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Sample records for radiation exposure times

  1. Study of the examination times using radiation equipments and the radiation exposure control

    Koshida, Kichiro; Orito, Takeo; Maekawa, Ryuichi; Hiraki, Tatsunosuke [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Paramedicine; Koga, Sukehiko

    1985-01-01

    The relation between the examination time and the exposure to the personnel was investigated. In order to minimize radiation injury, special exposure dose-rate distribution curves were performed at the maximum exposure condition setting the phantom, and the examination times could be limited from the exprosure dose for the place where the personnel presented. The examination times are possible to be ten times by those with the Medical X-ray Protective Aprons.

  2. Study of the examination times using radiation equipments and the radiation exposure control

    Koshida, Kichiro; Orito, Takeo; Maekawa, Ryuichi; Hiraki, Tatsunosuke; Koga, Sukehiko.

    1985-01-01

    It was investigated for the relation between the examination times and the exposure to the personnel. At the purpose to minimize the radiation injury, the special exposure dose-rate distribution curves were performed at the maximum exposure condition setting the phantom, and the examination times could be limited from the exprosure dose for the place where the personnel presented. The examination times are possible to be ten times by those with the Medical X-ray Protective Aprons. (author)

  3. Mechanistic models for cancer development after short time radiation exposure

    Kottbauer, M. M.

    1997-12-01

    In this work two biological based models were developed. First the single-hit model for solid tumors (SHM-S) and second the single-hit model for leukemia (SHM-L). These models are a further development of the Armitage-Doll model for the special case of a short time radiation exposure. The basis of the models is the multistage process of carcinogeneses. The single-hit models provide simultaneously the age-dependent cancer-rate of spontaneous and radiation induced tumors as well as the dose-effect relationships at any age after exposure. The SHM-S leads to a biological based dose-effect relationship, which is similar to the relative risk model suggested by the ICRP 60. The SHM-S describes the increased mortality rate of the bomb survivors more accurate than the relative risk model. The SHM-L results in an additive dose-effect relationship. It is shown that only small differences in the derivation of the two models lead to the two dose-effect relationships. Beside the radiation exposure the new models consider the decrease of the cancer mortality rate at higher ages (age>75) which can be traced back mainly to three causes: competitive causes of death, reduction of cell proliferation and reduction of risk groups. The single-hit models also consider children cancer, the different rates of incidence and mortality, influence of the immune system and the cell-killing effect. (author)

  4. Radiation exposure in nuclear medicine: real-time measurement

    Sylvain, Iara; Bok, Bernard; X. Bichat University, Paris

    2002-01-01

    French regulations have introduced the use of electronic dosimeters for personnel monitoring of workers. In order to evaluate the exposure from diagnostic procedures to nuclear medicine staff, individual whole-body doses were measured daily with electronic (digital) personal dosimeters during 20 consecutive weeks and correlated with the work load of each day. Personal doses remained always below 20 mu Sv/d under normal working conditions. Radiation exposure levels were highest to tech staff, nurses and stretcher-bearers. The extrapolated annual cumulative doses for all staff remained less than 10% of the maximum legal limit for exposed workers (2 mSv/yr). Electronic dosimeters are not technically justified for routine survey of staff. The high sensitivity and immediate reading of electronic semiconductor dosimeters may become very useful for exposure control under risky working conditions. It may become an important help for optimising radiation protection. (author)

  5. Radiation exposure in nuclear medicine: real-time measurement

    Iara Sylvain

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available French regulations have introduced the use of electronic dosimeters for personal monitoring of workers. In order to evaluate the exposure from diagnostic procedures to nuclear medicine staff, individual whole-body doses were measured daily with electronic (digital personal dosimeters during 20 consecutive weeks and correlated with the work load of each day. Personal doses remained always below 20 µSv/d under normal working conditions. Radiation exposure levels were highest to tech staff, nurses and stretcher-bearers. The extrapolated annual cumulative doses for all staff remained less than 10 % of the maximum legal limit for exposed workers (2 mSv/yr. Electronic dosimeters are not technically justified for routine survey of staff. The high sensitivity and immediate reading of electronic semiconductor dosimeters may become very useful for exposure control under risky working conditions. It may become an important help for optimising radiation protection.A legislação francesa introduziu o uso de dosímetros eletrônicos para monitoração da exposição do trabalhador. Afim de avaliar a exposição do trabalhador proveniente de exames diagnósticos em medicina nuclear, doses individuais do corpo inteiro foram medidas diariamente com dosímetros eletrônicos (digitais durante 20 semanas consecutivas e correlatas com as atividades de trabalho de cada dia. As doses foram sempre inferiores à 20 µSv por dia em condições normais de trabalho. Os níveis de exposição de radiação mais elevados foram para os enfermeiros, manipuladores e maqueiros. A extrapolação da dose anual para todos os trabalhadores foi menos que 10 % do limite máximo legal para os trabalhadores expostos (2 mSv/ano. Dosímetros eletrônicos não são tecnicamente justificados para a o controle de rotina da exposição dos trabalhadores, mas a alta sensibilidade e a leitura imediata desses dosímetros podem vir a serem muito úteis para o controle da exposição em condi

  6. Efficacy of serotonin in lessening radiation damage to mouse embryo depending on time of its administration following radiation exposure

    Konstantinova, M.M.; Dontsova, G.V.; Panaeva, S.V.; Turpaev, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    Our earlier studies demonstrated that serotonin lessons radiation damage to an 8-day mouse embryo. Moreover, this biogenic amine was equally effective when administered before and after intrauterine exposure of the embryo to ionizing radiation. The radiotherapeutic effect of serotonin was manifested by disorders in the embryo growth of various intensity, within the range of the studied radiation doses (1.31, 1.74, and 2.18 Gy). The therapeutic effect of serotonin in the embryos exposed to various doses of radiation depended on the amount of serotonin administered. The effective doses of this substance were determined by the severity of the damage inflicted. In this series of experiments, serotonin was administered immediately after exposure to ionizing radiation. The object of the present study was to determine whether or not the radiotherapeutic effect of serotonin depends on the time that elapses between the end of radiation exposure and the administration of serotonin to pregnant mice. It was established that serotonin produces a radiotherapeutic effect during 24 h following the intrauterine exposure of the fetus to ionizing radiation on the 8th day of gestation. The best therapeutic effect is attained with the administration of serotonin immediately after radiation exposure. The effect is slightly lower is serotonin is administered within 5 or 24 h following radiation exposure

  7. Experimental study of some homeostatic parameters at late times after exposure to radiation

    Chertkov, K.S.; Andrianova, I.E.; Atamanova, O.M.; Filimonova, G.I.; Nesterova, T.A.; Sbitneva, M.F.; Glushkov, V.A.; Chotij, V.G.; Stejmatskaya, Z.A.

    1994-01-01

    Following radiation damage from LD 50 - LD 97 , changes in blood, immune and endocrine parameters were revealed and followed up in dogs at the time of late effects development, 3-18 months after exposure. The changes result from post-radiation immunodeficiency and resemble those observed in residents of radioactive contaminate areas or in men participated in Chernobyl accident amelioration

  8. Radiation exposure during ESWL

    McCullough, D.L.; Van Swearingen, F.L.; Dyer, R.B.; Appel, B.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses exposure to ionizing radiation by the ESWL patient and for health professionals. Although the patient is exposed acutely to the highest level of radiation, the lithotripter team is chronically exposed to ionizing radiation at varying levels. Attention to detail is important in reducing that exposure. The operator should follow the guidelines set forth in this chapter in order to minimize exposure to the patient, himself or herself, and to all co-workers. At the present time, investigation of an alternative modality for stone localization, ultrasound, is being investigated

  9. Variations with time and age in the relative risks of solid cancer incidence after radiation exposure

    Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R.; de Vathaire, F.; Charles, M.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Japanese atomic bomb survivor cancer incidence dataset and data on five groups exposed to radiation for medical reasons in childhood are analysed and evidence found for a reduction in the radiation-induced relative risk of cancers other than leukaemia with increasing time since exposure and age at exposure. The rate of the reductions in relative risk with time since exposure are not significantly different for those exposed in childhood and for those exposed in adulthood, if adjustment is made for the effects on the relative risk of age at exposure. For those irradiated in childhood, there is a statistically significant annual reduction of 5.8% (95% Cl 2.8, 8.9) in excess relative risk, and there are no strong indications of inter-cohort heterogeniety in the speed of reduction of relative risk. After adjustment for the effects of age at exposure, there is a significant annual reduction of 3.6% (95% Cl 1.6, 5.6) in excess relative risk in all age-at-exposure groups. There are significant reductions of 5.2% (95% Cl 3.7, 6.8) in excess relative risk per year of age at exposure. There are statistically significant (P = 0.04) interactions between the exponential adjustments to the excess relative risk for age at exposure and time since exposure in the Japanese data, but no indications (P = 0.38) of such interactions when powers of time since exposure and attained age are used to adjust the excess relative risk, so that the fit of the model with power adjustments is to be preferred to that of the model with exponential adjustments. (author)

  10. Development of real-time radiation exposure dosimetry system using synthetic ruby for interventional radiology

    Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Win, Thet Pe; Muroi, Kenzo; Matsumoto, Kenki; Takahashi, Kaito; Usui, Akihito; Saito, Haruo; Kozakai, Masataka

    2017-01-01

    Interventional radiology (IVR) tends to involve long procedures, consequently delivering high radiation doses to the patient. Radiation-induced injuries that occur because of the effect of the high radiation doses are a considerable problem for those performing IVR. For example, skin injuries can include skin erythema if the skin is exposed to radiation doses beyond the threshold level of 2 Gy. One of the reasons for this type of injury is that the local skin dose cannot be monitored in real time. Although there are systems employed to measure the exposure dose, some do not work in real time (such as thermoluminescence dosimeters and fluorescent glass dosimeters), while certain real-time measurement systems that enter the field of view (such as patient skin dosimeters and dosimeters using a nontoxic phosphor) interfere with IVR. However, synthetic ruby has been shown to emit light in response to radiation. The luminous wavelength is 693 nm. It is possible to monitor the radiation dose by detecting the emitted light. However, small synthetic rubies emit a tiny amount of light that is difficult to detect using common systems such as photodiodes. A large enough synthetic ruby to increase the quantity of emitted light would however enter the field of view and interfere with the IVR procedure. Additionally, although a photodiode system could reduce the system size, the data is susceptible to effects from the X-rays and outside temperature. Therefore, use of a sensitive photon counting system as used in nuclear medicine could potentially have a beneficial effect in detecting the weak light signal. A real-time radiation exposure dosimetry system for use in IVR should be sufficiently sensitive, not interfere with the IVR procedure, and ideally have the possibility of development into a system that can provide simultaneous multipoint measurements. This article discusses the development of a realtime radiation exposure dosimetry system for use in IVR that employs a small

  11. Temporal variation of optimal UV exposure time over Korea: risks and benefits of surface UV radiation

    Lee, Y. G.; Koo, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Solar UV radiation in a wavelength range between 280 to 400 nm has both positive and negative influences on human body. Surface UV radiation is the main natural source of vitamin D, providing the promotion of bone and musculoskeletal health and reducing the risk of a number of cancers and other medical conditions. However, overexposure to surface UV radiation is significantly related with the majority of skin cancer, in addition other negative health effects such as sunburn, skin aging, and some forms of eye cataracts. Therefore, it is important to estimate the optimal UV exposure time, representing a balance between reducing negative health effects and maximizing sufficient vitamin D production. Previous studies calculated erythemal UV and vitamin-D UV from the measured and modelled spectral irradiances, respectively, by weighting CIE Erythema and Vitamin D3 generation functions (Kazantzidis et al., 2009; Fioletov et al., 2010). In particular, McKenzie et al. (2009) suggested the algorithm to estimate vitamin-D production UV from erythemal UV (or UV index) and determined the optimum conditions of UV exposure based on skin type Ⅱ according to the Fitzpatrick (1988). Recently, there are various demands for risks and benefits of surface UV radiation on public health over Korea, thus it is necessary to estimate optimal UV exposure time suitable to skin type of East Asians. This study examined the relationship between erythemally weighted UV (UVEry) and vitamin D weighted UV (UVVitD) over Korea during 2004-2012. The temporal variations of the ratio (UVVitD/UVEry) were also analyzed and the ratio as a function of UV index was applied in estimating the optimal UV exposure time. In summer with high surface UV radiation, short exposure time leaded to sufficient vitamin D and erythema and vice versa in winter. Thus, the balancing time in winter was enough to maximize UV benefits and minimize UV risks.

  12. Real-Time Aircraft Cosmic Ray Radiation Exposure Predictions from the NAIRAS Model

    Mertens, C. J.; Tobiska, W.; Kress, B. T.; Xu, X.

    2012-12-01

    The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) is a prototype operational model for predicting commercial aircraft radiation exposure from galactic and solar cosmic rays. NAIRAS predictions are currently streaming live from the project's public website, and the exposure rate nowcast is also available on the SpaceWx smartphone app for iPhone, IPad, and Android. Cosmic rays are the primary source of human exposure to high linear energy transfer radiation at aircraft altitudes, which increases the risk of cancer and other adverse health effects. Thus, the NAIRAS model addresses an important national need with broad societal, public health and economic benefits. There is also interest in extending NAIRAS to the LEO environment to address radiation hazard issues for the emerging commercial spaceflight industry. The processes responsible for the variability in the solar wind, interplanetary magnetic field, solar energetic particle spectrum, and the dynamical response of the magnetosphere to these space environment inputs, strongly influence the composition and energy distribution of the atmospheric ionizing radiation field. Real-time observations are required at a variety of locations within the geospace environment. The NAIRAS model is driven by real-time input data from ground-, atmospheric-, and space-based platforms. During the development of the NAIRAS model, new science questions and observational data gaps were identified that must be addressed in order to obtain a more reliable and robust operational model of atmospheric radiation exposure. The focus of this talk is to present the current capabilities of the NAIRAS model, discuss future developments in aviation radiation modeling and instrumentation, and propose strategies and methodologies of bridging known gaps in current modeling and observational capabilities.

  13. Radiation exposure

    Dalton, L.K.

    1991-01-01

    The book gives accounts of some social and environmental impacts of the developing radiation industries, including the experiences of affected communities and individuals. Its structure is based on a division which has been made between nuclear and non-nuclear radiation sources, because they create distinctly different problems for environmental protection and so for public health policy. The emissions from electronic and electrical installations - the non-nuclear radiations - are dealt with in Part I. Emissions from radioactive substances - the nuclear radiations - are dealt with in Part II. Part III is for readers who want more detailed information about scientific basis of radiation-related biological changes and their associated health effects. 75 refs., 9 tabs., 7 figs., ills

  14. Radiation exposure in transcatheter patent ductus arteriosus closure: time to tune?

    Villemain, Olivier; Malekzadeh-Milani, Sophie; Sitefane, Fidelio; Mostefa-Kara, Meriem; Boudjemline, Younes

    2018-05-01

    The aims of this study were to describe radiation level at our institution during transcatheter patent ductus arteriosus occlusion and to evaluate the components contributing to radiation exposure. Transcatheter occlusion relying on X-ray imaging has become the treatment of choice for patients with patent ductus arteriosus. Interventionists now work hard to minimise radiation exposure in order to reduce risk of induced cancers. We retrospectively reviewed all consecutive children who underwent transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus from January 2012 to January 2016. Clinical data, anatomical characteristics, and catheterisation procedure parameters were reported. Radiation doses were analysed for the following variables: total air kerma, mGy; dose area product, Gy.cm2; dose area product per body weight, Gy.cm2/kg; and total fluoroscopic time. A total of 324 patients were included (median age=1.51 [Q1-Q3: 0.62-4.23] years; weight=10.3 [6.7-17.0] kg). In all, 322/324 (99.4%) procedures were successful. The median radiation doses were as follows: total air kerma: 26 (14.5-49.3) mGy; dose area product: 1.01 (0.56-2.24) Gy.cm2; dose area product/kg: 0.106 (0.061-0.185) Gy.cm2/kg; and fluoroscopic time: 2.8 (2-4) min. In multivariate analysis, a weight >10 kg, a ductus arteriosus width <2 mm, complications during the procedure, and a high frame rate (15 frames/second) were risk factors for an increased exposure. Lower doses of radiation can be achieved with subsequent recommendations: technical improvement, frame rate reduction, avoidance of biplane cineangiograms, use of stored fluoroscopy as much as possible, and limitation of fluoroscopic time. A greater use of echocardiography might even lessen the exposure.

