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Sample records for radiation fr reduced

  1. Reducing occupational radiation exposures at LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattanzi, D.; Neri, C.; Papa, C.; Paribelli, S.

    1980-01-01

    The occupational radiation doses received by nuclear power plant personnel during a period of several years of operation are briefly reviewed. Comparisons are made between the data for BWRs and PWRs in order to identify the more ''critical'' reactor type, from a radiological poin; of view. Attention is also devoted to GCRs. Furthermore the areas which contribute most to personnel doses are considered and briefly reviewed. The main steps to be taken in order to reduce occupational radiation exposures at LWRs are discussed. (H.K.)

  2. New technologies to reduce pediatric radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, Philipp; Lendl, Markus; Deinzer, Frank

    2006-01-01

    X-ray dose reduction in pediatrics is particularly important because babies and children are very sensitive to radiation exposure. We present new developments to further decrease pediatric patient dose. With the help of an advanced exposure control, a constant image quality can be maintained for all patient sizes, leading to dose savings for babies and children of up to 30%. Because objects of interest are quite small and the speed of motion is high in pediatric patients, short pulse widths down to 4 ms are important to reduce motion blurring artifacts. Further, a new noise-reduction algorithm is presented that detects and processes signal and noise in different frequency bands, generating smooth images without contrast loss. Finally, we introduce a super-resolution technique: two or more medical images, which are shifted against each other in a subpixel region, are combined to resolve structures smaller than the size of a single pixel. Advanced exposure control, short exposure times, noise reduction and super-resolution provide improved image quality, which can also be invested to save radiation exposure. All in all, the tools presented here offer a large potential to minimize the deterministic and stochastic risks of radiation exposure. (orig.)

  3. Radically Reducing Radiation Exposure during Routine Medical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to radiation from medical imaging in the United States has increased dramatically. NCI and several partner organizations sponsored a 2011 summit to promote efforts to reduce radiation exposure from medical imaging.

  4. Reducing radiation induced emesis in abdominal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, K.

    1994-01-01

    In patients with seminoma testes, a comparison was made between radiation induced emesis suffered by patients receiving 'dogleg' radiotherapy with those suffered by patients who received para-aortic radiotherapy. The same comparisons were made between the effects suffered by those patients who received the anti-emetic, Ondansetron, and those suffered by patients who received conventional anti-emetics. (UK)

  5. Research for Actively Reducing Infrared Radiation by Thermoelectric Refrigerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hoon; Kim, Kyomin; Kim, Woochul [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    We introduced a technology for reducing infrared radiation through the active cooling of hot surfaces by using a thermoelectric refrigerator. Certain surfaces were heated by aerodynamic heating, and the heat generation processes are proposed here. We calculated the temperatures and radiations from surfaces, while using thermoelectric refrigerators to cool the surfaces. The results showed that the contrast between the radiations of certain surfaces and the ambient environments can be removed using thermoelectric refrigerators.

  6. Distance factor on reducing scattered radiation risk during interventional fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini Salleh; Mohd Khalid Matori; Muhammad Jamal Mat Isa; Zainal Jamaluddin; Mohd Firdaus Abdul Rahman; Mohd Khairusalih Mohd Zin

    2012-01-01

    Interventional Radiology (IR) is subspecialty of diagnostic radiology where minimally invasive procedures are performed using an x-ray as a guidance. This procedure can deliver high radiation doses to patient and medical staff compared with other radiological method due to long screening time. The use of proper shielding, shorten the exposure time and keep the distance are the practices to reduce scattered radiation risks to staff involve in this procedure. This project is to study the distance factor on reducing the scattered radiation effect to the medical staff. It also may provide the useful information which can be use to establish the scattered radiation profile during the IR for the sake of radiation protection and safety to the medical staff involved. (author)

  7. Medical interventional procedures--reducing the radiation risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, C. E-mail: claire.cousins@addenbrookes.nhs.uk; Sharp, C

    2004-06-01

    Over the last 40 years, the number of percutaneous interventional procedures using radiation has increased significantly, with many secondary care clinicians using fluoroscopically guided techniques. Many procedures can deliver high radiation doses to patients and staff, with the potential to cause immediate and delayed radiation effects. The challenge for interventionists is to maximize benefit, whilst minimizing radiation risk to patients and staff. Non-radiologist clinicians are often inadequately trained in radiation safety and radiobiology. However, clinical governance and legislation now requires a more rigorous approach to protecting patients and staff. Protection can be ensured, and risks can be controlled, by appropriate design, procurement and commissioning of equipment; quality assurance; and optimal operational technique, backed by audit. Interventionists need knowledge and skills to reduce the risks. Appropriate training should include awareness of the potential for radiation injury, equipment operational parameters, doses measurement and recording methods and dose reduction techniques. Clinical governance requires informed consent, appropriate patient counselling and follow-up.

  8. Medical interventional procedures--reducing the radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousins, C.; Sharp, C.

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 40 years, the number of percutaneous interventional procedures using radiation has increased significantly, with many secondary care clinicians using fluoroscopically guided techniques. Many procedures can deliver high radiation doses to patients and staff, with the potential to cause immediate and delayed radiation effects. The challenge for interventionists is to maximize benefit, whilst minimizing radiation risk to patients and staff. Non-radiologist clinicians are often inadequately trained in radiation safety and radiobiology. However, clinical governance and legislation now requires a more rigorous approach to protecting patients and staff. Protection can be ensured, and risks can be controlled, by appropriate design, procurement and commissioning of equipment; quality assurance; and optimal operational technique, backed by audit. Interventionists need knowledge and skills to reduce the risks. Appropriate training should include awareness of the potential for radiation injury, equipment operational parameters, doses measurement and recording methods and dose reduction techniques. Clinical governance requires informed consent, appropriate patient counselling and follow-up

  9. Effect of radiation on activity of sulphate reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agaev, N.M.; Smorodin, A.E.; Gusejnov, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of γ-radiation on activity of sulphate reducing bacteria has been studied. Concentration of biogenic hydrogen, generated in the medium, is the main criterion, characterizing corrosion activity of the bacteria studied. The developed method of suppression of active development of sulfate reducing bacteria considerably reduces, and at lethal doses of γ-radiation eliminates altogether the bacteria activity and formation of the main corrosion agent-hydrogen sulphide-in the medium and that, in its turn, liquidates hydrogen sulphide corrosion

  10. Reducing ionizing radiation doses during cardiac interventions in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Elizabeth; Dix, Sarah; Wilson, Neil; Mackillop, Lucy; Ormerod, Oliver

    2012-09-01

    There is concern over ionizing radiation exposure in women who are pregnant or of child-bearing age. Due to the increasing prevalence of congenital and acquired heart disease, the number of women who require cardiac interventions during pregnancy has increased. We have developed protocols for cardiac interventions in pregnant women and women of child-bearing age, aimed at substantially reducing both fluoroscopy duration and radiation doses. Over five years, we performed cardiac interventions on 15 pregnant women, nine postpartum women and four as part of prepregnancy assessment. Fluoroscopy times were minimized by simultaneous use of intracardiac echocardiography, and by using very low frame rates (2/second) during fluoroscopy. The procedures most commonly undertaken were closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) or patent foramen ovale (PFO) in 16 women, coronary angiograms in seven, right and left heart catheters in three and two stent placements. The mean screening time for all patients was 2.38 minutes (range 0.48-13.7), the median radiation dose was 66 (8.9-1501) Gy/cm(2). The median radiation dose to uterus was 1.92 (0.59-5.47) μGy, and the patient estimated dose was 0.24 (0.095-0.80) mSv. Ionizing radiation can be used safely in the management of severe cardiac structural disease in pregnancy, with very low ionizing radiation dose to the mother and extremely low exposure to the fetus. With experience, ionizing radiation doses at our institution have been reduced.

  11. Improvement of NSSS design to reduce occupational radiation exposure (ORE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubourg, M.

    1985-05-01

    As a result of its R and D activities, FRAMATOME has initiated concrete measures to help to reduce personnel radiation exposure. These measures include reduction in the sources and quantity of activable products, and in the duration of personnel exposure during maintenance

  12. Evaluating shielding effectiveness for reducing space radiation cancer risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Ren, Lei

    2006-01-01

    We discuss calculations of probability distribution functions (PDF) representing uncertainties in projecting fatal cancer risk from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE). The PDFs are used in significance tests for evaluating the effectiveness of potential radiation shielding approaches. Uncertainties in risk coefficients determined from epidemiology data, dose and dose-rate reduction factors, quality factors, and physics models of radiation environments are considered in models of cancer risk PDFs. Competing mortality risks and functional correlations in radiation quality factor uncertainties are included in the calculations. We show that the cancer risk uncertainty, defined as the ratio of the upper value of 95% confidence interval (CI) to the point estimate is about 4-fold for lunar and Mars mission risk projections. For short-stay lunar missions ( 180d) or Mars missions, GCR risks may exceed radiation risk limits that are based on acceptable levels of risk. For example, the upper 95% CI exceeding 10% fatal risk for males and females on a Mars mission. For reducing GCR cancer risks, shielding materials are marginally effective because of the penetrating nature of GCR and secondary radiation produced in tissue by relativistic particles. At the present time, polyethylene or carbon composite shielding cannot be shown to significantly reduce risk compared to aluminum shielding based on a significance test that accounts for radiobiology uncertainties in GCR risk projection

  13. Reducing radiation exposure in newborns with birth head trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Kriukova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Birth head trauma causing intracranial injury is one of the most common causes of neonatal mortality and morbidity. In case of suspected cranial fractures and intracranial hematomas, diagnostic methods involving radiation, such as x-ray radiography and computed tomography, are recommended. Recently, an increasing number of studies have highlighted the risk of cancer complications associated with computed tomography in infants. Therefore, diagnostic methods that reduce radiation exposure in neonates are important. One such method is ultrasonography (US. Aim. We evaluated US as a non-ionizing radiation method for diagnosis of cranial bone fractures and epidural hematomas in newborns with cephalohematomas or other birth head traumas. Material and methods. The study group included 449 newborns with the most common variant of birth head trauma: cephalohematomas. All newborns underwent transcranial-transfontanelle US for detection of intracranial changes and cranial US for visualization of bone structure in the cephalohematoma region. Children with ultrasonic signs of cranial fractures and epidural hematomas were further examined at a children’s hospital by x-ray radiography and/or computed tomography. Results and discussion. We found that cranial US for diagnosis of cranial fractures and transcranial-transfontanelle US for diagnosis of epidural hematomas in newborns were highly effective. In newborns with parietal cephalohematomas (444 children, 17 (3.8% had US signs of linear fracture of the parietal bone, and 5 (1.1% had signs of ipsilateral epidural hematoma. Epidural hematomas were visualized only when US was performed through the temporal bone and not by using the transfontanelle approach. Sixteen cases of linear fractures and all epidural hematomas were confirmed by computed tomography. Conclusion. The use of US diagnostic methods reduced radiation exposure in newborns with birth head trauma. US methods (transcranial

  14. Initiatives to reduce the occupational radiation exposure of ABWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirasawa, Hajime; Urata, Hidehiro; Ueda, Taku; Yamamoto, Seiji; Yaita, Yumi

    2014-01-01

    Toshiba has carried out radiation exposure reduction by radiation level reduction, as reduction of reactor water activated corrosion products concentration, reduction of activated corrosion products deposition and radiation shielding, and exposure time reduction, as remote control and improvement of maintenance work procedures. Water chemistry has been mainly carried out reduction of reactor water activated corrosion products concentration and reduction of activated corrosion products deposition in radiation level reduction. The reduction measures of reactor water activated corrosion products concentration are mainly reduction of iron crud concentration and reduction of cobalt ion concentration. The activated corrosion products deposition are reduced by the means of water quality control and the surface treatment. Water quality control for reduction of activated corrosion products deposition moves to ultra low iron high nickel control from Ni/Fe ratio control. The surface treatments are adopted to the stainless steel piping and carbon steel piping. As a measure further to radiation exposure reduction for ABWR (Advanced Boiling Water Reactors), we report on the effect of generation amount reduction by the adoption of alternate material and the effect of deposition reduction by material change of piping and the adoption of advanced water quality control, etc. (author)

  15. Reducing waste generation and radiation exposure by analytical method modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    The primary goal of an analytical support laboratory has traditionally been to provide accurate data in a timely and cost effective fashion. Added to this goal is now the need to provide the same high quality data while generating as little waste as possible. At the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), we have modified and reengineered several methods to decrease generated waste and hence reduce radiation exposure. These method changes involved improving detection limits (which decreased the amount of sample required for analysis), decreasing reaction and analysis time, decreasing the size of experimental set-ups, recycling spent solvent and reagents, and replacing some methods. These changes had the additional benefits of reducing employee radiation exposure and exposure to hazardous chemicals. In all cases, the precision, accuracy, and detection limits were equal to or better than the replaced method. Most of the changes required little or no expenditure of funds. This paper describes these changes and discusses some of their applications

  16. Strategies to reduce radiation dose in cardiac PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tung Hsin; Wu, Nien-Yun [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shyh-Jen [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Jay [Institute of Radiological science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Mok, Greta S.P. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Macau (China); Yang, Ching-Ching, E-mail: g39220003@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Radiological Technology, Tzu Chi College of Technology, 880, Sec.2, Chien-kuo Rd. Hualien 970, Taiwan (China); Huang, Tzung-Chi, E-mail: tzungchi.huang@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, China Medical University, No.91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-21

    Background: Our aim was to investigate CT dose reduction strategies on a hybrid PET/CT scanner for cardiac applications. Materials: Image quality and dose estimation of different CT scanning protocols for CT coronary angiography (CTCA), and CT-based attenuation correction for PET imaging were investigated. Fifteen patients underwent CTCA, perfusion PET imaging at rest and under stress, and FDG PET for myocardial viability. These patients were divided into three groups based on the CTCA technique performed: retrospectively gated helical (RGH), ECG tube current modulation (ETCM), and prospective gated axial (PGA) acquisitions. All emission images were corrected for photon attenuation using CT images obtained by default setting and an ultra-low dose CT (ULDCT) scan. Results: Radiation dose in RGH technique was 22.2{+-}4.0 mSv. It was reduced to 10.95{+-}0.82 and 4.13{+-}0.31 mSv using ETCM and PGA techniques, respectively. Radiation dose in CT transmission scan was reduced by 96.5% (from 4.53{+-}0.5 to 0.16{+-}0.01 mSv) when applying ULDCT as compared to the default CT. No significant difference in terms of image quality was found among various protocols. Conclusion: The proposed CT scanning strategies, i.e. ETCM or PGA for CTCA and ULDCT for PET attenuation correction, could reduce radiation dose up to 47% without degrading imaging quality in an integrated cardiac PET/CT coronary artery examination.

  17. Zinc injection helps reduce radiation field buildup in BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.

    1991-01-01

    The injection of zinc into the reactor water of BWRs (Boiling Water Reactors) was a technique developed by General Electric (GE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to control the buildup of radiation fields from cobalt-60 on out-of-core piping. The presence of 5-10ppb zinc in the reactor water reduces the growth of oxide films on stainless steel surfaces, thereby reducing the number of sites available for the incorporation of cobalt; zinc also competes with cobalt for the sites. In September 1990, EPRI organized a workshop at the request of several US utilities to provide a forum to discuss experiences with zinc injection. The meeting focused on six main issues: the effect of zinc on radiation fields in normal water chemistry; the radiation buildup in hydrogen water chemistry, with and without zinc; the effects of zinc-65; the corrosion of fuel cladding and structural materials; the performance of zinc injection and monitoring equipment; and planning for zinc injection. (author)

  18. A novel radiation protection drape reduces radiation exposure during fluoroscopy guided electrophysiology procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, Joseph J; Day, Gina; Gregorious, David; Natarajan, Venkataraman; Cohen, Todd

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel disposable lead-free radiation protection drape for decreasing radiation scatter during electrophysiology procedures. In recent years, there has been an exponential increase in the number of electrophysiology (EP) procedures exposing patients, operators and laboratory staff to higher radiation doses. The RADPAD was positioned slightly lateral to the incision site for pectoral device implants and superior to the femoral vein during electrophysiology studies. Each patient served as their own control and dosimetric measurements were obtained at the examiner's elbow and hand. Radiation badge readings for the operator were obtained three months prior to RADPAD use and three months after introduction. Radiation dosimetry was obtained in twenty patients: 7 electrophysiology studies, 6 pacemakers, 5 catheter ablations, and 2 implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. Eleven women and nine men with a mean age of 63 +/- 4 years had an average fluoroscopy time of 2.5 +/- 0.42 minutes per case. Mean dosimetric measurements at the hand were reduced from 141.38 +/- 24.67 to 48.63 +/- 9.02 milliroentgen (mR) per hour using the protective drape (63% reduction; p < 0.0001). Measurements at the elbow were reduced from 78.78 +/- 7.95 mR per hour to 34.50 +/- 4.18 mR per hour using the drape (55% reduction; p < 0.0001). Badge readings for three months prior to drape introduction averaged 2.45 mR per procedure versus 1.54 mR per procedure for 3 months post-initiation (37% reduction). The use of a novel radiation protection surgical drape can significantly reduce scatter radiation exposure to staff and operators during a variety of EP procedures.

  19. Direct coronary stenting in reducing radiation and radiocontrast consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caluk, Jasmin; Osmanovic, Enes; Barakovic, Fahir; Kusljugic, Zumreta; Terzic, Ibrahim; Caluk, Selma; Sofic, Amela

    2010-01-01

    Coronary stenting is the primary means of coronary revascularization. There are two basic techniques of stent implantation: stenting with balloon predilatation of stenosis and stenting without predilatation (direct stenting). Limiting the time that a fluoroscope is activated and by appropriately managing the intensity of the applied radiation, the operator limits radiation in the environment, and this saves the exposure to the patient and all personnel in the room. Nephrotoxicity is one of the most important properties of radiocontrast. The smaller amount of radiocontrast used also provides multiple positive effects, primarily regarding the periprocedural risk for the patients with the reduced renal function. The goal of the study was to compare fluoroscopy time, the amount of radiocontrast, and expenses of material used in direct stenting and in stenting with predilatation. In a prospective study, 70 patients with coronary disease were randomized to direct stenting, or stenting with predilatation. Fluoroscopy time and radiocontrast use were significantly reduced in the directly stented patients in comparison to the patients stented with balloon-predilatation. The study showed a significant reduction of expenses when using a direct stenting method in comparison to stenting with predilatation. If the operator predicts that the procedure can be performed using direct stenting, he is encouraged to do so. Direct stenting is recommended for all percutaneous coronary interventions when appropriate conditions have been met. If direct stenting has been unsuccessful, the procedure can be converted to predilatation

  20. Rotating machinery surveillance system reduces plant downtime and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohanick, J.S.; Robinson, J.C.; Allen, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    A rotating machinery surveillance system (RMSS) was permanently installed at Grand Gulf nuclear station (GGNS) as part of a program sponsored by the US Department of Energy whose goal was to reduce radiation exposure to power plant personnel resulting from the inspection, maintenance, and repair of rotating machinery. The RMSS was installed at GGNS in 1983 to continuously monitor 173 analog vibration signals from proximity probes mounted on 26 machine trains and ∼450 process data points via a computer data link. Vibration frequency spectra, i.e., the vibration amplitude versus frequency of vibration, and various characterizations of these spectra are the fundamental data collected by the RMSS for performing machinery diagnostics. The RMSS collects vibration frequency spectra on a daily basis for all the monitored rotating equipment and automatically stores the collected spectra for review by the vibration engineer. Vibration spectra automatically stored by the RMSS fall into categories that include the last normal, alarm, minimum and maximum, past three-day data set, baseline, current, and user-saved spectra. During first and second fuel-cycle operation at GGNS, several significant vibration problems were detected by the RMSS. Two of these are presented in this paper: recirculation pumps and turbine-generator bearing degradation. The total reduction in personnel radiation exposure at GGNS from 1985 to 1987 due to the presence of the RMSS was estimated to be in the range from 49 to 54 person-rem

  1. Reducing radiation exposure during oral I-131 therapy administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trujillo, J.; Krinsky, S.; Wilson, B.; Teague, E.

    1982-01-01

    A new, closed-system method to reduce air-, direct-, and incidental-contamination during therapeutic administration of oral I-131 was experimentally evaluated on twelve patients. We studied a standard control population using the routine practice of drinking the solution through a straw and compared results with our new technique. Various measurements were performed throughout all phases of dose administration to assess the relative difference of the two approaches. Using the closed system method before and during iodine administration revealed between 100 and 1000 times less activity per millimeter of air sample; whereas, the direct radiation exposure values were higher for the control population. Both the experimental and control methods had similar levels of incidental contamination

  2. 78 FR 59982 - Revisions to Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0268] Revisions to Radiation Protection AGENCY: Nuclear..., ``Radiation Sources,'' Section 12.3 -12.4, ``Radiation Protection Design Features,'' and Section 12.5, ``Operational Radiation Protection Program.'' DATES: The effective date of this Standard Review Plan update is...

  3. Gravitational radiation in quadratic f(R) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naef, Joachim; Jetzer, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the gravitational radiation emitted by an isolated system for gravity theories with Lagrange density f(R)=R+aR 2 . As a formal result, we obtain leading order corrections to the quadrupole formula in general relativity. We make use of the analogy of f(R) theories with scalar-tensor theories, which in contrast to general relativity feature an additional scalar degree of freedom. Unlike general relativity, where the leading order gravitational radiation is produced by quadrupole moments, the additional degree of freedom predicts gravitational radiation of all multipoles, in particular, monopoles and dipoles, as this is the case for the most alternative gravity theories known today. An application to a hypothetical binary pulsar moving in a circular orbit yields the rough limit a 17 m 2 by constraining the dipole power to account at most for 1% of the quadrupole power as predicted by general relativity.

  4. Reducing operator radiation exposure during cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Marco; Occhetta, Eraldo; Ronconi, Martina; Plebani, Laura; Carriero, Alessandro; Marino, Paolo

    2010-12-01

    To quantify the reduction in equivalent dose at operator's hand that can be achieved by placement of a radiation-absorbing drape (RADPAD) during long-lasting cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) procedures. This is a prospective observational study that included 22 consecutive patients with drug-refractory heart failure who underwent implantation of a CRT device. The cases were randomly assigned to Group A (11 cases), performed without RADPAD, and to Group B (11 cases), performed using RADPAD. Dose equivalent at the examiner's hand was measured as H(p)(0.07) and as a time-adjusted H(p)(0.07) rate (mGy/min) with a direct reading dosimeter. The mean fluoroscopy time was 20.8 ± 7.7 min and the mean dose area product (DAP) was 118.6 ± 45.3 Gy cm(2). No significant differences were found between body mass index, fluoroscopy time, and DAP between patients examined with or without RADPAD. The correlation between the fluoroscopy time and the DAP was high (R(2) = 0.94, P RADPAD at the finger and hand were H(p)(0.07) = 1.27 ± 0.47 mGy per procedure and H(p)(0.07) rate = 0.057 ± 0.011 mGy/min, respectively. The dosage was reduced with the RADPAD to H(p)(0.07) = 0.48 ± 0.20 (P RADPAD. The use of the RADPAD in CRT devices implantation will make unlikely the necessity of limiting the yearly number of implants for high volume operators.

  5. Carnosine may reduce lung injury caused by radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Yildiz; Turkcu, Ummuhani Ozel; Hicsonmez, Ayse; Andrieu, Meltem Nalca; Guney, H Zafer; Bilgihan, Ayse; Kurtman, Cengiz

    2006-01-01

    Ionising radiation is known one of the most effective tools in the therapy of cancer but in many thoracic cancers, the total prescribed dose of radiation that can be safely administered to the target volume is limited by the risk of complications arising in the normal lung tissue. One of the major reasons for cellular injury after radiation is the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Radiation pneumonitis is an acute phase side-effect which generally subsides after a few weeks and is followed by a chronic phase characterized by inflammation and fibrosis, that can develop months or years after irradiation. Carnosine is a dipeptide composed by the amino acids beta-histidine and l-alanine. The exact biological role of carnosine is not totally understood, but several studies have demonstrated that it possesses strong and specific antioxidant properties, protects against radiation damage,and promotes wound healing. The antioxidant mechanism of carnosine is attributed to its chelating effect against metal ions, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity, ROS and free radicals scavenging ability . Either its antioxidant or anti-inflammatuar properties, we propose that carnosine ameliorates irradiation-induced lung injury. Thus, supplementing cancer patients to whom applied radiation therapy with carnosine, may provide an alleviation of the symptoms due to radiation-induced lung injury. This issue warrants further studies.

  6. Histomorphologic change of radiation pneumonitis in rat lungs: captopril reduces rat lung injury induced by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Hee

    1999-01-01

    To assess the histomorphologic changes in the rat lung injury induced by radiation, to determine whether captopril reduces the rat lung injury and to evaluate change in TNF-α and TGF β and rat lung damage by radiation and captopril. Right lungs in male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided irradiation alone (10, 20, 30 Gy) or radiation (same dose with radiation alone group) with captopril (500 mg/L). Radiation alone group were sacrificed at twelve hours and eleven weeks after radiation and radiation with captopril group (captopril group) were sacrificed at eleven weeks after radiation with captopril. We examined the light microscope and electron microscopic features in the groups. In radiation alone group, there were patch parenchymal collapse and consolidation at twelve hours after radiation. The increase of radiation dose shows more prominent the severity and broader the affected areas. Eleven weeks after radiation, the severity and areas of fibrosis had increased in proportion to radiation dose given in the radiation alone group. There was notable decrease of lung fibrosis in captopril group than in radiation alone group. The number of mast cells rapidly increased with increase of radiation dose in radiation alone group and the degree of increase of mast cell number and severity of collagen accumulation more decreased in captopril group than in radiation alone group. In radiation alone group expression of TNF-α and TGF-β] increased according to increase of radiation dose at twelve hours after radiation in both group. At eleven weeks after radiation, expression of TGF- P increased according to increase of radiation dose in radiation group but somewhat decreased in captopril group. In the captopril group the collagen deposition increased but less dense than those of radiation alone group. The severity of perivascular thickening, capillary change, the number and degranulation of mast cells more decreased in the captopril group than in the radiation alone group. It

  7. New symbol launched to warn public about radiation dangers. Supplementary symbol aims to help reduce needless deaths and injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Full text: With radiating waves, a skull and crossbones and a running person, a new ionizing radiation warning symbol is being introduced to supplement the traditional international symbol for radiation, the three cornered trefoil. The new symbol is being launched today by the IAEA and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to help reduce needless deaths and serious injuries from accidental exposure to large radioactive sources. It will serve as a supplementary warning to the trefoil, which has no intuitive meaning and little recognition beyond those educated in its significance. 'I believe the international recognition of the specific expertise of both organizations will ensure that the new standard will be accepted and applied by governments and industry to improve the safety of nuclear applications, protection of people and the environment', said Ms. Eliana Amaral, Director, Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, IAEA. The new symbol is aimed at alerting anyone, anywhere to the potential dangers of being close to a large source of ionizing radiation, the result of a five-year project conducted in 11 countries around the world. The symbol was tested with different population groups - mixed ages, varying educational backgrounds, male and female - to ensure that its message of 'danger- stay away' was crystal clear and understood by all. 'We can't teach the world about radiation,' said Carolyn Mac Kenzie, an IAEA radiation specialist who helped develop the symbol, 'but we can warn people about dangerous sources for the price of sticker.' The new symbol, developed by human factor experts, graphic artists, and radiation protection experts, was tested by the Gallup Institute on a total of 1 650 individuals in Brazil, Mexico, Morocco, Kenya, Saudi Arabia, China, India, Thailand, Poland, Ukraine and the United States. The symbol is intended for IAEA Category 1, 2 and 3 sources defined as dangerous sources capable of death or serious injury

  8. A strontium lattice clock with reduced blackbody radiation shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Masoudi, Ali Khalas Anfoos

    2016-09-30

    Optical clocks have been quickly moving to the forefront of the frequency standards field due to their high spectral resolution, and therefore the potential high stability and accuracy. The accuracy and stability of the optical clocks are nowadays two orders of magnitude better than microwave Cs clocks, which realize the SI second. Envisioned applications of highly accurate optical clocks are to perform tests of fundamental physics, for example, searching for temporal drifts of the fine structure constant α, violations of the Local Position Invariance (LPI), dark matter and dark energy, or to performance relativistic geodesy. In this work, the uncertainty of a strontium lattice clock, based on the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0} transition in {sup 87}Sr, due to the blackbody radiation (BBR) shift has been reduced to less than 1 x 10{sup -18} by more than one order of magnitude compared to the previous evaluation of the BBR shift uncertainty in this clock. The BBR shift has been reduced by interrogating the atoms in a cryogenic environment. The systematic uncertainty of the cryogenic lattice clock is evaluated to be 1.3 x 10{sup -17} which is dominated by the uncertainty of the AC Stark shift of the lattice laser and the uncertainty contribution of the BBR shift is negligible. Concerning the instability of the clock, the detection noise of the clock has been measured, and a model linking noise and clock instability has been developed. This noise model shows that, in our lattice clock, quantum projection noise is reached if more than 130 atoms are interrogated. By combining the noise model with the degradation due to the Dick effect reflecting the frequency noise of the interrogation laser, the instability of the clock is estimated to be 1.6 x 10{sup -16}/√(τ/s) in regular operation. During this work, several high-accuracy comparisons to other atomic clocks have been performed, including several absolute frequency measurements. The Sr clock transition frequency

  9. Does fast-neutron radiotherapy merely reduce the radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Koichi

    1984-01-01

    We examined whether fast-neutron radiotherapy is superior to low-LET radiotherpy by comparing the relationship between cell survival and tumor control probabilities after exposure of tumor-bearing (species) to the two modalities. Analysis based on TCD 50 assay and lung colony assay indicated that single dose of fast neutron achieved animal cures at higher survival rates than other radiation modalities including single and fractionated γ-ray doses, fractionated doses of fast neutron, and the mixed-beam scheme with a sequence of N-γ-γ-γ-N. We conclude that fast-neutron radiotherapy cured animal tumors with lower cell killing rates other radiation modalities. (author)

  10. Reducing Human Radiation Risks on Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    101 Figure 49. Human Health, Life Support, and Habitation System...2013). These same studies reveal that for astronauts returning home, this may result in significant loss of lifespan and quality of life due to...warnings to the satellites in orbit at either planet , or to spacecraft in transit (Phys.org 2010). C. IMPROVEMENTS TO MEASUREMENTS OF SPACE RADIATION

  11. Relative efficacy for radiation reducing methods in scoliotic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikenhead, J.; Triano, J.; Baker, J.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation dosages to sensitive organs in full spine radiography have in recent years been a concern of physicians as well as the general public. The spine is the prime target for exposure in scoliosis radiography, though the exposure usually necessitates irradiation of several radio-sensitive organs. In recent studies, various protection techniques have been used including various lead and aluminum filtration systems, altered patient positioning and varied tube-film distances. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency for radiation dosage reduction of three filtration systems used frequently in the chiropractic profession. The systems tested were the Nolan Multiple X-ray Filters, the Clear-Pb system and the Sportelli Wedge system. These systems were tested in seven configurations varying breast shielding, distance and patient positioning. All systems tested demonstrated significant radiation reductions to organs, especially breast tissue. The Clear-Pb system appeared to be the most effective for all organs except the breast, and the Sportelli Wedge system demonstrated the greatest reduction to breast tissue

  12. Efficacy of a radiation safety education initiative in reducing radiation exposure in the pediatric IR suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheyn, David D.; Racadio, John M.; Patel, Manish N.; Racadio, Judy M.; Johnson, Neil D.; Ying, Jun

    2008-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation is essential for diagnostic and therapeutic imaging in the interventional radiology (IR) suite. As the complexity of procedures increases, radiation exposure risk increases. We believed that reinforcing staff education and awareness would help optimize radiation safety. To evaluate the effect of a radiation safety education initiative on IR staff radiation safety practices and patient radiation exposure. After each fluoroscopic procedure performed in the IR suite during a 4-month period, dose-area product (DAP), fluoroscopy time, and use of shielding equipment (leaded eyeglasses and hanging lead shield) by IR physicians were recorded. A lecture and article were then given to IR physicians and technologists that reviewed ALARA principles for optimizing radiation dose. During the following 4 months, those same parameters were recorded after each procedure. Before education 432 procedures were performed and after education 616 procedures were performed. Physician use of leaded eyeglasses and hanging shield increased significantly after education. DAP and fluoroscopy time decreased significantly for uncomplicated peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) procedures and non-PICC procedures after education, but did not change for complicated PICC procedures. Staff radiation safety education can improve IR radiation safety practices and thus decrease exposure to radiation of both staff and patients. (orig.)

  13. Role of American Nuclear Insurers in reducing occupational radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Since 1957 the nuclear insurance pools have provided liability and property insurance for the nation's nuclear power generating stations as mandated by the Price-Anderson Act. Although the insurance was originally structured to give financial protection to the insured in the event of a major accident, the potential for third-party claims arising from routine occupational exposure is becoming a more realistic pathway for a loss to the pools. In order to give maximum protection to the pools' assets, the Liability Engineering Department of American Nuclear Insurers (ANI) performs periodic inspections of the power plants. By concentrating on programs and management areas, ANI inspections complement regulatory inspections so that all major areas of common interest are reviewed. This paper presents the nature, results, and findings of those periodic inspections particularly in the general area of plant radiation protection

  14. Advances in Nuclear Power Plant Water Chemistry in Reducing Radiation Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Febrianto

    2005-01-01

    Water quality in light water reactor in Pressurized Water Reactor as well as in Boiling Water Reactor has being gradually improved since the beginning, to reduce corrosion risk and radiation exposure level. Corrosion problem which occurred to both type of reactors can reduce the plants availability, increase the operation and maintenance cost and increase the radiation exposure. Corrosion and radiation exposure risk in both reactor rare different. BWR type reactor has more experiences in corrosion problem because at the type of reactor lets water to boil in the core, while at PWR type reactor, water is kept not to boil. The BWR reactor has also higher radiation exposure rather than the PWR one. Many collaborative efforts of plants manufacturers and plant operator utilities have been done to reduce the radiation exposure level and corrosion risk. (author)

  15. Scanography - Radiation protection: medical sector FR 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herain, C.; Machacek, C.; Menechal, P.; Aubert, B.; Rehel, J.L.; Vidal, J.P.; Biau, A.; Barbe, R.; Lahaye, T.; Gauron, C.; Gambini, D.; Pierrat, N.; Donnarieix, D.; Marande, J.L.; Barret, C.; Guerin, C.

    2011-09-01

    This document presents the various aspects and measures related to radiation protection when performing a scanography examination for diagnosis purposes, as well as interventional actions for diagnosis or treatment purposes. It presents the concerned personnel, describes the operational process, indicates the associated hazards and the risk related to ionizing radiation, and describes how the risk is to be assessed and how exposure levels are to be determined (elements of risk assessment, delimitation of controlled and monitored areas, personnel classification, and choice of the dose monitoring method). It describes the various components of a risk management strategy (risk reduction, technical measures regarding the installation and the personnel, training and information, prevention, incident and dysfunction). It indicates the different practices and aspects of medical monitoring (personnel, pregnant women, treatment of anomalies and incidents, medical file, certificate of occupational exposure). It evokes how risk management is to be assessed, and mentions other related risks (biological risk, handling and posture, electric risk). The appendix proposes an example of workstation study in the case of scanography

  16. Numerical study on similarity of plume infrared radiation between reduced-scale solid rocket motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaoying

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to determine the similarities in plume radiation between reduced and full-scale solid rocket models in ground test conditions through investigation of flow and radiation for a series of scale ratios ranging from 0.1 to 1. The radiative transfer equation (RTE considering gas and particle radiation in a non-uniform plume has been adopted and solved by the finite volume method (FVM to compute the three dimensional, spectral and directional radiation of a plume in the infrared waveband 2–6 μm. Conditions at wavelengths 2.7 μm and 4.3 μm are discussed in detail, and ratios of plume radiation for reduced-scale through full-scale models are examined. This work shows that, with increasing scale ratio of a computed rocket motor, area of the high-temperature core increases as a 2 power function of the scale ratio, and the radiation intensity of the plume increases with 2–2.5 power of the scale ratio. The infrared radiation of plume gases shows a strong spectral dependency, while that of Al2O3 particles shows spectral continuity of gray media. Spectral radiation intensity of a computed solid rocket plume’s high temperature core increases significantly in peak radiation spectra of plume gases CO and CO2. Al2O3 particles are the major radiation component in a rocket plume. There is good similarity between contours of plume spectral radiance from different scale models of computed rockets, and there are two peak spectra of radiation intensity at wavebands 2.7–3.0 μm and 4.2–4.6 μm. Directed radiation intensity of the entire plume volume will rise with increasing elevation angle.

  17. Mometasone Furoate Cream Reduces Acute Radiation Dermatitis in Patients Receiving Breast Radiation Therapy: Results of a Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindley, Andrew; Zain, Zakiyah; Wood, Lisa; Whitehead, Anne; Sanneh, Alison; Barber, David; Hornsby, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We wanted to confirm the benefit of mometasone furoate (MF) in preventing acute radiation reactions, as shown in a previous study (Boström et al, Radiother Oncol 2001;59:257-265). Methods and Materials: The study was a double-blind comparison of MF with D (Diprobase), administered daily from the start of radiation therapy for 5 weeks in patients receiving breast radiation therapy, 40 Gy in 2.67-Gy fractions daily over 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was mean modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score. Results: Mean RTOG scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.046). Maximum RTOG and mean erythema scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.018 and P=.012, respectively). The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score was significantly less for MF than for D at weeks 4 and 5 when corrected for Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) questionnaire scores. Conclusions: MF cream significantly reduces radiation dermatitis when applied to the breast during and after radiation therapy. For the first time, we have shown a significantly beneficial effect on quality of life using a validated instrument (DLQI), for a topical steroid cream. We believe that application of this cream should be the standard of care where radiation dermatitis is expected

  18. Mometasone Furoate Cream Reduces Acute Radiation Dermatitis in Patients Receiving Breast Radiation Therapy: Results of a Randomized Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindley, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.hindley@lthtr.nhs.uk [Rosemere Cancer Centre, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston (United Kingdom); Zain, Zakiyah [College of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah (Malaysia); Wood, Lisa [Department of Social Sciences, Lancaster Medical School, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Whitehead, Anne [Medical and Pharmaceutical Statistics Research Unit, Lancaster University, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Sanneh, Alison; Barber, David; Hornsby, Ruth [Rosemere Cancer Centre, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: We wanted to confirm the benefit of mometasone furoate (MF) in preventing acute radiation reactions, as shown in a previous study (Boström et al, Radiother Oncol 2001;59:257-265). Methods and Materials: The study was a double-blind comparison of MF with D (Diprobase), administered daily from the start of radiation therapy for 5 weeks in patients receiving breast radiation therapy, 40 Gy in 2.67-Gy fractions daily over 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was mean modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score. Results: Mean RTOG scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.046). Maximum RTOG and mean erythema scores were significantly less for MF than for D (P=.018 and P=.012, respectively). The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score was significantly less for MF than for D at weeks 4 and 5 when corrected for Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) questionnaire scores. Conclusions: MF cream significantly reduces radiation dermatitis when applied to the breast during and after radiation therapy. For the first time, we have shown a significantly beneficial effect on quality of life using a validated instrument (DLQI), for a topical steroid cream. We believe that application of this cream should be the standard of care where radiation dermatitis is expected.

  19. Measures to reduce occupational radiation exposure in PET facilities from nurses' point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazawa, Keiko; Takahashi, Juri; Mochiduki, Yoshikazu

    2006-01-01

    In parallel with the increase in the number of institutions having PET facilities, the number of nurse working in these facilities has also increased, and the issue of occupational radiation exposure has assumed ever greater importance. In our clinic, since nurses have started to administer FDG intravenous injections, their annual radiation exposure has amounted to 4.8 - 7.1 mSv. To reduce their annual radiation exposure to less than 5 mSv, we identified sources of increased exposure and considered countermeasures based on this information. By implementing countermeasures such as improvements in daily working conditions and ways to avoid various troubles, it was possible to reduce the annual radiation exposure of all nurses to less than 5 mSv. Our experience demonstrates that to provide a working environment with a minimum of occupational radiation exposure, educational training and enhancement of knowledge and technical skills are vital. (author)

  20. 75 FR 55711 - Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ...: (919) 541-0824; e-mail address: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The proposed Transport... (i.e., section V.D.4.a (75 FR 45307-9)) that discusses in detail the proposed Transport Rule trading...-9201-6] RIN 2060-AP50 Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

  1. Radiating Fröhlich system as a model of cellular electromagnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šrobár, Fedor

    2015-01-01

    Oscillating polar entities inside the biological cells, most notably microtubules, are bound to emit electromagnetic radiation. This phenomenon is described by Fröhlich kinetic equations expressing, in terms of quantum occupancy numbers of each discrete collective oscillatory mode, the balance between incoming metabolic energy flow and losses due to linear and non-linear interactions with the thermal environs of the oscillators. Hitherto, radiation losses have not been introduced as part of the balance; it was assumed that they were proportional to the modal occupation numbers. It is demonstrated that this formulation is incorrect and the radiation losses must be taken into account in the kinetic equations explicitly. Results of a numerical study of kinetic equations, enlarged in this sense, are presented for the case of three coupled oscillators which was shown to evince the essential attributes of the Fröhlich systems. Oscillator eigenfrequencies were chosen, alternatively, to fall into the MHz and the THz frequency domains. It was found that large radiation levels destroy the main hallmark of the Fröhlich systems, the energy condensation in the lowest frequency mode. The system then functions as a convertor of metabolic energy into radiation. At more moderate radiation levels, both energy condensation and significant radiation can coexist. Possible consequences for the cell physiology are suggested.

  2. Image noise reduction technology reduces radiation in a radial-first cardiac catheterization laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunja, Ateka; Pandey, Yagya [Department of Veterans Affairs, Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Xie, Hui [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Wolska, Beata M. [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Center for Cardiovascular Research, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Shroff, Adhir R.; Ardati, Amer K. [Department of Veterans Affairs, Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Vidovich, Mladen I., E-mail: miv@uic.edu [Department of Veterans Affairs, Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Background: Transradial coronary angiography (TRA) has been associated with increased radiation doses. We hypothesized that contemporary image noise reduction technology would reduce radiation doses in the cardiac catheterization laboratory in a typical clinical setting. Methods and results: We performed a single-center, retrospective analysis of 400 consecutive patients who underwent diagnostic and interventional cardiac catheterizations in a predominantly TRA laboratory with traditional fluoroscopy (N = 200) and a new image noise reduction fluoroscopy system (N = 200). The primary endpoint was radiation dose (mGy cm{sup 2}). Secondary endpoints were contrast dose, fluoroscopy times, number of cineangiograms, and radiation dose by operator between the two study periods. Radiation was reduced by 44.7% between the old and new cardiac catheterization laboratory (75.8 mGy cm{sup 2} ± 74.0 vs. 41.9 mGy cm{sup 2} ± 40.7, p < 0.0001). Radiation was reduced for both diagnostic procedures (45.9%, p < 0.0001) and interventional procedures (37.7%, p < 0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference in radiation dose between individual operators (p = 0.84). In multivariate analysis, radiation dose remained significantly decreased with the use of the new system (p < 0.0001) and was associated with weight (p < 0.0001), previous coronary artery bypass grafting (p < 0.0007) and greater than 3 stents used (p < 0.0004). TRA was used in 90% of all cases in both periods. Compared with a transfemoral approach (TFA), TRA was not associated with higher radiation doses (p = 0.20). Conclusions: Image noise reduction technology significantly reduces radiation dose in a contemporary radial-first cardiac catheterization clinical practice. - Highlights: • Radial arterial access has been associated with higher doses compared to femoral access. • In a radial-first cardiac catheterization laboratory (90% radial) we examined radiation doses reduction with a contemporary image

  3. Image noise reduction technology reduces radiation in a radial-first cardiac catheterization laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunja, Ateka; Pandey, Yagya; Xie, Hui; Wolska, Beata M.; Shroff, Adhir R.; Ardati, Amer K.; Vidovich, Mladen I.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Transradial coronary angiography (TRA) has been associated with increased radiation doses. We hypothesized that contemporary image noise reduction technology would reduce radiation doses in the cardiac catheterization laboratory in a typical clinical setting. Methods and results: We performed a single-center, retrospective analysis of 400 consecutive patients who underwent diagnostic and interventional cardiac catheterizations in a predominantly TRA laboratory with traditional fluoroscopy (N = 200) and a new image noise reduction fluoroscopy system (N = 200). The primary endpoint was radiation dose (mGy cm"2). Secondary endpoints were contrast dose, fluoroscopy times, number of cineangiograms, and radiation dose by operator between the two study periods. Radiation was reduced by 44.7% between the old and new cardiac catheterization laboratory (75.8 mGy cm"2 ± 74.0 vs. 41.9 mGy cm"2 ± 40.7, p < 0.0001). Radiation was reduced for both diagnostic procedures (45.9%, p < 0.0001) and interventional procedures (37.7%, p < 0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference in radiation dose between individual operators (p = 0.84). In multivariate analysis, radiation dose remained significantly decreased with the use of the new system (p < 0.0001) and was associated with weight (p < 0.0001), previous coronary artery bypass grafting (p < 0.0007) and greater than 3 stents used (p < 0.0004). TRA was used in 90% of all cases in both periods. Compared with a transfemoral approach (TFA), TRA was not associated with higher radiation doses (p = 0.20). Conclusions: Image noise reduction technology significantly reduces radiation dose in a contemporary radial-first cardiac catheterization clinical practice. - Highlights: • Radial arterial access has been associated with higher doses compared to femoral access. • In a radial-first cardiac catheterization laboratory (90% radial) we examined radiation doses reduction with a contemporary image-noise compared to

  4. A Reduced-order NLTE Kinetic Model for Radiating Plasmas of Outer Envelopes of Stellar Atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munafò, Alessandro [Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 206A Talbot Lab., 104 S. Wright Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Mansour, Nagi N. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, 94035 CA (United States); Panesi, Marco, E-mail: munafo@illinois.edu, E-mail: nagi.n.mansour@nasa.gov, E-mail: m.panesi@illinois.edu [Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 306 Talbot Lab., 104 S. Wright Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The present work proposes a self-consistent reduced-order NLTE kinetic model for radiating plasmas found in the outer layers of stellar atmospheres. A detailed collisional-radiative kinetic mechanism is constructed by leveraging the most up-to-date set of ab initio and experimental data available in the literature. This constitutes the starting point for the derivation of a reduced-order model, obtained by lumping the bound energy states into groups. In order to determine the needed thermo-physical group properties, uniform and Maxwell–Boltzmann energy distributions are used to reconstruct the energy population of each group. Finally, the reduced set of governing equations for the material gas and the radiation field is obtained based on the moment method. Applications consider the steady flow across a shock wave in partially ionized hydrogen. The results clearly demonstrate that adopting a Maxwell–Boltzmann grouping allows, on the one hand, for a substantial reduction of the number of unknowns and, on the other, to maintain accuracy for both gas and radiation quantities. Also, it is observed that, when neglecting line radiation, the use of two groups already leads to a very accurate resolution of the photo-ionization precursor, internal relaxation, and radiative cooling regions. The inclusion of line radiation requires adopting just one additional group to account for optically thin losses in the α , β , and γ lines of the Balmer and Paschen series. This trend has been observed for a wide range of shock wave velocities.

  5. Ways of reducing radiation exposure in a future nuclear power economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, K.Z.

    1976-01-01

    The reasons for attempting to reduce radiation exposure in a future nuclear power economy are first discussed. This is followed by a detailed examination of ways for reducing exposures. The entire fuel cycle from uranium mining through fuel reprocessing is covered but special attention is devoted to reactors, fuel and waste shipping and fuel reprocessing

  6. Numerical Study on Similarity of Plume’s Infrared Radiation from Reduced Scaling Solid Rocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Similarity of plume radiation between reduced scaling solid rocket models and full scale ones in ground conditions has been taken for investigation. Flow and radiation of plume from solid rockets with scaling ratio from 0.1 to 1 have been computed. The radiative transfer equation (RTE is solved by the finite volume method (FVM in infrared band 2~6 μm. The spectral characteristics of plume gases have been calculated with the weighted-sum-of-gray-gas (WSGG model, and those of the Al2O3 particles have been solved by the Mie scattering model. Our research shows that, with the decreasing scaling ratio of the rocket engine, the radiation intensity of the plume decreases with 1.5~2.5 power of the scaling ratio. The infrared radiation of the plume gases shows a strong spectral dependency, while that of the Al2O3 particles shows grey property. Spectral radiation intensity of the high temperature core of the solid rocket plume increases greatly in the peak absorption spectrum of plume gases. Al2O3 particle is the major radiation composition in the rocket plume, whose scattering coefficient is much larger than its absorption coefficient. There is good similarity between spectral variations of plumes from different scaling solid rockets. The directional plume radiation rises with the increasing azimuth angle.

  7. Possibilities to reduce the effect of ionizing radiation by interaction of two types of radiation into a matter: ionized and non-ionized radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanvir

    2007-01-01

    Full text: At present it has been accepted that ionized radiation can cause biological effects on the human body and the only way of preventing this effect, is by shielding the source of radiation by absorbing materials. On the other hand, the technology of non-ionizing radiation is upgraded. The canalization of radiation through the wave-guide based structures and optical fiber is well established. This reminds us that passing through benzene non-ionized radiation give the 'Raman' effect, which can ensure the secondary generation of non-ionized radiation with the wave length of nanometer and so far. These types of non-ionized radiation can easily be correlated with the gamma radiation, which is ionized. We know that high-energized photon usually interacts with matter and reduces its energy to the matter and generate electro-magnetic waves into the molecules of the matter. It is also well known that through the wave-guide based structures and optical fiber; the path of energy distribution of photon is likely to be optical energetic modes. If two types of photon from two types of radiation (ionized and non-ionized) interact with matter and pass through the optical fiber, they can generate optical modes with various wavelengths and phase velocities. With 'Raman' effect we can generate secondary electromagnetic waves of nanometer; as well as optical modes into the optical fiber. These optical modes from two types of radiation with various phase velocities, having the similar wavelength, can decrease or accelerate some modes. On the view of signal distribution, we can assume that if two similar signals pass through the circuit with phase difference 180P 0 P, then the result posses no signal. We are also reminded that photon of γ - radiation can spread from 0 deg. to 180 deg. C, where the 'Compton' loss of radiation is minimum. In view of the electro-magnetic theory of Maxwell we can assume the energetic field of optical modes, which are generated into the optical

  8. Changes of reduced glutathion, glutathion reductase, and glutathione peroxidase after radiation in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erden, M.; Bor, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    In this series of experiments the protective action of reduced glutathion due to ionizing radiation has been studied. In the experimental group 18 guinea pigs were exposed to successive radiations of 150 rad 3 or 4 days apart. Total dose given amounted to 750 rad which is the LD50 for guinea pigs. Blood samples were taken 30 min after each exposure. The control series were sham radiated but otherwise treated identically. The cells of the removed blood samples were separated by centrifugation and were subjected to the reduced glutathion stability test. GSSGR, GPer, and LDH enzyme activities were also measured of which the latter served as a marked enzyme. It was found that LDH did not show any alteration after radiation. The reduced glutathion stability test showed a consistent but minor reduction (P greater than 0.05), in the experimental group. GSSGR enzyme activity on the other hand was reduced significantly (from 176.48 +/- 11.32 to 41.34 +/- 1.17 IU/ml of packed erythrocytes, P less than 0.001) in the same group. GPer activity showed a consistent but minor elevation during the early phase of the experimental group. It was later increased significantly beginning after 600 rad total radiation on the fourth session (P less than 0.050)

  9. Pretreatment of low dose radiation reduces radiation-induced apoptosis in mouse lymphoma (EL4) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J H; Hyun, S J; Yoon, M Y; Ji, Y H; Cho, C K; Yoo, S Y

    1997-06-01

    Induction of an adaptive response to ionizing radiation in mouse lymphoma (EL4) cells was studied by using cell survival fraction and apoptotic nucleosomal DNA fragmentation as biological end points. Cells in early log phase were pre-exposed to low dose of gamma-rays (0.01 Gy) 4 or 20 hrs prior to high dose gamma-ray (4, 8 and 12 Gy for cell survival fraction analysis; 8 Gy for DNA fragmentation analysis) irradiation. Then cell survival fractions and the extent of DNA fragmentation were measured. Significant adaptive response, increase in cell survival fraction and decrease in the extent of DNA fragmentation were induced when low and high dose gamma-ray irradiation time interval was 4 hr. Addition of protein or RNA synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide or 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRFB), respectively during adaptation period, the period from low dose gamma-ray irradiation to high dose gamma-ray irradiation, was able to inhibit the induction of adaptive response, which is the reduction of the extent DNA fragmentation in irradiated EL4 cells. These data suggest that the induction of adaptive response to ionizing radiation in EL4 cells required both protein and RNA synthesis.

  10. Calorie restriction reduces the incidence of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia and spontaneous tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuko

    1999-01-01

    The host-defense mechanisms against cancers are known to be modulated by changing the environmental factor(s). The spontaneous incidence of myeloid leukemia is about 1% in C3H/He mice, and the incidence increases up to 23.3% when a single dose of radiation, 3 Gy X-ray, is exposed to a whole-body. Since calorie restriction was known to reduce the incidence of spontaneous tumors, a question as to whether such radiation induced-increase of myeloid leukemia would be also decreased by calorie restriction, was aimed to answer to elucidate possible mechanism of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia. By the calorie restriction, the incidence of myeloid leukemia was significantly decreased; it was reduced to 7.9% and 10.7% when restriction was started before (6 weeks old) and after (10 weeks old) irradiation, respectively. In addition, the latent period of the myeloid leukemia in the groups for calorie restriction was significantly extended at a greater extent as compared with the control diet groups. Number of hematopoietic stem cells, the possible target cells for radiation-induced leukemias, in the groups for the calorie restriction demonstrated a significant decrease, especially in the spleen, as compared with that in the control, when the evaluation was made at the time of radiation exposure. Then, we examined whether the decreased number of target cells at the time of exposure is caused by the reduction of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia with caloric restriction. The third restricted groups were fed 65 kcal diet (restricted diet) for the first 4 weeks i.e. from 6 weeks to 10 weeks old, then, the mice were fed with control diet after radiation. The incidence of myeloid leukemia in this group was slightly decreased but did not show statistically significance. Therefore, the caloric restriction seems to be more effective in the promotion stage than the initiation stage on radiation-induced leukemogenesis. It is well known that C3H/He mice develop hepatoma spontaneously

  11. Water Chemistry Control in Reducing Corrosion and Radiation Exposure at PWR Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Febrianto

    2006-01-01

    Water chemistry control plays an important role in relation to plant availability, reliability and occupational radiation exposures. Radiation exposures of nuclear plant workers are determined by the radiation rate dose and by the amount maintenance and repair work time Water chemistry has always been, from beginning of operation of power Pressurized Water Reactor, an important factor in determining the integrity of reactor components, fuel cladding integrity and minimize out of core radiation exposures. For primary system, the parameters to control the quality of water chemistry have been subject to change in time. Reactor water coolant pH need to be optimally controlled and be operated in range pH 6.9 to 7.4. At pH lower than 6.9, cause increasing the radiation exposure level and increasing coolant water pH higher than 7.4 will decrease radiation exposure level but increasing risk to fuel cladding and steam generator tube. Since beginning 90 decade, PWR water coolant pH tend to be operated at pH 7.4. This paper will discuss concerning water chemistry development in reducing corrosion and radiation exposure dose in PWR reactor. (author)

  12. Agricultural measures to reduce radiation doses to man caused by severe nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorp, F. van; Eleveld, R.; Frissel, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    Agricultural land and products may become contaminated after a severe nuclear accident. If radiation doses to man caused by the ingestion of contaminated agricultural products from such areas will be unacceptably high, measures to reduce this radiation dose will have to be taken. Radiation doses to man can be estimated by using models which describe quantitatively the transfer of radionuclides through the biosphere. The following processes and pathways are described in this study: accidental releases into atmospheric environments and subsequent nearby deposition; contamination of crops by direct deposition and the subsequent short term pathway (e.g. grass-cow-milk-man); contamination of soil and the subsequent long term pathway (e.g. soil-crop-man, soil-grass-cattle-milk/meat-man). Depending on the degree of contamination and on the estimated radiation doses to man, various measures are advised. (Auth.)

  13. Development of a Simple Radioactive marker System to Reduce Positioning Errors in Radiation Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William H. Miller; Dr. Jatinder Palta

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research is to implement an inexpensive, quick and simple monitor that provides an accurate indication of proper patient position during the treatment of cancer by external beam X-ray radiation and also checks for any significant changes in patient anatomy. It is believed that this system will significantly reduce the treatment margin, provide an additional, independent quality assurance check of positioning accuracy prior to all treatments and reduce the probability of misadministration of therapeutic dose

  14. Stem Cell Therapy to Reduce Radiation-Induced Normal Tissue Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppes, Rob P.; van der Goot, Annemieke; Lombaert, Isabelle M. A.

    Normal tissue damage after radiotherapy is still a major problem in cancer treatment. Stem cell therapy may provide a means to reduce radiation-induced side effects and improve the quality of life of patients. This review discusses the current status in stem cell research with respect to their

  15. Reducing radiation exposure in an electrophysiology lab with introduction of newer fluoroscopic technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munish Sharma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of fluoroscopic devices exposes patients and operators to harmful effects of ionizing radiation in an electrophysiology (EP lab. We sought to know if the newer fluoroscopic technology (Allura Clarity installed in a hybrid EP helps to reduce prescribed radiation dose. We performed radiation dose analysis of 90 patients who underwent various procedures in the EP lab at a community teaching hospital after the introduction of newer fluoroscopic technology in June of 2016.Watchman device insertion, radiofrequency ablation procedures, permanent pacemaker (PPM/implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD placement and battery changes were included in the study to compare radiation exposure during different procedures performed commonly in an EP lab. In all cases of watchman device placement, radiofrequency ablation procedures, PPM/ICD placement and battery changes, there was a statistically significant difference (<0.05 in radiation dose exposure. Significant reduction in radiation exposure during various procedures performed in an EP lab was achieved with aid of newer fluoroscopic technology and better image detection technology.

  16. New radiation mitigators to reduce bone marrow death of mice by post-irradiation administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzai, Kazunori

    2009-01-01

    We have found recently that heat-treated mineral yeast preparations and water-soluble analogs of vitamin E are potent radiation mitigator to reduce bone marrow death of mice by post-irradiation administration. When administered immediately after whole-body X-irradiation (7.5 Gy), both Zn-yeast and γ-tocopherol dimethylglycine ester (TDMG) significantly increased the viability of mice from 0% (control) to more than 90% (treated). Zn-yeast did not inhibit the tumor-regulation by γ-rays but even sensitize the radiation effect in mice xenografts of HeLa cells. (author)

  17. The leaded apron revisited: does it reduce gonadal radiation dose in dental radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, R.E.; Harris, A.M.; van der Merwe, E.J.; Nortje, C.J. (Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada))

    1991-05-01

    A tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic human phantom was used with a lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimetry system to evaluate the radiation absorbed dose to the ovarian and testicular region during dental radiologic procedures. Measurements were made with and without personal lead shielding devices consisting of thyroid collar and apron of 0.25 mm lead thickness equivalence. The radiation absorbed dose with or without lead shielding did not differ significantly from control dosimeters in vertex occlusal and periapical views (p greater than 0.05). Personal lead shielding devices did reduce gonadal dose in the case of accidental exposure (p less than 0.05). A leaded apron of 0.25 mm lead thickness equivalent was permeable to radiation in direct exposure testing.

  18. The leaded apron revisited: does it reduce gonadal radiation dose in dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.E.; Harris, A.M.; van der Merwe, E.J.; Nortje, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    A tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic human phantom was used with a lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimetry system to evaluate the radiation absorbed dose to the ovarian and testicular region during dental radiologic procedures. Measurements were made with and without personal lead shielding devices consisting of thyroid collar and apron of 0.25 mm lead thickness equivalence. The radiation absorbed dose with or without lead shielding did not differ significantly from control dosimeters in vertex occlusal and periapical views (p greater than 0.05). Personal lead shielding devices did reduce gonadal dose in the case of accidental exposure (p less than 0.05). A leaded apron of 0.25 mm lead thickness equivalent was permeable to radiation in direct exposure testing

  19. Potentials of ionizing radiation in reducing hazards to man and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullie, W C; Van Laerhoven, M J.A.M.; Kroes, R

    1991-07-01

    The main goal of the title study was to compare a relevant number of conventional processes and technologies for a range of uses with the application of ionizing radiation technology. Special emphasis is given to the hazardous effects of contemporary processes and chemicals on man and environment and to the potential role of the radiation processing technology, gamma irradiation in particular, in reducing these hazards. Based on their quantities and on (eco)toxicological criteria, four fields of application were identified a priori as potentially of interest for radiation processing. These fields of application are food preservation, sterilization and sanitization of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, waste water and drinking water disinfection, and disinfection of sewage sludge and infectious hospital waste. Other fields of application as mentioned above are discussed in a more general matter. 12 figs., 31 tabs., 4 apps., refs.

  20. Effect of ionizing radiation on reducing the several inhibitors in codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, F. A.

    2008-01-01

    The medium for Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L) was sterilized using ionizing radiation (0, 5, 15 and 25 KGy) or heat (cooking for 40 minutes.). inhibitors were also added either on the top of the diet or by mixing it with the diet. The results showed that all Codling moth larvae in the ionizing radiation sterilized diet died before reaching the 4th larval instar. Results of using both radiation and cooking for sterilizing the diet gave variable results; those treated with 15 KGy gave significantly more moths with higher weight and more fecundity. The results also showed that increasing the amount of microbial inhibitors in diet negatively affected the number of produced moth and their biological characteristics. Consequently irradiation could be a mean for reducing the amount of chemical inhibitors added to the diet. (author)

  1. Measures taken by the building authorities in order to reduce radiation risks in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tell, Wilhelm

    1980-01-01

    The Swedish radon commission has recommended that the risk of radiation and radon emission from the ground be considered when planning for new settlements, building materials with high radioactivity not be allowed for new buildings, and existing buildings with high levels of radioactivity be traced and improved. Maps of gamma radiation from the ground are being worked out showing areas with levels higher than 30 μR/h. Within such areas buildings should be planned taking the ultimate limits for new buildings into account. Building permits are granted for construction of new structures or extensive renovations if it can be shown that radiation levels within the buildings will be within legal limits: 70 Bq/m 3 for new buildings and 200 Bq/m 3 for existing ones. The radon commission has suggested that buildings with a radon daughter concentration exceeding 400 Bq/m 3 should be found and levels reduced to 200 Bq/m 3

  2. Analysis of technologies and experiences for reducing occupational radiation dose and study for applying to regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Joo Hyun; Park, Moon Soo; Lee, Un Jang; Song, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Byeong Soo; Kim, Chong Uk [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-01-15

    To reduce Occupational Radiation Dose (ORD) effectively and enhance the radiological safety, the comprehensive assessment of the experiences to reduce ORD should be made by regulatory body as well as utilities. Hence, the objective of this study is to assess the experiences for reducing ORD from the regulatory viewpoint. With the research objective, the followings are performed in this research; analysis of occupational dose trends at domestic and foreign NPPs, identification of the effective technologies for reducing ORD, examination of the effects of the technologies for reducing ORD, derivation of the regulatory means for implementing he research results. From this study, the regulatory means for effective reduction of ORD are derived. Hence, the results can be utilized as a basic materials for ALARA requirements.

  3. Solar radiation for buildings application: comparing reduced data set for mediterranean sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Gennusa, M.; Rizzo, G.; Scaccianoce, G.; Sorrentino, G.

    2006-01-01

    A growing diffusion of computer programs for the thermal simulation of buildings is occurring in the last year; they allow the description of the thermal behaviour of buildings during the year, in order to verify their energy efficiencies and to suggest eventual improvements, even at the design stage. These thermal simulation programs generally need a complete input data set and among these, information particularly referring to the climatic conditions of the site where the building will be built-up. As it is well known, a climatic issue, particularly important for the thermal energy balance, is the solar radiation. In this work we have updated a short reference year of the solar radiation, more precisely the Monthly Average Day (MAD) for a town of the Southern Italy (Palermo), which shows climatic features similar to other places in the Mediterranean basin. In addition, we have compared the climatic data of the MAD (for the global and diffuse solar radiations) obtained from hourly measures for seven years, with those obtained both from geo-astronomical parameters and from the monthly average of the daily global solar radiation, which is commonly adopted on purposes. The comparison does suggest a particular caution in the choice of the method used for generating reduced data sets of the solar radiation for these mediterranean.(Author)

  4. Investigations on image improvement in radiodiagnosis under special consideration of reducing scattered radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, R.

