that the Fukushima nuclear accident did not generate significant effect on the radiation environment of Tibet region.%福岛核事故发生后,西藏辐射环境监督站在拉萨立即展开辐射应急。通过对γ辐射剂量率,以及气溶胶中137Cs、134Cs和131I活度浓度的监测分析,结果表明,福岛核事故未对西藏地区的辐射环境产生明显影响。

  16. Mechanical and free living comparisons of four generations of the Actigraph activity monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried-Larsen Mathias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More studies include multiple generations of the Actigraph activity monitor. So far no studies have compared the output including the newest generation and investigated the impact on the output of the activity monitor when enabling the low frequency extension (LFE option. The aims were to study the responses of four generations (AM7164, GT1M, GT3X and GT3X+ of the Actigraph activity monitor in a mechanical setup and a free living environment with and without enabling the LFE option. Methods The monitors were oscillated in a mechanical setup using two radii in the frequency range 0.25-3.0 Hz. Following the mechanical study a convenience sample (N = 20 wore three monitors (one AM7164 and two GT3X for 24 hours. Results The AM7164 differed from the newer generations across frequencies (p -1 were attenuated (p > 0.05 for differences between generations thus attenuated the difference in mean PA (p > 0.05 when the LFE option was enabled. However, it did not attenuate the difference in time spend in vigorous PA and it introduced a difference in time spend in moderate PA (+ 3.0 min (95% CI 0.4 to 5.6 between the generations. Conclusion We observed significant differences between the AM7164 and the newer Actigraph GT-generations (GT1M, GT3X and GT3X+ in a mechanical setup and in free-living. Enabling the LFE option attenuated the differences in mean PA completely, but induced a bias in the moderate PA intensities.

  17. Plastic optical fibre sensor for in-vivo radiation monitoring during brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woulfe, P.; Sullivan, F. J.; Lewis, E.; O'Keeffe, S.

    2015-09-01

    An optical fibre sensor is presented for applications in real-time in-vivo monitoring of the radiation dose a cancer patient receives during seed implantation in Brachytherapy. The sensor is based on radioluminescence whereby radiation sensitive scintillation material is embedded in the core of a 1mm plastic optical fibre. Three scintillation materials are investigated: thallium-doped caesium iodide (CsI:Tl), terbium-doped gadolinium oxysulphide (Gd2O2S:Tb) and europium-doped lanthanum oxysulphide (La2O2S:Eu). Terbium-doped gadolinium oxysulphide was identified as being the most suitable scintillator and further testing demonstrates its measureable response to different activities of Iodine-125, the radio-active source commonly used in Brachytherapy for treating prostate cancer.

  18. Thin silicon strip detectors for beam monitoring in Micro-beam Radiation Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Povoli, Marco; Bravin, Alberto; Cornelius, Iwan; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Fournier, Pauline; Hansen, Thor-Erik; Kok, Angela; Lerch, Michael; Monakhov, Edouard; Morse, John; Petasecca, Marco; Requardt, Herwig; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Röhrich, Dieter; Sandaker, Heidi; Salomé, Murielle; Stugu, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) is an emerging cancer treatment that is currently being developed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France. This technique uses a highly collimated and fractionated X-ray beam array with extremely high dose rate and very small divergence, to benefit from the dose-volume effect, thus sparing healthy tissue. In case of any beam anomalies and system malfunctions, special safety measures must be installed, such as an emergency safety shutter that requires continuous monitoring of the beam intensity profile. Within the 3DMiMic project, a novel silicon strip detector that can tackle the special features of MRT, such as the extremely high spatial resolution and dose rate, has been developed to be part of the safety shutter system. The first prototypes have been successfully fabricated, and experiments aimed to demonstrate their suitability for this unique application have been performed. Design, fabrication and the experimental results as well as any...

  19. Detailed Resolution Studies of the Synchrotron Radiation Profile Monitor for the HERA Electron Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Kube, G; Wittenburg, K

    2005-01-01

    The precise determination of the beam emittance is essential for the understanding of the luminosity in colliding beam experiments as the ones at the e-p storage ring HERA at DESY. For the measurement of the electron beam emittance a monitor is used which is based on the direct imaging of visible synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet. In order to reduce the thermal heating of the light extracting beryllium mirror it is moved away from the beam axis in vertical direction. While the resolution of profile measurements by synchrotron radiation is already strictly limited by fundamental effects, the observation in off-axis geometry modifies the intensity distribution additionally leading to an increased contribution of the diffraction limited resolution. In order to describe the resolution broadening effects detailed calculations have been performed with the computer code SRW. Taking into account the calculated corrections the deduced beam emittances are in good agreement with independent measurements from a...

  20. What is in my air? Feds facilitating citizen science in the EPA Next Generation Air Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R. A.; Preuss, P.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in the development of small-scale and inexpensive air pollutant sensors, coupled with the ubiquitous use of wireless and mobile technology, will transform the field of air quality monitoring. For the first time, the general public may purchase air monitors, which can measure their personal exposure to NOx, Ozone, black carbon, and VOCs for a few hundred dollars. Concerned citizens may now gather the data for themselves to answer questions such as, ';what am I breathing?' and ';is my air clean?' The research and policy community will have access to real-time air quality data collected at the local and regional scale, making targeted protection of environmental health possible. With these benefits come many questions from citizen scientists, policymakers, and researchers. These include, what is the quality of the data? How will the public interpret data from the air sensors and are there guidelines to interpret that data? How do you know if the air sensor is trustworthy? Recognizing that this revolution in air quality monitoring will proceed regardless of the involvement of the government, the Innovation Team at the EPA Office of Research and Development, in partnership with the Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assistance and the Office of Air and Radiation, seized the opportunity to ensure that users of next generation air sensors can realize the full potential benefits of these innovative technologies. These efforts include releasing an EPA Draft Roadmap for Next Generation Air Monitoring, testing air sensors under laboratory and field conditions, field demonstrations of new air sensor technology for the public, and building a community of air sensor developers, researchers, local, state and federal officials, and community members through workshops and a website. This presentation will review the status of those programs, highlighting the particular programs of interest to citizen scientists. The Next Generation Air Monitoring program may serve

  1. Direct radiative effect due to brownness in organic carbon aerosols generated from biomass combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, T. D.; Sahu, S. K.; Tiwari, M.; Pandit, G. G.

    2016-12-01

    We report the enhancement in the direct radiative effect due the presence of Brown carbon (BrC) as a part of organic carbon aerosols. The optical properties of organic carbon aerosols generated from pyrolytic combustion of mango tree wood (Magnifera Indica) and dung cake at different temperatures were considered. Mie codes were used to calculate absorption and scattering coefficients coupled with experimentally derived imaginary complex refractive index. The direct radiative effect (DRE) for sampled organic carbon aerosols was estimated using a wavelength dependent radiative transfer equation. The BrC DRE was estimated taking virtually non absorbing organic aerosols as reference. The BrC DRE from wood and dung cake was compared at different combustion temperatures and conditions. The BrC contributed positively to the direct top of the atmosphere radiative effect. Dung cake generated BrC aerosols were found to be strongly light absorbing as compared to BrC from wood combustion. It was noted that radiative effects of BrC from wood depended on its generation temperature and conditions. For BrC aerosols from dung cake such strong dependence was not observed. The average BrC aerosol DRE values were 1.53±0.76 W g-1 and 17.84±6.45 W g-1 for wood and dung cake respectively. The DRE contribution of BrC aerosols came mainly (67-90%) from visible light absorption though they exhibited strong absorption in shorter wavelengths of the UV-visible spectrum.

  2. Free Radicals Generated by Ionizing Radiation Signal Nuclear Translocation of p53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, J. D.; Pennington, M. E.; Craven, M. T.; Warters, R. L.

    1997-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor is a transcription factor that regulates several pathways, which function collectively to maintain the integrity of the genome. Nuclear localization is critical for wild-type function. However, the signals that regulate subcellular localization of p53 have not been identified. Here, we examine the effect of ionizing radiation on the subcellular localization of p53 in two cell lines in which p63 is normally sequestered in the cytoplasm and found that ionizing radiation caused a biphasic translocation response. p53 entered the nucleus 1-2 hours postirradiation (early response), subsequently emerged from the nucleus, and then again entered the nucleus 12-24 hours after the cells had been irradiated (delayed response). These changes in subcellular localization could be completely blocked by the free radical scavenger, WR1065. By comparison, two DNA-damaging agents that do not generate free radicals, mitomycin C and doxorubicin, caused translocation only after 12-24 h of exposure to the drugs, and this effect could not be inhibited by WR1065. Hence, although all three DNA-damaging agents induced relocalization of p53 to the nucleus, only the translocation caused by radiation was sensitive to free radical scavenging. We suggest that the free radicals generated by ionizing radiation can signal p53 translocation to the nucleus.

  3. Generation of continuous-wave THz radiation by use of quantum interference

    CERN Document Server

    Korsunsky, E A

    1999-01-01

    We propose a scheme for generation of continuous-wave THz radiation. The scheme requires a medium where three discrete states in a $\\Lambda $ configuration can be selected, with the THz-frequency transition between the two lower metastable states. We consider the propagation of three-frequency continuous-wave electromagnetic (e.m.) radiation through a $\\Lambda $ medium. Under resonant excitation, the medium absorption can be strongly reduced due to quantum interference of transitions, while the nonlinear susceptibility is enhanced. This leads to very efficient energy transfer between the e.m. waves providing a possibility for THz generation. We demonstrate that the photon conversion efficiency is approaching unity in this technique.

  4. Effect of pump depletion and cross-focusing on twisted terahertz radiation generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, Hassan; Dehghan, Mehdi; Dadar, Elham

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the pump depletion and cross-focusing effects on the generation of twisted terahertz radiation are investigated. Based on the beating of two Laguerre-Gaussian lasers in a radial plasma channel, a twisted terahertz radiation can be produced. In the presence of pump depletion, the lasers power is consumed. So, the ponderomotive force nonlinearity decreases and the output terahertz field approaches to a saturation value. Under competition between the diffraction and nonlinearity effects, the amplitude of laser beam width oscillation grows. When the incident laser beams have non-similar topological charge numbers, the normalized generated terahertz amplitude is low and the pump depletion effect on the laser beam width evolution is ignorable.

  5. Thermally radiative three-dimensional flow of Jeffrey nanofluid with internal heat generation and magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehzad, S.A., E-mail: ali_qau70@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Abdullah, Z. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Alsaedi, A. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Abbasi, F.M. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Hayat, T. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2016-01-01

    This research work addresses the three-dimensional hydromagnetic flow of Jeffrey fluid with nanoparticles. Flow is generated by a bidirectional stretching surface. The effects of thermal radiation and internal heat generation are encountered in energy expressions. More realistic convective boundary conditions at the surface are employed instead of constant surface temperature and mass species conditions. Boundary layer assumptions lead to the governing non-linear mathematical model. Resulting equations through momentum, energy and mass species are made dimensionless using suitable variables. The solution expressions of dimensionless velocities, temperature and nanoparticle concentration have been computed for the convergent series solutions. The impacts of interesting parameters on the dimensionless quantities are displayed and interpreted. The values of physical quantities are computed and analyzed. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional hydromagnetic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid is considered. • Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are encountered. • Heat transfer analysis is performed with thermal radiation. • Results are plotted and visualized.

  6. Comparison of three generations of ActiGraph activity monitors under free-living conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grydeland, May; Hansen, Bjørge Herman; Ried-Larsen, M.

    2014-01-01

    + in children in free-living conditions. The generations GT1M and GT3X+ provided comparable outputs. The differences between the old and the newer monitors were more complex when investigating time spent at different intensities. Comparisons of data assessed by the AM7164 with data assessed by newer generations......BACKGROUND: A recent review concludes that the agreement of data across ActiGraph accelerometer models for children and youth still is uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreement of three generations of ActiGraph accelerometers in children in a free-living condition. METHODS......: Sixteen 9-year-olds wore the ActiGraph AM7164, GT1M and GT3X+ simultaneously for three consecutive days. We compared mean counts per minute (mcpm) and time spent at different intensities from the three generations of monitors, and the agreement of outputs were evaluated by intra-class correlation...

  7. Inner-shell radiation from wire array implosions on the Zebra generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouart, N. D.; Giuliani, J. L.; Dasgupta, A. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States); Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Esaulov, A. A.; Shrestha, I.; Weller, M. E.; Shlyaptseva, V.; Osborne, G. C.; Stafford, A.; Keim, S. [Physics Department, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Apruzese, J. P. [Consultant to NRL through Engility Corp., Chantilly, Virginia 20151 (United States); Clark, R. W. [Berkeley Research Associates, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Implosions of brass wire arrays on Zebra have produced L-shell radiation as well as inner-shell Kα and Kβ transitions. The L-shell radiation comes from ionization stages around the Ne-like charge state that is largely populated by a thermal electron energy distribution function, while the K-shell photons are a result of high-energy electrons ionizing or exciting an inner-shell (1s) electron from ionization stages around Ne-like. The K- and L-shell radiations were captured using two time-gated and two axially resolved time-integrated spectrometers. The electron beam was measured using a Faraday cup. A multi-zone non-local thermodynamic equilibrium pinch model with radiation transport is used to model the x-ray emission from experiments for the purpose of obtaining plasma conditions. These plasma conditions are used to discuss some properties of the electron beam generated by runaway electrons. A simple model for runaway electrons is examined to produce the Kα radiation, but it is found to be insufficient.

  8. Validation of a Meteosat Second Generation solar radiation dataset over the northeastern Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cristóbal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation plays a key role in the Earth's energy balance and is used as an essential input data in radiation-based evapotranspiration (ET models. Accurate gridded solar radiation data at high spatial and temporal resolution are needed to retrieve ET over large domains. In this work we present an evaluation at hourly, daily and monthly time steps and regional scale (Catalonia, NE Iberian Peninsula of a satellite-based solar radiation product developed by the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Application Facility (LSA SAF using data from the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI. Product performance and accuracy were evaluated for datasets segmented into two terrain classes (flat and hilly areas and two atmospheric conditions (clear and cloudy sky, as well as for the full dataset as a whole. Evaluation against measurements made with ground-based pyranometers yielded good results in flat areas with an averaged model RMSE of 65 W m−2 (19%, 34 W m−2 (9.7% and 21 W m−2 (5.6%, for hourly, daily and monthly-averaged solar radiation and including clear and cloudy sky conditions and snow or ice cover. Hilly areas yielded intermediate results with an averaged model RMSE (root mean square error of 89 W m−2 (27%, 48 W m−2 (14.5% and 32 W m−2 (9.3%, for hourly, daily and monthly time steps, suggesting the need of further improvements (e.g., terrain corrections required for retrieving localized variability in solar radiation in these areas. According to the literature, the LSA SAF solar radiation product appears to have sufficient accuracy to serve as a useful and operative input to evaporative flux retrieval models.

  9. Acute radiation effects on cutaneous microvasculature: evaluation with a laser Doppler perfusion monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amols, H.I.; Goffman, T.E.; Komaki, R.; Cox, J.D.

    1988-11-01

    Laser Doppler perfusion monitoring is a noninvasive technique for measuring blood flow in epidermal microvasculature that makes use of the frequency shift of light reflected from red blood cells. Measurements in patients undergoing radiation therapy show increases in blood flow of ten to 25 times baseline at doses above 50 Gy, and increases are observed with doses as low as 2 Gy. Follow-up measurements show rapid decreases in flow levels after completion of therapy, but levels remain elevated even at 1 year.

  10. Self-consistent solitons for vacuum decay in radiatively generated potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Garbrecht, Bjorn

    2015-01-01

    We use a Green's function approach in order to develop a method for calculating the tunneling rate between radiatively-generated non-degenerate vacua. We apply this to a model that exhibits spontaneous symmetry breaking via the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism, where we determine the self-consistent tunneling configuration and illustrate the impact of gradient effects that arise from accounting for the underlying space-time inhomogeneity.

  11. Self-consistent solitons for vacuum decay in radiatively generated potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbrecht, Björn; Millington, Peter

    2015-12-01

    We use a Green's function approach in order to develop a method for calculating the tunneling rate between radiatively generated nondegenerate vacua. We apply this to a model that exhibits spontaneous symmetry breaking via the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism, where we determine the self-consistent tunneling configuration and illustrate the impact of gradient effects that arise from accounting for the underlying space-time inhomogeneity.

  12. Generation of high-field narrowband terahertz radiation by counterpropagating plasma wakes

    CERN Document Server

    Timofeev, I V; Volchok, E P

    2016-01-01

    It is found that nonlinear interaction of plasma wakefields driven by counterpropagating laser or particle beams can efficiently generate high-power electromagnetic radiation at the second harmonic of the plasma frequency. Using a simple analytical theory and particle-in-cell simulations, we show that this phenomenon can be attractive for producing high-field ($\\sim 10$ MV/cm) narrowband terahertz pulses with the gigawatt power level and millijoule energy content.

  13. Generation of High-Frequency P and S Wave Radiation from Underground Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    continental areas. Pn are compression waves critically refracted at the moho. The Lg train is S wave energy trapped in the “granitic” upper crust . It can be...physical processes such as cavity rebound, spall, near source scattering, and interactions between pP and P, … that may be responsible for important...spectral features of regional phases”. To this list of physical processes we propose to add secondary radiation generated during rock fracture in the

  14. Design of Radiation-Tolerant Structural Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, T.R.; Was, G.S.; Bruemmer, S.M.; Gan, J.; Ukai, S.

    2005-12-28

    The objective of this program is to improve the radiation tolerance of both austenitic and ferritic-martensitic (F-M) alloys projected for use in Generation IV systems. The expected materials limitations of Generation IV components include: creep strength, dimensional stability, and corrosion/stress corrosion compatibility. The material design strategies to be tested fall into three main categories: (1) engineering grain boundaries; (2) alloying, by adding oversized elements to the matrix; and (3) microstructural/nanostructural design, such as adding matrix precipitates. These three design strategies were tested across both austenitic and ferritic-martensitic alloy classes

  15. Beam conditions for radiation generated by an electromagnetic Hermite-Gaussian model source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jia; XIN Yu; CHEN Yan-ru

    2011-01-01

    @@ Within the framework of the correlation theory of electromagnetic laser beams, the far field cross-spectral density matrix of the light radiated from an electromagnetic Hermite-Gaussian model source is derived.By utilizing the convergence property of Hermite polynomials, the conditions of the matrices for the source to generate an electromagnetic Hermite-Gaussian beam are obtained.Furthermore, in order to generate a scalar Hermite-Gaussian model beam, it is required that the source should be locally rather coherent in the spatial domain.