  15. Radiation exposure during ureteroscopy

    Bagley, D.H.; Cubler-Goodman, A.

    1990-01-01

    Use of fluoroscopy during ureteroscopy increases the risk of radiation exposure to the urologist and patient. Radiation entrance dosages were measured at skin level in 37 patients, and at the neck, trunk and finger of the urologist, and neck and trunk of the circulating nurse. Radiation exposure time was measured in 79 patients, and was related to the purpose of the procedure and the type of ureteroscope used, whether rigid or flexible. Exposure could be minimized by decreasing the fluoroscopy time. A portable C-arm fluoroscopy unit with electronic imaging and last image hold mode should be used to minimize exposure time. Lead aprons and thyroid shields should be used by the urologist and other personnel in the endoscopy room

  16. Radiation exposure and examination time during enteroclysis and small bowel follow-through

    Thoeni, R.F.; Gould, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have investigated radiation exposures and total examination and fluoroscopy times in enterolysis and small-bowel-follow-through (SBFT). Enteroclysis was performed in 25 patients and SBFT in another 25 (17 with UGI/SBFT and 8 with SBFT alone), with 5 TLD dosimeters placed in areas of the back exposed to primary x-rays during fluoroscopy, spot, and overhead radiography. Skin entry exposures, fluoroscopy, and total examination times in enteroclysis were compared to those in SBFTs. Biphasic enteroclyis was performed, with an average of 18 radiographs per study, SBFT with 16, and UGI/SBFT with 23. Indications and pathology for enteroclysis and SBFT were similar. Detailed findings are presented. The authors conclude that total examination time for enteroclysis is two to three times shorter and skin entry exposure is less than two to three times higher than for SBFT. Higher radiation exposure of enteroclysis should be weighted against very short examination times and reported high accuracy in deciding between enteroclysis and SBFT

  17. Radiation exposure of ventilated trauma patients in intensive care: a retrospective study comparing two time periods.

    Yee, Micaela V; Barron, Rochelle A; Knobloch, Tom A; Pandey, Umesh; Twyford, Catherine; Freebairn, Ross C

    2012-08-01

    To describe the cumulative effective dose of radiation that was received during the initial Emergency Department assessment and ICU stay of patients admitted with trauma, who required mechanical ventilation, during two time periods. A retrospective analysis of radiological and clinical data, set in a regional nonurban ICU. Two cohorts (starting 1 January 2004 and 1 January 2009), each comprising 45 adult patients admitted with trauma who were mechanically ventilated in intensive care, were studied. Frequency and type of radiological examinations, demographic information, and clinical data were collated from the radiological database, hospital admission record and Australian Outcomes Research Tool for Intensive Care database. Cumulative effective doses were calculated and expressed as a total dose and average daily dose for each cohort. The median cumulative effective dose per patient (in milliSieverts) increased from 34.59 [interquartile range (IQR) 9.08-43.91] in 2004 to 40.51 (IQR 22.01-48.87) in 2009, P=0.045. An increased number of computed tomography examinations per patient was also observed over the same interval from an average of 2.11 (median 2, IQR 1-3) in 2004 to an average of 2.62 (2, 2-4) in 2009, P=0.046. The radiation exposure of mechanically ventilated trauma patients in intensive care has increased over time. Radiation exposure should be prospectively monitored and staff should be aware of the increased risk resulting from this change in practice.

  18. Radiation Exposure and Pregnancy

    Fact Sheet Adopted: June 2010 Updated: June 2017 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Radiation Exposure and ... radiation and pregnancy can be found on the Health Physics Society " Ask the Experts" Web site. she should ...

  19. Real-time measurement of outdoor worker's exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation in Pretoria, South Africa

    Mmathapelo Makgabutlane

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The city of Pretoria in South Africa receives considerable solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR because of its low latitude (22–35°S and relatively clear skies. Certain meteorological factors affect the amount of solar UVR that reaches the ground; the most dominant factors being stratospheric ozone, cloud cover and solar zenith angle. It is known that overexposure to solar UVR may lead to the development of adverse health conditions, the most significant being skin cancer. Outdoor workers spend a significant amount of time outside and are thus susceptible to this risk. In this case study, we estimated, for the first time, the real-time solar UVR exposure of an outdoor worker in Pretoria. Measurements were made on 27 and 28 May 2013 using a handheld ultraviolet index (UVI meter calibrated against a science-grade biometer at the South African Weather Service in Pretoria. Personal exposure estimation was used to discern the pattern in diurnal and annual sunburn risk for the outdoor worker. Ambient UVR levels ranged from 0 UVI to 4.66 UVI and the outdoor worker’s potential exposure estimates regularly exceeded 80% of these levels depending on the time of day. The risk of sunburn was evident; however, actual incidents would depend on individual skin photosensitivity and melanin content, as well as sun protection used. Further research is needed to determine the personal exposure estimations of outdoor workers in other provinces in which solar UVR levels may be equally high, or higher than those in Pretoria.

  20. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service.

  1. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    2000-02-01

    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service

  2. Radiation camera exposure control

    Martone, R.J.; Yarsawich, M.; Wolczek, W.

    1976-01-01

    A system and method for governing the exposure of an image generated by a radiation camera to an image sensing camera is disclosed. The exposure is terminated in response to the accumulation of a predetermined quantity of radiation, defining a radiation density, occurring in a predetermined area. An index is produced which represents the value of that quantity of radiation whose accumulation causes the exposure termination. The value of the predetermined radiation quantity represented by the index is sensed so that the radiation camera image intensity can be calibrated to compensate for changes in exposure amounts due to desired variations in radiation density of the exposure, to maintain the detectability of the image by the image sensing camera notwithstanding such variations. Provision is also made for calibrating the image intensity in accordance with the sensitivity of the image sensing camera, and for locating the index for maintaining its detectability and causing the proper centering of the radiation camera image

  3. Hazards of radiation exposure

    Solomon, S.B.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis form the main risks to health from exposure to low levels of radiation. There is scant data on somatic and genetic risks at environmental and occupational levels of radiation exposure. The available data on radiation induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis are for high doses and high dose rates of radiation. Risk assessments for low level radiation are obtained using these data, assuming a linear dose-response relationship. During uranium mining the chief source of radiation hazard is inhalation of radon daughters. The correlation between radon daughter exposure and the increased incidence of lung cancer has been well documented. For radiation exposures at and below occupational limits, the associated risk of radiation induced cancers and genetic abnormalities is small and should not lead to a detectable increase over naturally occurring rates

  4. Radiation exposure records management

    Boiter, H.P.

    1975-12-01

    Management of individual radiation exposure records begins at employment with the accumulation of data pertinent to the individual and any previous occupational radiation exposure. Appropriate radiation monitorinng badges or devices are issued and accountability established. A computer master file is initiated to include the individual's name, payroll number, social security number, birth date, assigned department, and location. From this base, a radiation exposure history is accumulated to include external ionizing radiation exposure to skin and whole body, contributing neutron exposure, contributing tritium exposure, and extremity exposure. It is used also to schedule bioassay sampling and in-vivo counts and to provide other pertinent information. The file is used as a basis for providing periodic reports to management and monthly exposure summaries to departmental line supervision to assist in planning work so that individual annual exposures are kept as low as practical. Radiation exposure records management also includes documentation of radiation surveys performed by the health physicist to establish working rates and the individual estimating and recording his estimated exposure on a day-to-day basis. Exposure information is also available to contribute to Energy Research and Development Administration statistics and to the National Transuranium Registry

  5. Population exposure to ultraviolet radiation in Finland 1920-1995: Exposure trends and a time-series analysis of exposure and cutaneous melanoma incidence

    Kojo, Katja; Jansen, Christer T.; Nybom, Pia; Huurto, Laura; Laihia, Jarmo; Ilus, Taina; Auvinen, Anssi

    2006-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the principal cause of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). However, the relation between CMM and UVR exposure is not clear. We present the trends of population exposure to UVR and conduct a time-series analysis of the relation between UVR exposure and incidence of CMM. Data on CMM incidence were obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry. Clothing coverage of the body was scored from archival photographs and the proportion of uncovered skin was used as a measure of solar exposure. Information on the number of sunny resort holidays, duration of annual holidays, and sunscreen sales were obtained from various sources. Exposed skin area doubled from 1920 to 1985. The average duration of annual holidays increased 30-fold. The number of sunny resort holidays and the sales of sunscreens increased rapidly from 1980. CMM was most strongly associated with solar exposure of 5-19 years earlier. There is a considerable decrease in clothing coverage during the 20th century. UVR exposure preceding CMM occurrence 4 years or less does not appear relevant, whereas the period 5-19 years prior to CMM occurrence might be the most relevant period. However, findings of ecological studies may not be applicable at the individual level

  6. Radiation exposure management

    Snihs, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation exposure management includes administrative control, education and training, monitoring and dose assessments and planning of work and radiation protection. The information and discussion given in the paper are based on experiences in Sweden mainly from nuclear power installations. (Author)

  7. Natural radiation exposure indoors

    Brown, L.; Cliff, K.D.; Wrixon, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the state of knowledge of indoor natural radiation exposure in the U.K. and the current survey work the N.R.P.B. is carrying out in this field. Discussion is limited in this instance to the improvement in estimation of population exposure and the identification of areas and circumstances in which high exposure occur, rather than the study of properties of a building and methods of building affecting exposure to radiation. (U.K.)

  8. Exposure to natural radiation

    Green, B.M.R.

    1985-01-01

    A brief report is given of a seminar on the exposure to enhanced natural radiation and its regulatory implications held in 1985 at Maastricht, the Netherlands. The themes of the working sessions included sources of enhanced natural radiation, parameters influencing human exposure, measurement and survey programmes, technical countermeasures, risk and assessment studies, philosophies of dose limitations and national and international policies. (U.K.)

  9. The sources of radiation exposure

    Bennett, B.G.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation protection of workers and of members of the public requires an assessment of the various sources of exposure, their variations in time or under specific conditions or circumstances, and the possibilities for control or limitation. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has evaluated the various components of natural and man-made sources in some detail. Natural exposures form the largest component of radiation exposure of man. Variability in exposures depends on elevation, the concentrations of radionuclides in soil, food and water, the composition of building materials and the susceptibility of indoor spaces to radon build-up. Man-made sources have included exposures to fallout from atmospheric nuclear testing and discharged from nuclear fuel cycle installations in routine operations or in accidents. The other main source of radiation exposures of individuals is in medical diagnostic examinations and therapeutic treatments. (author)

  10. Control of external radiation exposure

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following subjects are discussed - Control of external radiation exposure: working time, working distance, shielding: Total Linear Attenuation Coefficient, Half-Value Layer (HVL), Tenth-Value Layer (TVL); Build-up Factor

  11. Fluoroscopy time - an overestimated factor for patient radiation exposure in invasive cardiology

    Kuon, E.; Robinson, D.M.; Empen, K.; Dahm, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: to analyze the effects of an optimized fluoroscopy time on patient radiation exposure in the course of coronary angiography (CA) and percutaneous coronary interventions (PTCA), in comparison to those with consistent collimation to the region of interest (ROI). Furthermore, to analyze efforts concerning reduction of radiographic frames as well as concerning adequate instead of best possible image quality. Material and methods: for 3,115 elective CAs and 1,713 PTCA performed by one interventionist since 1997, we documented the radiographic dose-area products (DAP R ) and fluoroscopic dose-area products (DAP F ), the number of radiographic frames and the fluoroscopy times during selected 2-month intervals. Under conditions of constant image intensifier entrance dose, levels of DAP R /frame and DAP F /s represent valid parameters for consistent collimation. Results: in 1997, the mean baseline values of DAP for elective CA and PTCA amounted to 37.1 and 31.6 Gy x cm 2 , respectively. A reduction of mean fluoroscopy times from 264 to 126 seconds for CA and from 630 to 449 seconds for PCI, both resulted in an overall DAP-reduction of merely 20%. Optimization of mean radiographic frames from 543 to 98 for CA and from 245 to 142 for PTCA enabled reductions of 53 and 13%, respectively. By restriction to adequate instead of best-possible image quality for coronary angiography in clinical routine, we achieved an optimized radiographic DAP/frame of 30.3 to 13.3 mGy x cm 2 , which enabled a 45% reduction of overall DAP. Most efficient however was a consistent collimation to the ROI, which resulted in a remarkable radiation reduction by 46% for CA and by 65% for PTCA. Conclusions: radiation-reducing educational efforts in the clinical routine of invasive cardiology should - against widely held opinion - focus less exclusively toward a reduction of fluoroscopy time but more efficiently toward consistent collimation to the region of interest, reduction of radiographic

  12. Radiation exposure and radiation protection

    Heuck, F.; Scherer, E.

    1985-01-01

    The present volume is devoted to the radiation hazards and the protective measures which can be taken. It describes the current state of knowledge on the changes which exposure to ionizing rays and other forms of physical energy can induce in organs and tissues, in the functional units and systems of the organism. Special attention is paid to general cellular radiation biology and radiation pathology and to general questions of the biological effects of densely ionizing particle radiation, in order to achieve a better all-round understanding of the effects of radiation on the living organism. Aside from the overviews dealing with the effects of radiation on the abdominal organs, urinary tract, lungs, cerebral and nervous tissue, bones, and skin, the discussion continues with the lymphatic system, the bone marrow as a bloodforming organ, and the various phases of reaction in the reproductive organs, including damage and subsequent regeneration. A special section deals with environmental radiation hazards, including exposure to natural radiation and the dangers of working with radioactive substances, and examines radiation catastrophes from the medical point of view. Not only reactor accidents are covered, but also nuclear explosions, with exhaustive discussion of possible damage and treatment. The state of knowledge on chemical protection against radiation is reviewed in detail. Finally, there is thorough treatment of the mechanism of the substances used for protection against radiation damage in man and of experience concerning this subject to date. In the final section of the book the problems of combined radiotherapy are discussed. The improvement in the efficacy of tumor radiotherapy by means of heavy particles is elucidated, and the significance of the efficacy of tumor therapy using electron-affinitive substances is explained. There is also discussion of the simultaneous use of radiation and pharmaceuticals in the treatment of tumors. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Americans' Average Radiation Exposure

    2000-01-01

    We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body

  14. Evaluation of environmental radiation exposure

    Imai, Kazuhiko

    1974-01-01

    The environmental radiation exposure due to radioactive rare gases is most important both at the time of reactor accidents and also in the long-term normal operation of reactor plants. The exposure dose is usually calculated by means of computers. The procedure of the calculation on environmental exposure dose is divided in several consecutive steps. The calculational formulae frequently used and those proposed recently are given with the explanation on released radionuclides, release to the atmosphere, concentration in the atmosphere, β-ray exposure, γ-ray exposure, and calculation of long-term exposure dose. (Mori, K.)

  15. Ionizing radiation, radiation sources, radiation exposure, radiation effects. Pt. 2

    Schultz, E.