    1976-10-01

    In the study, image improvement is proposed for scintiscanning, X-ray and neutron diagnosis as well as computer axial tomography. In order to reduce the scattered radiation, mainly two-dimensional radiation transport calculations are carried out, and the imaging properties are studied by simulation on a large computer. It was found, among other things, that in contrast to X-ray techniques, in diagnosis with fast neutrons the image quality can hardly be improved by screens for scattered radiation. Here the problem of scattered radiation can only be solved by using scanners with narrow beams. The new method of neutron diagnosis resulting from this is especially suited for representing structures behind bones or for the localization of bone tumors invisible to X-rays, but not for representing fatty tissue. For large depths of irradiation, the scattered radiation with neutron sources below 1 MeV gets so intensive that diagnosis becomes impossible. When fast neutrons are used are used, the method is applicable for computer axial tomography because of the narrow beams. (ORU) [de

  5. Guide to reducing radiation exposure to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1980-04-01

    This document is designed to provide DOE contractor personnel with general guidance regarding programs and techniques to reduce radiation exposures to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Thus it is directed towards a broad audience, and should have special relevance and interest for operating management as well as radiation protection personnel. It is well recognized that each contractor has needs specific and critical to its radiation protection program. Hence no single set of specific and detailed criteria can be set down as a prescription for achieving the ALARA goal. Rather, general guidance in the form of broad principles is given in order to acquaint management with ALARA needs and concepts. The purpose is to encourage maximum management support of the technical personnel responsible for carrying out day-to-day radiation protection activities. Although primarily written for management, this document also contains technical guidance of potential value to those directly involved in radiation protection activities. Again it should be stressed that what is provided is guidance, and is therefore not mandatory.

  6. Reducing the Harmful Effects of Infrared Radiation on the Skin Using Bicosomes Incorporating β-Carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Estibalitz; Fajarí, Lluís; Rodríguez, Gelen; Cócera, Mercedes; Moner, Verónica; Barbosa-Barros, Lucyanna; Kamma-Lorger, Christina S; de la Maza, Alfonso; López, Olga

    2016-01-01

    In this work the effect of infrared (IR) radiation, at temperatures between 25 and 30°C, on the formation of free radicals (FRs) in the skin is studied. Additionally, the influence of IR radiation at high temperatures in the degradation of skin collagen is evaluated. In both experiments the protective effect against IR radiation of phospholipid nanostructures (bicosomes) incorporating β-carotene (Bcb) is also evaluated. The formation of FRs in skin under IR exposure was measured near physiological temperatures (25-30°C) using 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide spin trap and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The study of the collagen structure was performed by small-angle X-ray scattering using synchrotron radiation. EPR results showed an increase in the hydroxyl radical in the irradiated skin compared to the native skin. The skin collagen was degraded by IR exposure at high temperatures of approximately 65°C. The treatment with Bcb reduced the formation of FRs and kept the structure of collagen. The formation of FRs by IR radiation does not depend on the increase of skin temperature. The decrease of FRs and the preservation of collagen fibers in the skin treated with Bcb indicate the potential of this lipid system to protect skin under IR exposure. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Guide to reducing radiation exposure to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1980-04-01

    This document is designed to provide DOE contractor personnel with general guidance regarding programs and techniques to reduce radiation exposures to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Thus it is directed towards a broad audience, and should have special relevance and interest for operating management as well as radiation protection personnel. It is well recognized that each contractor has needs specific and critical to its radiation protection program. Hence no single set of specific and detailed criteria can be set down as a prescription for achieving the ALARA goal. Rather, general guidance in the form of broad principles is given in order to acquaint management with ALARA needs and concepts. The purpose is to encourage maximum management support of the technical personnel responsible for carrying out day-to-day radiation protection activities. Although primarily written for management, this document also contains technical guidance of potential value to those directly involved in radiation protection activities. Again it should be stressed that what is provided is guidance, and is therefore not mandatory

  8. Viscoelastic property tuning for reducing noise radiated by switched-reluctance machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millithaler, Pierre; Dupont, Jean-Baptiste; Ouisse, Morvan; Sadoulet-Reboul, Émeline; Bouhaddi, Noureddine

    2017-10-01

    Switched-reluctance motors (SRM) present major acoustic drawbacks that hinder their use for electric vehicles in spite of widely-acknowledged robustness and low manufacturing costs. Unlike other types of electric machines, a SRM stator is completely encapsulated/potted with a viscoelastic resin. By taking advantage of the high damping capacity that a viscoelastic material has in certain temperature and frequency ranges, this article proposes a tuning methodology for reducing the noise emitted by a SRM in operation. After introducing the aspects the tuning process will focus on, the article details a concrete application consisting in computing representative electromagnetic excitations and then the structural response of the stator including equivalent radiated power levels. An optimised viscoelastic material is determined, with which the peak radiated levels are reduced up to 10 dB in comparison to the initial state. This methodology is implementable for concrete industrial applications as it only relies on common commercial finite-element solvers.

  9. Approach to reducing the effect of bone—coal power station on radiation environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIShi-Ying; GUPei-Long; 等

    2002-01-01

    The effect of two bone-coal power stations(6MWe) on environment was investigated within the scope of the dose contribution caused by various radionucildes in different ways.It is found that the best measures to reduce the effect of bone-coal power station on radiation environment include to select a fine boiler system and a comprehensive utilization of the bone-coal cinder(BCC),soot and ash in the catchers.

  10. Approach to reducing the effect of bone-coal power station on radiation environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The effect of two bone-coal power stations (6 MWe) on environment wasinvestigated within the scope of the dose contribution caused by various radionucildes in different ways. It is found that the best measures to reduce the effect of bone-coal power station on radiation environment include to select a fine boiler system and a comprehensive utilization of the bone-coal cinder (BCC), soot and ash in the catchers.

  11. New image-processing and noise-reduction software reduces radiation dose during complex endovascular procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Melissa L; Guild, Jeffrey B; Arbique, Gary M; Tsai, Shirling; Modrall, J Gregory; Anderson, Jon A; Rectenwald, John; Timaran, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    procedures with and without Clarity were not significantly different. For all cases, procedure radiation dose to the patient and the primary and assistant operators were significantly decreased in the Clarity group by 60% compared with the non-Clarity group. By procedure type, fluorography dose rates decreased from 44% for fenestrated endovascular repair and up to 70% with lower extremity interventions. Fluoroscopy dose rates also significantly decreased, from about 37% to 47%, depending on procedure type. The AlluraClarity system reduces the patient and primary operator's radiation dose by more than half during CEPs. This feature appears to be an effective tool in lowering the radiation dose while maintaining image quality. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Interventions to prevent skin cancer by reducing exposure to ultraviolet radiation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiya, Mona; Glanz, Karen; Briss, Peter A; Nichols, Phyllis; White, Cornelia; Das, Debjani; Smith, S Jay; Tannor, Bernice; Hutchinson, Angela B; Wilson, Katherine M; Gandhi, Nisha; Lee, Nancy C; Rimer, Barbara; Coates, Ralph C; Kerner, Jon F; Hiatt, Robert A; Buffler, Patricia; Rochester, Phyllis

    2004-12-01

    The relationship between skin cancer and ultraviolet radiation is well established. Behaviors such as seeking shade, avoiding sun exposure during peak hours of radiation, wearing protective clothing, or some combination of these behaviors can provide protection. Sunscreen use alone is not considered an adequate protection against ultraviolet radiation. This report presents the results of systematic reviews of effectiveness, applicability, other harms or benefits, economic evaluations, and barriers to use of selected interventions to prevent skin cancer by reducing exposure to ultraviolet radiation. The Task Force on Community Preventive Services found that education and policy approaches to increasing sun-protective behaviors were effective when implemented in primary schools and in recreational or tourism settings, but found insufficient evidence to determine effectiveness when implemented in other settings, such as child care centers, secondary schools and colleges, and occupational settings. They also found insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of interventions oriented to healthcare settings and providers, media campaigns alone, interventions oriented to parents or caregivers of children, and community-wide multicomponent interventions. The report also provides suggestions for areas for future research.

  13. Radiation safety education reduces the incidence of adult fingers on neonatal chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahota, N; Burbridge, B E; Duncan, M D

    2014-01-01

    A previous audit revealed a high frequency of adult fingers visualised on neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) chest radiographs—representing an example of inappropriate occupational radiation exposure. Radiation safety education was provided to staff and we hypothesised that the education would reduce the frequency of adult fingers visualised on NICU chest radiographs. Two cross-sectional samples taken before and after the administration of the education were compared. We examined fingers visualised directly in the beam, fingers in the direct beam but eliminated by technologists editing the image, and fingers under the cones of the portable x-ray machine. There was a 46.2% reduction in fingers directly in the beam, 50.0% reduction in fingers directly in the beam but cropped out, and 68.4% reduction in fingers in the coned area. There was a 57.1% overall reduction in adult fingers visualised, which was statistically significant (Z value − 7.48, P < 0.0001). This study supports radiation safety education in minimising inappropriate occupational radiation exposure. (paper)

  14. Does Ad Hoc Coronary Intervention Reduce Radiation Exposure? – Analysis of 568 Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truffa, Márcio A. M., E-mail: marciotruffa@yahoo.com.br; Alves, Gustavo M.P.; Bernardi, Fernando; Esteves Filho, Antonio; Ribeiro, Expedito; Galon, Micheli Z.; Spadaro, André; Kajita, Luiz J.; Arrieta, Raul; Lemos, Pedro A. [Instituto do Coração - Hospital das Clínicas - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    Advantages and disadvantages of ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention have been described. However little is known about the radiation exposure of that procedure as compared with the staged intervention. To compare the radiation dose of the ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention with that of the staged procedure The dose-area product and total Kerma were measured, and the doses of the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were added. In addition, total fluoroscopic time and number of acquisitions were evaluated. A total of 568 consecutive patients were treated with ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 320) or staged percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 248). On admission, the ad hoc group had less hypertension (74.1% vs 81.9%; p = 0.035), dyslipidemia (57.8% vs. 67.7%; p = 0.02) and three-vessel disease (38.8% vs. 50.4%; p = 0.015). The ad hoc group was exposed to significantly lower radiation doses, even after baseline characteristic adjustment between both groups. The ad hoc group was exposed to a total dose-area product of 119.7 ± 70.7 Gycm{sup 2}, while the staged group, to 139.2 ± 75.3 Gycm{sup 2} (p < 0.001). Ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention reduced radiation exposure as compared with diagnostic and therapeutic procedures performed at two separate times.

  15. CFD simulations and reduced order modeling of a refrigerator compartment including radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, Ozgur; Oskay, Ruknettin; Paksoy, Akin; Aradag, Selin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Free convection in a refrigerator is simulated including radiation effects. ► Heat rates are affected drastically when radiation effects are considered. ► 95% of the flow energy can be represented by using one spatial POD mode. - Abstract: Considering the engineering problem of natural convection in domestic refrigerator applications, this study aims to simulate the fluid flow and temperature distribution in a single commercial refrigerator compartment by using the experimentally determined temperature values as the specified constant wall temperature boundary conditions. The free convection in refrigerator applications is evaluated as a three-dimensional (3D), turbulent, transient and coupled non-linear flow problem. Radiation heat transfer mode is also included in the analysis. According to the results, taking radiation effects into consideration does not change the temperature distribution inside the refrigerator significantly; however the heat rates are affected drastically. The flow inside the compartment is further analyzed with a reduced order modeling method called Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and the energy contents of several spatial and temporal modes that exist in the flow are examined. The results show that approximately 95% of all the flow energy can be represented by only using one spatial mode

  16. Does Ad Hoc Coronary Intervention Reduce Radiation Exposure? – Analysis of 568 Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truffa, Márcio A. M.; Alves, Gustavo M.P.; Bernardi, Fernando; Esteves Filho, Antonio; Ribeiro, Expedito; Galon, Micheli Z.; Spadaro, André; Kajita, Luiz J.; Arrieta, Raul; Lemos, Pedro A.

    2015-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention have been described. However little is known about the radiation exposure of that procedure as compared with the staged intervention. To compare the radiation dose of the ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention with that of the staged procedure The dose-area product and total Kerma were measured, and the doses of the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures were added. In addition, total fluoroscopic time and number of acquisitions were evaluated. A total of 568 consecutive patients were treated with ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 320) or staged percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 248). On admission, the ad hoc group had less hypertension (74.1% vs 81.9%; p = 0.035), dyslipidemia (57.8% vs. 67.7%; p = 0.02) and three-vessel disease (38.8% vs. 50.4%; p = 0.015). The ad hoc group was exposed to significantly lower radiation doses, even after baseline characteristic adjustment between both groups. The ad hoc group was exposed to a total dose-area product of 119.7 ± 70.7 Gycm 2 , while the staged group, to 139.2 ± 75.3 Gycm 2 (p < 0.001). Ad hoc percutaneous coronary intervention reduced radiation exposure as compared with diagnostic and therapeutic procedures performed at two separate times

  17. Radiation preservation with reduced nitrites of bacon and other cured meats - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, H.

    1987-01-01

    The main problem caused by nitrite as a preservative is the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines in bacon and other cured meats. This has led to a search for alternatives to the use of nitrite. Irradiation with reduced level of nitrite is a promising alternative to the use of current levels of nitrite. Radurization (radiation pasteurization) of bacon containing 20 to to 40 mg/kg of nitrite in evacuated packages, irradiated and stored at 4 degrees C, gives a product with good organoleptic qualities and extended shelf life of > 80 days vs. < days 30 days for the conventionally treated bacon. Radappertization (radiation sterilization) of bacon containing 20 mg/kg of nitrite at a dose of about 30 kGy, irradiated at -20 degrees or lower in evacuated packages, results in a product that is shelf stable for months to years at room temperature (∼ 25 degrees C). It has organoleptic properties comparable to commercial bacon in terms of color, flavor, odor and texture. Irradiation also reduces the nitrite and preformed nitrosamines present in bacon. Lower levels of nitrosamines are formed on cooking irradiated bacon containing presently used commercial levels of nitrite (120-150 mg/kg) and the levels of nitrosamines become negligible with 20 mg/kg of nitrite. Various aspects of preservation of bacon and other cured meats are reviewed in this report with emphasis on radiation processing. 357 refs

  18. Reduced anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing caused by biogenic new particle formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Hamish; Sengupta, Kamalika; Rap, Alexandru; Duplissy, Jonathan; Frege, Carla; Williamson, Christina; Heinritzi, Martin; Simon, Mario; Yan, Chao; Almeida, João; Tröstl, Jasmin; Nieminen, Tuomo; Ortega, Ismael K.; Wagner, Robert; Dunne, Eimear M.; Adamov, Alexey; Amorim, Antonio; Bernhammer, Anne-Kathrin; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Brilke, Sophia; Chen, Xuemeng; Craven, Jill S.; Dias, Antonio; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Fischer, Lukas; Flagan, Richard C.; Franchin, Alessandro; Fuchs, Claudia; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hoyle, Christopher R.; Jokinen, Tuija; Junninen, Heikki; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kim, Jaeseok; Kirkby, Jasper; Krapf, Manuel; Kürten, Andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; Molteni, Ugo; Monks, Sarah A.; Onnela, Antti; Peräkylä, Otso; Piel, Felix; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud P.; Pringle, Kirsty J.; Richards, Nigel A. D.; Rissanen, Matti P.; Rondo, Linda; Sarnela, Nina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Scott, Catherine E.; Seinfeld, John H.; Sharma, Sangeeta; Sipilä, Mikko; Steiner, Gerhard; Stozhkov, Yuri; Stratmann, Frank; Tomé, Antonio; Virtanen, Annele; Vogel, Alexander Lucas; Wagner, Andrea C.; Wagner, Paul E.; Weingartner, Ernest; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M.; Ye, Penglin; Zhang, Xuan; Hansel, Armin; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Baltensperger, Urs; Kulmala, Markku; Curtius, Joachim; Carslaw, Kenneth S.

    2016-10-01

    The magnitude of aerosol radiative forcing caused by anthropogenic emissions depends on the baseline state of the atmosphere under pristine preindustrial conditions. Measurements show that particle formation in atmospheric conditions can occur solely from biogenic vapors. Here, we evaluate the potential effect of this source of particles on preindustrial cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and aerosol-cloud radiative forcing over the industrial period. Model simulations show that the pure biogenic particle formation mechanism has a much larger relative effect on CCN concentrations in the preindustrial atmosphere than in the present atmosphere because of the lower aerosol concentrations. Consequently, preindustrial cloud albedo is increased more than under present day conditions, and therefore the cooling forcing of anthropogenic aerosols is reduced. The mechanism increases CCN concentrations by 20-100% over a large fraction of the preindustrial lower atmosphere, and the magnitude of annual global mean radiative forcing caused by changes of cloud albedo since 1750 is reduced by 0.22 W m-2 (27%) to -0.60 W m-2. Model uncertainties, relatively slow formation rates, and limited available ambient measurements make it difficult to establish the significance of a mechanism that has its dominant effect under preindustrial conditions. Our simulations predict more particle formation in the Amazon than is observed. However, the first observation of pure organic nucleation has now been reported for the free troposphere. Given the potentially significant effect on anthropogenic forcing, effort should be made to better understand such naturally driven aerosol processes.

  19. Drinking beer reduces radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monobe, Manami

    2002-01-01

    We here investigated and reported the effects of beer drinking on radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Human blood that was collected either before or after drinking a 700 ml beer was in vitro irradiated with 200 kVp X rays or 50 keV/μm carbon ions. The relation between the radiation dose and the aberration frequencies (fragments and dicentrics) was significantly (P<0.05) lower for lymphocytes collected 3 h after beer drinking than those before drinking. Fitting the dose response to a linear quadratic model showed that the alpha term of carbon ions was significantly (P<0.05) decreased by beer drinking. A decrease of dicentric formation was detected as early as 0.5 h after beer drinking, and lasted not shorter than 4.5 h. The mitotic index of lymphocytes was higher after beer drinking than before, indicating that a division delay would not be responsible for the low aberrations induced by beer drinking. An in vitro treatment of normal lymphocytes with 0.1 M ethanol, which corresponded to a concentration of 6-times higher than the maximum ethanol concentration in the blood after beer drinking, reduced the dicentric formation caused by X-ray irradiation, but not by carbon-ion irradiation. The beer-induced reduction of dicentric formation was not affected by serum. It is concluded that beer could contain non-ethanol elements that reduce the chromosome damage of lymphocytes induced by high-LET radiation. (author)

  20. Microdosimetric constraints on specific adaptation mechanisms to reduce DNA damage caused by ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, W.; Heusser, P.; Vijayalaxmi

    1990-01-01

    The protective effect of pre-exposure of lymphocytes to ionising radiation indicates the presence of 'adaptive repair' in mammalian cells. Microdosimetric considerations, however, raise some doubts on the advantage of such a cellular mechanism for specifically reducing the radiation damage caused by environmental exposures. Contrary to most chemicals which endanger the integrity of the mammalian genome, the local dose and dose rate from ionising radiation at the cellular level remain quite high, even at lowest exposures. A single electron or alpha particle passing through a cell nucleus already yields nuclear doses of up to about 3 mGy and 400 mGy, respectively. Macroscopic doses below these nuclear doses from a single event will only reduce the fraction of cell nuclei encountering the passage of a particle but not the dose or dose rate in the affected volume. At environmental doses in the range of 1 to 5 mGy per annum, the time between two consecutive hits in a specific cell nucleus is in the range of months to years. Very low concentrations of bleomycin, a drug with high affinity to DNA, also triggers an adaptive response. This points to a more general stress response mechanism which may benefit the cell even at environmental levels of radioactivity, e.g. by protecting the integrity of DNA from attacks by chemicals, by endogenous radicals, by acids from anoxia, etc. (author)

  1. Reduced anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing caused by biogenic new particle formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Hamish; Sengupta, Kamalika; Rap, Alexandru; Duplissy, Jonathan; Frege, Carla; Williamson, Christina; Heinritzi, Martin; Simon, Mario; Yan, Chao; Almeida, João; Tröstl, Jasmin; Nieminen, Tuomo; Ortega, Ismael K; Wagner, Robert; Dunne, Eimear M; Adamov, Alexey; Amorim, Antonio; Bernhammer, Anne-Kathrin; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Brilke, Sophia; Chen, Xuemeng; Craven, Jill S; Dias, Antonio; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Fischer, Lukas; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Fuchs, Claudia; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hoyle, Christopher R; Jokinen, Tuija; Junninen, Heikki; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kim, Jaeseok; Kirkby, Jasper; Krapf, Manuel; Kürten, Andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; Molteni, Ugo; Monks, Sarah A; Onnela, Antti; Peräkylä, Otso; Piel, Felix; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud P; Pringle, Kirsty J; Richards, Nigel A D; Rissanen, Matti P; Rondo, Linda; Sarnela, Nina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Scott, Catherine E; Seinfeld, John H; Sharma, Sangeeta; Sipilä, Mikko; Steiner, Gerhard; Stozhkov, Yuri; Stratmann, Frank; Tomé, Antonio; Virtanen, Annele; Vogel, Alexander Lucas; Wagner, Andrea C; Wagner, Paul E; Weingartner, Ernest; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M; Ye, Penglin; Zhang, Xuan; Hansel, Armin; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M; Worsnop, Douglas R; Baltensperger, Urs; Kulmala, Markku; Curtius, Joachim; Carslaw, Kenneth S

    2016-10-25

    The magnitude of aerosol radiative forcing caused by anthropogenic emissions depends on the baseline state of the atmosphere under pristine preindustrial conditions. Measurements show that particle formation in atmospheric conditions can occur solely from biogenic vapors. Here, we evaluate the potential effect of this source of particles on preindustrial cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and aerosol-cloud radiative forcing over the industrial period. Model simulations show that the pure biogenic particle formation mechanism has a much larger relative effect on CCN concentrations in the preindustrial atmosphere than in the present atmosphere because of the lower aerosol concentrations. Consequently, preindustrial cloud albedo is increased more than under present day conditions, and therefore the cooling forcing of anthropogenic aerosols is reduced. The mechanism increases CCN concentrations by 20-100% over a large fraction of the preindustrial lower atmosphere, and the magnitude of annual global mean radiative forcing caused by changes of cloud albedo since 1750 is reduced by [Formula: see text] (27%) to [Formula: see text] Model uncertainties, relatively slow formation rates, and limited available ambient measurements make it difficult to establish the significance of a mechanism that has its dominant effect under preindustrial conditions. Our simulations predict more particle formation in the Amazon than is observed. However, the first observation of pure organic nucleation has now been reported for the free troposphere. Given the potentially significant effect on anthropogenic forcing, effort should be made to better understand such naturally driven aerosol processes.

  2. Temporary reduction of radiation does not permanently reduce flavonoid glycosides and phenolic acids in red lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christine; Kläring, Hans-Peter; Kroh, Lothar W; Krumbein, Angelika

    2013-11-01

    Applying transparent daytime screens in greenhouses in cool seasons reduces the amount of energy needed for heating, but also the solar radiation available for crops. This can reduce yield and product quality of leafy vegetables because of constrained photosynthesis and altered biosynthesis. To study this, we cultivated five-week old red leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) for four weeks in growth chambers under a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 225 and 410 μmol m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Some plants were exchanged between radiation intensities after two weeks. We investigated the concentration of five flavonoid glycosides, three caffeic acid derivatives, reducing sugars as well as plant growth. Remarkably, no significant influence of radiation intensity on the concentration of phenolic acids or anthocyanin glycosides was observed. In contrast, quercetin and luteolin glycoside concentration was between 14 and 34% lower in plants growing under lower compared to higher PPFD. Already after two weeks of cultivation, plants grown under lower PPFD contained less quercetin and luteolin glycosides but they completely compensated if subsequently transferred to higher PPFD until harvest. Hence, marketable lettuce heads which experienced temporary shading followed by an unshaded phase did not contain lower concentrations of flavonoid glycosides or phenolic acids. Also, there was no reduction of head mass in this variant. Our results suggest that saving energy in early growth stages is feasible without losses in yield or health promoting phenolic substances. In addition, there was a close correlation between the concentration of reducing sugars and some flavonoid glycosides, indicating a close metabolic connection between their biosynthesis and the availability of carbohydrates. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  3. Ambient UV-B radiation reduces PSII performance and net photosynthesis in high Arctic Salix arctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Ambient ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation potentially impacts the photosynthetic performance of high Arctic plants. We conducted an UV-B exclusion experiment in a dwarf shrub heath in NE Greenland (74°N), with open control, filter control, UV-B filtering and UV-AB filtering, all in combination......, nitrogen and UV-B absorbing compounds. Compared to a 60% reduced UV-B irradiance, the ambient solar UV-B reduced net photosynthesis in Salix arctica leaves fixed in the 45° position which exposed leaves to maximum natural irradiance. Also a reduced Calvin Cycle capacity was found, i.e. the maximum rate...... across position in the vegetation. These findings add to the evidence that the ambient solar UV-B currently is a significant stress factor for plants in high Arctic Greenland....

  4. Radiation effects on low cycle fatigue properties of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, T.; Tanigawa, H.; Ando, M.; Kohyama, A.; Katoh, Y.; Narui, M.

    2002-01-01

    The reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel, RAFs F82H IEA heat has been fatigue-tested at ambient temperature under diametral strain controlled conditions. In order to evaluate the effects of radiation damage and transmutation damage on fatigue characteristics, post-neutron irradiation and post-helium ion implantation fatigue tests were carried out. Fracture surfaces and fatigue crack initiation on the specimen surface were observed by SEM. Low-temperature irradiation caused an increase in stress amplitude and a reduction in fatigue lifetime corresponding to radiation hardening and loss of ductility. Neutron irradiated samples showed brittle fracture surface, and it was significant for large strain tests. On the other hand, helium implantation caused delay of cyclic softening. However, brittle crack initiation and propagation did not depend on the helium concentration profiles

  5. NPP physical protection and information security as necessary conditions for reducing nuclear and radiation accident risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogosov, O.Yu.; Derevyanko, O.V.

    2017-01-01

    The paper focuses on the fact that nuclear failures and incidents can lead to radioactive contamination of NPP premises. Nuclear and radiation hazard may be caused by malefactors in technological processes when applying computers or inadequate control in case of insufficient level of information security.The researchers performed analysis of factors for reducing risks of nuclear and radiation accidents at NPPs considering specific conditions related to information security of NPP physical protection systems. The paper considers connection of heterogeneous factors that may increase the risk of NPP accidents, possibilities and ways to improve adequate modelling of security of information with limited access directly related to the functioning of automated set of engineering and technical means for NPP physical protection. Within the overall Hutchinson formalization, it is proposed to include additional functional dependencies on indicators specific for NPPs into analysis algorithms.

  6. Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase Upregulation by Phenylephrine Reduces Radiation Injury in Submandibular Gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Bin; Han, Lichi; Wang, Xinyue; Tang, Ling; Li, Kailiang; Li, Xiuxiu; Zhao, Xibo; Xia, Miaomiao; Zhou, Xixi; Zhang, Fuyin; Liu, Ke Jian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy for head and neck cancer commonly leads to radiation sialadenitis. Emerging evidence has indicated that phenylephrine pretreatment reduces radiosensitivity in the salivary gland; however, the underlying cytoprotective mechanism remains unclear. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is not only a key enzyme for the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide salvage pathway, but also a cytokine participating in cell survival, metabolism, and longevity, with a broad effect on cellular functions in physiology and pathology. However, the regulatory events of NAMPT in response to the irradiated salivary gland are unknown. Methods and Materials: The cell viability of primary cultured submandibular gland cells was determined using the PrestoBlue assay. NAMPT expression was measured using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting in vitro and in vivo. Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) and phosphorylated Akt protein levels were examined by Western blotting. The cellular locations of NAMPT and SIRT1 were detected by immunohistochemistry. NAMPT promoter activity was assessed using the luciferase reporter gene assay. Results: NAMPT was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of granular convoluted tubule cells and ductal cells in normal submandibular glands. mRNA and protein expression of NAMPT was downregulated after radiation but upregulated with phenylephrine pretreatment both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, the protein expression of phosphorylated Akt and SIRT1 was decreased in irradiated glands, and phenylephrine pretreatment restored the expression of both. SIRT1 was mainly located in the cell nucleus and cytoplasm in the normal submandibular gland. Phenylephrine dramatically enhanced the expression of SIRT1, which was significantly reduced by radiation. Furthermore, phenylephrine induced a marked increase of NAMPT promoter activity. Conclusions: These findings reveal the regulatory mechanisms of NAMPT expression

  7. Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase Upregulation by Phenylephrine Reduces Radiation Injury in Submandibular Gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Bin, E-mail: xiangbin72@163.com [Laboratory of Oral and Maxillofacial Disease, Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian (China); Han, Lichi [Department of Oral Medicine and Medical Research Center of Medical College, Dalian University, Dalian (China); Wang, Xinyue [Laboratory of Oral and Maxillofacial Disease, Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian (China); Tang, Ling [Life Sciences and Technology College, Dalian University, Dalian (China); Li, Kailiang [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian (China); Li, Xiuxiu [Department of Oral Medicine and Medical Research Center of Medical College, Dalian University, Dalian (China); Zhao, Xibo [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian (China); Xia, Miaomiao [Department of Oral Medicine and Medical Research Center of Medical College, Dalian University, Dalian (China); Zhou, Xixi [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico (United States); Zhang, Fuyin [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian (China); Liu, Ke Jian, E-mail: kliu@salud.unm.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy for head and neck cancer commonly leads to radiation sialadenitis. Emerging evidence has indicated that phenylephrine pretreatment reduces radiosensitivity in the salivary gland; however, the underlying cytoprotective mechanism remains unclear. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is not only a key enzyme for the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide salvage pathway, but also a cytokine participating in cell survival, metabolism, and longevity, with a broad effect on cellular functions in physiology and pathology. However, the regulatory events of NAMPT in response to the irradiated salivary gland are unknown. Methods and Materials: The cell viability of primary cultured submandibular gland cells was determined using the PrestoBlue assay. NAMPT expression was measured using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting in vitro and in vivo. Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) and phosphorylated Akt protein levels were examined by Western blotting. The cellular locations of NAMPT and SIRT1 were detected by immunohistochemistry. NAMPT promoter activity was assessed using the luciferase reporter gene assay. Results: NAMPT was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of granular convoluted tubule cells and ductal cells in normal submandibular glands. mRNA and protein expression of NAMPT was downregulated after radiation but upregulated with phenylephrine pretreatment both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, the protein expression of phosphorylated Akt and SIRT1 was decreased in irradiated glands, and phenylephrine pretreatment restored the expression of both. SIRT1 was mainly located in the cell nucleus and cytoplasm in the normal submandibular gland. Phenylephrine dramatically enhanced the expression of SIRT1, which was significantly reduced by radiation. Furthermore, phenylephrine induced a marked increase of NAMPT promoter activity. Conclusions: These findings reveal the regulatory mechanisms of NAMPT expression

  8. A new approach to reduce uncertainties in space radiation cancer risk predictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis A Cucinotta

    Full Text Available The prediction of space radiation induced cancer risk carries large uncertainties with two of the largest uncertainties being radiation quality and dose-rate effects. In risk models the ratio of the quality factor (QF to the dose and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factor (DDREF parameter is used to scale organ doses for cosmic ray proton and high charge and energy (HZE particles to a hazard rate for γ-rays derived from human epidemiology data. In previous work, particle track structure concepts were used to formulate a space radiation QF function that is dependent on particle charge number Z, and kinetic energy per atomic mass unit, E. QF uncertainties where represented by subjective probability distribution functions (PDF for the three QF parameters that described its maximum value and shape parameters for Z and E dependences. Here I report on an analysis of a maximum QF parameter and its uncertainty using mouse tumor induction data. Because experimental data for risks at low doses of γ-rays are highly uncertain which impacts estimates of maximum values of relative biological effectiveness (RBEmax, I developed an alternate QF model, denoted QFγAcute where QFs are defined relative to higher acute γ-ray doses (0.5 to 3 Gy. The alternate model reduces the dependence of risk projections on the DDREF, however a DDREF is still needed for risk estimates for high-energy protons and other primary or secondary sparsely ionizing space radiation components. Risk projections (upper confidence levels (CL for space missions show a reduction of about 40% (CL∼50% using the QFγAcute model compared the QFs based on RBEmax and about 25% (CL∼35% compared to previous estimates. In addition, I discuss how a possible qualitative difference leading to increased tumor lethality for HZE particles compared to low LET radiation and background tumors remains a large uncertainty in risk estimates.

  9. Reducing Radiation Dose in Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Using Image Noise Reduction Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastrati, Mirlind; Langenbrink, Lukas; Piatkowski, Michal; Michaelsen, Jochen; Reimann, Doris; Hoffmann, Rainer

    2016-08-01

    This study sought to quantitatively evaluate the reduction of radiation dose in coronary angiography and angioplasty with the use of image noise reduction technology in a routine clinical setting. Radiation dose data from consecutive 605 coronary procedures (397 consecutive coronary angiograms and 208 consecutive coronary interventions) performed from October 2014 to April 2015 on a coronary angiography system with noise reduction technology (Allura Clarity IQ) were collected. For comparison, radiation dose data from consecutive 695 coronary procedures (435 coronary angiograms and 260 coronary interventions) performed on a conventional coronary angiography system from October 2013 to April 2014 were evaluated. Patient radiation dosage was evaluated based on the cumulative dose area product. Operators and operator practice did not change between the 2 evaluated periods. Patient characteristics were collected to evaluate similarity of patient groups. Image quality was evaluated on a 5-grade scale in 30 patients of each group. There were no significant differences between the 2 evaluated groups in gender, age, weight, and fluoroscopy time (6.8 ± 6.1 vs 6.9 ± 6.3 minutes, not significant). The dose area product was reduced from 3195 ± 2359 to 983 ± 972 cGycm(2) (65%, p technology. Image quality was graded as similar between the evaluated systems (4.0 ± 0.7 vs 4.2 ± 0.6, not significant). In conclusion, a new x-ray technology with image noise reduction algorithm provides a substantial reduction in radiation exposure without the need to prolong the procedure or fluoroscopy time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Solar Ultraviolet-B Radiation Increases Phenolic Content and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power in Avena sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T. Ruhland

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the influence of solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B; 280-320 nm on the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm, bulk-soluble phenolic concentrations, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and growth of Avena sativa. Treatments involved placing filters on frames over potted plants that reduced levels of biologically effective UV-B by either 71% (reduced UV-B or by 19% (near-ambient UV-B over the 52 day experiment (04 July - 25 August 2002. Plants growing under near-ambient UV-B had 38% less total biomass than those under reduced UV-B. The reduction in biomass was mainly the result of a 24% lower leaf elongation rate, resulting in shorter leaves and less total leaf area than plants under reduced UV-B. In addition, plants growing under near-ambient UV-B had up to 17% lower Fv/Fm values early in the experiment, and this effect declined with plant age. Concentrations of bulk-soluble phenolics and FRAP values were 17 and 24% higher under near-ambient UV-B than under reduced UV-B, respectively. There was a positive relationship between bulk-soluble phenolic concentrations and FRAP values. There were no UV-B effects on concentrations of carotenoids (carotenes + xanthophylls.

  11. Reducing Anesthesia and Health Care Cost Through Utilization of Child Life Specialists in Pediatric Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center and Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, Florida (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Todd, Kimberly E.; Oakley, Heather; Bradley, Julie A.; Rotondo, Ronny L.; Morris, Christopher G.; Klein, Stuart; Mendenhall, Nancy P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Indelicato, Daniel J., E-mail: dindelicato@floridaproton.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effectiveness of a certified child life specialist (CCLS) in reducing the frequency of daily anesthesia at our institution, and to quantify the potential health care payer cost savings of CCLS utilization in the United States. Methods and Materials: From 2006 to 2014, 738 children (aged ≤21 years) were treated with radiation therapy at our institution. We retrospectively analyzed the frequency of daily anesthesia before and after hiring a CCLS in 2011 after excluding patients aged 0 to 2 and >12 years. In the analyzed cohort of 425 patients the median age was 7.6 years (range, 3-12.9 years). For the pre-CCLS period the overall median age was 7.5 years; for the post-CCLS period the median age was 7.7 years. An average 6-week course of pediatric anesthesia for radiation therapy costs $50,000 in charges to the payer. The average annual cost to employ one CCLS is approximately $50,000. Results: Before employing a CCLS, 69 of 121 children (57%) aged 3 to 12 years required daily anesthesia, including 33 of 53 children (62.3%) aged 5 to 8 years. After employing a CCLS, 124 of 304 children (40.8%) aged 3 to 12 years required daily anesthesia, including only 34 of 118 children (28.8%) aged 5 to 8 years (P<.0001). With a >16% absolute reduction in anesthesia use after employment of a CCLS, the health care payer cost savings was approaching $50,000 per 6 children aged 3 to 12 years treated annually with radiation therapy in our institution. This reduction resulted in a total of only 6 children aged 3 to 12 years required anesthesia to be treated per year at our center to achieve nearly break-even cost savings to the health care payer if the payer were to subsidize the employment expense of a CCLS. Overall, the CCLS intervention can provide an average annualized health care payer cost savings of “$[(anesthesia cost to payer during radiation therapy course/6) − (CCLS expense to payer/N)]” per child (N) treated with radiation

  12. Reducing Anesthesia and Health Care Cost Through Utilization of Child Life Specialists in Pediatric Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Michael T; Todd, Kimberly E; Oakley, Heather; Bradley, Julie A; Rotondo, Ronny L; Morris, Christopher G; Klein, Stuart; Mendenhall, Nancy P; Indelicato, Daniel J

    2016-10-01

    To analyze the effectiveness of a certified child life specialist (CCLS) in reducing the frequency of daily anesthesia at our institution, and to quantify the potential health care payer cost savings of CCLS utilization in the United States. From 2006 to 2014, 738 children (aged ≤21 years) were treated with radiation therapy at our institution. We retrospectively analyzed the frequency of daily anesthesia before and after hiring a CCLS in 2011 after excluding patients aged 0 to 2 and >12 years. In the analyzed cohort of 425 patients the median age was 7.6 years (range, 3-12.9 years). For the pre-CCLS period the overall median age was 7.5 years; for the post-CCLS period the median age was 7.7 years. An average 6-week course of pediatric anesthesia for radiation therapy costs $50,000 in charges to the payer. The average annual cost to employ one CCLS is approximately $50,000. Before employing a CCLS, 69 of 121 children (57%) aged 3 to 12 years required daily anesthesia, including 33 of 53 children (62.3%) aged 5 to 8 years. After employing a CCLS, 124 of 304 children (40.8%) aged 3 to 12 years required daily anesthesia, including only 34 of 118 children (28.8%) aged 5 to 8 years (P16% absolute reduction in anesthesia use after employment of a CCLS, the health care payer cost savings was approaching $50,000 per 6 children aged 3 to 12 years treated annually with radiation therapy in our institution. This reduction resulted in a total of only 6 children aged 3 to 12 years required anesthesia to be treated per year at our center to achieve nearly break-even cost savings to the health care payer if the payer were to subsidize the employment expense of a CCLS. Overall, the CCLS intervention can provide an average annualized health care payer cost savings of "$[(anesthesia cost to payer during radiation therapy course/6) - (CCLS expense to payer/N)]" per child (N) treated with radiation therapy, where N equals the number of children aged 3 to 12

  13. Reducing Anesthesia and Health Care Cost Through Utilization of Child Life Specialists in Pediatric Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Michael T.; Todd, Kimberly E.; Oakley, Heather; Bradley, Julie A.; Rotondo, Ronny L.; Morris, Christopher G.; Klein, Stuart; Mendenhall, Nancy P.; Indelicato, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effectiveness of a certified child life specialist (CCLS) in reducing the frequency of daily anesthesia at our institution, and to quantify the potential health care payer cost savings of CCLS utilization in the United States. Methods and Materials: From 2006 to 2014, 738 children (aged ≤21 years) were treated with radiation therapy at our institution. We retrospectively analyzed the frequency of daily anesthesia before and after hiring a CCLS in 2011 after excluding patients aged 0 to 2 and >12 years. In the analyzed cohort of 425 patients the median age was 7.6 years (range, 3-12.9 years). For the pre-CCLS period the overall median age was 7.5 years; for the post-CCLS period the median age was 7.7 years. An average 6-week course of pediatric anesthesia for radiation therapy costs $50,000 in charges to the payer. The average annual cost to employ one CCLS is approximately $50,000. Results: Before employing a CCLS, 69 of 121 children (57%) aged 3 to 12 years required daily anesthesia, including 33 of 53 children (62.3%) aged 5 to 8 years. After employing a CCLS, 124 of 304 children (40.8%) aged 3 to 12 years required daily anesthesia, including only 34 of 118 children (28.8%) aged 5 to 8 years (P 16% absolute reduction in anesthesia use after employment of a CCLS, the health care payer cost savings was approaching $50,000 per 6 children aged 3 to 12 years treated annually with radiation therapy in our institution. This reduction resulted in a total of only 6 children aged 3 to 12 years required anesthesia to be treated per year at our center to achieve nearly break-even cost savings to the health care payer if the payer were to subsidize the employment expense of a CCLS. Overall, the CCLS intervention can provide an average annualized health care payer cost savings of “$[(anesthesia cost to payer during radiation therapy course/6) − (CCLS expense to payer/N)]” per child (N) treated with radiation therapy, where N

  14. [Effects of reduced solar radiation on winter wheat flag leaf net photosynthetic rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, You-Fei; Ni, Yan-Li; Mai, Bo-Ru; Wu, Rong-Jun; Feng, Yan; Sun, Jian; Li, Jian; Xu, Jing-Xin

    2011-06-01

    Taking winter wheat Triticum aestivum L. (cv. Yangmai 13) as test material, a field experiment was conducted in Nanjing City to study the effects of simulated reduced solar radiation on the diurnal variation of winter wheat flag leaf photosynthetic rate and the main affecting factors. Five treatments were installed, i. e., 15% (T15), 20% (T20) , 40% (T40), 60% (T60), and 100% (CK) of total incident solar radiation. Reduced solar irradiance increased the chlorophyll and lutein contents significantly, but decreased the net photosynthetic rate (Pn). Under different solar irradiance, the diurnal variation of Pn had greater difference, and the daily maximum Pn was in the order of CK > T60 > T40 > T 20 > T15. In CK, the Pn exhibited a double peak diurnal curve; while in the other four treatments, the Pn showed a single peak curve, and the peak was lagged behind that of CK. Correlation analysis showed that reduced solar irradiance was the main factor affecting the diurnal variation of Pn, but the physiological parameters also played important roles in determining the diurnal variation of Pn. In treatments T60 and T40, the photosynthesis active radiation (PAR), leaf temperature (T1) , stomatal conductance (Gs) , and transpiration rate (Tr) were significantly positively correlated with Pn, suggesting their positive effects on Pn. The intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal limitation (Ls) had significant negative correlations with Pn in treatments T60 and T40 but significant positive correlations with Pn in treatments T20 and T15, implying that the Ci and Ls had negative (or positive) effects on Pn when the solar irradiance was higher (or lower) than 40% of incident solar irradiance.

  15. Reducing radiation doses to the breast, thyroid and gonads during diagnostic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weatherburn, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    The measurement of doses to the gonads during radiography of the pelvis is discussed. Phantom measurements to estimate doses to the ovaries in antero-posterior (AP) and postero-anterior (PA) projections of the pelvis showed that the dose is 15% of the skin entry dose in the AP projection and 9% in the PA projection. The air gap technique and its applications in reducing radiation doses to the gonads, breast and thyroid is described. A summary of dose reduction factors for these radiosensitive organs achieved by modified radiographic techniques in radiography of the chest, pelvis, spine and skull is given. (U.K.)

  16. 76 FR 6692 - Radiation Sources on Army Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... possession of ionizing radiation sources by non-Army entities (including their civilian contractors) on an... Radiation Permit (ARP) from the garrison commander to use, store, or possess ionizing radiation sources on an Army installation. For the purpose of this rule, ``ionizing radiation source'' means any source...

  17. French experience to reduce radiation field build-up and improve nuclear fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomazet, J.; Beslu, P.; Noe, M.; Stora, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    Over these last years, considerable information has been obtained on primary coolant chemistry, activity build-up and nuclear fuel behavior. As of December 1982, twenty three 900 MWe type reactors were in operation in France and about 1.3 millions of rods had been loaded in power reactors among which six regions of 17x17 fuel assemblies had completed successfully their third cycle of irradiation with a lead assembly burn-up of 37,000 MWd/MtU. Visual examination shows that crud deposited on fuel clads is mostly thin or inexistent. This result is due to the appropriate B/Li coolant concentration control which is currently applied in French reactors since several years. Correlatively, radiation field build-up is minimized and excessive external corrosion has never been observed. Nevertheless for higher coolant temperature plants, where occurrence of nucleate boiling could increase crud deposition, and for load follow and high burn-up operation, an extensive programme is performed jointly by Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Electricite de France, FRAMATOME and FRAGEMA to reduce even more the radiation field. This programme, described in the paper, includes: loop tests; on site chemical and radiochemical surveys; radiation field measurements; on site fuel examination crud-scrapping, crud analysis and oxide thickness measurements; hot cells examination. Some key results are presented and discussed in this paper. (author)

  18. The indirect effect of radiation reduces the repair fidelity of NHEJ as verified in repair deficient CHO cell lines exposed to different radiation qualities and potassium bromate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajinskis, Ainars; Olsson, Gunilla; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of DNA lesions induced by ionizing radiation is mainly dependent on radiation quality, where the indirect action of radiation may contribute to different extent depending on the type of radiation under study. The effect of indirect action of radiation can be investigated by using agents that induce oxidative DNA damage or by applying free radical scavengers. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the indirect effect of radiation for the repair fidelity of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination repair (HRR) and base excision repair (BER) when DNA damage of different complexity was induced by gamma radiation, alpha particles or from base damages (8-oxo-dG) induced by potassium bromate (KBrO 3 ). CHO cells lines deficient in XRCC3 (HRR) irs1SF, XRCC7 (NHEJ) V3-3 and XRCC1 (BER) EM9 were irradiated in the absence or presence of the free radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The endpoints investigated included rate of cell proliferation by the DRAG assay, clonogenic cell survival and the level of primary DNA damage by the comet assay. The results revealed that the indirect effect of low-LET radiation significantly reduced the repair fidelity of both NHEJ and HRR pathways. For high-LET radiation the indirect effect of radiation also significantly reduced the repair fidelity for the repair deficient cell lines. The results suggest further that the repair fidelity of the error prone NHEJ repair pathway is more impaired by the indirect effect of high-LET radiation relative to the other repair pathways studied. The response to bromate observed for the two DSB repair deficient cell lines strongly support earlier studies that bromate induces complex DNA damages. The significantly reduced repair fidelity of irs1SF and V3-3 suggests that NHEJ as well as HRR are needed for the repair, and that complex DSBs are formed after bromate exposure.

  19. The indirect effect of radiation reduces the repair fidelity of NHEJ as verified in repair deficient CHO cell lines exposed to different radiation qualities and potassium bromate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajinskis, Ainars, E-mail: ainars.bajinskis@gmt.su.se [Centre for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, S-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Olsson, Gunilla; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats [Centre for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, S-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-03-01

    The complexity of DNA lesions induced by ionizing radiation is mainly dependent on radiation quality, where the indirect action of radiation may contribute to different extent depending on the type of radiation under study. The effect of indirect action of radiation can be investigated by using agents that induce oxidative DNA damage or by applying free radical scavengers. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the indirect effect of radiation for the repair fidelity of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination repair (HRR) and base excision repair (BER) when DNA damage of different complexity was induced by gamma radiation, alpha particles or from base damages (8-oxo-dG) induced by potassium bromate (KBrO{sub 3}). CHO cells lines deficient in XRCC3 (HRR) irs1SF, XRCC7 (NHEJ) V3-3 and XRCC1 (BER) EM9 were irradiated in the absence or presence of the free radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The endpoints investigated included rate of cell proliferation by the DRAG assay, clonogenic cell survival and the level of primary DNA damage by the comet assay. The results revealed that the indirect effect of low-LET radiation significantly reduced the repair fidelity of both NHEJ and HRR pathways. For high-LET radiation the indirect effect of radiation also significantly reduced the repair fidelity for the repair deficient cell lines. The results suggest further that the repair fidelity of the error prone NHEJ repair pathway is more impaired by the indirect effect of high-LET radiation relative to the other repair pathways studied. The response to bromate observed for the two DSB repair deficient cell lines strongly support earlier studies that bromate induces complex DNA damages. The significantly reduced repair fidelity of irs1SF and V3-3 suggests that NHEJ as well as HRR are needed for the repair, and that complex DSBs are formed after bromate exposure.

  20. History of measures taken to reduce radiation exposure at Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondou, Masashi; Takagi, Nobuyuki; Yabushita, Kazuo; Dekijima, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station currently has five reactors, Units 1 to 5. Units 1 and 2 halted commercial operation in January 2009 and are now being prepared for decommissioning. Units 3 to 5 are operating at the rated thermal output with the gross electrical output of 3504 MWe. Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station has been operating for about 30 years since Unit 1 started up in 1976. Various measures have been taken to control water chemistry: for controlling SCC in the core internals and structural materials, hydrogen injection and noble metal injection were implemented; and to reduce radiation exposure for workers, condensate filter demineralizers were added, hollow fiber filters and pleated filters were installed in the condensate cleanup system, and zinc injection was performed. This paper describes measures taken at Hamaoka to reduce exposure in terms of water chemistry and techniques to monitor ion impurities in the reactor water. (author)

  1. Disease Control After Reduced Volume Conformal and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Radiological Sciences, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Kun, Larry E.; Hua, Chia-Ho [St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Radiological Sciences, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping [St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Biostatistics, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Sanford, Robert A.; Boop, Frederick A. [Semmes Murphey Neurologic and Spine Institute, Neurosurgery, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To estimate the rate of disease control after conformal radiation therapy using reduced clinical target volume (CTV) margins and to determine factors that predict for tumor progression. Methods and Materials: Eighty-eight children (median age, 8.5 years; range, 3.2-17.6 years) received conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy between 1998 and 2009. The study group included those prospectively treated from 1998 to 2003, using a 10-mm CTV, defined as the margin surrounding the solid and cystic tumor targeted to receive the prescription dose of 54 Gy. The CTV margin was subsequently reduced after 2003, yielding 2 groups of patients: those treated with a CTV margin greater than 5 mm (n=26) and those treated with a CTV margin less than or equal to 5 mm (n=62). Disease progression was estimated on the basis of additional variables including sex, race, extent of resection, tumor interventions, target volume margins, and frequency of weekly surveillance magnetic resonance (MR) imaging during radiation therapy. Median follow-up was 5 years. Results: There was no difference between progression-free survival rates based on CTV margins (>5 mm vs ≤5 mm) at 5 years (88.1% ± 6.3% vs 96.2% ± 4.4% [P=.6386]). There were no differences based on planning target volume (PTV) margins (or combined CTV plus PTV margins). The PTV was systematically reduced from 5 to 3 mm during the time period of the study. Factors predictive of superior progression-free survival included Caucasian race (P=.0175), no requirement for cerebrospinal fluid shunting (P=.0066), and number of surveillance imaging studies during treatment (P=.0216). Patients whose treatment protocol included a higher number of weekly surveillance MR imaging evaluations had a lower rate of tumor progression. Conclusions: These results suggest that targeted volume reductions for radiation therapy using smaller margins are feasible and safe but require careful monitoring. We are currently investigating

  2. Electron beam radiation of dried fruits and nuts to reduce yeast and mold bioburden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ic, Erhan; Kottapalli, Bala; Maxim, Joseph; Pillai, Suresh D

    2007-04-01

    Dried fruits and nuts make up a significant portion of the commodities traded globally, and the presence of yeasts and molds on dried fruits and nuts can be a public health risk because of the potential for exposure to toxigenic fungi. Since current postharvest treatment technologies are rather limited for dried fruits and nuts, electron beam (E-beam) radiation experiments were performed to determine the doses required to reduce the yeast and mold bioburden of raisins, walnuts, and dates. The indigenous yeast and mold bioburden on a select number of commodities sold at retail ranged from 10(2) to 10(3) CFU/g. E-beam inactivation kinetics based on the linear model suggest that the decimal reduction dose required to eliminate 90% of the microbial population (D10-value) of these indigenous fungal populations ranges from 1.09 to 1.59 kGy. Some samples, however, exhibited inactivation kinetics that were better modeled by a quadratic model. The results indicate that different commodities can contain molds and yeasts of varying resistance to ionizing radiation. It is thus essential for the dried fruit and nut industry to determine empirically the minimum E-beam dose that is capable of reducing or eliminating the bioburden of yeasts and molds in their specific commodities.

  3. Reduced radiation exposure to the mammary glands in thoracic computed tomography using organ-based tube-current modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munechika, Jiro; Ohgiya, Yoshimitsu; Gokan, Takehiko; Hashimoto, Toshi; Iwai, Tsugunori

    2013-01-01

    Organ-based tube-current modulation has been used to reduce radiation exposure to specific organs. However, there are no reports yet published on reducing radiation exposure in clinical cases. In this study, we assessed the reduction in radiation exposure to the mammary glands during thoracic computed tomography (CT) using X-CARE. In a phantom experiment, the use of X-CARE reduced radiation exposure at the midline of the precordial region by a maximum of 45.1%. In our corresponding clinical study, CT was performed using X-CARE in 15 patients, and without X-CARE in another 15. Compared to the non-X-CARE group, radiation exposure was reduced in the X-CARE group at the midline of the precordial region by 22.3% (P 0.05). X-CARE thus reduced radiation exposure at the midline of the precordial region and allowed us to obtain consistent CT values without increasing noise. However, this study revealed increases in radiation exposure at the lateral sides of the breasts. It is conceivable that patients' breasts were laterally displaced by gravity under the standard thoracic imaging conditions. Further studies that consider factors such as body size and adjustment of imaging conditions may be needed in the future. (author)

  4. Reduced H3K27me3 expression in radiation-associated angiosarcoma of the breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mentzel, Thomas; Kiss, Katalin

    2018-01-01

    The diagnosis of radiation-associated angiosarcoma is challenging and there are overlapping clinicopathological features between radiation-associated benign, atypical and malignant vascular lesions. It has been shown convincingly, that the majority of radiation-associated angiosarcomas are charac...

  5. Reducing Radiation Dose in Adult Head CT using Iterative Reconstruction - A Clinical Study in 177 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, D; Kahn, J; Huizing, L; Wiener, E; Grupp, U; Böning, G; Ghadjar, P; Renz, D M; Streitparth, F

    2016-02-01

    To assess how ASIR (adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction) contributes to dose reduction and affects image quality of non-contrast cranial computed tomography (cCT). Non-contrast emergency CT scans of the head acquired in 177 patients were evaluated. The scans were acquired and processed using four different protocols: Group A (control): 120 kV, FBP (filtered back projection) n = 71; group B1: 120 kV, scan and reconstruction performed with 20 % ASIR (blending of 20 % ASIR and 80 % FBP), n = 86; group B2: raw data from group B1 reconstructed using a blending of 40 % ASIR and 60 % FBP, n = 74; group C1: 120 kV, scan and reconstruction performed with 30 % ASIR, n = 20; group C2: raw data from group C1 reconstructed using a blending of 50 % ASIR and 50 % FBP, n = 20. The effective dose was calculated. Image quality was assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Compared to group A, groups B1/2 and C1/2 showed a significantly reduced effective dose of 40.4 % and 73.3 % (p ASIR makes it possible to reduce radiation significantly while maintaining adequate image quality in non-contrast head CT, which may be particularly useful for younger patients in an emergency setting and in follow-up. ASIR may reduce radiation significantly while maintaining adequate image quality. cCT protocol with 20 % ASIR and 40 %ASIR/60 %FBP blending is adequate for everyday clinical use. cCT protocol with 30 % ASIR and 50 %ASIR/50 %FBP blending is adequate for follow-up imaging © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Can Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Reduce the Incidence, Severity, and Duration of Radiation Proctitis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alashkham, Abduelmenem; Paterson, Catherine; Rauchhaus, Petra; Nabi, Ghulam

    2016-01-01

    significantly less likely to have high-grade proctitis after radical radiation therapy with neoadjuvant or adjuvant hormone therapy (P<.001). The intake of ACEIs was significantly associated with a reduced risk of radiation-induced proctitis and also with acceleration of its resolution.

  7. Can Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Reduce the Incidence, Severity, and Duration of Radiation Proctitis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alashkham, Abduelmenem, E-mail: alashkham@yahoo.com [Academic Section of Urology, Division of Cancer Research, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom); Paterson, Catherine [Academic Section of Urology, Division of Cancer Research, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom); Rauchhaus, Petra [Tayside Clinical Trials Unit, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom); Nabi, Ghulam [Academic Section of Urology, Division of Cancer Research, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-01

    significantly less likely to have high-grade proctitis after radical radiation therapy with neoadjuvant or adjuvant hormone therapy (P<.001). The intake of ACEIs was significantly associated with a reduced risk of radiation-induced proctitis and also with acceleration of its resolution.

  8. 75 FR 19302 - Radiation Sources on Army Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... possession of ionizing radiation sources by non-Army agencies (including their civilian contractors) on an... radiation sources on Army land. The Army requires Non-Army agencies (including their civilian contractors... ionizing radiation sources on an Army Installation. For the purpose of this proposed rule, ``ionizing...

  9. Vision 20/20: Increased image resolution versus reduced radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritman, Erik L.

    2008-01-01

    This is a review of methods, currently and potentially, available for significantly reducing x-ray exposure in medical x-ray imaging. It is stimulated by the radiation exposure implications of the growing use of helical scanning, multislice, x-ray computed tomography for screening, such as for coronary artery atherosclerosis and cancer of the colon and lungs. Screening requires high-throughput imaging with high spatial and contrast resolution to meet the need for high sensitivity and specificity of detection and classification of specific imaged features. To achieve this goal beyond what is currently available with x-ray imaging methods requires increased x-ray exposure, which increases the risk of tissue damage and ultimately cancer development. These consequences limit the utility of current x-ray imaging in screening of at-risk subjects who have not yet developed the clinical symptoms of disease. Current methods for reducing x-ray exposure in x-ray imaging, mostly achieved by increasing sensitivity and specificity of the x-ray detection process, may still have potential for an up-to-tenfold decrease. This could be sufficient for doubling the spatial resolution of x-ray CT while maintaining the current x-ray exposure levels. However, a spatial resolution four times what is currently available might be needed to adequately meet the needs for screening. Consequently, for the proposed need to increase spatial resolution, an additional order of magnitude of reduction of x-ray exposure would be needed just to keep the radiation exposure at current levels. This is conceivably achievable if refraction, rather than the currently used attenuation, of x rays is used to generate the images. Existing methods that have potential for imaging the consequences of refracted x ray in a clinical setting are (1) by imaging the edge enhancement that occurs at the interfaces between adjacent tissues of different refractive indices, or (2) by imaging the changes in interference

  10. Reduced recurrence of late hemorrhagic radiation cystitis by WF10 therapy in cervical cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veerasarn, Vutisiri; Khorprasert, Chonlakiet; Lorvidhaya, Vicharn; Sangruchi, Supatra; Tantivatana, Thanatip; Narkwong, Ladawan; Kongthanarat, Yongyut; Chitapanarux, Imjai; Tesavibul, Chanawat; Panichevaluk, Apichart; Puribhat, Sirisak; Sangkittipaiboon, Somphob; Sookpreedee, Lak; Lertsanguansinchai, Prasert; Phromratanapongse, Pramook; Rungpoka, Poonkiat; Trithratipvikul, Supamitr; Lojanapiwat, Bannakij; Ruangdilokrat, Sathit; Ngampanprasert, Pichai

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and the safety of WF10 as adjunct to standard treatment in the management of late hemorrhagic radiation cystitis compared to standard treatment alone. Patients and methods: Cervical cancer patients with Grade 2 or 3 late hemorrhagic radiation cystitis, were randomized and treated with WF10 0.5 ml/kg body weight, diluted in physiological saline or 5% dextrose water 250 ml, intravenous infusions over 2 h on 5 consecutive days, every 3 weeks for 2 cycles plus standard treatment (WF10 group) or standard treatment alone (control group). Fifty patients in each group were evaluated by questioning; urinalysis and cystoscopy during a 1 year follow up. Results: At week 7, 37 patients (74%) in the WF10 group and 32 patients (64%) in the control group showed complete resolution in objective hematuria (P=0.28). Significantly lower use of antibiotics (P=0.002) and antispasmodics (P<0.001) was found in the WF10 group. Among the responders, 24 patients (77%) in the control group experienced recurrent objective hematuria, whereas in the WF10 group only 17 patients (47%) experienced a recurrence (P=0.01). Recurrence of objective hematuria occurred significantly faster in the control group as evidenced by Kaplan-Meier and log-rank statistics (P=0.004), suggesting a long-term effect of WF10. Cystoscopy, at the end of the treatment period and after the one year follow up showed overall improvement without significant difference between two groups. No severe toxicity was monitored. Conclusions: WF10 therapy is a safe, non-invasive and convenient method in the management of late hemorrhagic radiation cystitis. WF10 therapy, as adjunct to standard treatment, has significantly reduced recurrence of objective hematuria, compared to standard treatment alone, during a one year follow up

  11. Diagnostic accuracy at several reduced radiation dose levels for CT imaging in the diagnosis of appendicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Khatonabadi, Maryam; Kim, Hyun; Jude, Matilda; Zaragoza, Edward; Lee, Margaret; Patel, Maitraya; Poon, Cheryce; Douek, Michael; Andrews-Tang, Denise; Doepke, Laura; McNitt-Gray, Shawn; Cagnon, Chris; DeMarco, John; McNitt-Gray, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: While several studies have investigated the tradeoffs between radiation dose and image quality (noise) in CT imaging, the purpose of this study was to take this analysis a step further by investigating the tradeoffs between patient radiation dose (including organ dose) and diagnostic accuracy in diagnosis of appendicitis using CT. Methods: This study was IRB approved and utilized data from 20 patients who underwent clinical CT exams for indications of appendicitis. Medical record review established true diagnosis of appendicitis, with 10 positives and 10 negatives. A validated software tool used raw projection data from each scan to create simulated images at lower dose levels (70%, 50%, 30%, 20% of original). An observer study was performed with 6 radiologists reviewing each case at each dose level in random order over several sessions. Readers assessed image quality and provided confidence in their diagnosis of appendicitis, each on a 5 point scale. Liver doses at each case and each dose level were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation based methods. Results: Overall diagnostic accuracy varies across dose levels: 92%, 93%, 91%, 90% and 90% across the 100%, 70%, 50%, 30% and 20% dose levels respectively. And it is 93%, 95%, 88%, 90% and 90% across the 13.5-22mGy, 9.6-13.5mGy, 6.4-9.6mGy, 4-6.4mGy, and 2-4mGy liver dose ranges respectively. Only 4 out of 600 observations were rated "unacceptable" for image quality. Conclusion: The results from this pilot study indicate that the diagnostic accuracy does not change dramatically even at significantly reduced radiation dose.

  12. Bolus effect to reduce skin dose of the caontralateral breast during breast cancer radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Young Jin [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, InJe University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Won; Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Radiation Oncology, KonYang University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose comparison using Radon phantom with 5 mm and 10 mm tissue equivalent materials, FIF, Wedge(15, 30 angle) and IMRT, to reduce the skin dose of the contralateral breast during breast cancer radiation therapy(Total dose: 50.4Gy). The dose was measured for each treatment plan by attaching to the 8 point of the contralateral breast of the treated region using a optical-stimulated luminance dosimeter(OSLD) as a comparative dose evaluation method. Of the OSLD used in the study, 10 were used with reproducibility within 3%. As a result, the average reduction rates of 5 mm and 10 mm in the FIF treatment plan were 37.23 cGy and 41.77 cGy, respectively, and the average reduction rates in the treatment plan using Wedge 15 degrees were 70.69 cGy and 87.57 cGy, respectively. The IMRT showed a reduction of 67.37 cGy and 83.17 cGy, respectively. The results of using bolus showed that as the thickness of the bolus increased in all treatments, the dose reduction increased. We concluded that mastectomy as well as general radiotherapy for breast cancer would be very effective for patients who are more likely to be exposed to scattered radiation due to a more demanding or complex treatment plan.

  13. REDUCING THE IMPACT OF RADIATION FACTORS IN AREAS WITH HIGH LEVEL OF RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Zaredinov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the modern problems of radioecology. The study reveals the problems of radioecological situation in some regions of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The main attention of the authors is paid to the ecologically hazardous objects in the uranium mining industry. The characteristics of wastes from uranium mining and stages of development of the mining industry are described. The historical background of the accumulation of the wastes in dumps, the ore-bearing rocks, and other off-balance ores is given. The practical experience and directions radio-ecological safety are generalized, achieving improvements of the environmental quality in areas with high risk. In conclusion, the authors recommend carrying out some measures to reduce an impact of the radiation factor on human health and to stabilize the radioecological situation at the studied regions.