  16. Development of a synchrotron radiation beam monitor for the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarpelli, Andrea [Univ. of Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear integrable optics applied to beam dynamics may mitigate multi-particle instabilities, but proof of principle experiments have never been carried out. The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) is an electron and proton storage ring currently being built at Fermilab, which addresses tests of nonlinear lattice elements in a real machine in addition to experiments on optical stochastic cooling and on the single-electron wave function. These experiments require an outstanding control over the lattice parameters, achievable with fast and precise beam monitoring systems. This work describes the steps for designing and building a beam monitor for IOTA based on synchrotron radiation, able to measure intensity, position and transverse cross-section beam.

  17. Radiation dosimetry measurements with real time radiation monitoring device (RRMD)-II in Space Shuttle STS-79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, T; Doke, T; Hayashi, T; Kikuchi, J; Hasebe, N; Kashiwagi, T; Takashima, T; Takahashi, K; Nakano, T; Nagaoka, S; Takahashi, S; Yamanaka, H; Yamaguchi, K; Badhwar, G D

    1997-12-01

    The real-time measurement of radiation environment was made with an improved real-time radiation monitoring device (RRMD)-II onboard Space Shuttle STS-79 (S/MM#4: 4th Shuttle MIR Mission, at an inclination angle of 51.6 degrees and an altitude of 250-400km) for 199 h during 17-25 September, 1996. The observation of the detector covered the linear energy transfer (LET) range of 3.5-6000 keV/micrometer. The Shuttle orbital profile in this mission was equivalent to that of the currently planned Space Station, and provided an opportunity to investigate variations in count rate and dose equivalent rate depending on altitude, longitude, and latitude in detail. Particle count rate and dose equivalent rate were mapped geographically during the mission. Based on the map of count rate, an analysis was made by dividing whole region into three regions: South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region, high latitude region and other regions. The averaged absorbed dose rate during the mission was 39.3 microGy/day for a LET range of 3.5-6000 keV/micrometer. The corresponding average dose equivalent rates during the mission are estimated to be 293 microSv/day with quality factors from International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)-Pub. 60 and 270 microSv/day with quality factors from ICRP-Pub. 26. The effective quality factors for ICRP-Pub. 60 and 26 are 7.45 and 6.88, respectively. From the present data for particles of LET > 3.5keV/micrometer, we conclude that the average dose equivalent rate is dominated by the contribution of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles. The dose-detector depth dependence was also investigated.

  18. Investigation of Solar Hybrid Electric/Thermal System with Radiation Concentrator and Thermoelectric Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Arturo Chávez Urbiola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of a solar-concentrating system based on thermoelectric generators (TEGs was performed. The system included an electrical generating unit with 6 serially connected TEGs using a traditional semiconductor material, Bi2Te3, which was illuminated by concentrated solar radiation on one side and cooled by running water on the other side. A sun-tracking concentrator with a mosaic set of mirrors was used; its orientation towards the sun was achieved with two pairs of radiation sensors, a differential amplifier, and two servomotors. The hot side of the TEGs at midday has a temperature of around 200°C, and the cold side is approximately 50°C. The thermosiphon cooling system was designed to absorb the heat passing through the TEGs and provide optimal working conditions. The system generates 20 W of electrical energy and 200 W of thermal energy stored in water with a temperature of around 50°C. The hybrid system studied can be considered as an alternative to photovoltaic/thermal systems, especially in countries with abundant solar radiation, such as Mexico, China, and India.

  19. Emergency Management and Radiation Moni-toring in Nuclear and Radiological Accidents. Summary Report on the NKS Project EMARAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, J. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) (Finland)

    2006-04-15

    In order to manage various nuclear or radiological emergencies the authorities must have pre-prepared plans. The purpose of the NKS project EMARAD (Emergency Management and Radiation Monitoring in Nuclear and Radiological Accidents) was to produce and gather various data and information that could be useful in drawing up emergency plans and radiation monitoring strategies. One of the specific objectives of the project was to establish a www site that would contain various radiation-threat and radiation-monitoring related data and documents and that could be accessed by all Nordic countries. Other important objectives were discussing various factors affecting measurements in an emergency, efficient use of communication technology and disseminating relevant information on such topics as urban dispersion and illicit use of radiation. The web server is hosted by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) of Finland. The data stored include pre-calculated consequence data for nuclear power plant accidents as well as documents and presentations describing e.g. general features of monitoring strategies, the testing of the British urban dispersion model UDM and the scenarios and aspects related to malicious use of radiation sources and radioactive material. As regards the last item mentioned, a special workshop dealing with the subject was arranged in Sweden in 2005 within the framework of the project. (au)

  20. The Performance Assessment of the Detector for the Portable Environmental Radiation Distribution Monitoring System with Rapid Nuclide Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uk Jae; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The environment radiation distribution monitoring system measures the radiation using a portable detector and display the overall radiation distribution. Bluetooth and RS-232 communications are used for constructing monitoring system. However RS-232 serial communication is known to be more stable than Bluetooth and also it can use the detector's raw data which will be used for getting the activity of each artificial nuclide. In the present study, the detection and communication performance of the developed detector with RS-232 method is assessed by using standard sources for the real application to the urban or rural environment. Assessment of the detector for the portable environmental radiation distribution monitoring system with rapid nuclide recognition was carried out. It was understood that the raw data of detector could be effectively treated by using RS-232 method and the measurement showed a good agreement with the calculation within the relative error of 0.4 % in maximum.

  1. Results from multipoint alignment monitoring using the new generation of amorphous silicon position detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E. [CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ferrando, A. [CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: antonio.ferrando@ciemat.es; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C. [CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Calderon, A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (IFCA), CSIC-University of Cantabria Santander (Spain)] (and others)

    2008-08-11

    We present the measured performance of a new generation of large sensitive area (28x28 mm{sup 2}) semitransparent amorphous silicon position detector sensors. More than 100 units have been characterized. They show a very high performance. To illustrate a multipoint application, we present results from the monitoring of five sensors placed in a 5.5-m-long light path.

  2. An activity monitoring system for elderly care using generative and discriminative models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kasteren, T.L.M.; Englebienne, G.; Kröse, B.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    An activity monitoring system allows many applications to assist in care giving for elderly in their homes. In this paper we present a wireless sensor network for unintrusive observations in the home and show the potential of generative and discriminative models for recognizing activities from such

  3. MVIRI/SEVIRI TOA Radiation Datasets within the Climate Monitoring SAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, Manon; Clerbaux, Nicolas; Ipe, Alessandro; Baudrez, Edward; Velazquez Blazquez, Almudena; Moreels, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Within CM SAF, Interim Climate Data Records (ICDR) of Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) radiation products from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instruments on the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites have been released in 2013. These datasets (referred to as CM-113 and CM-115, resp. for shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiation) are based on the instantaneous TOA fluxes from the GERB Edition-1 dataset. They cover the time period 2004-2011. Extending these datasets backward in the past is not possible as no GERB instruments were available on the Meteosat First Generation (MFG) satellites. As an alternative, it is proposed to rely on the Meteosat Visible and InfraRed Imager (MVIRI - from 1982 until 2004) and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI - from 2004 onward) to generate a long Thematic Climate Data Record (TCDR) from Meteosat instruments. Combining MVIRI and SEVIRI allows an unprecedented temporal (30 minutes / 15 minutes) and spatial (2.5 km / 3 km) resolution compared to the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) products. This is a step forward as it helps to increase the knowledge of the diurnal cycle and the small-scale spatial variations of radiation. The MVIRI/SEVIRI datasets (referred to as CM-23311 and CM-23341, resp. for SW and LW radiation) will provide daily and monthly averaged TOA Reflected Solar (TRS) and Emitted Thermal (TET) radiation in "all-sky" conditions (no clear-sky conditions for this first version of the datasets), as well as monthly averaged of the hourly integrated values. The SEVIRI Solar Channels Calibration (SSCC) and the operational calibration have been used resp. for the SW and LW channels. For MFG, it is foreseen to replace the latter by the EUMETSAT/GSICS recalibration of MVIRI using HIRS. The CERES TRMM angular dependency models have been used to compute TRS fluxes while theoretical models have been used for TET fluxes. The CM-23311 and CM-23341 datasets will cover a 32 years

  4. Operational-Condition-Independent Criteria Dedicated to Monitoring Wind Turbine Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Court

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Condition monitoring is beneficial to the wind industry for both onshore and offshore plants. However, due to the variations in operational conditions, its potential has not been fully explored. There is a need to develop an operational-condition-independent condition monitoring technique, which has motivated the research presented here. In this paper, three operational-condition-independent criteria are developed. The criteria accomplish the condition monitoring by analyzing the wind turbine electrical signals in the time domain. Therefore, they are simple to calculate and ideal for online use. All proposed criteria were tested through both simulated and practical experiments. The experiments have shown that these criteria not only provide a solution for detecting both mechanical and electrical faults that occur in wind turbine generators, but provide a potential tool for diagnosing generator winding faults.

  5. Analysis of the mortality among Cogema workers monitored for external radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz-Flamant, C.; Hitz, M.; Samson, E.; Rogel, A.; Telle-Lamberton, M.; Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Caer, S.; Quesne, B. [Cogema, Coordination Medicale, 78 - Velizy-Villacoublay (France)

    2006-07-01

    The present study follows 9287 Cogema workers exposed to low level of ionizing radiation from the beginning of employment to the end of 1994. This paper presents analyses of the mortality of Cogema workers monitored for external radiation exposure and the relation between their mortality and their cumulative external radiation dose. Workers were followed up for an average of 13 years. The percentage of subjects lost to follow up was less than 1%. during the follow-up period, 441 deaths occurred. The mean cumulative dose among the whole cohort was 19.4 mSv. As expected, the mortality of the cohort was lower than that of the French national population. The healthy worker effect is often observed in other nuclear workers studies. Part of the healthy worker effect is explained by a proportion of unemployed persons in general population, with a higher mortality rate. All causes S.M.R. increased with calendar period and duration of employment. this increase was not significant for all cancers S.M.R. by duration of employment. This could illustrate the decrease of the initial selection at employment with time. A significant increase in risk was observed for all cancers excluding leukemia mortality with increase of radiation dose in the 15-country study. Significant excess of leukemia by cumulative radiation exposure was observed in the 3-country study and was borderline significant in the 15-country study and in the UK National register for radiation workers study. A positive trend, not statistically significant, by level of external doses was observed in our study for all cancers and leukemia excluding chronic lymphatic leukemia mortality, but the analyses lack of statistical power. A significant trend was observed only for non-Hodgkin lymphoma death, but considering the large number of statistic tests computed, this result must be carefully interpreted. A borderline significant trend was observed for lung cancer death, a significant increase risk of lung cancer death

  6. Third harmonic generation of high power far infrared radiation in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, M. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)

    1996-04-01

    We investigated the third harmonic generation of high power infrared radiation in doped semiconductors with emphasis on the conversion efficiency. The third harmonic generation effect is based on the nonlinear response of the conduction band electrons in the semiconductor with respect to the electric field of the incident electromagnetic wave. Because this work is directed towards a proposed application in fusion plasma diagnostics, the experimental requirements for the radiation source at the fundamental frequency are roughly given as follows: a wavelength of the radiation at the fundamental frequency in the order of 1 mm and an incident power greater than 1 MW. The most important experiments of this work were performed using the high power far infrared laser of the CRPP. With this laser a new laser line was discovered, which fits exactly the source specifications given above: the wavelength is 676 {mu}m and the maximum power is up to 2 MW. Additional experiments were carried out using a 496 {mu}m laser and a 140 GHz (2.1 mm) gyrotron. The main experimental progress with respect to previous work in this field is, in addition to the use of a very high power laser, the possibility of an absolute calibration of the detectors for the far infrared radiation and the availability of a new type of detector with a very fast response. This detector made it possible to measure the power at the fundamental as well as the third harmonic frequency with full temporal resolution of the fluctuations during the laser pulse. Therefore the power dependence of the third harmonic generation efficiency could be measured directly. The materials investigated were InSb as an example of a narrow gap semiconductor and Si as standard material. The main results are: narrow gap semiconductors indeed have a highly nonlinear electronic response, but the narrow band gap leads at the same time to a low power threshold for internal breakdown, which is due to impact ionization. figs., tabs., refs.

  7. Organic liquid scintillation detector shape and volume impact on radiation portal monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paff, Marc G.; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2016-07-01

    We have developed and tested a radiation portal monitor using organic liquid scintillation detectors. In order to optimize our system designs, neutron measurements were carried out with three organic liquid scintillation detectors of different shapes and sizes, along with a 3He radiation portal monitor (RPM) as a reference. The three liquids tested were a 7.62 cm diameter by 7.62 cm length cylindrical active volume organic liquid scintillation detector, a 12.7 cm diameter by 12.7 cm length cylindrical active volume organic liquid scintillation detector, and a 25 cm by 25 cm by 10 cm "paddle" shaped organic liquid scintillation detector. Background and Cf-252 neutron measurements were recorded to allow for a comparison of neutron intrinsic efficiencies as well as receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves between detectors. The 12.7 cm diameter cylindrical active volume organic liquid scintillation detector exhibited the highest intrinsic neutron efficiency (54%) of all three liquid scintillators. An ROC curve analysis for a heavily moderated Cf-252 measurement showed that using the 12.7 cm diameter by 12.7 cm length cylindrical active volume Eljen EJ309 organic liquid scintillation detector would result in the fewest needed detector units in order to achieve a near 100% positive neutron alarm rate while maintaining a better than 1 in 10,000 false alarm rate on natural neutron background. A small number of organic liquid scintillation detectors could therefore be a valid alternative to 3He in some RPM applications.

  8. The Performance of the Beam Conditions and Radiation Monitoring System of CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Dabrowski, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The Beam Conditions and Radiation Monitoring System (BRM), is installed in CMS to protect the CMS detector from high beam losses and to provide feedback to the LHC and CMS on the beam conditions. The primary detector sub-systems are based on either single crystal diamond sensors (BCM1F) for particle counting with nanosecond resolution or on polycrystalline diamonds (BCM2; BCM1L) for integrated signal current measurements. Beam scintillation counters (BSC) are also used during low luminosity running. The detectors have radiation hard front-end electronics and are read out independently of the CMS central data acquisition and are online whenever there is beam in the LHC machine. The various sub-systems exploit different time resolutions and position locations to be able to monitor the beam induced backgrounds and the flux of particles produced during collisions. This paper describes the CMS BRM system and the complementary aspects of the installed BRM sub-detectors to measure both single particle count rates a...

  9. Design of Hanford Site 4th Generation Multi Function Corrosion Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NORMAN, E.C.

    2000-08-30

    This document describes the design of the fourth-generation corrosion monitoring system scheduled to be installed in DST 241-AN-104 early in fiscal year 2001. A fourth-generation multi-function corrosion monitoring system has been designed for installation into a DST in the 241-AN farm at the Hanford Site in FY 2001. Improvements and upgrades from the third-generation system (installed in 241-AN-105) that have been incorporated into the fourth-generation system include: Addition of a built-in water lance to assist installation of probe into tanks with a hard crust layer at the surface of the waste; and Improvement of the electrode mounting apparatus used to attach the corrosion monitoring electrodes to the stainless steel probe body (new design simplifies probe assembly/wiring). These new features improve on the third-generation design and yield a system that is easier to fabricate and install, provides for a better understanding of the relationship between corrosion and other tank operating parameters, and optimizes the use of the riser that houses the probe in the tank.

  10. Mode excitation in a generator of diffraction radiation with a multistage interaction space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnichenko, V. S.; Senkevich, E. B.; Pivovarova, A. G.; Yudintsev, D. V.

    2010-08-01

    We present the results of studying theoretically and experimentally the peculiarities of mode excitation in a generator of diffraction radiation with the two- and three-cascade interaction space in one open resonator. To describe the multistage interaction mechanism, the theoretical model used considers the excitation of the TEM0nq modes, which have n in-phase field “spots,” i.e., cascades, along the direction of the electron beam motion. It is shown that even the use of the two-cascade interaction space with the TEM01q modes allows one to reduce the starting current of the generator by 1.91 times. The results of studying experimentally the two-cascade generator in the 5 and 1.5-mm wavelength ranges are presented. The in-phase property of the electron beam with the resonance field was achieved by disrupting the periodicity of the lattice slots at the center of the interaction space. The output power of the two-stage generator of 5-mm diffraction radiation in the TEM013 mode ranged from 3 to 5 W. We also observed a 4-5-fold increase in the starting current for the regime of surface waves.

  11. Generation of hard X-ray radiation using the triboelectric effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehl, Maximilian; Gutmann, Emanuel; Mehner, Erik; Stoecker, Hartmut [Nachwuchsgruppe Nanostrukturphysik, Institut fuer Strukturphysik, TU Dresden (Germany); Meyer, Dirk C. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik, TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    To meet the demands of upcoming imaging for medical demands and scientific methods for structure investigation, generation of X-rays using miniaturized radiation sources is an interesting field of research. Beside approaches based on the ionizing and electron accelerating properties of high electric fields around pyroelectric crystals also the use of a tribomicroplasma generated in the vicinity of the peeling point of two different polymers is promising. We report on the generation of hard X-ray radiation by crawling various peeling tapes in a medium vacuum. Beside vacuum housing and pumps as instrumentation only an electric motor, two rolls and a metal foil as target material are necessary. The spectral distribution of thus generated X-rays was analyzed using an energy dispersive Si(Li) detector. In dependence of peeling speed, pressure and choice of polymer material electrons with energies high enough to excite characteristic X-ray emission in the hard X-ray region are produced. The results are discussed in terms of theory of triboelectricity.

  12. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Utrok Atoll (2003-2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Tibon, S; Chee, L

    2006-01-17

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands (Figure 1). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance programs are helping meet

  13. MEMS acceleration sensor with remote optical readout for continuous power generator monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tormen Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Miniaturized accelerometers with remote optical readout are required devices for the continuous monitoring of vibrations inside power generators. In turbo and hydro generators, end-winding vibrations are present during operation causing in the long term undesirable out-of-service repairs. Continuous monitoring of these vibrations is therefore mandatory. The high electromagnetic fields in the generators impose the use of devices immune to electromagnetic interferences. In this paper a MEMS based accelerometer with remote optical readout is presented. Advantages of the proposed device are the use of a differential optical signal to reject the common mode signal and noise, the reduced number of steps for the MEMS chip fabrication and for the system assembly, and the reduced package volume.