    1985-01-01

    Part 2 deals with radiation exposure due to artificial radiation sources. The article describes X-ray diagnosis complete with an analysis of major methods, nuclear-medical diagnosis, percutaneous radiation therapy, isotope therapy, radiation from industrial generation of nucler energy and other sources of ionizing radiation. In conclusion, the authors attempt to asses total dose, genetically significant dose and various hazards of total radiation exposure by means of a summation of all radiation impacts. (orig./WU) [de

  16. Stochastic modelling for biodosimetry: Predicting the chromosomal response to radiation at different time points after exposure

    Deperas-Standylo, Joanna; Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa; Ritter, Sylvia

    2014-07-01

    Cytogenetic data accumulated from the experiments with peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to densely ionizing radiation clearly demonstrate that for particles with linear energy transfer (LET) >100 keV/ μm the derived relative biological effectiveness (RBE) will strongly depend on the time point chosen for the analysis. A reasonable prediction of radiation-induced chromosome damage and its distribution among cells can be achieved by exploiting Monte Carlo methodology along with the information about the radius of the penetrating ion-track and the LET of the ion beam. In order to examine the relationship between the track structure and the distribution of aberrations induced in human lymphocytes and to clarify the correlation between delays in the cell cycle progression and the aberration burden visible at the first post-irradiation mitosis, we have analyzed chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes exposed to Fe-ions with LET values of 335 keV/ μm and formulated a Monte Carlo model which reflects time-delay in mitosis of aberrant cells. Within the model the frequency distributions of aberrations among cells follow the pattern of local energy distribution and are well approximated by a time-dependent compound Poisson statistics. The cell-division cycle of undamaged and aberrant cells and chromosome aberrations are modelled as a renewal process represented by a random sum of (independent and identically distributed) random elements S N = ∑ N i=0 X i . Here N stands for the number of particle traversals of cell nucleus, each leading to a statistically independent formation of X i aberrations. The parameter N is itself a random variable and reflects the cell cycle delay of heavily damaged cells. The probability distribution of S N follows a general law for which the moment generating function satisfies the relation Φ S N = Φ N ( Φ X i ). Formulation of the Monte Carlo model which allows to predict expected fluxes of aberrant and non-aberrant cells has been based

  17. Sarcoma risk after radiation exposure

    Berrington de Gonzalez Amy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sarcomas were one of the first solid cancers to be linked to ionizing radiation exposure. We reviewed the current evidence on this relationship, focusing particularly on the studies that had individual estimates of radiation doses. There is clear evidence of an increased risk of both bone and soft tissue sarcomas after high-dose fractionated radiation exposure (10 + Gy in childhood, and the risk increases approximately linearly in dose, at least up to 40 Gy. There are few studies available of sarcoma after radiotherapy in adulthood for cancer, but data from cancer registries and studies of treatment for benign conditions confirm that the risk of sarcoma is also increased in this age-group after fractionated high-dose exposure. New findings from the long-term follow-up of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors suggest, for the first time, that sarcomas can be induced by acute lower-doses of radiation (

  18. NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports

    History Documents US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports Enewetak Atoll Cleanup Documents TRAC About Who We Are Our Values History Locations Our Leadership Director Support Center Contact Us FAQ Sheet Links Success Stories Contracts Business Opportunities Current

  19. Doses from radiation exposure

    Menzel, H-G.; Harrison, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Practical implementation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection’s (ICRP) system of protection requires the availability of appropriate methods and data. The work of Committee 2 is concerned with the development of reference data and methods for the assessment of internal and external radiation exposure of workers and members of the public. This involves the development of reference biokinetic and dosimetric models, reference anatomical models of the human body, and reference anatomical and physiological data. Following ICRP’s 2007 Recommendations, Committee 2 has focused on the provision of new reference dose coefficients for external and internal exposure. As well as specifying changes to the radiation and tissue weighting factors used in the calculation of protection quantities, the 2007 Recommendations introduced the use of reference anatomical phantoms based on medical imaging data, requiring explicit sex averaging of male and female organ-equivalent doses in the calculation of effective dose. In preparation for the calculation of new dose coefficients, Committee 2 and its task groups have provided updated nuclear decay data (ICRP Publication 107) and adult reference computational phantoms (ICRP Publication 110). New dose coefficients for external exposures of workers are complete (ICRP Publication 116), and work is in progress on a series of reports on internal dose coefficients to workers from inhaled and ingested radionuclides. Reference phantoms for children will also be provided and used in the calculation of dose coefficients for public exposures. Committee 2 also has task groups on exposures to radiation in space and on the use of effective dose.

  20. Doses from radiation exposure

    Menzel, H G

    2012-01-01

    Practical implementation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) system of protection requires the availability of appropriate methods and data. The work of Committee 2 is concerned with the development of reference data and methods for the assessment of internal and external radiation exposure of workers and members of the public. This involves the development of reference biokinetic and dosimetric models, reference anatomical models of the human body, and reference anatomical and physiological data. Following ICRP's 2007 Recommendations, Committee 2 has focused on the provision of new reference dose coefficients for external and internal exposure. As well as specifying changes to the radiation and tissue weighting factors used in the calculation of protection quantities, the 2007 Recommendations introduced the use of reference anatomical phantoms based on medical imaging data, requiring explicit sex averaging of male and female organ-equivalent doses in the calculation of effecti...

  1. Psychiatric disorders after radiation exposure

    Kokai, Masahiro [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Soejima, Toshinori; Wang, Shangdong; Shinfuku, Naotaka

    2001-04-01

    This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)

  2. Psychiatric disorders after radiation exposure

    Kokai, Masahiro; Soejima, Toshinori; Wang, Shangdong; Shinfuku, Naotaka

    2001-01-01

    This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)

  3. Modeling the effects of exposure time and turbidity on the elimination of bacteria in drinking water by natural ultraviolet radiation

    Elkarmi, A.

    1998-01-01

    Two models are developed in which the effect of exposure time on bacterial elimination from drinking water by natural ultraviolet radiation is modeled as a Gompertz growth curve and the effect of turbidity on the elimination of bacteria in drinking water is modeled as the reciprocal of Gompertz growth curve by using nonlinear regression analysis. The Quasi-Newton estimation procedure in combination with the simplex, Hooke-Jeeves and Rosenbrock methods are used to estimate the model parameters. The results of the two models can assist in determining the appropriate exposure time and turbidity needed to obtain a certain percentage of bacterial elimination to a high degree of accuracy and thus is useful in act ural practical applications. (author) . 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Radiation exposure of the dentist

    Regulla, D F; Wachsmann, F

    1975-08-01

    The radiation doses per person undergoing dental treatment measured at the trunk is rather considerable, though not alarming. However, the number of people whose hands had been exposed to radiation as well as the individual extent of exposure were unexpectedly high. The radiation doses measured at the hands was about 100 times bigger than the radiation doses determined at the trunk for the whole body. Although these results may be very impressive, it should be borne in mind that the data on which the investigation was based date from 1967/68 and may no longer be fully applicable to the present situation. Whether and to what extent this assumption is justified ought to be found out by control studies regarding radiation doses per person and Roepak programs which are presently being started and whose results will be discussed in this journal.

  5. Universe association between age at the time of radiation exposure and extent of disease in cases of radiation-induced childhood thyroid carcinoma in Belarus

    Farahati, J.; Demidchik, E.P.; Biko, J.; Reiners, C.

    2002-01-01

    Increased incidence of childhood thyroid carcinoma, particularly in the youngest children, has been reported from Belarus since the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986. The relation between disease severity and age at the time of the accident, not previously established in this cohort, was analyzed in this study. The authors studied the association between disease severity, expressed by TNM classification, and age at radiation exposure in a cohort of 483 patients younger than 8 years at the time of the Chernobyl accident who have been diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma since 1986 at the Center for Thyroid Cancer in Minsk. The associations between age at radiation exposure and TNM categories were compared among 4 groups of patients who were ages <2, 2.1-4, 4.1-6, and 6.1-8 years at the time of the accident. Multivariate discriminant analysis was performed to examine the effects of age at the time of the accident, gender, histology, tumor stage, and N classification on the frequency of distant metastasis. Younger age at the time of Chernobyl accident was associated with greater extra thyroidal tumor extension (P<0.01) and more lymph node involvement (P<0.0001) and tended to be associated with more distant metastases (P=0.09). Compared with patients who were ages 6.1-8 years at the time of the accident, patients who were younger than 2 years had significantly more extra thyroidal tumor invasion (P = 0.004), lymph node involvement (P =0.004), and distant metastases (P = 0.05). The age at diagnosis increased with older age at the time of radiation exposure (linear regression analysis; correlation coefficient = 0.67; P<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that younger age at the time of the accident (P = 0.001) and advanced coco regional tumor extension (P<0.001) were the only powerful factors influencing the risk for distant metastasis of this malignancy. The severity of disease was associated inversely with age at the time of radiation exposure

  6. Does Occupational Exposure of Shahid Dastghieb International Airport Workers to Radiofrequency Radiation Affect Their Short Term Memory and Reaction Time?

    Jarideh S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Airport workers are continuously exposed to different levels of radiofrequency microwave (RF/MW radiation emitted by radar equipments. Radars are extensively used in military and aviation industries. Over the past several years, our lab has focused on the health effects of exposure to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as cellular phones, mobile base stations, mobile phone jammers, laptop computers, radars, dentistry cavitrons and MRI. The main goal of this study was to investigate if occupational exposure of Shahid Dastghieb international airport workers to radiofrequency radiation affects their short term memory and reaction time. Methods: Thirty two airport workers involved in duties at control and approach tower (21 males and 11 females, with the age range of 27-67 years old (mean age of 37.38, participated voluntary in this study. On the other hand, 29 workers (13 males, and 16 females whose offices were in the city with no exposure history to radar systems were also participated in this study as the control group. The employees’ reaction time and short term memory were analyzed using a standard visual reaction time (VRT test software and the modified Wechsler memory scale test, respectively. Results: The mean± SD values for the reaction times of the airport employees (N=32 and the control group (N=29 were 0.45±0.12 sec and 0.46±0.17 sec, respectively. Moreover, in the four subset tests; i.e. paired words, forward digit span, backward digit span and word recognition, the following points were obtained for the airport employees and the control group, respectively: (i pair words test: 28.00±13.13 and 32.07±11.65, (ii forward digit span: 8.38±1.40 and 9.03±1.32, (iii backward digit span: 5.54±1.87 and 6.31±1.46, and (iv word recognition: 5.73±2.36 and 6.50±1.93. These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The occupational exposure of the employees to the RF radiation in Shahid

  7. [Evaluation of radiation exposure of personnel in an orthopaedic and trauma operation theatre using the new real-time dosimetry system "dose aware"].

    Müller, M C; Strauss, A; Pflugmacher, R; Nähle, C P; Pennekamp, P H; Burger, C; Wirtz, D C

    2014-08-01

    There is a positive correlation between operation time and staff exposure to radiation during intraoperative use of C-arm fluoroscopy. Due to harmful effects of exposure to long-term low-dose radiation for both the patient and the operating team it should be kept to a minimum. AIM of this study was to evaluate a novel dosimeter system called Dose Aware® (DA) enabling radiation exposure feedback of the personal in an orthopaedic and trauma operation theatre in real-time. Within a prospective study over a period of four month, DA was applied by the operation team during 104 orthopaedic and trauma operations in which the C-arm fluoroscope was used in 2D-mode. During ten operation techniques, radiation exposure of the surgeon, the first assistant, the theatre nurse and the anaesthesiologist was evaluated. Seventy-three operations were analysed. The surgeon achieved the highest radiation exposure during dorsolumbar spinal osteosynthesis, kyphoplasty and screw fixation of sacral fractures. The first assistant received a higher radiation exposure compared to the surgeon during plate osteosynthesis of distal radius fractures (157 %), intramedullary nailing of pertrochanteric fractures (143 %) and dorsolumbar spinal osteosynthesis (240 %). During external fixation of ankle fractures (68 %) and screw fixation of sacral fractures (66 %) radiation exposure of the theatre nurse exceeded 50 % of the surgeon's radiation exposure. During plate osteosynthesis of distal radius fractures (157 %) and intramedullary splinting of clavicular fractures (115 %), the anaesthesiologist received a higher radiation exposure than the surgeon. The novel dosimeter system DA provides real-time radiation exposure feedback of the personnel in an orthopaedic and trauma operation theatre for the first time. Data of this study demonstrate that radiation exposure of the personnel depends on the operation type. The first assistant, the theatre nurse and the anaesthesiologist might be

  8. Staff radiation exposure in radiation diagnostics

    Khakimova, N.U.; Malisheva, E.Yu.; Shosafarova, Sh.G.

    2010-01-01

    Present article is devoted to staff radiation exposure in radiation diagnostics. Data on staff radiation exposure obtained during 2005-2008 years was analyzed. It was found that average individual doses of staff of various occupations in Dushanbe city for 2008 year are at 0.29-2.16 mSv range. They are higher than the average health indicators but lower than maximum permissible dose. It was defined that paramedical personnel receives the highest doses among the various categories of staff.

  9. Aircrew radiation exposure: sources-risks-measurement

    Duftschmid, K.E.

    1994-05-01

    A short review is given on the actual aircrew exposure and its sources. The resulting risks for harmful effects to the health and discuss methods for in-flight measurements of exposure is evaluated. An idea for a fairly simple and economic approach to a practical, airborne active dosimeter for the assessment of individual crew exposure is presented. The exposure of civil aircrew to cosmic radiation, should not be considered a tremendous risk to the health, there is no reason for panic. However, being significantly higher than the average exposure to radiation workers, it can certainly not be neglected. As recommended by ICRP, aircrew exposure has to be considered occupational radiation exposure and aircrews are certainly entitled to the same degree of protection, as other ground-based radiation workers have obtained by law, since long time. (author)

  10. Pregnancy and radiation exposure

    Trott, K.H.; Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H., Neuherberg

    1978-01-01

    In confirmed or presumptive pregnancy it is especially critical to determine the indications for X-ray examination. This assumes that every young woman, before an examination in the pelvic region, be asked explicity when her last normal period was. Examinations of the pelvis which are not acutely necessary should be postponed until the first 10 days after menstruation. If radiologic examination of the true pelvis must be carried out despite pregnancy or is inadvertently done because pregnancy was not recognized, the radiation exposure of the embryo is so small in most cases because of modern dose-sparing equipment, that an interruption of pregnancy is not justified. A dose of less than 1 rad is, as a rule, justifiable, but it is less justifiable that alarmed, uninformed physicians instill a deep-seated fear of giving brith to a freak in a woman through false information. (orig.) [de

  11. Environmental radiation and exposure to radiation

    1981-02-01

    Compared to 1977 the exposure to radiation of the population of the Federal Republic of Germany from both natural and artificial radiation sources has not greatly charged. The amin part of exposure to natural radiation is caused by environmental radiation and by the absorption of naturally radioactive substances into the body. Artificial exposure to radiation of the population is essentially caused by the use of ionizing rays and radioactive substances in medicine. When radioactive materials are released from nuclear facilities the exposure to radiation of the population is only very slightly increased. The real exposure to radiation of individual people can even in the worst affected places, have been at most fractions of a millirem. The exposure to radiation in the worst afected places in the area of a hard-coal power station is higher than that coming from a nuclear power station of the same capacity. The summation of all contributions to the exposure of radiation by nuclear facilities to the population led in 1978 in the Federal Republic of Germany to a genetically significant dose of clearly less than 1 millerem per year. The medium-ranged exposure to radiation by external radiation effects through professional work was in 1978 at 80 millirems. No difference to 1977. The contribution of radionuclide from the fallout coming from nuclear-weapon tests and which has been deposited in the soil, to the whole-body dose for 1978 applies the same as the genetically significant dose of the population with less than 1 millirem. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Prenatal radiation exposure. Dose calculation

    Scharwaechter, C.; Schwartz, C.A.; Haage, P.; Roeser, A.

    2015-01-01

    The unborn child requires special protection. In this context, the indication for an X-ray examination is to be checked critically. If thereupon radiation of the lower abdomen including the uterus cannot be avoided, the examination should be postponed until the end of pregnancy or alternative examination techniques should be considered. Under certain circumstances, either accidental or in unavoidable cases after a thorough risk assessment, radiation exposure of the unborn may take place. In some of these cases an expert radiation hygiene consultation may be required. This consultation should comprise the expected risks for the unborn while not perturbing the mother or the involved medical staff. For the risk assessment in case of an in-utero X-ray exposition deterministic damages with a defined threshold dose are distinguished from stochastic damages without a definable threshold dose. The occurrence of deterministic damages depends on the dose and the developmental stage of the unborn at the time of radiation. To calculate the risks of an in-utero radiation exposure a three-stage concept is commonly applied. Depending on the amount of radiation, the radiation dose is either estimated, roughly calculated using standard tables or, in critical cases, accurately calculated based on the individual event. The complexity of the calculation thereby increases from stage to stage. An estimation based on stage one is easily feasible whereas calculations based on stages two and especially three are more complex and often necessitate execution by specialists. This article demonstrates in detail the risks for the unborn child pertaining to its developmental phase and explains the three-stage concept as an evaluation scheme. It should be noted, that all risk estimations are subject to considerable uncertainties.