  14. Optimising motivation and reducing burnout for radiation oncology trainees: A framework using self-determination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Michael; Poulsen, Anne A

    2018-05-02

    Radiation oncology trainees in Australia and New Zealand have relatively high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation which are core components of burnout. The stresses of a demanding clinical load, studying for exams as well as family commitments are all contributing factors. Self-Deter mination Theory (SDT) provides a framework for optimising motivation which may be intrinsic or extrinsic. The three core components of SDT are competence, relatedness and autonomy. These factors should be addressed at a college level, Institutional and a personal level if the best outcomes are to be achieved. An environment that supports the individual's experience of competency, relatedness and autonomy will foster motivation and work engagement which in turn will improve performance, energy, resilience and creativity and reduce levels of burnout. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  15. Decontamination reduces radiation anxiety and improves subjective well-being after the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Michio; Harada, Shigeki; Oki, Taikan

    2017-01-01

    Since the 2011 Fukushima accident, rebuilding society to protect against anxiety and improve feelings of well-being has grown in importance. A questionnaire was carried out among residents of Marumori Town, Igu County, Miyagi Prefecture, to evaluate the effects of radiation-related countermeasures implemented by the town to reduce residents' anxiety and improve their subjective well-being (response rate: 31%; valid responses: n = 174). Further, to propose effective countermeasures regarding town planning for the improvement in subjective well-being, we analyzed associations between residents' sense of attachment to the town and subjective well-being, and then identified primary factors behind their sense of attachment. Marumori Town, located about 50 km to the northwest of the Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, is a good site for evaluating the effects of countermeasures taken by the town itself to fight anxiety, because there have been limited surveys and professional medical support, and mitigation efforts were primarily initiated by the town. The results suggested that decontamination evaluations were associated with a reduction in anxiety after the accident, which contributed to an increase in residents' subjective well-being. On the other hand, the evaluation of items related to human interactions in the community and the natural environment was found as a primary factor of sense of attachment toward the town, which contributed to an increase of residents' subjective well-being. This is the first study to quantitatively measure the effects of radiation-related countermeasures on reducing anxiety and to propose an effective policy approach for improving subjective well-being. (author)

  16. Radiation therapy rather than prior surgery reduces extent of resection during endonasal endoscopic reoperation for craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younus, Iyan; Forbes, Jonathan A; Ordóñez-Rubiano, Edgar G; Avendano-Pradel, Rafael; La Corte, Emanuele; Anand, Vijay K; Schwartz, Theodore H

    2018-07-01

    Radiation therapy is often advocated for residual or recurrent craniopharyngioma following surgical resection to prevent local recurrence. However, radiation therapy is not always effective and may render tumors more difficult to remove. If this is the case, patients may benefit more from reoperation if gross total resection can be achieved. Nevertheless, there is little data on the impact of radiation on reoperations for craniopharyngioma. In this study, we sought to analyze whether a history of previous radiation therapy (RT) affected extent of resection in patients with recurrent craniopharyngiomas subsequently treated with reoperation via endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA). The authors reviewed a prospectively acquired database of EEA reoperations of craniopharyngiomas over 13 years at Weill Cornell, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital. All procedures were performed by the senior author. The operations were separated into two groups based on whether the patient had surgery alone (group A) or surgery and RT (group B) prior to recurrence. A total of 24 patients (16 male, 8 female) who underwent surgery for recurrent craniopharyngioma were identified. The average time to recurrence was 7.64 ± 4.34 months (range 3-16 months) for group A and 16.62 ± 12.1 months (range 6-45 months) for group B (p < 0.05). The average tumor size at recurrence was smaller in group A (1.85 ± 0.72 cm; range 0.5-3.2) than group B (2.59 ± 0.91 cm; range 1.5-4.6; p = 0.00017). Gross total resection (GTR) was achieved in 91% (10/11) of patients in group A and 54% (7/13) of patients in group B (p = 0.047). There was a near significant trend for higher average Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score at last follow-up for group A (83 ± 10.6) compared with group B (70 ± 16.3, p = 0.056). While RT for residual or recurrent craniopharyngioma may delay time to recurrence, ability to achieve GTR with additional surgery is reduced. In the case of

  17. Direct aperture optimization as a means of reducing the complexity of intensity modulated radiation therapy plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, Maria; Leech, Michelle; Coffey, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is a means of delivering radiation therapy where the intensity of the beam is varied within the treatment field. This is done by dividing a large beam into many small beamlets. Dose constraints are assigned to both the target and sensitive structures and computerised inverse optimization is performed to find the individual weights of this large number of beamlets. The computer adjusts the intensities of these beamlets according to the required planning dose objectives. The optimized intensity patterns are then decomposed into a series of deliverable multi leaf collimator (MLC) shapes in the sequencing step. One of the main problems of IMRT, which becomes even more apparent as the complexity of the IMRT plan increases, is the dramatic increase in the number of Monitor Units (MU) required to deliver a fractionated treatment. The difficulty with this increase in MU is its association with increased treatment times and a greater leakage of radiation from the MLCs increasing the total body dose and the risk of secondary cancers in patients. Therefore one attempts to find ways of reducing these MU without compromising plan quality. The design of inverse planning systems where the beam is divided into small beamlets to produce the required intensity map automatically introduces complexity into IMRT treatment planning. Plan complexity is associated with many negative factors such as dosimetric uncertainty and delivery issues A large search space is required necessitating much computing power. However, the limitations of the delivery technology are not taken into consideration when designing the ideal intensity map therefore a further step termed the sequencing step is required to convert the ideal intensity map into a deliverable one. Many approaches have been taken to reduce the complexity. These include setting intensity limits, putting penalties on the cost function and using smoothing filters Direct Aperture optimization

  18. Direct aperture optimization as a means of reducing the complexity of intensity modulated radiation therapy plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coffey Mary

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT is a means of delivering radiation therapy where the intensity of the beam is varied within the treatment field. This is done by dividing a large beam into many small beamlets. Dose constraints are assigned to both the target and sensitive structures and computerised inverse optimization is performed to find the individual weights of this large number of beamlets. The computer adjusts the intensities of these beamlets according to the required planning dose objectives. The optimized intensity patterns are then decomposed into a series of deliverable multi leaf collimator (MLC shapes in the sequencing step. One of the main problems of IMRT, which becomes even more apparent as the complexity of the IMRT plan increases, is the dramatic increase in the number of Monitor Units (MU required to deliver a fractionated treatment. The difficulty with this increase in MU is its association with increased treatment times and a greater leakage of radiation from the MLCs increasing the total body dose and the risk of secondary cancers in patients. Therefore one attempts to find ways of reducing these MU without compromising plan quality. The design of inverse planning systems where the beam is divided into small beamlets to produce the required intensity map automatically introduces complexity into IMRT treatment planning. Plan complexity is associated with many negative factors such as dosimetric uncertainty and delivery issues A large search space is required necessitating much computing power. However, the limitations of the delivery technology are not taken into consideration when designing the ideal intensity map therefore a further step termed the sequencing step is required to convert the ideal intensity map into a deliverable one. Many approaches have been taken to reduce the complexity. These include setting intensity limits, putting penalties on the cost function and using smoothing filters Direct

  19. Direct aperture optimization as a means of reducing the complexity of intensity modulated radiation therapy plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, Maria; Leech, Michelle; Coffey, Mary [Division of Radiation Therapy, School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-16

    Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is a means of delivering radiation therapy where the intensity of the beam is varied within the treatment field. This is done by dividing a large beam into many small beamlets. Dose constraints are assigned to both the target and sensitive structures and computerised inverse optimization is performed to find the individual weights of this large number of beamlets. The computer adjusts the intensities of these beamlets according to the required planning dose objectives. The optimized intensity patterns are then decomposed into a series of deliverable multi leaf collimator (MLC) shapes in the sequencing step. One of the main problems of IMRT, which becomes even more apparent as the complexity of the IMRT plan increases, is the dramatic increase in the number of Monitor Units (MU) required to deliver a fractionated treatment. The difficulty with this increase in MU is its association with increased treatment times and a greater leakage of radiation from the MLCs increasing the total body dose and the risk of secondary cancers in patients. Therefore one attempts to find ways of reducing these MU without compromising plan quality. The design of inverse planning systems where the beam is divided into small beamlets to produce the required intensity map automatically introduces complexity into IMRT treatment planning. Plan complexity is associated with many negative factors such as dosimetric uncertainty and delivery issues A large search space is required necessitating much computing power. However, the limitations of the delivery technology are not taken into consideration when designing the ideal intensity map therefore a further step termed the sequencing step is required to convert the ideal intensity map into a deliverable one. Many approaches have been taken to reduce the complexity. These include setting intensity limits, putting penalties on the cost function and using smoothing filters Direct Aperture optimization

  20. Effects of reduced natural background radiation on Drosophila melanogaster growth and development as revealed by the FLYINGLOW program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morciano, Patrizia; Iorio, Roberto; Iovino, Daniela; Cipressa, Francesca; Esposito, Giuseppe; Porrazzo, Antonella; Satta, Luigi; Alesse, Edoardo; Tabocchini, Maria Antonella; Cenci, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Natural background radiation of Earth and cosmic rays played a relevant role during the evolution of living organisms. However, how chronic low doses of radiation can affect biological processes is still unclear. Previous data have indicated that cells grown at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (LNGS, L'Aquila) of National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) of Italy, where the dose rate of cosmic rays and neutrons is significantly reduced with respect to the external environment, elicited an impaired response against endogenous damage as compared to cells grown outside LNGS. This suggests that environmental radiation contributes to the development of defense mechanisms at cellular level. To further understand how environmental radiation affects metabolism of living organisms, we have recently launched the FLYINGLOW program that aims at exploiting Drosophila melanogaster as a model for evaluating the effects of low doses/dose rates of radiation at the organismal level. Here, we will present a comparative data set on lifespan, motility and fertility from different Drosophila strains grown in parallel at LNGS and in a reference laboratory at the University of L'Aquila. Our data suggest the reduced radiation environment can influence Drosophila development and, depending on the genetic background, may affect viability for several generations even when flies are moved back to normal background radiation. As flies are considered a valuable model for human biology, our results might shed some light on understanding the effect of low dose radiation also in humans. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Breast Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Reduces Time Spent With Acute Dermatitis for Women of All Breast Sizes During Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, Gary M.; Li Tianyu; Nicolaou, Nicos; Chen Yan; Ma, Charlie C.-M.; Anderson, Penny R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To study the time spent with radiation-induced dermatitis during a course of radiation therapy for breast cancer in women treated with conventional or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 804 consecutive women with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation from 2001 to 2006. All patients were treated with whole-breast radiation followed by a boost to the tumor bed. Whole-breast radiation consisted of conventional wedged photon tangents (n = 405) earlier in the study period and mostly of photon IMRT (n = 399) in later years. All patients had acute dermatitis graded each week of treatment. Results: The breakdown of the cases of maximum acute dermatitis by grade was as follows: 3%, Grade 0; 34%, Grade 1; 61%, Grade 2; and 2%, Grade 3. The breakdown of cases of maximum toxicity by technique was as follows: 48%, Grade 0/1, and 52%, Grade 2/3, for IMRT; and 25%, Grade 0/1, and 75%, Grade 2/3, for conventional radiation therapy (p < 0.0001). The IMRT patients spent 82% of weeks during treatment with Grade 0/1 dermatitis and 18% with Grade 2/3 dermatitis, compared with 29% and 71% of patients, respectively, treated with conventional radiation (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the time spent with Grade 2/3 toxicity was decreased in IMRT patients with small (p = 0.0015), medium (p < 0.0001), and large (p < 0.0001) breasts. Conclusions: Breast IMRT is associated with a significant decrease both in the time spent during treatment with Grade 2/3 dermatitis and in the maximum severity of dermatitis compared with that associated with conventional radiation, regardless of breast size.

  2. Reducing radiation doses to the breast, thyroid and gonads during diagnostic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weatherburn, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    The skin entry and exit doses on patients undergoing routine radiographic examinations of areas in which the breast, thyroid and gonads are included in the primary beam were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters. To obtain further information about patient doses, measurements were also made on a phantom at similar skin positions and at the positions of these organs. Comparisons of the doses to these radiosensitive organs were made for the antero-posterior and postero-anterior projections. In cases where it was found that the doses were reduced by the use of non-conventional relationship between the relative positions of the patient and the film, suggestions are made for the adaptations which would have to be made to X-ray equipment to enable these projections to be taken routinely. Other techniques, such as air gap techniques and thyroid shielding, whereby patient doses can be reduced during routine radiography are also examined. Finally the implications of these results for radiation protection of patients are considered. (author)

  3. The indirect effect of radiation reduces the repair fidelity of NHEJ as verified in repair deficient CHO cell lines exposed to different radiation qualities and potassium bromate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajinskis, Ainars; Olsson, Gunilla; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats

    2012-03-01

    The complexity of DNA lesions induced by ionizing radiation is mainly dependent on radiation quality, where the indirect action of radiation may contribute to different extent depending on the type of radiation under study. The effect of indirect action of radiation can be investigated by using agents that induce oxidative DNA damage or by applying free radical scavengers. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the indirect effect of radiation for the repair fidelity of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination repair (HRR) and base excision repair (BER) when DNA damage of different complexity was induced by gamma radiation, alpha particles or from base damages (8-oxo-dG) induced by potassium bromate (KBrO(3)). CHO cells lines deficient in XRCC3 (HRR) irs1SF, XRCC7 (NHEJ) V3-3 and XRCC1 (BER) EM9 were irradiated in the absence or presence of the free radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The endpoints investigated included rate of cell proliferation by the DRAG assay, clonogenic cell survival and the level of primary DNA damage by the comet assay. The results revealed that the indirect effect of low-LET radiation significantly reduced the repair fidelity of both NHEJ and HRR pathways. For high-LET radiation the indirect effect of radiation also significantly reduced the repair fidelity for the repair deficient cell lines. The results suggest further that the repair fidelity of the error prone NHEJ repair pathway is more impaired by the indirect effect of high-LET radiation relative to the other repair pathways studied. The response to bromate observed for the two DSB repair deficient cell lines strongly support earlier studies that bromate induces complex DNA damages. The significantly reduced repair fidelity of irs1SF and V3-3 suggests that NHEJ as well as HRR are needed for the repair, and that complex DSBs are formed after bromate exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Reducing radiation dose in adult head CT using iterative reconstruction. A clinical study in 177 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaul, D. [Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Kahn, J.; Huizing, L.; Wiener, E.; Grupp, U.; Boening, G.; Streitparth, F. [Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Ghadjar, P. [Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Renz, D.M. [Jena University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2016-02-15

    To assess how ASIR (adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction) contributes to dose reduction and affects image quality of non-contrast cranial computed tomography (cCT). Non-contrast emergency CT scans of the head acquired in 177 patients were evaluated. The scans were acquired and processed using four different protocols: Group A (control): 120 kV, FBP (filtered back projection) n=71; group B1: 120 kV, scan and reconstruction performed with 20 % ASIR (blending of 20 % ASIR and 80 % FBP), n=86; group B2: raw data from group B1 reconstructed using a blending of 40 % ASIR and 60 % FBP, n=74; group C1: 120 kV, scan and reconstruction performed with 30 % ASIR, n=20; group C2: raw data from group C1 reconstructed using a blending of 50 % ASIR and 50 % FBP, n=20. The effective dose was calculated. Image quality was assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Compared to group A, groups B1/2 and C1/2 showed a significantly reduced effective dose of 40.4 % and 73.3 % (p < 0.0001), respectively. Group B1 and group C1/2 also showed significantly reduced quantitative and qualitative image quality parameters. In group B2, quantitative measures were comparable to group A, and qualitative scores were lower compared to group A but higher compared to group B1. Diagnostic confidence grading showed groups B1/2 to be adequate for everyday clinical practice. Group C2 was considered acceptable for follow-up imaging of severe acute events such as bleeding or subacute stroke. Conclusion: Use of ASIR makes it possible to reduce radiation significantly while maintaining adequate image quality in non-contrast head CT, which may be particularly useful for younger patients in an emergency setting and in follow-up.

  5. Reducing radiation dose in adult head CT using iterative reconstruction. A clinical study in 177 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, D.; Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital, Berlin; Kahn, J.; Huizing, L.; Wiener, E.; Grupp, U.; Boening, G.; Streitparth, F.; Ghadjar, P.; Renz, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    To assess how ASIR (adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction) contributes to dose reduction and affects image quality of non-contrast cranial computed tomography (cCT). Non-contrast emergency CT scans of the head acquired in 177 patients were evaluated. The scans were acquired and processed using four different protocols: Group A (control): 120 kV, FBP (filtered back projection) n=71; group B1: 120 kV, scan and reconstruction performed with 20 % ASIR (blending of 20 % ASIR and 80 % FBP), n=86; group B2: raw data from group B1 reconstructed using a blending of 40 % ASIR and 60 % FBP, n=74; group C1: 120 kV, scan and reconstruction performed with 30 % ASIR, n=20; group C2: raw data from group C1 reconstructed using a blending of 50 % ASIR and 50 % FBP, n=20. The effective dose was calculated. Image quality was assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Compared to group A, groups B1/2 and C1/2 showed a significantly reduced effective dose of 40.4 % and 73.3 % (p < 0.0001), respectively. Group B1 and group C1/2 also showed significantly reduced quantitative and qualitative image quality parameters. In group B2, quantitative measures were comparable to group A, and qualitative scores were lower compared to group A but higher compared to group B1. Diagnostic confidence grading showed groups B1/2 to be adequate for everyday clinical practice. Group C2 was considered acceptable for follow-up imaging of severe acute events such as bleeding or subacute stroke. Conclusion: Use of ASIR makes it possible to reduce radiation significantly while maintaining adequate image quality in non-contrast head CT, which may be particularly useful for younger patients in an emergency setting and in follow-up.

  6. Proton Minibeam Radiation Therapy Reduces Side Effects in an In Vivo Mouse Ear Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girst, Stefanie, E-mail: stefanie.girst@unibw.de [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Greubel, Christoph; Reindl, Judith [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Siebenwirth, Christian [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Zlobinskaya, Olga [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Walsh, Dietrich W.M. [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Ilicic, Katarina [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel [Research Unit Analytical Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Oberschleißheim (Germany); and others

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: Proton minibeam radiation therapy is a novel approach to minimize normal tissue damage in the entrance channel by spatial fractionation while keeping tumor control through a homogeneous tumor dose using beam widening with an increasing track length. In the present study, the dose distributions for homogeneous broad beam and minibeam irradiation sessions were simulated. Also, in an animal study, acute normal tissue side effects of proton minibeam irradiation were compared with homogeneous irradiation in a tumor-free mouse ear model to account for the complex effects on the immune system and vasculature in an in vivo normal tissue model. Methods and Materials: At the ion microprobe SNAKE, 20-MeV protons were administered to the central part (7.2 × 7.2 mm{sup 2}) of the ear of BALB/c mice, using either a homogeneous field with a dose of 60 Gy or 16 minibeams with a nominal 6000 Gy (4 × 4 minibeams, size 0.18 × 0.18 mm{sup 2}, with a distance of 1.8 mm). The same average dose was used over the irradiated area. Results: No ear swelling or other skin reactions were observed at any point after minibeam irradiation. In contrast, significant ear swelling (up to fourfold), erythema, and desquamation developed in homogeneously irradiated ears 3 to 4 weeks after irradiation. Hair loss and the disappearance of sebaceous glands were only detected in the homogeneously irradiated fields. Conclusions: These results show that proton minibeam radiation therapy results in reduced adverse effects compared with conventional homogeneous broad-beam irradiation and, therefore, might have the potential to decrease the incidence of side effects resulting from clinical proton and/or heavy ion therapy.

  7. A custom-made mouthpiece incorporating tongue depressors and elevators to reduce radiation-induced tongue mucositis during carbon-ion radiation therapy for head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawa, Hiroaki; Koto, Masashi; Ebner, Daniel K; Takagi, Ryo; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kamada, Tadashi

    We introduce a custom-made mouthpiece for carbon-ion radiation therapy for head and neck malignancy. The mouthpiece incorporates either a tongue depressor or elevator depending on tumor location. The risk of tongue mucositis may be reduced without compromising therapeutic efficacy through mouthpiece shaping. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Potent corticosteroid cream (mometasone furoate) significantly reduces acute radiation dermatitis: results from a double-blind, randomized study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, Aasa; Lindman, Henrik; Swartling, Carl; Berne, Berit; Bergh, Jonas

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced dermatitis is a very common side effect of radiation therapy, and may necessitate interruption of the therapy. There is a substantial lack of evidence-based treatments for this condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mometasone furoate cream (MMF) on radiation dermatitis in a prospective, double-blind, randomized study. Material and methods: The study comprised 49 patients with node-negative breast cancer. They were operated on with sector resection and scheduled for postoperative radiotherapy using photons with identical radiation qualities and dosage to the breast parenchyma. The patients were randomized to receive either MMF or emollient cream. The cream was applied on the irradiated skin twice a week from the start of radiotherapy until the 12th fraction (24 Gy) and thereafter once daily until 3 weeks after completion of radiation. Both groups additionally received non-blinded emollient cream daily. The intensity of the acute radiation dermatitis was evaluated on a weekly basis regarding erythema and pigmentation, using a reflectance spectrophotometer together with visual scoring of the skin reactions. Results: MMF in combination with emollient cream treatment significantly decreased acute radiation dermatitis (P=0.0033) compared with emollient cream alone. There was no significant difference in pigmentation between the two groups. Conclusions: Adding MMF, a potent topical corticosteroid, to an emollient cream is statistically significantly more effective than emollient cream alone in reducing acute radiation dermatitis

  9. Reduced growth of soybean seedlings after exposure to weak microwave radiation from GSM 900 mobile phone and base station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgamuge, Malka N; Yak, See Kye; Eberhardt, Jacob L

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study possible effects of environmental radiation pollution on plants. The association between cellular telephone (short duration, higher amplitude) and base station (long duration, very low amplitude) radiation exposure and the growth rate of soybean (Glycine max) seedlings was investigated. Soybean seedlings, pre-grown for 4 days, were exposed in a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic cell for 2 h to global system for mobile communication (GSM) mobile phone pulsed radiation or continuous wave (CW) radiation at 900 MHz with amplitudes of 5.7 and 41 V m(-1) , and outgrowth was studied one week after exposure. The exposure to higher amplitude (41 V m(-1)) GSM radiation resulted in diminished outgrowth of the epicotyl. The exposure to lower amplitude (5.7 V m(-1)) GSM radiation did not influence outgrowth of epicotyl, hypocotyls, or roots. The exposure to higher amplitude CW radiation resulted in reduced outgrowth of the roots whereas lower CW exposure resulted in a reduced outgrowth of the hypocotyl. Soybean seedlings were also exposed for 5 days to an extremely low level of radiation (GSM 900 MHz, 0.56 V m(-1)) and outgrowth was studied 2 days later. Growth of epicotyl and hypocotyl was found to be reduced, whereas the outgrowth of roots was stimulated. Our findings indicate that the observed effects were significantly dependent on field strength as well as amplitude modulation of the applied field. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Advanced methodologies of evaluating the radiation sources and ionising radiation shieldings for reducing the irradiation in nuclear field personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantazi, D.; Mateescu, S.; Stanciu, M.

    2003-01-01

    One of the technical measures of protection against ionizing radiations is the radiation shielding. The process of implementing modern and efficient methods of evaluating the radiation shielding implies advanced calculation methods. That means using from simpler 1-D or 2-D computing codes such as MicroShield or QAD up to systems of codes such as SCALE (containing several independent modules) or the Monte Carlo multipurpose and many particles, MCNP, transport code. The main objective of this work is to present the Monte Carlo based evaluation of the dose rates from the CANDU type spent fuel all along the path of its handling up to intermediate storage. These values will be then compared with the values obtained from calculations with different computing programs. To obtain this objective two problems were approached: - establishing geometrical models according to the definition used by MCNP code so that the characteristics of CANDU type nuclear fuel are taking into account; - checking the validity of the proposed models by comparing the MCNP results with those obtained with other computing codes specific for shielding evaluation and radiation dose calculation

  11. Effects of growth reducer and nitrogen fertilization on morphological variables, SPAD index, interception of radiation and productivity of wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Felipe Elli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth reducer and nitrogen fertilization on morphological variables, SPAD index, radiation interception, and grain yield of three cultivars of wheat. The experimental design was a randomized block in factorial scheme 3x5x2, with three cultivars (Mestre, Iguaçú and Itaipú, five nitrogen doses (0, 40, 80, 120, 160 Kg ha-1, and application or no application of a growth reducer, with three replications. The following characteristics were evaluated: plant height, SPAD index, leaf area index (LAI, Global Radiation Interception (GRI and grain yield. The Tukey test (p < 0.05 was used for the comparison between the means of cultivar and growth reducer factors, and for a regression analysis to evaluate N levels. Increasing the dose of nitrogen promotes an increase in LAI of plants of wheat crops differently among cultivars, which leads to a greater degree of global radiation interception. At doses higher or equal to 120 Kg ha-1 of nitrogen, there are significant differences in grain yield between treatments with and without the application of the growth reducer. The significant interaction between growth reducer and nitrogen dose, showed that applications of growth reducer increase the GRI at doses above and below 80 Kg ha-1 of nitrogen. Nitrogen rates of 138 and 109 Kg ha-1 are responsible for maximum grain yields of wheat, which is 4235 and 3787 Kg ha-1 with and without the use of growth reducer, respectively.

  12. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  13. Improving patient follow-up in interventional radiology and radiation-based acts. To reduce the risk of deterministic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etard, Cecile; Aubert, Bernard; Lafont, Marielle; Mougniot, Sandrine; Rousse, Carole; Bey, Eric; Cassagnes, Lucie; Guersen, Joel; Ducou Le Pointe, Hubert; Elhadad, Simon; Georges, Jean-Louis; Nonent, Michel; Paisant-Thouveny, Francine; Salvat, Cecile; Vidal, Vincent; Chauvet, Bruno; Riu, Jean-Luc; Voix, Fabien; Bar, Olivier; Le Du, Dominique; Maccia, Carlo; Lacombe, Pascal; Mertz, Luc; Valery, Charles

    2014-04-01

    After having presented an example of adverse reaction to interventional radiology (a case of a iatrogenic radiodermatitis), this report first presents the context which creates a risk situation. It describes risks related to the use of ionizing radiations, identifies risk factors and how to make procedures safer, and indicates actions aimed at reducing risks (in a preventive way, in recovery, by attenuation)

  14. Low salinity and high-level UV-B radiation reduce single-cell activity in antarctic sea ice bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew; Hall, Julie; Ryan, Ken

    2009-12-01

    Experiments simulating the sea ice cycle were conducted by exposing microbes from Antarctic fast ice to saline and irradiance regimens associated with the freeze-thaw process. In contrast to hypersaline conditions (ice formation), the simulated release of bacteria into hyposaline seawater combined with rapid exposure to increased UV-B radiation significantly reduced metabolic activity.

  15. Effects of reducing the ambient UV-B radiation in the high Arctic on Salix arctica and Vaccinium uliginosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, K.R.; Ro-Poulsen, H.; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2005-01-01

    , transmitting λ > 400 nm) were used to reduce UV-B radiation and UV-B+A respectively. A UV transparent film (Teflon, transmitting λ > 280 nm) and no film were used as controls. Field measurements showed that the plants under Teflon, Mylar and Lexan received app. 91%, 39% and 17% of the ambient UV-B irradiance...

  16. Radiation exposure and protection during angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biazzi, L.; Garbagna, P.

    1979-01-01

    The authors describe the radiological techniques during angiography examinations in their hospital. For every technique they measured the radiation exposure and dose to the staff of doctors, assistants and nurses in their standard positions in the room and the radiation dose at various points on their bodies. The results are critically discussed and alternative protection devices are analysed, since there are many difficulties concerning the employ of usual radiation protection systems. Cardiologists, above all, are given some recomandations to reduce radiation exposure without prejudicing the exam results [fr

  17. Beneficial effects of solar UV-B radiation on soybean yield mediated by reduced insect herbivory under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Carlos A; Giménez, Patricia I; Kantolic, Adriana G; Ballaré, Carlos L

    2013-03-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B: 280-315 nm) has damaging effects on cellular components and macromolecules. In plants, natural levels of UV-B can reduce leaf area expansion and growth, which can lead to reduced productivity and yield. UV-B can also have important effects on herbivorous insects. Owing to the successful implementation of the Montreal Protocol, current models predict that clear-sky levels of UV-B radiation will decline during this century in response to ozone recovery. However, because of climate change and changes in land use practices, future trends in UV doses are difficult to predict. In the experiments reported here, we used an exclusion approach to study the effects of solar UV-B radiation on soybean crops, which are extensively grown in many areas of the world that may be affected by future variations in UV-B radiation. In a first experiment, performed under normal management practices (which included chemical pest control), we found that natural levels of UV-B radiation reduced soybean yield. In a second experiment, where no pesticides were applied, we found that solar UV-B significantly reduced insect herbivory and, surprisingly, caused a concomitant increase in crop yield. Our data support the idea that UV-B effects on agroecosystems are the result of complex interactions involving multiple trophic levels. A better understanding of the mechanisms that mediate the anti-herbivore effect of UV-B radiation may be used to design crop varieties with improved adaptation to the cropping systems that are likely to prevail in the coming decades in response to agricultural intensification. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  18. MO-G-18A-01: Radiation Dose Reducing Strategies in CT, Fluoroscopy and Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahesh, M; Gingold, E; Jones, A

    2014-01-01

    Advances in medical x-ray imaging have provided significant benefits to patient care. According to NCRP 160, there are more than 400 million x-ray procedures performed annually in the United States alone that contributes to nearly half of all the radiation exposure to the US population. Similar growth trends in medical x-ray imaging are observed worldwide. Apparent increase in number of medical x-ray imaging procedures, new protocols and the associated radiation dose and risk has drawn considerable attention. This has led to a number of technological innovations such as tube current modulation, iterative reconstruction algorithms, dose alerts, dose displays, flat panel digital detectors, high efficient digital detectors, storage phosphor radiography, variable filters, etc. that are enabling users to acquire medical x-ray images at a much lower radiation dose. Along with these, there are number of radiation dose optimization strategies that users can adapt to effectively lower radiation dose in medical x-ray procedures. The main objectives of this SAM course are to provide information and how to implement the various radiation dose optimization strategies in CT, Fluoroscopy and Radiography. Learning Objectives: To update impact of technological advances on dose optimization in medical imaging. To identify radiation optimization strategies in computed tomography. To describe strategies for configuring fluoroscopic equipment that yields optimal images at reasonable radiation dose. To assess ways to configure digital radiography systems and recommend ways to improve image quality at optimal dose

  19. Comparison of Techniques to Reduce Bremsstrahlung Background Radiation from Monoenergetic Photon Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M; McNabb, D

    2006-01-01

    An important applied technology is a tunable mono-energetic photon source [1]. These sources are made of relativistic electron accelerators coupled to low-energy lasers, which produce high-energy, mono-energetic-rays. One challenge associated with systems such as this is a continuum of bremsstrahlung background created when an electron beam passes through an aperture of some sort and the electron bunch or its halo impinges on the aperture pictured in figure 1. For instance, in the current T-REX [1] design for the interaction point between the laser- and electron-beam, the electron-beam passes through the center of a mirror used to reflect the laser. There is a potential with this design that bremsstrahlung radiation may be produced at the edges of the mirror openings and contaminate the mono-energetic photon beam. Certain applications [2] may be sensitive to this contamination. To reduce the bremsstrahlung contaminate a collimator (thickness ∼24in. (calculated from XCOM database [3]) to attenuate by a factor of 10 -3 the 112MeV photons expected in the T-REX demonstration [1]) is situated between the aperture and target. To maximize the brightness of the photon-beam, the collimator opening must be no less than the size of the photon-beam spot size expected to be about 1mm. This fixes the collimator opening. a priori the aperture size must be greater than the collimator opening and is a function distance between the aperture and collimator. In this paper we focus on two approaches to estimate the aperture size, given a collimator and a target whose sizes and distances from the aperture are given. In the next section we will discuss these approaches

  20. Cellular and molecular research to reduce uncertainties in estimates of health effects from low-level radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkind, M.M.; Bedford, J.; Benjamin, S.A.; Waldren, C.A. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA)); Gotchy, R.L. (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    A study was undertaken by five radiation scientists to examine the feasibility of reducing the uncertainties in the estimation of risk due to protracted low doses of ionizing radiation. In addressing the question of feasibility, a review was made by the study group: of the cellular, molecular, and mammalian radiation data that are available; of the way in which altered oncogene properties could be involved in the loss of growth control that culminates in tumorigenesis; and of the progress that had been made in the genetic characterizations of several human and animal neoplasms. On the basis of this analysis, the study group concluded that, at the present time, it is feasible to mount a program of radiation research directed at the mechanism(s) of radiation-induced cancer with special reference to risk of neoplasia due to protracted, low doses of sparsely ionizing radiation. To implement a program of research, a review was made of the methods, techniques, and instruments that would be needed. This review was followed by a survey of the laboratories and institutions where scientific personnel and facilities are known to be available. A research agenda of the principal and broad objectives of the program is also discussed. 489 refs., 21 figs., 14 tabs.

  1. Cellular and molecular research to reduce uncertainties in estimates of health effects from low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkind, M.M.; Bedford, J.; Benjamin, S.A.; Waldren, C.A.; Gotchy, R.L.

    1990-10-01

    A study was undertaken by five radiation scientists to examine the feasibility of reducing the uncertainties in the estimation of risk due to protracted low doses of ionizing radiation. In addressing the question of feasibility, a review was made by the study group: of the cellular, molecular, and mammalian radiation data that are available; of the way in which altered oncogene properties could be involved in the loss of growth control that culminates in tumorigenesis; and of the progress that had been made in the genetic characterizations of several human and animal neoplasms. On the basis of this analysis, the study group concluded that, at the present time, it is feasible to mount a program of radiation research directed at the mechanism(s) of radiation-induced cancer with special reference to risk of neoplasia due to protracted, low doses of sparsely ionizing radiation. To implement a program of research, a review was made of the methods, techniques, and instruments that would be needed. This review was followed by a survey of the laboratories and institutions where scientific personnel and facilities are known to be available. A research agenda of the principal and broad objectives of the program is also discussed. 489 refs., 21 figs., 14 tabs

  2. A programme to reduce down-time and site radiation dose through improvements in control rod design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izatt, J.A.; Scobie, J.

    1983-01-01

    In many nuclear facilities a high proportion of the total radiation dose to staff may be ascribed to very few routine operations. Often this critical operation will require significant shut-down time, both to perform the function itself and to allow sufficient decay time to reduce radiation levels to acceptable values. This situation arises on the UTR-300 reactor at S.U.R.R.C., where over the twenty years of operation it has been found necessary to carry out preventive, and on some occasions remedial, maintenance at least once per year on the in-core elements of the control rod assemblies. This had led inevitably to reduced availability of the reactor and to significant overall radiation doses to the few long-serving staff members who carry out this work. The source of the problem seems to lie in the basic design of the assemblies, which may have been adequate for the original 10 KW versions of this reactor, but has proven to be deficient in several respects at the present 300 KW operating level. In an attempt to reduce down-time and radiation dose to staff a radical re-design of the control assemblies was undertaken in-house, and a conversion programme has been underway over the last two years. Details of the design improvements are presented with a discussion of the operating experience to date. (author)

  3. The use of adaptive radiation therapy to reduce setup error: a prospective clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Di; Wong, John; Vicini, Frank; Robertson, John; Horwitz, Eric; Brabbins, Donald; Cook, Carla; Gustafson, Gary; Stromberg, Jannifer; Martinez, Alvaro

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Adaptive Radiation Therapy (ART) is a closed-loop feedback process where each patients treatment is adaptively optimized according to the individual variation information measured during the course of treatment. The process aims to maximize the benefits of treatment for the individual patient. A prospective study is currently being conducted to test the feasibility and effectiveness of ART for clinical use. The present study is limited to compensating the effects of systematic setup error. Methods and Materials: The study includes 20 patients treated on a linear accelerator equipped with a computer controlled multileaf collimator (MLC) and a electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Alpha cradles are used to immobilize those patients treated for disease in the thoracic and abdominal regions, and thermal plastic masks for the head and neck. Portal images are acquired daily. Setup error of each treatment field is quantified off-line every day. As determined from an earlier retrospective study of different clinical sites, the measured setup variation from the first 4 to 9 days, are used to estimate systematic setup error and the standard deviation of random setup error for each field. Setup adjustment is made if estimated systematic setup error of the treatment field was larger than or equal to 2 mm. Instead of the conventional approach of repositioning the patient, setup correction is implemented by reshaping MLC to compensate for the estimated systematic error. The entire process from analysis of portal images to the implementation of the modified MLC field is performed via computer network. Systematic and random setup errors of the treatment after adjustment are compared with those prior to adjustment. Finally, the frequency distributions of block overlap cumulated throughout the treatment course are evaluated. Results: Sixty-seven percent of all treatment fields were reshaped to compensate for the estimated systematic errors. At the time of this writing

  4. Efficacy of RADPAD® protection drape in reducing radiation exposure to the primary operator during Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Divyesh; Ramsewak, Adesh; Manoharan, Ganesh; Spence, Mark S

    2016-02-01

    The efficacy of RADPAD® (a sterile, lead-free drape) has been demonstrated to reduce the scatter radiation to the primary operator during fluoroscopic procedures. However, the use of the RADPAD® during TAVI procedures has not been studied. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is now an established treatment for patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis who are deemed inoperable or at high risk for conventional surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). Consequently the radiation exposure to the patient and the interventional team from this procedure has become a matter of interest and importance. Methods to reduce radiation exposure to the interventional team during this procedure should be actively investigated. In this single center prospective study, we determined the radiation dose during this procedure and the efficacy of RADPAD® in reducing the radiation dose to the primary operator. Fifty consecutive patients due to undergo elective TAVI procedures were identified. Patients were randomly assigned to undergo the procedure with or without the use of a RADPAD® drape. There were 25 patients in each group and dosimetry was performed at the left eye level of the primary operator. The dosimeter was commenced at the start of the procedure, and the dose was recorded immediately after the end of the procedure. Fluoroscopy times and DAP were also recorded prospectively. Twenty-five patients underwent transfemoral TAVI using a RADPAD® and 25 with no-RADPAD®. The mean primary operator radiation dose was significantly lower in the RADPAD group at 14.8 mSv vs. 24.3 mSv in the no-RADPAD group (P=0.008). There was no significant difference in fluoroscopy times or dose-area products between the two patient groups. The dose to the primary operator relative to fluoroscopy time (RADPAD: slope=0.325; no RADPAD: slope=1.148; analysis of covariance F=7.47, P=0.009) and dose area product (RADPAD: slope=0.0007; no RADPAD: slope=0.002; analysis of covariance F=7

  5. Development and demonstration of techniques for reducing occupational radiation doses during refueling outages. Tasks 7A/7B. Advanced outage management and radiation exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    Objectives of Tasks 7A and 7B were to develop and demonstrate computer based systems to assist plant management and staff in utilizing information more effectively to reduce occupational exposures received as a result of refueling outages, and to shorten the duration of the outage. The Advanced Outage Management (AOM) Tool (Task 7A) is an automated outage planning system specifically designed to meet the needs of nuclear plant outage management. The primary objective of the AOM tool is to provide a computerized system that can manipulate the information typically associated with outage planning and scheduling to furnish reports and schedules that more accurately project the future course of the outage. The Radiation Exposure Control (REC) Tool (Task 7B) is a computerized personnel radiation exposure accounting and management system designed to enable nuclear plant management to project and monitor total personnel radiation exposure on a real-time basis. The two systems were designed to operate on the same computer system and interface through a common database that enables information sharing between plant organizations not typically interfaced. This interfacing provides outage planners with a means of incorporating occupational radiation exposure as a factor for making decisions on the course of an outage

  6. Ionizing radiation-induced phosphorylation of RPA p34 is deficient in ataxia telangiectasia and reduced in aged normal fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinbo Cheng; Nge Cheong; Ya Wang; Iliakis, George

    1996-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA, also called human single stranded DNA binding protein, hSSB) is a trimeric, multifunctional protein complex involved in DNA replication, DNA repair and recombination. Phosphorylation of RPA p34 subunit is observed after exposure of cells to radiation and other DNA damaging agents, which implicates the protein not only in repair but also in the regulation of replication on damaged DNA template. Here, we show that the phosphorylation observed in RPA p34 after exposure to ionizing radiation, X- or γ-rays, is reduced and occurs later in primary fibroblasts from patients suffering from ataxia telangiectasia (AT), as compared to normal fibroblasts. We also show that in primary normal human fibroblasts, radiation-induced phosphorylation of RPA p34 is 'age'-dependent and decreases significantly as cultures senesce. Radiation-induced phosphorylation of RPA p34 is nearly absent in non-cycling cells, while the expression of p21 cip1/waf1/sdi1 remains inducible. The results demonstrate a growth-stage and culture-age dependency in radiation-induced RPA p34 phosphorylation, and suggest the operation of a signal transduction pathway that is inactivated in senescing or quiescent fibroblasts and defective in AT cells

  7. Meeting Radiation Protection Requirements and Reducing Spacecraft Mass - A Multifunctional Materials Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Reddell, Brandon; Rojdev, Kristina; Franklin, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Both crew and radio-sensitive systems, especially electronics must be protected from the effects of the space radiation environment. One method of mitigating this radiation exposure is to use passive-shielding materials. In previous vehicle designs such as the International Space Station (ISS), materials such as aluminum and polyethylene have been used as parasitic shielding to protect crew and electronics from exposure, but these designs add mass and decrease the amount of usable volume inside the vehicle. Thus, it is of interest to understand whether structural materials can also be designed to provide the radiation shielding capability needed for crew and electronics, while still providing weight savings and increased useable volume when compared against previous vehicle shielding designs. In this paper, we present calculations and analysis using the HZETRN (deterministic) and FLUKA (Monte Carlo) codes to investigate the radiation mitigation properties of these structural shielding materials, which includes graded-Z and composite materials. This work is also a follow-on to an earlier paper, that compared computational results for three radiation transport codes, HZETRN, HETC, and FLUKA, using the Feb. 1956 solar particle event (SPE) spectrum. In the following analysis, we consider the October 1989 Ground Level Enhanced (GLE) SPE as the input source term based on the Band function fitting method. Using HZETRN and FLUKA, parametric absorbed doses at the center of a hemispherical structure on the lunar surface are calculated for various thicknesses of graded-Z layups and an all-aluminum structure. HZETRN and FLUKA calculations are compared and are in reasonable (18% to 27%) agreement. Both codes are in agreement with respect to the predicted shielding material performance trends. The results from both HZETRN and FLUKA are analyzed and the radiation protection properties and potential weight savings of various materials and materials lay-ups are compared.

  8. Increased UV-B radiation reduces N2-fixation in tropical leguminous crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anupa Singh

    1997-01-01

    Net photosynthesis, leaf area, biomass, and number, size and activity of nodules were examined in three leguminous plants subjected under field conditions to supplemental UV-B radiation equivalent to a 15% ozone depletion at 25 degrees N latitude. Enhanced UV-B radiation adversely affected the net photosynthetic rate, growth characteristics and nodule activity in all three species. Maximum reduction in net photosynthesis occurred in Phaseolus mungo cv. Pant U-30, whereas the greatest reduction in nitrogenase activity occurred in Vigna radiata. (author)

  9. Does sucralfate reduce early side effects of pelvic radiation? A double-blind randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellamans, Karin; Lievens, Yolande; Lambin, Philippe; Van den Weyngaert, Danielle; Van den Bogaert, Walter; Scalliet, Pierre; Hutsebaut, Liesbeth; Haustermans, Karin

    2002-11-01

    STUDY AND METHODS: A double-blind placebo-controlled study randomized 108 patients to investigate the effect of sucralfate on gastrointestinal side effects of pelvic radiation. Overall, pelvic radiation with the administered doses and fields and performed according to nowadays technical standards, was well tolerated. Comparison of the mean scores and the peak reactions for radiotherapy discomfort, diarrhoea and number of stools per day in the 80 evaluable patients showed no statistically significant difference between sucralfate and placebo. Based on these results, the use of sucralfate can not be recommended as standard practice.

  10. Does sucralfate reduce early side effects of pelvic radiation? A double-blind randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellamans, Karin; Lievens, Yolande; Lambin, Philippe; Van den Weyngaert, Danielle; Van den Bogaert, Walter; Scalliet, Pierre; Hutsebaut, Liesbeth; Haustermans, Karin

    2002-01-01

    Study and methods: A double-blind placebo-controlled study randomized 108 patients to investigate the effect of sucralfate on gastrointestinal side effects of pelvic radiation. Results: Overall, pelvic radiation with the administered doses and fields and performed according to nowadays technical standards, was well tolerated. Comparison of the mean scores and the peak reactions for radiotherapy discomfort, diarrhoea and number of stools per day in the 80 evaluable patients showed no statistically significant difference between sucralfate and placebo. Conclusion: Based on these results, the use of sucralfate can not be recommended as standard practice

  11. A programme to reduce down-time and site radiation dose through improvements in control rod design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izatt, J.A.; Scobie, J.

    1985-01-01

    On the UTR-300 reactor at SURRC, it has been found necessary to carry out preventive or remedial maintenance at least once per year on the in-core elements of the control rod assemblies. This has led to reduced availability of the reactor and to significant overall radiation doses to the few long-serving staff members who carry out this work. In an attempt to reduce down-time and radiation dose to staff a radical re-design of the control assemblies was undertaken in-house, and a conversion programme has been underway over the last four years. Details of the design improvements are presented together with a discussion of the operating experience to date. (author)

  12. Effect of radiation therapy on small-cell lung cancer is reduced by ubiquinone intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, E L; Quistorff, B; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1998-01-01

    radiation dose of 5 Gy, using a 300 kV therapeutic unit. The macroscopic growth pre- and posttreatment was analyzed according to a transformed Gompertz algorithm using the software program GROWTH. Treatment with Q10 or soy oil alone had no effect on tumor growth compared with untreated controls. Groups...

  13. Effects of growth reducer and nitrogen fertilization on morphological variables, SPAD index, interception of radiation and productivity of wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Elvis Felipe Elli; Braulio Otomar Caron; Sandro Luis Petter Medeiros; Elder Eloy; Gean Charles Monteiro; Denise Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth reducer and nitrogen fertilization on morphological variables, SPAD index, radiation interception, and grain yield of three cultivars of wheat. The experimental design was a randomized block in factorial scheme 3x5x2, with three cultivars (Mestre, Iguaçú and Itaipú), five nitrogen doses (0, 40, 80, 120, 160 Kg ha-1), and application or no application of a growth reducer, with three replications. The following characteri...

  14. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS – treatment of the reduced host defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heslet L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lars Heslet1, Christiane Bay2, Steen Nepper-Christensen31Serendex ApS, Gentofte; 2University of Copenhagen, Medical Faculty, Copenhagen; 3Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Otorhinolaryngology, Køge University Hospital, Køge, DenmarkBackground: The current radiation threat from the Fukushima power plant accident has prompted rethinking of the contingency plan for prophylaxis and treatment of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS. The well-documented effect of the growth factors (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [G-CSF] and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF] in acute radiation injury has become standard treatment for ARS in the United States, based on the fact that growth factors increase number and functions of both macrophages and granulocytes.Methods: Review of the current literature.Results: The lungs have their own host defense system, based on alveolar macrophages. After radiation exposure to the lungs, resting macrophages can no longer be transformed, not even during systemic administration of growth factors because G-CSF/GM-CSF does not penetrate the alveoli. Under normal circumstances, locally-produced GM-CSF receptors transform resting macrophages into fully immunocompetent dendritic cells in the sealed-off pulmonary compartment. However, GM-CSF is not expressed in radiation injured tissue due to defervescence of the macrophages. In order to maintain the macrophage’s important role in host defense after radiation exposure, it is hypothesized that it is necessary to administer the drug exogenously in order to uphold the barrier against exogenous and endogenous infections and possibly prevent the potentially lethal systemic infection, which is the main cause of death in ARS.Recommendation: Preemptive treatment should be initiated after suspected exposure of a radiation dose of at least ~2 Gy by prompt dosing of 250–400 µg GM-CSF/m2 or 5 µg/kg G-CSF administered systemically and concomitant inhalation of

  15. New symbol launched to warn public about radiation dangers. Supplementary symbol aims to help reduce needless deaths and injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Full text: With radiating waves, a skull and crossbones and a running person, a new ionizing radiation warning symbol is being introduced to supplement the traditional international symbol for radiation, the three cornered trefoil. The new symbol is being launched today by the IAEA and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to help reduce needless deaths and serious injuries from accidental exposure to large radioactive sources. It will serve as a supplementary warning to the trefoil, which has no intuitive meaning and little recognition beyond those educated in its significance. 'I believe the international recognition of the specific expertise of both organizations will ensure that the new standard will be accepted and applied by governments and industry to improve the safety of nuclear applications, protection of people and the environment', said Ms. Eliana Amaral, Director, Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, IAEA. The new symbol is aimed at alerting anyone, anywhere to the potential dangers of being close to a large source of ionizing radiation, the result of a five-year project conducted in 11 countries around the world. The symbol was tested with different population groups - mixed ages, varying educational backgrounds, male and female - to ensure that its message of 'danger- stay away' was crystal clear and understood by all. 'We can't teach the world about radiation,' said Carolyn Mac Kenzie, an IAEA radiation specialist who helped develop the symbol, 'but we can warn people about dangerous sources for the price of sticker.' The new symbol, developed by human factor experts, graphic artists, and radiation protection experts, was tested by the Gallup Institute on a total of 1 650 individuals in Brazil, Mexico, Morocco, Kenya, Saudi Arabia, China, India, Thailand, Poland, Ukraine and the United States. The symbol is intended for IAEA Category 1, 2 and 3 sources defined as dangerous sources capable of death or serious injury

  16. New symbol launched to warn public about radiation dangers. Supplementary symbol aims to help reduce needless deaths and injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Full text: With radiating waves, a skull and crossbones and a running person, a new ionizing radiation warning symbol is being introduced to supplement the traditional international symbol for radiation, the three cornered trefoil. The new symbol is being launched today by the IAEA and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to help reduce needless deaths and serious injuries from accidental exposure to large radioactive sources. It will serve as a supplementary warning to the trefoil, which has no intuitive meaning and little recognition beyond those educated in its significance. 'I believe the international recognition of the specific expertise of both organizations will ensure that the new standard will be accepted and applied by governments and industry to improve the safety of nuclear applications, protection of people and the environment', said Ms. Eliana Amaral, Director, Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, IAEA. The new symbol is aimed at alerting anyone, anywhere to the potential dangers of being close to a large source of ionizing radiation, the result of a five-year project conducted in 11 countries around the world. The symbol was tested with different population groups - mixed ages, varying educational backgrounds, male and female - to ensure that its message of 'danger- stay away' was crystal clear and understood by all. 'We can't teach the world about radiation,' said Carolyn Mac Kenzie, an IAEA radiation specialist who helped develop the symbol, 'but we can warn people about dangerous sources for the price of sticker.' The new symbol, developed by human factor experts, graphic artists, and radiation protection experts, was tested by the Gallup Institute on a total of 1 650 individuals in Brazil, Mexico, Morocco, Kenya, Saudi Arabia, China, India, Thailand, Poland, Ukraine and the United States. The symbol is intended for IAEA Category 1, 2 and 3 sources defined as dangerous sources capable of death or serious injury

  17. New symbol launched to warn public about radiation dangers. Supplementary symbol aims to help reduce needless deaths and injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Full text: With radiating waves, a skull and crossbones and a running person, a new ionizing radiation warning symbol is being introduced to supplement the traditional international symbol for radiation, the three cornered trefoil. The new symbol is being launched today by the IAEA and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to help reduce needless deaths and serious injuries from accidental exposure to large radioactive sources. It will serve as a supplementary warning to the trefoil, which has no intuitive meaning and little recognition beyond those educated in its significance. 'I believe the international recognition of the specific expertise of both organizations will ensure that the new standard will be accepted and applied by governments and industry to improve the safety of nuclear applications, protection of people and the environment', said Ms. Eliana Amaral, Director, Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, IAEA. The new symbol is aimed at alerting anyone, anywhere to the potential dangers of being close to a large source of ionizing radiation, the result of a five-year project conducted in 11 countries around the world. The symbol was tested with different population groups - mixed ages, varying educational backgrounds, male and female - to ensure that its message of 'danger- stay away' was crystal clear and understood by all. 'We can't teach the world about radiation,' said Carolyn Mac Kenzie, an IAEA radiation specialist who helped develop the symbol, 'but we can warn people about dangerous sources for the price of sticker.' The new symbol, developed by human factor experts, graphic artists, and radiation protection experts, was tested by the Gallup Institute on a total of 1 650 individuals in Brazil, Mexico, Morocco, Kenya, Saudi Arabia, China, India, Thailand, Poland, Ukraine and the United States. The symbol is intended for IAEA Category 1, 2 and 3 sources defined as dangerous sources capable of death or serious injury

  18. Embedded top-coat for reducing the effect out of band radiation in EUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ke; Siauw, Meiliana; Valade, David; Jasieniak, Marek; Voelcker, Nico; Trefonas, Peter; Thackeray, Jim; Blakey, Idriss; Whittaker, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    Out of band (OOB) radiation from the EUV source has significant implications for the performance of EUVL photoresists. Here we introduce a surface-active polymer additive, capable of partitioning to the top of the resist film during casting and annealing, to protect the underlying photoresist from OOB radiation. Copolymers were prepared using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, and rendered surface active by chain extension with a block of fluoro-monomer. Films were prepared from the EUV resist with added surface-active Embedded Barrier Layer (EBL), and characterized using measurements of contact angles and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Finally, the lithographic performance of the resist containing the EBL was evaluated using Electron Beam Lithography exposure

  19. Reducing radiation exposures at nuclear power plants using virtual job planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verzilov, Y.; Husain, A.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Dose Exposure Planning Tool (ADEPT) is an innovative solution for assisting nuclear station staff to effectively minimize worker dose during inspection and maintenance activities and to improve ALARA job planning. ADEPT combines visualization and simulation of the radioactive environment at a nuclear station to estimate worker dose. It allows users to walk through a virtual job plan and receive a live radiation dose estimate for the planned work. (author)

  20. Can radiation damage to protein crystals be reduced using small-molecule compounds?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kmetko, Jan [Kenyon College, Gambier, OH 43022 (United States); Warkentin, Matthew; Englich, Ulrich; Thorne, Robert E., E-mail: ret6@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Kenyon College, Gambier, OH 43022 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Free-radical scavengers that are known to be effective protectors of proteins in solution are found to increase global radiation damage to protein crystals. Protective mechanisms may become deleterious in the protein-dense environment of a crystal. Recent studies have defined a data-collection protocol and a metric that provide a robust measure of global radiation damage to protein crystals. Using this protocol and metric, 19 small-molecule compounds (introduced either by cocrystallization or soaking) were evaluated for their ability to protect lysozyme crystals from radiation damage. The compounds were selected based upon their ability to interact with radiolytic products (e.g. hydrated electrons, hydrogen, hydroxyl and perhydroxyl radicals) and/or their efficacy in protecting biological molecules from radiation damage in dilute aqueous solutions. At room temperature, 12 compounds had no effect and six had a sensitizing effect on global damage. Only one compound, sodium nitrate, appeared to extend crystal lifetimes, but not in all proteins and only by a factor of two or less. No compound provided protection at T = 100 K. Scavengers are ineffective in protecting protein crystals from global damage because a large fraction of primary X-ray-induced excitations are generated in and/or directly attack the protein and because the ratio of scavenger molecules to protein molecules is too small to provide appreciable competitive protection. The same reactivity that makes some scavengers effective radioprotectors in protein solutions may explain their sensitizing effect in the protein-dense environment of a crystal. A more productive focus for future efforts may be to identify and eliminate sensitizing compounds from crystallization solutions.

  1. Can radiation damage to protein crystals be reduced using small-molecule compounds?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kmetko, Jan; Warkentin, Matthew; Englich, Ulrich; Thorne, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Free-radical scavengers that are known to be effective protectors of proteins in solution are found to increase global radiation damage to protein crystals. Protective mechanisms may become deleterious in the protein-dense environment of a crystal. Recent studies have defined a data-collection protocol and a metric that provide a robust measure of global radiation damage to protein crystals. Using this protocol and metric, 19 small-molecule compounds (introduced either by cocrystallization or soaking) were evaluated for their ability to protect lysozyme crystals from radiation damage. The compounds were selected based upon their ability to interact with radiolytic products (e.g. hydrated electrons, hydrogen, hydroxyl and perhydroxyl radicals) and/or their efficacy in protecting biological molecules from radiation damage in dilute aqueous solutions. At room temperature, 12 compounds had no effect and six had a sensitizing effect on global damage. Only one compound, sodium nitrate, appeared to extend crystal lifetimes, but not in all proteins and only by a factor of two or less. No compound provided protection at T = 100 K. Scavengers are ineffective in protecting protein crystals from global damage because a large fraction of primary X-ray-induced excitations are generated in and/or directly attack the protein and because the ratio of scavenger molecules to protein molecules is too small to provide appreciable competitive protection. The same reactivity that makes some scavengers effective radioprotectors in protein solutions may explain their sensitizing effect in the protein-dense environment of a crystal. A more productive focus for future efforts may be to identify and eliminate sensitizing compounds from crystallization solutions

  2. A statewide teleradiology system reduces radiation exposure and charges in transferred trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Justin J J; Moren, Alexis; Diggs, Brian; Houser, Ben; Eastes, Lynn; Brand, Dawn; Bilyeu, Pamela; Schreiber, Martin; Kiraly, Laszlo

    2016-05-01

    Trauma transfer patients routinely undergo repeat imaging because of inefficiencies within the radiology system. In 2009, the virtual private network (VPN) telemedicine system was adopted throughout Oregon allowing virtual image transfer between hospitals. The startup cost was a nominal $3,000 per hospital. A retrospective review from 2007 to 2012 included 400 randomly selected adult trauma transfer patients based on a power analysis (200 pre/200 post). The primary outcome evaluated was reduction in repeat computed tomography (CT) scans. Secondary outcomes included cost savings, emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS), and spared radiation. All data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and chi-square tests. P less than .05 indicated significance. Spared radiation was calculated as a weighted average per body region, and savings was calculated using charges obtained from Oregon Health and Science University radiology current procedural terminology codes. Four-hundred patients were included. Injury Severity Score, age, ED and overall LOS, mortality, trauma type, and gender were not statistically different between groups. The percentage of patients with repeat CT scans decreased after VPN implementation: CT abdomen (13.2% vs 2.8%, P < .01) and cervical spine (34.4% vs 18.2%, P < .01). Post-VPN, the total charges saved in 2012 for trauma transfer patients was $333,500, whereas the average radiation dose spared per person was 1.8 mSV. Length of stay in the ED for patients with Injury Severity Score less than 15 transferring to the ICU was decreased (P < .05). Implementation of a statewide teleradiology network resulted in fewer total repeat CT scans, significant savings, decrease in radiation exposure, and decreased LOS in the ED for patients with less complex injuries. The potential for health care savings by widespread adoption of a VPN is significant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analytic Shielding Optimization to Reduce Crew Exposure to Ionizing Radiation Inside Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaza, Razvan; Cooper, Tim P.; Hanzo, Arthur; Hussein, Hesham; Jarvis, Kandy S.; Kimble, Ryan; Lee, Kerry T.; Patel, Chirag; Reddell, Brandon D.; Stoffle, Nicholas; hide

    2009-01-01

    A sustainable lunar architecture provides capabilities for leveraging out-of-service components for alternate uses. Discarded architecture elements may be used to provide ionizing radiation shielding to the crew habitat in case of a Solar Particle Event. The specific location relative to the vehicle where the additional shielding mass is placed, as corroborated with particularities of the vehicle design, has a large influence on protection gain. This effect is caused by the exponential- like decrease of radiation exposure with shielding mass thickness, which in turn determines that the most benefit from a given amount of shielding mass is obtained by placing it so that it preferentially augments protection in under-shielded areas of the vehicle exposed to the radiation environment. A novel analytic technique to derive an optimal shielding configuration was developed by Lockheed Martin during Design Analysis Cycle 3 (DAC-3) of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). [1] Based on a detailed Computer Aided Design (CAD) model of the vehicle including a specific crew positioning scenario, a set of under-shielded vehicle regions can be identified as candidates for placement of additional shielding. Analytic tools are available to allow capturing an idealized supplemental shielding distribution in the CAD environment, which in turn is used as a reference for deriving a realistic shielding configuration from available vehicle components. While the analysis referenced in this communication applies particularly to the Orion vehicle, the general method can be applied to a large range of space exploration vehicles, including but not limited to lunar and Mars architecture components. In addition, the method can be immediately applied for optimization of radiation shielding provided to sensitive electronic components.

  4. Modeling of Solar Radiation Management: A Comparison of Simulations Using Reduced Solar Constant and Stratospheric Sulphate Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, G.; Kalidindi, S.; Modak, A.; Caldeira, K.

    2014-12-01

    Several climate modelling studies in the past have used reduction in solar constant to simulate the climatic effects of Solar Radiation Management (SRM) geoengineering. This is most likely valid only for space-based mirrors/reflectors but not for SRM methods that rely on stratospheric aerosols. In this study, we use a climate model to evaluate the differences in climate response to SRM by uniform solar constant reduction and stratospheric aerosols. The experiments are designed such that global mean warming from a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration (2xCO2) is nearly cancelled in each case. In such a scenario, the residual climate effects are similar when important surface and tropospheric climate variables such as temperature and precipitation are considered. However, there are significant differences in stratospheric temperature response and diffuse and direct radiation reaching the surface. A difference of 1K in the global mean stratospheric (61-9.8 hPa) temperature is simulated between the two SRM methods, with warming in the aerosol scheme and a slight cooling for sunshades. While the global mean surface diffuse radiation increases by ~23% and direct radiation decreases by about 9% in the case of aerosol SRM method, both direct and diffuse radiation decrease by similar fractional amounts (~1.0%) when solar constant is reduced. When CO2 fertilization effects from elevated CO2 concentration levels are removed, the contribution from shaded leaves to gross primary productivity (GPP) increases by 1.8 % in aerosol SRM because of increased diffuse light. However, this increase is almost offset by a 15.2% decline in sunlit contribution due to reduced direct light. Overall both the SRM simulations show similar decrease in GPP (~ 8%) and NPP (~3%) relative to 2xCO2, indicating the negligible effect of the fractional changes in direct/diffuse radiation on the overall plant productivity. Based on our modelling study, we conclude that the climate states produced by a

  5. Timing of pilocarpine treatment during head and neck radiotherapy: concomitant administration reduces xerostomia better than post-radiation pilocarpine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, Robert P.; Mark, Rufus J.; Juillard, Guy F.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To study whether oral pilocarpine administration during and three months after head and neck radiotherapy can prevent or reduce the expected post-radiation xerostomia. This regimen was compared to no treatment and to post-radiotherapy pilocarpine administration, which has previously been shown to reduce symptoms of xerostomia in several randomized trials. Methods: Xerostomia assessments were performed using a visual analog scale xerostomia questionnaire that measures oral dryness, oral comfort, difficulty with sleep, speech and eating. Higher scores indicate less xerostomia. All the patients had all major salivary glands in the initial field treated to ≥ 4,500 cGy. The concomitant pilocarpine group received 5 mg pilocarpine q.i.d. beginning on day one of radiotherapy and continuing for 3 months after completion of radiation. The control group had their baseline xerostomia measured prior to receiving pilocarpine. They subsequently took 5 mg pilocarpine t.i.d. for one month at which time they underwent a second xerostomia assessment. Xerostomia scores for each group were averaged and compared using the Student's t-test. Results: Seventeen patients who received pilocarpine during head and neck irradiation were compared to 12 post-radiotherapy patients who had not yet taken pilocarpine and the same patients after taking pilocarpine for one month. The mean intervals between completion of radiation and evaluation of xerostomia were 16 months for the control group and 17 months for the pilocarpine treated groups. The primary tumor sites treated as well as the total tumor doses were equivalent between the groups. Only one of the pilocarpine treated patients was still taking pilocarpine at the time of evaluation. Results are shown. For each component of xerostomia measured as well as the composite of all components, the group that had received pilocarpine during radiation had significantly less xerostomia than the no pilocarpine group (p<0.01 for each). Post

  6. A study on reducing radiation dose in dental radiography for children, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikone, Mitsuru; Tsuchida, Atsushi; Tateno, Hidemi; Uchimura, Noboru; Higaki, Morio; Kanno, Masanori; Higashi, Tomomitsu

    1986-01-01

    X-ray examination is one of the effective diagnoses in dentistry. And it is difficult to conduct a precise dental examination without X-ray films, especially in pedodontics. However, radiography may be attended with many radiation injury, and we must perform the complete protection of patients when taking X-ray radiography for children, because their tissues are much more sensitive to radiation than those of adult. Children have some radiosensitive immature organs such as the thyroid gland, eyes (crystalline lens), gonad etc., accordingly, it is very important to protect them from exposure of X-rey. It has been suggested that the thyroid gland is the most sensitive to radiation among many organs. We, therefore, establish a protector for children's thyroid gland as soon as possible. In this study, the auther had designed X-ray protecting rubber sheet which had various lead contents, for finding an optimum condition of the protector. Additionally, the sheltering effects were compared among ready-made protectors. 1. It was satisfactory for complete sheltering of direct beam that the rubber sheet contained 0.375 mmPb, 0.5 mmPb, and 0.75 mmPb, at the tubevoltage of 65 kVp, 70 kVp and 80 kVp, respectively. 2. The radiolucency ratio of Hagoromo Apron containing 0.25 mmPb was 0 % at 65 kVp, and that of X-ray Shield containing 0.50 mmPb was 0 % at 65, 70 kVp and 80 kVp too. 3. Among the ready-made aprons, there was one which had less lead content than the indicated value. (author)

  7. Ambient UV-B radiation reduces PSII performance and net photosynthesis in high Arctic Salix arctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2011-01-01

    , nitrogen and UV-B absorbing compounds. Compared to a 60% reduced UV-B irradiance, the ambient solar UV-B reduced net photosynthesis in Salix arctica leaves fixed in the 45° position which exposed leaves to maximum natural irradiance. Also a reduced Calvin Cycle capacity was found, i.e. the maximum rate...... across position in the vegetation. These findings add to the evidence that the ambient solar UV-B currently is a significant stress factor for plants in high Arctic Greenland....