  14. Vision 20/20: Positron emission tomography in radiation therapy planning, delivery, and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parodi, Katia, E-mail: Katia.parodi@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Faculty of Physics, Department of Medical Physics, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Munich 85748 (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly considered as an effective imaging method to support several stages of radiation therapy. The combined usage of functional and morphological imaging in state-of-the-art PET/CT scanners is rapidly emerging to support the treatment planning process in terms of improved tumor delineation, and to assess the tumor response in follow-up investigations after or even during the course of fractionated therapy. Moreover, active research is being pursued on new tracers capable of providing different insights into tumor function, in order to identify areas of the planning volume which may require additional dosage for improved probability of tumor control. In this respect, major progresses in the next years will likely concern the development and clinical investigation of novel tracers and image processing techniques for reliable thresholding and segmentation, of treatment planning and beam delivery approaches integrating the PET imaging information, as well as improved multimodal clinical instrumentation such as PET/MR. But especially in the rapidly emerging case of ion beam therapy, the usage of PET is not only limited to the imaging of external tracers injected to the patient. In fact, a minor amount of positron emitters is formed in nuclear fragmentation reactions between the impinging ions and the tissue, bearing useful information for confirmation of the delivered treatment during or after therapeutic irradiation. Different implementations of unconventional PET imaging for therapy monitoring are currently being investigated clinically, and major ongoing research aims at new dedicated detector technologies and at challenging applications such as real-time imaging and time-resolved in vivo verification of motion compensated beam delivery. This paper provides an overview of the different areas of application of PET in radiation oncology and discusses the most promising perspectives in the years to come for radiation therapy

  15. Community radiation monitoring program. Annual report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, E.N.

    1994-08-01

    The Community Radiation Monitoring Program (CRMP) is a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Desert Research Institute (DRI), a division of the University and Community College System of Nevada, and the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the University of Utah (UUNEL). The thirteenth year of this program began in the fall of 1992, and the work continues as an integral part of the DOE--sponsored long-term offsite radiological monitoring effort that has been conducted by EPA and its predecessors since the inception of nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The CRMP began by enhancing and centralizing environmental monitoring and sampling equipment at 15 communities in the then-existing EPA monitoring network around the NTS, and has since expanded to 19 locations in Nevada, Utah, and California. The primary objectives of this program are still to increase the understanding by the people who live in the area surrounding the NTS of the activities for which DOE is responsible, to enhance the performance of radiological sampling and monitoring, and to inform all concerned of the results of these efforts. One of the primary methods used to improve the communication link with the people in the potentially impacted area has been the hiring and training of local citizens as Station Managers and program representatives in those selected communities in the offsite area. These mangers, active science teachers wherever possible, have succeeded through their training, experience, community standing, and effort in becoming a very visible, able, and valuable asset in this link.

  16. Community Radiation Monitoring Program. Annual report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, E.N.

    1993-05-01

    The Community Radiation Monitoring Program (CRMP) is a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE); the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); the Desert Research Institute (DRI), a division of the University and Community College System of Nevada and the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the University of Utah (UNEL). The twelfth year of the program began in the fall of 1991, and the work continues as an integral part of the DOE-sponsored long-term offsite radiological monitoring effort that has been conducted by EPA and its predecessors since the inception of nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The program began as an outgrowth of activities that occurred during the Three Mile Island incident in 1979. The local interest and public participation that took place there were thought to be transferrable to the situation at the NTS, so, with adaptations, that methodology was implemented for this program. The CRMP began by enhancing and centralizing environmental monitoring and sampling equipment at 15 communities in the existing EPA monitoring network, and has since expanded to 19 locations in Nevada, Utah and California. The primary objectives of this program are still to increase the understanding by the people who live in the area surrounding the NTS of the activities for which DOE is responsible, to enhance the performance of radiological sampling and monitoring, and to inform all concerned of the results of these efforts. One of the primary methods used to improve the communication link with people in the potentially impacted area has been the hiring and training of local citizens as station managers and program representatives in those selected communities in the offsite area. These managers, active science teachers wherever possible, have succeeded, through their training, experience, community standing, and effort, in becoming a very visible, able and valuable asset in this link.

  17. Evaluation of new cosmic radiation monitors designed for aircrew exposure assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getley, I. L.; Bennett, L. G. I.; Lewis, B. J.; Bennett, B.; Dyer, C. S.; Hands, A. D. P.; Duldig, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    With the development of next generation aircraft designs capable of ultralong-range flight and extended flight endurance, new experimental dosimetry equipment has been specifically designed to enable aircrew to monitor and respond to airborne alerts of potential doses that exceed recommended limits. The new QinetiQ QDOS/Rayhound monitor and designer-specific Liulin 4SA both provide real-time monitoring and readout with both audible and visual alert functions. The potential advantage to pilots and airlines is a more rational response to an alert by minimizing the altitude descent and time at lower levels in response to a significant event. This not only protects passengers and crew from solar particle events but provides a "greener" option to fuel burn at lower altitudes when events have abated. Thus, it will allow the crew to determine safer optimum flight levels during and after the event. These monitors were flown on numerous high- and low-latitude flights in combination with a "Hawk" tissue equivalent proportional counter acting as the reference instrument as it measured the total ambient dose equivalent H*(10). An FH 41B Eberline monitor and bubble detectors were also used in the comparison.

  18. Generation of ultraviolet radiation with wide angular tolerance in cesium lithium borate crystal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gopal C Bhar; Pathik Kumbhakar; Anil K Chaudhary

    2000-09-01

    Tangential phase-matching has been realised in cesium lithium borate (CLBO) crystal for the first time for the generation of fourth harmonic (266 nm) of Nd:YAG and third harmonic (226.7 nm) of a dye laser radiation by second harmonic generation and sum-frequency mixing with the angular tolerance as large as 22 mrad and 21 mrad respectively, over one of the interacting beams. An energy conversion efficiency of 15% for fourth harmonic generation is obtained with a 5.5 mm thick crystal and with the average pump powers only 170 and 70 mW. A set of Sellmeier dispersion equations for the CLBO crystal have also been formulated.

  19. Generation of efficient THz radiation by optical rectification in DAST crystal using tunable femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Mottamchetty; Thirupugalmani, K.; Rao, K. S.; Brahadeeswaran, S.; Chaudhary, A. K.

    2017-03-01

    We report the efficient THz generation by optical rectification from an indigenously grown organic DAST crystal using the 140 fs oscillator laser pulses tunable in between 780 and 850 nm. The generated THz pulse profile and powers have been measured using the photoconductive (PC) antennas and pyroelectric detector, respectively. The highest THz peak amplitude and power is obtained at 825 nm central wavelength. We have theoretically explained the enhancement of THz radiation based on the matching of average optical group refractive index and average THz refractive index of the DAST crystal at 825 nm. In addition, the dependence of THz peak amplitude and THz power on laser power have been carried out. The measured quantum conversion efficiency (QCE) of 0.5 and 1.5 THz bands are of the order 3.7 × 10-3, 1.4 × 10-3, respectively. Finally, an attempt has been made to study the effect of polarizations on generated THz signal.

  20. Influence of trans fat on skin damage in first-generation rats exposed to UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Raquel Cristine S; Vey, Luciana T; Segat, Hecson Jesser; Benvegnú, Dalila M; Trevizol, Fabíola; Roversi, Karine; Roversi, Katiane; Dias, Verônica T; Dolci, Geisa S; Kuhn, Fábio T; Piccolo, Jaqueline; CristinaVeit, Juliana; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Bürger, Marilise E

    2015-01-01

    The influence of trans fatty acids (TFA) on lipid profile, oxidative damage and mitochondrial function in the skin of rats exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) was assessed. The first-generation offspring of female Wistar rats supplemented from pregnancy with either soybean oil (C-SO, rich in n-6 FA; control group) or hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF, rich in TFA) were continued with the same supplements until adulthood, when half of each group was exposed to UVR for 12 weeks. The HVF group showed higher TFA cutaneous incorporation, increased protein carbonyl (PC) levels, decreased functionality of mitochondrial enzymes and antioxidant defenses of the skin. After UVR, the HVF group showed increased skin thickness and reactive species (RS) generation, with decreased skin antioxidant defenses. RS generation was positively correlated with skin thickness, wrinkles and PC levels. Once incorporated to skin, TFA make it more susceptible to developing UVR-induced disorders.

  1. Performance monitoring algorithm for optimizing electrical power generated by using photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, M. V. K.; Balbir, S. M. S.; Norani, M. M.

    2016-11-01

    Demand for electricity in Malaysia has seen a substantial hike in light of the nation's rapid economic development. The current method of generating electricity is through the combustion of fossil fuels which has led to the detrimental effects on the environment besides causing social and economic outbreaks due to its highly volatile prices. Thus the need for a sustainable energy source is paramount and one that is quickly gaining acceptance is solar energy. However, due to the various environmental and geographical factors that affect the generation of solar electricity, the capability of solar electricity generating system (SEGS) is unable to compete with the high conversion efficiencies of conventional energy sources. In order to effectively monitor SEGS, this study is proposing a performance monitoring system that is capable of detecting drops in the system's performance for parallel networks through a diagnostic mechanism. The performance monitoring system consists of microcontroller connected to relevant sensors for data acquisition. The acquired data is transferred to a microcomputer for software based monitoring and analysis. In order to enhance the interception of sunlight by the SEGS, a sensor based sun tracking system is interfaced to the same controller to allow the PV to maneuver itself autonomously to an angle of maximum sunlight exposure.

  2. Operational-Condition-Independent Criteria Dedicated to Monitoring Wind Turbine Generators: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, W.; Sheng, S.; Court, R.

    2012-08-01

    To date the existing wind turbine condition monitoring technologies and commercially available systems have not been fully accepted for improving wind turbine availability and reducing their operation and maintenance costs. One of the main reasons is that wind turbines are subject to constantly varying loads and operate at variable rotational speeds. As a consequence, the influences of turbine faults and the effects of varying load and speed are coupled together in wind turbine condition monitoring signals. So, there is an urgent need to either introduce some operational condition de-coupling procedures into the current wind turbine condition monitoring techniques or develop a new operational condition independent wind turbine condition monitoring technique to maintain high turbine availability and achieve the expected economic benefits from wind. The purpose of this paper is to develop such a technique. In the paper, three operational condition independent criteria are developed dedicated for monitoring the operation and health condition of wind turbine generators. All proposed criteria have been tested through both simulated and practical experiments. The experiments have shown that these criteria provide a solution for detecting both mechanical and electrical faults occurring in wind turbine generators.

  3. Monitoring millimeter wave stray radiation during ECRH operation at ASDEX Upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to imperfection of the single path absorption, ECRH at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG is always accompanied by stray radiation in the vacuum vessel. New ECRH scenarios with O2 and X3 heating schemes extend the operational space, but they have also the potential to increase the level of stray radiation. There are hazards for invessel components. Damage on electric cables has already been encountered. It is therefore necessary to monitor and control the ECRH with respect to the stray radiation level. At AUG a system of Sniffer antennas equipped with microwave detection diodes is installed. The system is part of the ECRH interlock circuit. We notice, however, that during plasma operation the variations of the Sniffer antenna signal are very large. In laboratory measurements we see variations of up to 20 dB in the directional sensitivity and we conclude that an interference pattern is formed inside the copper sphere of the antenna. When ECRH is in plasma operation at AUG, the plasma is acting as a phase and mode mixer for the millimeter waves and thus the interference pattern inside the sphere changes with the characteristic time of the plasma dynamics. In order to overcome the difficulty of a calibrated measurement of the average stray radiation level, we installed bolometer and pyroelectric detectors, which intrinsically average over interference structures due to their large active area. The bolometer provides a robust calibration but with moderate temporal resolution. The pyroelectric detector provides high sensitivity and a good temporal resolution, but it raises issues of possible signal drifts in long pulses.

  4. RADIATION HYGIENIC MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT OF POPULATION DOSES IN RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED AREAS OF TULA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Chichura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal. The analyses of radiation hygienic monitoring conducted in Tula region territories affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident regarding cesium-137 and strontium- 90 in the local foodstuffs and the analyses of populational annual effective dose. The materials and methods. The survey was conducted in Tula Region since 1997 to 2015. Over that period, more than fifty thousand samples of the main foodstuffs from the post-Chernobyl contaminated area were analyzed. Simultaneously with that, the external gamma - radiation dose rate was measured in the fixed control points. The dynamics of cesium -137 and strontium-90 content in foodstuffs were assessed along with the maximum values of the mean annual effective doses to the population and the contribution of the collective dose from medical exposures into the structure of the annual effective collective dose to the population. The results. The amount of cesium-137 and strontium -90 in the local foodstuffs was identified. The external gamma- radiation dose rate values were found to be stable and not exceeding the natural fluctuations range typical for the middle latitudes of Russia’s European territory. The maximum mean annual effective dose to the population reflects the stable radiation situation and does not exceed the permissible value of 1 mSv. The contribution of the collective dose from medical exposures of the population has been continuously reducing as well as the average individual dose to the population per one medical treatment under the annual increase of the medical treatments quantities. The conclusion. There is no exceedance of the admissible levels of cesium-137 and strontium- 90 content in the local foodstuffs. The mean annual effective dose to the population has decreased which makes it possible to transfer the settlements affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident to normal life style. This is covered by the draft concept of the settlements’ transfer to normal life style.

  5. Community Radiation Monitoring Program; Annual report, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, E.N.; McArthur, R.D.

    1992-06-01

    The Community Radiation Monitoring Program is a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Desert Research Institute (DRI), a division of the University and Community College System of Nevada, and the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the University of Utah (U of U). This eleventh year of the program began in the summer of 1991 and the work continues as an integral part of the DOE-sponsored long-term offsite radiological monitoring effort that has been conducted by EPA and its predecessors since the inception of nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The primary objectives of this program are still to increase the understanding by the people who live in the area surrounding the NTS of the activities for which the DOE is responsible, to enhance the performance of radiological sampling and monitoring, and to inform all concerned of the results of those efforts. One of the primary methods used to improve the communication link with the potentially impacted area has been the hiring and training of local citizens as Managers and program representatives in 19 communities adjacent to and downwind from the NTS. These Managers, active science teachers wherever possible, have succeeded, through their training, experience, community standing, and effort, in becoming a very visible, able and valuable asset in this link.

  6. Visible-light beam size monitors using synchrotron radiation at CESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.T., E-mail: sw565@cornell.edu [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Science and Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Rubin, D.L.; Conway, J.; Palmer, M.; Hartill, D. [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Science and Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Campbell, R.; Holtzapple, R. [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    A beam profile monitor utilizing visible synchrotron radiation (SR) from a bending magnet has been designed and installed in Cornell Electron-Positron Storage Ring (CESR). The monitor employs a double-slit interferometer to measure both the horizontal and vertical beam sizes over a wide range of beam currents. By varying the separation of the slits, beam sizes ranging from 50 to 500 μm can be measured with a resolution of approximately 5 μm. To measure larger beam size (>500 μm), direct imaging can be employed by rotating the double slits away from SR beam path. By imaging the π-polarized component of SR, a small vertical beam size (∼70 μm) was measured during an undulator test run in CESR, which was consistent with the interferometer measurement. To measure the bunch length, a beam splitter is inserted to direct a fraction of light into a streak camera setup. This beam size monitor measures the transverse and longitudinal beam sizes simultaneously, which is successfully used for intrabeam scattering studies. Detailed error analysis is discussed.

  7. Monitoring system for a synthesizer at SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility and obtained results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Y., E-mail: ykawashima@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, PS, Bldg. 817, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Ego, H. [JASRI/SPring-8, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hara, M. [RIKEN, 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ohashi, Y.; Ohshima, T.; Takao, M.; Takashima, T. [JASRI/SPring-8, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2013-02-11

    Beam orbit distortion in all dispersive sections was observed in the SPring-8 storage ring during beam commissioning. In order to confirm the stability of the radio frequency (RF) synthesizer, a monitoring system was developed. The system consists of a frequency counter referenced to a global positioning system (GPS) receiver. With this system, the output of the synthesizer, which uses an external 10 MHz-Rubidium atomic clock with the time accuracy of Δt/t=10{sup −12}, is correctly monitored with 11 digits absolute accuracy, verifying that the synthesizer works well. Measurement of the circumference of the SPring-8 storage ring reveals the effect of tidal forces and seasonal temperature variations on beam orbit. To maintain the center axis of photon radiation in experimental beam lines, a beam energy correction is carried out. The frequency of the RF synthesizer is changed every 5 min with 10-digit accuracy. This corresponds to an energy accuracy of ΔE/E=1.16×10{sup −6}. The monitoring system for the synthesizer and obtained results are described.

  8. Biosensors for Real-Time Monitoring of Radiation-Induced Biologic Effects in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, James R.; Balogh, Lajos; Majoros, Istvan; Keszler, Balazs; Myc, Andrzej; Kukowska-Latallo, Jolanta; Norris, Theodore; delaiglesia, Felix; Beeson, Nicholas W. (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    This work seeks to develop cellular biosensors based on dendritic polymers. Nanoscale polymer structures less than 20 nm in diameter will be used as the basis of the biosensors. The structures will be designed to target into specific cells of an astronaut and be able to monitor health issues such as exposure to radiation. Multiple components can be assembled on the polymers including target directors, analytical devices (such as molecular probes), and reporting agents. The reporting will be accomplished through fluorescence signal monitoring, with the use of multispectral analysis for signal interpretation. These nanosensors could facilitate the success and increase the safety of extended space flight. The design and assembly of these devices has been pioneered at the Center for Biologic Nanotechnology in the University of Michigan. This period, synthesis of the test-bed biosensors continued. Studies were performed on the candidate fluorescent dyes to determine which might be suitable for the biosensor under development. Development continued on producing an artificial capillary bed as a tool for the use in the production of the fluorescence signal monitor. Work was also done on the in vitro multispectral analysis system, which uses the robotic microscope.

  9. Acoustic manipulation of active spherical carriers: Generation of negative radiation force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajabi, Majid, E-mail: majid_rajabi@iust.ac.ir; Mojahed, Alireza

    2016-09-15

    This paper examines theoretically a novel mechanism of generating negative (pulling) radiation force for acoustic manipulation of spherical carriers equipped with piezoelectric actuators in its inner surface. In this mechanism, the spherical particle is handled by common plane progressive monochromatic acoustic waves instead of zero-/higher- order Bessel beams or standing waves field. The handling strategy is based on applying a spatially uniform harmonic electrical voltage at the piezoelectric actuator with the same frequency of handling acoustic waves, in order to change the radiation force effect from repulsive (away from source) to attractive (toward source). This study may be considered as a start point for development of contact-free precise handling and entrapment technology of active carriers which are essential in many engineering and medicine applications.

  10. Acoustic manipulation of active spherical carriers: Generation of negative radiation force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Majid; Mojahed, Alireza

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines theoretically a novel mechanism of generating negative (pulling) radiation force for acoustic manipulation of spherical carriers equipped with piezoelectric actuators in its inner surface. In this mechanism, the spherical particle is handled by common plane progressive monochromatic acoustic waves instead of zero-/higher- order Bessel beams or standing waves field. The handling strategy is based on applying a spatially uniform harmonic electrical voltage at the piezoelectric actuator with the same frequency of handling acoustic waves, in order to change the radiation force effect from repulsive (away from source) to attractive (toward source). This study may be considered as a start point for development of contact-free precise handling and entrapment technology of active carriers which are essential in many engineering and medicine applications.