  13. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  14. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  15. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure

    1980-01-01

    In 1977 population exposure in the Federal Republic of Germany has not changed as compared to the previous years. The main share of the total exposure, nearly two thirds, is attributed to natural radioactive substances and cosmic radiation. The largest part (around 85%) of the artificial radiation exposure is caused by X-ray diagnostics. In comparison to this, radiation exposure from application of ionizing radiation in medical therapy, use of radioactive material in research and technology, or from nuclear facilities is small. As in the years before, population exposure caused by nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities is distinctly less than 1% of the natural radiation exposure. This is also true for the average radiation exposure within a radius of 3 km around nuclear facilities. On the whole, the report makes clear that the total amount of artificial population exposure will substantially decrease only if one succeeds in reducing the high contribution to the radiation exposure caused by medical measures. (orig.) [de

  16. Radiation exposure from incorporated isotopes

    Beleznay, F [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. Central Research Inst. for Physics

    1985-01-01

    Recommendations for the limitation of the burden of the human body from radiation exposure were developed to avoid direct radiation health damage such that the occurrence of stochastic damage can be held below a resonable risk level. The recommendations, published under ICRP 26 and ICRP 30, contain several guidelines and concepts which are discussed here. They include the primary internal dose exposure limits, secondary and implied limits for the monitoring of internal radiation exposure (Annual Limit of Intake, Derived Air Concentrations). Methods are presented for inspection and monitoring of internal exposure in medical laboratories, inspection of incorporation of sup(131)I and sup(99m)Tc.

  17. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    none,

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  18. Radiation exposure by using unsealed radiation sources

    Preitfellner, J.

    1999-05-01

    Investigations on patients using radioactive substances are performed on a routinely basis in nuclear medicine facilities at many hospitals in our days. These investigations are performed by administering a radiopharmacon to the patient which, depending on several parameters, remains in the body of the patient for various periods of time. All these investigations have in common a g-ray exposure of the environment by the radioactive substance in the body of the patient. Among others, doctors, technical personnel, cleaning personnel, and accompanying persons of patients are exposed to g-rays. Based on these facts, the degree of danger for persons who get into contact with these patients is repeatedly questioned. An additional problem is the health risk of persons employed at a nuclear medicine facility. To answer the first question, the local dose rate in the environment of 102 patients was evaluated immediately after application of the radioactive substance, in intervals from 30 minutes up to several hours, over a period of up to 2 weeks. Depending on the nature of the investigation, the patients were subdivided into 6 groups of 16-20 persons. From the data measured, the effective and the biological half life as well as the local dose were computed. With the aid of concrete case examples, the possible radiation exposure for contact persons was estimated. Postulating unfavorable local and temporal factors in our estimations, the actual radiation exposure is to be estimated about 10-30 % lower. As a reference value for the danger of persons, the maximum permissible boundary values from the Austrian Regulations for Protection against Radiation were used. Referring to these boundary values, for none of the six nuclear medicine investigation methods a danger for contact persons could be derived, indicating that available security measures offer a sufficient protection for affected contact persons. To answer the question about the risk for persons employed at a nuclear

  19. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    Snihs, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of occupational exposure is presented. Concepts and quantities used for radiation protection are explained as well as the ICRP system of dose limitation. The risks correlated to the limits are discussed. However, the actual exposure are often much lower than the limits and the average risk in radiation work is comparable with the average risk in other safe occupations. Actual exposures in various occupations are presented and discussed. (author)

  20. Calculating radiation exposure and dose

    Hondros, J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the methods and procedures used to calculate the radiation exposures and radiation doses to designated employees of the Olympic Dam Project. Each of the three major exposure pathways are examined. These are: gamma irradiation, radon daughter inhalation and radioactive dust inhalation. A further section presents ICRP methodology for combining individual pathway exposures to give a total dose figure. Computer programs used for calculations and data storage are also presented briefly

  1. Worldwide exposures to ionizing radiation

    Bennett, B.G.

    1993-01-01

    All of mankind is exposed to ionizing radiation from natural sources, from human practices that release natural and artificial radionuclides to the environment, and from medical radiation procedures. This paper reviews the assessment in the UNSCEAR 1993 Report of the exposures of human populations worldwide to the various sources of ionizing radiation

  2. Occupational radiation exposures in Cyprus

    Kaplanis, Prodromos A; Christofides, Stelios [Medical Physics Department, Nicosia General Hospital, 1450 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    1999-12-31

    For the first time ever the occupational radiation exposure data of all the radiation workers of Cyprus, as obtained by the personnel monitoring service of the Dosimetry Laboratory of the Medical Physics Department of the Ministry of Health, is published and compared with that of other countries. The presented data shows a systematic trend of improvement both with regards to the methodology of monitoring and data recording. The efforts of the past few years in educating and training the users of ionising radiation with regards to the importance of the personnel monitoring service and the hazards of ionising radiation, has paid off and this is evident from the doses recorded in the past three years which are compared favourably with those of other countries, as given by the UNSCEAR 1993 report. The introduction of extremity monitoring, promises even better improvement in the methodology of monitoring the doses received by personnel working in Interventional Radiology, as well as other groups whose hands, unavoidably, come close to radiation sources. (authors) 3 refs., 12 tabs.

  3. Radiation exposures: risks and realities

    Ganesh, G.

    2010-01-01

    Discovery of radioactivity in 1869 by Henry Becquerel and artificial radioactivity by Irene Curie in 1934 led to the development of nuclear field and nuclear materials in 20th century. They are widely used for man-kind across the globe in electricity production, carbon dating, treatment and diagnosis of diseases etc. While deriving benefits and utilizing nuclear resources for the benefit of man-kind, it is inevitable that exposure to radiation can not be avoided. Radiation exists all around us either natural or man-made which can not be totally eliminated or avoided. Radiation exposures from natural background contribute 2.4 to 3.6 mSv in a year. Radiation exposures incurred by a member of public due to nuclear industries constitute less than one hundredth of annual dose due to natural background. Hence it is important to understand the risk posed by radiation and comparison of radiation risk with various risks arising due to other sources. Studies have indicated that risks due to environmental pollution, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, heart diseases are far higher in magnitude compared to radiation risks from man made sources. This paper brings about the details and awareness regarding radiation exposures, radiation risk, various risks associated with other industries and benefits of radiation exposures. (author)

  4. Effects after prenatal radiation exposures

    Streffer, C.

    2001-01-01

    The mammalian organism is highly radiosensitive during all prenatal developmental periods. For most effects a dose relationship with a threshold is observed. These threshold doses are generally above the exposures from medical diagnostic procedures. The quality and extent of radiation effects are very much dependent on the developmental stage during which an exposure takes place and on the radiation dose. An exposure during the preimplantation period will cause lethality. Malformations are usually induced after exposures during the major organogenesis. Growth retardation is also possible during the late organogenesis and foetal periods. The lower limits of threshold doses for these effects are in the range of 100 mGy. A radiation exposure during the early foetal period can lead to severe mental retardation and impairment of intelligence. There are very serious effects with radiation doses above 0.3 Gy. Carcinogenesis can apparently occur after radiation exposures during the total prenatal development period. The radiation risk factor up to now has not been clear, but it seems that it is in the range of risk factors for cancer that are observed after exposures during childhood. For radiation doses that are used in radiological diagnostics the risk is zero or very low. A termination of pregnancy after doses below 100 mGy should not be considered. (author)

  5. Analysis of interaction of some systems of the organism in the prolonged time after radiation exposure

    Akoev, I.G.

    1978-01-01

    Prolonged observations have been carried out of the composition of the form elements of white and red blood and hemoglobin content in dogs irradiated with the 400 R dose as well as of the nine factors of the punctate of bone marrow characterizing the division and ripening of red and white sprouts. On the base of comparison of dynamics of these fourteen indices the following conclusions on the sequence of inclusion and exclusion of hemopoiesis reserves have been made. The primacy of hemopoiesis to the red side exists always when there is an insufficient quantity of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in them important for organism. The first reserve to be mobilized and mostly used is the expansion of hemopoiesis spring-board, the second-accelerated passage of cells of the dividingand dividing-ripening pools. Later and for a very short time the number of mitoses increases in erythroblasts which directly reflects the reduction of their generative cycle

  6. Intentional exposure to ultraviolet radiation

    Kivisakk, E.

    1987-01-01

    Exposure to UV radiation can cause a number of detrimental effects to human health. Some of these are particularly grave, as for instance the induction of skin cancer. Nevertheless, intentional exposure to UV radiation is commonly practiced for many purposes, ranging from medical treatment to merely a simple form of pastime. From the radiation point of view, the risks associated with exposure to UV radiation in any particular application should be carefully considered, and only accepted if they are obviously compensated by the benefits of the irradiation. This is not always the case today, to some extent due to shortage of information about the effect of UV radiation - especially on a long term basis

  7. Radiation exposure and infant cancer

    Watari, T [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1974-12-01

    Medical exposures accompanied by an increase in radiation use in the field of pediatrics were described. Basic ideas and countermeasures to radiation injuries were outlined. In order to decrease the medical exposure, it is necessary for the doctor, x-ray technician and manufacturer to work together. The mechanism and characteristics of radio carcinogenesis were also mentioned. Particularly, the following two points were described: 1) How many years does it take before carcinogenesis appears as a result of radiation exposure in infancy 2) How and when does the effect of fetus exposure appear. Radiosensitivity in infants and fetuses is greater than that of an adult. The occurrence of leukemia caused by prenatal exposure was reviewed. The relation between irradiation for therapy and morbidity of thyroid cancer was mentioned. Finally, precautions necessary for infants, pregnant women and nursing mothers when using radioisotopes were mentioned.

  8. Non-occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    Snihs, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of non-occupational exposure is presented. The special problems in connection with assessments of collective doses (time, geographical extension, cut-off, uncertainties) are discussed. Examples of methods and principles for monitoring and dose assessments used for various sources of radiation are given and data on public exposure are presented and discussed. (author)

  9. Malignant mesothelioma following radiation exposure

    Antman, K.H.; Corson, J.M.; Li, F.P.; Greenberger, J.; Sytkowski, A.; Henson, D.E.; Weinstein, L.

    1983-01-01

    Mesothelioma developed in proximity to the field of therapeutic radiation administered 10-31 years previously in four patients. In three, mesothelioma arose within the site of prior therapeutic radiation for another cancer. Mesothelioma in the fourth patient developed adjacent to the site of cosmetic radiation to a thyroidectomy scar. None of these four patients recalled an asbestos exposure or had evidence of asbestosis on chest roentgenogram. Lung tissue in one patient was negative for ferruginous bodies, a finding considered to indicate no significant asbestos exposure. Five other patients with radiation-associated mesothelioma have been reported previously, suggesting that radiation is an uncommon cause of human mesothelioma. Problems in the diagnosis of radiation-associated mesotheliomas are considered

  10. Radiation Exposure from Medical Exams and Procedures

    Fact Sheet Adopted: January 2010 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Radiation Exposure from Medical Exams and Procedures Ionizing radiation is used daily in hospitals and clinics ...

  11. Radiation Exposure - Multiple Languages

    ... Rays) - 繁體中文 (Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect)) PDF California Dental Association Nuclear or Radiation Emergencies - 繁體中文 (Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect)) Bilingual PDF ...

  12. Radiation Risk from Chronic Low Dose-Rate Radiation Exposures: The Role of Life-Time Animal Studies - Workshop October 2005

    Gayle Woloschak

    2009-12-16

    As a part of Radiation research conference, a workshop was held on life-long exposure studies conducted in the course of irradiation experiements done at Argonne National Laboratory between 1952-1992. A recent review article documents many of the issues discussed at that workshop.

  13. Health consequences of ionizing radiation exposure

    Dalci, D.; Dorter, G.; Guclu, I.

    2004-01-01

    The increasing use of ionizing radiations all over the world induces an ever increasing interest of the professionals as well as of the whole society in health protection and the risk due to these practices. Shortly after its discovery, it was recognized that ionizing radiation can have adverse health effects and knowledge of its detrimental effects has accumulated. The fact that ionizing radiation produces biological damage has been known for many years. The biological effects of ionizing radiation for radiation protection considerations are grouped into two categories: The deterministic and the stochastic ones. Deterministic radiation effects can be clinically diagnosed in the exposed individual and occur when above a certain 'threshold' an appropriately high dose is absorbed in the tissues and organs to cause the death of a large number of cells and consequently to impair tissue or organ functions early after exposure. A clinically observable biological effect (Acute Radiation Syndromes, ARS) that occurs days to months after an acute radiation dose. ARS is a complex of acute injury manifestations that occur after a sufficiently large portion of a person's body is exposed to a high dose of ionizing radiation. Such irradiation initially injures all organs to some extent, but the timing and extent of the injury manifestations depend upon the type, rate, and dose of radiation received. Stochastic radiation effects are the chronic effects of radiation result from relatively low exposure levels delivered over long periods of time. These are sort of effects that might result from occupational exposure, or to the background exposure levels (includes radioactive pollution). Such late effects might be the development of malignant (cancerous) disease and of the hereditary consequences. These effects may be observed many years after the radiation exposure. There is a latent period between the initial radiation exposure and the development of the biological effect. In this

  14. Radiation protection: occupational exposure

    Shah, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The basis of the occupational exposure limit of 50 mSv recommended by the ICRP is questioned. New dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the fact that the dose-response curve may be non-linear and that the relative risk model may be applicable, are some of the arguments advanced to support a reduction in the occupational exposure dose limits. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  15. Natural background radiation exposures world-wide

    Bennett, B.G.

    1993-01-01

    The average radiation dose to the world's population from natural radiation sources has been assessed by UNSCEAR to be 2.4 mSv per year. The components of this exposure, methods of evaluation and, in particular, the variations in the natural background levels are presented in this paper. Exposures to cosmic radiation range from 0.26 mSv per year at sea level to 20 times more at an altitude of 6000 m. Exposures to cosmogenic radionuclides ( 3 H, 14 C) are relatively insignificant and little variable. The terrestrial radionuclides 40 K, 238 U, and 232 Th and the decay products of the latter two constitute the remainder of the natural radiation exposure. Wide variations in exposure occur for these components, particularly for radon and its decay products, which can accumulate to relatively high levels indoors. Unusually high exposures to uranium and thorium series radionuclides characterize the high natural background areas which occur in several localized regions in the world. Extreme values in natural radiation exposures have been estimated to range up to 100 times the average values. (author). 15 refs, 3 tabs

  16. Exposure to non ionizing radiations

    Campanella, L.; Dragone, R.; Pastorelli, A.

    2001-01-01

    In the last years the exposure levels to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields of workers and citizens have dramatically increased due to the technological development as in the exemplar case of cellular phones. The object of this research concerns the biological evaluation of the risk from exposure to non ionizing radiations (NIR) by an opportunely designed biosensor based on immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and by an amperometric transducer (Clark oxygen electrode). The results have been obtained by comparing the respiratory activities of exposed and not exposed yeast cells to NIR (at 900 MHz, frequency of the first generation cellular phones). The measurements have been performed by irradiation of the cells in a G-TEM chamber. The obtained results clearly show a decrease of the respiration activity of the irradiation cells in comparison with blank. This variation results to be proportional to the exposure time. Concerning reversibility of the damage it seems that the recovery of the initial conditions begins after 4 hours since the end of exposition and is complete within the following 48 hrs [it

  17. Gamma radiographic exposure time indicator

    Risbud, V.H.; Thiagarajan, A.; Gangadharan, P.