  8. Vibroacoustics of the piano soundboard: Reduced models, mobility synthesis, and acoustical radiation regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutillon, Xavier; Ege, Kerem

    2013-09-01

    In string musical instruments, the sound is radiated by the soundboard, subject to the strings excitation. This vibration of this rather complex structure is described here with models which need only a small number of parameters. Predictions of the models are compared with the results of experiments that have been presented in Ege et al. [Vibroacoustics of the piano soundboard: (non)linearity and modal properties in the low- and mid-frequency ranges, Journal of Sound and Vibration 332 (5) (2013) 1288-1305]. The apparent modal density of the soundboard of an upright piano in playing condition, as seen from various points of the structure, exhibits two well-separated regimes, below and above a frequency flim that is determined by the wood characteristics and by the distance between ribs. Above flim, most modes appear to be localised, presumably due to the irregularity of the spacing and height of the ribs. The low-frequency regime is predicted by a model which consists of coupled sub-structures: the two ribbed areas split by the main bridge and, in most cases, one or two so-called cut-off corners. In order to assess the dynamical properties of each of the subplates (considered here as homogeneous plates), we propose a derivation of the (low-frequency) modal density of an orthotropic homogeneous plate which accounts for the boundary conditions on an arbitrary geometry. Above flim, the soundboard, as seen from a given excitation point, is modelled as a set of three structural wave-guides, namely the three inter-rib spacings surrounding the excitation point. Based on these low- and high-frequency models, computations of the point-mobility and of the apparent modal densities seen at several excitation points match published measurements. The dispersion curve of the wave-guide model displays an acoustical radiation scheme which differs significantly from that of a thin homogeneous plate. It appears that piano dimensioning is such that the subsonic regime of acoustical

  9. Cost-effectiveness considerations in reducing occupational radiation exposure in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.; Maccia, C.; Pages, P.

    1983-01-01

    This article outlines a method of applying the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable principle to occupational radiation exposures in nuclear power stations. A set of protective actions already taken at French pressurized-water reactors now in operation were selected, and their cost and effectiveness were assessed, allowing for the possible interdependence of protection and energy-production objectives. The usefulness of such quantitative evaluation is discussed with regard to the problem of using monetary values of the man-sievert in optimization procedures

  10. New scanning technique using Adaptive Statistical lterative Reconstruction (ASIR) significantly reduced the radiation dose of cardiac CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumur, Odgerel; Soon, Kean; Brown, Fraser; Mykytowycz, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    The aims of our study were to evaluate the effect of application of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm on the radiation dose of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and its effects on image quality of CCTA and to evaluate the effects of various patient and CT scanning factors on the radiation dose of CCTA. This was a retrospective study that included 347 consecutive patients who underwent CCTA at a tertiary university teaching hospital between 1 July 2009 and 20 September 2011. Analysis was performed comparing patient demographics, scan characteristics, radiation dose and image quality in two groups of patients in whom conventional Filtered Back Projection (FBP) or ASIR was used for image reconstruction. There were 238 patients in the FBP group and 109 patients in the ASIR group. There was no difference between the groups in the use of prospective gating, scan length or tube voltage. In ASIR group, significantly lower tube current was used compared with FBP group, 550mA (450–600) vs. 650mA (500–711.25) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P<0.001. There was 27% effective radiation dose reduction in the ASIR group compared with FBP group, 4.29mSv (2.84–6.02) vs. 5.84mSv (3.88–8.39) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P<0.001. Although ASIR was associated with increased image noise compared with FBP (39.93±10.22 vs. 37.63±18.79 (mean ±standard deviation), respectively, P<001), it did not affect the signal intensity, signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio or the diagnostic quality of CCTA. Application of ASIR reduces the radiation dose of CCTA without affecting the image quality.

  11. New scanning technique using Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) significantly reduced the radiation dose of cardiac CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumur, Odgerel; Soon, Kean; Brown, Fraser; Mykytowycz, Marcus

    2013-06-01

    The aims of our study were to evaluate the effect of application of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm on the radiation dose of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and its effects on image quality of CCTA and to evaluate the effects of various patient and CT scanning factors on the radiation dose of CCTA. This was a retrospective study that included 347 consecutive patients who underwent CCTA at a tertiary university teaching hospital between 1 July 2009 and 20 September 2011. Analysis was performed comparing patient demographics, scan characteristics, radiation dose and image quality in two groups of patients in whom conventional Filtered Back Projection (FBP) or ASIR was used for image reconstruction. There were 238 patients in the FBP group and 109 patients in the ASIR group. There was no difference between the groups in the use of prospective gating, scan length or tube voltage. In ASIR group, significantly lower tube current was used compared with FBP group, 550 mA (450-600) vs. 650 mA (500-711.25) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P ASIR group compared with FBP group, 4.29 mSv (2.84-6.02) vs. 5.84 mSv (3.88-8.39) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P ASIR was associated with increased image noise compared with FBP (39.93 ± 10.22 vs. 37.63 ± 18.79 (mean ± standard deviation), respectively, P ASIR reduces the radiation dose of CCTA without affecting the image quality. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  12. Radiation brain dose to vascular surgeons during fluoroscopically guided interventions is not effectively reduced by wearing lead equivalent surgical caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Melissa L; Arbique, Gary M; Guild, Jeffrey B; Zeng, Katie; Xi, Yin; Rectenwald, John; Anderson, Jon A; Timaran, Carlos

    2018-03-12

    Radiation to the interventionalist's brain during fluoroscopically guided interventions (FGIs) may increase the incidence of cerebral neoplasms. Lead equivalent surgical caps claim to reduce radiation brain doses by 50% to 95%. We sought to determine the efficacy of the RADPAD (Worldwide Innovations & Technologies, Lenexa, Kan) No Brainer surgical cap (0.06 mm lead equivalent at 90 kVp) in reducing radiation dose to the surgeon's and trainee's head during FGIs and to a phantom to determine relative brain dose reductions. Optically stimulated, luminescent nanoDot detectors (Landauer, Glenwood, Ill) inside and outside of the cap at the left temporal position were used to measure cap attenuation during FGIs. To check relative brain doses, nanoDot detectors were placed in 15 positions within an anthropomorphic head phantom (ATOM model 701; CIRS, Norfolk, Va). The phantom was positioned to represent a primary operator performing femoral access. Fluorography was performed on a plastic scatter phantom at 80 kVp for an exposure of 5 Gy reference air kerma with or without the hat. For each brain location, the percentage dose reduction with the hat was calculated. Means and standard errors were calculated using a pooled linear mixed model with repeated measurements. Anatomically similar locations were combined into five groups: upper brain, upper skull, midbrain, eyes, and left temporal position. This was a prospective, single-center study that included 29 endovascular aortic aneurysm procedures. The average procedure reference air kerma was 2.6 Gy. The hat attenuation at the temporal position for the attending physician and fellow was 60% ± 20% and 33% ± 36%, respectively. The equivalent phantom measurements demonstrated an attenuation of 71% ± 2.0% (P < .0001). In the interior phantom locations, attenuation was statistically significant for the skull (6% ± 1.4%) and upper brain (7.2% ± 1.0%; P < .0001) but not for the middle brain (1.4% ± 1.0%; P = .15

  13. Ghrelin may reduce radiation-induced mucositis and anorexia in head-neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Yildiz; Ozel Turkcu, Ummuhani; Hicsonmez, Ayse; Nalca Andrieu, Meltem; Kurtman, Cengiz

    2007-01-01

    Body weight loss is common in cancer patients, and is often associated with poor prognosis, it greatly impairs quality of life (QOL). Radiation therapy (RT) is used in head and neck cancers (HNC) either as a primary treatment or as an adjuvant therapy to surgery. Patients with HNC are most susceptible to malnutrition especially due to anorexia, which is aggravated by RT. Multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-alpha), have been all associated with the development of both anorexia and oral mucositis. Radiation-induced mucositis occurs in almost all patients, who are treated for HNC, it could also cause weight loss. Ghrelin is a novel 28-amino acid peptide, which up-regulates body weight through appetite control, increase food intake, down-regulate energy expenditure and induces adiposity. Furthermore, ghrelin inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha which may cause oral mucositis and aneroxia, which are the results of weight loss. Thus weight loss during RT is an early indicator of nutritional decline, we propose that recombinant ghrelin used prophylactically could be useful as an appetite stimulant; and preventive of mucositis because of its anti-inflammatory effect, it might help patients maintain weight over the course of curative RT of the HNC and can improve specific aspects of QOL. This issue warrants further studies.

  14. A study on reducing radiation dose in dental radiography for children, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikone, Mitsuru; Tsuchida, Atsushi; Tateno, Hidemi; Uchimura, Noboru; Higaki, Morio; Kanno, Masanori; Higashi, Tomomitsu

    1987-01-01

    Although it is well understood that diagnostic dental radiographic examination is an indispensible procedure of the dental examination, it always carries the danger of radiation harm especially to the pedodontic patients who are more radiosensitive than the adult group. At the time of exposure, in specific, certain undeveloped tissues such as the thyroid (reverting postmitotic cells), the optic lens, and the reproductive cells (gonads) must be shielded from any unnecessary radiation. In this study, using the pedodontic intraoral radiographic examination method, four various cervical shields of four separate manufacturers were investigated. With the aid of the Thermo Luminescent Dosimeter (TLD), the specific exposure doses to the thyroid gland region were analyzed. At the same time, individual cervical shield's adaptation to the neck was examined. The results were as follows: (1) Even with the use of the cervical shield, maximum dose of 98.64 ± 11.13 mR (lower molar periapical radiography method), and minimum of 34.27 ± 6.69 mR (lower anterior periapical radiography method) were obtained at the thyroid gland region. (2) It was discovered that poor adaptation of the cervical shield to the neck and also poor adaptation of the long cones (position indicating devices, PID) occured upon patient opening his/her mouth. (author)

  15. Fluoroscopy without the grid: a method of reducing the radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, P.; Robinson, A.

    1980-01-01

    The anti-scatter grid has been removed from the fluoroscopic set during the course of over 80 contrast examinations performed routinely during the ordinary workload of a busy paediatric radiology department. This manoeuvre approximatley halves the radiation dose to the patient during both fluoroscopy and radiography. Experience suggests that the degree of loss of contrast consequent on the abandonment of the grid is diagnostically acceptable during many examinations performed on children (of all ages), when balanced against the lower radiation dose received. In addition, an assessment has been made of the contrast improvement factor of the grids in two fluoroscopic sets in common use, using tissue-equivalent phantoms of various thicknesses. Although the contrast was significantly improved by the use of the grid, to a degree dependent on various factors, the relevance of this improvement in clinical radiology depends on exactly what information is being sought. It is recommended that radiologists should use the grid with discretion when performing fluoroscopic examinations on children and that the apparatus for such examinations should have the capability for easy removal and reintroduction of the grid. (author)

  16. Method and apparatus for reducing radiation exposure through the use of infrared data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Frank S.; Hance, Albert B.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for transmitting information, for exae, dosimetry data from a hazardous environment such as a radioactive area to a remote relatively safe location. A radiation detector senses the radiation and generates an electrical signal which is fed as a binary coded decimal signal to an infrared transmitter having a microprocessor. The microprocessor formats the detected information into digits of data and modulates a 40 kHz oscillator, the output of which is fed to and intensity modulates one or more infrared emitting diodes. The infrared signal from the diodes is transmitted to a portable hand-held infrared receiver remote from the hazardous environment. The receiver includes an infrared sensitive diode which decodes the data and generates an electrical signal which is coupled to a microcomputer. The microcomputer synchronizes itself to the transmitter, reads the digits of data as they are received, sums the digits and compares the sum with a checksum signal generated and transmitted from the transmitter. If a match of the checksum signals exists, the received data is displayed, otherwise it is described and the receiver conditions itself for the next transmission of data.

  17. Ascorbic acid reduced mutagenicity at the HPRT locus in CHO cells against thermal neutron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinashi, Yuko; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Suzuki, Minoru; Nagata, Kenji; Ono, Koji

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the biological effects of the long-lived radicals induced following neutron irradiation. It has been reported that radiation-induced long-lived radicals were scavenged by post-irradiation treatment of ascorbic acid (Koyama, 1998). We studied the effects of ascorbic acid acting as a long-lived radical scavenger on cell killing and mutagenicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells against thermal neutrons produced at the Kyoto University Research reactor. Ascorbic acid was added to cells 30 min after neutron irradiation and removed 150 min after irradiation. The biological end point of cell survival was measured by colony formation assay. The mutagenicity was measured by the mutant frequency in the HPRT locus. The post-irradiation treatment of ascorbic acid did not alter the cell killing effect of neutron radiation. However, the mutagenicity was decreased, especially when the cells were irradiated with boron. Our results suggested that ascorbic acid scavenged long-lived radicals effectively and caused apparent protective effects against mutagenicity of boron neutron capture therapy

  18. Life evaluation of FR-CV cable on thermal-radiation combined aging by micro-hardness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Masahiko; Ogata, Akimasa; Nitta, Makoto; Tani, Tsuneo; Yagi, Toshiaki; Seguchi, Tadao.

    1996-01-01

    For the evaluation of cable life for the application to nuclear facilities, the accelerated test was conducted by the combination of radiation and thermal oxidation. The degradation of FR-CV cable by the aging was monitored by tensile test, micro-hardness test, and gel-fraction measurement. The micro-hardness increased with the progress of degradation and related well with decrease of ultimate elongation of the sheath material, and was also reflected by the loss of plasticizer. The micro-hardness technique has a possibility to detect the degradation of cable as a non-destructive detector. (author)

  19. Head CT: Image quality improvement with ASIR-V using a reduced radiation dose protocol for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Gi; Lee, Ho-Joon; Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Hyun Ji; Kim, Myung-Joon

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the quality of images reconstructed with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction V (ASIR-V), using pediatric head CT protocols. A phantom was scanned at decreasing 20% mA intervals using our standard pediatric head CT protocols. Each study was then reconstructed at 10% ASIR-V intervals. After the phantom study, we reduced mA by 10% in the protocol for ASIR-V and by 30% in the protocol for 3- to 15-year-old patients and applied 40% ASIR-V. Increasing the percentage of ASIR-V resulted in lower noise and higher contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and preserved spatial resolution in the phantom study. Compared to a conventional-protocol, reduced-dose protocol with ASIR-V achieved 12.8% to 34.0% of dose reduction and showed images of lower noise (9.22 vs. 10.73, P = 0.043) and higher CNR in different levels (centrum semiovale, 2.14 vs. 1.52, P = 0.003; basal ganglia, 1.46 vs. 1.07, P = 0.001; and cerebellum, 2.18 vs. 1.33, P ASIR-V. Use of ASIR-V allowed a 12.8% to 34.0% dose reduction in each age group with potential to improve image quality. • It is possible to reduce radiation dose and improve image quality with ASIR-V. • We improved noise and CNR and decreased radiation dose. • Sharpness improved with ASIR-V. • Total radiation dose was decreased by 12.8% to 34.0%.

  20. Reduced Toxicity With Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) for Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor (DSRCT): An Update on the Whole Abdominopelvic Radiation Therapy (WAP-RT) Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Neil B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Stein, Nicholas F. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); LaQuaglia, Michael P. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Alektiar, Kaled M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Kushner, Brian H.; Modak, Shakeel; Magnan, Heather M. [Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goodman, Karyn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wolden, Suzanne L., E-mail: woldens@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare malignancy typically involving the peritoneum in young men. Whole abdominopelvic radiation therapy (WAP-RT) using conventional 2-dimensional (2D) radiation therapy (RT) is used to address local recurrence but has been limited by toxicity. Our objectives were to assess the benefit of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) on toxicity and to update the largest series on radiation for DSRCT. Methods and Materials: The records of 31 patients with DSRCT treated with WAP-RT (22 with 2D-RT and 9 with IMRT) between 1992 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. All received multi-agent chemotherapy and maximal surgical debulking followed by 30 Gy of WAP-RT. A further focal boost of 12 to 24 Gy was used in 12 cases. Boost RT and autologous stem cell transplantation were nearly exclusive to patients treated with 2D-RT. Toxicities were assessed with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Dosimetric analysis compared IMRT and simulated 2D-RT dose distributions. Results: Of 31 patients, 30 completed WAP-RT, with a median follow-up after RT of 19 months. Acute toxicity was reduced with IMRT versus 2D-RT: P=.04 for gastrointestinal toxicity of grade 2 or higher (33% vs 77%); P=.02 for grade 4 hematologic toxicity (33% vs 86%); P=.01 for rates of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; and P=.04 for rates of platelet transfusion. Post treatment red blood cell and platelet transfusion rates were also reduced (P=.01). IMRT improved target homogeneity ([D05-D95]/D05 of 21% vs 46%) and resulted in a 21% mean bone dose reduction. Small bowel obstruction was the most common late toxicity (23% overall). Updated 3-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 50% and 24%, respectively. Overall survival was associated with distant metastasis at diagnosis on multivariate analysis. Most failures remained intraperitoneal (88%). Conclusions: IMRT for consolidative WAP-RT in DSRCT improves

  1. Possibilities of reducing radiation doses in spinograms of adolescents by means of most intensifying screens and compensating screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollaehne, W; Brandt, G A [Staedtisches Klinikum Berlin-Buch (German Democratic Republic)

    1980-01-01

    Most intensifying screens based on CaWO/sub 4/ and LaOBr/sub 2/ or combinations of them were used in radiography of both the thoracic and the lumbar parts of the spines of adolescents. The results obtained were compared with those achieved by means of screens usually used for spinograms. Radiation exposure was reduced, on an average by 30-40%, when most intensifying screens were used, the image quality being the same. The introduction of high-speed superscreens is pressingly recommended.

  2. Mangiferin Reduces Oxidative Stress-mediated Renal Injury in γ-radiated Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kabany, H.; Lotfi, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Whole body exposure to ionizing radiation induces the formation of reactive oxygen species in different tissues provoking oxidative damage and tissue injury. Mangiferin (MGN), 1,3,6,7-tetra hydroxyxanthone-C 2 -β-D-glucoside, a naturally occurring polyphenol, present in Mangifera indica (M. indica) in large amounts in the leaves and edible mango fruits has been reported to possess antioxidant properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of MGN on radiation-induced oxidative stress and histological changes in the kidney of mice. MGN (20 mg/ kg body weight) was administrated to male albino mice via gavages during 15 successive days before whole body exposures to gamma rays (4 Gy). The animals were sacrificed 48 hours post irradiation. Biochemical analysis in the kidney of irradiated mice revealed an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant species. A significant increase was recorded in the level of lipid peroxidation products; thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) and lipid hydroperoxides (HDPx), in addition to a significant increase in the level of protein carbonyl content (PC) , marker of protein oxidation. The increase of oxidative markers was accompanied by a significant decrease in the contents of total sulphydryl (SH) group ,glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity. Moreover, irradiation induced a significant decrease in the activity of glutathione reductase (GR) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). Histological observations in the kidney of irradiated mice revealed tubular necrosis, degeneration, dilatation, desquamation, thickening of basement membrane and luminal cast formation. MGN pre-treatment has significantly improved the oxidant /antioxidant status, which was associated with significant regeneration of the kidney tissue. Based on these results, it is concluded that the natural dietary antioxidant M GN m ight

  3. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction reduces patient radiation dose in neuroradiology CT studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komlosi, Peter; Zhang, Yanrong; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos; Ornan, David; Grady, Deborah [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Division of Neuroradiology, PO Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Patrie, James T.; Xin, Wenjun [University of Virginia, Department of Public Health Sciences, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Wintermark, Max [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Division of Neuroradiology, PO Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) can decrease image noise, thereby generating CT images of comparable diagnostic quality with less radiation. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect of systematic use of ASIR versus filtered back projection (FBP) for neuroradiology CT protocols on patients' radiation dose and image quality. We evaluated the effect of ASIR on six types of neuroradiologic CT studies: adult and pediatric unenhanced head CT, adult cervical spine CT, adult cervical and intracranial CT angiography, adult soft tissue neck CT with contrast, and adult lumbar spine CT. For each type of CT study, two groups of 100 consecutive studies were retrospectively reviewed: 100 studies performed with FBP and 100 studies performed with ASIR/FBP blending factor of 40 %/60 % with appropriate noise indices. The weighted volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}), dose-length product (DLP) and noise were recorded. Each study was also reviewed for image quality by two reviewers. Continuous and categorical variables were compared by t test and free permutation test, respectively. For adult unenhanced brain CT, CT cervical myelography, cervical and intracranial CT angiography and lumbar spine CT both CTDI{sub vol} and DLP were lowered by up to 10.9 % (p < 0.001), 17.9 % (p = 0.005), 20.9 % (p < 0.001), and 21.7 % (p = 0.001), respectively, by using ASIR compared with FBP alone. Image quality and noise were similar for both FBP and ASIR. We recommend routine use of iterative reconstruction for neuroradiology CT examinations because this approach affords a significant dose reduction while preserving image quality. (orig.)

  4. Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction reduces patient radiation dose in neuroradiology CT studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komlosi, Peter; Zhang, Yanrong; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos; Ornan, David; Grady, Deborah; Patrie, James T.; Xin, Wenjun; Wintermark, Max

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) can decrease image noise, thereby generating CT images of comparable diagnostic quality with less radiation. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect of systematic use of ASIR versus filtered back projection (FBP) for neuroradiology CT protocols on patients' radiation dose and image quality. We evaluated the effect of ASIR on six types of neuroradiologic CT studies: adult and pediatric unenhanced head CT, adult cervical spine CT, adult cervical and intracranial CT angiography, adult soft tissue neck CT with contrast, and adult lumbar spine CT. For each type of CT study, two groups of 100 consecutive studies were retrospectively reviewed: 100 studies performed with FBP and 100 studies performed with ASIR/FBP blending factor of 40 %/60 % with appropriate noise indices. The weighted volume CT dose index (CTDI vol ), dose-length product (DLP) and noise were recorded. Each study was also reviewed for image quality by two reviewers. Continuous and categorical variables were compared by t test and free permutation test, respectively. For adult unenhanced brain CT, CT cervical myelography, cervical and intracranial CT angiography and lumbar spine CT both CTDI vol and DLP were lowered by up to 10.9 % (p < 0.001), 17.9 % (p = 0.005), 20.9 % (p < 0.001), and 21.7 % (p = 0.001), respectively, by using ASIR compared with FBP alone. Image quality and noise were similar for both FBP and ASIR. We recommend routine use of iterative reconstruction for neuroradiology CT examinations because this approach affords a significant dose reduction while preserving image quality. (orig.)

  5. Terahertz radiation induces non-thermal structural changes associated with Fröhlich condensation in a protein crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Ida V; Rodilla, Helena; Wahlgren, Weixiao Y; Duelli, Annette; Bourenkov, Gleb; Vukusic, Josip; Friedman, Ran; Stake, Jan; Schneider, Thomas; Katona, Gergely

    2015-09-01

    Whether long-range quantum coherent states could exist in biological systems, and beyond low-temperature regimes where quantum physics is known to be applicable, has been the subject to debate for decades. It was proposed by Fröhlich that vibrational modes within protein molecules can order and condense into a lowest-frequency vibrational mode in a process similar to Bose-Einstein condensation, and thus that macroscopic coherence could potentially be observed in biological systems. Despite the prediction of these so-called Fröhlich condensates almost five decades ago, experimental evidence thereof has been lacking. Here, we present the first experimental observation of Fröhlich condensation in a protein structure. To that end, and to overcome the challenges associated with probing low-frequency molecular vibrations in proteins (which has hampered understanding of their role in proteins' function), we combined terahertz techniques with a highly sensitive X-ray crystallographic method to visualize low-frequency vibrational modes in the protein structure of hen-egg white lysozyme. We found that 0.4 THz electromagnetic radiation induces non-thermal changes in electron density. In particular, we observed a local increase of electron density in a long α-helix motif consistent with a subtle longitudinal compression of the helix. These observed electron density changes occur at a low absorption rate indicating that thermalization of terahertz photons happens on a micro- to milli-second time scale, which is much slower than the expected nanosecond time scale due to damping of delocalized low frequency vibrations. Our analyses show that the micro- to milli-second lifetime of the vibration can only be explained by Fröhlich condensation, a phenomenon predicted almost half a century ago, yet never experimentally confirmed.

  6. 77 FR 10323 - Revisions to Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... New York City and Long Island areas. See the proposal to this rule for details (76 FR 63865, October... obligation, timeline, or other requirement of the utility consent decrees. None of the restrictions in the... effective in 2017 for the purpose of unit-level allocations. EPA notes that this timeline will provide...

  7. Reducing radiation dose to the female breast during conventional and dedicated breast computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupcich, Franco John

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the effectiveness of techniques intended to reduce dose to the breast during CT coronary angiography (CTCA) scans with respect to task-based image quality, and to evaluate the effectiveness of optimal energy weighting in improving contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and thus the potential for reducing breast dose, during energy-resolved dedicated breast CT. A database quantifying organ dose for several radiosensitive organs irradiated during CTCA, including the breast, was generated using Monte Carlo simulations. This database facilitates estimation of organ-specific dose deposited during CTCA protocols using arbitrary x-ray spectra or tube-current modulation schemes without the need to run Monte Carlo simulations. The database was used to estimate breast dose for simulated CT images acquired for a reference protocol and five protocols intended to reduce breast dose. For each protocol, the performance of two tasks (detection of signals with unknown locations) was compared over a range of breast dose levels using a task-based, signal-detectability metric: the estimator of the area under the exponential free-response relative operating characteristic curve, AFE. For large-diameter/medium-contrast signals, when maintaining equivalent AFE, the 80 kV partial, 80 kV, 120 kV partial, and 120 kV tube-current modulated protocols reduced breast dose by 85%, 81%, 18%, and 6%, respectively, while the shielded protocol increased breast dose by 68%. Results for the small-diameter/high-contrast signal followed similar trends, but with smaller magnitude of the percent changes in dose. The 80 kV protocols demonstrated the greatest reduction to breast dose, however, the subsequent increase in noise may be clinically unacceptable. Tube output for these protocols can be adjusted to achieve more desirable noise levels with lesser dose reduction. The improvement in CNR of optimally projection-based and image-based weighted images relative to photon

  8. Long-term efficacy of a mini-course in radiation-reducing techniques in invasive cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuon, E. [Klinik Fraenkische Schweiz, Ebermannstadt (Germany). Abt. fuer Kardiologie; Empen, K.; Hummel, A.; Doerr, M.; Reffelmann, T.; Felix, S.B. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Greifswald (Germany). Abt. fuer Innere Medizin B; Weitmann, K.; Hoffmann, W. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Greifswald (Germany). Inst. fuer Versorgungsmedizin; Staudt, A. [Helios Kliniken, Schwerin (Germany). Abt. fuer Kardiologie und Angiologie

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To validate the long-term efficacy of a 90-min. educational mini-course in less-irradiating cardiac interventional techniques. Materials and Methods: Before, two months after, and two years after the mini-course (periods I, II, and III), we analyzed the following radiation dose parameters for ten coronary angiographies (CA), performed by each of 7 cardiologists: total dose-area product (DAP), radiographic and fluoroscopic DAP fractions, number of radiographic frames and runs, and fluoroscopy time. Results: The median patient DAP for periods I, II and III was 31.4, 15.8 and 8.5 Gy x cm{sup 2}, respectively. The long-term effect was related to shorter median fluoroscopy times (180, 172, and 120 s), shorter (57, 52, and 45) and fewer (12, 12, and 10) radiographic runs, consistent collimation and restriction to an adequate image quality. Both radiographic DAP/frame (28.7, 17.0, and 18.4 mGy x cm{sup 2}) and fluoroscopic DAP/second (45.7, 24.2, and 10.0 mGy x cm{sup 2}) decreased significantly. The multivariate linear regression analysis confirmed the increasing efficacy of the mini-course itself (-44.6 and -60.7 %), and revealed a decreasing influence of the interventionalist's experience (-8.6 % and -4.9 % per 1,000 CAs, lifelong performed until the mini-course). The number of CAs performed after the mini-course did not influence the long-term DAP results. Conclusion: The presented educational mini-course allows a significant, long-lasting, and apparently ongoing reduction of patient radiation exposure due to CA. A self-surveillant documentation of relevant radiation parameters is well suited to monitor and improve each operator's individual long-term radiation-reducing efforts. (orig.)

  9. Cancer-associated fibroblasts from human NSCLC survive ablative doses of radiation but their invasive capacity is reduced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellevik Turid

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts (CAFs are significant components of solid malignancies and play central roles in cancer sustainability, invasion and metastasis. In this study we have investigated the invasive capacity and matrix remodelling properties of human lung CAFs after exposure to ablative doses of ionizing radiation (AIR, equivalent to single fractions delivered by stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SART for medically inoperable stage-I/II non-small-cell lung cancers. Methods CAFs were isolated from lung tumour specimens from 16 donors. Initially, intrinsic radiosensitivity was evaluated by checking viability and extent of DNA-damage response (DDR at different radiation doses. The migrative and invasive capacities of CAFs were thereafter determined after a sub-lethal single radiation dose of 18 Gy. To ascertain the mechanisms behind the altered invasive capacity of cells, expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs were measured in the conditioned media several days post-irradiation, along with expression of cell surface integrins and dynamics of focal contacts by vinculin-staining. Results Exposing CAFs to 1 × 18 Gy resulted in a potent induction of multiple nuclear DDR foci (> 9/cell with little resolution after 120 h, induced premature cellular senescence and inhibition of the proliferative, migrative and invasive capacity. AIR promoted MMP-3 and inhibited MMP-1 appearance to some extent, but did not affect expression of other major MMPs. Furthermore, surface expression of integrins α2, β1 and α5 was consistently enhanced, and a dramatic augmentation and redistribution of focal contacts was observed. Conclusions Our data indicate that ablative doses of radiation exert advantageous inhibitory effects on the proliferative, migratory and invasive capacity of lung CAFs. The reduced motility of irradiated CAFs might be a consequence of stabilized focal contacts via integrins.

  10. Long-term efficacy of a mini-course in radiation-reducing techniques in invasive cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuon, E.; Empen, K.; Hummel, A.; Doerr, M.; Reffelmann, T.; Felix, S.B.; Weitmann, K.; Hoffmann, W.; Staudt, A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To validate the long-term efficacy of a 90-min. educational mini-course in less-irradiating cardiac interventional techniques. Materials and Methods: Before, two months after, and two years after the mini-course (periods I, II, and III), we analyzed the following radiation dose parameters for ten coronary angiographies (CA), performed by each of 7 cardiologists: total dose-area product (DAP), radiographic and fluoroscopic DAP fractions, number of radiographic frames and runs, and fluoroscopy time. Results: The median patient DAP for periods I, II and III was 31.4, 15.8 and 8.5 Gy x cm 2 , respectively. The long-term effect was related to shorter median fluoroscopy times (180, 172, and 120 s), shorter (57, 52, and 45) and fewer (12, 12, and 10) radiographic runs, consistent collimation and restriction to an adequate image quality. Both radiographic DAP/frame (28.7, 17.0, and 18.4 mGy x cm 2 ) and fluoroscopic DAP/second (45.7, 24.2, and 10.0 mGy x cm 2 ) decreased significantly. The multivariate linear regression analysis confirmed the increasing efficacy of the mini-course itself (-44.6 and -60.7 %), and revealed a decreasing influence of the interventionalist's experience (-8.6 % and -4.9 % per 1,000 CAs, lifelong performed until the mini-course). The number of CAs performed after the mini-course did not influence the long-term DAP results. Conclusion: The presented educational mini-course allows a significant, long-lasting, and apparently ongoing reduction of patient radiation exposure due to CA. A self-surveillant documentation of relevant radiation parameters is well suited to monitor and improve each operator's individual long-term radiation-reducing efforts. (orig.)

  11. A filter for reducing the angular dependence of LiF; Ti, Mg for beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akabani, G.; Poston, J.W. Sr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on an improvement in the angular dependence of LiF:Ti,Mg (TAD-100) for beta radiation which was achieved by using a special filter design which produced a constant dosimeter response over a range of +70 degrees and -70 degrees. The filter material used was acetate. The filter design was tested with three different beta sources, Sr/Y-90, Tl-204 and Pm-147 with average energies of 0.8, 0.24 and 0.06 MeV, respectively. The average response at 180 degrees of the new filtered dosimeter differed by less than 5% when compared to the response at zero degrees. An average decrease in sensitivity of 53% for Sr-90, 70% for Tl-204 and 67% for Pm-147 was obtained due to filter use. All doses were calculated for a depth dose in tissue of 0.07 mm equivalent to 7 mg/cm 2 as is recommended in ICRP Publication 26. A comparison of the energy dependence for a bare TAD-100 at 0.0 mm and 0.07 mm depth in tissue was obtained

  12. [Effective Techniques to Reduce Radiation Exposure to Medical Staff during Assist of X-ray Computed Tomography Examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Ryuichi; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Miyachi, Yusuke; Tateishi, Satoshi; Uno, Yoshinori; Amakawa, Kazutoshi; Ohura, Hiroki; Orita, Shinichi

    2018-01-01

    Medical staffs like radiological technologists, doctors, and nurses are at an increased risk of exposure to radiation while assisting the patient in a position or monitor contrast medium injection during computed tomography (CT). However, methods to protect medical staff from radiation exposure and protocols for using radiological protection equipment have not been standardized and differ among hospitals. In this study, the distribution of scattered X-rays in a CT room was measured by placing electronic personal dosimeters in locations where medical staff stands beside the CT scanner gantry while assisting the patient and the exposure dose was measured. Moreover, we evaluated non-uniform exposure and revealed effective techniques to reduce the exposure dose to medical staff during CT. The dose of the scattered X-rays was the lowest at the gantry and at the examination table during both head and abdominal CT. The dose was the highest at the trunk of the upper body of the operator corresponding to a height of 130 cm during head CT and at the head corresponding to a height of 150 cm during abdominal CT. The maximum dose to the crystalline lens was approximately 600 μSv during head CT. We found that the use of volumetric CT scanning and X-ray protective goggles, and face direction toward the gantry reduced the exposure dose, particularly to the crystalline lens, for which lower equivalent dose during CT scan has been recently recommended in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 118.

  13. Reducing Radiation Doses in Female Breast and Lung during CT Examinations of Thorax: A new Technique in two Scanners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehnati P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chest CT is a commonly used examination for the diagnosis of lung diseases, but a breast within the scanned field is nearly never the organ of interest. Objective: The purpose of this study is to compare the female breast and lung doses using split and standard protocols in chest CT scanning. Materials and Methods: The sliced chest and breast female phantoms were used. CT exams were performed using a single-slice (SS- and a 16 multi-slice (MS- CT scanner at 100 kVp and 120 kVp. Two different protocols, including standard and split protocols, were selected for scanning. The breast and lung doses were measured using thermo-luminescence dosimeters which were inserted into different layers of the chest and breast phantoms. The differences in breast and lung radiation doses in two protocols were studied in two scanners, analyzed by SPSS software and compared by t-test. Results: Breast dose by split scanning technique reduced 11% and 31% in SS- and MS- CT. Also, the radiation dose of lung tissue in this method decreased 18% and 54% in SS- and MS- CT, respectively. Moreover, there was a significant difference (p< 0.0001 in the breast and lung radiation doses between standard and split scanning protocols. Conclusion: The application of a split scan technique instead of standard protocol has a considerable potential to reduce breast and lung doses in SS- and MS- CT scanners. If split scanning protocol is associated with an optimum kV and MSCT, the maximum dose decline will be provided.

  14. A study of a measure for reducing radiation dose in dental radiography for children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateno, Hidemi

    1982-01-01

    For this investigation the author employed the stabilized TLD and measured the effect of doses on several organs (of children) using water and Mix-D phantom. Based upon this data, the author developed an exposure cone (of children) which was thought to be the best concrete method for reduction of absorbed doses for children who are most frequentry X-rayed and therefore most likely to reduced absorbed doses in a considerable amount. The major findings have been obtained concerning this cone compared with the standard cone as follows. 1. The full mouth 6-film examination showed the largest of the absorbed doses to be on skin, eyes and the thyroid gland. 2. For example, the dose on thyroid gland with a full mouth 6-film examination was 0.734R. 3. The dose on the gonad was less than 0.001R with every technique. 4. Using the developed exposure cone for children we have succeeded in reducing the amount of doses on these organs. In addition the image quality improved due to the reduction of scattered X-rays. 5. Using the developed exposure cone (for children) the risk of thyroid cancer can be reduced a level of 10 -6 to a level of 10 -7 as compared with the standard exposure cone. 6. Supposing that it is over the crystalline lens limits of dose-equivalent in a year at several times with full mouth 6-film examinations can be estimated which with standard cone was about three times, developed cone was about eighty-eight times in a year. (J.P.N.)

  15. A modified technique for craniospinal irradiation in children designed to reduce acute and late radiation toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Claire; Sexton, Maree

    2004-01-01

    Craniospinal irradiation is an important technique for the treatment of a number of paediatric malignancies. The conventional technique uses photons for all fields and does not exploit the benefits of CT and computer planning systems. The present paper describes a modification of the conventional technique in which both photons and electrons are used for the spinal field (mixed-beam technique). Computed tomography images and a planning computer are used for the selection of field junctions, electron beam energy and dosimetry. The intention of the technique is to reduce radiotherapy toxicity. A discussion of the potential benefits is presented Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  16. The use of ionizing radiation to reduce food spoilage by microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosquera, Monica; Gomezjurado, Silvia; Munoz, Ricardo

    1990-01-01

    The contamination of Aspergillus flavus is studied in yellow maize, Zea mays, Peanuts, Arachis hipoguea, L.; Casabe, Yuca. Manhot esculenta, D.C. The contents of aflotoxines B 1 , B 2 , G 1 and G 2 is analized in food stuffs of popular consumption. The samples with higher contamination of A. flavus were irradiated with 1-3 KGy, and combined processes with gamma irradiation were assayed with previous and separate treatments with ammonia and hipochlorite. Thus, it was possible to lower the contamination of this fungus from 10 3 u.f.c/g to 10. Separate edible mushrooms of species Boletus edulis, were radurized with gamma irradiation dose of 2 KGy. It was possible to reduce the contamination of 10 7 microorganism/gram, to the value 10 3 - 10 2 microorganism/gram. The microbial contamination of 18 species and aromatic herbs is also studied. The contaminating fungi of these food products as well as of the edible mushrooms, were identified as Penicillum, Geortrichum, Mucor, Galdosporium and yeasts of Canida sp. The optimal irradiation doses of same species and tea herbs, are determined. At the same time de d10 irradiation doses for pure stubs of main microorganisms are determined. To reduce the microbial contamination of many foodstuffs to maximun permisible values it is proposed thesi technology eitherwith only irradiation, or with combined treatments with irradiation

  17. Photoprotection, photosynthesis and growth of tropical tree seedlings under near-ambient and strongly reduced solar ultraviolet-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, G Heinrich; Jahns, Peter; Virgo, Aurelio; García, Milton; Aranda, Jorge; Wellmann, Eckard; Winter, Klaus

    2007-10-01

    Seedlings of two late-successional tropical rainforest tree species, Tetragastris panamensis (Engler) O. Kuntze and Calophyllum longifolium (Willd.), were field grown for 3-4 months at an open site near Panama City (9 degrees N), Panama, under plastic films that either transmitted or excluded most solar UV-B radiation. Experiments were designed to test whether leaves developing under bright sunlight with strongly reduced UV-B are capable of acclimating to near-ambient UV-B conditions. Leaves of T. panamensis that developed under near-ambient UV-B contained higher amounts of UV-absorbing substances than leaves of seedlings grown under reduced UV-B. Photosynthetic pigment composition, content of alpha-tocopherol, CO(2) assimilation, potential photosystem II (PSII) efficiency (evaluated by F(v)/F(m) ratios) and growth of T. panamensis and C. longifolium did not differ between seedlings developed under near-ambient and reduced solar UV-B. When seedlings were transferred from the reduced UV-B treatment to the near-ambient UV-B treatment, a pronounced inhibition of photosynthetic capacity was observed initially in both species. UV-B-mediated inhibition of photosynthetic capacity nearly fully recovered within 1 week of the transfer in C. longifolium, whereas in T. panamensis an about 35% reduced capacity of CO(2) uptake was maintained. A marked increase in UV-absorbing substances was observed in foliage of transferred T. panamensis seedlings. Both species exhibited enhanced mid-day photoinhibition of PSII immediately after being transferred from the reduced UV-B to the near-ambient UV-B treatment. This effect was fully reversible within 1d in T. panamensis and within a few days in C. longifolium. The data show that leaves of these tropical tree seedlings, when developing in full-spectrum sunlight, are effectively protected against high solar UV-B radiation. In contrast, leaves developing under conditions of low UV-B lacked sufficient UV protection. They experienced a

  18. The use of ultrasound and infrared radiation to reduce microbiological contamination of raw materials in the production of citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharova, N.Yu.; Kamen'kova, N.V.

    2012-01-01

    The microflora of the main raw materials for producing citric acid (beet molasses and grain) is capable of greatly reducing the yield of target metabolite or changing the focus of biosynthesis. Rye, oats and barley grain with humidity of 16% and its grinds (a particle size 1 mm) was treated ultrasound having a capacity of 1.5 kW, frequency 15 and 22 kHz. Infrared radiation treatment was carried out at t 120 to 180 degrees C for 2-30 min and the exposure power W/sq. cm. In molasses there were found spore-forming heat-resistant bacteria with Bacillus subtilis and B. mesentericus being predominated, gaseous, nitrite-forming, acid-forming bacteria, yeast of gen. Candida, Leuconostoc mesenteroides that consume sugar, nitric and mineral substances reducing the biosynthetic activity of Aspergillus niger producer. For molasses treated with ultrasound 1.5 kW and frequency 22 kHz, the total viable count reduces by the order compared to the control. Increasing the exposure time up to 30 min results in slightly reducing the achieved level. Under influence of ultrasound the contamination with bacteria and mold fungi of rye, oats and barley grain grinds reduces by 2-3 orders compared to the control and much more at frequency 22 kHz. The great increase in the parameter of the total viable count is achieved by IR-treatment of grain and grinds. The microflora practically entirely dies by increasing the temperature up to 160-180 degrees C even in case of 2 minute exposure. IR treatment providing t 120 degrees C for 2-6 min resulted in reducing the number of cells of microorganisms by 3-4 orders compared to the untreated control

  19. The effectiveness of UV-C radiation for facility-wide environmental disinfection to reduce health care-acquired infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Nathanael A; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Tang, Weiming

    2015-12-01

    Health care-acquired infections (HAIs) constitute an increasing threat for patients worldwide. Potential contributors of HAIs include environmental surfaces in health care settings, where ultraviolet-C radiation (UV-C) is commonly used for disinfection. This UV-C intervention-based pilot study was conducted in a hospital setting to identify any change in the incidence of HAIs before and after UV-C intervention, and to determine the effectiveness of UV-C in reducing pathogens. In a hospital in Culver City, CA, during 2012-2013, bactericidal doses of UV-C radiation (254 nm) were delivered through a UV-C-based mobile environmental decontamination unit. The UV-C dosing technology and expertise of the specifically trained personnel were provided together as a dedicated service model by a contracted company. The incidence of HAIs before and after the intervention period were determined and compared. The dedicated service model dramatically reduced HAIs (incidence difference, 1.3/1000 patient-days, a 34.2% reduction). Reductions in the total number and incidence proportions (28.8%) of HAIs were observed after increasing and maintaining the coverage of UV-C treatments. The dedicated service model was found to be effective in decreasing the incidence of HAIs, which could reduce disease morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. This model provides a continuously monitored and frequently UV-C-treated patient environment. This approach to UV-C disinfection was associated with a decreased incidence of HAIs. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Does kombucha tea reduce the damage-induced by radiation exposure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, O.A.

    2007-01-01

    This work has been performed to investigate the protective effect and the antimicrobial activity that occur following oral administration of kombucha tea (kt) ferment in rats with a fractionated dose of 9 Gy. The protective effect of kt ferment was monitored by assessment of serum enzymes activities of creatin phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and concentrations of urea and creatinine as well as contents of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA) in heart, liver and kidney tissues. Besides evaluation of the antimicrobial activity was carried out by determination of the lactic acid bacterial (LAB) count as an example of the beneficial bacteria in the rat intestine and the Staphylococcus aureus bacteria (S. aureus) count as an example of the pathogenic bacteria for rats. The results obtained suggest that administration of this ferment tea could ameliorate biochemical and microbial disturbances in irradiated rats

  1. International efforts to reduce occupational radiation exposure at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The efficacy of various national programs on dose reduction is examined with a view to evaluating the most significant factors that help in reducing occupational exposure. Among the most successful of the dose reduction programs at water reactors are those of France, Sweden, and Canada where average annual plant doses are significantly less than the dose at US plants. Important research is also going on in other countries such as the UK, West Germany, Switzerland, and Japan. Some programs are directed towards hardware solutions; others are oriented towards such approaches as better work planning and procedures. The general thrust and some of the specifics of these programs are examined and factors which may be applicable to US conditions are discussed

  2. Reduced hypothalamic blood flow after radiation treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer: SPECT studies in 34 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chieng, P.U.; Huang, T.S.; Chang, C.C.; Chong, P.N.; Tien, R.D.; Su, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    To determine the effect of cranial irradiation on hypothalamic blood flow, the authors performed 44 regional cerebral blood flow studies with 99mTc hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) single-photon emission CT (SPECT) on four normal volunteers and 34 patients with pathologically proved nasopharyngeal cancer. Twenty-three men and 15 women, 30-65 years old, were divided into four study groups: group 1 served as a control and consisted of four normal volunteers and six patients studied prior to cranial irradiation; group 2 patients had cranial irradiation half a year before the SPECT study (n = 12, one from group 1); group 3 patients were irradiated 1 year before the study (n = 13, three from group 1 and two from group 2); and group 4 patients were irradiated at least 5 years before SPECT imaging (n = 9). Six patients were studied twice. Quantification of the 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT studies was done separately by three radiologists to obtain the hypothalamus/occipital (H/O) and hypothalamus/parasagittal (H/P) ratios. Endocrinologic studies were performed in all cases and the hypothalamus-thyrotroph-thyroid, hypothalamus-gonadotroph-testis (ovary), hypothalamus-lactotroph, hypothalamus-somatotroph, and hypothalamus-corticotroph-adrenal axes were evaluated separately. They determined that regional hypothalamic blood flow was reduced after cranial irradiation in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer. The H/O ratio of groups 3 and 4 did not differ from that of group 2 (one-half year after cranial irradiation). The H/O ratio was significantly reduced 6 months and 1 year after cranial irradiation; mean ± SD = 0.5801 ± 0.0829 (p less than .025), 0.5725 ± 0.0791 (p less than .01) versus 0.6477 ± 0.0458 before cranial irradiation, respectively

  3. Can α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplementation reduce adverse radiation effects on salivary glands?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funegaard, U.; Johansson, I.; Ericson, T.; Malmer, B.; Henriksson, R.

    1995-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated whether supplementation with antioxidant vitamins can reduce the adverse effects of irradiation on the salivary glands in the rat. Four groups of adult Sprague-Dawley rats were given a basic diet providing 0.6 mg α-tocopherol and no β-carotene per day. In two groups the basic diet was supplemented with 3.4 mg α-tocopherol and 6 mg β-carotene per day from 14 days before irradiation until 12 days after complete irradiation. One group of rats given basic diet and one group given supplemented diet were irradiated with 7 Gy daily for five consecutive days. Isoproterenol and pilocarpine-stimulated whole saliva was collected from all rats 2, 4 and 26 weeks after irradiation. Vitamin-supplemented irradiated rats had higher secretion rates on all three occasions compared with those of irradiated rats given basic diet. The changes in saliva composition seen in irradiated rats were less accentuated in vitamin-supplemented, irradiated rats. The proportions of acinar cells were significantly decreased both in parotid and submandibular glands 26 weeks after irradiation. Supplementation with α-tocopherol and β-carotene did not alter the morphology of the glands. (author)

  4. Reducing abdominal CT radiation dose with the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction technique in children: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorona, Gregory A. [The Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Allegheny General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Ceschin, Rafael C.; Clayton, Barbara L.; Sutcavage, Tom; Tadros, Sameh S.; Panigrahy, Ashok [The Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    The use of the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm has been shown to reduce radiation doses in adults undergoing abdominal CT studies while preserving image quality. To our knowledge, no studies have been done to validate the use of ASIR in children. To retrospectively evaluate differences in radiation dose and image quality in pediatric CT abdominal studies utilizing 40% ASIR compared with filtered-back projection (FBP). Eleven patients (mean age 8.5 years, range 2-17 years) had separate 40% ASIR and FBP enhanced abdominal CT studies on different days between July 2009 and October 2010. The ASIR studies utilized a 38% mA reduction in addition to our pediatric protocol mAs. Study volume CT dose indexes (CTDI{sub vol}) and dose-length products (DLP) were recorded. A consistent representative image was obtained from each study. The images were independently evaluated by two radiologists in a blinded manner for diagnostic utility, image sharpness and image noise. The average CTDI{sub vol} and DLP for the 40% ASIR studies were 4.25 mGy and 185.04 mGy-cm, compared with 6.75 mGy and 275.79 mGy-cm for the FBP studies, representing 37% and 33% reductions in both, respectively. The radiologists' assessments of subjective image quality did not demonstrate any significant differences between the ASIR and FBP images. In our experience, the use of 40% ASIR with a 38% decrease in mA lowers the radiation dose for children undergoing enhanced abdominal examinations by an average of 33%, while maintaining diagnostically acceptable images. (orig.)

  5. Reducing abdominal CT radiation dose with the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction technique in children: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorona, Gregory A.; Ceschin, Rafael C.; Clayton, Barbara L.; Sutcavage, Tom; Tadros, Sameh S.; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    The use of the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm has been shown to reduce radiation doses in adults undergoing abdominal CT studies while preserving image quality. To our knowledge, no studies have been done to validate the use of ASIR in children. To retrospectively evaluate differences in radiation dose and image quality in pediatric CT abdominal studies utilizing 40% ASIR compared with filtered-back projection (FBP). Eleven patients (mean age 8.5 years, range 2-17 years) had separate 40% ASIR and FBP enhanced abdominal CT studies on different days between July 2009 and October 2010. The ASIR studies utilized a 38% mA reduction in addition to our pediatric protocol mAs. Study volume CT dose indexes (CTDI vol ) and dose-length products (DLP) were recorded. A consistent representative image was obtained from each study. The images were independently evaluated by two radiologists in a blinded manner for diagnostic utility, image sharpness and image noise. The average CTDI vol and DLP for the 40% ASIR studies were 4.25 mGy and 185.04 mGy-cm, compared with 6.75 mGy and 275.79 mGy-cm for the FBP studies, representing 37% and 33% reductions in both, respectively. The radiologists' assessments of subjective image quality did not demonstrate any significant differences between the ASIR and FBP images. In our experience, the use of 40% ASIR with a 38% decrease in mA lowers the radiation dose for children undergoing enhanced abdominal examinations by an average of 33%, while maintaining diagnostically acceptable images. (orig.)

  6. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farge, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation is produced by electrons accelerated near the velocity of light in storage rings, which are used for high energy Physics experiments. The radiation light exhibits a wide spread continuous spectrum ranging from 01 nanometre to radiofrequency. This radiation is characterized by high power (several kilowatts) and intense brightness. The paper recalls the emission laws and the distinctive properties of the radiation, and gives some of the numerous applications in research, such as molecular spectroscopy, X ray diffraction by heavy proteins and X ray microlithography in LVSI circuit making [fr

  7. Protection of Nitrate-Reducing Fe(II)-Oxidizing Bacteria from UV Radiation by Biogenic Fe(III) Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Tina; Konhauser, Kurt; Kappler, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Due to the lack of an ozone layer in the Archean, ultraviolet radiation (UVR) reached early Earth's surface almost unattenuated; as a consequence, a terrestrial biosphere in the form of biological soil crusts would have been highly susceptible to lethal doses of irradiation. However, a self-produced external screen in the form of nanoparticular Fe(III) minerals could have effectively protected those early microorganisms. In this study, we use viability studies by quantifying colony-forming units (CFUs), as well as Fe(II) oxidation and nitrate reduction rates, to show that encrustation in biogenic and abiogenic Fe(III) minerals can protect a common soil bacteria such as the nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1 and strain 2AN from harmful UVC radiation. Analysis of DNA damage by quantifying cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) confirmed the protecting effect by Fe(III) minerals. This study suggests that Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms, as would have grown in association with mafic and ultramafic soils/outcrops, would have been able to produce their own UV screen, enabling them to live in terrestrial habitats on early Earth.

  8. N-acetyl Cysteine Reduced Oxidative Damages in Guinea Pigs Exposed to Cigarette Smoke and / or Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, N.K.; Abd-EL Aziz, N.; El-Deghidy, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of n-acetyl cysteine (NAC) supplementation on oxidative cigarette smoke induced-oxidative damage in irradiated guinea pigs. N-acetyl cysteine was injected (i.p) to guinea pigs at a dose of 150 mg/kg b. w/day pre-exposure to cigarette smoke for one hour daily for 30 successive days. Animals were submitted to fractionate whole body gamma radiation (2 Gy installment every two weeks up to 4 Gy total dose started on the 2nd week of the experiment). Animals were sacrificed during the first hours from the last treatment of cigarette smoke. The results obtained showed significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content associated with decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) concentration in cardiac and pulmonary tissues as compared with their equivalent in control animals. The activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate transaminase (AST), concentration of nitric oxide (NO), total cholesterol, Triacylglycerol, LDL-cholesterol were significant increased in plasma associated with significant decreased HDL-cholesterol. The administration of NAC has significantly attenuated the cigarette smoke and/or irradiation-induced changes in all the studied parameters. It could be concluded that NAC reduced cigarette smoke and radiation hazards via neutralized their capability to generate excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals in the biological systems

  9. Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol Mora, J.

    1999-01-01

    The exposition to ionizing radiations is a constant fact in the life of the human being and its utilization as diagnostic and therapeutic method is generalized. However, it is notorious how as years go on, the fear to the ionizing radiation seems to persist too, and this fact is not limited to the common individual, but to the technical personnel and professional personnel that labors with them same. (S. Grainger) [es

  10. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The basic facts about radiation are explained, along with some simple and natural ways of combating its ill-effects, based on ancient healing wisdom as well as the latest biochemical and technological research. Details are also given of the diet that saved thousands of lives in Nagasaki after the Atomic bomb attack. Special comment is made on the use of radiation for food processing. (U.K.)

  11. 75 FR 8375 - Device Improvements to Reduce Unnecessary Radiation Exposure From Medical Imaging; Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... hardware and software features should manufacturers build into CT and fluoroscopic devices in order to... ALARA concept (maintaining dose As Low As Reasonably Achievable) and utilize or provide for...

  12. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Lorazepam to Reduce Liver Motion in Patients Receiving Upper Abdominal Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Derek S.; Voncken, Francine E.M.; Tse, Regina V. [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Sykes, Jenna [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Wong, Rebecca K.S.; Dinniwell, Rob E.; Kim, John; Ringash, Jolie; Brierley, James D.; Cummings, Bernard J.; Brade, Anthony [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Dawson, Laura A., E-mail: laura.dawson@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Reduction of respiratory motion is desirable to reduce the volume of normal tissues irradiated, to improve concordance of planned and delivered doses, and to improve image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). We hypothesized that pretreatment lorazepam would lead to a measurable reduction of liver motion. Methods and Materials: Thirty-three patients receiving upper abdominal IGRT were recruited to a double-blinded randomized controlled crossover trial. Patients were randomized to 1 of 2 study arms: arm 1 received lorazepam 2 mg by mouth on day 1, followed by placebo 4 to 8 days later; arm 2 received placebo on day 1, followed by lorazepam 4 to 8 days later. After tablet ingestion and daily radiation therapy, amplitude of liver motion was measured on both study days. The primary outcomes were reduction in craniocaudal (CC) liver motion using 4-dimensional kV cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and the proportion of patients with liver motion ≤5 mm. Secondary endpoints included motion measured with cine magnetic resonance imaging and kV fluoroscopy. Results: Mean relative and absolute reduction in CC amplitude with lorazepam was 21% and 2.5 mm respectively (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.9, P=.001), as assessed with CBCT. Reduction in CC amplitude to ≤5 mm residual liver motion was seen in 13% (95% CI 1%-25%) of patients receiving lorazepam (vs 10% receiving placebo, P=NS); 65% (95% CI 48%-81%) had reduction in residual CC liver motion to ≤10 mm (vs 52% with placebo, P=NS). Patients with large respiratory movement and patients who took lorazepam ≥60 minutes before imaging had greater reductions in liver CC motion. Mean reductions in liver CC amplitude on magnetic resonance imaging and fluoroscopy were nonsignificant. Conclusions: Lorazepam reduces liver motion in the CC direction; however, average magnitude of reduction is small, and most patients have residual motion >5 mm.

  13. Radiolabeling optimization and reduced staff radiation exposure for high-dose 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (HD-Zevalin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papi, Stefano; Martano, Luigi; Garaboldi, Lucia; Rossi, Annalisa; Cremonesi, Marta; Grana, Chiara Maria; Paolucci, Daniele; Sansovini, Maddalena; Paganelli, Giovanni; Chinol, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: 90 Y-Zevalin labeling may cause severe finger radiation exposure, especially in high-dose protocols (HD-Zevalin), where up to 7.4 GBq could be injected. In this work, we optimized the labeling of HD-Zevalin with special regard to simplicity, speed, safety and radiation protection. Methods: Factors influencing labeling outcome (activity, specific activity, time, final volume, stability) were studied separately. The critical steps of a standard radiolabeling procedure were optimized to reduce finger exposure, developing an alternative labeling procedure and including a different 90 Y supplier. Finger doses were monitored by thermoluminescent dosimeters at each fingertip under anti-X gloves, considering both absolute values and values after normalization to 1.48 GBq. Results: Labeling of 90 Y-Zevalin was safe and reproducible up to 7.4 GBq with a simple and single-step procedure offering good stability for several hours. Radiolabeling specific activity was found critical, being kept at 740 MBq.mg -1 . Radiochemical purity values ≥98% were routinely achieved. The alternative procedure allowed a sensible reduction of finger dose, due to both the different 90 Y vial and the handling. Finger exposure was reduced from 6.6±4.3 to 3.1±0.8 mSv/1.48 GBq in the case of the original 90 Y vial and from 1.5±0.9 to 0.3±0.1 mSv/1.48 GBq using a shielded 90 Y vial. Conclusions: HD-Zevalin can be prepared in a safe and reproducible way, giving high radiochemical purity values, good stability and low finger exposure. This study may improve the safety of nuclear medicine professionals involved in the preparation of Zevalin.

  14. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winther, J.F.; Ulbak, K.; Dreyer, L.; Pukkala, E.; Oesterlind, A.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic countries occurs at an average effective dose per capita per year of about 3 mSv (Iceland, 1.1 mSv) from natural sources, and about 1 mSv from man-made sources. While the natural sources are primarily radon in indoor air, natural radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation and gamma radiation from soil and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180 cases of lung cancer (1% of all lung cancer cases) per year could be avoided in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 if indoor exposure to radon were eliminated, and that an additional 720 cases (6%) could be avoided annually if either radon or tobacco smoking were eliminated. Similarly, it was estimated that the exposure of the Nordic populations to natural sources of ionizing radiation other than radon and to medical sources will each give rise to an annual total of 2120

  15. A radiation protection training program designed to reduce occupational radiation dose to individuals using pneumatic-transfer systems at the Oregon State TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.G.; Anderson, T.V.; Pratt, D.; Dodd, B.; Carpenter, W.T.

    1984-01-01

    In order to keeping personnel doses as low as reasonably achievable, and also to help satisfy requirements of NRC regulations contained in 10 CFR 19, a training program was established to qualify all individuals prior to their use of the OSTR PT systems. Program objectives are directed mainly towards minimizing the spread of radioactive contamination and reducing the potential for unnecessary and inappropriate personnel radiation exposure; however, other operational and emergency procedures are also covered. The PT systems training program described in this report was established approximately 8 to 10 years ago but recently there was an increased interest to use it. Whether or not a PT system training program should be implemented at a specific TRIGA operation (assuming the facility is equipped with a PT system) will undoubtedly be influenced heavily by the nature and frequency of the PT system's use, by who uses the system, and by whether the system is one of the automatic loading and unloading types, or one of the more' commonly encountered manually operated systems. However, from our experience we feel that training commensurate with the type of PT system operation being conducted is a wise investment, and should be a requirement for all system operators

  16. Radiation-induced G/sub 2/-arrest is reduced by inhibitors of poly(adenosine diphosphoribose) synthetase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, R.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments are in progress to test whether poly(adenosine diphosphoribose) synthesis is required for the induction of G/sub 2/-arrest in growing mammalian cells following X-irradiation. A variety of poly(ADPR) synthetase inhibitors have been tested to determine: 1) whether addition of an inhibitor to X-irradiated CHO cells reduces G/sub 2/-arrest; 2) whether compounds structurally similar to poly-(ADPR) synthetase inhibitors but inactive against this enzyme affect radiation-induced G/sub 2/-arrest and 3) whether the concentration dependence for poly(ADPR) synthetase inhibition matches that for G/sub 2/-arrest reduction. G/sub 2/-arrest was measured in X-irradiated (1.5 Gy) CHO cells using the mitotic cell selection technique. Poly(ADPR) synthetase activity was measured in permeabilized cells by /sup 3/H-NAD incorporation. The synthetase inhibitors used were 3-aminobenzamide, benzamide, nicotinamide, 4-acetyl pyridine, caffeine and theophylline. The inactive compounds used were 3-aminobenzoic acid, benzoic acid, nicotinic acid, adenine, adenosine and 3'-deoxyadenosine. Inhibitors of poly(ADPR) synthetase reduced G/sub 2/-arrest while related compounds which produced no enzyme inhibition did not. The concentration dependencies for G/sub 2/-arrest reduction and enzyme inhibition were similar only for methyl xanthines. Further analysis awaits the determination of intracellular drug concentrations

  17. Myocardial hydroxyproline reduced by early administration of methylprednisolone or ibuprofen to rabbits with radiation-induced heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, W.C.; Cunningham, D.; Schwiter, E.J.; Abt, A.; Skarlatos, S.; Wood, M.A.; Whitesell, L.

    1982-01-01

    The ability of methylprednisolone (MP) and ibuprofen (IB) to reduce the severity of the late state of radiation-induced heart disease was assessed in 57 New Zealand white rabbits. Before and shortly after cardiac irradiation, 15 rabbits received i.v. MP, 30 mg/kg twice daily for 3 days, and 15 others received IB, 12.5 mg/kg twice daily for 2 days. No drug administered to 14 irradiated rabbits, and neither irradiation nor drugs were administered to 13 rabbits that served as controls. All 15 rabbits treated with MP and 13 of the 15 treated with IB lived for 100 days. Only seven of the untreated, irradiated rabbits lived that long. Longevity of each treated group of rabbits was better (p < 0.01 and 0.05) than that of the untreated, irradiated rabbits. Surviving rabbits were killed 100 days after irradiation. Pericarditis (p < 0.05) and pericardial effusion (p < 0.01) were less frequent in the treated, irradiated groups than in the untreated, irradiated rabbits. At least some rabbits in each irradiated group had microscopic evidence of myocardial fibrosis. The fibrosis was quantitated by determination of myocardial hydroxyproline concentrations (MHP). MHP concentration in the untreated, irradiated rabbits was greater than in those treated with MP (p < 0.05) or IB (p < 0.01) and in the untreated, unirradiated rabbits (p < 0.01). Early administrative of MP or IB retarded the development of myocardial fibrosis, pericarditis and pericardial effusin, and improved survival in this experimental model of radiation-induced heart disease

  18. Myocardial hydroxyproline reduced by early administration of methylprednisolone or ibuprofen to rabbits with radiation-induced heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, W.C.; Cunningham, D.; Schwiter, E.J.; Abt, A.; Skarlatos, S.; Wood, M.A.; Whitesell, L.