  11. Numerical Simulation of Entropy Generation with Thermal Radiation on MHD Carreau Nanofluid towards a Shrinking Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mubashir Bhatti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, entropy generation with radiation on non-Newtonian Carreau nanofluid towards a shrinking sheet is investigated numerically. The effects of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD are also taken into account. Firstly, the governing flow problem is simplified into ordinary differential equations from partial differential equations with the help of similarity variables. The solution of the resulting nonlinear differential equations is solved numerically with the help of the successive linearization method and Chebyshev spectral collocation method. The influence of all the emerging parameters is discussed with the help of graphs and tables. It is observed that the influence of magnetic field and fluid parameters oppose the flow. It is also analyzed that thermal radiation effects and the Prandtl number show opposite behavior on temperature profile. Furthermore, it is also observed that entropy profile increases for all the physical parameters.

  12. Cherenkov radiation and dielectric based accelerating structures: Wakefield generation, power extraction and energy transfer efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanareykin, Alexei

    2010-06-01

    We present here our recent results of the Euclid Techlabs LLC/Argonne National Laboratory/St.Petersburg Electrotechnical University "LETI" collaboration on wakefield high energy acceleration of electron bunches in dielectric based accelerating structures. This program concentrates primarily on Cherenkov radiation studies providing efficient high energy generation aimed at a future 1 TeV collider. We report here on recent experiments in high power Cherenkov radiation and corresponding dielectric material developments and characterizations. Progress in diamond, quartz and microwave low-loss ceramic structure development in GHz and THz frequency ranges is presented. Beam Breakup effects and transverse bunch stability are discussed as well. We e report on recent progress on tunable dielectric based structure development. A special subject of our paper is transformer ratio enhancement schemes providing energy transfer efficiency for the dielectric based wakefield acceleration.

  13. Three-dimensional visualization of shear wave propagation generated by dual acoustic radiation pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Yuta; Taki, Hirofumi; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    An elastic property of biological soft tissue is an important indicator of the tissue status. Therefore, quantitative and noninvasive methods for elasticity evaluation have been proposed. Our group previously proposed a method using acoustic radiation pressure irradiated from two directions for elastic property evaluation, in which by measuring the propagation velocity of the shear wave generated by the acoustic radiation pressure inside the object, the elastic properties of the object were successfully evaluated. In the present study, we visualized the propagation of the shear wave in a three-dimensional space by the synchronization of signals received at various probe positions. The proposed method succeeded in visualizing the shear wave propagation clearly in the three-dimensional space of 35 × 41 × 4 mm3. These results show the high potential of the proposed method to estimate the elastic properties of the object in the three-dimensional space.

  14. Capacitive sensor for continuous monitoring of high-volume droplet microfluidic generation

    KAUST Repository

    Conchouso Gonzalez, David

    2016-12-19

    This paper presents a capacitive sensor for monitoring parallel microfluidic droplet generation. The great electric permittivity difference between common droplet microfluidic fluids such as air, oil and water (ϵoil ≈ 2–3 and ϵwater ≈ 80.4), allows for accurate detection of water in oil concentration changes. Capacitance variations as large as 10 pF between a channel filled with water or dodecane, are used to continuously monitor the output of a parallelization system producing 150 µl/min of water in dodecane emulsions. We also discuss a low cost fabrication process to manufacture these capacitive sensors, which can be integrated to different substrates.

  15. Acoustic emission-based in-process monitoring of surface generation in robot-assisted polishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; Bissacco, Giuliano; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The applicability of acoustic emission (AE) measurements for in-process monitoring of surface generation in the robot-assisted polishing (RAP) was investigated. Surface roughness measurements require interruption of the process, proper surface cleaning and measurements that sometimes necessitate...... removal of the part from the machine tool. In this study, stabilisation of surface roughness during polishing rotational symmetric surfaces by the RAP process was monitored by AE measurements. An AE sensor was placed on a polishing arm in direct contact with a bonded abrasive polishing tool...

  16. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Enewetak Atoll (2002-2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Johannes, K; Henry, D

    2006-01-17

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands including Enewetak Island (Figure 1) (Bell et al., 2002). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental

  17. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Rongelap Atoll (2002-2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Arelong, E; Langinbelik, S

    2006-01-17

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands including Rongelap Atoll (Figure 1). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance

  18. Modeling of excimer laser radiation induced defect generation in fluoride phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natura, U.; Ehrt, D.

    2001-03-01

    Fluoride phosphate (FP) glasses with low phosphate content are high-transparent in the deep ultraviolet (UV) range and attractive candidates for UV-optics. Their optical properties are complementary to fluoride crystals. The anomalous partial dispersion makes them desirable for optical lens designs to reduce the secondary spectrum. Their UV transmission is limited by trace impurities introduced by raw materials and decreases when exposed to UV-radiation (lamps, lasers). The experiments of the paper published previously in this journal were used in order to separate radiation induced absorption bands in the fluoride phosphate glass FP10. In this paper the generation mechanism of the phosphorus-oxygen related hole center POHC 2 is investigated in detail in glasses of various compositions (various phosphate and impurity contents) in order to predict the transmission loss in case of long-time irradiation. Experiments were carried out using ArF- and KrF-excimer lasers (ns-pulses). POHC 2 generation strongly depends on the phosphate content and on the content of Pb 2+. A model was developed on these terms. Rate equations are formulated, incorporating the influence of the Pb 2+-content on the defect generation, a two-step creation term including an energy transfer process and a one-photon bleaching term. This results in a set of coupled nonlinear differential equations. Absorption coefficients and lifetimes of the excited states were calculated as well. Experimental results compared well with the numerical analysis of the theoretical rate equations.

  19. Parasitic effects in superconducting quantum interference device-based radiation comb generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosisio, R., E-mail: riccardo.bosisio@nano.cnr.it [SPIN-CNR, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); NEST, Instituto Nanoscienze-CNR and Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Giazotto, F., E-mail: giazotto@sns.it [NEST, Instituto Nanoscienze-CNR and Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Solinas, P., E-mail: paolo.solinas@spin.cnr.it [SPIN-CNR, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy)

    2015-12-07

    We study several parasitic effects on the implementation of a Josephson radiation comb generator based on a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) driven by an external magnetic field. This system can be used as a radiation generator similarly to what is done in optics and metrology, and allows one to generate up to several hundreds of harmonics of the driving frequency. First we take into account how the assumption of a finite loop geometrical inductance and junction capacitance in each SQUID may alter the operation of the devices. Then, we estimate the effect of imperfections in the fabrication of an array of SQUIDs, which is an unavoidable source of errors in practical situations. We show that the role of the junction capacitance is, in general, negligible, whereas the geometrical inductance has a beneficial effect on the performance of the device. The errors on the areas and junction resistance asymmetries may deteriorate the performance, but their effect can be limited to a large extent by a suitable choice of fabrication parameters.

  20. Detection of Weak Radiation Involving Generation and Progress of Water Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, Takao; Taniguchi, Ryouichi

    It is well known that generation and progress of water tree in XLPE cable are remarkably influenced by inorganic impurities. We have investigated the behavior of them in water tree and reported the experimental results as follows: i) the anomalous increase or decrease in several kinds of inorganic elements was observed in water treed XLPE samples, ii) a distinctive relationship was found for the mass numbers for the elements, iii) the isotopic content of the elements such as Zn deviated over 6% from the natural abundance. These results suggest that water tree is concerned with unknown phenomena e.g., cold fusion or nuclear transmutation in condensed matter. In order to study the relationship between water tree and these phenomena, we attempted to detect neutron, γ-ray or X-ray involving generation and progress of water tree in XLPE samples. For the experiments weak and burst-like radiation seemed to be low energy γ-ray or X-ray was often detected by BF3 and/or CdZnTe counter. The radiation tended to be detected from the samples in which a lot of water trees were generated by supplying inorganic cations abundantly.

  1. Implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system in the Bragin district in Belarus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouail, P.; Bataille, C. [Centre d' etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Katlabai, T. [Sprout of Life, Krasnoye (Belarus)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents results from one of the projects developed within the general framework of the international Programme 'CORE' (Cooperation for Rehabilitation in Belarus). The overall objective of the programme is to make sustainable improvements to the living conditions of the inhabitants of the territories affected by the Chernobyl disaster. The CORE Programme is currently developed in four contaminated districts of Belarus (Bragin, Cherchersk, Slavgorod and Stolyn) in the following four areas: economic and social development; health care and surveillance; education and culture; and radiological quality. The project that is presented here refers specifically to the field of 'radiological quality' and will last until the end of 2008. The project named 'implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system' was launched in April 2004 in the Bragin district, which is one of the most contaminated areas in Belarus. It is located in the very South East of the country and is adjacent to the 30 km exclusion zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (zone with caesium 137 soil contamination above 1480 kBq/m{sup 2}). Since the accident, the number of people living in the district has declined by 56%. Today, 17000 persons, including 3000 children, live there in mostly rural areas where {sup 137}Cs levels in soil are between 185 and 555 kBq/m{sup 2}. The project aims at diffusing a practical radiation protection culture, among the population, and especially among children, through the development of a radiation monitoring system handled by the local professionals and the population. The adopted approach is mainly based on the experience of the ETHOS Project implemented in Belarus between 1996 and 2001. Indeed the ETHOS Project revealed that an efficient monitoring system and the involvement of the local population and professionals in the day-to-day management of the radioactive contamination of their environment are key elements in

  2. Implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system in the Bragin district in Belarus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouail, P.; Bataille, C. [Centre d' etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Katlabai, T. [Sprout of Life, Krasnoye (Belarus)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents results from one of the projects developed within the general framework of the international Programme 'CORE' (Cooperation for Rehabilitation in Belarus). The overall objective of the programme is to make sustainable improvements to the living conditions of the inhabitants of the territories affected by the Chernobyl disaster. The CORE Programme is currently developed in four contaminated districts of Belarus (Bragin, Cherchersk, Slavgorod and Stolyn) in the following four areas: economic and social development; health care and surveillance; education and culture; and radiological quality. The project that is presented here refers specifically to the field of 'radiological quality' and will last until the end of 2008. The project named 'implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system' was launched in April 2004 in the Bragin district, which is one of the most contaminated areas in Belarus. It is located in the very South East of the country and is adjacent to the 30 km exclusion zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (zone with caesium 137 soil contamination above 1480 kBq/m{sup 2}). Since the accident, the number of people living in the district has declined by 56%. Today, 17000 persons, including 3000 children, live there in mostly rural areas where {sup 137}Cs levels in soil are between 185 and 555 kBq/m{sup 2}. The project aims at diffusing a practical radiation protection culture, among the population, and especially among children, through the development of a radiation monitoring system handled by the local professionals and the population. The adopted approach is mainly based on the experience of the ETHOS Project implemented in Belarus between 1996 and 2001. Indeed the ETHOS Project revealed that an efficient monitoring system and the involvement of the local population and professionals in the day-to-day management of the radioactive contamination of their environment are key elements in

  3. Method for generation of THz frequency radiation and sensing of large amplitude material strain waves in piezoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Evan J.; Armstrong, Michael R.

    2010-09-07

    Strain waves of THz frequencies can coherently generate radiation when they propagate past an interface between materials with different piezoelectric coefficients. Such radiation is of detectable amplitude and contains sufficient information to determine the time-dependence of the strain wave with unprecedented subpicosecond, nearly atomic time and space resolution.

  4. Acoustic-wave generation in the process of CO2-TEA-laser-radiation interaction with metal targets in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Ileana; Teodorescu, G.; Serbanescu-Oasa, Anca; Dragulinescu, Dumitru; Chis, Ioan; Stoian, Razvan

    1995-03-01

    Laser radiation interaction with materials is a complex process in which creation of acoustic waves or stress waves is a part of it. As a function of the laser radiation energy and intensity incident on steel target surface ultrasound signals were registered and studied. Thermoelastic, ablation and breakdown mechanisms of generation of acoustic waves were analyzed.

  5. Study of response of radiation monitors for environmental dose equivalent measurements; Estudo da resposta de monitores de radiacao para medidas de equivalente de dose ambiental H*(10)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Macilene N.; Khoury, H.J. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2005-07-01

    The environmental dose equivalent H * (10), is the magnitude recommended by ICRU 39 for environmental monitoring in fields of radiation of photons. Most of the equipment used for area monitoring, only quantifies the magnitudes exposure or dose not being designed to this new magnitude. In Brazil, particularly, is not yet regulated the use of H * (10). However, with the revision of the standard 3.01 it will necessary the use of monitors that allow the achievement of measures according to H * (10). The transition for using new magnitudes will be a slow process and the contribution that the laboratories of metrology of ionizing radiation in the country can give is, at first, promote and create the habit of using the unit Sievert (Sv) in the calibration of the instruments, and that is the unit recommended for H * (10). In a second step, the tests for determining the response of the instruments for H * (10) should be made and this is the harder step, taking into account the large number of area monitors around the country. These tests will provide information about the limitations of the instrument to the new magnitude, that is, the range where the instrument will have the best performance in quantification of new magnitude. This paper evaluates the performance for H * (10), with the variation of energy and angle of incidence of radiation, of three of the most used monitors in the country.

  6. Angular and energy dependence of radiation protection monitors to the quantity ambient dose equivalent for gamma radiation;Dependencia angular e energetica de monitores de radioprotecao para medidas de equivalente de dose ambiental para radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonato, Fernanda B.C.; Carvalho, Valdir S.; Diniz, Raphael E.; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil, most of the equipment used for monitoring area is just used in the quantities exposure and absorbed dose, with the need of adjustment to the ambient dose equivalent, H{sup *}(10). In this work, 19 Geiger-Mueller detectors and 7 ionization chambers were calibrated in the Calibration Laboratory of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares, IPEN. The energy dependence of these radiation detectors was studied for gamma radiation ({sup 137}Cs e {sup 60}Co) and the angular dependence, for {sup 137}Cs radiation. (author)

  7. Design on Intelligent Node of Gamma Radiation Monitor%γ辐射监测智能节点设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余松科; 方方; 林宇; 林业

    2015-01-01

    Gamma rays has short wavelength,high energy, strong penetrating power and easy to cause damage to human body, destroy the physical function,and gamma rays has widely used in agriculture,medical treatment, scientific research,so the gamma measurement is particularly important.In order to improve the gamma monito-ring data processing,management, monitoring system extensibility,according to research the principle of gamma measurement,designed the gamma radiation monitoring intelligent node based on ZigBee.The node to be able to monitor gamma radiation levels and transmit relative data to the monitoring center by monitoring network,by this node,the radiation monitoring can finish work intelligently and operating through network .%为了提高γ监测数据的处理、管理能力、监测系统的可扩展性,根据γ测量原理,设计了基于ZigBee的γ辐射监测智能节点。该节点能够自行监测γ辐射水平并将相关数据通过监测网络传送到监测中心,一定程度上实现辐射监测的智能化、网络化。

  8. Ultrafast strain gauge: Observation of THz radiation coherently generated by acoustic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, M; Reed, E; Kim, K; Glownia, J; Howard, W M; Piner, E; Roberts, J

    2008-08-14

    The study of nanoscale, terahertz frequency (THz) acoustic waves has great potential for elucidating material and chemical interactions as well as nanostructure characterization. Here we report the first observation of terahertz radiation coherently generated by an acoustic wave. Such emission is directly related to the time-dependence of the stress as the acoustic wave crosses an interface between materials of differing piezoelectric response. This phenomenon enables a new class of strain wave metrology that is fundamentally distinct from optical approaches, providing passive remote sensing of the dynamics of acoustic waves with ultrafast time resolution. The new mechanism presented here enables nanostructure measurements not possible using existing optical or x-ray approaches.

  9. Cavity Optical Pulse Extraction: ultra-short pulse generation as seeded Hawking radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilenberger, Falk; Kabakova, Irina V; de Sterke, C Martijn; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Pertsch, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We show that light trapped in an optical cavity can be extracted from that cavity in an ultrashort burst by means of a trigger pulse. We find a simple analytic description of this process and show that while the extracted pulse inherits its pulse length from that of the trigger pulse, its wavelength can be completely different. Cavity Optical Pulse Extraction is thus well suited for the development of ultrashort laser sources in new wavelength ranges. We discuss similarities between this process and the generation of Hawking radiation at the optical analogue of an event horizon with extremely high Hawking temperature. Our analytic predictions are confirmed by thorough numerical simulations.

  10. Gaseous products generated by radiation degradation of N,N-diethylhydroxylamine aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jinhua; WANG Shengxiu; BAO Borong; LI Zhen; LI Chun; ZHENG Weifang; ZHANG Shengdong

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, gaseous products generated by radiation degradation of N,N-diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA)in aqueous solution are studied. The results show that by 10~1000 kGy irradiation of the solution in DEHA volume fraction of hydrogen did not change much with different concentrations of DEHA. The volume fraction of methane and ethane decreased, but that of ethene increased, with increasing DEHA concentration. The volume fraction of hydrogen, methane and ethane increased with the dose. The relationship of the volume fraction of ethene with the dose had something to do with the DEHA concentration.

  11. The role of reinstating generation operations in recognition memory and reality monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieznański Marek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of encoding/retrieval conditions compatibility was investigated in a reality-monitoring task. An experiment was conducted which showed a positive effect of reinstating distinctive encoding operations at test. That is, generation of a low-frequency (LF word from the same word fragment at study and test significantly enhanced item recognition memory. However, reinstating of relatively more automatic operations of reading or generating a highfrequency (HF word did not influence recognition performance. Moreover, LF words were better recognized than HF words, but memory for source did not depend on the encoding/retrieval match or on the word-frequency. In comparison with reading, generating an item at study significantly enhanced source memory but generating it at test had no effect. The data were analysed using a multinomial modelling approach which allowed ruling out the influence of a response bias on the measurement of memory ability.

  12. Entropy generation in tube and fin radiating systems; Geracao de entropia em sistemas radiantes de tubos aletados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marcio Bueno dos; Saboya, Sergio Mourao [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), S Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Integracao e Testes]. E-mail: bueno@lit.inpe.br; saboya@mec.ita.cta.br

    1997-07-01

    The entropy generation minimization method is applied to tube and fin radiative systems. The mathematical modeling of the systems lead to a non-linear integro-differential systems of equations, which is solved numerically. The entropy generation in the fin is computed. This is obtained as result of the thermal analysis of the system which gives the fin temperature distributions and the radiative heat transfer rates. Examples of optimized design are considered and discussed. (author)

  13. Complications after implantation of a new-generation insertable cardiac monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Søren Zöga; Haugan, Ketil Jørgen; Højberg, Søren

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insertable cardiac monitors (ICM) are leadless devices utilized in long-term monitoring of the heart rhythm. The implantation procedure of the new-generation ICMs is minimally invasive, but little experience exists regarding complications. We thus aimed to investigate adverse events (AE......) according to procedure-related characteristics after implantation of a large number of new-generation ICMs. METHODS: The study population consisted of participants randomized to receive ICM in a multi-center trial. The Reveal LINQ™ ICM was implanted using provided insertion tools, either....... In the 38 patients requiring device repositioning, more AEs requiring explantation were seen (3 (7.9%) vs. 6 (0.4%), p=0.001). Patients undergoing implantation in a procedure room had more infections (12 (1.6%) vs. 1 (0.1%), p=0.004), though no significant difference was reached in AEs requiring...