    1979-01-01

    In industrial radiography, with the proper selection of source and film, the radiographic quality depends very much on the exposure time, which in turn depends upon the source strength and the source to film distance. Conventional methods to arrive at correct exposure time involve time consuming calculations and in these methods the knowledge of the above mentioned parameters is imperative. An instrument to determine the required exposure time has been developed which indicates exposure times in about 30 secs. This covers two commonly used gamma radiography sources, viz., 192 Ir and 60 Co and six commonly used radiography films of different speeds. Knowledge of source strength and source to film distance is not required with the use of this instrument. With a knowledge of the total exposure required by the film to give the required sensitivity and by the measurement of radiation level at the film location, the correct exposure time is determined. The radiation level is measured by placing a GM counter behind the radiographic specimen at the film location. To match the responses of the film and the GM counter, the counter is incorporated in a suitably designed probe. In this instruments, an integrator to integrate the GM-pulses and a constant current integrator (timer) are started simultaneously. The voltage at the GM-pulse integrator is compared with a preselected voltage, (selected on the basis of film type, source, source strength and order of object thickness) by a comparator. The comparator is so adjusted that when the GM-pulse integrator voltage exceeds the preselected voltage, it switches its state and stops the integration of constant current. The constant current integrator output which is proportional to the time taken for the GM-pulse integrator to reach the preselected voltage, is read on a meter graduated in terms of exposure time. The instrument can measure exposure times from 5 minutes to 10 hours read in two ranges, the range-changing being automatic

  18. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The Office of Analysis within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past five-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information has been analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  19. Integrated occupational radiation exposure information system

    Hunt, H.W.

    1983-06-01

    The integrated (Occupational Radiation Exposure) data base information system has many advantages. Radiation exposure information is available to operating management in a more timely manner and in a more flexible mode. The ORE system has permitted the integration of scattered files and data to be stored in a more cost-effective method that permits easy and simultaneous access by a variety of users with different data needs. The external storage needs of the radiation exposure source documents are several orders of magnitude less through the use of the computer assisted retrieval techniques employed in the ORE system. Groundwork is being layed to automate the historical files, which are maintained to help describe the radiation protection programs and policies at any one point in time. The file unit will be microfilmed for topical indexing on the ORE data base

  20. Radiation Exposure of Passengers to Cosmic Radiation

    Salah El-Din, T.; Gomaa, M.A.; Sallah, N.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to review exposure of Egyptian passengers and occupational workers to cosmic radiation during their work. Computed effective dose of passengers by computer code CARI-6 using during either short route, medium route or long route as well as recommended allowed number of flights per year

  1. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1982

    Fujimoto, K.R.; Wilson, J.A.; Ashmore, J.P.; Grogan, D.

    1983-12-01

    This report is the fifth in a series of annual reports in Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which contains dose records for radiation workers. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are included, and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded

  2. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1980

    Ashmore, J.P.; Fujimoto, K.R.; Wilson, J.A.; Grogan, D.

    1981-08-01

    This report is the third in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes dose records for radiation workers. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The decrease in the overall average doses established over the last 20 years appears to be changing. In some occupational categories a consistent upward trend is observed

  3. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure

    1976-01-01

    The environmental radioactivity in the Federal Republic of Germany was almost as high in 1976 as in 1975. It only increased temporarily in autumn 1976 as a result of the above-ground nuclear weapons test of the People's Republic of China on September 29th 1976 and then returned to its previous level. The radioactivity in food had a slight decreasing trend in 1976, apart from a temporary increase in the radioactivity in milk also caused by the nuclear weapons test mentioned. The population exposure remains basically unchanged in 1976 compared with 1975. The artificial radiation exposure is about half as high as the natural radiation exposure to which man has always been exposed. The former is based to 83% on using X-rays in medicine, particularly for X-ray diagnostic purposes. The population exposure due to nuclear power plants and other nuclear plants is still well below 1% of the natural radiation exposure although in 1976 three new nuclear power plants were put into operation. This is also true for the average radiation exposure within an area of 3 km around the nuclear plant. (orig.) [de

  4. Radiation exposure in manned spaceflight

    Buecker, H. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany)); Horneck, G. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany)); Facius, R. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany)); Reitz, G. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany))

    1993-08-01

    Space missions exposure humans to a radiation environment of a particulate composition and intensity not encountered within our biosphere. The natural radiation environment encountered in Earth orbit is a complex mixture of charged particles of galactic and solar origin and of those trapped by the geomagnetic field. In addition, secondaries are produced by interaction of cosmic ray primaries with the spacecraft shielding material. Among this large variety of radiation components in space, it is likely that the heavy ions are the significant species as far as radiobiological effects are concerned. In addition, a synergistic interaction of microgravity and radiation on living systems has been reported in some instances. Based on an admissible risk of 3% mortality due to cancers induced during a working career, radiation protection guidelines have been developed for this radiation environment. (orig.)

  5. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation and Human Exposure

    Wilson, John W.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Goldhagen, Paul; Friedberg, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Copeland, K.; Bidasaria, H. B.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation is of interest, apart from its main concern of aircraft exposures, because it is a principal source of human exposure to radiations with high linear energy transfer (LET). The ionizing radiations of the lower atmosphere near the Earth s surface tend to be dominated by the terrestrial radioisotopes. especially along the coastal plain and interior low lands, and have only minor contributions from neutrons (11 percent). The world average is substantially larger but the high altitude cities especially have substantial contributions from neutrons (25 to 45 percent). Understanding the world distribution of neutron exposures requires an improved understanding of the latitudinal, longitudinal, altitude and spectral distribution that depends on local terrain and time. These issues are being investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical program. This paper will give an overview of human exposures and describe the development of improved environmental models.

  6. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation and Human Exposure

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Friedberg, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Copeland, K.; Bidasaria, H. B.

    2004-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation is of interest, apart from its main concern of aircraft exposures, because it is a principal source of human exposure to radiations with high linear energy transfer (LET). The ionizing radiations of the lower atmosphere near the Earth s surface tend to be dominated by the terrestrial radioisotopes especially along the coastal plain and interior low lands and have only minor contributions from neutrons (11 percent). The world average is substantially larger but the high altitude cities especially have substantial contributions from neutrons (25 to 45 percent). Understanding the world distribution of neutron exposures requires an improved understanding of the latitudinal, longitudinal, altitude and spectral distribution that depends on local terrain and time. These issues are being investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical program. This paper will give an overview of human exposures and describe the development of improved environmental models.

  7. Occupational radiation exposure in Germany: many monitored persons = high exposure?

    Nitschke, J.

    1996-01-01

    Natural radiation affects the entire population in Germany, and most of Germany's inhabitants are exposed to medical radiation in their lifetime. Occupational radiation exposure, however, is a kind of exposure affecting only a limited and well-defined group of the population, and this radiation exposure has been recorded and monitored as precisely as technically possible ever since the radiation protection laws made occupational radiation exposure monitoring a mandatory obligation. Official personal dosimetry applying passive dosemeters in fact does not offer direct protection against the effects of ionizing radiation, as dosemeter read-out and dose calculation is a post-exposure process. But it nevertheless is a rewarding monitoring duty under radiation protection law, as is shown by the radiation exposure statistics accumulated over decades: in spite of the number of monitored persons having been increasing over the years, the total exposure did not, due to the corresponding improvements in occupational radiation protection. (orig.) [de

  8. Indoor exposure to natural radiation in Denmark

    Ulbak, K.; Stenum, B.; Soerensen, A.; Majborn, B.; Boetter-Jensen, L.; Nielsen, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    Assessment of the exposures to the Danish population from different natural radiation sources including building materials, drinking water, fly ash etc. has been performed from 1975 and up till now. In 1987 a comprehensive nationwide investigation of the gamma exposures and radon levels in 500 randomly selected Danish dwellings will be concluded by the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene. At the same time the Danish authorities will publish a control strategy for limiting the exposure of the Danish population from natural sources, especially from radon daughter exposure in dwellings. The presentation will outline the main results of the nationwide survey in Danish dwellings together with the main principles behind and the consequences of the initiated control strategy for limiting the exposures from natural radioactive sources

  9. Biological monitoring of radiation exposure

    Horneck, G.

    1998-11-01

    Complementary to physical dosimetry, biological dosimetry systems have been developed and applied which weight the different components of environmental radiation according to their biological efficacy. They generally give a record of the accumulated exposure of individuals with high sensitivity and specificity for the toxic agent under consideration. Basically three different types of biological detecting/monitoring systems are available: (i) intrinsic biological dosimeters that record the individual radiation exposure (humans, plants, animals) in measurable units. For monitoring ionizing radiation exposure, in situ biomarkers for genetic (e.g. chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes, germ line minisatellite mutation rates) or metabolic changes in serum, plasma and blood (e.g. serum lipids, lipoproteins, lipid peroxides, melatonin, antibody titer) have been used. (ii) Extrinsic biological dosimeters/indicators that record the accumulated dose in biological model systems. Their application includes long-term monitoring of changes in environmental UV radiation and its biological implications as well as dosimetry of personal UV exposure. (iii) Biological detectors/biosensors for genotoxic substances and agents such as bacterial assays (e.g. Ames test, SOS-type test) that are highly sensitive to genotoxins with high specificity. They may be applicable for different aspects in environmental monitoring including the International Space Station.

  10. Time-of-day effects of exposure to solar radiation on thermoregulation during outdoor exercise in the heat.

    Otani, Hidenori; Goto, Takayuki; Goto, Heita; Shirato, Minayuki

    2017-01-01

    High solar radiation has been recognised as a contributing factor to exertional heat-related illness in individuals exercising outdoors in the heat. Although solar radiation intensity has been known to have similar time-of-day variation as body temperature, the relationship between fluctuations in solar radiation associated with diurnal change in the angle of sunlight and thermoregulatory responses in individuals exercising outdoors in a hot environment remains largely unknown. The present study therefore investigated the time-of-day effects of variations in solar radiation associated with changing solar elevation angle on thermoregulatory responses during moderate-intensity outdoor exercise in the heat of summer. Eight healthy, high school baseball players, heat-acclimatised male volunteers completed a 3-h outdoor baseball trainings under the clear sky in the heat. The trainings were commenced at 0900 h in AM trial and at 1600 h in PM trial each on a separate day. Solar radiation and solar elevation angle during exercise continued to increase in AM (672-1107 W/m 2 and 44-69°) and decrease in PM (717-0 W/m 2 and 34-0°) and were higher on AM than on PM (both P  0.05). Tympanic temperature measured by an infrared tympanic thermometer and mean skin temperature were higher in AM than PM at 120 and 180 min (P  0.05). The current study demonstrates a greater thermoregulatory strain in the morning than in the afternoon resulting from a higher body temperature and heart rate in relation to an increase in environmental heat stress with rising solar radiation and solar elevation angle during moderate-intensity outdoor exercise in the heat. This response is associated with a lesser net heat loss at the skin and a greater body heat gain from the sun in the morning compared with the afternoon.

  11. Occupational radiation exposure in Slovakia

    Boehm, K.; Cabanekova, H.

    2014-01-01

    Recently are 2 nuclear power plants in operation in the Slovak republic. Apart from nuclear facilities there are 450 licensed undertakings with monitored workers. The majority of the licensed undertakings are active in health care. In Slovak republic are five dosimetry services performing assessments on personal doses due to external exposure and two dosimetry services are approved to carry out monitoring of internal exposure. Dosemeters used for the monitoring of external individual exposure include: personal whole-body film dosemeters, thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLD) or optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSL) for measurements of beta and gamma radiation; TLD for measurements of neutron radiation and TLD for extremities. The measured operational dose quantities are Hp(10), Hp(3) and Hp(0.07). Approved dosimetry service reports the measured dose data to the employers and to the Central register of occupational doses (CROD). Annually are monitored about 12500 - 16200 active workers. Average effective doses per one monitored worker are presented. (author)

  12. Radiation exposure during equine radiography

    Ackerman, N.; Spencer, C.P.; Hager, D.A.; Poulos, P.W. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    All personnel present in the X-ray examination room during equine radiography were monitored using low energy direct reading ionization chambers (pockets dosimeters) worn outside the lead apron at neck level. The individuals' task and dosimeter readings were recorded after each examination. Average doses ranged from 0 to 6 mrad per study. The greatest exposures were associated with radiography of the shoulder and averaged less than 4 mrad. The individual extending the horse's limb was at greatest risk although the individual holding the horse's halter and the one making the X-ray exposure received similar exposures. A survey of the overhead tube assembly used for some of the X-ray examinations also was performed. Meter readings obtained indicated an asymetric dose distribution around the tube assembly, with the highest dose occurring on the side to which the exposure cord was attached. Although the exposures observed were within acceptable limits for occupational workers, we have altered our protocol and no longer radiograph the equine shoulder unless the horse is anesthetized. Continued use of the pocket dosimeters and maintenance of a case record of radiation exposure appears to make the technologists more aware of radiation hazards

  13. Occupational radiation exposures in canada-1983

    Fujimoto, K.; Wilson, J.A.; Ashmore, J.P.; Grogan, D.

    1984-08-01

    This is the sixth in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The information is derived from the National Dose Registry of the Radiation Protection Bureau, Department of National Health and Welfare. As in the past this report presents by occupation: average yearly whole body doses by region, dose distributions, and variations of the average doses with time. The format has been changed to provide more detailed information regarding the various occupations. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are tabulated in summary form

  14. Diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure

    Russell, W J [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1975-09-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic radiology were studied as possible contaminants in the evaluations of A-bomb survivors in the ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study for radiation effects. Hiroshima and Nagasaki subjects received X-ray examinations elsewhere within three months of their ABCC visits at rates of 23 and 12%, respectively. Medical X-ray examinations were more frequent among survivors than comparison subjects. Hiroshima and Nagasaki radiologic practice steadily increased since 1948, and differed markedly by city. From 1946-70 the Hiroshima and Nagasaki X-ray bone marrow doses were 2,300 and 1,000 g-rads, respectively. By 1970, cumulated medical X-ray doses approximated A-bomb doses at distances from the hypocenters of 2,000 m in Hiroshima and 2,800 m in Nagasaki. ABCC X-ray examination doses per subject are routinely updated for comparison with A-bomb doses. Each subject's reported fluoroscopy, photofluorography and radiation therapy exposure elsewhere are for future reference. Dental radiography, though increasing, was not currently an important contributor to survivors' overall exposure. Radiation therapy exposures of 137 subjects were confirmed, and doses estimated for most. Two-thirds the treatments were for malignancies; therapy differed markedly by city; and five cancers possibly arose from earlier radiation therapy. This underscores the importance of considering diagnostic and therapeutic radiology when attributing diseases to the atomic bombs.

  15. Ionizing radiation exposure of LDEF

    Benton, E. V. (Editor); Heinrich, W. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was launched into orbit by the Space Shuttle 'Challenger' mission 41C on 6 April 1984 and was deployed on 8 April 1984. The original altitude of the circular orbit was 258.5 nautical miles (479 km) with the orbital inclination being 28.5 degrees. The 21,500 lb NASA Langley Research Center satellite, having dimensions of some 30x14 ft was one of the largest payloads ever deployed by the Space Shuttle. LDEF carried 57 major experiments and remained in orbit five years and nine months (completing 32,422 orbits). It was retrieved by the Shuttle 'Columbia' on January 11, 1990. By that time, the LDEF orbit had decayed to the altitude of 175 nm (324 km). The experiments were mounted around the periphery of the LDEF on 86 trays and involved the representation of more than 200 investigators, 33 private companies, 21 universities, seven NASA centers, nine Department of Defense laboratories and eight foreign countries. The experiments covered a wide range of disciplines including basic science, electronics, optics, materials, structures, power and propulsion. The data contained in the LDEF mission represents an invaluable asset and one which is not likely to be duplicated in the foreseeable future. The data and the subsequent knowledge which will evolve from the analysis of the LDEF experiments will have a very important bearing on the design and construction of the Space Station Freedom and indeed on other long-term, near-earth orbital space missions. A list of the LDEF experiments according to experiment category and sponsor is given, as well as a list of experiments containing radiation detectors on LDEF including the LDEF experiment number, the title of the experiment, the principal investigator, and the type of radiation detectors carried by the specific experiment.

  16. Estimation of health risks from radiation exposures

    Randolph, M.L.

    1983-08-01

    An informal presentation is given of the cancer and genetic risks from exposures to ionizing radiations. The risks from plausible radiation exposures are shown to be comparable to other commonly encountered risks.

  17. Estimation of health risks from radiation exposures

    Randolph, M.L.