    1982-01-01

    The ability of methylprednisolone (MP) and ibuprofen (IB) to reduce the severity of the late state of radiation-induced heart disease was assessed in 57 New Zealand white rabbits. Before and shortly after cardiac irradiation, 15 rabbits received i.v. MP, 30 mg/kg twice daily for 3 days, and 15 others received IB, 12.5 mg/kg twice daily for 2 days. No drug was administered to 14 irradiated rabbits, and neither irradiation nor drugs were administered to 13 rabbits that served as controls, All 15 rabbits treated with MP and 13 of the 15 treated with IB lived for 100 days. Only seven of the untreated, irradiated rabbits lived that long. Longevity of each treated group of rabbits was better (p less than 0.01 and 0.05) than that of the untreated, irradiated rabbits. Surviving rabbits were killed 100 days after irradiation. Pericarditis (p less than 0.05) and pericardial effusion (p less than 0.01) were less frequent in the treated, irradiated groups than in the untreated, irradiated rabbits. At least some rabbits in each irradiated group had microscopic evidence of myocardial fibrosis. The fibrosis was quantitated by determination of myocardial hydroxyproline concentrations (MHP). MHP concentration in the untreated, irradiated rabbits was greater than in those treated with MP (p less than 0.05) or IB (p less than 0.01) and in the untreated, unirradiated rabbits (p less than 0.01). Early administration of MP or IB retarded the development of myocardial fibrosis, pericarditis and pericardial effusion, and improved survival in this experimental model of radiation-induced heart disease

  19. Development and demonstration of surveillance and diagnostics of rotating machinery for reducing radiation exposure to nuclear power plant personnel: Appendices: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.W.; Bohanick, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    This program was designed to reduce radiation exposure to power plant personnel resulting from inspection, maintenance, and repair of rotating equipment. The new rotating machinery monitoring system for this program was installed at GGNS during August 1983. The following nine appendices are presented: signals monitored at GGNS; definition of characterized spectral values; instructions for alignment and balance programs; machine diagrams; FFT program; software module descriptions; sample radiation survey forms used for exposure study; radiation exposure compared to other plants; and a technical section instruction for the vibration monitoring program at GGNS

  20. Radiation protection - Revision of French radiation protection regulations (1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayoux, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    This article analyses the recent amendments to the 1966 and 1975 Decrees on general radiation protection principles and radiation protection of workers in large nuclear installations respectively and also describes national radiation protection law. In particular, the amendments incorporate the revised EURATOM basic radiation protection standards and the new international units (sievert and becquerel replace rem and curie) in the Decrees. (NEA) [fr

  1. Phytochrome A, phytochrome B and HY4 are involved in hypocotyl growth responses to natural radiation in Arabidopsis: weak de-etiolation of the phyA mutant under dense canopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanovsky, M.J.; Casal, J.J.; Whitelam, G.C.

    1995-01-01

    The roles of phytochrome A (phyA), phytochrome B (phyB) and a putative blue-light (BL) photoreceptor (HY4) in the control of hypocotyl growth by natural radiation were investigated using phyA, phyB and hy4 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. Full sunlight inhibited hypocotyl growth to a larger extent in wild-type (WT) than in phyA, phyB and, particularly, hy4 seedlings. In WT seedlings, hypocotyl growth was promoted by selectively lowering BL irradiance, lowering red-light (R) plus far-red-light (FR) irradiance or lowering the R/FR ratio (which was achieved either by increasing FR or by reducing R). The effects of lowering BL were reduced in hy4 and exaggerated in phyA seedlings. The effects of lowering R+FR were reduced in phyA and exaggerated in hy4 seedlings. Neither phyB nor hy4 mutants responded to low R/FR ratios. Neighbouring plants reflecting FR without shading caused subtle reductions of the R/FR ratio. This signal promoted hypocotyl growth in WT but not in phyA, phyB or hy4 seedlings. Intermediate canopy shade produced similar effects in all genotypes. Under deep shade, de-etiolation was severely impaired in phyA seedlings, which died prematurely. Thus, the FR ‘high-irradiance reaction’ mediated by phyA could be important for seedling survival under dense canopies. (author)

  2. Far-red enrichment and photosynthetically active radiation level influence leaf senescence in field-grown sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseaux, M.C.; Hall, A.J.; Sánchez, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Basal leaves frequently senesce before anthesis in high population density crops. This paper evaluates the hypothesis that quantitative and qualitative changes in the light environment associated with a high leaf area index (LAI) trigger leaf senescence in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) canopies. Mean leaf duration (LD, time from achievement of maximum leaf area) of leaf 8 was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced from 51 to 19 days as crop population density was increased from 0.47 to 4.76 plants m−2. High compared to low plant population density was associated with earlier reduction in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and red/far-red ratio (R/FR) reaching the target leaf. However the changes in R/FR preceded those in PAR. When the light environment of individual leaves of isolated plants growing under field conditions was manipulated using filters and FR-reflecting mirrors, LD was positively and linearly related with the mean daily PAR (MDR) received in the FR- (no FR enrichment) treatments. FR enrichment of light reaching the abaxial surface of the leaf significantly (P < 0.05) reduced LD by 9 days at intermediate PAR levels with respect to FR-controls, but did not affect LD at the maximum PAR used in these experiments. However, when light reaching both leaf surfaces was enriched with FR, LD (for leaves receiving maximum PAR) was 13 days shorter than that of the FR- control. These results show that basal leaf senescence in sunflower is enhanced both by a decrease in PAR and by a decrease in R/FR. (author)

  3. Characteristics of a New X-Ray Imaging System for Interventional Procedures: Improved Image Quality and Reduced Radiation Dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schernthaner, Ruediger E; Haroun, Reham R; Nguyen, Sonny; Duran, Rafael; Sohn, Jae Ho; Sahu, Sonia; Chapiro, Julius; Zhao, Yan; Radaelli, Alessandro; van der Bom, Imramsjah M; Mauti, Maria; Hong, Kelvin; Geschwind, Jean-François H; Lin, MingDe

    2018-03-01

    To compare image quality and radiation exposure between a new angiographic imaging system and the preceding generation system during uterine artery embolization (UAE). In this retrospective, IRB-approved two-arm study, 54 patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids were treated with UAE on two different angiographic imaging systems. The new system includes optimized acquisition parameters and real-time image processing algorithms. Air kerma (AK), dose area product (DAP) and acquisition time for digital fluoroscopy (DF) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were recorded. Body mass index was noted as well. DF image quality was assessed objectively by image noise measurements. DSA image quality was rated by two blinded, independent readers on a four-rank scale. Statistical differences were assessed with unpaired t tests and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. There was no significant difference between the patients treated on the new (n = 36) and the old system (n = 18) regarding age (p = 0.10), BMI (p = 0.18), DF time (p = 0.35) and DSA time (p = 0.17). The new system significantly reduced the cumulative AK and DAP by 64 and 72%, respectively (median 0.58 Gy and 145.9 Gy*cm 2 vs. 1.62 Gy and 526.8 Gy*cm 2 , p < 0.01 for both). Specifically, DAP for DF and DSA decreased by 59% (75.3 vs. 181.9 Gy*cm 2 , p < 0.01) and 78% (67.6 vs. 312.2 Gy*cm 2 , p < 0.01), respectively. The new system achieved a significant decrease in DF image noise (p < 0.01) and a significantly better DSA image quality (p < 0.01). The new angiographic imaging system significantly improved image quality and reduced radiation exposure during UAE procedures.

  4. Isolation and characterization of human salivary gland cells for stem cell transplantation to reduce radiation-induced hyposalivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Jielin; Zwaag, Marianne van der; Stokman, Monique A.; Os, Ronald van; Coppes, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recently, we showed that transplantation of 100-300 c-Kit + stem cells isolated from cultured salispheres ameliorates radiation-damage in murine salivary glands. The aim of this study is to optimize and translate these findings from mice to man. Methods: Mouse and human non-malignant parotid and submandibular salivary gland tissue was collected and enzymatically digested. The remaining cell suspension was cultured according to our salisphere culture method optimized for murine salispheres. Salisphere cells were tested using 3D matrix culturing for their in vitro stem cell characteristics such as the potential to differentiate into tissue specific cell types. Several potential mouse and human salivary gland stem cells were selected using FACS. Results: In human salivary gland, c-Kit + cells were only detected in excretory ducts as shown previously in mice. From both human parotid and submandibular gland cell suspensions salispheres could be grown, which when placed in 3D culture developed ductal structures and mucin-expressing acinar-like cells. Moreover, cells dispersed from primary salispheres were able to form secondary spheres in matrigel, a procedure that could be repeated for at least seven passages. Approximately 3000 c-Kit + cells could be isolated from primary human salispheres per biopsy. Conclusion: Human salivary glands contain a similar 'putative' stem cell population as rodents, expressing c-kit and capable of in vitro differentiation and self-renewal. In the future, these cells may have the potential to reduce radiotherapy-induced salivary gland dysfunction in patients.

  5. The effectiveness of various decontamination techniques for reducing external radiation doses to people living in an urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Crick, M.J.; Hill, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    The NRPB has recently developed a dynamic model, EXPURT (EXPosure from Urban Radionuclide Transfer), that reflects the transfer processes that take place in the urban environment. Parameter values for the model have been derived from experiments performed in recent years in the United Kingdom and in Denmark. The model incorporates shielding properties of different types of buildings, and population habits to evaluate individual and population doses as a function of time after deposit. The original model has been extended to enable it to represent several techniques for decontaminating the various surfaces in the urban environment. These include hosing of impermeable surfaces, such as walls, roofs and paved areas, the removal or ploughing of soil/grass, and the replacement of building surfaces with new uncontaminated materials. The model has been used to examine the effectiveness of these various decontamination measures at reducing the external radiation doses to people living in urban areas. The importance of the time at which decontamination is performed is also discussed in this paper

  6. Prophylactic Treatment with Adlay Bran Extract Reduces the Risk of Severe Acute Radiation Dermatitis: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jen Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute radiation dermatitis is a frequent adverse effect in patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy, but there are only a small number of studies providing evidence-based interventions for this clinical condition. Adlay is a cereal crop that has been previously shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this study, we seek to evaluate the effectiveness of oral prophylactic treatment with adlay bran extract in reducing the risk of severe acute radiation dermatitis. A total of 110 patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy were analyzed. Using a prospective, randomized, double-blind design, 73 patients received oral treatment with adlay bran extract and 37 patients received olive oil (placebo. Treatment was started at the beginning of radiation therapy and continued until the termination of radiation treatment. Our results showed that the occurrence of severe acute radiation dermatitis (RTOG grade 2 or higher was significantly lower in patients treated with oral adlay bran extract compared to placebo (45.2% versus 75.7%, adjusted odds ratio 0.24. No serious adverse effects from adlay bran treatment were noted. In conclusion, prophylactic oral treatment with adlay bran extract reduces the risk of severe acute radiation dermatitis and may have potential use in patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy.

  7. A survey of techniques to reduce and manage external beam radiation-induced xerostomia in British oncology and radiotherapy departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macknelly, Andrew; Day, Jane

    2009-01-01

    ? - A feasibility study for locally advanced head and neck cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Clinical Oncology 2006;18(6):497-504, Braam P, Terhaard C, Roesnink J, Cornelis P, Raaijmakers C. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy significantly reduces xerostomia compared with conventional radiotherapy. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics 2006, Wendt TG, Abbasi-Senger N, Salz H, Pinquart I, Koscelny S, Przetak S, et al. 3D-conformal-intensity modulated radiotherapy with compensators for head and neck cancer: clinical results of normal tissue sparing. Radiation Oncology 2006;1:18. Available from: (http://www.ro-journal.com/content/1/1/18) [accessed on 21.11.06].]. This, in turn, offers increased normal tissue sparing than conventional radiotherapy [Ng M, Porceddu S, Milner A, Corry J, Hornby C, Hope G, et al. Parotid-sparing radiotherapy: does it really reduce xerostomia? Clinical Oncology 2005;17(8):610-7.]. The survey indicated that all three techniques, however, are still in use in oncology and radiotherapy departments, and several departments stated that financial considerations were hindering their move toward providing IMRT.

  8. Reducing radiation dose in 64-row spiral CT coronary angiography: study based on individualized scan dosage protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Deqiang; Zhao Jing; Peng Nan; Hua Haiqin; Li Chao; Guo Ying; Shen Yun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the methods of reducing radiation dose in CT coronary angiography through optimizing individualized scan dosage protocol. Methods: Two hundred patients (group A) underwent coronary CTA examination which was performed with fixed 120 kV and variable mA according to their BMI. The mA was set as 150-300 mA (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2), 300-500 mA (18.5 kg/m 2 ≤ BMI < 25.0 kg/m 2 ), and 500-800 mA (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m 2 ). When all examinations were finished, a linear regression was employed to analyze the correlation between mA and BMI, body surface (Suf), image noise (SD) respectively. The results of the analysis were used to formulate a regression equation, which was further used to establish a table list for quick search on how much mA that individualized coronary CTA scan would need. Another 200 patients (group B) enrolled for the individualized scan were scanned under new protocol that previous study established. The tube voltage was 100 and 120 kV. The tube current was variable according to the data in the table list. One-way ANOVA and Kruskal-wallis H test were used for statistics. Results: Regression equation between mA and BMI, Suf, SD was: mA =17.984 × BMI + 169.149 × Suf-2.282 × SD-361.039. The SD (group A: 32.08 ± 5.80, group B: 28.60±4.47), dose index volume (CTDI vol ) [group A: (41.97 ± 11.37) mGy, group B: (33.18±10.07) mGy], effective dose(ED) [group A: (10.91 ±3.07) mSy, group B: (8.83 ±2.72)mSv] had significant differences between the two groups (F=43.45, 63.71, 49.07 respectively, P<0.01 for all). The SD and ED results obtained in group B were better than those in group A. Conclusion: Better performances were obtained when BMI combined Suf was used as a new individualized protocol than when BMI was used only, which means good image quality and lower radiation dosage in coronary CTA examination. (authors)

  9. Leaded eyeglasses substantially reduce radiation exposure of the surgeon's eyes during acquisition of typical fluoroscopic views of the hip and pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Sean; Thornton, Raymond; Dauer, Lawrence T; Quinn, Brian; Miodownik, Daniel; Hak, David J

    2013-07-17

    Despite recommendations to do so, few orthopaedists wear leaded glasses when performing operative fluoroscopy. Radiation exposure to the ocular lens causes cataracts, and regulatory limits for maximum annual occupational exposure to the eye continue to be revised downward. Using anthropomorphic patient and surgeon phantoms, radiation dose at the surgeon phantom's lens was measured with and without leaded glasses during fluoroscopic acquisition of sixteen common pelvic and hip views. The magnitude of lens dose reduction from leaded glasses was calculated by dividing the unprotected dose by the dose measured behind leaded glasses. On average, the use of leaded glasses reduced radiation to the surgeon phantom's eye by tenfold, a 90% reduction in dose. However, there was widespread variation in the amount of radiation that reached the phantom surgeon's eye among the various radiographic projections we studied. Without leaded glasses, the dose measured at the surgeon's lens varied more than 250-fold among these sixteen different views. In addition to protecting the surgeon's eye from the deleterious effects of radiation, the use of leaded glasses could permit an orthopaedist to perform fluoroscopic views on up to ten times more patients before reaching the annual dose limit of 20 mSv of radiation to the eye recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Personal safety and adherence to limits of occupational radiation exposure should compel orthopaedists to wear leaded glasses for fluoroscopic procedures if other protective barriers are not in use. Leaded glasses are a powerful tool for reducing the orthopaedic surgeon's lens exposure to radiation during acquisition of common intraoperative fluoroscopic views.

  10. Mechanism of Action for Anti-radiation Vaccine in Reducing the Biological Impact of High-dose Gamma Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliev, Vladislav; Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Casey, Rachael C.

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a major health risk of long-term space travel, the biological consequences of which include genetic and oxidative damage. In this study, we propose an original mechanism by which high doses of ionizing radiation induce acute toxicity. We identified biological components that appear in the lymphatic vessels shortly after gamma irradiation. These radiation-induced toxins, which we have named specific radiation determinants (SRD), were generated in the irradiated tissues and then collected and circulated throughout the body via the lymph circulation and bloodstream. Depending on the type of SRD elicited, different syndromes of acute radiation sickness (ARS) were expressed. The SRDs were developed into a vaccine used to confer active immunity against acute radiation toxicity in immunologically naive animals. Animals that were pretreated with SRDs exhibited resistance to lethal doses of gamma radiation, as measured by increased survival times and survival rates. In comparison, untreated animals that were exposed to similar large doses of gamma radiation developed acute radiation sickness and died within days. This phenomenon was observed in a number of mammalian species. Initial analysis of the biochemical characteristics indicated that the SRDs were large molecular weight (200-250 kDa) molecules that were comprised of a mixture of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and mineral. Further analysis is required to further identify the SRD molecules and the biological mechanism by which the mediate the toxicity associated with acute radiation sickness. By doing so, we may develop an effective specific immunoprophylaxis as a countermeasure against the acute effects of ionizing radiation.

  11. Mechanism of action for anti-radiation vaccine in reducing the biological impact of high-dose gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliev, Vladislav; Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Casey, Rachael C.

    Ionizing radiation is a major health risk of long-term space travel, the biological consequences of which include genetic and oxidative damage. In this study, we propose an original mechanism by which high doses of ionizing radiation induce acute toxicity. We identified biological components that appear in the lymphatic vessels shortly after high-dose gamma irradiation. These radiation-induced toxins, which we have named specific radiation determinants (SRD), were generated in the irradiated tissues and then circulated throughout the body via the lymph circulation and bloodstream. Depending on the type of SRD elicited, different syndromes of acute radiation sickness (ARS) were expressed. The SRDs were developed into a vaccine used to confer active immunity against acute radiation toxicity in immunologically naïve animals. Animals that were pretreated with SRDs exhibited resistance to lethal doses of gamma radiation, as measured by increased survival times and survival rates. In comparison, untreated animals that were exposed to similar large doses of gamma radiation developed acute radiation sickness and died within days. This phenomenon was observed in a number of mammalian species. Initial analysis of the biochemical characteristics indicated that the SRDs were large molecular weight (200-250 kDa) molecules that were comprised of a mixture of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and mineral. Further analysis is required to further identify the SRD molecules and the biological mechanism by which they mediate the toxicity associated with acute radiation sickness. By doing so, we may develop an effective specific immunoprophylaxis as a countermeasure against the acute effects of ionizing radiation.

  12. Benefits of adopting good radiation practices in reducing the whole body radiation dose to the nuclear medicine personnel during (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shashwat; Kheruka, Subhash Chand; Maurya, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Narvesh; Gambhir, Sanjay; Kumari, Sarita

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography has been established as an important imaging modality in the management of patients, especially in oncology. The higher gamma radiation energy of positron-emitting isotopes poses an additional radiation safety problem. Those working with this modality may likely to receive higher whole body doses than those working only in conventional nuclear medicine. The radiation exposure to the personnel occurs in dispensing the dose, administration of activity, patient positioning, and while removing the intravenous (i.v.) cannula. The estimation of radiation dose to Nuclear Medicine Physician (NMP) involved during administration of activity to the patient and technical staff assisting in these procedures in a positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) facility was carried out. An i.v access was secured for the patient by putting the cannula and blood sugar was monitored. The activity was then dispensed and measured in the dose calibrator and administered to the patient by NMP. Personnel doses received by NMP and technical staff were measured using electronic pocket dosimeter. The radiation exposure levels at various working locations were assessed with the help of gamma survey meter. The radiation level at working distance while administering the radioactivity was found to be 106-170 μSv/h with a mean value of 126.5 ± 14.88 μSv/h which was reduced to 4.2-14.2 μSv/h with a mean value of 7.16 ± 2.29 μSv/h with introduction of L-bench for administration of radioactivity. This shows a mean exposure level reduction of 94.45 ± 1.03%. The radiation level at working distance, while removing the i.v. cannula postscanning was found to be 25-70 μSv/h with a mean value of 37.4 ± 13.16 μSv/h which was reduced to 1.0-5.0 μSv/h with a mean value of 2.77 ± 1.3 μSv/h with introduction of L-bench for removal of i.v cannula. This shows a mean exposure level reduction of 92.85 ± 1.78%. This study shows that good radiation practices are

  13. Prophylactic vesical instillations with 0.2% chondroitin sulfate may reduce symptoms of acute radiation cystitis in patients undergoing radiotherapy for gynecological malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazewinkel, M.H.; Stalpers, L.J.A.; Dijkgraaf, M.G.; Roovers, J.P.W.R.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the feasibility and efficacy of intravesical instillations with 40 ml chondroitin sulfate 0.2% solution to prevent or reduce acute radiation cystitis in women undergoing pelvic radiotherapy. In a comparative pilot study in 20 patients, half of the patients received instillations.

  14. Reducing radiation dose in liver enhanced CT scan by setting mAs according to plain scan noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shangwen; He Jian; Yang Xianfeng; Zhou Kefeng; Xin Xiaoyan; Hu Anning; Zhu Bin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of setting mAs in liver enhanced CT scan according to plain scan noise with fixed mA CT scanner, in order to reduce the radiation dose. Methods: One hundred continuous patients underwent liver enhanced CT scan (group A) prospectively. Two hundred and fifty mAs was used in plain and enhanced CT scans. Noises of plain and venous phase CT images were measured, and the image quality was evaluated. The equation between mAs of enhanced scan and noise of plain scan image was derived. Another 100 continuous patients underwent liver enhanced CT scan (group B). Enhanced scan mAs was calculated from noise on plain scan by using the equation above. Noises on venous phase images were measured and the image quality was measured. Based on body mass index (BMI), patients in groups A and B were divided into three subgroups respectively: BMI < 18.5 kg/m 2 , 18.5 kg/m 2 ≤ BMI < 25.0 kg/m 2 and BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m 2 . Image quality score was compared with nonparametric rank sum test, CT dose index (CTDI) and effective dose (ED) were measured and compared between each subgroup with 2 independent samples t or t' test. Results: The equation between enhanced scan mAs (mAsX) and plain scan noise (SDp) was as follows: mAsX = mAs1 × [(0.989 × SDp + 1.06) /SDx] 2 , mAs1 = 250 mAs, SDx = 13. In patients with BMI < 18.5 kg/m 2 , ED of group A [(6.86 ± 0.38) mSv, n = 12] was significantly higher than group B [(2.66 ± 0.46) mSv, n = 10)] (t = 18.52, P < 0.01). In patients with 18.5 kg/m 2 ≤ BMI < 25.0 kg/m 2 , ED of group A [(7.08 ± 0.91) mSv, n = 66] was significantly higher than group B [(4.50 ± 1.41) mSv, n = 73] (t' = 10.57, P < 0.01). In patients with BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m 2 , there was no significant difference between EDs of group A (7.54 ± 0.62 mSv, n = 22) and group B [(8.19 ± 3.16) mSv, n = 17] (t' = 0.89, P = 0.39). Image quality of 5 patients in group A and none in group B did not meet the diagnostic requirement

  15. Reducing the Cost of Proton Radiation Therapy: The Feasibility of a Streamlined Treatment Technique for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newhauser, Wayne D., E-mail: newhauser@lsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 (United States); Zhang, Rui [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 (United States); Departments of Radiation Physics and Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Jones, Timothy G. [Departments of Radiation Physics and Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Department of Physics, Abilene Christian University, ACU Box 27963, Abilene, TX 79699 (United States); Giebeler, Annelise; Taddei, Phillip J. [Departments of Radiation Physics and Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Stewart, Robert D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington School of Medicine, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Box 356043, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Lee, Andrew [Departments of Radiation Physics and Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Vassiliev, Oleg [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 (United States)

    2015-04-24

    Proton radiation therapy is an effective modality for cancer treatments, but the cost of proton therapy is much higher compared to conventional radiotherapy and this presents a formidable barrier to most clinical practices that wish to offer proton therapy. Little attention in literature has been paid to the costs associated with collimators, range compensators and hypofractionation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of cost-saving modifications to the present standard of care for proton treatments for prostate cancer. In particular, we quantified the dosimetric impact of a treatment technique in which custom fabricated collimators were replaced with a multileaf collimator (MLC) and the custom range compensators (RC) were eliminated. The dosimetric impacts of these modifications were assessed for 10 patients with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) and confirmed with corresponding Monte Carlo simulations. We assessed the impact on lifetime risks of radiogenic second cancers using detailed dose reconstructions and predictive dose-risk models based on epidemiologic data. We also performed illustrative calculations, using an isoeffect model, to examine the potential for hypofractionation. Specifically, we bracketed plausible intervals of proton fraction size and total treatment dose that were equivalent to a conventional photon treatment of 79.2 Gy in 44 fractions. Our results revealed that eliminating the RC and using an MLC had negligible effect on predicted dose distributions and second cancer risks. Even modest hypofractionation strategies can yield substantial cost savings. Together, our results suggest that it is feasible to modify the standard of care to increase treatment efficiency, reduce treatment costs to patients and insurers, while preserving high treatment quality.

  16. Reducing the Cost of Proton Radiation Therapy: The Feasibility of a Streamlined Treatment Technique for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newhauser, Wayne D.; Zhang, Rui; Jones, Timothy G.; Giebeler, Annelise; Taddei, Phillip J.; Stewart, Robert D.; Lee, Andrew; Vassiliev, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Proton radiation therapy is an effective modality for cancer treatments, but the cost of proton therapy is much higher compared to conventional radiotherapy and this presents a formidable barrier to most clinical practices that wish to offer proton therapy. Little attention in literature has been paid to the costs associated with collimators, range compensators and hypofractionation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of cost-saving modifications to the present standard of care for proton treatments for prostate cancer. In particular, we quantified the dosimetric impact of a treatment technique in which custom fabricated collimators were replaced with a multileaf collimator (MLC) and the custom range compensators (RC) were eliminated. The dosimetric impacts of these modifications were assessed for 10 patients with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) and confirmed with corresponding Monte Carlo simulations. We assessed the impact on lifetime risks of radiogenic second cancers using detailed dose reconstructions and predictive dose-risk models based on epidemiologic data. We also performed illustrative calculations, using an isoeffect model, to examine the potential for hypofractionation. Specifically, we bracketed plausible intervals of proton fraction size and total treatment dose that were equivalent to a conventional photon treatment of 79.2 Gy in 44 fractions. Our results revealed that eliminating the RC and using an MLC had negligible effect on predicted dose distributions and second cancer risks. Even modest hypofractionation strategies can yield substantial cost savings. Together, our results suggest that it is feasible to modify the standard of care to increase treatment efficiency, reduce treatment costs to patients and insurers, while preserving high treatment quality

  17. Effects of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussens, G.

    1984-08-01

    After recalling radiation-matter interaction, influence on radiation effects of chemical composition, structure, irradiation atmosphere, dose rate, temperature of organic materials and evolution of electrical, mechanical and physical properties are reviewed. Then behaviour under irradiation of main organic materials: elastomers, thermoplastics, thermosetting plastics, oils and paints are examined. 68 refs [fr

  18. Reduced Order Modeling for Non-equilibrium Radiation Hydrodynamics of Base Flow and Wakes: Enabling Manned Missions to Mars

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Understanding non-equilibrium chemical kinetics and its interaction with radiation and fluid mechanics in hypersonic flows remains one of the largest obstacles to...

  19. 3D absorbed dose calculation with GATE Monte Carlo simulation for the image-guided radiation therapy dedicated to the small animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noblet, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Innovating irradiators dedicated to small animal allow to mimic clinical treatments in image-guided radiation therapy. Clinical practice is scaled down to the small animal by reducing beam dimensions (from cm to mm) and energy (from MeV to keV). Millimeter medium energy beams ( [fr

  20. Adjustment for smoking reduces radiation risk: fifth analysis of mortality of nuclear industry workers in Japan, 1999-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, S.; Ishida, J.; Yoshimoto, K.; Mizuno, S.; Ohshima, S.; Kasagi, F., E-mail: s_kudo@rea.or.jp [Instituto of Radiation Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Association, 1-9-16 Kajicho, Chiyoda-ku, 101-0044 Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Many cohort studies among nuclear industry workers have been carried out to determine the possible health effects of low-level radiation. In those studies, confounding factors, for example, age was adjusted to exclude the effect of difference of mortality by age to estimate radiation risk. But there are few studies adjusting for smoking that is known as a strong factor which affects mortality. Radiation Effects Association (Rea) initiated a cohort study of nuclear industry workers mortality in 1990. To examine non-radiation factors confounding on the mortality risk among the radiation workers, Rea have performed life-style questionnaire surveys among the part of workers at 1997 and 2003 and found the correlation between radiation dose and smoking rate. Mortality follow-up were made on 75,442 male respondents for an average of 8.3 years during the observation period 1999-2010. Estimates of Excess Relative Risk percent (Err %) per 10 mSv were obtained by using the Poisson regression. The Err for all causes was statistically significant (1.05 (90 % CI 0.31 : 1.80)), but no longer significant after adjusting for smoking (0.45 (-0.24 : 1.13)). The Err for all cancers excluding leukemia was not significant (0.92 (-0.30 : 2.16)), but after adjusting for smoking, it decreased (0.36 (-0.79 : 1.50)). Thus smoking has a large effect to obscure a radiation risk, so adjustment for smoking is important to estimate radiation risk. (Author)

  1. Adjustment for smoking reduces radiation risk: fifth analysis of mortality of nuclear industry workers in Japan, 1999-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, S.; Ishida, J.; Yoshimoto, K.; Mizuno, S.; Ohshima, S.; Kasagi, F.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: Many cohort studies among nuclear industry workers have been carried out to determine the possible health effects of low-level radiation. In those studies, confounding factors, for example, age was adjusted to exclude the effect of difference of mortality by age to estimate radiation risk. But there are few studies adjusting for smoking that is known as a strong factor which affects mortality. Radiation Effects Association (Rea) initiated a cohort study of nuclear industry workers mortality in 1990. To examine non-radiation factors confounding on the mortality risk among the radiation workers, Rea have performed life-style questionnaire surveys among the part of workers at 1997 and 2003 and found the correlation between radiation dose and smoking rate. Mortality follow-up were made on 75,442 male respondents for an average of 8.3 years during the observation period 1999-2010. Estimates of Excess Relative Risk percent (Err %) per 10 mSv were obtained by using the Poisson regression. The Err for all causes was statistically significant (1.05 (90 % CI 0.31 : 1.80)), but no longer significant after adjusting for smoking (0.45 (-0.24 : 1.13)). The Err for all cancers excluding leukemia was not significant (0.92 (-0.30 : 2.16)), but after adjusting for smoking, it decreased (0.36 (-0.79 : 1.50)). Thus smoking has a large effect to obscure a radiation risk, so adjustment for smoking is important to estimate radiation risk. (Author)

  2. 76 FR 58517 - Public Health Service Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ...-2011-0011] Public Health Service Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus... public comment on the draft Public Health Service Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human..., Attn: Public Health Service Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV...

  3. Effectiveness of Bismuth Shield to Reduce Eye Lens Radiation Dose Using the Photoluminescence Dosimetry in Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Mi Young; Kweon, Dae Cheol; Kwon, Soo Il

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the eye radiation dose when performing routine multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). We also evaluated dose reduction and the effect on image quality of using a bismuth eye shield when performing head MDCT. Examinations were performed with a 64MDCT scanner. To compare the shielded/unshielded lens dose, the examination was performed with and without bismuth shielding in anthropomorphic phantom. To determine the average lens radiation dose, we imaged an anthropomorphic phantom into which calibrated photoluminescence glass dosimeter (PLD) were placed to measure the dose to lens. The phantom was imaged using the same protocol. Radiation doses to the lens with and without the lens shielding were measured and compared using the Student t test. In the qualitative evaluation of the MDCT scans, all were considered to be of diagnostic quality. We did not see any differences in quality between the shielded and unshielded brain. The mean radiation doses to the eye with the shield and to those without the shield were 21.54 versus 10.46 mGy, respectively. The lens shield enabled a 51.3% decrease in radiation dose to the lens. Bismuth in-plane shielding for routine eye and head MDCT decreased radiation dose to the lens without qualitative changes in image quality. The other radiosensitive superficial organs specifically must be protected with shielding.

  4. 76 FR 40755 - Impact of Reduced Dose Limits on NRC Licensed Activities; Solicitation of Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... scientifically justified, to achieve greater alignment with the 2007 recommendations of the International... and image files of the NRC's public documents. If you do not have access to ADAMS or if there are... informed of all the benefits and burdens associated with further alignment of NRC's current radiation...

  5. Outcomes and Patterns of Failure for Grade 2 Meningioma Treated With Reduced-Margin Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Press, Robert H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Prabhu, Roshan S., E-mail: roshansprabhu@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Appin, Christina L.; Brat, Daniel J. [Department of Pathology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Shu, Hui-Kuo G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Hadjipanayis, Constantinos; Olson, Jeffrey J.; Oyesiku, Nelson M. [Department of Neurosurgery, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Curran, Walter J.; Crocker, Ian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate intracranial control and patterns of local recurrence (LR) for grade 2 meningiomas treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with limited total margin expansions of ≤1 cm. Methods and Materials: We reviewed records of patients with a neuropathological diagnosis of grade 2 meningioma who underwent IMRT at our institution between 2002 and 2012. Actuarial rates were determined by the Kaplan-Meier method from the end of RT. LR was defined as in-field if ≥90% of the recurrence was within the prescription isodose, out-of-field (marginal) if ≥90% was outside of the prescription isodose, and both if neither criterion was met. Results: Between 2002 and 2012, a total of 54 consecutive patients underwent IMRT for grade 2 meningioma. Eight of these patients had total initial margins >1 cm and were excluded, leaving 46 patients for analysis. The median imaging follow-up period was 26.2 months (range, 7-107 months). The median dose for fractionated IMRT was 59.4 Gy (range, 49.2-61.2 Gy). Median clinical target volume (CTV), planning target volume (PTV), and total margin expansion were 0.5 cm, 0.3 cm, and 0.8 cm, respectively. LR occurred in 8 patients (17%), with 2-year and 3-year actuarial local control (LC) of 92% and 74%, respectively. Six of 8 patients (85%) had a known pattern of failure. Five patients (83%) had in-field LR; no patients had marginal LR; and 1 patient (17%) had both. Conclusions: The use of IMRT to treat grade 2 meningiomas with total initial margins (CTV + PTV) ≤1 cm did not appear to compromise outcomes or increase marginal failures compared with other modern retrospective series. Of the 46 patients who had margins ≤1 cm, none experienced marginal failure only. These results demonstrate efficacy and low risk of marginal failure after IMRT treatment of grade 2 meningiomas with reduced margins, warranting study within a prospective clinical trial.

  6. Self-powered radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.; Todt, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    Self-powered gamma radiation detector composed of a conducting emitter surrounded by an insulating medium and a conducting tubular collector, the emitter being a hollow tube containing an electrical insulator [fr

  7. An evaluation of early countermeasures to reduce the risk of internal radiation exposure after the Fukushima nuclear incident in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shuhei; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Gilmour, Stuart; Hayano, Ryugo S; Watanabe, Yuni N; Kami, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Yukio; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2016-05-01

    After a radiation-release incident, intake of radionuclides in the initial stage immediately following the incident may be the major contributor to total internal radiation exposure for individuals in affected areas. However, evaluation of early internal contamination risk is greatly lacking. This study assessed the relationship between initial stage evacuation/indoor sheltering and internal radiation contamination levels 4 months after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident in Japan and estimated potential pathways of the contamination. The study population comprised 525 participants in the internal radiation screening program at Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital, 23 km north of the Fukushima nuclear plant. The analysed dataset included the results of a screening performed in July 2011, 4 months after the incident, and of a questionnaire on early-incident response behaviours, such as sheltering indoors and evacuations, completed by participants. Association between such early countermeasures and internal contamination levels of cesium-134 were assessed using Tobit multiple regression analyses. Our study shows that individuals who evacuated to areas outside Fukushima Prefecture had similar contamination levels of cesium-134 to individuals who stayed in Fukushima (relative risk: 0.86; 95% confidence interval: 0.74-0.99). Time spent outdoors had no significant relationship with contamination levels. The effects of inhalation from radiological plumes released from the nuclear plant on total internal radiation contamination might be so low as to be undetectable by the whole-body counting unit used to examine participants. Given the apparent limited effectiveness of evacuation and indoor sheltering on internal contamination, the decision to implement such early responses to a radiation-release incident should be made by carefully balancing their potential benefits and health risks. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For

  8. Technical Report on the Development of Novel Technology for Reducing the Toxicity of Mistletoe Lectin by using Radiation Fusion Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong Il; Song, Beom Seok; Yoon, Yo Han; Jung, Pil Mun; Sung, Nak Yun

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was conducted to investigate the effect of irradiation on detoxification, structural change, and physiological change of Mistletoe lectin. Optimal irradiation dose was determined from the result of having maximum detoxification and remaining the immunological activity Irradiation technology could be effective method for detoxification of Mistletoe lectin containing the immunological activity. The results indicate the feasibility of novel technology for reduction of the toxicity of Mistletoe lectin by using radiation technology. Practical state though clinical test is needed to extend biomedicine field using radiation technology and improve of public health by the control of the disease that gradually increase every year

  9. 77 FR 31062 - Programs To Reduce Incidental Capture of Sea Turtles in Shrimp Fisheries; Certifications Pursuant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7894] Programs To Reduce Incidental Capture of Sea Turtles in... programs to reduce the incidental capture of sea turtles in their shrimp fisheries comparable to the... other countries and one economy do not pose a threat of the incidental taking of sea turtles protected...

  10. Method and means of reducing erosion of components of plasma devices exposed to helium and hydrogen isotope radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminsky, M.S.; Das, S.K.; Rossing, T.D.

    1977-01-01

    Surfaces of components of plasma devices exposed to radiation by atoms or ions of helium or isotopes of hydrogen can be protected from damage due to blistering by shielding the surfaces with a structure formed by sintering a powder of aluminum or beryllium and its oxide or by coating the surfaces with such a sintered metal powder. 7 claims

  11. Reducing radiation dose without compromising image quality in preoperative perforator flap imaging with CTA using ASIR technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niumsawatt, Vachara; Debrotwir, Andrew N; Rozen, Warren Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) has become a mainstay in preoperative perforator flap planning in the modern era of reconstructive surgery. However, the increased use of CTA does raise the concern of radiation exposure to patients. Several techniques have been developed to decrease radiation dosage without compromising image quality, with varying results. The most recent advance is in the improvement of image reconstruction using an adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm. We sought to evaluate the image quality of ASIR in preoperative deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap surgery, through a direct comparison with conventional filtered back projection (FBP) images. A prospective review of 60 consecutive ASIR and 60 consecutive FBP CTA images using similar protocol (except for radiation dosage) was undertaken, analyzed by 2 independent reviewers. In both groups, we were able to accurately identify axial arteries and their perforators. Subjective analysis of image quality demonstrated no statistically significant difference between techniques. ASIR can thus be used for preoperative imaging with similar image quality to FBP, but with a 60% reduction in radiation delivery to patients.

  12. Radiation hardening coating material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, W.H.; Prucnal, P.J.; DeMajistre, Robert.

    1977-01-01

    This invention concerns a radiation hardening coating material. First a resin is prepared by reaction of bisphenol diglycidylic ether with acrylic or methacrylic acids. Then the reactive solvent is prepared by reaction of acrylic or methacrylic acids with epichlorhydrine or epibromhydrine. Then a solution consisting of the resin dissolved in the reactive solvent is prepared. A substrate (wood, paper, polyesters, polyamines etc.) is coated with this composition and exposed to ionizing radiations (electron beams) or ultraviolet radiations [fr

  13. 78 FR 25304 - Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), Including On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ..., USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), Including On-Site Leased Workers From Source... Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), including on- site leased... of February 2013, Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology...

  14. 76 FR 74039 - Approaches to Reducing Sodium Consumption; Establishment of Dockets; Request for Comments, Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ...;and investigations, committee meetings, agency decisions and rulings, #0;delegations of authority... and other chronic illnesses; sodium consumption practices; motivation and barriers in reducing sodium... role of sodium in hypertension and other chronic illnesses; sodium consumption practices; motivation...

  15. Implementation of a competency check-off in diagnostic fluoroscopy for radiology trainees: impact on reducing radiation for three common fluoroscopic exams in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Sweta [University of Missouri-Kansas City SOM, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States); Desouches, Stephane L. [University of Missouri-Kansas City SOM, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States); St. Luke' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States); Lowe, Lisa H.; Kasraie, Nima; Reading, Brenton [University of Missouri-Kansas City SOM, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States); Children' s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2014-07-24

    Fluoroscopy is an important tool for diagnosis in the pediatric population, but it carries the risk of radiation exposure. Because radiology resident education and experience in the use of fluoroscopy equipment in children vary, we implemented an intervention to standardize fluoroscopy training. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of implementing a fluoroscopy competency check-off for radiology resident trainees aimed at decreasing radiation exposure in three common pediatric fluoroscopic studies. A fluoroscopy competency check-off form was developed for radiology resident trainees performing pediatric procedures. Techniques used to limit radiation exposure for common pediatric radiologic studies were reviewed as part of the check-off process. Pediatric radiologists supervised each trainee until they demonstrated competence to independently perform three specified procedures. Radiation dose was recorded for the three procedures, upper GI (UGI), voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) and oropharyngeal (OPM) exams, over 6 months preceding and 6 months following implementation of the competency check-off. The mean cumulative dose for each procedure was compared before and after implementation of competency check-off using a Kruskal-Wallis test. During the 12-month study period doses from 909 fluoroscopic procedures were recorded. In the 6 months preceding competency check-off implementation, procedures were performed by 24 radiology resident trainees including 171 UGI, 176 VCUG and 171 OPM exams. In the 6 months following competency check-off, 23 trainees performed 114 UGI, 145 VCUG and 132 OPM exams. After competency check-off implementation, a statistically significant reduction in average radiation dose was found for all three studies (P < 0.001). Median cumulative doses (mGy) were decreased by 33%, 36% and 13% for UGIs, VCUGs and OPMs, respectively. Implementation of a competency check-off for radiology resident trainees can reduce average radiation

  16. Implementation of a competency check-off in diagnostic fluoroscopy for radiology trainees: impact on reducing radiation for three common fluoroscopic exams in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Sweta; Desouches, Stephane L.; Lowe, Lisa H.; Kasraie, Nima; Reading, Brenton

    2015-01-01

    Fluoroscopy is an important tool for diagnosis in the pediatric population, but it carries the risk of radiation exposure. Because radiology resident education and experience in the use of fluoroscopy equipment in children vary, we implemented an intervention to standardize fluoroscopy training. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of implementing a fluoroscopy competency check-off for radiology resident trainees aimed at decreasing radiation exposure in three common pediatric fluoroscopic studies. A fluoroscopy competency check-off form was developed for radiology resident trainees performing pediatric procedures. Techniques used to limit radiation exposure for common pediatric radiologic studies were reviewed as part of the check-off process. Pediatric radiologists supervised each trainee until they demonstrated competence to independently perform three specified procedures. Radiation dose was recorded for the three procedures, upper GI (UGI), voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) and oropharyngeal (OPM) exams, over 6 months preceding and 6 months following implementation of the competency check-off. The mean cumulative dose for each procedure was compared before and after implementation of competency check-off using a Kruskal-Wallis test. During the 12-month study period doses from 909 fluoroscopic procedures were recorded. In the 6 months preceding competency check-off implementation, procedures were performed by 24 radiology resident trainees including 171 UGI, 176 VCUG and 171 OPM exams. In the 6 months following competency check-off, 23 trainees performed 114 UGI, 145 VCUG and 132 OPM exams. After competency check-off implementation, a statistically significant reduction in average radiation dose was found for all three studies (P < 0.001). Median cumulative doses (mGy) were decreased by 33%, 36% and 13% for UGIs, VCUGs and OPMs, respectively. Implementation of a competency check-off for radiology resident trainees can reduce average radiation

  17. Efficacy of the RADPAD Protection Drape in Reducing Operators' Radiation Exposure in the Catheterization Laboratory: A Sham-Controlled Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastra, Wieneke; Delewi, Ronak; Sjauw, Krischan D; Beijk, Marcel A; Claessen, Bimmer E; Streekstra, Geert J; Bekker, Robbert J; van Hattum, Juliette C; Wykrzykowska, Joanna J; Vis, Marije M; Koch, Karel T; de Winter, Robbert J; Piek, Jan J; Henriques, José P S

    2017-11-01

    Interventional cardiologists are increasingly exposed to radiation-induced diseases like cataract and the stochastic risk of left-sided brain tumors. The RADPAD is a sterile, disposable, lead-free shield placed on the patient with the aim to minimize operator-received scatter radiation. The objective of the trial was to examine the RADPAD's efficacy in a real-world situation. In the current, double-blind, sham-controlled, all-comer trial, patients undergoing diagnostic catheterization or percutaneous coronary interventions were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to a radiation absorbing shield (RADPAD), standard treatment (NOPAD), or a sham shield (SHAMPAD). The sham shield allowed testing for shield-induced radiation behavior. The primary outcome was the difference in relative exposure of the primary operator between the RADPAD and NOPAD arms and was defined as the ratio between operator's exposure (E in µSv) and patient exposure (dose area product in mGy·cm 2 ), measured per procedure. A total of 766 consecutive coronary procedures were randomized to the use of RADPAD (N=255), NOPAD (N=255), or SHAMPAD (N=256). The use of RADPAD was associated with a 20% reduction in relative operator exposure compared with that of NOPAD ( P =0.01) and a 44% relative exposure reduction compared with the use of a SHAMPAD ( P RADPAD radiation shield reduced operator radiation exposure compared with procedures with NOPAD or SHAMPAD. This study supports the routine use of RADPAD in the catheterization laboratory. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03139968. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Noise reduction technology reduces radiation dose in chronic total occlusions percutaneous coronary intervention: a propensity score-matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccagni, Davide; Benincasa, Susanna; Bellini, Barbara; Candilio, Luciano; Poletti, Enrico; Carlino, Mauro; Colombo, Antonio; Azzalini, Lorenzo

    2018-03-23

    Chronic total occlusions (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with high radiation dose. Our study aim was to evaluate the impact of the implementation of a noise reduction technology (NRT) on patient radiation dose during CTO PCI. A total of 187 CTO PCIs performed between February 2016 and May 2017 were analyzed according to the angiographic systems utilized: Standard (n = 60) versus NRT (n = 127). Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to control for differences in baseline characteristics. Primary endpoints were Cumulative Air Kerma at Interventional Reference Point (AK at IRP), which correlates with patient's tissue reactions; and Kerma Area Product (KAP), a surrogate measure of patient's risk of stochastic radiation effects. An Efficiency Index (defined as fluoroscopy time/AK at IRP) was calculated for each procedure. Image quality was evaluated using a 5-grade Likert-like scale. After PSM, n = 55 pairs were identified. Baseline and angiographic characteristics were well matched between groups. Compared to the Standard system, NRT was associated with lower AK at IRP [2.38 (1.80-3.66) vs. 3.24 (2.04-5.09) Gy, p = 0.035], a trend towards reduction for KAP [161 (93-244) vs. 203 (136-363) Gycm 2 , p = 0.069], and a better Efficiency Index [16.75 (12.73-26.27) vs. 13.58 (9.92-17.63) min/Gy, p = 0.003]. Image quality was similar between the two groups (4.39 ± 0.53 Standard vs. 4.34 ± 0.47 NRT, p = 0.571). In conclusion, compared with a Standard system, the use of NRT in CTO PCI is associated with lower patient radiation dose and similar image quality.

  19. Health physics manual of good practices for reducing radiation exposure to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Kathren, R.L.; Merwin, S.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1988-06-01

    A primary objective of the US Department of Energy (DOE) health physics and radiation protection program has been to limit radiation exposures to those levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). As a result, the ALARA concept developed into a program and a set of operational principles to ensure that the objective was consistently met. Implementation of these principles required that a guide be produced. The original ALARA guide was issued by DOE in 1980 to promote improved understanding of ALARA concepts within the DOE community and to assist those responsible for operational ALARA activities in attaining their goals. Since 1980, additional guidance has been published by national and international organizations to provide further definition and clarification to ALARA concepts. As basic ALARA experience increased, the value and role of the original guide prompted the DOE Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) to support a current revision. The revised manual of good practices includes six sections: 1.0 Introduction, 2.0 Administration, 3.0 Optimization, 4.0 Setting and Evaluating ALARA Goals, 5.0 Radiological Design, and 6.0 Conduct of Operations. The manual is directed primarily to contractor and DOE staff who are responsible for conduct and overview of radiation protection and ALARA programs at DOE facilities. The intent is to provide sufficient guidance such that the manual, if followed, will ensure that radiation exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable and will establish the basis for a formally structured and auditable program. 118 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Intraarticular Sacroiliac Joint Injection Under Computed Tomography Fluoroscopic Guidance: A Technical Note to Reduce Procedural Time and Radiation Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, Nam Chull

    2016-01-01

    PurposeA technique for computed tomography fluoroscopy (CTF)-guided intraarticular (IA) sacroiliac joint (SIJ) injection was devised to limit procedural time and radiation dose.MethodsOur Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective analysis and waived the requirement for informed consent. Overall, 36 consecutive diagnostic or therapeutic IA SIJ injections (unilateral, 20; bilateral, 16) performed in 34 patients (female, 18; male, 16) with a mean age of 45.5 years (range 20–76 years) under CTF guidance were analyzed, assessing technical success (i.e., IA contrast spread), procedural time, and radiation dose.ResultsAll injections were successful from a technical perspective and were free of serious complications. Respective median procedural times and effective doses of SIJ injection were as follows: unilateral, 5.28 min (range 3.58–8.00 min) and 0.11 millisievert (mSv; range 0.07–0.24 mSv); and bilateral, 6.72 min (range 4.17–21.17 min) and 0.11 mSv (range 0.09–0.51 mSv).ConclusionsGiven the high rate of technical success achieved in limited time duration and with little radiation exposure, CTF-guided IA SIJ injection is a practical and low-risk procedure.

  1. Bacterial ice nuclei impact cloud lifetime and radiative properties and reduce atmospheric heat loss in the BRAMS simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Tassio S; Gonçalves, Fábio L T; Yamasoe, Marcia A; Martins, Jorge A; Morris, Cindy E

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of the bacterial species Pseudomonas syringae acting as ice nuclei (IN) on cloud properties to understand its impact on local radiative budget and heating rates. These bacteria may become active IN at temperatures as warm as −2 °C. Numerical simulations were developed using the Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Model System (BRAMS). To investigate the isolated effect of bacterial IN, four scenarios were created considering only homogeneous and bacterial ice nucleation, with 1, 10 and 100 IN per cubic meter of cloud volume and one with no bacteria. Moreover, two other scenarios were generated: the BRAMS default parameterization and its combination with bacterial IN. The model reproduced a strong convective cell over São Paulo on 3 March 2003. Results showed that bacterial IN may change cloud evolution as well as its microphysical properties, which in turn influence cloud radiative properties. For example, the reflected shortwave irradiance over an averaged domain in a scenario considering bacterial IN added to the BRAMS default parameterization was 14% lower than if bacteria were not considered. Heating rates can also be impacted, especially due to differences in cloud lifetime. Results suggest that the omission of bacterial IN in numerical models, including global cloud models, could neglect relevant ice nucleation processes that potentially influence cloud radiative properties. (letter)

  2. Intraarticular Sacroiliac Joint Injection Under Computed Tomography Fluoroscopic Guidance: A Technical Note to Reduce Procedural Time and Radiation Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paik, Nam Chull, E-mail: pncspine@gmail.com [Arumdaun Wooldul Spine Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    PurposeA technique for computed tomography fluoroscopy (CTF)-guided intraarticular (IA) sacroiliac joint (SIJ) injection was devised to limit procedural time and radiation dose.MethodsOur Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective analysis and waived the requirement for informed consent. Overall, 36 consecutive diagnostic or therapeutic IA SIJ injections (unilateral, 20; bilateral, 16) performed in 34 patients (female, 18; male, 16) with a mean age of 45.5 years (range 20–76 years) under CTF guidance were analyzed, assessing technical success (i.e., IA contrast spread), procedural time, and radiation dose.ResultsAll injections were successful from a technical perspective and were free of serious complications. Respective median procedural times and effective doses of SIJ injection were as follows: unilateral, 5.28 min (range 3.58–8.00 min) and 0.11 millisievert (mSv; range 0.07–0.24 mSv); and bilateral, 6.72 min (range 4.17–21.17 min) and 0.11 mSv (range 0.09–0.51 mSv).ConclusionsGiven the high rate of technical success achieved in limited time duration and with little radiation exposure, CTF-guided IA SIJ injection is a practical and low-risk procedure.

  3. Regulations for radiation protection in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    These Regulations specify that responsibility for applying radiation protection regulations in industrial radiography rests with the owner of the establishment who will designate a radiation protection officer to this effect. They provide for the organisation of radiation protection, including the measures to be observed, exposure limits, etc. The competent authority for these questions is the State Institute of Radiation Hygiene [fr

  4. Impact of reduced-radiation dual-energy protocols using 320-detector row computed tomography for analyzing urinary calculus components: initial in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiangran; Zhou, Qingchun; Yu, Juan; Xian, Zhaohui; Feng, Youzhen; Yang, Wencai; Mo, Xukai

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of reduced-radiation dual-energy (DE) protocols using 320-detector row computed tomography on the differentiation of urinary calculus components. A total of 58 urinary calculi were placed into the same phantom and underwent DE scanning with 320-detector row computed tomography. Each calculus was scanned 4 times with the DE protocols using 135 kV and 80 kV tube voltage and different tube current combinations, including 100 mA and 570 mA (group A), 50 mA and 290 mA (group B), 30 mA and 170 mA (group C), and 10 mA and 60 mA (group D). The acquisition data of all 4 groups were then analyzed by stone DE analysis software, and the results were compared with x-ray diffraction analysis. Noise, contrast-to-noise ratio, and radiation dose were compared. Calculi were correctly identified in 56 of 58 stones (96.6%) using group A and B protocols. However, only 35 stones (60.3%) and 16 stones (27.6%) were correctly diagnosed using group C and D protocols, respectively. Mean noise increased significantly and mean contrast-to-noise ratio decreased significantly from groups A to D (P calculus component analysis while reducing patient radiation exposure to 1.81 mSv. Further reduction of tube currents may compromise diagnostic accuracy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 75 FR 18514 - Developing Guidance on Naming, Labeling, and Packaging Practices to Reduce Medication Errors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... packaging designs. Among these measures, FDA agreed that by the end of FY 2010, after public consultation... product names and designing product labels and packaging to reduce medication errors. Four panel... of product packaging design, and costs associated with designing product packaging. Panel 3 will...

  6. 76 FR 61284 - Accountability Measures and Reduced Season for the South Atlantic Recreational Sector of Golden...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 [Docket No. 0907271173-0629-03] RIN 0648-XA701 Accountability Measures and Reduced Season for the South Atlantic.... SUMMARY: NMFS implements accountability measures (AMs) for the recreational sector of golden tilefish in...

  7. 76 FR 11163 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... certainty for businesses and the public. Agencies consider lower-cost approaches that reduce burdens and... rule, including its costs and benefits, comes from practical, real-world experience (both on the part..., expanded, or repealed, as well as suggest specific alternative means for the Department to better achieve...

  8. 78 FR 13221 - Reduced 2009 Estimated Income Tax Payments for Individuals With Small Business Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... 2009 Estimated Income Tax Payments for Individuals With Small Business Income AGENCY: Internal Revenue... reduced estimated income tax payments for qualified individuals with small business income for any taxable... of 2009. The final regulations provide guidance for qualified individuals with small business income...

  9. 75 FR 9141 - Reduced 2009 Estimated Income Tax Payments for Individuals With Small Business Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... Reduced 2009 Estimated Income Tax Payments for Individuals With Small Business Income AGENCY: Internal... issuing temporary regulations that provide guidance as to qualified individuals with small business income who certify that they satisfy the gross income requirement for purposes of claiming a reduction in...

  10. 76 FR 13526 - Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under Executive Order 13563

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... participate using an existing social media account such as Facebook or Twitter. For further information, see..., and harmonize regulations to reduce costs and promote certainty for businesses and the public... your Facebook page (log-in required for IdeaScale, as well as an active Facebook and/or Twitter account...

  11. 76 FR 54408 - Human Subjects Research Protections: Enhancing Protections for Research Subjects and Reducing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 50 and 56 Human Subjects Research Protections: Enhancing Protections for Research Subjects and Reducing Burden, Delay, and Ambiguity for Investigators; Extension of... Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in coordination with the Office of Science...

  12. 76 FR 52888 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; American Samoa Longline Gear Modifications To Reduce Turtle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... Modifications To Reduce Turtle Interactions AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... Pacific Region (Pelagics FEP), including an environmental assessment, that presents background information on this rule. The Pelagics FEP and Amendment 5 are available from the Council, 1164 Bishop St., Suite...

  13. Development and demonstration of surveillance and diagnostics of rotating machinery for reducing radiation exposure to nuclear power plant personnel: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.W.; Bohanick, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    This program was designed to reduce radiation exposure to power plant personnel resulting from inspection, maintenance, and repair of rotating equipment. The new rotating machinery monitoring system for this program was installed at GGNS during August 1983. This document provides a functional description of the hardware and software that comprise the system and discusses the application of the monitoring system to achieving overall program goals. The analyses of the monitored rotating machinery during the plant startup phase and after the plant's first fuel cycle are presented in addition to the radiation dose reduction which occurred as a direct and indirect result of the RMSS. The dose reduction program at GGNS is reviewed and recommendations made to incorporate this program with the RMSS. 28 refs., 64 figs., 43 tabs

  14. Ambient ultraviolet radiation in the Arctic reduces root biomass and alters microbial community composition but has no effects on microbial biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnan, R.; Keinänen, M.M.; Kasurinen, A.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the effects of ambient solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation on below-ground parameters in an arctic heath in north-eastern Greenland. We hypothesized that the current UV fluxes would reduce root biomass and mycorrhizal colonization and that these changes would lead to lower soil microbial...... biomass and altered microbial community composition. These hypotheses were tested on cored soil samples from a UV reduction experiment with three filter treatments (Mylar, 60% UV-B reduction; Lexan, up to 90% UV-B reduction+UV-A reduction; UV transparent Teflon, filter control) and an open control...... treatment in two study sites after 3 years' manipulation. Reduction of both UV-A and UV-B radiation caused over 30% increase in the root biomass of Vaccinium uliginosum, which was the dominant plant species. UV reduction had contrasting effects on ericoid mycorrhizal colonization of V. uliginosum roots...

  15. 78 FR 23563 - FCC Reduces Backlog of Broadcast Indecency Complaints by 70% (More Than One Million Complaints...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... Electronic Document Management System (EDOCS) at http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/ . Alternative formats... may be filed using the Commission's Electronic Comment Filing System (ECFS). See Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (1998). [ssquf] Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed...

  16. 76 FR 66849 - Applying for Free and Reduced Price Meals in the National School Lunch Program and School...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... (72 FR 63785). All memoranda are located on the FNS Web site at http://www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/ , click... understandable communication with families by providing LEAs with prototype application materials on our Web site.... FNS also provides translations of the prototype application materials on our Web site in 33 languages...

  17. Interactive effects of UV radiation and reduced precipitation on the seasonal leaf phenolic content/composition and the antioxidant activity of naturally growing Arbutus unedo plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadis, Nikolaos; Llorens, Laura; Koufogianni, Agathi; Díaz, Laura; Font, Joan; Gonzalez, Josep Abel; Verdaguer, Dolors

    2015-12-01

    The effects of UV radiation and rainfall reduction on the seasonal leaf phenolic content/composition and antioxidant activity of the Mediterranean shrub Arbutus unedo were studied. Naturally growing plants of A. unedo were submitted to 97% UV-B reduction (UVA), 95% UV-A+UV-B reduction (UV0) or near-ambient UV levels (UVBA) under two precipitation regimes (natural rainfall or 10-30% rainfall reduction). Total phenol, flavonol and flavanol contents, levels of eight phenols and antioxidant activity [DPPH(●) radical scavenging and Cu (II) reducing capacity] were measured in sun-exposed leaves at the end of four consecutive seasons. Results showed a significant seasonal variation in the leaf content of phenols of A. unedo, with the lowest values found in spring and the highest in autumn and/or winter. Leaf ontogenetic development and/or a possible effect of low temperatures in autumn/winter may account for such findings. Regardless of the watering regime and the sampling date, plant exposure to UV-B radiation decreased the total flavanol content of leaves, while it increased the leaf content in quercitrin (the most abundant quercetin derivative identified). By contrast, UV-A radiation increased the leaf content of theogallin, a gallic acid derivative. Other phenolic compounds (two quercetin derivatives, one of them being avicularin, and one kaempferol derivative, juglanin), as well as the antioxidant activity of the leaves, showed different responses to UV radiation depending on the precipitation regime. Surprisingly, reduced rainfall significantly decreased the total amount of quantified quercetin derivatives as well as the DPPH scavenging activity in A. unedo leaves. To conclude, present findings indicate that leaves of A. unedo can be a good source of antioxidants throughout the year, but especially in autumn and winter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy of Synbiotics to Reduce Acute Radiation Proctitis Symptoms and Improve Quality of Life: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Mariana; Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo; Caporossi, Cervantes; Castro-Barcellos, Heloisa Michelon; Motta, Rodrigo Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether the daily intake of synbiotics interferes in radiation-induced acute proctitis symptoms and in quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients who underwent 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer were randomized to intake either a synbiotic powder containing Lactobacillus reuteri 10 8  colony-forming units and 4.3 g of soluble fiber (Nestlé) or placebo. The questionnaire EORTC QLQ-PRT23 was applied before the beginning of radiation therapy and in every week for the first 4 weeks of treatment. The sum of both the complete (proctitis symptoms plus quality of life) and partial (proctitis symptoms) scores of the EORTC QLQ-PRT23 (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Module for Proctitis–23 items) questionnaire were the main endpoints. Results: This pilot study showed that the complete questionnaire score (median [range]) was higher in the second (23 [21-30] vs 26.5 [22-34], P<.05) and third (23 [21-32] vs 27.5 [24-33], P<.01) weeks in the placebo group. Proctitis symptoms were highest scored in the placebo group in both the second (19.5 [16-25]) and third (19 [17-24]) weeks than in the synbiotic group (week 2: 16.5 [15-20], P<.05; week 3: 17 [15-23], P<.01). In both scores the placebo group had a significantly higher result (P<.01) than the synbiotic group (repeated-measures analysis of variance). Conclusions: Synbiotics reduce proctitis symptoms and improve quality of life in radiation-induced acute proctitis during radiation therapy for prostate cancer

  19. Efficacy of Synbiotics to Reduce Acute Radiation Proctitis Symptoms and Improve Quality of Life: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Mariana, E-mail: mari1980hemato@yahoo.com.br [Department of Medicine, University Center of Varzea Grande (UNIVAG), Varzea Grande, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo [Department of Medicine, University Center of Varzea Grande (UNIVAG), Varzea Grande, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Caporossi, Cervantes; Castro-Barcellos, Heloisa Michelon; Motta, Rodrigo Teixeira [Department of Medicine, Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiabá, Mato Grosso (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether the daily intake of synbiotics interferes in radiation-induced acute proctitis symptoms and in quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients who underwent 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer were randomized to intake either a synbiotic powder containing Lactobacillus reuteri 10{sup 8} colony-forming units and 4.3 g of soluble fiber (Nestlé) or placebo. The questionnaire EORTC QLQ-PRT23 was applied before the beginning of radiation therapy and in every week for the first 4 weeks of treatment. The sum of both the complete (proctitis symptoms plus quality of life) and partial (proctitis symptoms) scores of the EORTC QLQ-PRT23 (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Module for Proctitis–23 items) questionnaire were the main endpoints. Results: This pilot study showed that the complete questionnaire score (median [range]) was higher in the second (23 [21-30] vs 26.5 [22-34], P<.05) and third (23 [21-32] vs 27.5 [24-33], P<.01) weeks in the placebo group. Proctitis symptoms were highest scored in the placebo group in both the second (19.5 [16-25]) and third (19 [17-24]) weeks than in the synbiotic group (week 2: 16.5 [15-20], P<.05; week 3: 17 [15-23], P<.01). In both scores the placebo group had a significantly higher result (P<.01) than the synbiotic group (repeated-measures analysis of variance). Conclusions: Synbiotics reduce proctitis symptoms and improve quality of life in radiation-induced acute proctitis during radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

  20. 77 FR 62267 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Gamma Radiation Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... debilitating occupational diseases. Natural sources include rocks, soils, and ground water. Gamma radiation..., electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology...