  14. Radiation-Hydrodynamic Simulation of Experiments With Intense Lasers Generating Collisionless Interpenetrating Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosskopf, Michael; Drake, R.; Kuranz, C.; Park, H.; Kugland, N.; Pollaine, S.; Ross, J.; Remington, B.; Spitkovsky, A.; Gargate, L.; Gregori, G.; Bell, A.; Murphy, C.; Meinecke, J.; Reville, B.; Sakawa, Y.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Takabe, H.; Froula, D.; Fiksel, G.; Miniati, F.; Koenig, M.; Ravasio, A.; Liang, E.; Woolsey, N.

    2012-05-01

    Collisionless shocks, shocks generated by plasma wave interactions in regions where the collisional mean-free-path for ions is long compared to the length scale for instabilities that generate magnetic fields, are found in many astrophysical systems such as supernova remnants and planetary bow shocks. Generating conditions to investigate collisionless shock physics is difficult to achieve in a laboratory setting; however, high-energy-density physics facilities have made this a possibility. Experiments whose goal is to investigate the production and growth of magnetic fields in collisionless shocks in laboratory-scale systems are being carried out on intense lasers, several of which are measuring the plasma properties and magnetic field strength in counter-streaming, collisionless flows generated by laser ablation. This poster reports radiation-hydrodynamic simulations using the CRASH code to model the ablative flow of plasma generated in order to assess potential designs, as well as infer properties of collected data from previous experiments. This work is funded by the Predictive Sciences Academic Alliances Program in NNSA-ASC via grant DEFC52- 08NA28616, by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, grant number DE-FG52-09NA29548, and by the National Laser User Facility Program, grant number DE-NA0000850.

  15. Optimising the neutron environment of Radiation Portal Monitors: a computational optimisation study

    CERN Document Server

    Gilbert, Mark R; Packer, Lee W

    2015-01-01

    Efficient and reliable detection of radiological or nuclear threats is a crucial part of national and international efforts to prevent terrorist activities. Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs), which are deployed worldwide, are intended to interdict smuggled fissile material by detecting emissions of neutrons and gamma rays. However, considering the range and variety of threat sources, vehicular and shielding scenarios, and that only a small signature is present, it is important that the design of the RPMs allows these signatures to be accurately differentiated from the environmental background. Using Monte-Carlo neutron-transport simulations of a model helium-3 detector system we have conducted a parameter study to identify the optimum combination of detector shielding and collimation that maximises the sensitivity of RPMs. These structures, which could be simply and cost-effectively added to existing RPMs, can improve the detector response by more than a factor of two relative to an unmodified, bare design. Fu...

  16. Radiation damage study on diamond sensors of the ALICE Beam Condition Monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    Vai, Ilaria

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE Beam Monitoring System has been developed with the aim of detecting beam failures that can affect the experimental region. It is composed of synthetic diamonds as detector, a material that is particularly adapt to harsh radiation environment. However some sensors have shown an increase in the noise in the last year of operation. For this reason, I have developed a station to study the working parameters of the diamond sensors used in this system, in order to check their conditions. I've found an increase of the dark current of almost all the sensors and, in particular, the sensors of the system BCM-A seem to have suffered a greater damage than the others.

  17. Monitoring And Recording Data For Solar Radiation Temperature And Charging Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung Bhone Myint

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A data logger based on 8051 microcontroller has been implemented in this project to measure the solar radiation temperature and charging current. Development of a low-cost data logger can easily be made and easily be used to convert the analog signal of physical parameters of various test or other purposes of engineering. By using a suitable program code it can be used to read the value digitally with a PC. Our aim is to provide with a module and a software package when installed in a computer one can remotely acquire and monitor several numbers of the same or different types of signals sequentially at a time. Signals obtained from various sensors have been effectively conditioned. Now interfacing these signals using ADC with the Bluetooth module port of a computer satisfies the very goal of data acquisition. Proposed system provides better performance and has low cost versatile portable.

  18. Electromagnetic Coupling Between High Intensity LHC Beams and the Synchrotron Radiation Monitor Light Extraction System

    CERN Document Server

    Andreazza, W; Bravin, E; Caspers, F; Garlasch`e, M; Gras, J; Goldblatt, A; Lefevre, T; Jones, R; Metral, E; Nosych, A; Roncarolo_, F; Salvant, B; Trad, G; Veness, R; Vollinger, C; Wendt, M

    2013-01-01

    The CERN LHC is equipped with two Synchrotron Radiation Monitor (BSRT) systems used to characterise transverse and longitudinal beam distributions. Since the end of the 2011 LHC run the light extraction system, based on a retractable mirror, has suffered deformation and mechanical failure that is correlated to the increase in beam intensity. Temperature probes have associated these observations to a strong heating of the mirror support with a dependence on the longitudinal bunch length and shape, indicating the origin as electromagnetic coupling between the beam and the structure. This paper combines all this information with the aim of characterising and improving the system in view of its upgrade during the current LHC shutdown. Beam-based observations are presented along with electromagnetic and thermomechanical simulations and complemented by laboratory measurements, including the study of the RF properties of different mirror bulk and coating materials.

  19. Development of Central Monitoring System for Insulation Diagnosis of High-Voltage Generator/Motor Stator Windings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Byoung Chol; Yoon, Dae Hee; Hwang, Don Ha; Kim, Yong Joo [Mechatronics Research Group, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea); Ju, Young Ho [Korea Electric Power Corporation (Korea); Kim, Jeong Woo [Advanced Electronic Technology Co., Ltd. (Korea)

    2000-07-01

    The central monitoring system with on-line diagnosis of high-voltage generator/motor stator insulation is developed. The system is capable of remote diagnosis and monitoring partial discharges of high-voltage generator/motor stator insulation. GOMS(Generator On-line Monitoring System) with maximum of 9 input channels can measure stator insulation by on-line. The measured and analysis data are borough to the central monitoring system via modem to build database. The central monitoring system can diagnose and monitor the insulation status of several high-voltage generator/motor at any time. The insulation status of those machines can be enhanced by the database on partial discharges. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Impact of plasma jet vacuum ultraviolet radiation on reactive oxygen species generation in bio-relevant liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonowski, H.; Hammer, M. U.; Reuter, S. [Center for Innovation Competence plasmatis, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology, INP Greifswald e.V. Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Bussiahn, R.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Woedtke, Th. von [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology, INP Greifswald e.V. Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Plasma medicine utilizes the combined interaction of plasma produced reactive components. These are reactive atoms, molecules, ions, metastable species, and radiation. Here, ultraviolet (UV, 100–400 nm) and, in particular, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, 10–200 nm) radiation generated by an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet were investigated regarding plasma emission, absorption in a humidified atmosphere and in solutions relevant for plasma medicine. The energy absorption was obtained for simple solutions like distilled water (dH{sub 2}O) or ultrapure water and sodium chloride (NaCl) solution as well as for more complex ones, for example, Rosewell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI 1640) cell culture media. As moderate stable reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was studied. Highly reactive oxygen radicals, namely, superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup •−}) and hydroxyl radicals ({sup •}OH), were investigated by the use of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. All species amounts were detected for three different treatment cases: Plasma jet generated VUV and UV radiation, plasma jet generated UV radiation without VUV part, and complete plasma jet including all reactive components additionally to VUV and UV radiation. It was found that a considerable amount of radicals are generated by the plasma generated photoemission. From the experiments, estimation on the low hazard potential of plasma generated VUV radiation is discussed.

  1. Impact of plasma jet vacuum ultraviolet radiation on reactive oxygen species generation in bio-relevant liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonowski, H.; Bussiahn, R.; Hammer, M. U.; Weltmann, K.-D.; von Woedtke, Th.; Reuter, S.

    2015-12-01

    Plasma medicine utilizes the combined interaction of plasma produced reactive components. These are reactive atoms, molecules, ions, metastable species, and radiation. Here, ultraviolet (UV, 100-400 nm) and, in particular, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, 10-200 nm) radiation generated by an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet were investigated regarding plasma emission, absorption in a humidified atmosphere and in solutions relevant for plasma medicine. The energy absorption was obtained for simple solutions like distilled water (dH2O) or ultrapure water and sodium chloride (NaCl) solution as well as for more complex ones, for example, Rosewell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI 1640) cell culture media. As moderate stable reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was studied. Highly reactive oxygen radicals, namely, superoxide anion (O2•-) and hydroxyl radicals (•OH), were investigated by the use of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. All species amounts were detected for three different treatment cases: Plasma jet generated VUV and UV radiation, plasma jet generated UV radiation without VUV part, and complete plasma jet including all reactive components additionally to VUV and UV radiation. It was found that a considerable amount of radicals are generated by the plasma generated photoemission. From the experiments, estimation on the low hazard potential of plasma generated VUV radiation is discussed.

  2. Organic liquid scintillation detector shape and volume impact on radiation portal monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paff, Marc G.; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2016-07-21

    We have developed and tested a radiation portal monitor using organic liquid scintillation detectors. In order to optimize our system designs, neutron measurements were carried out with three organic liquid scintillation detectors of different shapes and sizes, along with a {sup 3}He radiation portal monitor (RPM) as a reference. The three liquids tested were a 7.62 cm diameter by 7.62 cm length cylindrical active volume organic liquid scintillation detector, a 12.7 cm diameter by 12.7 cm length cylindrical active volume organic liquid scintillation detector, and a 25 cm by 25 cm by 10 cm “paddle” shaped organic liquid scintillation detector. Background and Cf-252 neutron measurements were recorded to allow for a comparison of neutron intrinsic efficiencies as well as receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves between detectors. The 12.7 cm diameter cylindrical active volume organic liquid scintillation detector exhibited the highest intrinsic neutron efficiency (54%) of all three liquid scintillators. An ROC curve analysis for a heavily moderated Cf-252 measurement showed that using the 12.7 cm diameter by 12.7 cm length cylindrical active volume Eljen EJ309 organic liquid scintillation detector would result in the fewest needed detector units in order to achieve a near 100% positive neutron alarm rate while maintaining a better than 1 in 10,000 false alarm rate on natural neutron background. A small number of organic liquid scintillation detectors could therefore be a valid alternative to {sup 3}He in some RPM applications.

  3. Entropy Generation Analysis for Variable Thermal Conductivity MHD Radiative Nanofluid Flow through Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sarwar Alam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work inspects the entropy generation on radiative heat transfer in the flow of variable thermal conductivity optically thin viscous Cu–water nanofluid with an external magnetic field through a parallel isothermal plate channel. Our approach uses the power series from the governing non-linear differential equations for small values of thermal conductivity variation parameter which are then analysed by various generalizations of Hermite- Padé approximation method. The influences of the pertinent flow parameters on velocity, temperature, thermal conductivity criticality conditions and entropy generation are discussed quantitatively both numerically and graphically. A stability analysis has been performed for the rate of heat transfer which signifies that the lower solution branch is stable and physically acceptable, whereas the upper solution branch is unstable.

  4. Synchrotron radiation and free-electron lasers principles of coherent X-ray generation

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kwang-Je; Lindberg, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Learn about the latest advances in high-brightness X-ray physics and technology with this authoritative text. Drawing upon the most recent theoretical developments, pre-eminent leaders in the field guide readers through the fundamental principles and techniques of high-brightness X-ray generation from both synchrotron and free-electron laser sources. A wide range of topics is covered, including high-brightness synchrotron radiation from undulators, self-amplified spontaneous emission, seeded high-gain amplifiers with harmonic generation, ultra-short pulses, tapering for higher power, free-electron laser oscillators, and X-ray oscillator and amplifier configuration. Novel mathematical approaches and numerous figures accompanied by intuitive explanations enable easy understanding of key concepts, whilst practical considerations of performance-improving techniques and discussion of recent experimental results provide the tools and knowledge needed to address current research problems in the field. This is a comp...

  5. Spectroscopic analysis of radiation-generated changes in tensile properties of a polyetherimide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, E. R., Jr.; Long, S. A. T.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of electron radiation on Ultem, a polyetherimide were studied for doses from 2 x 10 to the 9th power to 6 x 10 to the 9th power rad. Specimens were studied for tensile property testing and for electron paramagnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopic measurements of molecular structure. A Faraday cup design and a method for remote temperature measurement were developed. The spectroscopic data show that radiation caused dehydrogenation of methyl groups, rupture of main-chain ether linkage, and opening of imide rings, all to form radicals and indicate that the so-formed atomic hydrogen attached to phenyl radicals, but not to phenoxyl radicals, which would have formed hydroxyls. The observed decays of the radiation-generated phenoxyl, gem-dimethyl, and carbonyl radicals were interpreted as a combining of the radicals to form crosslinking. This crosslinking is the probable cause of the major reduction in the elongation of the tensile specimens after irradiation. Subsequent classical solubility tests indicate that the irradiation caused massive crosslinking.

  6. Development and Performance Characteristics of Personal Gamma Spectrometer for Radiation Monitoring Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Min; Joo, Koan Sik

    2016-06-21

    In this study, a personal gamma (γ) spectrometer was developed for use in applications in various fields, such as homeland security and environmental radiation monitoring systems. The prototype consisted of a 3 × 3 × 20 mm³ Ce-doped Gd-Al-Ga-garnet (Ce:GAGG) crystal that was coupled to a Si photomultiplier (SiPM) to measure γ radiation. The γ spectrometer could be accessed remotely via a mobile device. At room temperature, the implemented Ce:GAGG-SiPM spectrometer achieved energy resolutions of 13.5%, 6.9%, 5.8%, and 2.3% for (133)Ba at 0.356 MeV, (22)Na at 0.511 MeV, (137)Cs at 0.662 MeV, and (60)Co at 1.33 MeV, respectively. It consumed only about 2.7 W of power, had a mass of just 340 g (including the battery), and measured only 5.0 × 7.0 cm².

  7. Development and Performance Characteristics of Personal Gamma Spectrometer for Radiation Monitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Min Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a personal gamma (γ spectrometer was developed for use in applications in various fields, such as homeland security and environmental radiation monitoring systems. The prototype consisted of a 3 × 3 × 20 mm3 Ce-doped Gd–Al–Ga–garnet (Ce:GAGG crystal that was coupled to a Si photomultiplier (SiPM to measure γ radiation. The γ spectrometer could be accessed remotely via a mobile device. At room temperature, the implemented Ce:GAGG-SiPM spectrometer achieved energy resolutions of 13.5%, 6.9%, 5.8%, and 2.3% for 133Ba at 0.356 MeV, 22Na at 0.511 MeV, 137Cs at 0.662 MeV, and 60Co at 1.33 MeV, respectively. It consumed only about 2.7 W of power, had a mass of just 340 g (including the battery, and measured only 5.0 × 7.0 cm2.

  8. Thin silicon strip detectors for beam monitoring in Micro-beam Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povoli, M.; Alagoz, E.; Bravin, A.; Cornelius, I.; Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Fournier, P.; Hansen, T. E.; Kok, A.; Lerch, M.; Monakhov, E.; Morse, J.; Petasecca, M.; Requardt, H.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Röhrich, D.; Sandaker, H.; Salomé, M.; Stugu, B.

    2015-11-01

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) is an emerging cancer treatment that is currently being developed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France. This technique uses a highly collimated and fractionated X-ray beam array with extremely high dose rate and very small divergence, to benefit from the dose-volume effect, thus sparing healthy tissue. In case of any beam anomalies and system malfunctions, special safety measures must be installed, such as an emergency safety shutter that requires continuous monitoring of the beam intensity profile. Within the 3DMiMic project, a novel silicon strip detector that can tackle the special features of MRT, such as the extremely high spatial resolution and dose rate, has been developed to be part of the safety shutter system. The first prototypes have been successfully fabricated, and experiments aimed to demonstrate their suitability for this unique application have been performed. Design, fabrication and the experimental results as well as any identified inadequacies for future optimisation are reported and discussed in this paper.

  9. New Advanced Source Identification Algorithm (ASIA-NEW) for radiation monitors with plastic detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stavrov, Andrei; Yamamoto, Eugene [Rapiscan Systems, Inc., 14000 Mead Street, Longmont, CO, 80504 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Radiation Portal Monitors (RPM) with plastic detectors represent the main instruments used for primary border (customs) radiation control. RPM are widely used because they are simple, reliable, relatively inexpensive and have a high sensitivity. However, experience using the RPM in various countries has revealed the systems have some grave shortcomings. There is a dramatic decrease of the probability of detection of radioactive sources under high suppression of the natural gamma background (radiation control of heavy cargoes, containers and, especially, trains). NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) existing in objects under control trigger the so-called 'nuisance alarms', requiring a secondary inspection for source verification. At a number of sites, the rate of such alarms is so high it significantly complicates the work of customs and border officers. This paper presents a brief description of new variant of algorithm ASIA-New (New Advanced Source Identification Algorithm), which was developed by the authors and based on some experimental test results. It also demonstrates results of different tests and the capability of a new system to overcome the shortcomings stated above. New electronics and ASIA-New enables RPM to detect radioactive sources under a high background suppression (tested at 15-30%) and to verify the detected NORM (KCl) and the artificial isotopes (Co-57, Ba-133 and other). New variant of ASIA is based on physical principles and does not require a lot of special tests to attain statistical data for its parameters. That is why this system can be easily installed into any RPM with plastic detectors. This algorithm was tested for 1,395 passages of different transports (cars, trucks and trailers) without radioactive sources. It also was tested for 4,015 passages of these transports with radioactive sources of different activity (Co-57, Ba-133, Cs-137, Co-60, Ra-226, Th-232) and these sources masked by NORM (K-40) as well

  10. Validity of satellite measurements used for the monitoring of UV radiation risk on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jégou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to test the validity of ultraviolet index (UVI satellite products and UVI model simulations for general public information, intercomparison involving three satellite instruments (SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME-2, the Chemistry and Transport Model, Modélisation de la Chimie Atmosphérique Grande Echelle (MOCAGE, and ground-based instruments was performed in 2008 and 2009. The intercomparison highlighted a systematic high bias of ~1 UVI in the OMI clear-sky products compared to the SCIAMACHY and TUV model clear-sky products. The OMI and GOME-2 all-sky products are close to the ground-based observations with a low 6 % positive bias, comparable to the results found during the satellite validation campaigns. This result shows that OMI and GOME-2 all-sky products are well appropriate to evaluate the UV-risk on health. The study has pointed out the difficulty to take into account either in the retrieval algorithms or in the models, the large spatial and temporal cloud modification effect on UV radiation. This factor is crucial to provide good quality UV information. OMI and GOME-2 show a realistic UV variability as a function of the cloud cover. Nevertheless these satellite products do not sufficiently take into account the radiation reflected by clouds. MOCAGE numerical forecasts show good results during periods with low cloud covers, but are actually not adequate for overcast conditions; this is why Météo-France currently uses human-expertised cloudiness (rather than direct outputs from Numerical Prediction Models together with MOCAGE clear-sky UV indices for its operational forecasts. From now on, the UV monitoring could be done using free satellite products (OMI, GOME-2 and operational forecast for general public by using modelling, as long as cloud forecasts and the parametrisation of the impact of cloudiness on UV radiation are adequate.