    1983-08-01

    An informal presentation is given of the cancer and genetic risks from exposures to ionizing radiations. The risks from plausible radiation exposures are shown to be comparable to other commonly encountered risks

  18. BWR radiation exposure--experience and projection

    Falk, C.F.; Wilkinson, C.D.; Hollander, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    The BWR/6 Mark III radiation exposures are projected to be about half of those of current average operating experience of 725 man-rem. These projections are said to be realistic and based on current achievements and not on promises of future development. The several BWRs operating with low primary system radiation levels are positive evidence that radiation sources can be reduced. Improvements have been made in reducing the maintenance times for the BWR/6, and further improvements can be made by further attention to cost-effective plant arrangement and layout during detail design to improve accessibility and maintainability of each system and component

  19. Aircrew radiation exposure assessment for Yugoslav airlines

    Antic, Dragoljub [Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Petrovic, Zika [Yugoslav Airlines, JAT, Bulevar umetnosti 16, 11001 Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1997-12-31

    The presented study shows that the crews of the intercontinental flights can receive significant annual effective doses (1.5-2.0 mSv). The exposure of the crews is comparable with natural radiation level on the ground level (it can be up to 5 times higher for some air crew members in the intercontinental flights), but smaller than maximum permissible dose for general population. The annual exposures of the passengers are generally smaller than the exposures of tile air crews. because the passengers have a limited number of flights per year compared with the members of the air-crews. (author).

  20. Radiation exposure in diagnostic medicine

    Haehnel, S.; Michalczak, H.; Reinoehl-Kompa, S.

    1995-01-01

    This volume includes the manuscripts of the papers read at the conference as well as a summary and assessment of its results. The scientific discussions were centred upon the following issues: - International surveys and comparisons of rdiation exposures in diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine, frequency of the individual diagnostic procedures and age distribution of patients examined; - policies and regulations for the radiation protection of patients, charcteristic dosimetric values and practical usefulness of the effective dose concept during medical examinations; - assessments of the relative benefits and risks and measures to reduce the radiation exposure in the light of quality assurance aspects. The main objective of this conference not only was to evaluate the risks from diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine but also to encourgage a critical analysis and adjustment of examination routines followed in everyday practice. Among the measures recommended were quality assurance, maintenace of international standards, development of guidelines, introduction of standard doses, improved training and professional education of personnel as well as surveys and analyses of certain examination procedures associated with substantial radiation exposure. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Radiation exposure in monazite industry

    Paul, A C [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Health Physics Div.

    1979-04-01

    The monazite present in the beach sands of Kerala and Tamil Nadu (India) is separated in the mineral separation plants at Manavalakurichi and Chavara, operated by M/s Indian Rare Earths Ltd. The physical and chemical processing of the sand involves radiation hazards due to the presence of thorium, uranium and their daughter products in monazite. The paper reviews present status in the light of past experiences and analyses the dose apportionment in different work catagories. The problem of internal contamination and environmental radiation levels are also discussed with the help of the recently available data. Radiation fields in the physical processing of monazite at different stages are presented. Apportionment of doses at different stages of the chemical operation involving 10 tonne lots of monazite is presented in a tabular form. The changing trend in external exposure reflected in the man-rem/t of monazite over the years is illustrated in a graph.

  2. Techniques for controlling radiation exposure

    Ocken, H.; Wood, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The US nuclear power industry has been remarkably successful in reducing worker radiation exposure over the past 10 years. There has been more than a fourfold reduction in person-rem per MW-year of electric power generated: from 1.8 person-rems in 1980 to only 0.4 person-rems in 1991. Despite this substantial improvement, challenges for the industry remain. Individual exposure limits have been tightened in the 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP Publication 60, and there will be more requirements for special maintenance work as plants age, suggesting that vigorous efforts will be required to meet the 1995 industry goals for unit median collective exposure. No one method will suffice, but implementing suitable combinations from this compendium will help utilities to achieve their exposure goals. Radiation reduction is generally cost-effective: Outages are shorter, staffing requirements are reduced, and work quality is improved. Despite up-front costs, the benefits over the following one to three years typically outweigh the expenses

  3. Radiation exposure and chromosome damage

    Lloyd, D.

    1979-01-01

    Chromosome damage is discussed as a means of biologically measuring radiation exposure to the body. Human lymphocytes are commonly used for this test since the extent of chromosome damage induced is related to the exposure dose. Several hundred lymphocytes are analysed in metaphase for chromosome damage, particularly dicentrics. The dose estimate is made by comparing the observed dicentric yield against calibration curves, previously produced by in vitro irradiation of blood samples to known doses of different types of radiation. This test is useful when there is doubt that the film badge has recorded a reasonable whole body dose and also when there is an absence of any physical data. A case of deliberate exposure is described where the chromosome damage test estimated an exposure of 152 rads. The life span of cell aberrations is also considered. Regular checks on radiotherapy patients and some accidental overdose cases have shown little reduction in the aberration levels over the first six weeks after which the damage disappears slowly with a half-life of about three years. In conclusion, chromosome studies have been shown to be of value in resolving practical problems in radiological protection. (U.K.)

  4. Radiation exposure analysis of female nuclear medicine radiation workers

    Lee, Ju Young; Park, Hoon Hee

    2016-01-01

    In this study, radiation workers who work in nuclear medicine department were analyzed to find the cause of differences of radiation exposure from General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition and Conduct, especially females working on nuclear medicine radiation, in order to pave the way for positive defense against radiation exposure. The subjects were 106 radiation workers who were divided into two groups of sixty-four males and forty-two females answered questions about their General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition, Conduct, and radiation exposure dose which was measured by TLD (Thermo Luminescence Dosimeter). The results of the analysis revealed that as the higher score of knowledge and conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in female groups, and as the higher score of conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in male groups. In the correlation analysis of female groups, the non-experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of knowledge and conduct was higher and the experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of recognition and conduct was higher. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of nuclear medicine radiation workers, the gender caused the meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of female groups compared to male groups. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of female groups, the factor of conduct showed a meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of the experienced in pregnancy was lower compared to the non-experienced. The conclusion of this study revealed that radiation exposure of female groups was lower than that of male groups. Therefore, male groups need to more actively defend themselves against radiation exposure. Among the female groups, the experienced in pregnancy who have an active defense tendency showed a lower radiation exposure. Thus

  5. Radiation exposure analysis of female nuclear medicine radiation workers

    Lee, Ju Young [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering Graduate School, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hoon Hee [Dept. of Radiological Technologist, Shingu College, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In this study, radiation workers who work in nuclear medicine department were analyzed to find the cause of differences of radiation exposure from General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition and Conduct, especially females working on nuclear medicine radiation, in order to pave the way for positive defense against radiation exposure. The subjects were 106 radiation workers who were divided into two groups of sixty-four males and forty-two females answered questions about their General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition, Conduct, and radiation exposure dose which was measured by TLD (Thermo Luminescence Dosimeter). The results of the analysis revealed that as the higher score of knowledge and conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in female groups, and as the higher score of conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in male groups. In the correlation analysis of female groups, the non-experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of knowledge and conduct was higher and the experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of recognition and conduct was higher. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of nuclear medicine radiation workers, the gender caused the meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of female groups compared to male groups. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of female groups, the factor of conduct showed a meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of the experienced in pregnancy was lower compared to the non-experienced. The conclusion of this study revealed that radiation exposure of female groups was lower than that of male groups. Therefore, male groups need to more actively defend themselves against radiation exposure. Among the female groups, the experienced in pregnancy who have an active defense tendency showed a lower radiation exposure. Thus

  6. Radiation exposure and radiation hazards of human population. Pt. 1

    Jacobi, W.

    1982-01-01

    The present Part I provides a survey on the various sources of natural and artificial radiation exposure of human population. Furthermore, biological radiation effects and radiation damages are surveyed. In an appendix, radiation types, radiation doses, and radiation dose units are explained. (orig./GSCH) [de

  7. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada, 1981

    Fujimoto, K.R.; Wilson, J.A.; Ashmore, J.P.; Grogan, D.

    1983-12-01

    This report is the fourth in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes those records for radiation workers. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures reported by the National Dosimetry Services are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The decrease in the overall average doses established over the last 20 years appears to have resumed after an interruption during 1979 to 1980. A brief summary of extremity dose data is also included

  8. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1979

    Ashmore, J.P.; Fujimoto, K.R.; Wilson, J.A.; Grogan, D.

    1980-12-01

    This report is the second in a series of annual reports on Occupational Radiation Exposures in Canada. The data is derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes dose records for radiation workers in Canada. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of high exposures are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The 1979 data indicate that the gradually decreasing trend of the last two decades may be changing. In a number of areas the overall average doses and the averages for some job categories have increased over the corresponding values for 1977 and 1978

  9. Verification of radiation exposure using lead shields

    Hayashida, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Kenyu; Azuma, Masami

    2016-01-01

    A long time use of radiation during IVR (intervention radiology) treatment leads up to an increased exposure on IVR operator. In order to prepare good environment for the operator to work without worry about exposure, the authors examined exposure reduction with the shields attached to the angiography instrument, i. e. lead curtain and lead glass. In this study, the lumber spine phantom was radiated using the instrument and the radiation leaked outside with and without shields was measured by the ionization chamber type survey meter. The meter was placed at the position which was considered to be that for IVR operator, and changed vertically 20-100 cm above X-ray focus by 10 cm interval. The radiation at the position of 80 cm above X-ray focus was maximum without shield and was hardly reduced with lead curtain. However, it was reduced with lead curtain plus lead glass. Similar reduction effects were observed at the position of 90-100 cm above X-ray focus. On the other hand, the radiation at the position of 70 cm above X-ray focus was not reduced with either shield, because that position corresponded to the gap between lead curtain and lead glass. The radiation at the position of 20-60 cm above X-ray focus was reduced with lead curtain, even if without lead glass. These results show that lead curtain and lead glass attached to the instrument can reduce the radiation exposure on IVR operator. Using these shields is considered to be one of good means for IVR operator to work safely. (author)

  10. Unintentional exposure to ultraviolet radiation

    Sliney, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate the risks from unintentional exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and to consider hazard control regulation, one must face first the problem of their state of scientific knowledge and the public's perception of UVR. Few people in the general public would question the health benefits of sunlight. Many flock to the beaches each summer to develop a healthy tan. Since the 1920's scientists have recognized that most of the benefits--and risks--of sunlight exposure result from the UVR present in sunlight. Dermatologists warn sunbathers to avoid exposure or protect themselves against the intense midday UVR or risk skin cancer. A growing number of scientists warn of hazards to the eye if UVR--perhaps even shorter visible wavelengths--are not filtered by lenses. In addition to any intentional exposure for health or cosmetic purposes, many people are also exposed to UVR without being aware of it or without their intent to be exposed. Outdoor workers are exposed to sunlight, many industrial workers (e.g., welders) are exposed to UVR from arc sources, some UVR penetrates clothing, and people indoors are exposed to UVR from artificial lighting

  11. Dosimetry for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation

    Bartlett, D.T.; McAulay, I.R.; Schrewe, U.J.

    1997-01-01

    Aircraft crew and frequent flyers are exposed to elevated levels of cosmic radiation of galactic and solar origin and secondary radiation produced in the atmosphere, aircraft structure, etc. This has been recognised for some time and estimates of the exposure of aircraft crew have been made previously and included in, for example, UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation) publications. The recent increased interest has been brought about by several factors - the consideration that the relative biological effectiveness of the neutron component was being underestimated; the trend towards higher cruising altitudes for subsonic commercial aircraft and business jet aircraft; and most importantly, the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in Publication 60, and the revision of the Euratom Basic Safety Standards Directive (BSS). In 1992, the European Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) established a Working Group to consider the exposure to cosmic radiation of aircraft crew, and the scientific and technical problems associated with radiation protection dosimetry for this occupational group. The Working Group was composed of fifteen scientists (plus a corresponding member) involved in this field of study and with knowledge of radiation measurement at aviation altitudes. This paper is based on the findings of this Working Group. (author)

  12. Natural and anthropogenic radiation exposure of humans in Germany

    Koelzer, Winfried

    2016-12-01

    The contribution on natural and anthropogenic radiation exposure in Germany covers the following issues: (1) natural radiation exposure: external radiation exposure - cosmic and terrestric radiation, internal radiation exposure - primordial and cosmogenic radionuclides; radiation exposure due to sola neutrinos and geo-neutrinos. (2) Anthropogenic radiation exposure: radiation exposure in medicine, radioactivity in industrial products, radiation exposure during flights, radiation exposure due to nuclear facilities, radiation exposure due to fossil energy carriers in power generation, radiation exposure due to nuclear explosions, radiation exposure due to nuclear accidents. (3) Occupational radiation exposure in Germany: radiation monitoring with personal dosimeters in medicine and industry, dose surveillance of the aviation personal, working places with increases radiation exposure by natural radiation sources.

  13. Radiation exposure during air and ground transportation

    Hsu, P.C.; Weng, P.S.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a one year study program of radiation exposure experienced on both domestic and international flights of the China Airline and the Far East Airline in the Pacific, Southeast Asia and Taiwan areas and on trains and buses on Taiwan island are reported. CaSO 4 :Dy thermoluminescent dosimeters were used. It has been shown that transit exposures may amount to 10 times that on the ground with an altitude varying from 3,050 to 12,200 m. (U.K.)

  14. Radiation exposure of airplane crews. Exposure levels

    Bergau, L.

    1995-01-01

    Even at normal height levels of modern jet airplanes, the flying crew is exposed to a radiation level which is higher by several factors than the terrestrial radiation. There are several ways in which this can be hazardous; the most important of these is the induction of malignant growths, i.e. tumours. (orig./MG) [de

  15. A new radiation exposure record system

    Lyon, M.; Berndt, V.L.; Trevino, G.W.; Oakley, B.M.

    1993-04-01

    The Hanford Radiological Records Program (HRRP) serves all Hanford contractors as the single repository for radiological exposure for all Hanford employees, subcontractors, and visitors. The program administers and preserves all Hanford radiation exposure records. The program also maintains a Radiation Protection Historical File which is a historical file of Hanford radiation protection and dosimetry procedures and practices. Several years ago DOE declared the existing UNIVAC mainframe computer obsolete and the existing Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) system was slated to be redeveloped. The new system named the Radiological Exposure (REX) System is described in this document

  16. Global environment and radiation exposure

    Okamoto, Kazuto

    1991-01-01

    The present status of investigation of acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse effect and their relations to radiation exposure are reported. Soil acidification increases transfer rates of radioactivities to plants which increases the population dose. There are two types of ozone depletion, conventional type and ozone hole type and the latter is much more serious than the former. In the greenhouse effect, although there are large uncertainties both in theoretical and observational sides, present predictions about the global warming will not be very far from reality. Environmental effects are wide-ranging and serious. Radon and thoron exhalation rates are affected by the global warming. The influence of the greenhouse effect on ozone depletion is to suppress depletion for conventional type and enhance depletion for ozone hole type. (author) 65 refs

  17. Predictors of radiation exposure to providers during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Wenzler, David L.; Abbott, Joel E.; Su, Jeannie J.; Shi, William; Slater, Richard; Miller, Daniel; Siemens, Michelle J.; Sur, Roger L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Limited studies have reported on radiation risks of increased ionizing radiation exposure to medical personnel in the urologic community. Fluoroscopy is readily used in many urologic surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to determine radiation exposure to all operating room personnel during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), commonly performed for large renal or complex stones. Materials and Methods: We prospectively collected personnel exposure data for all PNL cases at two academic institutions. This was collected using the Instadose™ dosimeter and reported both continuously and categorically as high and low dose using a 10 mrem dose threshold, the approximate amount of radiation received from one single chest X-ray. Predictors of increased radiation exposure were determined using multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 91 PNL cases in 66 patients were reviewed. Median surgery duration and fluoroscopy time were 142 (38–368) min and 263 (19–1809) sec, respectively. Median attending urologist, urology resident, anesthesia, and nurse radiation exposure per case was 4 (0–111), 4 (0–21), 0 (0–5), and 0 (0–5) mrem, respectively. On univariate analysis, stone area, partial or staghorn calculi, surgery duration, and fluoroscopy time were associated with high attending urologist and resident radiation exposure. Preexisting access that was utilized was negatively associated with resident radiation exposure. However, on multivariate analysis, only fluoroscopy duration remained significant for attending urologist radiation exposure. Conclusion: Increased stone burden, partial or staghorn calculi, surgery and fluoroscopy duration, and absence of preexisting access were associated with high provider radiation exposure. Radiation safety awareness is essential to minimize exposure and to protect the patient and all providers from potential radiation injury. PMID:28216931

  18. Observations of nesting avifauna under gamma-radiation exposure

    Buech, R.R.