  1. Selective brain lesions reduce morphine- and radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity of the C57BL/6J mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickley, G.A.; Stevens, K.E.; White, G.A.; Gibbs, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    The apparent resemblance between the stereotypic locomotor hyperactivity observed after either an injection of morphine or irradiation of the C57BL/6J mouse has suggested the possibility of similar biochemical and neuroanatomical substrates of these behaviors. In this study the authors made selective brain lesions in an attempt to reverse the locomotor response observed after morphine (30 mg/kg) or radiation (1500 rads /sup 60/Co) treatments. Lesions impinging on both the dorso-medial caudate and lateral septal nuclei caused a significant decrease in morphine-induced and radiogenic locomotion. Lesions of the individual brain areas did not significantly alter the opiate locomotor response. This reduction in locomotion could not be attributed to a generalized post-surgical lethargy since other brain lesions of similar size did not significantly suppress these behaviors. These data suggest the possibility of some common central nervous system mechanisms which may support the stereotypic locomotor hyperactivity observed in the C57BL/6J mouse after either morphine or radiation treatment

  2. Reduced repair of potentially lethal radiation damage in glutathione synthetase-deficient human fibroblasts after X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midander, J.; Revesz, L.; Deschavanne, P.J.; Debieu, D.; Malaise, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    Using a human fibroblast strain deficient in glutathione synthetase and a related proficient control strain, the role of glutathione (GSH) in repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) has been investigated in determining survival by plating cells immediately or 24 h after irradiation. After oxic or hypoxic irradiation, both cell strains repair radiation-induced damage. However, under hypoxic conditions, the proficient cells repair PLD as well as under oxic conditions while the deficient cells repair less PLD after irradiation under hypoxic than under oxic conditions. Therefore, the oxygen enhancement ratio (o.e.r.) for proficient cells is similar whether the cells are plated immediately or 24 h later (2.0 and 2.13, respectively). In contrast, the o.e.r. for deficient cells is lower when the cells are plated 24 h after irradiation than when they are plated immediately thereafter (1.16 as compared to 1.55). The results indicate that GSH is involved in PLD repair and, in particular, in the repair of damage induced by radiation delivered under hypoxic conditions. (author)

  3. Reducing the radiation dose to the eye lens region during CT brain examination: the potential beneficial effect of the combined use of bolus and a bismuth shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, C.W.K.; Chan, T.P.; Cheung, H.Y.; Wong, T.H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Computed Tomography (CT) is the leading contributor to medical exposure to ionizing radiation. Although the use of CT brain scans for patients with head injuries and convulsions has shown a tremendous growth, it has raised substantial concerns in the general public because of the risk of radiation-induced cataracts: the current available strategies to reduce the radiation dose to the eye lens region are limited. Therefore, the present research project was initiated with the aim of evaluating the potential benefit of the combined use of bolus and a bismuth shield on reducing the radiation dose to the eye lens region during CT brain examination. Materials and methods: We conducted a series of phantom studies to measure the entrance surface dose (ESD) that is delivered to the eye lens region during CT brain examination under the effect of different scanning and shielding setups. Results: Our results indicated, during CT brain examination: (1) a drastic reduction of 92.5% in the ESD to the eye lens region was found when the CT gantry was tilted from 0 deg. (overall ESD = 30.7 mGy) to 30 deg. cranially (overall ESD = 2.4 mGy), and (2) when the CT gantry was positioned at 0 deg. (the common practice in the clinical setting), the setups with the application of a) a bismuth shield, b) a bismuth shield with a face shield (air gap), c) a bismuth shield with bolus, and d) a bismuth shield with bolus and an air gap can result in an acceptable level of image quality with a smaller overall ESD delivered to the eye lens region (overall ESD = 23.2 mGy, 24 mGy, 21 mGy and 19.9 mGy, respectively) than the setup without the bismuth shield applied (overall ESD = 30.7 mGy). Conclusion: When the primary beam scanning through the eye lens region is unavoidable during CT brain examination, the combined use of a bismuth shield with bolus and a face shield is an easy-to-use and inexpensive shielding setup to reduce the radiation dose delivered to the eye lens region while

  4. Do Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Reduce the Risk of Symptomatic Radiation Pneumonitis in Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer After Definitive Radiation Therapy? Analysis of a Single-Institution Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongmei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, P.R. of China (China); Liao, Zhongxing, E-mail: zliao@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhuang, Yan; Xu, Ting; Nguyen, Quynh-Nhu; Levy, Lawrence B.; O' Reilly, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gold, Kathryn A. [Department of Thoracic Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gomez, Daniel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Preclinical studies have suggested that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) can mitigate radiation-induced lung injury. We sought here to investigate possible associations between ACEI use and the risk of symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP) among patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients who received definitive radiation therapy for stages I to III NSCLC between 2004 and 2010 at a single tertiary cancer center. Patients must have received a radiation dose of at least 60 Gy for a single primary lung tumor and have had imaging and dosimetric data available for analysis. RP was quantified according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess potential associations between ACEI use and risk of symptomatic RP. Results: Of 413 patients analyzed, 65 were using ACEIs during RT. In univariate analysis, the rate of RP grade ≥2 seemed lower in ACEI users than in nonusers (34% vs 46%), but this apparent difference was not statistically significant (P=.06). In multivariate analysis of all patients, ACEI use was not associated with the risk of symptomatic RP (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.66; P=.07) after adjustment for sex, smoking status, mean lung dose (MLD), and concurrent carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy. Subgroup analysis showed that ACEI use did have a protective effect from RP grade ≥2 among patients who received a low (≤20-Gy) MLD (P<.01) or were male (P=.04). Conclusions: A trend toward reduction in symptomatic RP among patients taking ACEIs during RT for NSCLC was not statistically significant on univariate or multivariate analyses, although certain subgroups may benefit from use (ie, male patients and those receiving low MLD). The evidence at this point is insufficient to establish whether the use of ACEIs does or does not reduce the risk of RP.

  5. 78 FR 21120 - Notice of Public Meeting of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration; and the Department of Health and Human Services. Observer... Pennsylvania. ISCORS objectives are: (1) To facilitate a consensus on allowable levels of radiation risk to the... meetings include presentations by the chairs of the subcommittees and discussions of current radiation...

  6. 76 FR 38182 - Subcommittee for Dose Reconstruction Reviews (SDRR), Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Pass Code 9933701. Background: The Advisory Board was established under the Energy Employees... whether there is a class of employees at any Department of Energy facility who were exposed to radiation... Subcommittee meeting includes: Selection of individual radiation dose reconstruction cases to be considered for...

  7. 75 FR 21338 - Subcommittee for Dose Reconstruction Reviews (SDRR), Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... period. Background: The Advisory Board was established under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness... employees at any Department of Energy facility who were exposed to radiation but for whom it is not feasible...: selection of individual radiation dose reconstruction cases to be considered for review by the Advisory...

  8. Current-horn suppression for reduced coherent-synchrotron-radiation-induced emittance growth in strong bunch compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Charles

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Control of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR-induced emittance growth is essential in linear accelerators designed to deliver very high brightness electron beams. Extreme current values at the head and tail of the electron bunch, resulting from strong bunch compression, are responsible for large CSR production leading to significant transverse projected emittance growth. The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS truncates the head and tail current spikes which greatly improves free electron laser (FEL performance. Here we consider the underlying dynamics that lead to formation of current spikes (also referred to as current horns, which has been identified as caustics forming in electron trajectories. We present a method to analytically determine conditions required to avoid the caustic formation and therefore prevent the current spikes from forming. These required conditions can be easily met, without increasing the transverse slice emittance, through inclusion of an octupole magnet in the middle of a bunch compressor.

  9. Biology of ionizing radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferradini, C.; Pucheault, J.

    1983-01-01

    The present trends in biology of ionizing radiation are reviewed. The following topics are investigated: interaction of ionizing radiations with matter; the radiolysis of water and aqueous solutions; properties of the free radicals intervening in the couples O 2 /H 2 O and H 2 O/H 2 ; radiation chemistry of biological compounds; biological effects of ionizing radiations; biochemical mechanisms involving free radicals as intermediates; applications (biotechnological applications, origins of life) [fr

  10. Radiation Safety (Qualifications) Regulations 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    These Regulations, promulgated pursuant to the provisions of the Radiation Safety Act, 1975-1979, require persons engaged in activities involving radiation to pass a radiation safety examination or to possess an approved qualification in radiation. The National Health and Medical Research Council is authorised to exempt persons from compliance with these requirements or, conversely, to impose such requirements on persons other than those designated. (NEA) [fr

  11. Chemical chaperones reduce ionizing radiation-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and cell death in IEC-6 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Sang; Lee, Hae-June; Lee, Yoon-Jin [Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jae-Hoon [Division of Radiotherapy, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Seongman [Division of Life Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Young-Bin, E-mail: yblim@kirams.re.kr [Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • UPR activation precedes caspase activation in irradiated IEC-6 cells. • Chemical ER stress inducers radiosensitize IEC-6 cells. • siRNAs that targeted ER stress responses ameliorate IR-induced cell death. • Chemical chaperons prevent cell death in irradiated IEC-6 cells. - Abstract: Radiotherapy, which is one of the most effective approaches to the treatment of various cancers, plays an important role in malignant cell eradication in the pelvic area and abdomen. However, it also generates some degree of intestinal injury. Apoptosis in the intestinal epithelium is the primary pathological factor that initiates radiation-induced intestinal injury, but the mechanism by which ionizing radiation (IR) induces apoptosis in the intestinal epithelium is not clearly understood. Recently, IR has been shown to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, thereby activating the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway in intestinal epithelial cells. However, the consequences of the IR-induced activation of the UPR signaling pathway on radiosensitivity in intestinal epithelial cells remain to be determined. In this study, we investigated the role of ER stress responses in IR-induced intestinal epithelial cell death. We show that chemical ER stress inducers, such as tunicamycin or thapsigargin, enhanced IR-induced caspase 3 activation and DNA fragmentation in intestinal epithelial cells. Knockdown of Xbp1 or Atf6 with small interfering RNA inhibited IR-induced caspase 3 activation. Treatment with chemical chaperones prevented ER stress and subsequent apoptosis in IR-exposed intestinal epithelial cells. Our results suggest a pro-apoptotic role of ER stress in IR-exposed intestinal epithelial cells. Furthermore, inhibiting ER stress may be an effective strategy to prevent IR-induced intestinal injury.

  12. Reducing the uncertainty in background marine aerosol radiative properties using CAM5 model results and CALIPSO-retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskhidze, N.; Gantt, B.; Dawson, K.; Johnson, M. S.; Gasso, S.

    2012-12-01

    Abundance of natural aerosols in the atmosphere strongly affects global aerosol optical depth (AOD) and influences clouds and the hydrological cycle through its ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Because the anthropogenic contribution to climate forcing represents the difference between the total forcing and that from natural aerosols, understanding background aerosols is necessary to evaluate the influences of anthropogenic aerosols on cloud reflectivity and persistence (so-called indirect radiative forcing). The effects of marine aerosols are explored using remotely sensed data obtained by Cloud-aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) and the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5.0), coupled with the PNNL Modal Aerosol Model. CALIPSO-provided high resolution vertical profile information about different aerosol subtypes (defined as clean continental, marine, desert dust, polluted continental, polluted dust, and biomass burning), particulate depolarization ratio (or particle non-sphericity), reported aerosol color ratio (the ratio of aerosol backscatter at the two wavelengths) and lidar ratios over different parts of the oceans are compared to model-simulations to help evaluate the contribution of biogenic aerosol to CCN budget in the marine boundary layer. Model-simulations show that over biologically productive ocean waters primary organic aerosols of marine origin can contribute up to a 20% increase in CCN (at a supersaturation of 0.2%) number concentrations. Corresponding changes associated with cloud properties (liquid water path and droplet number) can decrease global annual mean indirect radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosol (less cooling) by ~0.1 Wm-2 (7%). This study suggests ignoring the complex chemical composition and size distribution of sea spray particles could result in considerable uncertainties in predicted anthropogenic aerosol indirect effect.

  13. Combination of ray-tracing and the method of moments for electromagnetic radiation analysis using reduced meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Carlos; Cátedra, Manuel Felipe

    2018-05-01

    This work presents a technique that allows a very noticeable relaxation of the computational requirements for full-wave electromagnetic simulations based on the Method of Moments. A ray-tracing analysis of the geometry is performed in order to extract the critical points with significant contributions. These points are then used to generate a reduced mesh, considering the regions of the geometry that surround each critical point and taking into account the electrical path followed from the source. The electromagnetic analysis of the reduced mesh produces very accurate results, requiring a fraction of the resources that the conventional analysis would utilize.

  14. An economic evaluation of the use of rare-earth screens to reduce the radiation dose from diagnostic x-ray procedures in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, G.M.; Schlesinger, T.; Ben-Shlomo, A.

    1996-01-01

    In contrasts, reducing the patient dose by using improved radiology equipment will often result in a constant reduction without further managerial effort for the lifetime of the equipment. Changing equipment is administratively far easier than altering long-established work practices. There are several methods available to achieve dose reduction in diagnostic radiology via this second category. For example, dose reductions of between 10% and 20% can be achieved independently by reducing attenuation between patient and image receptor to a minimum by means of carbon fiber components in couch tops, cassette fronts and anti-scatter grids [13-15]. Radiation dosage in film radiography can be reduced by approximately 50% by the use of rare- earth screens, which enable a faster film speed to be utilized (thus reducing exposure time) without significant loss in the diagnostic quality of the image. Rare-earth screens have been found in England to be the most cost-effective method of reducing dosage in film radiography, providing large dose reductions at considerably lower costs than carbon fiber components (authors)

  15. An economic evaluation of the use of rare-earth screens to reduce the radiation dose from diagnostic x-ray procedures in Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, G M [Ministry of Health, Tel Aviv (Israel); Schlesinger, T; Ben-Shlomo, A [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne (Israel). Soreq Nuclear Research Center

    1996-12-01

    In contrasts, reducing the patient dose by using improved radiology equipment will often result in a constant reduction without further managerial effort for the lifetime of the equipment. Changing equipment is administratively far easier than altering long-established work practices. There are several methods available to achieve dose reduction in diagnostic radiology via this second category. For example, dose reductions of between 10% and 20% can be achieved independently by reducing attenuation between patient and image receptor to a minimum by means of carbon fiber components in couch tops, cassette fronts and anti-scatter grids [13-15]. Radiation dosage in film radiography can be reduced by approximately 50% by the use of rare- earth screens, which enable a faster film speed to be utilized (thus reducing exposure time) without significant loss in the diagnostic quality of the image. Rare-earth screens have been found in England to be the most cost-effective method of reducing dosage in film radiography, providing large dose reductions at considerably lower costs than carbon fiber components (authors).

  16. Functional inhibition of Ubiquitin conjugating Enzyme (UBE2C) reduces proliferation and sensitizes cervical and breast cancer cells to radiation, doxorubicin, tamoxifen and letrozole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Mayil Vahanan; Rawat, Akhilesh; Gopisetty, Gopal; Thangarajan, Rajkumar; Ganesharaja, Selvaluxmy

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women, worldwide. About 80% of cervical cancer cases occur in developing countries. Breast cancer has overtaken cervical cancer in most of the urban centers in India. In recent years, interest in the role of Ubiquitin conjugating Enzyme E2C (UBE2C) in cancer has shown a dramatic increase. Several studies have reported UBE2C as a potential oncogene and therapeutic target. The objective of the study was to elucidate radiation and chemo-sensitivity in response to functional inhibition of UBE2C in cervical and breast cancer cell lines. Taqman Real time PCR was performed to measure UBE2C levels in cervical and breast cancer cell lines. A dominant negative form of UBE2C (DN-UBE2C) was used to functionally inhibit wild type UBE2C. Cell proliferation and anchorage independent growth were measured by colorimetric assay and soft agar assay respectively. Radiation and chemo response of cell lines were assessed by colorimetric assay and clonogenic assay. Difference in sensitivity to radiation was observed among the cervical cancer cell lines studied. The growth rate of SiHa and HeLa transfected with DN- UBE2C was significantly reduced compared to vector control. Further, DN-UBE2C mediated radio-sensitivity was correlated with a significant decrease in resistance to radiation by SiHa and HeLa cells after transfection when compared to control cultures. Similarly, both the growth rate and the anchorage independent growth of MCF7 and MDAMB231 cells transfected with DN-UBE2C were significantly reduced compared to cells transfected with vector alone. MCF7 and MDAMB231 cells expressing DN-UBE2C were significantly more sensitive to different doses of radiation and doxorubicin compared to controls. In addition, DN-UBE2C transfected MCF7 cells were more sensitive to inhibition by tamoxifen and letrozole compared to vector controls. These results suggest that UBE2C can be used as a potential therapeutic target for cervical and breast

  17. Results and prospects of personnel protection against radiation in a low and medium level waste storage center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidhauer, J.; Lasseur, C.

    1982-01-01

    The national low- and intermediate-level waste storage center (CM) located near the Channel is presented, together with its history, the various regulations governing it and their incidence on its operation. A description is given of the radiation sources and workplaces to be found in this kind of waste storage center. The radiation protection problems associated with the respective workplaces are analysed: organization, prevention, collective and individual protection, dosimetry. Occupational radiation exposures from 1970 to 1980 are presented. The various means of reducing operating workers' exposures are discussed, especially the incidence of transportation [fr

  18. Synergistic effects of sodium hypochlorite and ultraviolet radiation in reducing the levels of selected foodborne pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ji-Hyoung; Ha, Sang-Do

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether combined treatment would produce synergistic effects to facilitate the sterilization of food products during production relative to single treatment. To assess this hypothesis, we investigated the bactericidal effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and a commercial chemical disinfectant, sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), on Bacillus cereus F4810/72, Cronobacter sakazakii KCTC 2949, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 35556, Escherichia coli ATCC 10536, and Salmonella Typhimurium novobiocin/nalidixic acid in vitro. Various concentrations of NaClO (20, 60, 100, and 200 ppm NaClO) were tested along with exposure to UV radiation at various doses (6, 96, 216, 360, and 504 mW s/cm(2)). The combined NaClO/UV treatments resulted in greater reductions in bacterial counts than either treatment alone. The synergy values against B. cereus, C. sakazakii, S. aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and E. coli were 0.25-1.17, 0.33-1.97, 0.42-1.72, 0.02-1.44, and 0.01-0.85 log(10) CFU/mL, respectively. The results of this study suggest that a significant synergistic benefit results from combined NaClO/UV processing against food-borne pathogenic bacteria in vitro.

  19. Ultraviolet Type B-Radiation-Induced Hyperplasia and Seborrheic Keratosis is Reduced by Application of Commercial Sunscreens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad K Saeed1*, Snur MA Hassan1 and Nali A Maaruf2

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-six mice were classified into four groups; Group A (control group, n=8, Group B (exposure group, n=16, Group C (n=16 treated with sunscreen 15 minutes before UVB irradiations and group D (n=16 sunscreen treated 60 minutes before UVB exposure. Mice were irradiated 30 minutes 5days/week (12 weeks, and group C-D treated five days/week (12 weeks. Skin samples were taken in the mid and end of the experiment. The result of this study revealed that, epidermal thickness in group A was 7.155µm. At the mid-period of the experiment, severe epidermal hyperplasia was observed in group B with epidermal thickness 118.712µm, while in group C and D mild to moderate epidermal hyperplasia were noted with decreasing epidermal thickness to 64.154 and 90.042µm respectively. At the end of the experiment in Group B epidermal thickness reached to 281.35µm with seborrheic keratosis development, whereas in group C and D totally inhibited the development of seborrheic keratosis and epidermal thickness decreased again into 42.347 and 55.915µm. In conclusion, chronic UVB radiation-led to epidermal hyperplasia and seborrheic keratosis, sunscreen prevented the development of seborrheic keratosis and decreased the UVB-induced epidermal hyperplasia.

  20. Influence of Gamma Radiation on the Treatment of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria in the Injection Water Used for the Enhanced Oil Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shahawy, M.R.; Ramzi, M.; Farag, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The counts of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in the water samples collected from the well head (formation water) and outlet of petroleum treatment plant (Produced water) in a petroleum field in middle delta- Egypt were determined. The data showed a low count of (SRB) in the collected formation water sample and there was an obvious increase in the bacterial counts which appeared in the produced water, that may reveal that the presence of appropriate conditions for the growth of (SRB) in the closed system in treatment plant. Two scale inhibitors were tested through jar test, the scale inhibitor I had maximum efficiency at 20 ppm, two SRB biocides were screened for their bactericidal activities. It was found that the biocides A was slightly superior in respect to the antibacterial efficacy compared to B in presence of 20 ppm scale inhibitor. These biocides were test for the study of the combined treatment with gamma radiation to maximize the efficiency on sulfate reducing bacteria using the minimum effective dose of both radiation and biocides to eliminate the negative impacts of the chemicals used and the radiation applied. The results demonstrated that, the lethal doses of biocides were (300 ppm) of biocides A or (400 ppm) of biocides B at 1 kGy irradiation dose. The treated produced water was evaluated in respect of enhanced oil recovery, the data showed increase of the recovery capacity by the irradiation and chemical treatment. This technology could be used for the water that are injected into reservoirs, and suitable for oil field and pipeline operators, and presented a viable bacteria control method

  1. Can low-dose CT with iterative reconstruction reduce both the radiation dose and the amount of iodine contrast medium in a dynamic CT study of the liver?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hiroto; Okada, Masahiro; Hyodo, Tomoko; Hidaka, Syojiro; Kagawa, Yuki; Matsuki, Mitsuru; Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Murakami, Takamichi, E-mail: murakami@med.kindai.ac.jp

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether low-dose dynamic CT of the liver with iterative reconstruction can reduce both the radiation dose and the amount of contrast medium. Materials and methods: This study was approved by our institutional review board. 113 patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Group A/group B (fifty-eight/fifty-five patients) underwent liver dynamic CT at 120/100 kV, with 0/40% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), with a contrast dose of 600/480 mg I/kg, respectively. Radiation exposure was estimated based on the manufacturer's phantom data. The enhancement value of the hepatic parenchyma, vessels and the tumor-to-liver contrast of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) were compared between two groups. Two readers independently assessed the CT images of the hepatic parenchyma and HCCs. Results: The mean CT dose indices: 6.38/4.04 mGy, the dose-length products: 194.54/124.57 mGy cm, for group A/group B. The mean enhancement value of the hepatic parenchyma and the tumor-to-liver contrast of HCCs with diameters greater than 1 cm in the post-contrast all phases did not differ significantly between two groups (P > 0.05). The enhancement values of vessels in group B were significantly higher than that in group A in the delayed phases (P < 0.05). Two reader's confidence levels for the hepatic parenchyma in the delayed phases and HCCs did not differ significantly between the groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Low-dose dynamic CT with ASIR can reduce both the radiation dose and the amount of contrast medium without image quality degradation, compared to conventional dynamic CT without ASIR.

  2. Cancer Trials Ireland (ICORG) 06-34: A multi-centre clinical trial using three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy to reduce the toxicity of palliative radiation for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Ronan L; Armstrong, John G; Thirion, Pierre; Dunne, Mary; Finn, Marie; Small, Cormac; Byrne, Mary; O'Shea, Carmel; O'Sullivan, Lydia; Shannon, Aoife; Kelly, Emma; Hacking, Dayle J

    2018-05-01

    Cancer Trials Ireland (ICORG) 06-34: A multi-centre clinical trial using three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy to reduce the toxicity of palliative radiation for lung cancer. NCT01176487. Trials of radiation therapy for the palliation of intra-thoracic symptoms from locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have concentrated on optimising fractionation and dose schedules. In these trials, the rates of oesophagitis induced by this "palliative" therapy have been unacceptably high. In contrast, this non-randomised, single-arm trial was designed to assess if more technically advanced treatment techniques would result in equivalent symptom relief and reduce the side-effect of symptomatic oesophagitis. Thirty-five evaluable patients with symptomatic locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC were treated using a three-dimensional conformal technique (3-DCRT) and standardised dose regimens of 39 Gy in 13 fractions, 20 Gy in 5 fractions or 17 Gy in 2 fractions. Treatment plans sought to minimise oesophageal dose. Oesophagitis was recorded during treatment, at two weeks, one month and three months following radiation therapy and 3-6 monthly thereafter. Mean dose to the irradiated oesophagus was calculated for all treatment plans. Five patients (14%) had experienced grade 2 oesophagitis or dysphagia or both during treatment and 2 other patients had these side effects at the 2-week follow-up. At follow-up of one month after therapy, there was no grade two or higher oesophagitis or dysphagia reported. 22 patients were eligible for assessment of late toxicity. Five of these patients reported oesophagitis or dysphagia (one had grade 3 dysphagia, two had grade 2 oesophagitis, one of whom also had grade 2 dysphagia). Quality of Life (QoL) data at baseline and at 1-month follow up were available for 20 patients. At 1-month post radiation therapy, these patients had slightly less trouble taking a short walk, less shortness of breath, did not feel as weak, had

  3. Ionizing radiations: effects and sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignes, S.; Nenot, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Having first mentioned the effects of ionizing radiations in cancerogenisis, pre-natal, and genetic fields, the authors present the different sources of radiations and estimate their respective contributions to the total irradiation dose. Their paper makes reference to the main elements of a report issued by the United Nations Scientific Committee in 1977 [fr

  4. Radiation processing of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Lebe, L.; Raffi, J.

    1983-06-01

    The ionizing radiations available for food processing are defined, their mode of action and principal effects are described. Toxicological studies (animal tests, radiochemistry) concerning irradiated food are reviewed. The characteristics of the irradiation procedure and the prospects of its industrial development in France are presented [fr

  5. Degradation of Transformer Oil (PCB Compounds by Microwave Radiation, Ethanol Solvent, Hydrogen Peroxide and Dioxide Titanium for Reducing Environmental Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tajik

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poly chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a class of chlorinated organic chemicals that do not easily degrade in the environment. This study was conducted to determine the effect of microwave rays, hydrogen peroxide, dioxide titanium and ethanol solvent on the degradation of PCBs. Methods: A 900w domestic MW oven with a fixed frequency of 2450 MHZ was used to provide MW irradiation. Ray powers were used in 540, 720, and 900w. A hole was made on the top portion of the oven and a Pyrex vessel reactor (250ml volume was connected to condensing system with a Pyrex tube connector. The PCBs were analyzed by GC-ECD. Results: The degradation of total PCBs was 54.62%, 79.71%, and 95.76% in terms of their ratio to solvent with transformer oil at 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1, respectively. The degradation of total PCBs was 84.27%, 89.18%, and 96.1% when using 540, 720, and 900W microwave radiation, respectively. The degradation of total PCBs was 70.72%, 93.02%, 94.16, 95.23% and 96.1% when not using H2O2/ Tio2 and using 20% H2O2 and 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2g Tio2, respectively. Conclusion: In the present study, the optimum conditions to decompose PCBs efficiently included 50 ml volume of ratio to solvent with transformer oil (3:1, sodium hydroxide solution (0.2N 1 cc, use of 20% hydrogen peroxide of total volume of samples, dioxide titanium (0.2g, and irradiation for 9 minutes. Under these optimum conditions, efficiency of PCBs decomposition increased.

  6. Reducing plant radiation fields by source term reduction - tracking cobalt and antimony to their sources at Gentilly-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, P.; Guzonas, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    Gentilly-2 NGS is experiencing high radiation fields in the fuelling machine vaults. These high fields make maintenance outages more expensive and their management more complicated. As part of the station refurbishment project, a task group was created to identify the cause of the high fields and make recommendations to prevent their reoccurrence in the second (post-refurbishment) operating cycle. To identify the root cause of the problem, the task group decided to analyse the primary heat transport system (PHTS), the fuel handling system and their inter-relation. Gentilly-2 has had to manage a unique (to CANDU) problem arising from antimony released from the main heat transport pump seals. Antimony deposits on in-core surfaces, becomes activated, and subsequently can be released, especially under oxidizing coolant conditions. It then becomes incorporated into the magnetite deposits on PHTS piping, including the steam generators and inlet feeders. Gentilly-2 has focused a great deal of effort on managing antimony over the last 15 years. As a result of these initiatives, radioantimony fields have been quite effectively managed since 1997, resulting in a decrease in their relative contribution to the total fields. The decrease in radioantimony fields highlighted the significant contribution of 60 Co cobalt activity; the high levels of both radioantimony and 60 Co differentiate Gentilly-2 from other CANDU 6 plants. Two types of 59 Co sources are present in the CANDU PHTS. High surface area materials such as steam generator tubes and feeder pipes contain trace concentrations of 59 Co as an impurity, which can be released by corrosion. Low surface area materials such as Stellites contain high concentrations of 59 Co that can be released as either corrosion or wear products. After assessing potential cobalt sources, the task group concluded that PHTS materials were not likely the origin of the high 60 Co fields. The major PHTS components identified as cobalt sources have

  7. SU-E-T-21: A Novel Sampling Algorithm to Reduce Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Optimization Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, P; Xie, Y; Chen, Y; Deasy, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The IMRT optimization problem requires substantial computer time to find optimal dose distributions because of the large number of variables and constraints. Voxel sampling reduces the number of constraints and accelerates the optimization process, but usually deteriorates the quality of the dose distributions to the organs. We propose a novel sampling algorithm that accelerates the IMRT optimization process without significantly deteriorating the quality of the dose distribution. Methods: We included all boundary voxels, as well as a sampled fraction of interior voxels of organs in the optimization. We selected a fraction of interior voxels using a clustering algorithm, that creates clusters of voxels that have similar influence matrix signatures. A few voxels are selected from each cluster based on the pre-set sampling rate. Results: We ran sampling and no-sampling IMRT plans for de-identified head and neck treatment plans. Testing with the different sampling rates, we found that including 10% of inner voxels produced the good dose distributions. For this optimal sampling rate, the algorithm accelerated IMRT optimization by a factor of 2–3 times with a negligible loss of accuracy that was, on average, 0.3% for common dosimetric planning criteria. Conclusion: We demonstrated that a sampling could be developed that reduces optimization time by more than a factor of 2, without significantly degrading the dose quality

  8. Industrial applications of radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallien, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation processing refers to the use of ionizing radiation to initiate chemical or biological changes in various materials as a substitute for conventional thermal or chemical processes. The method was inroduced in the industrial field 30 years ago and is now being widely used for numerous applications, among which industrial radiography, polymer modification, sterilization or decontamination, and food preservation. Both electron beam accelerators and gamma sources can be used, depending mainly of the amount of radiation and the penetration required. Radiation processing presents an increasing economical importance; in 1986 the market volume of ionized products ranged 3 billion $ [fr

  9. Better flocculants by radiation induced polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laizier, J.; Gaussens, G.

    1978-01-01

    The use of radiation induced polymerization should theoritically allow to prepare better flocculants. The testings of several products prepared by such a process shows that better properties are indeed obtained: better efficiencies, lower amounts needed, better overall properties [fr

  10. Proceedings of the colloquium on radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Radiolysis of organic compounds is examined in this colloquium, mainly by gamma radiation but also by muons or positons. Radicals produced, reactions kinetics, influence of solvents, temperature, pH etc... are studied in the different papers [fr

  11. Genetic effects of ionizing radiations in Eucaryocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jullien, Pierre

    1976-01-01

    The litterature on the genetic effects of ionizing radiations is reviewed, especially as concerns specific loci or chromosome mutations. Extrapolation from one species to another is considered as well as extra-nuclear mutations [fr

  12. One-step synthesis of Pt-reduced graphene oxide composites based on high-energy radiation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xuqiang; Jiang, Shubin; Huang, Wei; Song, Hongtao

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel 60 Co-ray-irradiation-based one-step synthesis method of Pt-reduced graphene oxide composites (Pt-RGO) in acid aqueous solution. The compositional distribution of the particles in the samples was characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The structure and composition of the nanocomposite has been determined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersion X-ray (EDS) analyzer. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of graphene deposited by the Pt nanoparticles were investigated with the 514.5 nm excitation. It was found that small-sized and highly-dispersed Pt nanoparticles could easily grow on the RGO surface under acidic conditions. In addition, the obtained homogeneous dispersions exhibit long-term stability, which will facilitate the production of homogeneous composites. (orig.)

  13. Head CT: Image quality improvement with ASIR-V using a reduced radiation dose protocol for children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Gi [Ajou University School of Medicine, Ajou University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho-Joon; Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Myung-Joon [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Ji [Ajou University School of Medicine, Office of Biostatistics, Department of Humanities and Social Medicine, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    To investigate the quality of images reconstructed with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction V (ASIR-V), using pediatric head CT protocols. A phantom was scanned at decreasing 20% mA intervals using our standard pediatric head CT protocols. Each study was then reconstructed at 10% ASIR-V intervals. After the phantom study, we reduced mA by 10% in the protocol for <3-year-old patients and applied 30% ASIR-V and by 30% in the protocol for 3- to 15-year-old patients and applied 40% ASIR-V. Increasing the percentage of ASIR-V resulted in lower noise and higher contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and preserved spatial resolution in the phantom study. Compared to a conventional-protocol, reduced-dose protocol with ASIR-V achieved 12.8% to 34.0% of dose reduction and showed images of lower noise (9.22 vs. 10.73, P = 0.043) and higher CNR in different levels (centrum semiovale, 2.14 vs. 1.52, P = 0.003; basal ganglia, 1.46 vs. 1.07, P = 0.001; and cerebellum, 2.18 vs. 1.33, P < 0.001). Qualitative analysis showed higher gray-white matter differentiation and sharpness and preserved overall diagnostic quality in the images with ASIR-V. Use of ASIR-V allowed a 12.8% to 34.0% dose reduction in each age group with potential to improve image quality. (orig.)

  14. Head CT: Image quality improvement with ASIR-V using a reduced radiation dose protocol for children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Gi; Lee, Ho-Joon; Lee, Seung-Koo; Kim, Myung-Joon; Kim, Hyun Ji

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the quality of images reconstructed with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction V (ASIR-V), using pediatric head CT protocols. A phantom was scanned at decreasing 20% mA intervals using our standard pediatric head CT protocols. Each study was then reconstructed at 10% ASIR-V intervals. After the phantom study, we reduced mA by 10% in the protocol for <3-year-old patients and applied 30% ASIR-V and by 30% in the protocol for 3- to 15-year-old patients and applied 40% ASIR-V. Increasing the percentage of ASIR-V resulted in lower noise and higher contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and preserved spatial resolution in the phantom study. Compared to a conventional-protocol, reduced-dose protocol with ASIR-V achieved 12.8% to 34.0% of dose reduction and showed images of lower noise (9.22 vs. 10.73, P = 0.043) and higher CNR in different levels (centrum semiovale, 2.14 vs. 1.52, P = 0.003; basal ganglia, 1.46 vs. 1.07, P = 0.001; and cerebellum, 2.18 vs. 1.33, P < 0.001). Qualitative analysis showed higher gray-white matter differentiation and sharpness and preserved overall diagnostic quality in the images with ASIR-V. Use of ASIR-V allowed a 12.8% to 34.0% dose reduction in each age group with potential to improve image quality. (orig.)

  15. Technical sheets of ionizing radiations. 2. Non-ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The biological effects of different non-ionizing radiations are studied: ultra-violet radiation, visible radiation, infrared radiation, micrometric waves, ultrasonics. In spite of their apparent diversity these radiations are similar in their physico-chemical effects, but in view of their widely varying production methods and types of application each type is considered separately. It is pointed out that no organization resembling the CIPR exists in the field of non-ionizing radiations, the result being a great disparity amongst the different legislations in force [fr

  16. Soluble TGF-β type II receptor gene therapy reduces TGF-β activity in irradiated lung tissue and protects lungs from radiation-induced injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujaskovic, Z.; Rabbani, Z.; Zhang, X.; Samulski, T.V.; Li, C.-Y.; Anscher, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The objective was to determine whether administration of recombinant human adenoviral vector carrying soluble TGF-β1 type II receptor (TβR-II) gene reduces availability of active TGFβ1 and protects lung from radiation-induced injury. Female Fisher-344 rats were randomized into four groups to receive: 1) Control 2) Adenoviral green fluorescent protein vector (AdGFP) alone 3) Radiation (RT) + Adenoviral vector with TGF-β1 type II receptor gene (AdexTβR-II-Fc) 4) RT alone. Animals were irradiated to right hemithorax using a single dose of 30 Gy. The packaging and production of a recombinant adenovirus carrying the fused human TβR-II-IgG1 Fc gene was achieved by use of the AdEasy system. The treatment vector AdexTbR-II-Fc (1.5*1010 PFU) and control vector AdGFP (1*109 PFU) were injected i.v. 24 hrs after RT. Respiratory rate was measured as an index of pulmonary function weekly for 5 weeks post RT. Structural damage was scored histologically. Immunohistochemistry was performed to identify activated macrophages. ELISA was used to quantify active TGF-β1 in tissue homogenate. Western blot was used to determine TβR-II expression in plasma and lung tissue. Animals receiving treatment vector AdexTbR-II-Fc have elevated plasma levels of soluble TβR-II at 24 and 48 hours after injection. In the RT+AdexTbR-II-Fc group, there was a significant reduction in respiratory rate (p = 0.002) at four weeks after treatment compared to RT alone group. Histology revealed a significant reduction in lung structural damage in animals receiving gene therapy after RT vs RT alone (p=0.0013). There was also a decrease in the number of activated macrophage (p= 0.02) in RT+AdexTbR-II-Fc group vs RT alone. The tissue protein expression of active TGF-β1 was significantly reduced in rats receiving RT+AdexTbR-II-Fc treatment (p<0.05). This study shows the ability of adenovirus mediated soluble TβR-II gene therapy to reduce tissue levels of active TGF-β1 and ameliorate radiation

  17. Linear Energy Transfer Painting With Proton Therapy: A Means of Reducing Radiation Doses With Equivalent Clinical Effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fager, Marcus; Toma-Dasu, Iuliana; Kirk, Maura; Dolney, Derek; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Vapiwala, Neha; Carabe, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to propose a proton treatment planning method that trades physical dose (D) for dose-averaged linear energy transfer (LET d ) while keeping the radiobiologically weighted dose (D RBE ) to the target the same. Methods and Materials: The target is painted with LET d by using 2, 4, and 7 fields aimed at the proximal segment of the target (split target planning [STP]). As the LET d within the target increases with increasing number of fields, D decreases to maintain the D RBE the same as the conventional treatment planning method by using beams treating the full target (full target planning [FTP]). Results: The LET d increased 61% for 2-field STP (2STP) compared to FTP, 72% for 4STP, and 82% for 7STP inside the target. This increase in LET d led to a decrease of D with 5.3 ± 0.6 Gy for 2STP, 4.4 ± 0.7 Gy for 4STP, and 5.3 ± 1.1 Gy for 7STP, keeping the DRBE at 90% of the volume (DRBE, 90) constant to FTP. Conclusions: LET d painting offers a method to reduce prescribed dose at no cost to the biological effectiveness of the treatment

  18. Linear Energy Transfer Painting With Proton Therapy: A Means of Reducing Radiation Doses With Equivalent Clinical Effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fager, Marcus, E-mail: Marcus.Fager@UPHS.UPenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Medical Radiation Physics, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Toma-Dasu, Iuliana [Medical Radiation Physics, Stockholm University and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Kirk, Maura; Dolney, Derek; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Vapiwala, Neha [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Carabe, Alejandro, E-mail: Alejandro.Carabe-Fernandez@UPHS.UPenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to propose a proton treatment planning method that trades physical dose (D) for dose-averaged linear energy transfer (LET{sub d}) while keeping the radiobiologically weighted dose (D{sub RBE}) to the target the same. Methods and Materials: The target is painted with LET{sub d} by using 2, 4, and 7 fields aimed at the proximal segment of the target (split target planning [STP]). As the LET{sub d} within the target increases with increasing number of fields, D decreases to maintain the D{sub RBE} the same as the conventional treatment planning method by using beams treating the full target (full target planning [FTP]). Results: The LET{sub d} increased 61% for 2-field STP (2STP) compared to FTP, 72% for 4STP, and 82% for 7STP inside the target. This increase in LET{sub d} led to a decrease of D with 5.3 ± 0.6 Gy for 2STP, 4.4 ± 0.7 Gy for 4STP, and 5.3 ± 1.1 Gy for 7STP, keeping the DRBE at 90% of the volume (DRBE, 90) constant to FTP. Conclusions: LET{sub d} painting offers a method to reduce prescribed dose at no cost to the biological effectiveness of the treatment.

  19. The rate of repeating X-rays in the medical centers of Jenin District/Palestine and how to reduce patient exposure to radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, Abed Al Nasser

    2018-03-01

    Reduction of the patient's received radiation dose to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) is based on recommendations of radiation protection organizations such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). The aim of this study was to explore the frequency and characteristics of rejected / repeated radiographic films in governmental and private centers in Jenin city. The radiological centers were chosen based on their high volume of radiographic studies. The evaluation was carried out over a period of four months. The collected data were compiled at the end of each week and entered into a computer for analysis at the end of study. Overall 5000 films (images) were performed in four months, The average repeat rate of radiographic images was 10% (500 films). Repetition rate was the same for both thoracic and abdominal images (42%). The main reason for repeating imaging was inadequate imaging quality (58.2%) and poor film processing (38%). Human error was the most likely reason necessitating the repetition of the radiographs (48 %). Infant and children groups comprised 85% of the patient population that required repetition of the radiographic studies. In conclusion, we have a higher repetition rate of imaging studies compared to the international standards (10% vs. 4-6%, respectively). This is especially noticeable in infants and children, and mainly attributed to human error in obtaining and processing images. This is an important issue that needs to be addressed on a national level due to the ill effects associated with excessive exposure to radiation especially in children, and to reduce cost of the care delivered.

  20. An automated electronic system for managing radiation treatment plan peer review reduces missed reviews at a large, high-volume academic center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Peter E; Woodhouse, Kristina D; Lin, Alexander; Finlay, Jarod C; Young, Richard B; Volz, Edna; Hahn, Stephen M; Metz, James M; Maity, Amit

    Assuring quality in cancer care through peer review has become increasingly important in radiation oncology. In 2012, our department implemented an automated electronic system for managing radiation treatment plan peer review. The purpose of this study was to compare the overall impact of this electronic system to our previous manual, paper-based system. In an effort to improve management, an automated electronic system for case finding and documentation of review was developed and implemented. The rates of missed initial reviews, late reviews, and missed re-reviews were compared for the pre- versus postelectronic system cohorts using Pearson χ 2 test and relative risk. Major and minor changes or recommendations were documented and shared with the assigned clinical provider. The overall rate of missed reviews was 7.6% (38/500) before system implementation versus 0.4% (28/6985) under the electronic system (P automated system. Missed re-reviews occurred in 23.1% (3/13) of courses in the preelectronic system cohort and 6.6% (10/152) of courses in the postelectronic system cohort (P = .034). Late reviews were more frequent during high travel or major holiday periods. Major changes were recommended in 2.2% and 2.8% in the pre- versus postelectronic systems, respectively. Minor changes were recommended in 5.3% of all postelectronic cases. The implementation of an automated electronic system for managing peer review in a large, complex department was effective in significantly reducing the number of missed reviews and missed re-reviews when compared to our previous manual system. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Valproic acid reduces hair loss and improves survival in patients receiving temozolomide-based radiation therapy for high-grade glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shinichi; Kuwabara, Yui; Suehiro, Satoshi; Yamashita, Daisuke; Tanaka, Mamoru; Tanaka, Akihiro; Ohue, Shiro; Araki, Hiroaki

    2017-03-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, is also used to manage seizures in glioblastoma patients. HDAC inhibitors can protect normal cells and tissues from the deleterious effects of radiotherapy, and VPA is reported to improve the survival of glioblastoma patients receiving chemoradiation therapy. VPA also promotes hair growth, and thus has the potential to reduce the radiotherapy side effect of hair loss while improving the survival of patients with glioblastoma. The purpose of this study was to determine whether VPA use during radiotherapy for high-grade glioma is associated with decreased side effects of radiotherapy and an improvement in overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Medical records of 112 patients with high-grade glioma were retrospectively reviewed. We grouped patients by VPA use or non-use during radiotherapy, and evaluated hair loss, OS, and PFS. The radiation dose and fractionation at the onset of hair loss were 4 Gy and two fractions higher, respectively, in the VPA group compared with the VPA non-use group (P hair loss and improvement in survival. Hair loss prevention benefits patients suffering from the deleterious effects of radiation.

  2. Construction of radiation-reduced hybrids and their use in mapping of microclones from chromosome 10p11.2-q11.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Shoichi; Shin, Eisei; Nakamura, Tsutomu; Kurahashi, Hiroki; Mori, Takesada; Takai, Shin-ichiro; Nishisho, Isamu; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Tanaka, Kiyoji.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation-reduced hybrids for mapping of DNA markers in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 10 were developed. A Chinese hamster/human somatic cell hybrid (762-8A) carrying chromosomes 10 and Y as the only human material were exposed to 40,000 rads of irradiation and then rescued by fusion with non-irradiated recipient Chinese hamster cells (GM459). Southern hybridization analyses revealed that 10 of 128 HAT-resistant clones contained human chromosomal fragments corresponding to at least one marker locus between FNRB (10p11.2) and RBP3 (10q11.2). These hybrids were then used to map microdissection clones previously isolated and roughly mapped to this chromosomal region by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Two of the six microclones studies could be mapped to the proximity of the D10S102 locus. These radiation hybrids are useful for the construction of refined genetic maps of the pericentromeric region of chromosome 10. (author) 50 refs

  3. Augmented Quadruple-Phase Contrast Media Administration and Triphasic Scan Protocol Increases Image Quality at Reduced Radiation Dose During Computed Tomography Urography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saade, Charbel; Mohamad, May; Kerek, Racha; Hamieh, Nadine; Alsheikh Deeb, Ibrahim; El-Achkar, Bassam; Tamim, Hani; Abdul Razzak, Farah; Haddad, Maurice; Abi-Ghanem, Alain S; El-Merhi, Fadi

    The aim of this article was to investigate the opacification of the renal vasculature and the urogenital system during computed tomography urography by using a quadruple-phase contrast media in a triphasic scan protocol. A total of 200 patients with possible urinary tract abnormalities were equally divided between 2 protocols. Protocol A used the conventional single bolus and quadruple-phase scan protocol (pre, arterial, venous, and delayed), retrospectively. Protocol B included a quadruple-phase contrast media injection with a triphasic scan protocol (pre, arterial and combined venous, and delayed), prospectively. Each protocol used 100 mL contrast and saline at a flow rate of 4.5 mL. Attenuation profiles and contrast-to-noise ratio of the renal arteries, veins, and urogenital tract were measured. Effective radiation dose calculation, data analysis by independent sample t test, receiver operating characteristic, and visual grading characteristic analyses were performed. In arterial circulation, only the inferior interlobular arteries in both protocols showed a statistical significance (P contrast-to-noise ratio than protocol A (protocol B: 22.68 ± 13.72; protocol A: 14.75 ± 5.76; P contrast media and triphasic scan protocol usage increases the image quality at a reduced radiation dose.

  4. 77 FR 41417 - Regulatory Science Considerations for Medical Countermeasure Radiation Biodosimetry Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... scientific and technological challenges for performance validation of radiation biodosimetry devices. Date... participants (non-FDA employees) is through Bldg. 1 where routine security check procedures will be performed... this document. FDA will do its best to accommodate requests to make public comment. Individuals and...

  5. 76 FR 38183 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  6. 76 FR 11483 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  7. 78 FR 19268 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  8. 75 FR 78998 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  9. 78 FR 78965 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  10. 77 FR 40890 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  11. 78 FR 38346 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act...

  12. 77 FR 15761 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  13. 78 FR 732 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  14. 78 FR 78963 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  15. 78 FR 62635 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  16. 75 FR 39029 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  17. 76 FR 77235 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  18. 78 FR 79009 - Proposed Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records (Pertains to Underground...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... soliciting comments concerning the proposed information collection for updating Radiation Sampling and... exposed with no adverse effects have been established and are expressed as working levels (WL). The... mandatory samplings. Records must include the sample date, location, and results, and must be retained at...

  19. Radiation and/or hyperthermia sensitivity of human melanoma cells grown for several days in media with reduced pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoelzer, F.; Streffer, C.

    1999-01-01

    MeWo cells were used throughout. Cells were incubated for 0, 3 or 6 days in media with pH 6.5, 6.7, 6.9, 7.1 or 7.3. The sensitivity against 250 kV X-rays and hyperthermia at 43 C were determined in the colony-forming assay. The intracellular pH was measured flow cytometrically using 5(and 6)-carboxyfluoroescein. Calibration curves were established with cells incubated in different buffers containing nigericin to equilibrate intra- and extracellular pH. Results: Cell growth was optimal with pH 7.3 and 7.1 in the medium, somewhat reduced at pH 6.9, and largely inhibited at pH 6.7 and 6.5. Radiation and/or hyperthermia sensitivities were noticeably increased after several days of incubation at reduced pH; the surviving fraction after 4 Gy and 1 h at 43 C either alone or in combination being a factor of 2 to 4 lower at pH 6.5 than at 7.3. These changes in sensitivity could not be correlated with changes in the intracellular pH. Cells seemed to be capable of regulating this parameter very well; the flow cytometric measurements revealed that the intracellular pH was 7.2±0.2 irrespective of the extracellular pH in the range considered here. Conclusions: In contrast to the almost generally accepted hypothesis that intracellular pH is decisive for the heat sensitivity, the human melanoma cells studied here became sensitive after a few days of incubation under acidic conditions without changes in the intracellular pH. Other factors seem to be influencing the cellular response to radiation and/or heat under chronically low pH. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Minibeam Therapy With Protons and Light Ions: Physical Feasibility and Potential to Reduce Radiation Side Effects and to Facilitate Hypofractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilmanian, F. Avraham, E-mail: avraham.dilmanian@stonybrook.edu [Departments of Radiation Oncology, Neurology, and Radiology, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York (United States); Eley, John G. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Krishnan, Sunil [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Despite several advantages of proton therapy over megavoltage x-ray therapy, its lack of proximal tissue sparing is a concern. The method presented here adds proximal tissue sparing to protons and light ions by turning their uniform incident beams into arrays of parallel, small, or thin (0.3-mm) pencil or planar minibeams, which are known to spare tissues. As these minibeams penetrate the tissues, they gradually broaden and merge with each other to produce a solid beam. Methods and Materials: Broadening of 0.3-mm-diameter, 109-MeV proton pencil minibeams was measured using a stack of radiochromic films with plastic spacers. Monte Carlo simulations were used to evaluate the broadening in water of minibeams of protons and several light ions and the dose from neutron generated by collimator. Results: A central parameter was tissue depth, where the beam full width at half maximum (FWHM) reached 0.7 mm, beyond which tissue sparing decreases. This depth was 22 mm for 109-MeV protons in a film stack. It was also found by simulations in water to be 23.5 mm for 109 MeV proton pencil minibeams and 26 mm for 116 MeV proton planar minibeams. For light ions, all with 10 cm range in water, that depth increased with particle size; specifically it was 51 mm for Li-7 ions. The ∼2.7% photon equivalent neutron skin dose from the collimator was reduced 7-fold by introducing a gap between the collimator and the skin. Conclusions: Proton minibeams can be implemented at existing particle therapy centers. Because they spare the shallow tissues, they could augment the efficacy of proton therapy and light particle therapy, particularly in treating tumors that benefit from sparing of proximal tissues such as pediatric brain tumors. They should also allow hypofractionated treatment of all tumors by allowing the use of higher incident doses with less concern about proximal tissue damage.

  1. Reduced radiation dose for elective nodal irradiation in node-negative anal cancer: back to the roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henkenberens, Christoph; Meinecke, Daniela; Bremer, Michael; Christiansen, Hans [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Hannover Medical School, Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Spezielle Onkologie, Hannover (Germany); Michael, Stoll [End- und Dickdarmzentrum Hannover, Hannover (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Chemoradiation (CRT) is the standard of care in patients with node-positive (cN+) and node-negative (cN0) anal cancer. Depending on the tumor size (T-stage), total doses of 50-60 Gray (Gy) in daily fractions of 1.8-2.0 Gy are usually applied to the tumor site. Inguinal and iliac lymph nodes usually receive a dose of ≥ 45 Gy. Since 2010, our policy has been to apply a reduced total dose of 39.6 Gy to uninvolved nodal regions. This paper provides preliminary results of the efficacy and safety of this protocol. Overall, 30 patients with histologically confirmed and node-negative anal cancer were treated in our department from 2009-2014 with definitive CRT. Histology all cases showed squamous cell carcinoma. A total dose of 39.6 Gy [single dose (SD) 1.8 Gy] was delivered to the iliac/inguinal lymph nodes. The area of the primary tumor received 50-59.4 Gy, depending on the T-stage. In parallel with the irradiation, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) at a dose of 1000 mg/m{sup 2} was administered by continuous intravenous infusion over 24 h on days 1-4 and 29-32, and mitomycin C (MMC) at a dose of 10 mg/m{sup 2} (maximum absolute dose 14 mg) was administered on days 1 and 29. The distribution of the tumor stages was as follows: T1, n = 8; T2, n = 17; T3 n = 3. Overall survival (OS), local control (LC) of the lymph nodes, colostomy-free survival (CFS), and acute and chronic toxicities were assessed. The median follow-up was 27.3 months (range 2.7-57.4 months). Three patients (10.0 %) died, 2 of cardiopulmonary diseases and one of liver failure, yielding a 3-year OS of 90.0 %. Two patients (6.7 %) relapsed early and received salvage colostomies, yielding a 3-year CFS of 93.3 %. No lymph node relapses were observed, giving a lymph node LC of 100 %. According to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 4.0 (CTCAE V. 4.0), there were no grade IV gastrointestinal or genitourinary acute toxicities. Seven patients showed acute grade III perineal skin toxicity. Acute grade

  2. Proton Arc Reduces Range Uncertainty Effects and Improves Conformality Compared With Photon Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seco, Joao, E-mail: jseco@partners.org [Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Gu, Guan; Marcelos, Tiago; Kooy, Hanne; Willers, Henning [Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To describe, in a setting of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the theoretical dosimetric advantages of proton arc stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in which the beam penumbra of a rotating beam is used to reduce the impact of range uncertainties. Methods and Materials: Thirteen patients with early-stage NSCLC treated with proton SBRT underwent repeat planning with photon volumetric modulated arc therapy (Photon-VMAT) and an in-house-developed arc planning approach for both proton passive scattering (Passive-Arc) and intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT-Arc). An arc was mimicked with a series of beams placed at 10° increments. Tumor and organ at risk doses were compared in the context of high- and low-dose regions, represented by volumes receiving >50% and <50% of the prescription dose, respectively. Results: In the high-dose region, conformality index values are 2.56, 1.91, 1.31, and 1.74, and homogeneity index values are 1.29, 1.22, 1.52, and 1.18, respectively, for 3 proton passive scattered beams, Passive-Arc, IMPT-Arc, and Photon-VMAT. Therefore, proton arc leads to a 30% reduction in the 95% isodose line volume to 3-beam proton plan, sparing surrounding organs, such as lung and chest wall. For chest wall, V30 is reduced from 21 cm{sup 3} (3 proton beams) to 11.5 cm{sup 3}, 12.9 cm{sup 3}, and 8.63 cm{sup 3} (P=.005) for Passive-Arc, IMPT-Arc, and Photon-VMAT, respectively. In the low-dose region, the mean lung dose and V20 of the ipsilateral lung are 5.01 Gy(relative biological effectiveness [RBE]), 4.38 Gy(RBE), 4.91 Gy(RBE), and 5.99 Gy(RBE) and 9.5%, 7.5%, 9.0%, and 10.0%, respectively, for 3-beam, Passive-Arc, IMPT-Arc, and Photon-VMAT, respectively. Conclusions: Stereotactic body radiation therapy with proton arc and Photon-VMAT generate significantly more conformal high-dose volumes than standard proton SBRT, without loss of coverage of the tumor and with significant sparing of nearby organs, such as chest wall. In addition

  3. Change of the NADPH depending superoxide producing and ferri hemoglobin reducing activities of cytochrome b558 from spleen cells and erythrocytes membranes induced by the radiation of different character

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melkonyan, L.G.; Simonyan, R.M.; Simonyan, M.A.; Sekoyan, E.S.

    2009-01-01

    After the X radiation, UVA radiation and ultrasound radiation of new isoforms of cytochrome cyt b 5 58 from rats erythrocyte membranes - EM (cyt b 5 58III) and from spleen cell membranes (SCM) in vitro, as well as after the radiation of EM ex vivo, the suppression of both NADPH depending O 2 - producing and ferrihemoglobin (ferriHb)-reducing activities of cyt b 5 58 from EM and SCM in homogeneous (in solution) and heterogeneous phases (in EM and SCM) at various scopes takes place. These changes are associated with the destabilization of EM and SCM, conditioned by the change of the aggregation degree of these hemoproteins in EM and SCM, hemoproteins as a result of the influence of the hydrogen peroxide formed during radiolysis and photolysis of the water medium. After He-Ne laser radiation of the cyt b 5 58 from EM and SCM in vitro an increase of the NADPH depending O 2 - producing and ferriHb-reducing activities of the cyt b 5 58 from EM and SCM in homogenous and heterogeneous phases (in membranes) takes place. It is supposed that the suppression (by X-, UVA- and US-radiation) and the stimulation (by He-Ne laser radiation) of the immune system activity and the oxygen homeostasis are associated with the corresponding decrease and increase of the NADPH depending O 2 - producing and ferriHb-reducings activity of the new isoforms of cyt b 5 58 from EM and SCM in homogeneous and heterogeneous phases

  4. Efficacy of a Radiation Absorbing Shield in Reducing Dose to the Interventionalist During Peripheral Endovascular Procedures: A Single Centre Pilot Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, S.; Mirza, M.; Thakorlal, A.; Ganai, B.; Gavagan, L. D.; Given, M. F.; Lee, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    PurposeThis prospective pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of using a radiation absorbing shield to reduce operator dose from scatter during lower limb endovascular procedures.Materials and MethodsA commercially available bismuth shield system (RADPAD) was used. Sixty consecutive patients undergoing lower limb angioplasty were included. Thirty procedures were performed without the RADPAD (control group) and thirty with the RADPAD (study group). Two separate methods were used to measure dose to a single operator. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) badges were used to measure hand, eye, and unshielded body dose. A direct dosimeter with digital readout was also used to measure eye and unshielded body dose. To allow for variation between control and study groups, dose per unit time was calculated.ResultsTLD results demonstrated a significant reduction in median body dose per unit time for the study group compared with controls (p = 0.001), corresponding to a mean dose reduction rate of 65 %. Median eye and hand dose per unit time were also reduced in the study group compared with control group, however, this was not statistically significant (p = 0.081 for eye, p = 0.628 for hand). Direct dosimeter readings also showed statistically significant reduction in median unshielded body dose rate for the study group compared with controls (p = 0.037). Eye dose rate was reduced for the study group but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.142).ConclusionInitial results are encouraging. Use of the shield resulted in a statistically significant reduction in unshielded dose to the operator’s body. Measured dose to the eye and hand of operator were also reduced but did not reach statistical significance in this pilot study

  5. Efficacy of a Radiation Absorbing Shield in Reducing Dose to the Interventionalist During Peripheral Endovascular Procedures: A Single Centre Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, S.; Mirza, M.; Thakorlal, A.; Ganai, B.; Gavagan, L. D.; Given, M. F.; Lee, M. J., E-mail: mlee@rcsi.ie [Beaumont Hospital, Imaging and Interventional Radiology Department (Ireland)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThis prospective pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of using a radiation absorbing shield to reduce operator dose from scatter during lower limb endovascular procedures.Materials and MethodsA commercially available bismuth shield system (RADPAD) was used. Sixty consecutive patients undergoing lower limb angioplasty were included. Thirty procedures were performed without the RADPAD (control group) and thirty with the RADPAD (study group). Two separate methods were used to measure dose to a single operator. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) badges were used to measure hand, eye, and unshielded body dose. A direct dosimeter with digital readout was also used to measure eye and unshielded body dose. To allow for variation between control and study groups, dose per unit time was calculated.ResultsTLD results demonstrated a significant reduction in median body dose per unit time for the study group compared with controls (p = 0.001), corresponding to a mean dose reduction rate of 65 %. Median eye and hand dose per unit time were also reduced in the study group compared with control group, however, this was not statistically significant (p = 0.081 for eye, p = 0.628 for hand). Direct dosimeter readings also showed statistically significant reduction in median unshielded body dose rate for the study group compared with controls (p = 0.037). Eye dose rate was reduced for the study group but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.142).ConclusionInitial results are encouraging. Use of the shield resulted in a statistically significant reduction in unshielded dose to the operator’s body. Measured dose to the eye and hand of operator were also reduced but did not reach statistical significance in this pilot study.

  6. Efficacy of a radiation absorbing shield in reducing dose to the interventionalist during peripheral endovascular procedures: a single centre pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, S; Mirza, M; Thakorlal, A; Ganai, B; Gavagan, L D; Given, M F; Lee, M J

    2015-06-01

    This prospective pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of using a radiation absorbing shield to reduce operator dose from scatter during lower limb endovascular procedures. A commercially available bismuth shield system (RADPAD) was used. Sixty consecutive patients undergoing lower limb angioplasty were included. Thirty procedures were performed without the RADPAD (control group) and thirty with the RADPAD (study group). Two separate methods were used to measure dose to a single operator. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) badges were used to measure hand, eye, and unshielded body dose. A direct dosimeter with digital readout was also used to measure eye and unshielded body dose. To allow for variation between control and study groups, dose per unit time was calculated. TLD results demonstrated a significant reduction in median body dose per unit time for the study group compared with controls (p = 0.001), corresponding to a mean dose reduction rate of 65 %. Median eye and hand dose per unit time were also reduced in the study group compared with control group, however, this was not statistically significant (p = 0.081 for eye, p = 0.628 for hand). Direct dosimeter readings also showed statistically significant reduction in median unshielded body dose rate for the study group compared with controls (p = 0.037). Eye dose rate was reduced for the study group but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.142). Initial results are encouraging. Use of the shield resulted in a statistically significant reduction in unshielded dose to the operator's body. Measured dose to the eye and hand of operator were also reduced but did not reach statistical significance in this pilot study.

  7. Modelling solar radiation interception in row plantation. 3. Application to a traditional vineyard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinoquet, H.; Valancogne, C.; Lescure, A.; Bonhomme, R.

    1992-01-01

    Modeling solar radiation interception in row plantation. III. Application to a traditional vineyard. A previously described model of solar radiation interception was applied to a spatially discontinuous canopy: that of a traditional vineyard in which the classical terms of the radiative balance and the spatial distribution of the radiation transmitted to the soil were measured. Comparison of measured and simulated data gave satisfactory agreement for reflected radiation (fig 4), but major discrepancies appeared for mean transmitted radiation (fig 5). The use of small stationary sensors for measuring the transmitted radiation explains the latter observation, since most of the time they measured radiation received on the ground in the sunflecks or in the shaded area rather than mean radiation. This was verified by comparing the measured and simulated spatial distribution of transmitted radiation (figs 7, 8). Finally, the influence of the woody parts which were not taken into consideration in the model was clearly identified : it significantly reduced the transmission of incident radiation (fig 9), and to a greater degrees the closer the sensor was to the vegetation row [fr

  8. On Analytical Solutions of f(R) Modified Gravity Theories in FLRW Cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domazet, Silvije; Radovanović, Voja; Simonović, Marko; Štefančić, Hrvoje

    2013-02-01

    A novel analytical method for f(R) modified theories without matter in Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) spacetimes is introduced. The equation of motion for the scale factor in terms of cosmic time is reduced to the equation for the evolution of the Ricci scalar R with the Hubble parameter H. The solution of equation of motion for actions of the form of power law in Ricci scalar R is presented with a detailed elaboration of the action quadratic in R. The reverse use of the introduced method is exemplified in finding functional forms f(R), which leads to specified scale factor functions. The analytical solutions are corroborated by numerical calculations with excellent agreement. Possible further applications to the phases of inflationary expansion and late-time acceleration as well as f(R) theories with radiation are outlined.