  11. Towards a Long-Term Strategy for Voluntary-Based Internal Radiation Contamination Monitoring: A Population-Level Analysis of Monitoring Prevalence and Factors Associated with Monitoring Participation Behavior in Fukushima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shuhei; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Ozaki, Akihiko; Murakami, Michio; Hodgson, Susan; Blangiardo, Marta; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Morita, Tomohiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2017-04-09

    Following Japan's 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident, we assessed voluntary-based monitoring behavior in Minamisoma City-located 10-40 km from the Fukushima nuclear plant-to inform future monitoring strategies. The monitoring in Minamisoma included occasional free of charge internal-radiation-exposure measurements. Out of around 70,000 individuals residing in the city before the incident, a total of 45,788 residents (female: 52.1%) aged ≥21 were evaluated. The monitoring prevalence in 2011-2012 was only 30.2%, and this decreased to 17.9% in 2013-2014. Regression analyses were performed to estimate factors associated with the monitoring prevalence and participation behavior. The results show that, in comparison with the age cohort of 21-30 years, the cohort of 71-80 and ≥81 years demonstrated significantly lower monitoring prevalence; female residents had higher monitoring prevalence than male residents; those who were living in evacuation zones at the time of the incident had higher monitoring prevalence than those who lived outside any of the evacuation zones; for those living outside Fukushima and neighboring Prefectures post-incident monitoring prevalence decreased significantly in 2013-2014. Our findings inform the discussion on the concepts of radiation risk perception and accessibility to monitoring and societal decision-making regarding the maintenance of the monitoring program with low monitoring prevalence. We also stress the possibility that the monitoring can work both to check that internal contamination levels are within acceptable limits, and as a risk communication tool, alleviating individuals' concern and anxiety over radiation contamination.

  12. Tunable Broadband Radiation Generated Via Ultrafast Laser Illumination of an Inductively Charged Superconducting Ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulmer, John; Bullard, Thomas; Dolasinski, Brian; Murphy, John; Sparkes, Martin; Pangovski, Krste; O'Neill, William; Powers, Peter; Haugan, Timothy

    2015-12-11

    An electromagnetic transmitter typically consists of individual components such as a waveguide, antenna, power supply, and an oscillator. In this communication we circumvent complications associated with connecting these individual components and instead combine them into a non-traditional, photonic enabled, compact transmitter device for tunable, ultrawide band (UWB) radiation. This device is a centimeter scale, continuous, thin film superconducting ring supporting a persistent super-current. An ultrafast laser pulse (required) illuminates the ring (either at a point or uniformly around the ring) and perturbs the super-current by the de-pairing and recombination of Cooper pairs. This generates a microwave pulse where both ring and laser pulse geometry dictates the radiated spectrum's shape. The transmitting device is self contained and completely isolated from conductive components that are observed to interfere with the generated signal. A rich spectrum is observed that extends beyond 30 GHz (equipment limited) and illustrates the complex super-current dynamics bridging optical, THz, and microwave wavelengths.

  13. Semiconductor Disk Lasers: Recent Advances in Generation of Yellow-Orange and Mid-IR Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Guina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the recent advances in the development of semiconductor disk lasers (SDLs producing yellow-orange and mid-IR radiation. In particular, we focus on presenting the fabrication challenges and characteristics of high-power GaInNAs- and GaSb-based gain mirrors. These two material systems have recently sparked a new wave of interest in developing SDLs for high-impact applications in medicine, spectroscopy, or astronomy. The dilute nitride (GaInNAs gain mirrors enable emission of more than 11 W of output power at a wavelength range of 1180–1200 nm and subsequent intracavity frequency doubling to generate yellow-orange radiation with power exceeding 7 W. The GaSb gain mirrors have been used to leverage the advantages offered by SDLs to the 2–3 μm wavelength range. Most recently, GaSb-based SDLs incorporating semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors were used to generate optical pulses as short as 384 fs at 2 μm, the shortest pulses obtained from a semiconductor laser at this wavelength range.

  14. Analysis of the electromagnetic radiation generated by a multipactor discharge occurring within a microwave passive component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, M; Quesada, F; Alvarez, A [Department of Information and Communication Technologies, Technical University of Cartagena, Cartagena (Murcia) (Spain); Gimeno, B [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Electromagnetismo-ICMUV, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Miquel-Espanya, C; Raboso, D [European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC), Noordwijk (Netherlands); Anza, S; Vicente, C; Gil, J [Aurora Software and Testing S.L., Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Taroncher, M; Reglero, M; Boria, V E, E-mail: benito.gimeno@uv.e [Departamento de Comunicaciones-ITEAM, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-06

    Multipactoring is a non-linear phenomenon that appears in high-power microwave equipment operating under vacuum conditions and causes several undesirable effects. In this paper, a theoretical and experimental study of the RF spectrum radiated by a multipactor discharge, occurring within a realistic microwave component based on rectangular waveguides, is reported. The electromagnetic coupling of a multipactor current to the fundamental propagative mode of a uniform waveguide has been analysed in the context of the microwave network theory. The discharge produced under a single-carrier RF voltage regime has been approached as a shunt current source exciting such a mode in a transmission-line gap region. By means of a simple equivalent circuit, this model allows prediction of the harmonics generated by the discharge occurring in a realistic passive waveguide component. Power spectrum radiated by a third-order multipactor discharge has been measured in an E-plane silver-plated waveguide transformer, thus validating qualitatively the presented theory to simulate the noise generated by a single-carrier multipactor discharge.

  15. Numerical study on scanning radiation acoustic field in formations generated from a borehole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Xiaohua; ZHANG Hailan; QIAO Wenxiao; JU Xiaodong

    2005-01-01

    Numerical study on scanning radiation acoustic field in formations generated by linear phased array transmitters in a fluid-filled borehole is carried out using a real axis integration (RAI) method. The main lobe width of the acoustic beams and the incident angle on the borehole wall can be controlled by means of adjusting parameters, such as the element number and the delay time between the neighboring array elements of linear phased array transmitter. The steered angle of longitudinal waves generated in the formation satisfies the Snell's law for plane waves when the incident angle on the borehole wall is less than the first critical angle. When the lobe width of the acoustic beams is narrow and the steered angle is less than the first critical angle, the acoustic field in the formation can be approximately calculated given that the linear phased array is put in the formation without borehole. The technique of scanning radiation acoustic field can be applied to enhancing investigation resolution and signal-to-noise ratio in crosswell seismic survey and borehole acoustic reflection imaging.

  16. TERA-MIR radiation: materials, generation, detection and applications III (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mauro F.

    2016-10-01

    This talk summarizes the achievements of COST ACTION MP1204 during the last four years. [M.F. Pereira, Opt Quant Electron 47, 815-820 (2015).]. TERA-MIR main objectives are to advance novel materials, concepts and device designs for generating and detecting THz and Mid Infrared radiation using semiconductor, superconductor, metamaterials and lasers and to beneficially exploit their common aspects within a synergetic approach. We used the unique networking and capacity-building capabilities provided by the COST framework to unify these two spectral domains from their common aspects of sources, detectors, materials and applications. We created a platform to investigate interdisciplinary topics in Physics, Electrical Engineering and Technology, Applied Chemistry, Materials Sciences and Biology and Radio Astronomy. The main emphasis has been on new fundamental material properties, concepts and device designs that are likely to open the way to new products or to the exploitation of new technologies in the fields of sensing, healthcare, biology, and industrial applications. End users are: research centres, academic, well-established and start-up Companies and hospitals. Results are presented along our main lines of research: Intersubband materials and devices with applications to fingerprint spectroscopy; Metamaterials, photonic crystals and new functionalities; Nonlinearities and interaction of radiation with matter including biomaterials; Generation and Detection based on Nitrides and Bismides. The talk is closed by indicating the future direction of the network that will remain active beyond the funding period and our expectations for future joint research.

  17. A Model for Hourly Solar Radiation Data Generation from Daily Solar Radiation Data Using a Generalized Regression Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Khatib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for predicting hourly solar radiation data using daily solar radiation averages. The proposed model is a generalized regression artificial neural network. This model has three inputs, namely, mean daily solar radiation, hour angle, and sunset hour angle. The output layer has one node which is mean hourly solar radiation. The training and development of the proposed model are done using MATLAB and 43800 records of hourly global solar radiation. The results show that the proposed model has better prediction accuracy compared to some empirical and statistical models. Two error statistics are used in this research to evaluate the proposed model, namely, mean absolute percentage error and root mean square error. These values for the proposed model are 11.8% and −3.1%, respectively. Finally, the proposed model shows better ability in overcoming the sophistic nature of the solar radiation data.

  18. Biosensors for Real-Time Monitoring of Radiation-Induced Biologic Effects in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, James R., Jr.; Balogh, Lajos; Majoros, Istvan; Keszler, Balazs; Myc, Andrzej; Kukowska-Latallo, Jolanta; Norris, Theodore; delaIglesia, Felix; Beeson, Nicholas W. (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    This proposal seeks to develop cellular biosensors based on dendritic polymers. Nanoscale polymer structures less than 20 nm in diameter will be used as the basis of the sensor/actuators. The structures will be designed to target into specific cells of an astronaut and be able to monitor health issues such as the exposure to radiation or infectious agents. Multiple components can be assembled on the polymers including target directors, analytical devices (such as molecular probes), magnetic particles and metals, and imaging agents. The design and assembly of these devices has been pioneered at the Center for Biologic Nanotechnology in the University of Michigan. These molecules would also be able to administer therapeutics in response to the needs of the astronaut, and act as actuators to remotely manipulate an astronaut as necessary to ensure their safety. The reporting will be accomplished either through fluorescence signal monitoring, with the use of multispectral analysis for signal interpretation, or through functional MRI. These nanosensors coupled to NEMS devices could facilitate the success and increase the safety of extended space flight.

  19. Remote Operating Monitoring Of Spatial Stability Magnets On A Kurchatov Source Of Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Barkovsky, E V; Martynenko, V V; Novikov, V A; Udin, L I

    2004-01-01

    During operation of the accelerator because of a nonuniform warm -up of the ring base and constructions of installation there are angular and linear displacements of bending and focusing magnets of a Big Accelerator Ring (BR) of a Kurchatov Source of Synchrotron Radiation. With the purpose of remote operating monitoring of a spatial position of elements BR was used anglemetrical control and measuring system with digital and analog registration in a real time mode. The results of the first stage of a monitoring BR have shown high informativity of the given instrumental - methodical means. The basic radiants of cyclical thermoelastic alternating strains are detected; the amplitudes of angular and linear displacements of magnets from different internal factors evaluated during operation of the accelerator. Is established, that the maximum radial angular and linear displacements of magnets are watched in 3,5-4 day after switching on of installation and achieve in max 30-35 seconds of an arc or 120-150 microns in ...

  20. Multi-octave supercontinuum generation with IR radiation filamentation in transparent solid-state media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, S. A.; Trunov, V. I.; Leshchenko, V. E.; Pestryakov, E. V.

    2016-05-01

    Supercontinuum generation from the near to far IR during radiation filamentation in solid-state media in an anomalous dispersion region is theoretically investigated. The initial search for appropriate media with the use of an interference model showed that the widest IR spectrum is generated in media with high values of zero group velocity dispersion wavelength with the pump wavelength located not far from it. Halides belong to one of such media groups. The possibility of generation of a very wide supercontinuum in calcium fluoride (0.52-3.35 μm, which corresponds to 2.7 octaves), sodium chloride (0.7-7.6 μm, 3.5 octaves), and potassium iodide (0.66-22 μm, 5.1 octaves) is demonstrated by numerical simulation. Also, pulse self-compression down to 13 fs at the 5-μm central wavelength (about single period) has been observed in potassium iodide. The mechanisms of multi-octave supercontinuum generation are discussed.

  1. Cross-generational trans fat intake exacerbates UV radiation-induced damage in rat skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, R C S; Vey, L T; Segat, H J; Roversi, K; Roversi, Kr; Dias, V T; Trevizol, F; Kuhn, F T; Dolci, G S; Pase, C S; Piccolo, J; Veit, J C; Emanuelli, T; Luz, S C A; Bürger, M E

    2014-07-01

    We evaluated the influence of dietary fats on ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced oxidative damage in skin of rats. Animals from two consecutive generations born of dams supplemented with fats during pregnancy and breastfeeding were maintained in the same supplementation: soybean-oil (SO, rich in n-6 FA, control group), fish-oil (FO, rich in n-3 FA) or hydrogenated-vegetable-fat (HVF, rich in TFA). At 90 days of age, half the animals from the 2nd generation were exposed to UVR (0.25 J/cm(2)) 3×/week for 12 weeks. The FO group presented higher incorporation of n-3 FA in dorsal skin, while the HVF group incorporated TFA. Biochemical changes per se were observed in skin of the HVF group: greater generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lower mitochondrial integrity and increased Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity. UVR exposure increased skin wrinkles scores and ROS generation and decreased mitochondrial integrity and reduced-glutathione levels in the HVF group. In FO, UVR exposure was associated with smaller skin thickness and reduced levels of protein-carbonyl, together with increased catalase activity and preserved Na(+)K(+)-ATPase function. In conclusion, while FO may be protective, trans fat may be harmful to skin health by making it more vulnerable to UVR injury and thus more prone to develop photoaging and skin cancer.

  2. Soliton radiation beat analysis of optical pulses generated from two continuous-wave lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zajnulina, M.; Giannone, D.; Haynes, R.; Roth, M. M. [innoFSPEC-VKS, Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics, An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam (Germany); Böhm, M. [innoFSPEC-InFaSe, University of Potsdam, Am Mühlenberg 3, 14476 Golm (Germany); Blow, K. [Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Rieznik, A. A. [Instituto Tecnologico de Buenos Aires and CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-10-15

    We propose a fibre-based approach for generation of optical frequency combs (OFCs) with the aim of calibration of astronomical spectrographs in the low and medium-resolution range. This approach includes two steps: in the first step, an appropriate state of optical pulses is generated and subsequently moulded in the second step delivering the desired OFC. More precisely, the first step is realised by injection of two continuous-wave (CW) lasers into a conventional single-mode fibre, whereas the second step generates a broad OFC by using the optical solitons generated in step one as initial condition. We investigate the conversion of a bichromatic input wave produced by two initial CW lasers into a train of optical solitons, which happens in the fibre used as step one. Especially, we are interested in the soliton content of the pulses created in this fibre. For that, we study different initial conditions (a single cosine-hump, an Akhmediev breather, and a deeply modulated bichromatic wave) by means of soliton radiation beat analysis and compare the results to draw conclusion about the soliton content of the state generated in the first step. In case of a deeply modulated bichromatic wave, we observed the formation of a collective soliton crystal for low input powers and the appearance of separated solitons for high input powers. An intermediate state showing the features of both, the soliton crystal and the separated solitons, turned out to be most suitable for the generation of OFC for the purpose of calibration of astronomical spectrographs.

  3. Automatically-generated rectal dose constraints in intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Taejin; Kim, Yong Nam; Kim, Soo Kon; Kang, Sei-Kwon; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Park, Soah; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Han, Taejin; Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Meyeon; Kim, Kyoung-Joo; Bae, Hoonsik; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2015-06-01

    The dose constraint during prostate intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) optimization should be patient-specific for better rectum sparing. The aims of this study are to suggest a novel method for automatically generating a patient-specific dose constraint by using an experience-based dose volume histogram (DVH) of the rectum and to evaluate the potential of such a dose constraint qualitatively. The normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs) of the rectum with respect to V %ratio in our study were divided into three groups, where V %ratio was defined as the percent ratio of the rectal volume overlapping the planning target volume (PTV) to the rectal volume: (1) the rectal NTCPs in the previous study (clinical data), (2) those statistically generated by using the standard normal distribution (calculated data), and (3) those generated by combining the calculated data and the clinical data (mixed data). In the calculated data, a random number whose mean value was on the fitted curve described in the clinical data and whose standard deviation was 1% was generated by using the `randn' function in the MATLAB program and was used. For each group, we validated whether the probability density function (PDF) of the rectal NTCP could be automatically generated with the density estimation method by using a Gaussian kernel. The results revealed that the rectal NTCP probability increased in proportion to V %ratio , that the predictive rectal NTCP was patient-specific, and that the starting point of IMRT optimization for the given patient might be different. The PDF of the rectal NTCP was obtained automatically for each group except that the smoothness of the probability distribution increased with increasing number of data and with increasing window width. We showed that during the prostate IMRT optimization, the patient-specific dose constraints could be automatically generated and that our method could reduce the IMRT optimization time as well as maintain the

  4. Flying blind: designing and maintaining jointed concrete pavement without monitoring pavement pressure generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Martin P., Jr.

    2001-08-01

    The generation of longitudinal pavement pressures or growth of jointed-rigid pavement have been recognized by many engineers for at least a century. The manifestations of this pressure/growth phenomenon, in the form of progressive pavement and bridge damage, are vivid examples of its destructive potential. Yet, only a few researchers have attempted to measure the pressures generated by this phenomenon. None, to the author's knowledge, have attempted to periodically monitor pressure generation for the purpose of either determining and describing pressure generation characteristics or predicting the probability of its abrupt final and destructive manifestations. Because the pavement/growth phenomenon occurs over such a long period of time (a decade or more), it is generally unrecognized, or if recognized, it is poorly understood. Consequently, design and maintenance of jointed rigid pavement continues to be guided more by intuition and personal judgement rather than be replicated research and professional consensus. This paper provides a speculative description of the pavement pressure/growth phenomenon. It also contains an appeal to research professionals to develop instrumentation suitable to monitor generating pavement pressures. The results of such research should finally enable the transportation profession to establish suitable background so that future pavement design and maintenance will be guided so that pressure generation will be minimized and pavement and bridge function and durability will be improved. Otherwise, transportation systems will continue to experience progressive and substantial pavement and bridge damage, commensurate repair costs, and the traveling public will continue to be exposed to occasional but abrupt manifestations of its destructive potential.