    1977-01-01

    An opportunity arose to observe the nesting success of birds (up to the time of fledging) when the Enterprise Forest Radiation Facility was established for a study of the effects of gamma radiation on the flora and fauna of northern forest communities. The results of these observations on the fate of the nest occupants in relation to radiation exposure are presented

  19. Radiation hormesis at occupational exposure

    Zaharieva, E.; Georgieva, R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The aim of our work was to find appropriate biomarkers applicable in molecular epidemiological surveys of occupationally exposed individuals to prove radiation hormesis. Blood samples were taken from a group of irradiated persons, and from a control group. For each worker we estimated a parameter arbitrarily called by us 'mean annual dose' as a quotient of cumulated dose and length of service. DNA repair synthesis in leucocytes before and after in vitro exposure to a challenge dose of 2.0 Gy gamma rays was determined by the level of incorporation of radioactively labeled nucleotides, level of DNA damage in lymphocytes was analyzed by single cell gel electrophoresis and level of lipid peroxidation processes was evaluated by malonedialdehyde concentration in blood plasma. A significant decrease of potentially lethal damage in persons with 'mean annual dose' lower or equal to 5 mSv/y was found, compared to the control group. The highest repair capacity after a challenging dose of 2.0 Gy gamma rays as well as a significant decrease in the level of oxidative stress determined in the blood plasma was evaluated for persons from the same group. The present investigation of occupationally exposed workers showed that annual doses no higher than twice the natural radiation background exert positive effects on DNA damage and repair, increase cellular resistance and decrease oxidative stress

  20. Occupational radiation exposures in Canada - 1978

    Ashmore, J.P.; Fujimoto, K.R.; Wilson, J.A.; Grogan, D.

    This 1978 report is the first in a series of annual reports on occupational radiation exposures in Canada. The data are derived from the Radiation Protection Bureau's National Dose Registry which includes dose records for radiation workers in Canada. The report presents average yearly doses by region and occupational category, dose distributions, and variation of average doses with time. Statistical data concerning investigations of overexposures are included and individual cases are briefly summarized where the maximum permissible dose is exceeded. The 1978 data indicate that the gradually decreasing trend of the last two decades may have changed. In a number of areas the overall average doses and the averages for some job categories have increasd over the corresponding values for 1977

  1. PET radiation exposure control for nurses

    Kawabata, Yumiko; Kikuta, Daisuke; Anzai, Taku

    2005-01-01

    Recently, the number of clinical PET centers is increasing all over Japan. For this reason, the monitoring and control of radiation exposure of employees, especially nurses, in PET-dedicated clinics and institutions are becoming very important issues for their health. We measured the radiation exposure doses of the nurses working at Nishidai Diagnostic Imaging Center, and analyzed the exposure data obtained from them. The exposure doses of the nurses were found to be 4.8 to 7.1 mSv between April 2003 and March 2004. We found that the nurses were mostly exposed to radiation when they had to have contact with patients received an FDG injection or they had trouble with the FDG automatic injection system. To keep radiation exposure of nurses to a minimum we reconfirmed that a proper application of the three principles of protection against radiation exposure was vital. (author)

  2. Medical exposure and the effects of radiation

    Okuyama, Chio

    2011-01-01

    Radiation gives cracks to genes. The influence is divided into deterministic effect with a threshold value, and the stochastic effect (tumor and genetic effect) which increases according to the exposure amount. Although we are put to various non-artificial radiations, which we cannot be avoided, on the earth, the contamination by artificial radiation can be defended. Artificial radioactive exposure includes medical exposure and non-medical exposure for example by nuclear power plant. As to medical examinations using radiation, the inquiry about the radiation exposure is increasing after the occurrence of the first nuclear power plant disaster of Fukushima. While concern about non-medical radioactive exposure increases, the uneasiness to medical irradiation is also increasing. The dose limit by artificial radioactive exposure other than medical exposure is set up in order to prevent the influence on the health. While the dose limit of the public exposure is set to the lower value than the total dose of non-artificial exposure concerning of a safety margin for all people, the dose limit of medical exposure is not defined, since it is thought that medical irradiation has a benefit for those who receive irradiation. Making an effort to decrease the radiation dose in performing the best medical treatment is the responsibility with which we are burdened. (author)

  3. Application of maximum radiation exposure values and monitoring of radiation exposure

    1996-01-01

    The guide presents the principles to be applied in calculating the equivalent dose and the effective dose, instructions on application of the maximum values for radiation exposure, and instruction on monitoring of radiation exposure. In addition, the measurable quantities to be used in monitoring the radiation exposure are presented. (2 refs.)

  4. Impact of climate change on occupational exposure to solar radiation.

    Grandi, Carlo; Borra, Massimo; Militello, Andrea; Polichetti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to solar radiation may induce both acute and long-term effects on skin and eyes. Personal exposure is very difficult to assess accurately, as it depends on environmental, organisational and individual factors. The ongoing climate change interacting with stratospheric ozone dynamics may affect occupational exposure to solar radiation. In addition, tropospheric levels of environmental pollutants interacting with solar radiation may be altered by climate dynamics, so introducing another variable affecting the overall exposure to solar radiation. Given the uncertainties regarding the direction of changes in exposure to solar radiation due to climate change, compliance of outdoor workers with protective measures and a proper health surveillance are crucial. At the same time, education and training, along with the promotion of healthier lifestyles, are of paramount importance.

  5. European studies on occupational radiation exposure - ESOREX

    Petrova, K.; Frasch, G.

    2005-01-01

    sectors and work subcategories for the years 1995 - 2000 use as far as possible an internationally comparable system of work categories and dose intervals. One major aim of this 10-years time series is to document how occupational radiation exposure in Europe changed after the implementation of the new dose limits by the Council Directive 96/29 EURATOM. Since 1997 the following ESOREX studies have been executed: ESOREX WEST (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Finland, France, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom), part I + part II (1995); ESOREX EAST (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia), part I + part II (1997); ESOREX 2000, update of part I + part II (1995-2000). At present ESOREX 2005 is executed with an update of part I + part II (2001-2005). The presentation will give an overview of the ESOREX studies already performed and provide selected results on European level (e.g. dose distribution for main occupational sectors such nuclear industry, general industry, medicine, natural exposure). The presentation will be also focused to the comparison of different approaches in the participating countries to control and register occupational radiation exposure, e.g. central dose registration, categorization of workers, official dosemeters, use of the shielding apron. (author)

  6. DOE occupational radiation exposure. Report 1992--1994

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. This information is analyzed and trended over time to provide a measure of the DOE`s performance in protecting its workers from radiation. Occupational radiation exposure at DOE has been decreasing over the past 5 years. In particular, doses in the higher dose ranges are decreasing, including the number of doses in excess of the DOE limits and doses in excess of the 2 rem Administrative Control Level (ACL). This is an indication of greater attention being given to protecting these individuals from radiation in the workplace.

  7. DOE occupational radiation exposure. Report 1992--1994

    1997-01-01

    The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. This information is analyzed and trended over time to provide a measure of the DOE's performance in protecting its workers from radiation. Occupational radiation exposure at DOE has been decreasing over the past 5 years. In particular, doses in the higher dose ranges are decreasing, including the number of doses in excess of the DOE limits and doses in excess of the 2 rem Administrative Control Level (ACL). This is an indication of greater attention being given to protecting these individuals from radiation in the workplace

  8. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles

    Dörr Harald

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  9. DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure, 2001 report

    None, None

    2001-12-31

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its operations, including radiological, to ensure the safety and health of all DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures to levels that are “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA). The 2001 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides a summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE, and energy research.

  10. Real-time measurement of outdoor worker’s exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation in Pretoria, South Africa

    Makgabutlane, M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available UVR intended to inform the general public about UVR intensity; the index ranges from 0, which is considered low, to 11 or higher, which is considered extreme.3,4 Exposure to UVR is known to have both beneficial and harmful photobiological effects... on humans. The most significant benefit is the endogenous production of vitamin D.5 Vitamin D is essential for, among other processes, bone metabolism in the human body.6 Harmful effects of UVR occur as a result of either underexposure or overexposure...

  11. Sources of radiation exposure - an overview

    Mason, G.C.

    1990-01-01

    Sources of radiation exposure are reviewed from the perspective of mining and milling of radioactive ores in Australia. The major sources of occupational and public exposure are identified and described, and exposures from mining and milling operations are discussed in the context of natural radiation sources and other sources arising from human activities. Most radiation exposure of humans comes from natural sources. About 80% of the world average of the effective dose equivalents received by individual people arises from natural radiation, with a further 15-20% coming from medical exposures*. Exposures results from human activities, such as mining and milling of radioactive ores, nuclear power generation, fallout from nuclear weapons testing and non-medical use of radioisotopes and X-rays, add less than 1% to the total. 9 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs

  12. The analysis of radiation exposure of hospital radiation workers

    Jeong, Tae Sik; Shin, Byung Chul; Moon, Chang Woo; Cho, Yeong Duk; Lee, Yong Hwan; Yum, Ha Yong

    2000-01-01

    This investigation was performed in order to improve the health care of radiation workers, to predict a risk, to minimize the radiation exposure hazard to them and for them to realize radiation exposure danger when they work in radiation area in hospital. The documentations checked regularly for personal radiation exposure in four university hospitals in Pusan city in Korea between January 1, 1993 and December 31, 1997 were analyz ed. There were 458 persons in this documented but 111 persons who worked less then one year were excluded and only 347 persons were included in this study. The average of yearly radiation exposure of 347 persons was 1.52±1.35 mSv. Though it was less than 5OmSv, the limitaion of radiation in law but 125 (36%) people received higher radiation exposure than non-radiation workers. Radiation workers under 30 year old have received radiation exposure of mean 1.87±1.01 mSv/year, mean 1.22±0.69 mSv between 31 and 40 year old and mean 0.97±0.43 mSv/year over, 41year old (p<0.001). Men received mean 1.67±1.54 mSv/year were higher than women who received mean 1.13±0.61 mSv/year (p<0.01). Radiation exposure in the department of nuclear medicine department in spite of low energy sources is higher than other departments that use radiations in hospital (p<0.05). And the workers who received mean 3.69±1.81 mSv/year in parts of management of radiation sources and injection of sources to patient receive high radiation exposure in nuclear medicine department (0<0.01). In department of diagnostic radiology high radiation exposure is in barium enema rooms where workers received mean 3.74±1.74 mSv/year and other parts where they all use fluoroscopy such as angiography room of mean 1.17±0.35 mSv/year and upper gastrointestinal room of mean 1.74±1.34 mSv/year represented higher radiation exposure than average radiation exposure in diagnostic radiology (p<0.01). Doctors and radiation technologists received higher radiation exposure of each mean 1.75±1

  13. Application of maximum radiation exposure values and monitoring of radiation exposure

    1993-01-01

    According to the Section 32 of the Radiation Act (592/91) the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety gives instructions concerning the monitoring of the radiation exposure and the application of the dose limits in Finland. The principles to be applied to calculating the equivalent and the effective doses are presented in the guide. Also the detailed instructions on the application of the maximum exposure values for the radiation work and for the natural radiation as well as the instructions on the monitoring of the exposures are given. Quantities and units for assessing radiation exposure are presented in the appendix of the guide

  14. Minimizing radiation exposure during percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    Chen, T T; Preminger, G M; Lipkin, M E

    2015-12-01

    Given the recent trends in growing per capita radiation dose from medical sources, there have been increasing concerns over patient radiation exposure. Patients with kidney stones undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) are at particular risk for high radiation exposure. There exist several risk factors for increased radiation exposure during PNL which include high Body Mass Index, multiple access tracts, and increased stone burden. We herein review recent trends in radiation exposure, radiation exposure during PNL to both patients and urologists, and various approaches to reduce radiation exposure. We discuss incorporating the principles of As Low As reasonably Achievable (ALARA) into clinical practice and review imaging techniques such as ultrasound and air contrast to guide PNL access. Alternative surgical techniques and approaches to reducing radiation exposure, including retrograde intra-renal surgery, retrograde nephrostomy, endoscopic-guided PNL, and minimally invasive PNL, are also highlighted. It is important for urologists to be aware of these concepts and techniques when treating stone patients with PNL. The discussions outlined will assist urologists in providing patient counseling and high quality of care.

  15. Radiation exposure of uranium mill workers

    Jha, Giridhar; Saha, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    The uranium mill workers at Jaduguda were covered by a regular film badge service from 1969 onwards. Since the log normal plot is useful in interpreting occupational exposure, a statistical analysis of the radiation exposure data was attempted. Exposure data for each year has been plotted as cumulative percentage and worker's population with exposure levels in different class intervals. The plot for each of the year under investigation shows an occupational exposure distribution more or less consistent with the log normal distribution function. The analysis shows that more than 98% of radiation workers received less than 200 mrem (2 mSv). (author)

  16. Radiation protection programme for emergency exposure situations

    Amoah, Peter Atta

    2016-04-01

    An assessment of the Radiation Protection of Emergency Exposure Situations in Ghana was carried out in relation to documents provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). As realized in the document of the “Method for Developing Arrangements for Response to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency” of the IAEA, the National Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Response Plan (NNRERP) of Ghana also discusses the Infrastructural and Functional Requirements necessary for the intervention of a nuclear or radiological emergency. The NNRERP describes the concept of operations for a response designed to facilitate the delivery of coordinated assistance to government authorities such as the National Disaster Management Organisation (NADMO), the Radiation Protection Board (RPB) and other participating organizations. From the NNRERP, practices in Ghana, fall into emergency planning category III and IV. As part of the planning measures, one of Ghana Atomic Energy Commission’s primary functions is to provide technical support with a mechanism for timely, interagency coordination of advice and recommendations to NADMO concerning protective actions, environmental concerns, health matters and other related matters. It has been realized from this assessment that there is an urgent need to upgrade infrastructure with logistics for training, exercises and drills to achieve its optimum expectations which will eventually lead to high level of confidence in meeting the standard of a Radiation Protection Programme in Emergency Exposure Situations. (au)

  17. External radiation exposure of the public

    Mehl, J.

    1977-01-01

    Results of several ten thousand measurements on external radiation (outside buildings, in living rooms) are used for illustrating by isodose charts covering the total area of the Federal Republic of Germany the exposure of the public from external radiation originating from natural radiation of the environment. Results of calculations on external radiation exposure of the public due to releases of radioactivity in air from nuclear installations are used for illustrating by coloured isodose charts the exposure of the public in the plant site vicinity. From comparison of the exposure levels it becomes obvious that if exposure levels of several 10 mrem per year are considered to be of real concern to public health, control of natural radoactivity in the environment of man would require more attention than present and foreseeable releases of radioactivity in air from nuclear inst

  18. DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2013

    Podonsky, Glenn S. [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Health, Safety and Security

    2012-02-02

    occupational radiation exposure records show that in 2012, DOE facilities continued to comply with DOE dose limits and ACLs and worked to minimize exposure to individuals. The DOE collective TED decreased 17.1% from 2011 to 2012. The collective TED decreased at three of the five sites with the largest collective TED. u Idaho Site – Collective dose reductions were achieved as a result of continuing improvements at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) through the planning of drum movements that reduced the number of times a container is handled; placement of waste containers that created highradiation areas in a centralized location; and increased worker awareness of high-dose rate areas. In addition, Idaho had the largest decrease in the total number of workers with measurable TED (1,143 fewer workers). u Hanford Site (Hanford) – An overall reduction of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and Transuranic (TRU) retrieval activities resulted in collective dose reductions. u Savannah River Site (SRS) – Reductions were achieved through ALARA initiatives employed site wide. The Solid Waste Management Facility used extended specialty tools, cameras and lead shield walls to facilitate removal of drums. These tools and techniques reduce exposure time through improved efficiency, increase distance from the source of radiation by remote monitoring, shield the workers to lower the dose rate, and reduce the potential for contamination and release of material through repacking of waste. Overall, from 2011 to 2012, there was a 19% decrease in the number of workers with measurable dose. Furthermore, due to a slight decrease in both the DOE workforce (7%) and monitored workers (10%), the ratio of workers with measurable doses to monitored workers decreased to 13%. Another primary indicator of the level of radiation exposure covered in this report is the average measurable dose, which normalizes the collective dose over

  19. Radiation exposure during cardiac catheterization procedures

    Kicken, P.J.H.; Huyskens, C.J.; Michels, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    For some time there has been an increased interest in more information about radiation exposure during cardiac catheterization because of: relatively high doses to workers and patient; rapid increase of numbers of examinations; introduction of new procedure-types (e.g. Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angiography, PTCA) and introduction of new techniques (e.g. Digital Subtraction Angiography, DSA). This paper reports about a study on the exposure to medical personnel and patient in two major hospitals in the Netherlands. The Total number of cardiac catheterization procedures in both hospitals amounts to circa 3000 per year (approximately 10% of all cardiac procedures c.q. 20% of all PTCA procedures in the Netherlands). This study is related to 1300 cardiac examinations

  20. New radiation limits and air crew exposure

    Antic, D.