  9. Radiation protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, J.

    1981-01-01

    This article first reviews the general radiation protection law at international and national level, with particular reference to the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) which, although not mandatory, are nevertheless taken into consideration by international organisations establishing basic radiation protection standards such as the UN, IAEA, NEA and Euratom, at Community level, and by national legislation. These standards are therefore remarkably harmonized. Radiation protection rule applied in France for the different activities and uses of radioactive substances are then described, and finally, a description is given of the regulations governing artificial radioisotopes and radioactive effluents. (NEA) [fr

  10. Prescreening based on the presence of CT-scan abnormalities and biomarkers (KL-6 and SP-D may reduce severe radiation pneumonitis after stereotactic radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakui Reiko

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To determine the risk factors of severe radiation pneumonitis (RP after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT for primary or secondary lung tumors. Materials and methods From January 2003 to March 2009, SBRT was performed on 117 patients (32 patients before 2005 and 85 patients after 2006 with lung tumors (primary = 74 patients and metastatic/recurrent = 43 patients in our institution. In the current study, the results on cases with severe RP (grades 4-5 were evaluated. Serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6 and serum Surfactant protein-D (SP-D were used to predict the incidence of RP. A shadow of interstitial pneumonitis (IP on the CT image before performing SBRT was also used as an indicator for RP. Since 2006, patients have been prescreened for biological markers (KL-6 & SP-D as well as checking for an IP-shadow in CT. Results Grades 4-5 RP was observed in nine patients (7.7% after SBRT and seven of these cases (6.0% were grade 5 in our institution. A correlation was found between the incidence of RP and higher serum KL-6 & SP-D levels. IP-shadow in patient's CT was also found to correlate well with the severe RP. Severe RP was reduced from 18.8% before 2005 to 3.5% after 2006 (p = 0.042. There was no correlation between the dose volume histogram parameters and these severe RP patients. Conclusion Patients presenting with an IP shadow in the CT and a high value of the serum KL-6 & SP-D before SBRT treatment developed severe radiation pneumonitis at a high rate. The reduction of RP incidence in patients treated after 2006 may have been attributed to prescreening of the patients. Therefore, pre-screening before SBRT for an IP shadow in CT and serum KL-6 & SP-D is recommended in the management and treatment of patients with primary or secondary lung tumors.

  11. Hawking radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parentani, Renaud; Spindel, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Hawking radiation is the thermal radiation predicted to be spontaneously emitted by black holes. It arises from the steady conversion of quantum vacuum fluctuations into pairs of particles, one of which escaping at infinity while the other is trapped inside the black hole horizon. It is named after the physicist Stephen Hawking who derived its existence in 1974. This radiation reduces the mass of black holes and is therefore also known as black hole evaporation.

  12. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Aman; Sharma, Shivam; Parasher, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Radiation dose measurement, field of radiobiology, is considered to be critical factor for optimizing radiation protection to the health care practitioners, patients and the public. This lead to equipment that has dose - area product meters permanently installed. In many countries and even institution, the range of equipment is vast and with the opportunity for radiation protection and dose recording varies considerably. Practitioners must move with the changed demands of radiation protection but in many cases without assistance of modern advancements in technology Keeping the three basic safety measures Time, Dose and Shielding we can say 'Optimum dose is safe dose' instead of 'No dose is safe dose'. The purpose enclosed within the title 'Radiation Protection'. The use of radiation is expanding widely everyday around the world and crossing boundaries of medical imaging, diagnostic and. The way to get the ''As low as reasonably achievable' is only achievable by using methodology of radiation protection and to bring the concern of general public and practitioners over the hazards of un-necessary radiation dose. Three basic principles of radiation protection are time, distance and shielding. By minimizing the exposure time increasing the distance and including the shielding we can reduce the optimum range of dose. The ability of shielding material to attenuate radiation is generally given as half value layer. This is the thickness of the material which will reduce the amount of radiation by 50%. Lab coat and gloves must be worn when handling radioactive material or when working in a labeled radiation work area. Safety glasses or other appropriate splash shields should be used when handling radioactive material. 1. Reached to low dose level to occupational workers, public as per prescribed dose limit. 2. By mean of ALARA principle we achieved the protection from radiation besides us using the radiation for our benefit

  13. The development of the prompt system of gamma radiation monitoring in FR Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlic, M.; Pavlovic, R.; Pavlovic, S.

    1996-01-01

    The needs for and characteriztics of the prompt system of gamma radiation monitoring are analyzed. The basic structure of the new system, based on the PC computer is presented. The system consists of the central unit and a number of field stations connected via telephone lines. GM counter is used as a detector. The software is written in visual basic. The system is capable of performing a variety of tasks: dose rate measurement (analogue and digital), graphical presentation of the results in the given period of time, data base formation and management, data transmission and preparing reports. The basic characteriztics of hardware and software of the system, performance specifications and future plans are presented in this paper. (author)

  14. Utility of the inspiratory phase in high-resolution computed tomography evaluations of pediatric patients with bronchiolitis obliterans after allogeneic bone marrow transplant: reducing patient radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togni Filho, Paulo Henrique; Casagrande, Joao Luiz Marin; Lederman, Henrique Manoel, E-mail: paulotognifilho@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. of Diagnostico por Imagem; Universidade de Sao Paulo (InRad/HC/FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Instituto de Radiologia

    2017-03-15

    Objective: To evaluate the utility of the inspiratory phase in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest for the diagnosis of post-bone marrow transplantation bronchiolitis obliterans. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study. We selected patients of either gender who underwent bone marrow transplantation and chest HRCT between March 1, 2002 and December 12, 2014. Ages ranged from 3 months to 20.7 years. We included all examinations in which the HRCT was performed appropriately. The examinations were read by two radiologists, one with extensive experience in pediatric radiology and another in the third year of residency, who determined the presence or absence of the following imaging features: air trapping, bronchiectasis, alveolar opacities, nodules, and atelectasis. Results: A total of 222 examinations were evaluated (mean, 5.4 ± 4.5 examinations per patient). The expiratory phase findings were comparable to those obtained in the inspiratory phase, except in one patient, in whom a small uncharacteristic nodule was identified only in the inspiratory phase. Air trapping was identified in a larger number of scans in the expiratory phase than in the inspiratory phase, as was atelectasis, although the difference was statistically significant only for air trapping. Conclusion: In children being evaluated for post-bone marrow transplantation bronchiolitis obliterans, the inspiratory phase can be excluded from the chest HRCT protocol, thus reducing by half the radiation exposure in this population. (author)

  15. Reducing radiation dose in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and lower tube potential in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, David; Grupp, Ulrich; Kahn, Johannes; Wiener, Edzard; Hamm, Bernd; Streitparth, Florian; Ghadjar, Pirus

    2014-01-01

    To assess the impact of ASIR (adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction) and lower tube potential on dose reduction and image quality in chest computed tomography angiographies (CTAs) of patients with pulmonary embolism. CT data from 44 patients with pulmonary embolism were acquired using different protocols - Group A: 120 kV, filtered back projection, n = 12; Group B: 120 kV, 40 % ASIR, n = 12; Group C: 100 kV, 40 % ASIR, n = 12 and Group D: 80 kV, 40 % ASIR, n = 8. Normalised effective dose was calculated; image quality was assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Normalised effective dose in Group B was 33.8 % lower than in Group A (p = 0.014) and 54.4 % lower in Group C than in Group A (p < 0.001). Group A, B and C did not show significant differences in qualitative or quantitative analysis of image quality. Group D showed significantly higher noise levels in qualitative and quantitative analysis, significantly more artefacts and decreased overall diagnosability. Best results, considering dose reduction and image quality, were achieved in Group C. The combination of ASIR and lower tube potential is an option to reduce radiation without significant worsening of image quality in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. (orig.)

  16. Reducing radiation dose in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and lower tube potential in computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaul, David [Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiation Oncology, Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Grupp, Ulrich; Kahn, Johannes; Wiener, Edzard; Hamm, Bernd; Streitparth, Florian [Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Ghadjar, Pirus [Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Radiation Oncology, Charite School of Medicine and University Hospital, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    To assess the impact of ASIR (adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction) and lower tube potential on dose reduction and image quality in chest computed tomography angiographies (CTAs) of patients with pulmonary embolism. CT data from 44 patients with pulmonary embolism were acquired using different protocols - Group A: 120 kV, filtered back projection, n = 12; Group B: 120 kV, 40 % ASIR, n = 12; Group C: 100 kV, 40 % ASIR, n = 12 and Group D: 80 kV, 40 % ASIR, n = 8. Normalised effective dose was calculated; image quality was assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Normalised effective dose in Group B was 33.8 % lower than in Group A (p = 0.014) and 54.4 % lower in Group C than in Group A (p < 0.001). Group A, B and C did not show significant differences in qualitative or quantitative analysis of image quality. Group D showed significantly higher noise levels in qualitative and quantitative analysis, significantly more artefacts and decreased overall diagnosability. Best results, considering dose reduction and image quality, were achieved in Group C. The combination of ASIR and lower tube potential is an option to reduce radiation without significant worsening of image quality in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. (orig.)

  17. Utility of the inspiratory phase in high-resolution computed tomography evaluations of pediatric patients with bronchiolitis obliterans after allogeneic bone marrow transplant: reducing patient radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togni Filho, Paulo Henrique; Casagrande, Joao Luiz Marin; Lederman, Henrique Manoel; Universidade de Sao Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the utility of the inspiratory phase in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest for the diagnosis of post-bone marrow transplantation bronchiolitis obliterans. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study. We selected patients of either gender who underwent bone marrow transplantation and chest HRCT between March 1, 2002 and December 12, 2014. Ages ranged from 3 months to 20.7 years. We included all examinations in which the HRCT was performed appropriately. The examinations were read by two radiologists, one with extensive experience in pediatric radiology and another in the third year of residency, who determined the presence or absence of the following imaging features: air trapping, bronchiectasis, alveolar opacities, nodules, and atelectasis. Results: A total of 222 examinations were evaluated (mean, 5.4 ± 4.5 examinations per patient). The expiratory phase findings were comparable to those obtained in the inspiratory phase, except in one patient, in whom a small uncharacteristic nodule was identified only in the inspiratory phase. Air trapping was identified in a larger number of scans in the expiratory phase than in the inspiratory phase, as was atelectasis, although the difference was statistically significant only for air trapping. Conclusion: In children being evaluated for post-bone marrow transplantation bronchiolitis obliterans, the inspiratory phase can be excluded from the chest HRCT protocol, thus reducing by half the radiation exposure in this population. (author)

  18. Modelling solar radiation interception in row plantation. 3. Application to a traditional vineyard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinoquet, H.; Valancogne, C.; Lescure, A.; Bonhomme, R.

    1992-01-01

    A previously described model of solar radiation interception was applied to a spatially discontinuous canopy: that of a traditional vineyard in which the classical terms of the radiative balance and the spatial distribution of the radiation transmitted to the soil were measured. Comparison of measured and simulated data gave satisfactory agreement for reflected radiation (fig 4), but major discrepancies appeared for mean transmitted radiation (fig 5). The use of small stationary sensors for measuring the transmitted radiation explains the latter observation, since most of the time they measured radiation received on the ground in the sunflecks or in the shaded area rather than mean radiation. This was verified by comparing the measured and simulated spatial distribution of transmitted radiation (figs 7, 8). Finally, the influence of the woody parts which were not taken into consideration in the model was clearly identified : it significantly reduced the transmission of incident radiation (fig 9), and to a greater degrees the closer the sensor was to the vegetation row. (author) [fr

  19. Regulations under the Radiation Protection and Control Act, 1982, No. 221 of 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    These Regulations made under the Radiation Protection and Control Act of 1982, amend several numerical quotations contained in the Radiation Safety (Transport) Regulations, No. 27, 1984, also made under the above mentioned Act. (NEA) [fr

  20. Lateral rectal shielding reduces late rectal morbidity after high dose three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer: further evidence for a dose effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W Robert; Hanks, Gerald E; Hanlon, Alexandra; Schultheiss, Timothy E

    1995-07-01

    Purpose: Using conventional treatment methods for the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer central axis doses must be limited to 65-70 Gy to prevent significant damage to nearby normal tissues. A fundamental hypothesis of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) is that, by defining the target organ(s) accurately in three dimensions, it is possible to deliver higher doses to the target without a significant increase in normal tissue complications. This study examines whether this hypothesis holds true and whether a simple modification of treatment technique can reduce the incidence of late rectal morbidity in patients with prostate cancer treated with 3DCRT to minimum planning target volume (PTV) doses of 71-75 Gy. Materials and Methods: 257 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer completed 3DCRT by December 31, 1993 and received a minimum PTV dose of 71-75 Gy. The median follow-up time was 22 months (range 4-67 months) and 98% of patients had followup of longer than 12 months. The calculated dose at the center of the prostate was <74 Gy in 19 patients, 74-76 Gy in 206 patients and >76 Gy in 32 patients. Late rectal morbidity was graded according to the LENT scoring system. Eighty-eight consecutive patients were treated with a rectal block added to the lateral fields. In these patients the posterior margin from the prostate to the block edge was reduced from the standard 15 mm to 7.5 mm for the final 10 Gy which reduced the dose to portions of the anterior rectal wall by approximately 4-5 Gy. Estimates of rates for rectal morbidity were determined by Kaplan-Meier actuarial analyses. Differences in morbidity percentages were evaluated by the Pearson chi square test. Results: Grade 2-3 rectal morbidity developed in 46 of 257 patients (18%) and in the majority of cases consisted of rectal bleeding. No patient has developed grade 4 or 5 rectal morbidity. The actuarial rate of grade 2-3 morbidity is 22% at 24 months and the median

  1. Ionizing radiation exposure in interventional cardiology: current radiation protection practice of invasive cardiology operators in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valuckiene, Zivile; Jurenas, Martynas; Cibulskaite, Inga

    2016-09-01

    Ionizing radiation management is among the most important safety issues in interventional cardiology. Multiple radiation protection measures allow the minimization of x-ray exposure during interventional procedures. Our purpose was to assess the utilization and effectiveness of radiation protection and optimization techniques among interventional cardiologists in Lithuania. Interventional cardiologists of five cardiac centres were interviewed by anonymized questionnaire, addressing personal use of protective garments, shielding, table/detector positioning, frame rate (FR), resolution, field of view adjustment and collimation. Effective patient doses were compared between operators who work with and without x-ray optimization. Thirty one (68.9%) out of 45 Lithuanian interventional cardiologists participated in the survey. Protective aprons were universally used, but not the thyroid collars; 35.5% (n  =  11) operators use protective eyewear and 12.9% (n  =  4) wear radio-protective caps; 83.9% (n  =  26) use overhanging shields, 58.1% (n  =  18)-portable barriers; 12.9% (n  =  4)-abdominal patient's shielding; 35.5% (n  =  11) work at a high table position; 87.1% (n  =  27) keep an image intensifier/receiver close to the patient; 58.1% (n  =  18) reduce the fluoroscopy FR; 6.5% (n  =  2) reduce the fluoro image detail resolution; 83.9% (n  =  26) use a 'store fluoro' option; 41.9% (N  =  13) reduce magnification for catheter transit; 51.6% (n  =  16) limit image magnification; and 35.5% (n  =  11) use image collimation. Median effective patient doses were significantly lower with x-ray optimization techniques in both diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Many of the ionizing radiation exposure reduction tools and techniques are underused by a considerable proportion of interventional cardiology operators. The application of basic radiation protection tools and

  2. Radiations FR of telephone antennas and Public health: the state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubeda Maeso, A.; Trillo Ruiz, M. A.

    1999-01-01

    Today, mobile telephone is envisioned as one of the most significant innovations in communication. The growing development of this system asks for increasing amounts of antennas, installed in base transceiver stations (BTS) connection mobile stations (MS, hand held phones) to each other and to the conventional telephone network. Depending on the area, antennas are generally mounted in BTS located either on the top of buildings (in urban areas) or in towers (in rural or less populated areas). In both of the cases, the visual impact of BTS is significant for people living or working close to them. This visual evidence, together with some information, usually inconsistent or incomplete, released in media other than the scientific literature, have generated increasing feelings of phobia to alleged detrimental consequences of the uncontrolled exposure to radio waves emitted by the antennas. Such feelings, identified previously in countries where mobile telephony has been used for years in a regular basis, are now significantly growing in Spain and motivate many of the questions asked to information services of public agencies and institutions. The aim of the present article is to address some of the most frequently asked questions on the topic and to review the state of the art of our knowledge on the putative effects of the exposure to the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the aerials. Also, elementary notions are provided on the functioning of mobile telephony that may help the reader to better understand some technical aspects concerning the topic. (Author) 54 refs

  3. Navvus FFR to reduce CONTRAst, Cost and radiaTion (CONTRACT); insights from a single-centre clinical and economical evaluation with the RXi Rapid-Exchange FFR device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masdjedi, K.; Mieghem, N.M. van; Diletti, R.; Geuns, R.J.M. van; Jaegere, P. De; Regar, E.; Zijlstra, F.; Domburg, R.T. van; Daemen, J.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess whether the RXi Navvus system compared to the use of standard Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) wires reduces total contrast volume, radiation and overall study cost in a real world patient population referred for coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention.

  4. No 592 - Radiation Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Act will enter into force on 1 January 1992. The scope of the Act is extensive as, in addition to ionizing radiation, it will also apply to activities involving exposure to natural radiation and non-ionizing radiation. Its purpose is to prevent and restrict harmful effects to health resulting from radiation. The basic principles of the Act are that the practice involving radiation should be justified; radiation protection should be optimized; and radiation doses should be as low as reasonably achievable. Licensed organisations using radiation will be responsible for the safety of the activity involving exposure to radiation and for having available the appropriate expertise to this effect. The required so-called safety licence provides the regulatory control to ensure that radiation is used sensibly, that the equipment and shields are technically acceptable and the operating personnel is competent, and that the radioactive waste is dealt with appropriately. The Radiation Act will also apply to nuclear activities within the scope of the 1987 Nuclear Energy Act [fr

  5. Efficacy of the RADPAD Protection Drape in Reducing Operators' Radiation Exposure in the Catheterization Laboratory: A Sham-Controlled Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlastra, Wieneke; Delewi, Ronak; Sjauw, Krischan D.; Beijk, Marcel A.; Claessen, Bimmer E.; Streekstra, Geert J.; Bekker, Robbert J.; van Hattum, Juliette C.; Wykrzykowska, Joanna J.; Vis, Marije M.; Koch, Karel T.; de Winter, Robbert J.; Piek, Jan J.; Henriques, José P. S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Interventional cardiologists are increasingly exposed to radiation-induced diseases like cataract and the stochastic risk of left-sided brain tumors. The RADPAD is a sterile, disposable, lead-free shield placed on the patient with the aim to minimize operator-received scatter radiation.

  6. Use of informatics in radiation control panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochinal, R.; Grimont, B.; Mai, V.

    1980-03-01

    Radiation control panels with programmed systems have developed at the CEA over the last few years. Each monitored location is provided with an monitoring station containing: - a radiation detector and associated electronics (the output signal is normalised calibrated pulses), - an alarm unit to warn personnal of any danger inside the detection zone covered [fr

  7. Radiation Safety (General) Regulations 1983 (Western Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The provisions of the Regulations cover, inter alia, the general precautions and requirements relating to radiation safety of the public and radiation workers and registration of irradiating apparatus or premises on which such apparatus is operated. In addition, the Regulations set forth requirements for the operation of such apparatus and for the premises involved. (NEA) [fr

  8. Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Reduces Local Recurrence Rates in Patients With Microscopically Involved Circumferential Resection Margins After Resection of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberda, Wijnand J.; Verhoef, Cornelis [Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Nuyttens, Joost J. [Department of Radiotherapy, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Meerten, Esther van [Department of Medical Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rothbarth, Joost [Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Wilt, Johannes H.W. de [Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Burger, Jacobus W.A., E-mail: j.burger@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is advocated by some for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) who have involved or narrow circumferential resection margins (CRM) after rectal surgery. This study evaluates the potentially beneficial effect of IORT on local control. Methods and Materials: All surgically treated patients with LARC treated in a tertiary referral center between 1996 and 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. The outcome in patients treated with IORT with a clear but narrow CRM (≤2 mm) or a microscopically involved CRM was compared with the outcome in patients who were not treated with IORT. Results: A total of 409 patients underwent resection of LARC, and 95 patients (23%) had a CRM ≤ 2 mm. Four patients were excluded from further analysis because of a macroscopically involved resection margin. In 43 patients with clear but narrow CRMs, there was no difference in the cumulative 5-year local recurrence-free survival of patients treated with (n=21) or without (n=22) IORT (70% vs 79%, P=.63). In 48 patients with a microscopically involved CRM, there was a significant difference in the cumulative 5-year local recurrence-free survival in favor of the patients treated with IORT (n=31) compared with patients treated without IORT (n=17) (84 vs 41%, P=.01). Multivariable analysis confirmed that IORT was independently associated with a decreased local recurrence rate (hazard ratio 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.86). There was no significant difference in complication rate of patients treated with or without IORT (65% vs 52%, P=.18) Conclusion: The current study suggests that IORT reduces local recurrence rates in patients with LARC with a microscopically involved CRM.

  9. Self-powered radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, Wallace.

    1980-01-01

    This invention aims to create a self fed radiation detector comprising a long central emitter-conductor absorbing the neutrons, wrapped in an insulating material, and a thin collector-conductor placed coaxially around the emitter and the insulation, the emitter being constructed of several stranded cables in a given conducting material so that the detector is flexible enough [fr

  10. Self-powered radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Playfoot, K.C.; Bauer, R.F.; Goldstein, N.P.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a self powered radiation detector requiring no excitation potential to generate a signal indicating a radiation flux. Such detectors comprise two electrically insulated electrodes, at a distance from each other. These electrodes are made of conducting materials having a different response for neutron and/or gamma ray radiation flux levels, as in nuclear power stations. This elongated detector generates an electric signal in terms of an incident flux of radiations cooperating with coaxial conductors insulated from each other and with different radiation reaction characteristics. The conductor with the greatest reaction to the radiations forms the central emitting electrode and the conductor with the least reaction to the radiations forms a tubular coaxial collecting electrode. The rhodium or cobalt tubular emitting electrode contains a ductile central conducting cable placed along the longitudinal axis of the detector. The latter is in high nickel steel with a low reaction to radiation [fr

  11. New biomaterials obtained by action of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussens, G.

    1981-10-01

    Use of artificial materials is developing fast in surgery and medicine techniques: prosthesis, implants, contact lenses, blood pumps ... Preparation or modification of polymers by ionizing radiation to improve biocompatibility are briefly reviewed [fr

  12. Radiation protection and the development of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, P.; Fitoussi, L.

    1975-01-01

    Radiological hazards are defined. Following a short explanation of the International Commission on Radiation Protection's permissible values of exposure, some indicators are given about the component of natural radioactivity [fr

  13. Radiation hardenable coating mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, D.D.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to coatings that harden under radiation and to their compositions. Specifically, this invention concerns unsaturated urethane resins polymerisable by addition and to compositions, hardening under the effect of radiation, containing these resins. These resins feature the presence of at least one unsaturated ethylenic terminal group of structure CH 2 =C and containing the product of the reaction of an organic isocyanate compound with at least two isocyanate groups and one polyester polyol with at least two hydroxyl groups, and one unsaturated monomer compound polymerisable by addition having a single active hydrogen group reacting with the isocyanate [fr

  14. Altmetric: 165More detailArticle | OPENClimate change-induced increases in precipitation are reducing the potential for solar ultraviolet radiation to inactivate pathogens in surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is accelerating the release of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to inland and coastal waters through increases in precipitation, thawing of permafrost, and changes in vegetation. Our modeling approach suggests that the selective absorption of ultraviolet radiation (U...

  15. Radiation Control Act 1977 - No 66 of 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This Act regulates the use of radioactive materials and radiation-emitting devices. It sets up a Radiation Advisory Council to advise the competent authorities on questions within the scope of the Act, also with a view to radiation protection. The Act also lays down a licensing system for such materials and devices. The Radioactive Substances Acts 1954 and 1966 are repealed. (NEA) [fr

  16. Simultaneous whole-body PET-MRI in pediatric oncology. More than just reducing radiation?; Simultane Ganzkoerper-PET-MRT in der paediatrischen Onkologie. Mehr als nur Strahlenersparnis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatidis, S.; Gueckel, B.; Schaefer, J.F. [Universitaet Tuebingen, Radiologische Klinik, Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Fougere, C. la [Universitaet Tuebingen, Radiologische Klinik, Nuklearmedizin, Tuebingen (Germany); Schmitt, J. [Universitaet Tuebingen, Abteilung fuer Praeklinische Bildgebung und Radiopharmazie, Werner Siemens Imaging Center, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    Diagnostic imaging plays an essential role in pediatric oncology with regard to diagnosis, therapy-planning, and the follow-up of solid tumors. The current imaging standard in pediatric oncology includes a variety of radiological and nuclear medicine imaging modalities depending on the specific tumor entity. The introduction of combined simultaneous positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has opened up new diagnostic options in pediatric oncology. This novel modality combines the excellent anatomical accuracy of MRI with the metabolic information of PET. In initial clinical studies, the technical feasibility and possible diagnostic advantages of combined PET-MRI have been in comparison with alternative imaging techniques. It was shown that a reduction in radiation exposure of up to 70 % is achievable compared with PET-CT. Furthermore, it has been shown that the number of imaging studies necessary can be markedly reduced using combined PET-MRI. Owing to its limited availability, combined PET-MRI is currently not used as a routine procedure. However, this new modality has the potential to become the imaging reference standard in pediatric oncology in the future. This review article summarizes the central aspects of pediatric oncological PET-MRI based on existing literature. Typical pediatric oncological PET-MRI cases are also presented. (orig.) [German] Die bildgebende Diagnostik spielt in der paediatrischen Onkologie eine zentrale Rolle fuer die Diagnose, die Therapieplanung und die Nachsorge solider Tumoren. Der aktuell bildgebende Standard in der paediatrischen Onkologie sieht - abhaengig von der vorliegenden Tumorentitaet - eine Kombination mehrerer radiologischer und nuklearmedizinischer Verfahren vor. Die Einfuehrung der simultanen Positronenemissionstomographie(PET)-Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) hat neuartige Moeglichkeiten der Diagnostik in der paediatrischen Onkologie eroeffnet. Dabei kombiniert dieses neue Verfahren die

  17. Doses of Coronary Study in 64 Channel Multi-Detector Computed Tomography : Reduced Radiation Dose According to Varity of Examnination Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Moon Chan

    2009-01-01

    To compare radiation dose for coronary CT angiography (CTA) obtained with 6 examination protocols such as a retrospectively ECG gated helical scan, a prospectively ECG gated sequential scan, low kVp technique, and cardiac dose modulation technique. Coronary CTA was performed by using 6 current clinical protocols to evaluate effective dose and organ dose in primary beam area with anthropomorphic female phantom and glass dosimetric system in 64 channel multi-detector CT. After acquiring topograms of frontal and lateral projection with 80 kVp and 10 mA, main coronary scan was done with 0.35 sec tube rotation time, 40 mm collimation (0.625 mm x 64 ea), small scan field of view (32 cm diameter), 105 mm scan length. Heart beat rate of phantom was maintained 60 bpm in ECG gating. In constant mAs technique 120 kVp, 600 mA was used, and 100 kVp for low kVp technique. In a retrospectively ECG gated helical CT technique 0.22 pitch was used, peak mA (600 mA) was adopted in range of 40-80% of R-R interval and 120 mA (80% reduction) in others with cardiac dose modulation. And 210 mAs was used without cardiac dose modulation. In a prospectively ECG gated sequential CT technique data were acquired at 75% R-R interval (middle diastolic phase in cardiac cycle), and 120 msec additional padding of the tube-on time was used. For effective dose calculation region specific conversion factor of dose length product in thorax was used, which was recommended by EUR 16262. The mean effective dose for conventional coronary CTA without cardiac dose modulation in a retrospectively ECG gated helical scan was 17.8 mSv, and mean organ dose of heart was 103.8 mGy. With low kVp and cardiac dose modulation the mean effective dose showed 54.5% reduction, and heart dose showed 52.3% reduction, compared with that of conventional coronary CTA. And at the sequential scan(SnapShot pulse mode) under prospective ECG gating the mean effective dose was 4.9 mSv, this represents an 72.5% reduction compared with

  18. Induction of growth stimulation in skin fibroblasts from retinoblastoma donors after ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diatloff-Zito, C.; Macieira-Coelho, A.; Turleau, C.; Cabanis, M.O.; Grouchy, J. de

    1983-01-01

    Skin fibroblasts from normal children and two children with a 13q14 deletion retinoblastoma (Rb) were submitted to fractionated doses of γ radiations. Irradiation reduced the population doublings in normal fibroblasts and the decline was inversely related to the dose. An increase in population doublings was obtained with one of the Rb cell lines. Foci appeared in the irradiated culture of the other Rb donor. It is suggested that fibroblasts from patients with Rb are able to express some phenotypical properties of transformed cells, perhaps related to factors rendering them more susceptible to carcinogens [fr

  19. 76 FR 78095 - Applying for Free and Reduced Price Meals in the National School Lunch Program and School...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... 0584-AD54 [FNS-2007-0023] Applying for Free and Reduced Price Meals in the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program and for Benefits in the Special Milk Program, and Technical... school meals to implement nondiscretionary provisions of the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act...

  20. 78 FR 41857 - Simplified Cost Accounting and Other Actions To Reduce Paperwork in the Summer Food Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... CFR Parts 210 and 225 RIN 0584-AD84 Simplified Cost Accounting and Other Actions To Reduce Paperwork... Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008. The changes extend simplified cost accounting and reporting procedures... nondiscretionary simplified cost accounting and reporting procedures established in the Consolidated Appropriations...

  1. Effectiveness and limitations of parameter tuning in reducing biases of top-of-atmosphere radiation and clouds in MIROC version 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Tomoo; Shiogama, Hideo; Watanabe, Masahiro; Yoshimori, Masakazu; Yokohata, Tokuta; Annan, James D.; Hargreaves, Julia C.; Ushigami, Naoto; Hirota, Kazuya; Someya, Yu; Kamae, Youichi; Tatebe, Hiroaki; Kimoto, Masahide

    2017-12-01

    This study discusses how much of the biases in top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation and clouds can be removed by parameter tuning in the present-day simulation of a climate model in the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) generation. We used output of a perturbed parameter ensemble (PPE) experiment conducted with an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) without flux adjustment. The Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate version 5 (MIROC5) was used for the PPE experiment. Output of the PPE was compared with satellite observation data to evaluate the model biases and the parametric uncertainty of the biases with respect to TOA radiation and clouds. The results indicate that removing or changing the sign of the biases by parameter tuning alone is difficult. In particular, the cooling bias of the shortwave cloud radiative effect at low latitudes could not be removed, neither in the zonal mean nor at each latitude-longitude grid point. The bias was related to the overestimation of both cloud amount and cloud optical thickness, which could not be removed by the parameter tuning either. However, they could be alleviated by tuning parameters such as the maximum cumulus updraft velocity at the cloud base. On the other hand, the bias of the shortwave cloud radiative effect in the Arctic was sensitive to parameter tuning. It could be removed by tuning such parameters as albedo of ice and snow both in the zonal mean and at each grid point. The obtained results illustrate the benefit of PPE experiments which provide useful information regarding effectiveness and limitations of parameter tuning. Implementing a shallow convection parameterization is suggested as a potential measure to alleviate the biases in radiation and clouds.

  2. Effectiveness and limitations of parameter tuning in reducing biases of top-of-atmosphere radiation and clouds in MIROC version 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ogura

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses how much of the biases in top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiation and clouds can be removed by parameter tuning in the present-day simulation of a climate model in the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5 generation. We used output of a perturbed parameter ensemble (PPE experiment conducted with an atmosphere–ocean general circulation model (AOGCM without flux adjustment. The Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate version 5 (MIROC5 was used for the PPE experiment. Output of the PPE was compared with satellite observation data to evaluate the model biases and the parametric uncertainty of the biases with respect to TOA radiation and clouds. The results indicate that removing or changing the sign of the biases by parameter tuning alone is difficult. In particular, the cooling bias of the shortwave cloud radiative effect at low latitudes could not be removed, neither in the zonal mean nor at each latitude–longitude grid point. The bias was related to the overestimation of both cloud amount and cloud optical thickness, which could not be removed by the parameter tuning either. However, they could be alleviated by tuning parameters such as the maximum cumulus updraft velocity at the cloud base. On the other hand, the bias of the shortwave cloud radiative effect in the Arctic was sensitive to parameter tuning. It could be removed by tuning such parameters as albedo of ice and snow both in the zonal mean and at each grid point. The obtained results illustrate the benefit of PPE experiments which provide useful information regarding effectiveness and limitations of parameter tuning. Implementing a shallow convection parameterization is suggested as a potential measure to alleviate the biases in radiation and clouds.

  3. Factories Act 1961, Ionizing Radiations (Unsealed Radioactive Substances) Regulations 1968, Certificate of Approval No.1 (General)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Under the Ionising Radiations (Unsealed Radioactive Substances) Regulations No. 780 of 1968, the Chief Inspector of Factories has wide powers to ensure the protection of workers. By this Certificate he approved, for the purpose of measuring radiation doses, any radiation dosemeter, based on the phenomenon of radiation-induced thermoluminescence, supplied by an approved laboratory. (NEA) [fr

  4. 78 FR 51754 - Request To Modify License by Replacing Security Plan With New Radiation Safety Plan; U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... Replacing Security Plan With New Radiation Safety Plan; U.S. Department of the Army, Jefferson Proving... security plan with a new radiation safety plan. DATES: Submit comments by September 20, 2013. Requests for.... The proposed change is to modify License Condition No. 12 D which refers to the security plan of...

  5. The principles of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The aim of radiation protection is to avoid or to reduce the risks linked to ionizing radiation. In order to reduce these risks, the radiation protection uses three great principles: justification, optimization and limitation of radiation doses. to apply these principles, the radiation protection has regulatory and technical means adapted to three different categories of people: public, patients and workers. The nuclear safety authority elaborates the regulation, and carries out monitoring of the reliable application of radiation protection system. (N.C.)

  6. Navvus FFR to reduce CONTRAst, Cost and radiaTion (CONTRACT); insights from a single-centre clinical and economical evaluation with the RXi Rapid-Exchange FFR device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masdjedi, Kaneshka; Van Mieghem, Nicolas M; Diletti, Roberto; van Geuns, Robert-Jan; de Jaegere, Peter; Regar, Evelyn; Zijlstra, Felix; van Domburg, Ron T; Daemen, Joost

    2017-04-15

    To assess whether the RXi Navvus system compared to the use of standard Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) wires reduces total contrast volume, radiation and overall study cost in a real world patient population referred for coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention. FFR is the mainstay of functional hemodynamic assessment of coronary artery lesions. The RXi Navvus system (ACIST Medical Systems, Eden Prairie, MN) is a monorail microcatheter with FFR-measurement capability through optical pressure sensor technology. This is an investigator-initiated, prospective, single-center, observational cohort study. A total of 238 patients were enrolled, 97 patients with Navvus and 141 with conventional pressure-wire based FFR (PW-FFR). Final analyses were performed on the cohort in which only 1 device was used (82 Navvus procedures vs. 136 PW-FFR procedures). No significant differences were found in the total amount of contrast used (150±77 vs 147±79ml; p=0.81), radiation use (6200±4601 vs. 5076±4655 centiG∗cm 2 ; p=0.09) or costs (€1994,- vs. €1930,-; p=0.32) in the Navvus vs. PW-FFR groups respectively. No significant differences were found in the amount of contrast used, total procedural costs or radiation when the Navvus system was used as compared to conventional FFR wires. CONTRACT is an investigator-initiated, prospective, single-center, observational cohort study that evaluated whether the RXi Navvus system compared to the use of standard Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) wires reduces total contrast volume, radiation and overall study cost in a real world patient population referred for coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention. Use of the RXi Navvus system was associated with comparable procedural costs, amount of radiation and contrast used as compared to PW-FFR systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Topical application of β-radiation to reduce intimal hyperplasia after carotid artery balloon injury in rabbit A possible application for brachytherapy in vascular surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, David; Stevens, Scott L.; Skillern, C.S.; Wellons, Eric D.; Robinson, Keith; Matsuura, John H.; Gannon, Brian J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Endovascular brachytherapy for the prevention of intimal hyperplasia (IH) and restenosis after balloon/stent angioplasty has proven effective both in animal preparations and clinical trials. A variety of β-emitting isotopes and catheter-based devices have been developed for the delivery of low-dose radiation in clinical coronary and peripheral trials. No platform, however, has yet been developed for brachytherapy in concert with vascular surgical operations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vascular histopathologic response following balloon injury to rabbit carotid arteries with and without topically applied low-dose β-radiation. Methods: The β-emitting isotope strontium-90 (Sr-90) was conjugated onto the matrix of polypropylene (PLYP) mesh. Rabbit carotid arteries were balloon-injured with a no. 2 embolectomy catheter. Six carotid arteries were wrapped with nonradioactive PLYP mesh (controls) and Sr-90 (∼90 μCi) PLYP mesh in order to deliver low-dose radiation to the vessel wall from the external (adventitial) surface. Tissue was harvested at 6 weeks and processed for histologic examination. Results: There was consistent blockade of fibrocellular neointima formation with virtually no neointima present in all treated segments, compared to moderate neointima formation in controls. Medial thinning and smooth muscle cell (SMC) necrosis were also associated with topical brachytherapy. Conclusion: β-Radiation applied by an externally wrapped PLYP mesh labeled with Sr-90 markedly suppressed neointima formation in an animal vascular surgical injury model. Further studies, however, are necessary to determine a suitable isotope and dosage for clinical application

  8. Ionizing radiation from 60Co and electron accelerator in reducing the population of Salmonella sp. inoculated in chicken meatballs: evaluation of acceptance by consumer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Juliana

    2003-01-01

    Salmonella sp. is one of the main microorganisms that causes outbreaks of food borne diseases associated to poultry, and among its derivatives, the chicken meatballs are getting the favorites of the consumer. In the attempt to improve microbiological food safety, a method that has been hardly studied is the irradiation. To study the viability of the use o ionizing radiation originated from 60 Co and electrons accelerator in the reduction of Salmonella sp., frozen chickens meatballs were inoculated with 10 4 CFU/g of Salmonella sp., with needle and syringe. Subsequently they were exposure to doses of 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy and Salmonella sp. was enumerated. Chicken meatballs were exposed to doses 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 kGy and submitted to sensory analysis. The gamma radiation from 60 CO was effective in the reduction of Salmonella sp. inoculated in chicken meatballs. The ionizing radiation originated from electron beam was not effective in the conditions applied in this research. The commercial chicken meatballs prepared with chicken meat, mixed up with soy protein, seasoning and anti-oxidants additives did not loose their sensorial quality when exposure to doses of 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 kGy and, in a general way, the consumers showed to be disposed to buy the irradiation product (author)

  9. A miR-21 inhibitor enhances apoptosis and reduces G2-M accumulation induced by ionizing radiation in human glioblastoma U251 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yi; Li, Qiang; Asai, Akio; Kawamoto, Keiji; Zhao Shiguang; Zhen Yunbo; Teng Lei

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that take part in diverse biological processes by suppressing target gene expression. Elevated expression of miR-21 has been reported in many types of human cancers. Radiotherapy is a standard adjuvant treatment for patients with glioblastoma. However, the resistance of glioblastoma cells to radiation limits the success of this treatment. In this study, we found that miR-21 expression was upregulated in response to ionizing radiation (IR) in U251 cells, which suggested that miR-21 could be involved in the response of U251 cells to radiation. We showed that a miR-21 inhibitor enhanced IR-induced glioblastoma cell growth arrest and increased the level of apoptosis, which was probably caused by abrogation of the G 2 -M arrest induced by IR. Further research demonstrated that the miR-21 inhibitor induced the upregulation of Cdc25A. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-21 inhibitor can increase IR-induced growth arrest and apoptosis in U251 glioblastoma cells, at least in part by abrogating G 2 -M arrest, and that Cdc25A is a potential target of miR-21. (author)

  10. REC-2006-A Fractionated Extract of Podophyllum hexandrum Protects Cellular DNA from Radiation-Induced Damage by Reducing the Initial Damage and Enhancing Its Repair In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Pankaj; Shukla, Sandeep Kumar; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Podophyllum hexandrum, a perennial herb commonly known as the Himalayan May Apple, is well known in Indian and Chinese traditional systems of medicine. P. hexandrum has been widely used for the treatment of venereal warts, skin infections, bacterial and viral infections, and different cancers of the brain, lung and bladder. This study aimed at elucidating the effect of REC-2006, a bioactive fractionated extract from the rhizome of P. hexandrum, on the kinetics of induction and repair of radiation-induced DNA damage in murine thymocytes in vivo. We evaluated its effect on non-specific radiation-induced DNA damage by the alkaline halo assay in terms of relative nuclear spreading factor (RNSF) and gene-specific radiation-induced DNA damage via semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Whole body exposure of animals with gamma rays (10 Gy) caused a significant amount of DNA damage in thymocytes (RNSF values 17.7 ± 0.47, 12.96 ± 1.64 and 3.3 ± 0.014) and a reduction in the amplification of β-globin gene to 0, 28 and 43% at 0, 15 and 60 min, respectively. Administrating REC-2006 at a radioprotective concentration (15 mg kg(-1) body weight) 1 h before irradiation resulted in time-dependent reduction of DNA damage evident as a decrease in RNSF values 6.156 ± 0.576, 1.647 ± 0.534 and 0.496 ± 0.012, and an increase in β-globin gene amplification 36, 95 and 99%, at 0, 15 and 60 min, respectively. REC-2006 scavenged radiation-induced hydroxyl radicals in a dose-dependent manner stabilized DPPH free radicals and also inhibited superoxide anions. Various polyphenols and flavonoides present in REC-2006 might contribute to scavenging of radiation-induced free radicals, thereby preventing DNA damage and stimulating its repair.

  11. Process for reducing the pertechnetate anion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddock, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    Process for reducing the 'pertechnetate' ion TcO 4 - , whereby an aqueous solution of 'pertechnetate' is mixed with tin metal or a tin alloy as 'pertechnetate' reducing agent, and a soluble salt of a metal below tin in the electro-chemical tension scale, as activator for the reducing tin. This reduced 'pertechnetate' is used for forming usable complexes in medical diagnosis exploration [fr

  12. High energy radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosburgh, K.G.

    1975-01-01

    The high energy radiation detector described comprises a set of closely spaced wedge reflectors. Each wedge reflector is composed of three sides forming identical isoceles triangles with a common apex and an open base forming an equilateral triangle. The length of one side of the base is less than the thickness of the coat of material sensitive to high energy radiation. The wedge reflectors reflect the light photons spreading to the rear of the coat in such a way that each reflected track is parallel to the incident track of the light photon spreading rearwards. The angle of the three isosceles triangles with a common apex is between 85 and 95 deg. The first main surface of the coat of high energy radiation sensitive material is in contact with the projecting edges of the surface of the wedge reflectors of the reflecting element [fr

  13. 76 FR 4944 - Ionizing Radiation Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... Radiation Standard protect workers from the adverse health effects that may result from occupational... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration [Docket No. OSHA-2010-0030... Information Collection (Paperwork) Requirements AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA...

  14. Protection of radiation induced DNA and membrane damages by total triterpenes isolated from Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smina, T P; Maurya, D K; Devasagayam, T P A; Janardhanan, K K

    2015-05-25

    The total triterpenes isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum was examined for its potential to prevent γ-radiation induced membrane damage in rat liver mitochondria and microsomes. The effects of total triterpenes on γ-radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in pBR 322 plasmid DNA in vitro and human peripheral blood lymphocytes ex vivo were evaluated. The protective effect of total triterpenes against γ-radiation-induced micronuclei formations in mice bone marrow cells in vivo were also evaluated. The results indicated the significant effectiveness of Ganoderma triterpenes in protecting the DNA and membrane damages consequent to the hazardous effects of radiation. The findings suggest the potential use of Ganoderma triterpenes in radio therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study on reducing radiation dose in dental radiography for children, 1. The seltering effects of lead content rubber sheet and ready-made apron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shikone, Mitsuru; Tsuchida, Atsushi; Tateno, Hidemi; Uchimura, Noboru; Higaki, Morio; Kanno, Masanori; Higashi, Tomomitsu

    1986-12-01

    X-ray examination is one of the effective diagnoses in dentistry. And it is difficult to conduct a precise dental examination without X-ray films, especially in pedodontics. However, radiography may be attended with many radiation injury, and we must perform the complete protection of patients when taking X-ray radiography for children, because their tissues are much more sensitive to radiation than those of adult. Children have some radiosensitive immature organs such as the thyroid gland, eyes (crystalline lens), gonad etc., accordingly, it is very important to protect them from exposure of X-rey. It has been suggested that the thyroid gland is the most sensitive to radiation among many organs. We, therefore, establish a protector for children's thyroid gland as soon as possible. In this study, the auther had designed X-ray protecting rubber sheet which had various lead contents, for finding an optimum condition of the protector. Additionally, the sheltering effects were compared among ready-made protectors. 1. It was satisfactory for complete sheltering of direct beam that the rubber sheet contained 0.375 mmPb, 0.5 mmPb, and 0.75 mmPb, at the tubevoltage of 65 kVp, 70 kVp and 80 kVp, respectively. 2. The radiolucency ratio of Hagoromo Apron containing 0.25 mmPb was 0 % at 65 kVp, and that of X-ray Shield containing 0.50 mmPb was 0 % at 65, 70 kVp and 80 kVp too. 3. Among the ready-made aprons, there was one which had less lead content than the indicated value.

  16. Sudden Exposure to Solar UV-B Radiation Reduces Net CO2 Uptake and Photosystem I Efficiency in Shade-Acclimated Tropical Tree Seedlings1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, G. Heinrich; Grube, Esther; Virgo, Aurelio; Winter, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Tree seedlings developing in the understory of the tropical forest have to endure short periods of high-light stress when tree-fall gaps are formed, and direct solar radiation, including substantial UV light, reaches the leaves. In experiments simulating the opening of a tree-fall gap, the response of photosynthesis in leaves of shade-acclimated seedlings (Anacardium excelsum, Virola surinamensis, and Calophyllum longifolium) to exposure to direct sunlight (for 20–50 min) was investigated in Panama (9°N). To assess the effects of solar UV-B radiation (280–320 nm), the sunlight was filtered through plastic films that selectively absorbed UV-B or transmitted the complete spectrum. The results document a strong inhibition of CO2 assimilation by sun exposure. Light-limited and light-saturated rates of photosynthetic CO2 uptake by the leaves were affected, which apparently occurred independently of a simultaneous inhibition of potential photosystem (PS) II efficiency. The ambient UV-B light substantially contributed to these effects. The photochemical capacity of PSI, measured as absorbance change at 810 nm in saturating far-red light, was not significantly affected by sun exposure of the seedlings. However, a decrease in the efficiency of P700 photooxidation by far-red light was observed, which was strongly promoted by solar UV-B radiation. The decrease in PSI efficiency may result from enhanced charge recombination in the reaction center, which might represent an incipient inactivation of PSI, but contributes to thermal dissipation of excessive light energy and thereby to photoprotection. PMID:12586898

  17. The EOS 2D/3D X-ray imaging system: A cost-effectiveness analysis quantifying the health benefits from reduced radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Rita; McKenna, Claire; Wade, Ros; Yang, Huiqin; Woolacott, Nerys; Sculpher, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the EOS ® 2D/3D X-ray imaging system compared with standard X-ray for the diagnosis and monitoring of orthopaedic conditions. Materials and methods: A decision analytic model was developed to quantify the long-term costs and health outcomes, expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) from the UK health service perspective. Input parameters were obtained from medical literature, previously developed cancer models and expert advice. Threshold analysis was used to quantify the additional health benefits required, over and above those associated with radiation-induced cancers, for EOS ® to be considered cost-effective. Results: Standard X-ray is associated with a maximum health loss of 0.001 QALYs, approximately 0.4 of a day in full health, while the loss with EOS ® is a maximum of 0.00015 QALYs, or 0.05 of a day in full health. On a per patient basis, EOS ® is more expensive than standard X-ray by between £10.66 and £224.74 depending on the assumptions employed. The results suggest that EOS ® is not cost-effective for any indication. Health benefits over and above those obtained from lower radiation would need to double for EOS to be considered cost-effective. Conclusion: No evidence currently exists on whether there are health benefits associated with imaging improvements from the use of EOS ® . The health benefits from radiation dose reductions are very small. Unless EOS ® can generate additional health benefits as a consequence of the nature and quality of the image, comparative patient throughput with X-ray will be the major determinant of cost-effectiveness

  18. The EOS 2D/3D X-ray imaging system: A cost-effectiveness analysis quantifying the health benefits from reduced radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Rita, E-mail: rita.nevesdefaria@york.ac.uk [Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York (United Kingdom); McKenna, Claire [Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Wade, Ros; Yang, Huiqin; Woolacott, Nerys [Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Sculpher, Mark [Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the EOS{sup ®} 2D/3D X-ray imaging system compared with standard X-ray for the diagnosis and monitoring of orthopaedic conditions. Materials and methods: A decision analytic model was developed to quantify the long-term costs and health outcomes, expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) from the UK health service perspective. Input parameters were obtained from medical literature, previously developed cancer models and expert advice. Threshold analysis was used to quantify the additional health benefits required, over and above those associated with radiation-induced cancers, for EOS{sup ®} to be considered cost-effective. Results: Standard X-ray is associated with a maximum health loss of 0.001 QALYs, approximately 0.4 of a day in full health, while the loss with EOS{sup ®} is a maximum of 0.00015 QALYs, or 0.05 of a day in full health. On a per patient basis, EOS{sup ®} is more expensive than standard X-ray by between £10.66 and £224.74 depending on the assumptions employed. The results suggest that EOS{sup ®} is not cost-effective for any indication. Health benefits over and above those obtained from lower radiation would need to double for EOS to be considered cost-effective. Conclusion: No evidence currently exists on whether there are health benefits associated with imaging improvements from the use of EOS{sup ®}. The health benefits from radiation dose reductions are very small. Unless EOS{sup ®} can generate additional health benefits as a consequence of the nature and quality of the image, comparative patient throughput with X-ray will be the major determinant of cost-effectiveness.

  19. Ordinance of 12 January 1972 on Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    This Ordinance made under the 1969 Act on Radiation Protection aims to supplement the Act with many detailed provisions on protection against ionizing radiation. It is divided into 4 parts: the first covers definitions on radiation protection, which are generally the same as those of the 1969 Act; the second relates to radiation-emitting equipment, in particular X-ray devices and particle accelerators; the third concerns radioactive materials and the fourth nuclear installations. (NEA) [fr

  20. Ministerial Decree of 12 May 1980 authorizing AGIP Nucleare S.p.a., in Rome, to underline physical and medical supervision for radiation protection purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Under Section 83 of Presidential Decree No. 185 of 13 February 1964 on radiation protection, this Decree authorizes Agip Nucleare to undertake physical and medical surveillance in the field of radiation protection. (NEA) [fr

  1. Regulations No. 187 of 31 May 1988 amending section 7 of the regulations on protective measures during work involving ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    These regulations amend regulations No. 1157 of 14 Jun 1985 on protective measures during radiation work. Henceforth workers simultaneously exposed to radiation and cytostatic substances must be given special work instructions to secure their safety. (NEA) [fr

  2. Improved image quality with simultaneously reduced radiation exposure: Knowledge-based iterative model reconstruction algorithms for coronary CT angiography in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Florian; Fortner, Philipp; Vembar, Mani; Mueller, Dirk; Stiller, Wolfram; Buss, Sebastian J; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Katus, Hugo A; Korosoglou, Grigorios

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential for radiation dose reduction using knowledge-based iterative model reconstruction (K-IMR) algorithms in combination with ultra-low dose body mass index (BMI)-adapted protocols in coronary CT angiography (coronary CTA). Forty patients undergoing clinically indicated coronary CTA were randomly assigned to two groups with BMI-adapted (I: quality was significantly better in the ULD group using K-IMR CR 1 compared to FBP, iD 2 and iD 5 in the LD group, resulting in fewer non-diagnostic coronary segments (2.4% vs. 11.6%, 9.2% and 6.1%; p quality compared to LD protocols with FBP or hybrid iterative algorithms. Therefore, K-IMR allows for coronary CTA examinations with high diagnostic value and very low radiation exposure in clinical routine. Copyright © 2017 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiation treatment of foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, T.; Huebner, G.

    1990-10-01

    In addition to fundamental demands on radiation and safety engineering of irradiation facilities, the necessity arises to optimize irradiation conditions by using facilities to capacity and thus reducing irradiation costs. The following subjects are dealt with in detail: rehabilitation of a pilot plant for radiation treatment of onions; examination of radiation resistance of components and equipment parts of food irradiation facilities; chemical dosimetry; relative measurement of the intensity of radioactive sources; thermo- and chemiluminescence to prove irradiation of foodstuffs; radiation induced sprout inhibition of potatoes; laboratory tests of delayed maturation of tomatoes; radiation treatment of strawberries; radiation treatment of forage; radiation induced sprout inhibition of acid-treated onions; radiation treatment of starch and potatoe products; radiation treatment of cosmetics; the universal radiation source UNI 88/26 for gamma irradiation facilities; microbiological aspects of food irradiation, and introduction of chicken irradiation on an industrial scale. (BBR) [de

  4. Evaluation of general-purpose collimators against high-resolution collimators with resolution recovery with a view to reducing radiation dose in myocardial perfusion SPECT: A preliminary phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ian S; Saint, Kimberley J; Tonge, Christine M; Arumugam, Parthiban

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing focus on reducing radiation dose to patients undergoing myocardial perfusion imaging. This preliminary phantom study aims to evaluate the use of general-purpose collimators with resolution recovery (RR) to allow a reduction in patient radiation dose. Images of a cardiac torso phantom with inferior and anterior wall defects were acquired on a GE Infinia and Siemens Symbia T6 using both high-resolution and general-purpose collimators. Imaging time, a surrogate for administered activity, was reduced between 35% and 40% with general-purpose collimators to match the counts acquired with high-resolution collimators. Images were reconstructed with RR with and without attenuation correction. Two pixel sizes were also investigated. Defect contrast was measured. Defect contrast on general-purpose images was superior or comparable to the high-resolution collimators on both systems despite the reduced imaging time. Infinia general-purpose images required a smaller pixel size to be used to maintain defect contrast, while Symbia T6 general-purpose images did not require a change in pixel size to that used for standard myocardial perfusion SPECT. This study suggests that general-purpose collimators with RR offer a potential for substantial dose reductions while providing similar or better image quality to images acquired using high-resolution collimators.

  5. Selection of values of design peak heat flux to reduce the risk of waterside corrosion in F.R. steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, P.R.; Garnsey, R.

    1975-01-01

    Attention is drawn to the high levels of peak heat Flux that can exist in sodium heated steam generators. The strength of the relationship between heat, flux and both deposition rate and the concentration of salts is discussed. Relevant steam generator operational experience obtained on the C.E.G.B. system is described and tentative proposals are made for limits to he to the peak heat flux values used in F.R. steam generator design. (author)

  6. Selection of values of design peak heat flux to reduce the risk of waterside corrosion in F.R. steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolt, P R; Garnsey, R

    1975-07-01

    Attention is drawn to the high levels of peak heat Flux that can exist in sodium heated steam generators. The strength of the relationship between heat, flux and both deposition rate and the concentration of salts is discussed. Relevant steam generator operational experience obtained on the C.E.G.B. system is described and tentative proposals are made for limits to he to the peak heat flux values used in F.R. steam generator design. (author)

  7. Radiation myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, D A [Derbyshire Royal Infirmary, Derby (UK)

    1979-10-01

    Following high-dose radiotherapy treatment of tumours, there is a risk of destructive radiation myelopathy developing a few months later as a result of spinal cord irradiation. The emphasis of the present article is on the mechanism of the development of radiation myelopathy. It is suggested that, in the irradiated segments, the normal endothelial cells lining the penetrating arteries and capillaries are replaced by abnormal cells during the latent period. Radiation-induced mutations or chromosomal aberrations are contained in these cells, thus provoking an immunological response. During the attempted rejection of these cells, protein-rich plasma filtrate is leaked into the artery walls and nervous tissue, causing the destructive myelopathy. The signs of paralysis of spinal cord function may be caused either by infarcts or by oedema of the white matter. Since both diagnosis and treatment are difficult, it is necessary to concentrate on prevention by, whenever possible, reducing radiation doses to below tolerance limits during radiotherapy. As regards radiotherapy in children, it is currently believed that there is little or no difference in radiation tolerance between the child and the adult nervous system. Some early benign forms of radiation myelopathy are also briefly discussed.

  8. Radiation myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    Following high-dose radiotherapy treatment of tumours, there is a risk of destructive radiation myelopathy developing a few months later as a result of spinal cord irradiation. The emphasis of the present article is on the mechanism of the development of radiation myelopathy. It is suggested that, in the irradiated segments, the normal endothelial cells lining the penetrating arteries and capillaries are replaced by abnormal cells during the latent period. Radiation-induced mutations or chromosomal aberrations are contained in these cells, thus provoking an immunological response. During the attempted rejection of these cells, protein-rich plasma filtrate is leaked into the artery walls and nervous tissue, causing the destructive myelopathy. The signs of paralysis of spinal cord function may be caused either by infarcts or by oedema of the white matter. Since both diagnosis and treatment are difficult, it is necessary to concentrate on prevention by, whenever possible, reducing radiation doses to below tolerance limits during radiotherapy. As regards radiotherapy in children, it is currently believed that there is little or no difference in radiation tolerance between the child and the adult nervous system. Some early benign forms of radiation myelopathy are also briefly discussed. (UK)

  9. Radiation in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The report presents facts about radiation, its origin and risks. It is stated that the natural radiation is dependent on the bedrock. Various control methods and ways to reduce high radiation levels are described. The information is based upon present-day knowledge of the inconvenience about radon. (G.B.)

  10. Overexpression of extracellular superoxide dismutase reduces severity of radiation-induced lung toxicity through downregulation of the TGF-β signal transduction pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabbani, Z.N.; Anscher, M.S.; Archer, E.; Chen, L.; Samulski, T.V.; Folz, R.J.; Dewhirst, M.W.; Vujaskovic, Z.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether overexpression of ECSOD, ameliorates acute radiation induced lung injury by inhibiting activation of TGF-β and down regulating phosphorylation of (p)Smad 3 signal transduction protein. Transgenic (TG) B6C3 mice that overexpress human EC-SOD (hEC-SOD) and wild-type (WT) littermates received single dose of 15 Gy to the whole thorax and sacrificed at 1day, 1wk, 2wk, 3wk, 6wk, 10 and 14 weeks. Different endpoints were assessed to look for lung damage. Starting at 3rd week after radiation, there was significant increase in breathing rates, right lung wet weights and lung tissue damage score of XRT-WT vs. XRT-TG (p<0.05). In BALF, total cell counts per ml were significantly increased in XRT-WT whereas XRT-TG animals did not show any significant increase except at 14 weeks after irradiation (p<0.05). Macrophages and lymphocytes were the predominant inflammatory cells in BALF of XRT-WT compared to XRT-TG (p<0.05). XRT-WT group had a significantly higher percentage of activated TGF-β1 than the XRT-TG (p=0.04) at 14 weeks. There was a mild immunoreactivity of pSmad3 in bronchial epithelium and type II pneumocytes of control animals. In XRT-WT pSmad3 immunostaining was moderate at 1 week and moderate to strong at 3, 6 and 10 weeks whereas in XRT-TG mice immmunostaining was mild to moderate. This study shows that, the overexpression of ECSOD in transgenic animals is radioprotective in acute phase of radiation induced lung injury. Fewer inflammatory cells in XRT-TG group confirms the deprivation of important source for free radicals and TGF-β cytokine. Significant reduction in TGF-β activation in ECSOD overexpressing animals, followed by downregulation of pSmad3 indicates important role of reactive oxygen species in activation of TGF-β signal transduction pathway

  11. Radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, F.; Rodgers, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book include: Interaction of ionizing radiation with matter; Primary products in radiation chemistry; Theoretical aspects of radiation chemistry; Theories of the solvated electron; The radiation chemistry of gases; Radiation chemistry of colloidal aggregates; Radiation chemistry of the alkali halides; Radiation chemistry of polymers; Radiation chemistry of biopolymers; Radiation processing and sterilization; and Compound index

  12. Can use of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction reduce radiation dose in unenhanced head CT? An analysis of qualitative and quantitative image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Østerås, Bjørn Helge; Heggen, Kristin Livelten; Pedersen, Hans Kristian; Andersen, Hilde Kjernlie; Martinsen, Anne Catrine T

    2016-01-01

    Iterative reconstruction can reduce image noise and thereby facilitate dose reduction. To evaluate qualitative and quantitative image quality for full dose and dose reduced head computed tomography (CT) protocols reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR). Fourteen patients undergoing follow-up head CT were included. All patients underwent full dose (FD) exam and subsequent 15% dose reduced (DR) exam, reconstructed using FBP and 30% ASIR. Qualitative image quality was assessed using visual grading characteristics. Quantitative image quality was assessed using ROI measurements in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), white matter, peripheral and central gray matter. Additionally, quantitative image quality was measured in Catphan and vendor’s water phantom. There was no significant difference in qualitative image quality between FD FBP and DR ASIR. Comparing same scan FBP versus ASIR, a noise reduction of 28.6% in CSF and between −3.7 and 3.5% in brain parenchyma was observed. Comparing FD FBP versus DR ASIR, a noise reduction of 25.7% in CSF, and −7.5 and 6.3% in brain parenchyma was observed. Image contrast increased in ASIR reconstructions. Contrast-to-noise ratio was improved in DR ASIR compared to FD FBP. In phantoms, noise reduction was in the range of 3 to 28% with image content. There was no significant difference in qualitative image quality between full dose FBP and dose reduced ASIR. CNR improved in DR ASIR compared to FD FBP mostly due to increased contrast, not reduced noise. Therefore, we recommend using caution if reducing dose and applying ASIR to maintain image quality

  13. The Effect of Solvent, Hydrogen Peroxide and Dioxide Titanium on Degradation of PCBs, Using Microwave Radiation in Order to Reduce Occupational Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajik Reza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are one group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs that are of international concern because of global distribution, persistence, and toxicity. Removal of these compounds from the environment remains a very difficult challenge because the compounds are highly hydrophobic and have very low solubility in water. A 900 W domestic microwave oven, pyrex vessel reactor, pyrex tube connector and condensing system were used in this experiment. Radiation was discontinuous and ray powers were 540, 720 and 900 W. The PCBS were analyzed by GC-ECD. The application of microwave radiation and H2O2/TiO2 agents for the degradation of polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated oil was explored in this study. PCB – contaminated oil was treated in a pyrex reactor by microwave irradiation at 2450 MHz with the addition of H2O2/TiO2. A novel grain TiO2 (GT01 was used. The determination of PCB residues in oil by gas chromatography (GC revealed that rates of PCB decomposition were highly dependent on microwave power, exposure time, ratio to solvent with transformer oil in 3:1, the optimal amount of GT01 (0.2 g and 0.116 mol of H2O2 were used in the study. It was suggested that microwave irradiation with the assistance of H2O2/TiO2 might be a potential technology for the degradation of PCB – contaminated oil. The experiments show that MW irradiation, H2O2 oxidant and TiO2 catalyst lead to a degradation efficiency of PCBs only in the presence of ethanol. The results showed that the addition of ethanol significantly enhanced degradation efficiency of PCBs.

  14. Fabrication of sealed radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mars, Jean.

    1977-01-01

    The description is given for fabricating a sealed radiation source, consisting in depositing on a metal substrate a thin active coat of a radioelement, termed first coat, submitting this coated substrate to an oxidation treatment in order to obtain on the first coat an inactive coat of an oxide of the metal, termed second coat, and depositing a coat of varnish on this second inactive coat [fr

  15. Radiation (Safety Control) Ordinance 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Ordinance provides for the control, regulation, possession, use and transport of radioactive substance and irradiating apparatus. The Director of Health is responsible for administration of the Ordinance, which contains detailed provisions concerning the terms and conditions of licences, duties of licensees, medical examinations, maximum radiation doses, precautions to be taken to avoid exceeding such doses. The Ordinance also lays down a system of record-keeping and registration as well as packaging specifications for the transport of radioactive substances. (NEA) [fr

  16. Radiation Protection Decree 27.9.1957/328

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1957-01-01

    This Decree as amended was made under the Radiation Protection Act 1957 and deals with the protection of workers against ionizing radiation. It specifies the licensing procedure required for possession, use, trade in, export and import of radioactive materials and equipment. (NEA) [fr

  17. Power components behavior under nuclear radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaureguy, J.C.; Azais, B.

    1989-01-01

    Many apparatus, either fixed or on-board of vehicles, use power converters. The most common scheme includes chopper with bipolar transistors. In case of nuclear radiations, these equipments may be severely damaged. Depending on the disturbance level, the need for changes in power transistor technology has to be considered or not [fr

  18. Ceramic component with reinforced protection against radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubuisson, J.; Laville, H.; Le Gal, P.