  5. Analyzing Effects of Turbulence on Power Generation Using Wind Plant Monitoring Data: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Chowdhury, S.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a methodology is developed to analyze how ambient and wake turbulence affects the power generation of a single wind turbine within an array of turbines. Using monitoring data from a wind power plant, we selected two sets of wind and power data for turbines on the edge of the wind plant that resemble (i) an out-of-wake scenario (i.e., when the turbine directly faces incoming winds) and (ii) an in-wake scenario (i.e., when the turbine is under the wake of other turbines). For each set of data, two surrogate models were then developed to represent the turbine power generation (i) as a function of the wind speed; and (ii) as a function of the wind speed and turbulence intensity. Support vector regression was adopted for the development of the surrogate models. Three types of uncertainties in the turbine power generation were also investigated: (i) the uncertainty in power generation with respect to the published/reported power curve, (ii) the uncertainty in power generation with respect to the estimated power response that accounts for only mean wind speed; and (iii) the uncertainty in power generation with respect to the estimated power response that accounts for both mean wind speed and turbulence intensity. Results show that (i) under the same wind conditions, the turbine generates different power between the in-wake and out-of-wake scenarios, (ii) a turbine generally produces more power under the in-wake scenario than under the out-of-wake scenario, (iii) the power generation is sensitive to turbulence intensity even when the wind speed is greater than the turbine rated speed, and (iv) there is relatively more uncertainty in the power generation under the in-wake scenario than under the out-of-wake scenario.

  6. Impact of electromagnetic radiation emitted by monitors on changes in the cellular membrane structure and protective antioxidant effect of vitamin A - In vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicka, Małgorzata; Henrykowska, Gabriela; Zawadzka, Magdalena; Rutkowski, Maciej; Pacholski, Krzysztof; Buczyński, Andrzej

    2017-07-14

    The increasing number of devices emitting electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in people's everyday life attracted the attention of researchers because of possible adverse effects of this factor on living organisms. One of the EMR effect may be peroxidation of lipid membranes formed as a result of free radical process. The article presents the results of in vitro studies aimed at identifying changes in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration - a marker of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant role of vitamin A during the exposure of blood platelets to electromagnetic radiation generated by liquid-crystal-display (LCD) monitors. Electromagnetic radiation emitted by LCD monitors is characterized by parameters: 1 kHz frequency and 220 V/m intensity (15 cm from display screen). The time of exposure was 30 and 60 min. The study was conducted on porcine blood platelets. The samples were divided into 6 groups: unexposed to radiation, unexposed + vitamin A, exposed for 30 min, exposed for 30 min + vitamin A, exposed for 60 min, exposed for 60 min + vitamin A. The MDA concentration in blood platelets increases significantly as compared to control values after 60 min of exposure to EMR. A significant decrease in MDA concentration after the addition of vitamin A was noticed. In the blood samples exposed to EMR for 30 and 60 min the MDA concentration was significantly increased by addition of vitamin A. The results show the possibly negative effect of electromagnetic radiation on the cellular membrane structure manifested by changes in malondialdehyde concentration and indicate a possible protective role of vitamin A in this process. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5):695-703.

  7. Generation of infrared supercontinuum radiation: spatial mode dispersion and higher-order mode propagation in ZBLAN step-index fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsay, Jacob Søndergaard; Dupont, Sune Vestergaard Lund; Johansen, Mikkel Willum;

    2013-01-01

    Using femtosecond upconversion we investigate the time and wavelength structure of infrared supercontinuum generation. It is shown that radiation is scattered into higher order spatial modes (HOMs) when generating a supercontinuum using fibers that are not single-moded, such as a step-index ZBLAN...... not include scattering into HOMs, and including this provides an extra degree of freedom for tailoring supercontinuum sources....

  8. Monitoring of radioactive contamination and radiation exposure. Tasks, technical aspects, implementation; Ueberwachung radioaktiver Kontamination und Strahlenexposition. Aufgaben, Techniken, Umsetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, A.

    2005-07-01

    Monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Germany started in the early Fifties with measurements of radioactive fallout, i.e. mainly airborne particles and precipitation. Since then, scientists of laboratories, universities, research institutions and authorities have become aware of the danger of increasing environmental radioactivity. The Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) was commissioned by law with monitoring of radioactivity in atmosphere and precipitation on a large-scale basis as part of general preventive health protection. This brochure informs on the tasks, techniques and implementation of monitoring of radioactive contamination and radiation exposure. (orig.)

  9. RESULTS OF RADIATION-HYGIENIC MONITORING OF THE BASIC PARAMETERS OF THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT IN THE KIROV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Skolotnev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the experience of the laboratory of radiation monitoring in the the Kirov region since 1963. The results of long-term measurements of the environmental objects are presented. Gamma background measurement and investigation of radionuclides’ content in depositions are compared as methods for radioactive contamination assessment.

  10. Generation of broadband mid-infrared supercontinuum radiation in cascaded soft-glass fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneis, C.; Robin, T.; Cadier, B.; Brilland, Laurent; Caillaud, Celine; Troles, Johann; Manek-Hönninger, I.; Eichhorn, M.; Kieleck, C.

    2016-03-01

    The generation of mid-infrared (mid-IR) radiation, ranging from 2 - 5 μm, is getting much attention in recent years thanks to many applications it can be used for, e.g. in free space optical communication, range finding, counter measures and remote chemical sensing systems. It also plays an increasing role in medicine, for instance in optical tissue ablation or optical coherence tomography, owing to the high water absorption in that wavelength range. In this research study, a ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN) fluoride fiber is pumped by a Q-switched mode-locked (QML) thulium (Tm3+)- doped double-clad silica fiber laser, emitting at around 2 μm, to generate mid-IR supercontinuum (SC). Further spectral broadening of this SC radiation is achieved by coupling it into a chalcogenide arsenide-selenide (AsSe) photonic crystal fiber (PCF). An output power of 24 W at 2 μm has been achieved in QML operation for the Tm3+-doped fiber laser. The SC output power from the ZBLAN fiber has been 7.8 W with a spectrum extending to approximately 4.1 μm. For further wavelength broadening experiments, a long-wave-pass filter with a 3 dB edge around 3.6 μm has been implemented between the ZBLAN and the AsSe fiber to cut out the residual pump light at 2 μm and the radiation between 2 μm and 3.5 μm. The pump power was approximately 120 mW with a spectrum from 3.5 μm to 3.9 μm. First proof of principal experiments has been performed with 20 mW of averaged output power and a spectrum extending to 4.9 μm. The coupling efficiency of the SC radiation from the ZBLAN fiber into the AsSe fiber has been around 30%.

  11. Use of picosecond optical pulses and FET's integrated with printed circuit antennas to generate millimeter wave radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, D. C.; Plant, D. V.; Fetterman, H. R.; Matloubian, M.

    1991-03-01

    Millimeter-wave radiation has been generated from FETs and high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), integrated with printed circuit antennas and illuminated with picosecond optical pulses. Modulation of the millimeter waves was achieved by applying a swept RF signal to the transistor gate. Using this technique, tunable electrical sidebands were added to the optically generated carrier providing a method of transmitting information. The technique also provides increased resolution for use in spectroscopic applications. Heterodyne detection demonstrated that the system continuously generated tunable radiation, constrained by the high-gain antenna, from 45 to 75 GHz.

  12. Watershed Scale Monitoring and Modeling of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) Generation and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R.; Rees, P. L.; Reckhow, D. A.; Castellon, C. M.

    2006-05-01

    This study describes a coupled watershed scale monitoring campaign, laboratory study, and hydrological modeling study which has been focused on determining the sources and transport mechanisms for Natural Organic Matter (NOM), in a small, mostly forested New England watershed. For some time, the state conservation authorities and a large metropolitan water authority have been concerned that the level of naturally-occurring disinfection byproducts in drinking water supplied by a large surface water reservoir (Watchusett Reservoir, MA) have been increasing over time. The resulting study has attempted to investigate how these compounds, which are mostly formed by the chlorination process at the water treatment plant, are related to NOM precursor compounds which are generated from organic matter and transported by runoff processes in the watershed of the Watchusett Reservoir. The laboratory study measures disinfection byproduct formation potential (DBPFP) through chlorination of raw water samples obtained through field monitoring. Samples are analysed for trihalomethanes (THMs), and haloacetic acids (HAAs). Samples are also analysed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254). The samples have been collected from as many components of the hydrological cycle as possible in one of the subcatchments of Watchusett Reservoir (Stillwater River). To date the samples include, stream runoff, water impounded naturally in small ponds by beaver dams, rainfall, snow, throughfall (drainage from tree canopies) and samples pumped from shallow suction lysimeters which were installed to monitor soil water in the riparian zone. The current monitoring program began in late-Summer 2005, however infrequent stream samples are available dating back to 2000 from an earlier research project and water quality monitoring by various regulatory authorities. The monitoring program has been designed to capture as much seasonal variation in water chemistry as

  13. Prejudice and Health Anxiety about Radiation Exposure from Second-Generation Atomic Bomb Survivors: Results from a Qualitative Interview Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamite, Yuka

    2017-01-01

    The effect of atomic bomb radiation exposure on the survivors and their children has been a worrisome problem since soon after the 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings. Researchers have examined physical and genetic effects; however, no research has focused on second-generation survivors' (SGS) psychological effects. Consequently, this study shed light on the SGS' experience of discrimination and prejudice and their anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure. This study utilized semi-structured interviews with 14 SGS (10 women, mean age = 56 ± 6.25 years, range = 46-68 years). Data were analyzed using a modified version of the grounded theory approach. Three categories were extracted: low awareness as an SGS, no health anxiety regarding the effect of radiation, and health anxiety regarding the effect of radiation. The results did not reveal that SGS who grew up in the bombed areas experienced discrimination or prejudice. They had little health anxiety from childhood to adolescence. In this study, some of the SGS developed health anxiety about their third-generation children, but only among female participants. Perhaps the transgenerational transmission of anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure causes stress, particularly among women with children. However, a change was seen in adulthood health anxiety regarding the effects of radiation, suggesting the possibility that changes in the psychological experiences of SGS can be observed throughout their lifetimes and that their own health status, and that of their children, the third-generation survivors, affects their health anxiety regarding radiation.

  14. Prejudice and Health Anxiety about Radiation Exposure from Second-Generation Atomic Bomb Survivors: Results from a Qualitative Interview Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Kamite

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of atomic bomb radiation exposure on the survivors and their children has been a worrisome problem since soon after the 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings. Researchers have examined physical and genetic effects; however, no research has focused on second-generation survivors’ (SGS psychological effects. Consequently, this study shed light on the SGS’ experience of discrimination and prejudice and their anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure. This study utilized semi-structured interviews with 14 SGS (10 women, mean age = 56 ± 6.25 years, range = 46–68 years. Data were analyzed using a modified version of the grounded theory approach. Three categories were extracted: low awareness as an SGS, no health anxiety regarding the effect of radiation, and health anxiety regarding the effect of radiation. The results did not reveal that SGS who grew up in the bombed areas experienced discrimination or prejudice. They had little health anxiety from childhood to adolescence. In this study, some of the SGS developed health anxiety about their third-generation children, but only among female participants. Perhaps the transgenerational transmission of anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure causes stress, particularly among women with children. However, a change was seen in adulthood health anxiety regarding the effects of radiation, suggesting the possibility that changes in the psychological experiences of SGS can be observed throughout their lifetimes and that their own health status, and that of their children, the third-generation survivors, affects their health anxiety regarding radiation.

  15. Evidence for anomalous optical transition radiation linear polarization effects in beam-profile monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Lumpkin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of the effects of optical transition radiation (OTR polarization components on beam profiles are presented. The transverse profiles are examined using the OTR perpendicular and parallel polarization components with respect to the dimension of interest. We observed ∼15% projected profile size reductions with the perpendicularly polarized components on a 65-μm beam image size case at 14 MeV, a 150-μm beam image size at 4.5 GeV, and a 1100-μm beam image size at 7 GeV. These effects are all several times larger than expected (and anomalous in this sense when compared to the standard OTR point-spread function calculations. We propose the time-averaged induced-current distribution which generates the OTR represents the actual beam size more faithfully with the perpendicular polarization component and recommend its routine use and subsequent deconvolution.

  16. Aerial radiation monitoring around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant using an unmanned helicopter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanada, Yukihisa; Torii, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 generated a series of large tsunami that seriously damaged the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), which resulted in the release of radioactive materials into the environment. To provide further details regarding the distribution of air dose rate and the distribution of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) deposition on the ground within a radius of approximately 5 km from the nuclear power plant, we carried out measurements using an unmanned helicopter equipped with a radiation detection system. The distribution of the air dose rate at a height of 1 m above the ground and the radioactive cesium deposition on the ground was calculated. Accordingly, the footprint of radioactive plumes that extended from the FDNPP was illustrated.

  17. The next generation of the ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Love, P; Potekhin, M; Wenaus, T

    2014-01-01

    For many years the PanDA Workload Management System has been the basis for distributed production and analysis for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Since the start of data taking PanDA usage has ramped up steadily, with up to 1M completed jobs/day in 2013. The associated monitoring data volume has been rising as well, to levels that present a new set of challenges in the areas of database scalability and monitoring system performance and efficiency. Outside of ATLAS, the PanDA system is also being used in projects like AMS, LSST and a few others. It currently undergoes a significant redesign, both of the core server components responsible for workload management, brokerage and data access, and of the monitoring part, which is critically important for efficient execution of the workflow in a way that’s transparent to the user and also provides an effective set of tools for operational support. The new generation of the PanDA Monitoring Service is designed based on a proven, scalable, industry-standard Web Fr...

  18. The next generation of the ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Love, P; Potekhin, M; Wenaus, T

    2014-01-01

    For many years the PanDA Workload Management System has been the basis for distributed production and analysis for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Since the start of data taking PanDA usage has ramped up steadily, with up to 1M completed jobs/day in 2013. The associated monitoring data volume has been rising as well, to levels that present a new set of challenges in the areas of database scalability and monitoring system performance and efficiency. Outside of ATLAS, the PanDA system is also being used in projects like AMS, LSST and a few others. It currently undergoes a significant redesign, both of the core server components responsible for workload management, brokerage and data access, and of the monitoring part, which is critically important for efficient execution of the workflow in a way that’s transparent to the user and also provides an effective set of tools for operational support. The new generation of the PanDA Monitoring Service is designed based on a proven, scalable, industry-standard Web Fr...

  19. Trans-generational effects of parental exposure to ionizing radiation in Daphnia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarapultseva, Elena I. [Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering National Research Nuclear University ' MEPhI' - INPE NRNU MEPhI, Studgorodok,1, Obninsk, Kaluga region, 249040 (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    We are currently studying the direct and trans-generational effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on fecundity and reproductive success of the exposed Daphnia magna and their non-exposed progeny. As the long-term survival of species strongly depends on the individual fertility and survival of their offspring, changes in the reproductive process are regarded as one of the most significant sub-lethal effects of environmental pollution. We have recently shown that?-irradiation at doses of 100 and 1000 mGy significantly compromised fecundity and reproductive success of the directly exposed D. magna and their non-exposed first-generation offspring. We have also observed the decrease in the size of the irradiated Daphnia. These effects were also observed among the non-exposed first-generation progeny of irradiated parents, thus implying the manifestation of trans-generational effects in Daphnia. As the compromised fertility was observed among majority of the offspring of irradiated parents, it cannot be attributed to segregation of deleterious mutations induced in the germ line of irradiated parents and is most likely underlined by epigenetic mechanisms. The results of our study also provide further support for the hypothesis of non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation. We have recently shown that compromised viability of irradiated D. magna can be attributed cytotoxic effects of irradiation. Our results suggest that the observed cytotoxic effects are mostly attributed to substantially elevated levels of free-radicals detected in the irradiated parents and their first-generation offspring. It would therefore appear that the compromised viability may be attributed to the cytotoxic effects resulted from epigenetic changes affecting some metabolic pathways involved in detoxification of free-radicals. Additionally we have analyzed more distant progeny of irradiated in doses of 100 and 1000 mGy Daphnia. Some potential mechanisms underlying non-targeted effects

  20. Generation and healing behavior of radiation-induced optical absorption in fluoride phosphate glasses: The dependence on UV radiation sources and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natura, U.; Ehrt, D.

    2001-03-01

    High purity fluoride phosphate (FP) glasses have a large transmission range from the vacuum ultraviolet to the infrared. They are attractive candidates for lens systems in microlithography equipment and excimer laser optics. Fluoride single crystals and vitreous silica are well-known traditional materials for ultraviolet optics. Crystal sizes are limited and glass is better for fabricating optics. For lens systems, a variety of glasses with different refractive indices and dispersion are required. The UV resonance wavelengths of FP glasses with a low content of phosphate using a two-term Sellmeier dispersion formula are comparable with those of silica and fluoride single crystals. It is known, that UV radiation induces the generation of several defect centers leading to additional absorption bands. The investigation of the kinetics of defect generation is very important for the prediction of transmission losses in case of long-time irradiation. To predict the kinetics of defect generation, first the separation of absorption bands is necessary. Experiments were carried out using UV-lamps, the KrF excimer laser (ns- and fs-pulses) and the ArF excimer laser (ns-pulses). The healing behavior of radiation-induced absorption bands was investigated using thermal treatment (temperature-dependence) and bleaching experiments (radiation-dependence). The results of these experiments enable the separation of absorption bands and the prediction of the defect generation depending on the used radiation source. The healing of strong defects at room temperature is postulated to be a diffusion-controlled process.

  1. Second harmonic generation of near millimeter wave radiation by nonlinear bulk material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, B. H.

    1980-06-01

    Bulk crystals have been used frequently to obtain second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) of radiation from the fundamental input frequency, particularly in the optical region. For example ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, semiconductor materials, and ferroelectric materials were used for the SHG of input laser beams. SHG and THG have also been realized in the microwave region. Boyd, et. al., reported on the nonlinear coefficients and other important parameters at 55 GHz. Later, Boyd and Pollack published a comprehensive paper on the nonlinear coefficients of LiTaO3 and LiNbO3 in the microwave region. DiDomenico, Jrl, et. al., obtained a 9 GHz TH output with an efficiency of 8.5% from a 2200 watt 3 GHz source by use of a 73% BaTiO3 - 27% SrTiO3 ceramic in a coaxial cavity configuration. Impetus for bulk harmonic generation in the microwave region was given by the discovery that some ferroelectric crystals have very large nonlinear coefficients, large enough to compensate for the lower frequencies of the microwave region in comparison to those of the optical region.

  2. Condition based maintenance optimization for wind power generation systems under continuous monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Zhigang; Wu, Bairong; Ding, Fangfang [Concordia Institute for Information Systems Engineering, Concordia University, 1515 Ste-Catherine Street, West EV-7.637, Montreal (Canada); Jin, Tongdan [Ingram School of Engineering, Texas State University (United States)

    2011-05-15

    By utilizing condition monitoring information collected from wind turbine components, condition based maintenance (CBM) strategy can be used to reduce the operation and maintenance costs of wind power generation systems. The existing CBM methods for wind power generation systems deal with wind turbine components separately, that is, maintenance decisions are made on individual components, rather than the whole system. However, a wind farm generally consists of multiple wind turbines, and each wind turbine has multiple components including main bearing, gearbox, generator, etc. There are economic dependencies among wind turbines and their components. That is, once a maintenance team is sent to the wind farm, it may be more economical to take the opportunity to maintain multiple turbines, and when a turbine is stopped for maintenance, it may be more cost-effective to simultaneously replace multiple components which show relatively high risks. In this paper, we develop an optimal CBM solution to the above-mentioned issues. The proposed maintenance policy is defined by two failure probability threshold values at the wind turbine level. Based on the condition monitoring and prognostics information, the failure probability values at the component and the turbine levels can be calculated, and the optimal CBM decisions can be made accordingly. A simulation method is developed to evaluate the cost of the CBM policy. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the proposed CBM approach. A comparative study based on commonly used constant-interval maintenance policy demonstrates the advantage of the proposed CBM approach in reducing the maintenance cost. (author)

  3. Next-generation monitoring of aquatic biodiversity using environmental DNA metabarcoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Alice; Taberlet, Pierre; Miaud, Claude

    2016-01-01

    for species detection from DNA present into the environment. In this study, we tested if an environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding approach, using water samples, can be used for addressing significant questions in ecology and conservation. Two key aquatic vertebrate groups were targeted: amphibians and bony......Global biodiversity in freshwater and the oceans is declining at high rates. Reliable tools for assessing and monitoring aquatic biodiversity, especially for rare and secretive species, are important for efficient and timely management. Recent advances in DNA sequencing have provided a new tool...... the potential to become the next-generation tool for ecological studies and standardized biodiversity monitoring in a wide range of aquatic ecosystems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  4. Independent verification of monitor unit calculation for radiation treatment planning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Chen, Li-Xin; Huang, Shao-Min; Sun, Wen-Zhao; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Deng, Xiao-Wu

    2010-02-01

    To ensure the accuracy of dose calculation for radiation treatment plans is an important part of quality assurance (QA) procedures for radiotherapy. This study evaluated the Monitor Units (MU) calculation accuracy of a third-party QA software and a 3-dimensional treatment planning system (3D TPS), to investigate the feasibility and reliability of independent verification for radiation treatment planning. Test plans in a homogenous phantom were designed with 3-D TPS, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Report No. 430, including open, blocked, wedge, and multileaf collimator (MLC) fields. Test plans were delivered and measured in the phantom. The delivered doses were input to the QA software and the independent calculated MUs were compared with delivery. All test plans were verified with independent calculation and phantom measurements separately, and the differences of the two kinds of verification were then compared. The deviation of the independent calculation to the measurements was (0.1 +/- 0.9)%, the biggest difference fell onto the plans that used block and wedge fields (2.0%). The mean MU difference between the TPS and the QA software was (0.6 +/- 1.0)%, ranging from -0.8% to 2.8%. The deviation in dose of the TPS calculation compared to the measurements was (-0.2 +/- 1.7)%, ranging from -3.9% to 2.9%. MU accuracy of the third-party QA software is clinically acceptable. Similar results were achieved with the independent calculations and the phantom measurements for all test plans. The tested independent calculation software can be used as an efficient tool for TPS plan verification.

  5. Preliminary results of radiation monitoring near uranium mines in Namibia EJOLT Project (DRAFT version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chareyron, Bruno

    2012-04-05

    As a part of the EJOLT (Environmental Justice Organizations Liability and Trade) project, EARTHLIFE Namibia and CRIIRAD (Commission for Independent Research and Information about Radiation) have organised visits in areas located in the vicinity of uranium mines in Namibia In the course of an on site mission carried out between September 22 and October 2 2011, scientists from the CRIIRAD laboratory took radiation measurements in situ, and collected 14 samples of top soil, 13 samples of surface sediments of the Swakop, Gawib and Khan rivers, 11 underground water samples in the alluvium of Swakop, and Khan rivers and tap water from Arandis city, and one sample of asparagus. Solid samples have been analysed at the CRIIRAD laboratory in France (measurements performed by HpGe gamma spectrometry) and water samples have been monitored for main chemicals by LDA 26 laboratory in France and for radium 226 and radon 222 at the CRIIRAD laboratory. Some of the preliminary findings are summarised in this report: 1 - The dose rate measured by CRIIRAD on the parking of Roessing mine is about 6 times above natural background value (0.9 {mu}Sv/h compared to 0.15 {mu}Sv/h); 2 - The management of waste rock dumps needs to be improved: Some waste rocks are dumped on the banks of Khan river (at the intersection with Dome Gorge) without fencing and confinement. The radiological impact of this activity has to be studied in detail but preliminary measurements show various impacts on the environment; 3 - The finest fraction of the radioactive tailings dumped on Roessing tailings dam is blown away by the wind and contaminates the surrounding environment; 4 - The high uranium concentration in underground water collected downstream Roessing uranium mine in the Khan river and Swakop river alluvium raises the question of the origin of this uranium

  6. Detection of On-Chip Generated Weak Microwave Radiation Using Superconducting Normal-Metal SET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behdad Jalali-Jafari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work addresses quantum interaction phenomena of microwave radiation with a single-electron tunneling system. For this study, an integrated circuit is implemented, combining on the same chip a Josephson junction (Al/AlO x /Al oscillator and a single-electron transistor (SET with the superconducting island (Al and normal-conducting leads (AuPd. The transistor is demonstrated to operate as a very sensitive photon detector, sensing down to a few tens of photons per second in the microwave frequency range around f ∼ 100 GHz. On the other hand, the Josephson oscillator, realized as a two-junction SQUID and coupled to the detector via a coplanar transmission line (Al, is shown to provide a tunable source of microwave radiation: controllable variations in power or in frequency were accompanied by significant changes in the detector output, when applying magnetic flux or adjusting the voltage across the SQUID, respectively. It was also shown that the effect of substrate-mediated phonons, generated by our microwave source, on the detector output was negligibly small.

  7. Transverse coherence properties of X-ray beams in third-generation synchrotron radiation sources

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Schneidmiller, Evgeni; Yurkov, Mikhail

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a complete theory of spatial coherence for undulator radiation sources. Current estimations of coherence properties often assume that undulator sources are quasi-homogeneous, like thermal sources, and rely on the application of the van Cittert-Zernike theorem for calculating the degree of transverse coherence. Such assumption is not adequate when treating third generation light sources, because the vertical(geometrical) emittance of the electron beam is comparable or even much smaller than the radiation wavelength in a very wide spectral interval that spans over four orders of magnitude (from 0.1 Angstrom up to 10^3 Angstrom). Sometimes, the so-called Gaussian-Schell model, that is widely used in statistical optics in the description of partially-coherent sources, is applied as an alternative to the quasi-homogeneous model. However, as we will demonstrate, this model fails to properly describe coherent properties of X-ray beams from non-homogeneous undulator sources. As a result, a more...

  8. Next Generation TRD for CREAM Using Gas Straw Tubes and Foam Radiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinin, A.; Ahn, H.S.; Fedin, O.; Ganel, O.; Han, J.H.; Kim, C.H.; Kim, K.C.; Lee, M.H.; Lutz, L.; Seo, E.S.; Walpole, P.; Wu, J.; Yoo, J.H.; Yoon, Y.S.; Zinn, S.Y.

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment is designed to investigate the source, propagation and acceleration mechanism of high energy cosmic-ray nuclei, by directly measuring their energy and charge. Incorporating a transition radiation detector (TRD) provides an energy measurement complementary to the calorimeter, as well as additional track reconstruction capability. The next generation CREAM TRD is designed with 4 mm straw tubes to greatly improve tracking over the previous 20 mm tube design, thereby enhancing charge identification in the silicon charge detector (SCD). Plastic foam provides a weight-efficient radiator that doubles as a mechanical support for the straw layers. This design provides a compact, robust, reliable, low density detector to measure incident nucleus energy for 3 < Z < 30 nuclei in the Lorentz gamma factor range of 102-105. This paper discusses the new TRD design and the low power front end electronics used to achieve the large dynamic range required. Beam test results of a prototype TRD are also reported.

  9. Interaction of radiation-generated free radicals with collagen and metalloproteins using cesium-137 gamma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, James J.; Wierbicki, Eugen

    The interaction of collagen and metalloproteins with radiation-generated radicals has been studied using spectrophotometric, chromatographic, and ESR techniques. The hydroxyl radical (·OH) reacted with and caused polymerization of acid soluble collagen. Similar reactions were also observed in a ferrimyoglobin and cytochrome C system. Insoluble collagen from bovine muscle subjected to radiation is followed by a first-order process for the decay of free radicals, depending on relative humidity of the system. When the samples were irradiated with 3 kGy at 25°C by a Cesium-137 Irradiator, the observed half life (hr) of free radicals in the samples decreased with increase of relative humidity RH: 31% > 69% > 100%. When collagen, previously kept dry or under 31% RH, was irradiated with 3 kGy at 77°K (-196°C), the decay of free radicals reached a plateau with annealing at -120°C or higher. The decay kept decreasing with annealing at -100°C or higher temperature when collagen maintained at 69 and 100% RH was used. It is concluded that the free radicals in moistened collagen from bovine muscle decreased at a higher rate than in dried collagen. This suggests that free radicals may persist for a longer period of time in irradiated dry proteins of food or animal feed than in foods of higher moisture extent.

  10. Intense ion beam generation, plasma radiation source and plasma opening switch research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, D. A.; Coleman, M. D.; Qi, N.; Similon, P. L.; Sudan, R. N.

    1989-04-01

    This report describes research on intense ion beam diodes, plasma opening switches and dense z-pinch plasma radiators. Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy has been used to map the electrostatic potential profile in a plasma-prefilled magnetically insulated ion diode. In a simple planar diode, the measured profile is inconsistent with the electrons being confined in a sheath near the cathode by the magnetic field. Rather, the profile implies the presence of electrons throughout the accelerating gap. A theoretical model of the penetration of current and magnetic field into a plasma, and of the current-driven effective collision frequency has been developed. The snowplow action of the rising magnetic field causes a steep rise in the plasma density at the leading edge. The subsequent multistreaming of the ions caused by ion reflection at the current layer could lead to ion heating through collective effects. The two-dimensional electron flow in the plasma cathode vacuum gap is also treated. Dense z-pinch plasma radiation source experiments have been initiated on the LION accelerator using gas puff and fine wire loads. The x-pinch was found to be a more effective way to generate soft x-rays than a single wire pinch or a gas puff implosion. Plasma opening switch experiments being initiated, and plasma anode ion diode development work being terminated are also briefly described.

  11. Using the longitudinal space charge instability for generation of VUV and X-ray radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Schneidmiller, E A

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal space charge (LSC) driven microbunching instability in electron beam formation systems of X-ray FELs is a recently discovered effect hampering beam instrumentation and FEL operation. The instability was observed in different facilities in infrared and visible wavelength ranges. In this paper we propose to use such an instability for generation of VUV and X-ray radiation. A typical longitudinal space charge amplifier (LSCA) consists of few amplification cascades (drift space plus chicane) with a short undulator behind the last cascade. If the amplifier starts up from the shot noise, the amplified density modulation has a wide band, on the order of unity. The bandwidth of the radiation within the central cone is given by inverse number of undulator periods. A wavelength compression could be an attractive option for LSCA since the process is broadband, and a high compression stability is not required. LSCA can be used as a cheap addition to the existing or planned short-wavelength FELs. In particula...

  12. Enhanced Terahertz Radiation Generation of Photoconductive Antennas Based on Manganese Ferrite Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Weien; Mazin Abdulmunem, Oday; del Pino, Pablo; Pelaz, Beatriz; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Huaiwu

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a significant effect of manganese ferrite nanoparticles (MnFe2O4 NPs) on the increase of the surface photoconductivity of semiconductors. Herein, the optical characterization of photo-excited carriers of silicon coated with MnFe2O4 NPs was studied by using THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDs). We observed that silicon coated with MnFe2O4 NPs provided a significantly enhanced attenuation of THz radiation in comparison with bare silicon substrates under laser irradiation. The experimental results were assessed in the context of a surface band structure model of semiconductors. In addition, photoconductive antennas coated with MnFe2O4 NPs significantly improved the efficiency of THz radiation generation and signal to noise ratio of the THz signal. This work demonstrates that coating with MnFe2O4 NPs could improve the overall performance of THz systems, and MnFe2O4 NPs could be further used for the implementation of novel optical devices. PMID:28393855

  13. Impact of next-generation synchrotron radiation sources on materials research

    CERN Document Server

    Shenoy, G K

    2003-01-01

    Three generations of synchrotron radiation sources have revolutionized our understanding of various correlations in the equilibrium phase of materials through X-ray imaging, spectroscopy and scattering techniques. It is anticipated that new sources based on energy-recovery linacs and X-ray free-electron lasers will deliver X-ray pulses that are below a few-hundred femtoseconds in length and have very high coherence. These sources will extend and broaden our current knowledge of materials science. But more importantly, it is expected that these sources will provide the first glimpse of nonequilibrium processes in materials, including nonthermal melting, metal-insulator transitions involving nonequilibrium phases, laser-induced catalytic oxidation, and determining the structure of imperfect nanoparticles lacking crystalline structure.

  14. Directional and singular surface plasmon generation in chiral and achiral nanostructures demonstrated by Leakage Radiation Microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Quanbo; Berthel, Martin; Huant, Serge; Bellessa, Joel; Genet, Cyriaque; Drezet, Aurélien

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the implementation of leakage radiation microscopy (LRM) to probe the chirality of plasmonic nanostructures. We demonstrate experimentally spin-driven directional coupling as well as vortex generation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) by nanostructures built with T-shaped and $\\Lambda$- shaped apertures. Using this far-field method, quantitative inspections, including directivity and extinction ratio measurements, are achieved via polarization analysis in both image and Fourier planes. To support our experimental findings, we develop an analytical model based on a multidipolar representation of $\\Lambda$- and T-shaped aperture plasmonic coupler allowing a theoretical explanation of both directionality and singular SPP formation. Furthermore, the roles of symmetry breaking and phases are emphasized in this work. This quantitative characterization of spin-orbit interactions paves the way for developing new directional couplers for subwavelength routing.

  15. Validated Models for Radiation Response and Signal Generation in Scintillators: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Gao, Fei; Xie, YuLong; Campbell, Luke W.; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Wang, Zhiguo; Prange, Micah P.; Wu, Dangxin

    2014-12-01

    This Final Report presents work carried out at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the project entitled “Validated Models for Radiation Response and Signal Generation in Scintillators” (Project number: PL10-Scin-theor-PD2Jf) and led by Drs. Fei Gao and Sebastien N. Kerisit. This project was divided into four tasks: 1) Electronic response functions (ab initio data model) 2) Electron-hole yield, variance, and spatial distribution 3) Ab initio calculations of information carrier properties 4) Transport of electron-hole pairs and scintillation efficiency Detailed information on the results obtained in each of the four tasks is provided in this Final Report. Furthermore, published peer-reviewed articles based on the work carried under this project are included in Appendix. This work was supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D/NA-22), of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  16. Hawking Radiation of Mass Generating Particles From Dyonic Reissner Nordstrom Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Sakalli, I

    2016-01-01

    The Hawking radiation is considered as a quantum tunneling process, which can be studied in the framework of the Hamilton-Jacobi method. In this study, we present the wave equation for a mass generating massive and charged scalar particle (boson). In sequel, we analyze the quantum tunneling of these bosons from a generic 4-dimensional spherically symmetric black hole. We apply the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism to derive the radial integral solution for the classically forbidden action which leads to the tunneling probability. To support our arguments, we take the dyonic Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole as a test background. Comparing the tunneling probability obtained with the Boltzmann formula, we succeed to read the standard Hawking temperature of the dyonic Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole.

  17. Direct Oxidative Damage of Naked DNA Generated upon Absorption of UV Radiation by Nucleobases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Mendoza, Miguel; Banyasz, Akos; Douki, Thierry; Markovitsi, Dimitra; Ravanat, Jean-Luc

    2016-10-06

    It has been shown that in addition to formation of pyrimidine dimers, UV irradiation of DNA in the absence of photosensitizer also induces formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine, but the mechanism of formation of that oxidized base has not been clearly established. In the present study, we provide an unambiguous demonstration that absorption of UVC and UVB radiation by the nucleobases induces DNA oxidation via a direct process (one-electron oxidation) and not singlet oxygen. Evidence arose from the fact that polyamine-guanine adducts that are specifically produced through the transient formation of guanine radical cation are generated following UV irradiation of DNA in the presence of a polyamine even in the absence of any photosensitizer.

  18. Hawking Radiation of Mass Generating Particles from Dyonic Reissner–Nordström Black Hole

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I. Sakalli; A Ovgun

    2016-09-01

    The Hawking radiation is considered as a quantum tunneling process, which can be studied in the framework of the Hamilton--Jacobi method. In this study, we present the wave equation for a mass generating massive and charged scalar particle (boson). In sequel, we analyse the quantum tunneling of these bosons from a generic 4-dimensional spherically symmetric black hole. We apply the Hamilton--Jacobi formalism to derive the radial integral solution for the classically forbidden action which leads to the tunneling probability. To support our arguments, we take the dyonic Reissner--Nordström black hole as a test background. Comparing the tunneling probability obtained with the Boltzmann formula, we succeed in reading the standard Hawking temperature of the dyonic Reissner–Nordström black hole.

  19. State-of-the-art steam generator on-line chemistry monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Koul, L.J.; Mc Clendon, M.E.; Richards, J.E.; Wozniak, S.M.

    1986-04-01

    Recent understanding of corrosion mechanisms has changed the industry's approach to one of establishing and maintaining proper water chemistry conditions to increase steam generator life and availability. A rigorous sampling and analysis program, along with management's commitment to proper water chemistry, are integral to the success of this approach. This paper describes Virginia Power's recent commitment to better maintenance of secondary side water chemistry conditions at its nuclear power stations through an on-line, comprehensive, state-of-the-art chemistry monitoring system.

  20. The potentials of the third generation of flow injection analysis for nutrient monitoring and fractionation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald; Buanuam, Janya

    2006-01-01

    In the present communication, the third generation of flow injection analysis, the so-called micro sequential-injection Laboratory-on-Valve (μSI-LOV), is presented as a miniaturized, automated approach for on-line monitoring of nutrients in different environmental compartments as effected under...... enclosed and strictly controlled conditions. Special emphasis is placed on coupling μSI-LOV on-line with a recently developed microcolumn to perform dynamic fractionation schemes for ascertaining the availability of phosphorous forms in solid substrates for biota uptake under simulated environmental...