    1986-01-01

    Ceramic components hardened against radiations are claimed (for example capacitors or ceramic substrates for semiconductors). They are prepared with a sintered ceramic containing a high proportion of heavy atoms (for instance barium titanate and a bismuth salt) provided with a glass layer containing a high proportion of light atoms. The two materials are joined by vitrification producing a diffusion zone at the interface [fr

  19. 11. National congress on ionizing radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theme of the Congress was centred on 'the development of radioprotection confronted with the progress of techniques using ionising radiations' in industry, energy, medicine and reseach. The 32 communications were distributed over the following 6 sessions: radioprotection and preventive medicine, radioprotection in a medical environment, radioprotection and energy, practical aspects of radioprotection, training and legislation in radioprotection [fr

  20. Radiative muon capture on nuclei and protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuelos, G.; Gorringe, T.P.; Henderson, R.; Macdonald, J.A.; Poutissou, J.M.; Azuelos, G.; Depommier, P.; Poutissou, R.; Ahmad, S.; Burnham, A.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Larabee, A.J.; Waltham, C.E.; Wright, D.H.; Armstrong, D.S.; Blecher, M.; Serna-Angel, A.; Bertl, W.; Chen, C.Q.; Zhang, N.S.; McDonald, S.C.; Taylor, G.N.; Robertson, B.C.

    1990-01-01

    A brief review is made of the study of gp, the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant, in radiative muon capture on light nuclei, and of motivations for a measurement on hydrogen, with particular emphasis on recent and ongoing experiments at TRIUMF [fr

  1. Radiation protection is also psychology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, A.

    1985-01-01

    Both as a field health physicist at a nuclear research center, and a leader of training sessions in health physics, the author considers the relations between the operator and the health physicist as well as the part the latter can play in order to reduce the highly emotional content of the radiological risk [fr

  2. Ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After having recalled some fundamental notions and measurement units related to ionizing radiations, this document describes various aspects of natural and occupational exposures: exposure modes and sources, exposure levels, biological effects, health impacts. Then, it presents prevention principles aimed at, in an occupational context of use of radiation sources (nuclear industry excluded), reducing and managing these exposures: risk assessment, implementation of safety from the front end. Some practical cases illustrate the radiation protection approach. The legal and regulatory framework is presented: general notions, worker exposure, measures specific to some worker categories (pregnant and breast feeding women, young workers, temporary workers). A last part describes what is to be done in case of incident or accident (dissemination of radioactive substances from unsealed sources, anomaly occurring when using a generator or a sealed source, post-accident situation)

  3. On the honeybee resistance to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtois, G.; Lecomte, J.

    1960-01-01

    The honeybee, when irradiated by gamma radiations from a cobalt-60 source can stand a 18000 r dose without any apparent harm. Noticeable harm is observed for 90000 r. while immediate death of 100% of the individuals is obtained with a 200000 r dose. The physiological condition of the honeybee plays an important role in its resistance to gamma radiation. Reprint of a paper published in Annales de l'abeille, IV, 1959, p. 285-290 [fr

  4. Protection against Ionizing Radiation, No. 1420

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of national legislative and regulatory provisions on radiation protection in force on 15 November 1978. In addition to the in extenso texts on the subject, only the relevant provisions in laws and regulations with a more general scope have been reproduced. This comprehensive compilation expands and updates a previous collection by the Official Gazette of the French Republic which covered only decrees and orders on the protection of workers against the hazards of ionizing radiation. (NEA) [fr

  5. Short interactive workshops reduce variability in contouring treatment volumes for spine stereotactic body radiation therapy: Experience with the ESTRO FALCON programme and EduCase™ training tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bari, Berardino; Dahele, Max; Palmu, Miika; Kaylor, Scott; Schiappacasse, Luis; Guckenberger, Matthias

    2017-11-20

    We report the results of 4, 2-h contouring workshops on target volume definition for spinal stereotactic radiotherapy. They combined traditional teaching methods with a web-based contouring/contour-analysis platform and led to a significant reduction in delineation variability. Short, interactive workshops can reduce interobserver variability in spine SBRT target volume delineation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Global existence of a generalized solution for the radiative transfer equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golse, F.; Perthame, B.

    1984-01-01

    We prove global existence of a generalized solution of the radiative transfer equations, extending Mercier's result to the case of a layer with an initially cold area. Our Theorem relies on the results of Crandall and Ligett [fr

  7. Radiation and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landfermann, H.H.; Solbach, C.

    1992-11-01

    The brochure explains the major types of radiation, the radiation sources, effects, uses, and risks, as well as the regulatory system adopted by the government in order to keep the risks as low as possible. (orig./DG) [de

  8. Implementation of a split-bolus single-pass CT protocol at a UK major trauma centre to reduce excess radiation dose in trauma pan-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, V.; Sastry, A.; Woo, T.D.; Jones, H.R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To quantify the dose reduction and ensure that the use of a split-bolus protocol provided sufficient vascular enhancement. Materials and methods: Between 1 January 2014 and 31 May 2014, both split bolus and traditional two-phase scans were performed on a single CT scanner (SOMATOM Definition AS+, Siemens Healthcare) using a two-pump injector (Medrad Stellant). Both protocols used Siemens' proprietary tube current and tube voltage modulation techniques (CARE dose and CARE kV). The protocols were compared retrospectively to assess the dose–length product (DLP), aortic radiodensity at the level of the coeliac axis and radiodensity of the portal vein. Results: There were 151 trauma CT examinations during this period. Seventy-eight used the split-bolus protocol. Seventy-one had traditional two-phase imaging. One patient was excluded as they were under the age of 18 years. The radiodensity measurements for the portal vein were significantly higher (p<0.001) in the split-bolus protocol. The mean aortic enhancement in both protocols exceeded 250 HU, although the traditional two-phase protocol gave greater arterial enhancement (p<0.001) than the split-bolus protocol. The split-bolus protocol had a significantly lower (p<0.001) DLP with 43.5% reduction in the mean DLP compared to the traditional protocol. Conclusion: Split-bolus CT imaging offers significant dose reduction for this relatively young population while retaining both arterial and venous enhancement. -- Highlights: •We implemented a split bolus pan-CT protocol for trauma CT. •We compared the radiation dose and vascular enhancement of the split bolus protocol to a traditional two phase protocol. •The split bolus protocol had a 43.5% reduction in mean DLP

  9. Optimizing CT technique to reduce radiation dose: effect of changes in kVp, iterative reconstruction, and noise index on dose and noise in a human cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kevin J; Collins, Scott; Li, Baojun; Mayo-Smith, William W

    2017-06-01

    For assessment of the effect of varying the peak kilovoltage (kVp), the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction technique (ASiR), and automatic dose modulation on radiation dose and image noise in a human cadaver, a cadaver torso underwent CT scanning at 80, 100, 120 and 140 kVp, each at ASiR settings of 0, 30 and 50 %, and noise indices (NIs) of 5.5, 11 and 22. The volume CT dose index (CTDI vol ), image noise, and attenuation values of liver and fat were analyzed for 20 data sets. Size-specific dose estimates (SSDEs) and liver-to-fat contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were calculated. Values for different combinations of kVp, ASiR, and NI were compared. The CTDI vol varied by a power of 2 with kVp values between 80 and 140 without ASiR. Increasing ASiR levels allowed a larger decrease in CTDI vol and SSDE at higher kVp than at lower kVp while image noise was held constant. In addition, CTDI vol and SSDE decreased with increasing NI at each kVp, but the decrease was greater at higher kVp than at lower kVp. Image noise increased with decreasing kVp despite a fixed NI; however, this noise could be offset with the use of ASiR. The CT number of the liver remained unchanged whereas that of fat decreased as the kVp decreased. Image noise and dose vary in a complicated manner when the kVp, ASiR, and NI are varied in a human cadaver. Optimization of CT protocols will require balancing of the effects of each of these parameters to maximize image quality while minimizing dose.

  10. Socioeconomic and hygienic aspects of nutrition correction and water supply in order to improve total resistance and reduce the risk of radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnikov, V.A.; Shandala, N.K.; Komleva, V.A.; Tutel'yan, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have experimentally demonstrated that selenium deficit in the dies of the population the Russian Federation increases the risk of cancer similarly as total irradiation dose equal to 200 sZv, that is, much more than the doses of irradiation of the population after the Chernobyl power plant accident. Artificial enrichment of diets for selenium helps reduce the risk of death from leukemia and cancer by 5 up to times. Combinations of trace elements and vitamins may bring about a still better effect. The authors discuss nutrition correction and its economic and social validity. 6 refs.; 3 tabs

  11. Reduced temperature (22 degrees C) results in enhancement of cell killing and neoplastic transformation in noncycling HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cells irradiated with low-dose-rate gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redpath, J.L.; Antoniono, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of reduced temperature (22 degrees C) or serum deprivation during low-dose-rate (0.66 cGy/min) γ irradiation on cell killing and neoplastic transformation has been examined using the HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cell system. The reduced temperature stops progression of these cells through the cell cycle while serum deprivation slows down cell turnover markedly. The data demonstrate an enhancement in both of the end points when cells are held at 22 degrees C compared to parallel experiments done at 37 degrees C. In operational terms, the decreased survival and increased neoplastic transformation are consistent with our earlier hypothesis of a higher probability of misrepair at reduced temperature. The interpretation that this damage enhancement was associated with the reduced temperature, and not the fact that the cells were noncycling, was supported by the results of experiments performed with cells cultured at 37 degrees C in serum-free medium for 35 h prior to and then during the 12.24 h low-dose-rate radiation exposure. Under these conditions, cell cycle progression, as shown by reduction in growth rate and dual-parameter flow cytometric analysis, was considerable inhibited (cell cycle time increased from 20 h to 40 h), and there was no significant enhancement of cell killing or neoplastic transformation. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Code of Nursing Practice for Staff Exposed to Ionizing Radiation (1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Code, published by the National Health and Medical Research Council and intended for nurses and auxiliary staff provides general guidance on radiation protection. The Code is supplementary to radiation control legislation relating to the use of ionizing radiation in medical practice. The principles established by the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) have been taken into account. (NEA) [fr

  13. Post-accident action for radiation protection: Reducing the transfer of radioiodine to milk in cows by adding stable iodine to the forage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, P.; Voigt, G.

    1999-01-01

    The publication summarizes the activities for the study and reports the measured results achieved. The usefulness of stable iodine administration to cows for reducing the radioiodine transfer to the milk is explained. It was found that enhanced stable radioiodine doses have an effect on the metabolism of dairy cows that has to be taken into account. Initially, a literature study was carried out, which then served as a basis for defining subsequent studies and experiments. The evaluation of the results yields information about the effects of stable iodine on the radioiodine transfer as well as the metabolic pathways of iodine in dairy cows. In order to achieve a clear transfer-reducing effect (by a factor of 2), doses of 1g/d have to be administered to a cow. This dose will lead to a stable iodine concentration in the milk of about 10 mg/kg. The WHO recommends a daily maximum of 0.5 mg of stable iodine in order to safely prevent adverse health effects in man. Ingestion of more than 2 mg/d may induce in man thyroid disorders and other metabolic disorders. In some countries, the reference level for dairy milk accepted is 0.5 mg of iodine/kg of milk. (orig./CB) [de

  14. Modellierung dreidimensionaler Strahlungsfelder im frühen Universum %t Modelling three dimensional radiation fields in the early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinköhn, Erik

    2002-11-01

    The present work aims at the modelling of three-dimensional radiation fields in gas clouds from the early universe, in particular as to the influence of varying distributions of density and velocity. In observations of high-redshift gas clouds, the Lyα transition from the first excited energy level to the ground state of the hydrogen atom is usually found to be the only prominent emission lines in the entire spectrum. It is a well-known assumption that high-redshifted hydrogen clouds are the precursors of present-day galaxies. Thus, the investigation of the Lyα line is of paramount importance of the theory of galaxy formation and evolution. The observed Lyα line - or rather, to be precise, its profile - reveals both the complexity of the spatial distribution and of the kinematics of the interstellar gas, and also the nature of the photon source. In this thesis we have developed a code which is capable of solving the three-dimensional frequency-dependent radiative transfer equation for arbitrarily nonrelativistically moving media. The numerical treatment of the associated partial integro-differential equation is an extremely challenging task, since radiation intensity depends on 6 variables, namely 3 space variables, 2 variables describing the direction of photon propagation, and the frequency. With the goal of a quantitative comparison with observational data in mind, the implementation of very efficient methods for a sufficiently accurate solution of the complex radiative transfer problems turned out to be a necessity. The size of the resulting linear system of equations makes the use of parallelization techniques and grid refinement strategies indispensable.

  15. Radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, Sung Jin; Kim, Seung Guk; No, Gyeong Seok; Park, Myeong Hwan; Ann, Bong Seon

    1998-03-01

    This book explains technical terms about radiation measurement, which are radiation, radiation quantity and unit such as prefix of international unit, unit for defence purposes of radiation, coefficient of radiation and interaction, kinds and principles of radiation detector, ionization chamber, G-M counter, G-M tube, proportional counter, scintillation detector, semiconductor radiation detector, thermoluminescence dosimeter, PLD, others detector, radiation monitor, neutron detector, calibration of radiation detector, statistics of counting value, activation analysis and electronics circuit of radiation detector.

  16. Effects of gamma radiation on chlorophyll content of Cladonia verticillaris (Raddi) Fr. (lichen) collected in different environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Helena P. de B.; Martins, Monica C.B.; Pereira, Eugenia C.; Barbosa, Clarissa R.; Silva, Nicacio; Franca, Andre Luiz Teixeira de; Colaco, Waldeciro, E-mail: barrosleny@hotmail.com, E-mail: monicabarmartins@hotmail.com, E-mail: verticillaris@gmail.com, E-mail: lissa_fer@hotmail.com, E-mail: nhsilva@uol.com.br, E-mail: wcolaco@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Maciel, Leonardo N. de Q., E-mail: lenoquema@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Lichens are formed by symbiosis between a fungus (mycobiont) and an alga (photobiont, chloroficeae and or cyanobacteria). The radiosensitivity in lichens is not in proportion to the symbiotic organisms, and the algae layer is more radiosensitive than the fungi. Thus, in order check to algae radiosensitivity, sought to quantify the levels of chlorophyll from C. verticillaris samples with different doses of gamma radiation, since the amount of this pigment is closely related to the percentage of living algal cells. Lichen samples were collected in Saloa-PE and Alhandra- PE, sites that have similar physiognomic characteristics, but with different altitudes. C. verticillaris samples (12 g) of both sampling sites were subjected to gamma irradiator (Co{sup 60} - irradiator, Gammacell 200 Excel, dose rates 7.795 kGy) at 0, 10, 50, 100, 500, 1.000, 5.000 and 10.000 Gy. Lichens samples were collected (1.5 g) and stored separately for further analysis. The results indicated that the total production of chlorophyll in all samples exposed to gamma radiation was lower than non-irradiated samples, demonstrating that way that gamma radiation causes likely to damage/changes in physiological characteristics C. verticillaris. (author)

  17. Effects of gamma radiation on chlorophyll content of Cladonia verticillaris (Raddi) Fr. (lichen) collected in different environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Helena P. de B.; Martins, Monica C.B.; Pereira, Eugenia C.; Barbosa, Clarissa R.; Silva, Nicacio; Franca, Andre Luiz Teixeira de; Colaco, Waldeciro; Maciel, Leonardo N. de Q.

    2013-01-01

    Lichens are formed by symbiosis between a fungus (mycobiont) and an alga (photobiont, chloroficeae and or cyanobacteria). The radiosensitivity in lichens is not in proportion to the symbiotic organisms, and the algae layer is more radiosensitive than the fungi. Thus, in order check to algae radiosensitivity, sought to quantify the levels of chlorophyll from C. verticillaris samples with different doses of gamma radiation, since the amount of this pigment is closely related to the percentage of living algal cells. Lichen samples were collected in Saloa-PE and Alhandra- PE, sites that have similar physiognomic characteristics, but with different altitudes. C. verticillaris samples (12 g) of both sampling sites were subjected to gamma irradiator (Co 60 - irradiator, Gammacell 200 Excel, dose rates 7.795 kGy) at 0, 10, 50, 100, 500, 1.000, 5.000 and 10.000 Gy. Lichens samples were collected (1.5 g) and stored separately for further analysis. The results indicated that the total production of chlorophyll in all samples exposed to gamma radiation was lower than non-irradiated samples, demonstrating that way that gamma radiation causes likely to damage/changes in physiological characteristics C. verticillaris. (author)

  18. Radiation protection Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    This Ordinance lays down the licensing system for activities in Switzerland involving possible exposure to radiation, with the exception of nuclear installations, fuels and radioactive waste which, under the 1959 Atomic Energy Act, are subject to licensing. The Ordinance applies to the production, handling, use, storage, transport, disposal, import and export of radioactive substances and devices and articles containing them; and generally to any activity involving hazards caused by ionizing radiation. The Federal Public Health Office is the competent authority for granting licences. Provision is also made for the administrative conditions to be complied with for obtaining such licences as well as for technical measures required when engaged in work covered by the Ordinance. This consolidated version of the Ordinance contains all the successive amendments up to 26 September 1988. (NEA) [fr

  19. Radiation protection, optimization and justification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordoliani, Y.S.; Brisse, H.; Foucart, J.M.; Clement, J.P.; Ribeiro, A.; Gomes, H.; Marcus, C.; Rehel, J.L.; Talbot, A.; Aubert, B.; Scanff, P.; Roudier, C.; Donadieu, J.; Pirard, P.; Bar, O.; Maccia, C.; Benedittini, M.; Bouziane, T.; Brat, H.; Bricoult, M; Heuga, O.; Hauger, O.; Bonnefoy, O.; Diard, F.; Chateil, J.F.; Schramm, R.; Reisman, J.; Aubert, B.

    2005-01-01

    Nine articles in the field of radiation protection relative to the medical examinations concern the new legislation in radiation protection, the optimization of this one in order to reduce the radiation doses delivered to the patients, the side effects induced by irradiation and to give an evaluation of the medical exposure of french population to ionizing radiations. (N.C.)

  20. Feasibility Study of Using Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI) and Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) for Reducing Radiation and Iodine Contrast Dose in Abdominal CT Patients with High BMI Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zheng; Zhao, Xin-ming; Zhao, Yan-feng; Wang, Xiao-yi; Zhou, Chun-wu

    2015-01-01

    To prospectively investigate the effect of using Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) for reducing radiation and iodine contrast dose in abdominal CT patients with high BMI values. 26 patients (weight > 65kg and BMI ≥ 22) underwent abdominal CT using GSI mode with 300mgI/kg contrast material as study group (group A). Another 21 patients (weight ≤ 65kg and BMI ≥ 22) were scanned with a conventional 120 kVp tube voltage for noise index (NI) of 11 with 450mgI/kg contrast material as control group (group B). GSI images were reconstructed at 60keV with 50%ASIR and the conventional 120kVp images were reconstructed with FBP reconstruction. The CT values, standard deviation (SD), signal-noise-ratio (SNR), contrast-noise-ratio (CNR) of 26 landmarks were quantitatively measured and image quality qualitatively assessed using statistical analysis. As for the quantitative analysis, the difference of CNR between groups A and B was all significant except for the mesenteric vein. The SNR in group A was higher than B except the mesenteric artery and splenic artery. As for the qualitative analysis, all images had diagnostic quality and the agreement for image quality assessment between the reviewers was substantial (kappa = 0.684). CT dose index (CTDI) values for non-enhanced, arterial phase and portal phase in group A were decreased by 49.04%, 40.51% and 40.54% compared with group B (P = 0.000), respectively. The total dose and the injection rate for the contrast material were reduced by 14.40% and 14.95% in A compared with B. The use of GSI and ASIR provides similar enhancement in vessels and image quality with reduced radiation dose and contrast dose, compared with the use of conventional scan protocol.

  1. Feasibility Study of Using Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI and Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR for Reducing Radiation and Iodine Contrast Dose in Abdominal CT Patients with High BMI Values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhu

    Full Text Available To prospectively investigate the effect of using Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR for reducing radiation and iodine contrast dose in abdominal CT patients with high BMI values.26 patients (weight > 65kg and BMI ≥ 22 underwent abdominal CT using GSI mode with 300mgI/kg contrast material as study group (group A. Another 21 patients (weight ≤ 65kg and BMI ≥ 22 were scanned with a conventional 120 kVp tube voltage for noise index (NI of 11 with 450mgI/kg contrast material as control group (group B. GSI images were reconstructed at 60keV with 50%ASIR and the conventional 120kVp images were reconstructed with FBP reconstruction. The CT values, standard deviation (SD, signal-noise-ratio (SNR, contrast-noise-ratio (CNR of 26 landmarks were quantitatively measured and image quality qualitatively assessed using statistical analysis.As for the quantitative analysis, the difference of CNR between groups A and B was all significant except for the mesenteric vein. The SNR in group A was higher than B except the mesenteric artery and splenic artery. As for the qualitative analysis, all images had diagnostic quality and the agreement for image quality assessment between the reviewers was substantial (kappa = 0.684. CT dose index (CTDI values for non-enhanced, arterial phase and portal phase in group A were decreased by 49.04%, 40.51% and 40.54% compared with group B (P = 0.000, respectively. The total dose and the injection rate for the contrast material were reduced by 14.40% and 14.95% in A compared with B.The use of GSI and ASIR provides similar enhancement in vessels and image quality with reduced radiation dose and contrast dose, compared with the use of conventional scan protocol.

  2. Lowering the UK domestic radon action level to reduce radiation-induced lung cancer in general population: when and where is it cost effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Phillips, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Case studies have shown that radon gas can be present within domestic properties at sufficiently high levels that it can significantly increase the risk of lung cancer in occupants. Recently, Darby et al. (2006) have shown that this risk exists at radon concentrations as low as 100 Bq·m -3 , which is below the UK domestic Action Level of 200 Bq·m -3 . As a result, there have been suggestions that national domestic Action Levels should be reduced. This paper considers the benefits and costs of the domestic radon remediation programmes in the UK, when a range of Action Levels from 125 Bq·m -3 to 600 Bq·m -3 are applied. The variations of total cost, cost-effectiveness, dose reduction and lung cancers saved for each proposed action level, and the proportion of houses over the proposed action level, were estimated. The study shows that, for an Action Level above 200 Bq·m -3 , a completed domestic radon remediation programme in Northamptonshire, where 6.3% of existing houses have initial radon levels over 200 Bq·m -3 , will cost less and will target those most at risk, but will be less cost effective. In addition, a higher Action Level leaves a higher residual dose and greater risk of cancer in the population living in unremediated homes. Reducing the Action Level below 200 Bq·m -3 will prevent more cancers, but at significantly higher cost. It will be less cost-effective, because a significant number of houses with moderate radon levels will be remediated with modest health benefit to occupants. The study suggests that a completed radon remediation programme is most cost-effective with an action level of around 250 to 300 Bq·m -3 . The finding appears to be independent of the percentage of houses over the Action Level. This has clear implications for future health policy. (author)

  3. Industrial processing with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.

    1976-01-01

    The use of large isotopic radiation sources and accelerators in industry is reviewed. The advantages of various sources of ionizing radiation are indicated, and the development and present status of radiation technology are briefly described. Attention is given to the role played by radiation processing in the cross-linking of polymers as applied to cable insulation, artificial limbs and packaging materials, as well as for improving natural rubber. In addition, attention is given to radiation as a possible means of synthesizing polymers, of hardening non-conventional coatings and of manufacturing polymer-wood composites, thereby improving the properties of softwoods. The possibility of improving natural fibres by means of radiation is discussed, and attention is given to the important role already played by radiation in the sterilization of medical products. Finally, reference is made to the role which radiation can play in reducing food spoilage, as well as in making sewage sludge suitable for agricultural purposes [af

  4. Radiation education in school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishido, Teruko; Higashijima, Emiko; Hisajima, Michihiro

    2005-01-01

    Part of goals of general education of physics is to provide students for basic knowledge on radiation. This includes understanding of both its risks and benefits. Students should know how to protect and defence from radiation but they should not overwhelm the risk of radiation. Sometimes, students think that atomic power is so terrible and frightening that they keep away from use of atomic power. Basic knowledge about risks of radiation will reduce the excessive reaction or anxiety coming from radiation. It also makes people understand other possible risks and benefits of radiation accompanied by modern scientific technologies such as nuclear technologies. We believe that the radiation education is an essential requisite for the peaceful usage of nuclear energy and radiation technology for the future. (author)

  5. Single-source dual-energy CT angiography with reduced iodine load in patients referred for aortoiliofemoral evaluation before transcatheter aortic valve implantation: impact on image quality and radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubourg, Benjamin; Caudron, Jerome; Lefebvre, Valentin; Dacher, Jean-Nicolas [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); UFR Medecine Pharmacie, INSERM U1096, Rouen (France); Lestrat, Jean-Pierre [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); Bubenheim, Michael [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Biostatistics, Rouen (France); Godin, Matthieu; Tron, Christophe [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Rouen (France); Eltchaninoff, Helene; Bauer, Fabrice [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Rouen (France); UFR Medecine Pharmacie, INSERM U1096, Rouen (France)

    2014-11-15

    To compare image quality and radiation dose of pre-transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) aortoiliofemoral CT angiography (AICTA) provided by standard vs. dual-energy mode with reduced iodine load protocols. One hundred and sixty-one patients underwent a two-step CTA protocol before TAVI including cardiac CTA with injection of 65 mL of iodinated contrast agent (ICA), immediately followed by AICTA. From this second acquisition, the following three different patient groups were identified: Group 1: 52 patients with standard AICTA (60 mL ICA, 100 kVp, mA automodulation); Group 2: 48 patients with dual-energy AICTA with 50 % iodine load reduction (30 mL ICA, fast kVp switching, 600 mA); Group 3: 61 patients with an identical protocol to Group 2, but exposed to 375 mA. The qualitative/subjective image quality (13-point score) and quantitative/objective image quality (contrast attenuation and image noise) were evaluated. The radiation dose was recorded. There was no significant difference in non-diagnostic images between the three protocols. Contrast attenuation, signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were significantly higher, whereas noise was significantly lower in the standard protocol (all P < 0.05). The radiation dose was lower in the dual-energy protocol at 375 mA (P < 0.05). Dual-energy AICTA before TAVI results in a reduction of iodine load while maintaining sufficient diagnostic information despite increased noise. (orig.)

  6. Tumor-treating fields elicit a conditional vulnerability to ionizing radiation via the downregulation of BRCA1 signaling and reduced DNA double-strand break repair capacity in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanam, Narasimha Kumar; Srinivasan, Kalayarasan; Ding, Lianghao; Sishc, Brock; Saha, Debabrata; Story, Michael D

    2017-03-30

    The use of tumor-treating fields (TTFields) has revolutionized the treatment of recurrent and newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM). TTFields are low-intensity, intermediate frequency, alternating electric fields that are applied to tumor regions and cells using non-invasive arrays. The predominant mechanism by which TTFields are thought to kill tumor cells is the disruption of mitosis. Using five non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines we found that there is a variable response in cell proliferation and cell killing between these NSCLC cell lines that was independent of p53 status. TTFields treatment increased the G2/M population, with a concomitant reduction in S-phase cells followed by the appearance of a sub-G1 population indicative of apoptosis. Temporal changes in gene expression during TTFields exposure was evaluated to identify molecular signaling changes underlying the differential TTFields response. The most differentially expressed genes were associated with the cell cycle and cell proliferation pathways. However, the expression of genes found within the BRCA1 DNA-damage response were significantly downregulated (Pionizing radiation resulted in increased chromatid aberrations and a reduced capacity to repair DNA DSBs, which were likely responsible for at least a portion of the enhanced cell killing seen with the combination. These findings suggest that TTFields induce a state of 'BRCAness' leading to a conditional susceptibility resulting in enhanced sensitivity to ionizing radiation and provides a strong rationale for the use of TTFields as a combined modality therapy with radiation or other DNA-damaging agents.

  7. The effects of ionizing radiations on in utero development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lallemand, J.

    1984-01-01

    Following a reminder of embryology and methodology, a review is made of the main teratogenic effects related to radiation exposure, i.e. lethal effects, radioinduced malformations, maldevelopment and cancers. The sensitivity of the embryo and foetus to radiation seems to last during the whole gestation. Howewer, the latest investigations indicate that the main damage is mental retardation. This review concludes on practical considerations of radiation protection in the field of radiographic examinations of pregnant women [fr

  8. A potent steroid cream is superior to emollients in reducing acute radiation dermatitis in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy. A randomised study of betamethasone versus two moisturizing creams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulff, Eva; Maroti, Marianne; Serup, Jörgen; Falkmer, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: The aim was to investigate whether treatment with potent local steroids can reduce signs and symptoms of acute radiation dermatitis in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) compared to emollient creams. Material and methods: The study was randomised and double-blinded. Patients with breast cancer who had undergone mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery were included when they started adjuvant 3-D planned RT. In all, 104 patients were randomised 2:1:1 to three treatment groups, i.e. betamethasone + Essex® cream, Essex® cream or Canoderm® cream. The patients themselves treated the irradiated area during the radiation period (5 weeks) and two weeks after cessation of RT. Signs of RT dermatitis were measured qualitatively with RTOG clinical scoring and quantitatively by colorimeter. In addition, the patients’ symptoms were recorded as well as the Fitzpatrick skin type. There was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.05) in skin reactions when assessed with RTOG in favour of the group treated with the potent steroid. Patient-related symptoms did not differ between the treatment groups. The effect of the steroid was prominent in three subgroups, i.e. (i) patients treated with ablation of the breast, (ii) patients receiving RT to the armpit and the supraclavicular fossa, and (iii) patients with Fitzpatrick skin type 1. Conclusions: Treatment with betamethasone cream is more efficient than moisturizers for the control of acute RT dermatitis in patients treated with adjuvant RT for breast cancer

  9. Radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR from GSM (0.9/1.8GHz mobile phones induces oxidative stress and reduces sperm motility in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesh Mailankot

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mobile phones have become indispensable in the daily lives of men and women around the globe. As cell phone use has become more widespread, concerns have mounted regarding the potentially harmful effects of RF-EMR from these devices. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of RF-EMR from mobile phones on free radical metabolism and sperm quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male albino Wistar rats (10-12 weeks old were exposed to RF-EMR from an active GSM (0.9/1.8 GHz mobile phone for 1 hour continuously per day for 28 days. Controls were exposed to a mobile phone without a battery for the same period. The phone was kept in a cage with a wooden bottom in order to address concerns that the effects of exposure to the phone could be due to heat emitted by the phone rather than to RF-EMR alone. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last exposure and tissues of interest were harvested. RESULTS: One hour of exposure to the phone did not significantly change facial temperature in either group of rats. No significant difference was observed in total sperm count between controls and RF-EMR exposed groups. However, rats exposed to RF-EMR exhibited a significantly reduced percentage of motile sperm. Moreover, RF-EMR exposure resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and low GSH content in the testis and epididymis. CONCLUSION: Given the results of the present study, we speculate that RF-EMR from mobile phones negatively affects semen quality and may impair male fertility.

  10. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1975-01-01

    Physical and radiological terms, quantities, and units. Basic principles of radiation protection (ICRP, IAEA, EURATOM, FRG). Biological effects of ionizing radiation. Objectives of practical radiation protection. (HP) [de

  11. Effects of Simulated Mobile Phone Electromagnetic Radiation on Fertilization and Embryo Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Qu, Zaiqing; Liu, Wenhui

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of 935-MHz electromagnetic radiation (ER) on fertilization and subsequent embryonic development in mice. Ovulating mice were irradiated at three ER intensities for 4 h/day (d) or 2 h/d for three consecutive days; the ova were then harvested for in vitro fertilization to observe the 6-h fertilization rate (6-FR), 72-h morula rate (72-MR), and 110-h blastula rate (110-BR). Compared with the control group, the 6-FR, 72-MR, and 110-BR were decreased in the low ER intensity group, but the differences were not significant; in the mid- and high-intensity ER groups, 72-MR and 110-BR in the 4 h/d and 2 h/d subgroups were decreased, showing significant differences compared with the control group. Moreover, the comparison between 4 h/d and 2 h/d subgroups showed significant differences. Mid- and high-intensity ER at 935 MHz can reduce the fertilization rate in mice, and reduce the blastulation rate, thus reducing the possibility of embryo implantation.

  12. International Conference Medical Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Full text : The second edition of the international conference Medical radiation : research and applications which took place in Marrakech (Morocco) from 7 to 9 April 2010, was designed to bring together researchers and physicians from different countries who dedicated their talents and time to this endeavour. The conference's program defined goals were is to identify the most reliable techniques among the several tested so far and to establish the most practical standardized methodologies, taking into account such recent technological development in radiation medical research. The scientific objectives of this conference are as follows : present the state of the art of the various topics of the congress, give a progress report on the impact of the interaction of the various scientific and technical disciplinary fields (Medicine, Biology, Mathematics, Physics,..) on the applications of radiations in medicine, promote the interdisciplinary efforts of research among researchers, present new technologies and research and development tasks prepared in the field of medical radiations, contribute to the emergence of new ideas of research and development of new collaborations [fr

  13. The need of education of biotechnical specialists in the field of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kljajic, R.; Masic, Z.; Mitrovic, R.; Petrovic, B.

    1996-01-01

    Education is the base for a successful carrying out of radiation protection measures. Starting from this fact, in the field of biotechnology protection measures should be carried out by biotechnical specialists (veterinarians, agronomists, technologists). In FR Yugoslavia, at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine a separate course 'Radiobiology and radiation hygiene' was introduced in undergraduate and postgraduate studies m 1976. However, other biotechnological specialists do not study the field of radiation protection separately at their faculties. Because of this, the Expert Group for Radiation Protection in Biotechnology formed at the Federal Ministry of Economy initiated the introducing of a course for this held m undergraduate and postgraduate studies at the faculties of agriculture and technology in FR Yugoslavia. This paper presents the basic elements of the educational plan and program of the course 'Radiobiology and radiation hygiene' for students of biotechnical faculties in FR Yugoslavia and discusses the results obtained until now. (author)

  14. Circular No. 62 of 2 August 1984 on radiation protection of patients in radiology and nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Circular by the Ministry of Health is based on the Directive of the Council of the European Communities of 3 September 1984 laying down basic measures for the radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment. (NEA) [fr

  15. The Integrated Radiation Mapper Assistant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, R.E.; Tripp, L.R. [Odetics, Inc., Anaheim, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The Integrated Radiation Mapper Assistant (IRMA) system combines state-of-the-art radiation sensors and microprocessor based analysis techniques to perform radiation surveys. Control of the survey function is from a control station located outside the radiation thus reducing time spent in radiation areas performing radiation surveys. The system consists of a directional radiation sensor, a laser range finder, two area radiation sensors, and a video camera mounted on a pan and tilt platform. THis sensor package is deployable on a remotely operated vehicle. The outputs of the system are radiation intensity maps identifying both radiation source intensities and radiation levels throughout the room being surveyed. After completion of the survey, the data can be removed from the control station computer for further analysis or archiving.

  16. Atmospheric ions and pollution. Ions of the cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachon, A.

    1977-01-01

    The principal historical steps before the so-called 'cosmic radiation' was known as an extra-terrestrial radiation are described. The origin, nature and energy of the radiation are discussed together with its evolution all along its path through atmosphere, in view of the interaction that occurs between the radiation and the atmosphere. The mechanism of the ionization induced by cosmic radiation is analyzed, the corresponding energy balance is established and the possible singularities in air ionization induced by cosmic rays are discussed [fr

  17. Radiation control around the proton synchrotron Saturne (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffre, H.; Lamberieux, J.; Stirling, A.

    1962-01-01

    After giving the main characteristics of the Synchrotron at Saclay, the authors present on the one hand the general arrangements made for ensuring the safety of the personnel: specification of radiation levels, automatic devices, visual indications, etc... and on the other hand, the means employed for radiation detection. These detection methods include fixed γ and fast neutron detectors whose indications are centralised on a radiation control panel, and mobile detectors for specific or more precise measurements. The authors give results of radiation level measurements and some results of the diminishing of radiation intensity by wood, concrete and water. (author) [fr

  18. Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramotnev, D. K.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation, that is, reducing the cross sections of propagating optical modes far beyond the diffraction limit in dielectric media, can be achieved in tapered metal-dielectric waveguides that support surface plasmon-polariton modes. Although the main principles...... radiation on the nanoscale. Here, we present the underlying physical principles of radiation nanofocusing in metallic nanostructures, overview recent progress and major developments, and consider future directions and potential applications of this subfield of nano-optics....

  19. Radiation shielding plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Torakichi; Sugawara, Takeo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the weight and stabilize the configuration of a radiation shielding plate which is used in close contact with an object to be irradiated with radiation rays. Constitution: The radiation shielding plate comprises a substrate made of lead glass and a metallic lead coating on the surface of the substrate by means of plating, vapor deposition or the like. Apertures for permeating radiation rays are formed to the radiation shielding plate. Since the shielding plate is based on a lead glass plate, a sufficient mechanical strength can be obtained with a thinner structure as compared with the conventional plate made of metallic lead. Accordingly, if the shielding plate is disposed on a soft object to be irradiated with radiation rays, the object and the plate itself less deform to obtain a radiation irradiation pattern with distinct edges. (Moriyama, K.)

  20. Personnel radiation safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkert, J.

    1979-05-01

    The principal contributions to the radiation doses of the Swedish power reactor personnel are identified. The possi bilities to reduce these doses are examined. The radiation doses are analyzed according to different personnel categories, specific maintenance operations or inspections and to different radiation activities. Suggestions are given for reducing the radiation doses. (L.E.)

  1. Radiation-grafting of flame retardants on flax fabrics - A comparison between different flame retardant structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Marie; Sonnier, Rodolphe; Otazaghine, Belkacem; Ferry, Laurent; Aubert, Mélanie; Tirri, Teija; Wilén, Carl-Eric; Rouif, Sophie

    2018-04-01

    Three unsaturated compounds bearing respectively phosphate, aryl bromide and sulfenamide moieties were used as flame retardants (FR) for flax fabrics. Due to the presence of carbon-carbon double bonds, radiation-grafting was considered to covalently bond these FR onto fiber structure. Grafting efficiency and location of FR molecules were investigated by weight measurements and SEM-EDX observations. Flammability and especially self-extinguishment were assessed by thermogravimetric analysis, pyrolysis-combustion flow calorimetry and a non-standardized fire test already used in previous studies. All FRs were able to diffuse into elementary fiber bulk. Nevertheless only the phosphonated monomer (noted FR-P) was significantly grafted onto flax. Self-extinguishment was obtained for fabrics containing at least around 0.5 wt% of phosphorus. On the contrary the FR content of flax fibers after radiation-grafting procedure and washing was negligible for FR-S and FR-Br, evidencing that these molecules have not been grafted upon irradiation. Moreover, the combination of these molecules prevents the radiation-grafting of other molecules which showed good grafting rate when used alone.

  2. Radiation detector. [100 A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P D; Hollands, D V

    1975-12-04

    A radiation detector is described in which the radiation is led to a sensor via a 100 A thick gold film filter, which reduces the infrared components of the irradiation to a greater extent than the ultra-violet component reaching the sensor.

  3. Radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, A.; Leer, J.W.H.; Craandijk, M.; Feenstra, W.F.F.

    1990-01-01

    In a prospective inventory analysis of 169 irradiated patients concerning the incidence and course of Acute Radiation Sickness (fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting), it was found that 2/3 of the patients had these complaints. The complaints started during the first week of treatment and mostly even within a few hours after each radiotherapy session. All complaints were progressive during the radiotherapy course, but disappeared spontaneously within one week after completion of the treatment. The possible occurrence of these symptoms soon after the start of radiotherapy should be kept in mind, especially since they can be reduced by simple retimens. (author). 14 refs.; 2 tabs

  4. Multibeam radiation therapy treatment application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manens, J.P.; Le Gall, G.; Chenal, C.; Ben Hassel, M.; Fresne, F.; Barillot, C.; Gibaud, B.; Lemoine, D.; Bouliou, A.; Scarabin, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A software package has been developed for multibeam radiation therapy treatment application. We present in this study a computer-assisted dosimetric planning procedure which includes: i), an analytical stage for setting up the large volume via 2D and 3D displays; ii), a planning stage for issue of a treatment strategy including dosimetric simulations; and iii), a treatment stage to drive the target volume to the radiation unit isocenter. The combined use of stereotactic methods and multimodality imagery ensures spatial coherence and makes target definition and cognition of structure environment more accurate. The dosimetric planning suited to the spatial reference (the stereotactic frame) guarantees optimal distribution of the dose, computed by the original 3D volumetric algorithm. A computer-driven chair-framework cluster was designed to position the target volume at the radiation unit isocenter [fr

  5. Radiation hygiene in photofluorography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welde, F [The state institute of radiation hygiene, Montebello, Oslo (Norway)

    1975-04-01

    This paper comprises measurements and experiences from the surveillance of 36 photofluorographic units in Norway. Measured patient doses are given. Practical means for reducing the doses are emphasized. The radiation hygiene for the personnel in mass chest surveys is discussed.

  6. Ionizing radiation, radiation sources, radiation exposure, radiation effects. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, E.

    1985-01-01

    Part 2 deals with radiation exposure due to artificial radiation sources. The article describes X-ray diagnosis complete with an analysis of major methods, nuclear-medical diagnosis, percutaneous radiation therapy, isotope therapy, radiation from industrial generation of nucler energy and other sources of ionizing radiation. In conclusion, the authors attempt to asses total dose, genetically significant dose and various hazards of total radiation exposure by means of a summation of all radiation impacts. (orig./WU) [de

  7. Non-coplanar volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for craniopharyngiomas reduces radiation doses to the bilateral hippocampus: a planning study comparing dynamic conformal arc therapy, coplanar VMAT, and non-coplanar VMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uto, Megumi; Mizowaki, Takashi; Ogura, Kengo; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that radiation-induced injuries to the hippocampus play important roles in compromising neurocognitive functioning for patients with brain tumors and it could be important to spare the hippocampus using modern planning methods for patients with craniopharyngiomas. As bilateral hippocampus are located on the same level as the planning target volume (PTV) in patients with craniopharyngioma, it seems possible to reduce doses to hippocampus using non-coplanar beams. While the use of non-coplanar beams in volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) of malignant intracranial tumors has recently been reported, no dosimetric comparison has yet been made between VMAT using non-coplanar arcs (ncVMAT) and VMAT employing only coplanar arcs (coVMAT) among patients with craniopharyngiomas. We performed a planning study comparing dose distributions to the PTV, hippocampus, and other organs at risk (OAR) of dynamic conformal arc therapy (DCAT), coVMAT, and ncVMAT. DCAT, coVMAT, and ncVMAT plans were created for 10 patients with craniopharyngiomas. The prescription dose was 52.2 Gy in 29 fractions, and 99 % of each PTV was covered by 90 % of the prescribed dose. The maximum dose was held below 107 % of the prescribed dose. CoVMAT and ncVMAT plans were formulated to satisfy the following criteria: the doses to the hippocampus were minimized, and the doses to the OAR were similar to or lower than those of DCAT. The mean equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions to 40 % of the volumes of the bilateral hippocampus [EQD 2 (40% hippos )] were 15.4/10.8/6.5 Gy for DCAT/coVMAT/ncVMAT, respectively. The EQD 2 (40% hippos ) for ncVMAT were <7.3 Gy, which is the threshold predicting cognitive impairment, as defined by Gondi et al.. The mean doses to normal brain tissue and the conformity indices were similar for the three plans, and the homogeneity indices were significantly better for coVMAT and ncVMAT compared with DCAT. NcVMAT is more appropriate than DCAT and coVMAT for

  8. Modification of 28 November 1983 of the Radiation Protection ordinance of 30 June 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Ordinance modifies the 1976 Radiation Protection Ordinance. The amendment allocates responsibility for radiation control among various governmental bodies. The Federal Office of Public Health is responsible for all radiation protection controls whenever they involve the protection of the public at large and the Accident Insurance Office is responsible for the protection of workers. Radiation control in nuclear installations is the responsibility of the Principal Division for the Safety of Nuclear Installations. (NEA) [fr

  9. Development of radiation immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yi; Dang Bingrong; Bing Tao; Zhang Hong; Li Wenjian; Liu Bing

    2005-01-01

    Radiation immunology as a new subject has made a great progress in recent years, especially in the radiation hormesis. At the same time, the research of radiobiological effect on heavy ions has played an important role in the cancer therapy, especially on the radiation immunology of heavy ions in the outer space. In this review, the authors summarized the status and development of radiation-immunology, and try to find out some better ways which can increase efficient killing on tumours, but reduce the damages on normal tissues. (authors)

  10. Atoms, radiation, and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes basic atomic and nuclear structure, the physical processes that result in the emission of ionizing radiations, and external and internal radiation protection criteria, standards, and practices from the standpoint of their underlying physical and biological basis. The sources and properties of ionizing radiation-charged particles, photons, and neutrons-and their interactions with matter are discussed in detail. The underlying physical principles of radiation detection and systems for radiation dosimetry are presented. Topics considered include atomic physics and radiation; atomic structure and radiation; the nucleus and nuclear radiation; interaction of heavy charged particles with matter; interaction of beta particles with matter; phenomena associated with charged-particle tracks; interaction of photons with matter; neutrons, fission and criticality; methods of radiation detection; radiation dosimetry; chemical and biological effects of radiation; radiation protection criteria and standards; external radiation protection; and internal dosimetry and radiation protection

  11. Natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feliciano, Vanusa Maria Delage

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic radiation, as well as cosmogenic radiation, terrestrial radiation, radon and thorium are introduced in this chapter 3. The distribution of natural radiation sources is treated, where the percentage distribution of the contribution relative to exposure to radiation from natural and artificial sources is also included

  12. Radiation biology and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wideroee, R.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation biology and radiation therapy can be compared with investigations in different layers of earth. Radiation biology works upwards from the elementary foundations, therapy works downwards with roots to secure and improve the clinical 'surface work'. The Ellis formula (Strandquist), which is a collection of clinical experience, is suited to form connections with radiobiology in the middle layers, and cooperation can give impulses for research. The structure and conditions of tumours and the complicated problems met with are discussed, based on the Carmel symposium of 1969. The oxygen problem in anoxic tumours is not yet solved. Experimental investigations of the effect itself give partly contradictory results. From a clinical viewpoint reoxygenation is of the utmost significance for obtaining control over the primary tumour, and advanced irradiation programmes will here give better results than the traditional ones. New chemicals, e.g. R 0 -07-0582, appear to reduce the OER value to 1.5, thereby making neutron therapy superfluous. Finally a problem from fundamental research is dealt with, wherein two hypotheses explaining the β-effect are described. The repair hypothesis gives a simple explanation but leaves many questions unanswered. The other hypothesis explains the β-effect as two neighbouring single breaks of the DNA molecule. It still presents difficulties, and is scarcely the correct explanation. (JIW)

  13. Radiation chemistry and bioradical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferradini, C.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen metabolism results, at the cellular level, in the formation of superoxyde radical O 2 - · and probably also of hydroxyl radical OH·. Other radical species can be produced from exogenous or endogenous molecules and nearly all of them have the possibility to react with oxygen giving peroxyradicals. Some of these transients play a role in various biological processes such as phagocytosis, inflammation or ischemy although the mechanisms invoked are poorly understood. Radiation chemistry is an invaluable tool for obtaining a quantitative view of these mechanisms. A description is given of this interaction [fr

  14. Radiation safety audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadadunna, K.P.I.K.; Mod Ali, Noriah

    2008-01-01

    Audit has been seen as one of the effective methods to ensure harmonization in radiation protection. A radiation safety audit is a formal safety performance examination of existing or future work activities by an independent team. Regular audit will assist the management in its mission to maintain the facilities environment that is inherently safe for its employees. The audits review the adequacy of facilities for the type of use, training, and competency of workers, supervision by authorized users, availability of survey instruments, security of radioactive materials, minimization of personnel exposure to radiation, safety equipment, and the required record keeping. All approved areas of use are included in these periodic audits. Any deficiency found in the audit shall be corrected as soon as possible after they are reported. Radiation safety audit is a proactive approach to improve radiation safety practices and identify and prevent any potential radiation accident. It is an excellent tool to identify potential problem to radiation users and to assure that safety measures to eliminate or reduce the problems are fully considered. Radiation safety audit will help to develop safety culture of the facility. It is intended to be the cornerstone of a safety program designed to aid the facility, staff and management in maintaining a safe environment in which activities are carried out. The initiative of this work is to evaluate the need of having a proper audit as one of the mechanism to manage the safety using ionizing radiation. This study is focused on the need of having a proper radiation safety audit to identify deviations and deficiencies of radiation protection programmes. It will be based on studies conducted on several institutes/radiation facilities in Malaysia in 2006. Steps will then be formulated towards strengthening radiation safety through proper audit. This will result in a better working situation and confidence in the radiation protection community

  15. Radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochsner, S.F.; Head, L.H.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive review of radiation enteritis is presented. Experience in clinical radiation therapy has indicated that the small bowel is the segment of the alimentary tract that is most susceptible to radiation damage. (U.S.)

  16. Radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pao, C.T.; Green, W.K.

    1978-01-01

    A system for indicating radiation from a radioactive fluid such as a gas wherein simultaneous indications of the activity concentration of radioactivity of the gas, the radiation dose rate and average energy of the radiation are provided

  17. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ures Pantazi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This work define procedures and controls about ionizing radiations. Between some definitions it found the following topics: radiation dose, risk, biological effects, international radioprotection bodies, workers exposure, accidental exposure, emergencies and radiation protection

  18. Radiation sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposure to ionizing radiation. There are two main types of radiation: nonionizing and ionizing. Nonionizing radiation comes in the form of light, radio waves, microwaves and radar. These forms usually don't cause tissue damage. ...

  19. An image scanning device using radiating energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Daniel.

    1976-01-01

    Said invention relates to an image scanning device using radiating energy. More particularly, it relates to a device for generating a scanning beam of rectangular cross section from a γ or X-ray source. Said invention can be applied to radiographic units of the 'microdose' type used by airline staffs and others for the fast efficient inspection of luggage and parcels in view of detecting hidden things [fr

  20. Articulation prostheses made of polymers which are improved by ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussens, G.; Nicaise, M.; Tran, K.O.

    1981-10-01

    Articulation prostheses for the human body are generally made of the couple very high molecular weight polyethylene-special steels. Polyethylene properties are modified by ionizing radiations: creep resistance is improved and friction coefficient is decreased. Modifications are controlled by the choice of radiation dose and dose rate. Wear tests have been made on hip prostheses [fr

  1. Dismountable wall for radiation shielding and screen realized from this wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomart, P.

    1988-01-01

    The wall for protection against neutrons and gamma radiations is made of bricks with a shoulder on the upper and side faces and the complementary shape on the lower face to provide a barrier to radiations. Bricks are made of a heavy material for gamma absorption and of epoxy resin, boric acid and hydrated alumina [fr

  2. Ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, J.

    1989-01-01

    Ionizing radiation results in biological damage that differs from other hazardous substances and is highly dangerous to man. Ionizing radiation cannot be perceived by man's sense organs and the biological damage cannot be detected immediately afterwards (except in very high doses). Every human being is exposed to low doses of radiation. The structure of the atom; sources of ionizing radiation; radiation units; biological effects; norms for radiation protection; and the national control in South Africa are discussed. 1 fig., 5 refs

  3. Radiation doses to Finns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantalainen, L.

    1996-01-01

    The estimated annual radiation doses to Finns have been reduced in the recent years without any change in the actual radiation environment. This is because the radiation types have been changed. The risk factors will probably be changed again in the future, because recent studies show discrepancies in the neutron dosimetry concerning the city of Hiroshima. Neutron dosimetry discrepancy has been found between the predicted and estimated neutron radiation. The prediction of neutron radiation is calculated by Monte Carlo simulations, which have also been used when designing recommendations for the limits of radiation doses (ICRP60). Estimation of the neutron radiation is made on the basis of measured neutron activation of materials in the city. The estimated neutron dose beyond 1 km is two to ten, or more, times as high as the predicted dose. This discrepancy is important, because the most relevant distances with respect to radiation risk evaluation are between 1 and 2 km. Because of this discrepancy, the present radiation risk factors for gamma and neutron radiation, which rely on the Monte Carlo calculations, are false, too. The recommendations of ICRP60 have been adopted in a few countries, including Finland, and they affect the planned common limits of the EU. It is questionable whether happiness is increased by adopting false limits, even if they are common. (orig.) (2 figs., 1 tab.)

  4. Long-term Results of Carbon Ion Radiation Therapy for Locally Advanced or Unfavorably Located Choroidal Melanoma: Usefulness of CT-based 2-Port Orthogonal Therapy for Reducing the Incidence of Neovascular Glaucoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Shingo; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Nobutaka; Nomiya, Takuma; Kamada, Tadashi; Tokumaru, Sunao; Mizota, Atsushi; Ohnishi, Yoshitaka; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the long-term results of carbon ion radiation therapy (C-ion RT) in patients with choroidal melanoma, and to assess the usefulness of CT-based 2-port irradiation in reducing the risk of neovascular glaucoma (NVG). Methods and Materials: Between January 2001 and February 2012, a total of 116 patients with locally advanced or unfavorably located choroidal melanoma received CT-based C-ion RT. Of these patients, 114 were followed up for more than 6 months and their data analyzed. The numbers of T3 and T2 patients (International Union Against Cancer [UICC], 5th edition) were 106 and 8, respectively. The total dose of C-ion RT varied from 60 to 85 GyE, with each dose given in 5 fractions. Since October 2005, 2-port therapy (51 patients) has been used in an attempt to reduce the risk of NVG. A dose-volume histogram analysis was also performed in 106 patients. Results: The median follow-up was 4.6 years (range, 0.5-10.6 years). The 5-year overall survival, cause-specific survival, local control, distant metastasis-free survival, and eye retention rates were 80.4% (95% confidence interval 89.0%-71.8%), 82.2% (90.6%-73.8%), 92.8% (98.5%-87.1%), 72.1% (81.9%-62.3%), and 92.8% (98.1%-87.5%), respectively. The overall 5-year NVG incidence rate was 35.9% (25.9%-45.9%) and that of 1-port group and 2-port group were 41.6% (29.3%-54.0%) and 13.9% (3.2%-24.6%) with statistically significant difference (P<.001). The dose-volume histogram analysis showed that the average irradiated volume of the iris-ciliary body was significantly lower in the non-NVG group than in the NVG group at all dose levels, and significantly lower in the 2-port group than in the 1-port group at high dose levels. Conclusions: The long-term results of C-ion RT for choroidal melanoma are satisfactory. CT-based 2-port C-ion RT can be used to reduce the high-dose irradiated volume of the iris-ciliary body and the resulting risk of NVG

  5. Long-term Results of Carbon Ion Radiation Therapy for Locally Advanced or Unfavorably Located Choroidal Melanoma: Usefulness of CT-based 2-Port Orthogonal Therapy for Reducing the Incidence of Neovascular Glaucoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyama, Shingo [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Tsuji, Hiroshi, E-mail: h_tsuji@nirs.go.jp [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Mizoguchi, Nobutaka; Nomiya, Takuma; Kamada, Tadashi [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Tokumaru, Sunao [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Mizota, Atsushi [Department of Ophthalmology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ohnishi, Yoshitaka [Department of Ophthalmology, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama (Japan); Tsujii, Hirohiko [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the long-term results of carbon ion radiation therapy (C-ion RT) in patients with choroidal melanoma, and to assess the usefulness of CT-based 2-port irradiation in reducing the risk of neovascular glaucoma (NVG). Methods and Materials: Between January 2001 and February 2012, a total of 116 patients with locally advanced or unfavorably located choroidal melanoma received CT-based C-ion RT. Of these patients, 114 were followed up for more than 6 months and their data analyzed. The numbers of T3 and T2 patients (International Union Against Cancer [UICC], 5th edition) were 106 and 8, respectively. The total dose of C-ion RT varied from 60 to 85 GyE, with each dose given in 5 fractions. Since October 2005, 2-port therapy (51 patients) has been used in an attempt to reduce the risk of NVG. A dose-volume histogram analysis was also performed in 106 patients. Results: The median follow-up was 4.6 years (range, 0.5-10.6 years). The 5-year overall survival, cause-specific survival, local control, distant metastasis-free survival, and eye retention rates were 80.4% (95% confidence interval 89.0%-71.8%), 82.2% (90.6%-73.8%), 92.8% (98.5%-87.1%), 72.1% (81.9%-62.3%), and 92.8% (98.1%-87.5%), respectively. The overall 5-year NVG incidence rate was 35.9% (25.9%-45.9%) and that of 1-port group and 2-port group were 41.6% (29.3%-54.0%) and 13.9% (3.2%-24.6%) with statistically significant difference (P<.001). The dose-volume histogram analysis showed that the average irradiated volume of the iris-ciliary body was significantly lower in the non-NVG group than in the NVG group at all dose levels, and significantly lower in the 2-port group than in the 1-port group at high dose levels. Conclusions: The long-term results of C-ion RT for choroidal melanoma are satisfactory. CT-based 2-port C-ion RT can be used to reduce the high-dose irradiated volume of the iris-ciliary body and the resulting risk of NVG.

  6. RAMs: the problem of transient errors due to alpha radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goujon, Pierre.

    1980-01-01

    Errors that remained unexplained for a long time have occurred with dynamic random access memories. It has been known since 1978 that they are due to stray alpha radiation. A good understanding of this phenomenon enables its effects to be neutralized and the reliability of the products to be guarantied [fr

  7. Radiating Frohlich system as a model of cellular electromagnetism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrobár, Fedor

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2015), s. 355-360 ISSN 1536-8378 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : electromagnetic radiation * Fröhlich systems * cell physiology Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.208, year: 2015

  8. Radiation processing. Present situation of the applications in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laizier, J.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given of radiation processings in Europe: sterilization, food irradiation, sewage treatment, cross-linking of polyethylenes, vinyl polychlorides, rubbers and polymers, electron beam drying of coatings on wood, plastics and paper, production of wood-plastic composites, polymerization of ethylene and vinyl monomers [fr

  9. Radiation protection monitoring board of the tritium building at Valduc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve, J.Y.; Constantin, E.; Cordier, C.; Hudelot, F.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes briefly the radiation protection in a building where a large amount of tritium is handled. A network of detectors (ionization chambers) gives locally acoustic signals and luminous signals. Data are centralized for tritium management, ventilation and waste disposal [fr

  10. Radiation protection and the development of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, P.; Fitoussi, L.

    1975-01-01

    Lights are given on the nature and origins of the radioactivity that could be added to the environment on account of human activities in the electronuclear field and information is given on the investigations undertaken in the field of radiation protection to follow the fate of such radioactivity and assess its possible contribution to populations' exposures [fr

  11. Ganoderma lucidum total triterpenes prevent γ-radiation induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smina, T P; Joseph, Jini; Janardhanan, K K

    2016-11-01

    The in vivo radio-protective effect of total triterpenes isolated from Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst was evaluated using Swiss albino mice, by pre-treatment with total triterpenes for 14 days, followed by a whole body exposure to γ-radiation. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) were analysed in liver and brain homogenates. The extent of lipid and protein peroxidation was also estimated in liver and brain homogenates after irradiation. Protection of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in peripheral blood lymphocytes and bone marrow cells was assessed using the comet assay. Total triterpenes were highly effective in reducing the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation to near normal values in both liver and brain tissues. Total triterpenes, when administered in vivo, were also found to be successful in restoring the antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH level in liver and brain of irradiated mice. Administration of total triterpenes, prior to radiation exposure, significantly decreased the DNA strand breaks. The results of the present study thus revealed the potential therapeutic use of Ganoderma total triterpenes as an adjuvant in radiation therapy.

  12. Ultraviolet-B radiation influences the abundance and distribution of phylloplane fungi on pedunculate oak (Quercus robur)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsham, K.K.; Low, M.N.R.; McLeod, A.R.; Greenslade, P.D.; Emmett, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of u.v.-B radiation (280-315 nm) on the fungi occurring on the lammas leaves of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) were examined using saplings that were exposed at an outdoor facility to supplemental levels of u.v.-B radiation under treatment arrays of cellulose diacetate-filtered fluorescent lamps, which also produce u.v.-A radiation (315-400 nm). Saplings were also exposed to u.v.-A radiation alone under control arrays of polyester-filtered lamps, and to ambient levels of solar radiation under arrays of unenergized lamps. The u.v.-B treatment corresponded to a 30% elevation above the ambient level of erythemally-weighted u.v.-B radiation. The fungi were examined weekly over a 4-month-period in summer and autumn 1995 using two techniques, the spore fall and leaf impression methods, which differentiated between those fungi occurring on the upper (adaxial) and lower (abaxial) surfaces of the leaves. The abundances of Aureobasidium pullulans (De Bary) Arnaud and Sporobolomyces roseus Kluy. et van Niel, two leaf yeasts which had adaxial:abaxial ratios of < 1 under ambient levels of u.v.-B radiation, were negatively correlated with increasing ambient levels of u.v.-B radiation and were significantly reduced on adaxial leaf surfaces by supplemental levels of u.v.-B. There were few effects of supplemental u.v.-B radiation on the abundances of these yeasts on abaxial leaf surfaces. The abundances of the dematiaceous hyphomycetes, Cladosporium spp. and Epicoccum nigrum Link., species with adaxial:abaxial ratios of ⩾ 1 under ambient levels of u.v.-B radiation, were not correlated with ambient levels of u.v.-B radiation, nor were they usually affected on either leaf surface by supplemental u.v.-B radiation. Alternaria spp. and Microdochium nivale (Fr.) Samuels & Hallet showed consistent responses on adaxial leaf surfaces to u.v.-A radiation applied under control and treatment arrays. Our results suggest that current levels of shortwave radiation already

  13. Radiation protection during radiological examinations of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, D.; Gillet, R.; Wambersie, A.

    The dose delivered to children during radiological examinations were assessed and their variations compared with an experimental model. It is shown how to make good radiological examinations limiting the dose delivered to children and reducing the hazard to the medical staff [fr

  14. Radiation Protection and Control Act 1982. No 49 of 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Act provides for radiation protection in the State of South Australia. It controls activities related to radioactive substances and irradiating apparatus and lays down a licensing system to this effect. The South Australia Health Commission is responsible for administering the Act and is advised by the Radiation Protection Committee created for this purpose. The powers and duties of both bodies are set out in detail. (NEA) [fr

  15. Radiation-induced cancers in the rat, an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, M.; Lafuma, J.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation carcinogenesis at low doses raises a major radiological protection problem; we have attempted to deal with it through animal investigations involving over 3,000 rats. For various radiation types, dose-effect relationships as well as possible synergies with endogenous or exogenous chemical factors were studied. The chief problem being the possibility of extrapolation to man, a comparison was made between man and rat with the only human data available from radon inhalation in uranium miners [fr

  16. Estimating net short-wave radiation with the Bellani pyranometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, Y.; Plamondon, A.P.

    1983-01-01

    Two methods were developed by which daily net short-wave radiation (K∗) can be evaluated from Bellani pyranometer readings. The first method involves a simple regression equation. The second method uses a physical approach taking into account the effect of the Bellani's geometry on its response to direct and diffuse radiation throughout the day. Both methods, when tested on experimental data, tended to underestimate the measured K∗, the regression approach exhibiting a higher variance of the error [fr

  17. Radiation-induced cancers in the rat, an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, M.; Lafuma, J.

    1988-09-01

    Radiation carcinogenesis at low doses raises a major radiological protection problem; we have attempted to deal with it through animal investigations involving over 3,000 rats. For various radiation types, dose-effect relationships as well as possible synergies with endogenous or exogenous chemical factors were studied. The chief problem being the possibility of extrapolation to man, a comparison was made between man and rat with the only human data available from radon inhalation in uranium miners [fr

  18. Astrophysical radiative shocks: From modeling to laboratory experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gonzales, N.; Stehlé, C.; Audit, E.; Busquet, M.; Rus, Bedřich; Thais, F.; Acef, O.; Barroso, P.; Bar-Shalom, A.; Bauduin, D.; Kozlová, Michaela; Lery, T.; Madouri, A.; Mocek, Tomáš; Polan, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 24, - (2006), s. 535-540 ISSN 0263-0346 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 506350 - LASERLAB-EUROPE; European Commission(XE) 5592 - JETSET Grant - others:CNRS(FR) PNPS Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : laboratory astrophysics * laser plasmas * radiative shock waves * radiative transfer Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.958, year: 2006

  19. Radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Cancergram deals with all aspects of radiation carcinogenesis. The term radiation here includes U-V radiation and the entire electromagnetic spectrum, electron and other charged particle beams, neutrons, and alpha and beta radiation from radioactive substances. Abstracts included concern relationships between radiation and carcinogenesis in humans, experimental induction of tumors in animals by irradiation, studies on the mechanism of radiation carcinogenesis at the cellular level, studies of RBE, dose response or dose threshold in relation to radiation carcinogenesis, and methods and policies for control of radiation exposure in the general population. In general, this Cancergram excludes abstracts on radio-therapy, radiologic diagnosis, radiation pathology, and radiation biology, where these articles have no bearing on radiation carcinogenesis

  20. Ministerial Decree of 6 June 1968 determining the maximum permissible doses and concentrations for purposes of the health protection of workers in the field of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    This Decree made in implementation of DPR No. 185 of 13 February 1964 forms an important part of regulations on occupational health protection. It adopts the criteria and values laid down by Euratom Directives on radiation protection. (NEA) [fr