    1999-01-01

    Commercial aircraft have optimum cruising speed of 800 - 900 km/h and the cruising altitude near 13 km.The flight paths are assigned according to airway corridors and safety requirements.The relatively high dose-equivalent rates at cruising altitudes near 13 km (about 0.5-2 mSv/h, and the shielding effect of the atmosphere corresponds to about 2 M of water) can cause exposures greater than 5 mSv/y, for a crew with full-time flight (500-600 h/y).The radiation exposure of the crew in commercial air traffic has been studied for the associations of the crews and airline management and published, and regulatory authorities are slowly accepting the fact that there indeed is a problem which needs investigations and protective regulation

  1. Prenatal radiation exposure. Conclusions in the light of radiology

    Leppin, W.

    1987-01-01

    Within 6 years of the appearance of the guideline for action to be taken by doctors in the event of prenatal exposure to radiation, intended as a proposal for discussion, the following has turned out: in no case has termination of pregnancy become necessary following prenatal radiation exposure, prenatal radiation exposure was always low (about 20 mSv), there is no risk below respective threshold doses, teratogenesis is a non-stochastic process, which is why risk assessment was modified, the sensitivity of the human fetus to radiation is highest during the period of neuroblast development (9th to 16th week p.c.), and knowledge about an existing pregnancy can be taken for granted by that time, so radiation exposure is calculable and can be restricted to negligible quantities. (TRV) [de

  2. Monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    Button, J.B.C. [Radiation Safety Consultancy, Engadine, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    A brief overview is presented of methods of monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation together with reasons for such monitoring and maintaining dose histories of radiation occupationally exposed persons. The various Australian providers of external radiation monitoring services and the types of dosemeters they supply are briefly described together with some monitoring results. Biological monitoring methods, are used to determine internal radiation dose. Whole body monitors, used for this purpose are available at Australian Radiation Lab., ANSTO and a few hospitals. Brief mention is made of the Australian National Radiation Dose Register and its objectives. 8 refs., 9 tabs.

  3. Monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    Button, J.B.C.

    1997-01-01

    A brief overview is presented of methods of monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation together with reasons for such monitoring and maintaining dose histories of radiation occupationally exposed persons. The various Australian providers of external radiation monitoring services and the types of dosemeters they supply are briefly described together with some monitoring results. Biological monitoring methods, are used to determine internal radiation dose. Whole body monitors, used for this purpose are available at Australian Radiation Lab., ANSTO and a few hospitals. Brief mention is made of the Australian National Radiation Dose Register and its objectives

  4. GPU Nuclear Corporation's radiation exposure management system

    Slobodien, M.J.; Bovino, A.A.; Perry, O.R.; Hildebrand, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    GPU Nuclear Corporation has developed a central main frame (IBM 3081) based radiation exposure management system which provides real time and batch transactions for three separate reactor facilities. The structure and function of the data base are discussed. The system's main features include real time on-line radiation work permit generation and personnel exposure tracking; dose accountability as a function of system and component, job type, worker classification, and work location; and personnel dosemeter (TLD and self-reading pocket dosemeters) data processing. The system also carries the qualifications of all radiation workers including RWP training, respiratory protection training, results of respirator fit tests and medical exams. A warning system is used to prevent non-qualified persons from entering controlled areas. The main frame system is interfaced with a variety of mini and micro computer systems for dosemetry, statistical and graphics applications. These are discussed. Some unique dosemetry features which are discussed include assessment of dose for up to 140 parts of the body with dose evaluations at 7,300 and 1000 mg/cm 2 for each part, tracking of MPC hours on a 7 day rolling schedule; automatic pairing of TLD and self-reading pocket dosemeter values, creation and updating of NRC Forms 4 and 5, generation of NRC required 20.407 and Reg Guide 1.16 reports. As of July 1983, over 20 remote on-line stations were in use with plans to add 20-30 more by May 1984. The system provides response times for on-line activities of 2-7 seconds and 23 1/2 hours per day ''up time''. Examples of the various on-line and batch transactions are described

  5. 38 CFR 1.17 - Evaluation of studies relating to health effects of radiation exposure.

    2010-07-01

    ... relating to health effects of radiation exposure. 1.17 Section 1.17 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... health effects of radiation exposure. (a) From time to time, the Secretary shall publish evaluations of scientific or medical studies relating to the adverse health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation in the...

  6. Radiation exposure and protection during angiography

    Biazzi, L; Garbagna, P [Pavia Univ. (Italy)

    1979-05-01

    The authors describe the radiological techniques during angiography examinations in their hospital. For every technique they measured the radiation exposure and dose to the staff of doctors, assistants and nurses in their standard positions in the room and the radiation dose at various points on their bodies. The results are critically discussed and alternative protection devices are analysed, since there are many difficulties concerning the employ of usual radiation protection systems. Cardiologists, above all, are given some recommendations to reduce radiation exposure without prejudicing the exam results.

  7. Radiation exposure and protection during angiography

    Biazzi, L.; Garbagna, P.

    1979-01-01

    The authors describe the radiological techniques during angiography examinations in their hospital. For every technique they measured the radiation exposure and dose to the staff of doctors, assistants and nurses in their standard positions in the room and the radiation dose at various points on their bodies. The results are critically discussed and alternative protection devices are analysed, since there are many difficulties concerning the employ of usual radiation protection systems. Cardiologists, above all, are given some recomandations to reduce radiation exposure without prejudicing the exam results [fr

  8. Radiation exposure of children during cardiac catheterisation

    Popp, W.

    1979-01-01

    It is well known that in adults, cardiac catheterisation involves the highest possible radiation exposure for a single examination. The paper now investigates the radiation exposure in paediatric cardiac cathetrisations. Dosimeters attached to the children during the examination were used as well as phantom measurements under the conditions of cardiac catheterisation. With the aid of the phantom, also the total energy absorption during an examination procedure was determined. This value was estimated to be 80 mJ. In spite of the high individual exposure, the contribution to the population exposure is low due to the small number of cardiac catheterisations. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 MKO [de

  9. Exposure to background radiation in Australia

    Solomon, S.B. [Australian Radiation Lab., Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    The average effective dose received by the Australian population is estimated to be {approx}1.8 mSv / year. One half of this exposure arises from exposure from terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays, the remainder from radionuclides within the body and from inhalation of radon progeny. This paper reviews a number of research programmes carried out by the Australian Radiation Laboratory to study radiation exposure from natural background, particularly in the workplace and illustrate approaches to the quantification and management of exposure to natural radiation. The average radiation doses to the Australian population are relatively low; the average annual radon concentration ranged from 6 Bq m{sup -3} in Queensland to 16 Bq m{sup -3} in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). Of more importance is the emerging issue of exposure to elevated background radiation in the workplace. Two situation are presented; the radiation exposure to air crues and show cave tour guides. Annual doses up to 3.8 mSv were estimated for international crew members while the highest estimate for show cave tour guides was 9 mSv per year. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  10. Exposure to background radiation in Australia

    Solomon, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    The average effective dose received by the Australian population is estimated to be ∼1.8 mSv / year. One half of this exposure arises from exposure from terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays, the remainder from radionuclides within the body and from inhalation of radon progeny. This paper reviews a number of research programmes carried out by the Australian Radiation Laboratory to study radiation exposure from natural background, particularly in the workplace and illustrate approaches to the quantification and management of exposure to natural radiation. The average radiation doses to the Australian population are relatively low; the average annual radon concentration ranged from 6 Bq m -3 in Queensland to 16 Bq m -3 in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). Of more importance is the emerging issue of exposure to elevated background radiation in the workplace. Two situation are presented; the radiation exposure to air crues and show cave tour guides. Annual doses up to 3.8 mSv were estimated for international crew members while the highest estimate for show cave tour guides was 9 mSv per year

  11. Exposures to natural radiation in Switzerland

    Murith, Ch.; Gurtner, A.

    1999-01-01

    The exposure of human beings to ionising radiation from natural sources is a continuing and inescapable feature of life on earth. There are two main sources that contribute to this exposure: high-energy cosmic-ray particles incident to the earth's atmosphere and radioactive nuclides that originated in the earth's crust and are present everywhere in the environment, including human body itself. Both external and internal exposures to humans arise from these sources. Exposures to natural radiation sources in Switzerland and some of their variations are here summarised and the resulting effective doses are compared to those from man-made sources exposures. It results that the natural background exposures are more significant for the population than most exposures to man-made sources. (authors)

  12. Electromagnetic radiation-2450 MHz exposure causes cognition ...

    83

    Electromagnetic radiation-2450 MHz exposure causes cognition deficit with mitochondrial. 1 ... decrease in levels of acetylcholine, and increase in activity of acetyl ...... neuronal apoptosis and cognitive disturbances in sevoflurane or propofol ...

  13. Control of radiation exposure (principles and methods)

    Agwimah, R. I.

    1999-01-01

    Biological risks are directly related to the tissue radiation dose, so it is very important to maintain personnel doses as low as realistically possible. This goal can be achieved by minimizing internal contamination and external exposure to radioactive sources

  14. Occupational radiation exposure in nuclear medicine

    Gloebel, B.; Muth, H.; Keller, K.D.; Hector, G.; Lehnen, H.

    1982-01-01

    In a large hospital (University Hospital, Homburg/Saar, 2000 beds) the use of radionuclides was determined with the aim of a balance of the radionuclide flow through the clinic and the resulting radiation exposure for the persons involved. (author)

  15. Radiation exposure and management of medical employes

    Yamamoto, Chiaki

    1981-01-01

    Medical employes handling medical radiation are increasing in recent years. In connection with the radiation exposure management, it was surveyed how much their cumulative exposure doses are and how many employes distribute in respective exposure levels. The medical employes surveyed are physicians, radiation technicians and nurses, working in the hospitals of educational institutions. The period of survey is every three years, from 1962 to 1977. For X-ray and ν-ray, respectively, the yearly cumulative exposure doses were measured by film badges, stepwise starting from below 500 mrem upward to over 5000 mrem; for the respective groups of employes, the percentage in each dose level was shown. The percentage in the level below 500 mrem was the largest in all groups, and in both X-ray and ν-ray, the percentages in higher levels decreased sharply to less than 7%. The exposure management has been improved in recent years. (J.P.N.)

  16. Radiation exposure and management of medical employes

    Yamamoto, C [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    1981-11-01

    Medical employes handling medical radiation are increasing in recent years. In connection with the radiation exposure management, it was surveyed how much their cumulative exposure doses are and how many employes distribute in respective exposure levels. The medical employes surveyed are physicians, radiation technicians and nurses, working in the hospitals of educational institutions. The period of survey is every three years, from 1962 to 1977. For X-ray and ..gamma..-ray, respectively, the yearly cumulative exposure doses were measured by film badges, stepwise starting from below 500 mrem upward to over 5000 mrem; for the respective groups of employes, the percentage in each dose level was shown. The percentage in the level below 500 mrem was the largest in all groups, and in both X-ray and ..gamma..-ray, the percentages in higher levels decreased sharply to less than 7%. The exposure management has been improved in recent years.

  17. Exposure of the orthopaedic surgeon to radiation

    Katoh, Kiyonobu; Koga, Takamasa; Matsuzaki, Akio; Kido, Masaki; Satoh, Tetsunori [Fukuoka Univ. (Japan). Chikushi Hospital

    1995-09-01

    We monitored the amount of radiation received by surgeons and assistants during surgery carried out with fluoroscopic assistance. The radiation was monitored with the use of MYDOSE MINIX PDM107 made by Aloka Co. Over a one year period from Aug 20, 1992 to Aug 19, 1993, a study was undertaken to evaluate exposure of the groin level to radiation with or without use of the lead apron during 106 operation (Group-1). In another group, radiation was monitored at the breast and groin level outside of the lead apron during 39 operations (Group-2). In Group-1, the average exposure per person during one year was 46.0 {mu}SV and the average exposure for each procedure was 1.68 {mu}SV. The use of the lead apron affirmed its protective value; the average radiation dose at the groin level out-side of the apron was 9.11 {mu}SV, the measured dose beneath the apron 0.61 {mu}SV. The average dose of exposure to the head, breast at groin level outside of the lead apron, were 7.68 {mu}SV, 16.24 {mu}SV, 32.04 {mu}SV respectively. This study and review of the literature indicate that the total amount of radiation exposure during surgery done with fluoroscopic control remains well within maximum exposure limits. (author).

  18. Exposure of the orthopaedic surgeon to radiation

    Katoh, Kiyonobu; Koga, Takamasa; Matsuzaki, Akio; Kido, Masaki; Satoh, Tetsunori

    1995-01-01

    We monitored the amount of radiation received by surgeons and assistants during surgery carried out with fluoroscopic assistance. The radiation was monitored with the use of MYDOSE MINIX PDM107 made by Aloka Co. Over a one year period from Aug 20, 1992 to Aug 19, 1993, a study was undertaken to evaluate exposure of the groin level to radiation with or without use of the lead apron during 106 operation (Group-1). In another group, radiation was monitored at the breast and groin level outside of the lead apron during 39 operations (Group-2). In Group-1, the average exposure per person during one year was 46.0 μSV and the average exposure for each procedure was 1.68 μSV. The use of the lead apron affirmed its protective value; the average radiation dose at the groin level out-side of the apron was 9.11 μSV, the measured dose beneath the apron 0.61 μSV. The average dose of exposure to the head, breast at groin level outside of the lead apron, were 7.68 μSV, 16.24 μSV, 32.04 μSV respectively. This study and review of the literature indicate that the total amount of radiation exposure during surgery done with fluoroscopic control remains well within maximum exposure limits. (author)

  19. Cancer risks after radiation exposures

    Voelz, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    A general overview of the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer induction is presented. The relationship between the degree of risk and absorbed dose is examined. Mortality from radiation-induced cancer in the US is estimated and percentages attributable to various sources are given

  20. Cosmic radiation exposure to airline flight passenger

    Momose, Mitsuhiro

    2000-01-01

    At the high altitudes, airline flight passengers can be exposed to some levels of cosmic radiation. The purpose of this study was to quantify this radiation exposure. Cosmic radiation was measured during 5 flights using a personal dosimeter (PDM-102, Aloka). Cosmic radiation equivalent dose rates ranged from 0.7 to 1.43 microsieverts per hour, the average rate was 1.08. For the passenger who travels only occasionally, the cosmic radiation levels are well below occupational limits, and the risks are extremely small. (author)

  1. Cosmic radiation exposure to airline flight passenger

    Momose, Mitsuhiro [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-08-01

    At the high altitudes, airline flight passengers can be exposed to some levels of cosmic radiation. The purpose of this study was to quantify this radiation exposure. Cosmic radiation was measured during 5 flights using a personal dosimeter (PDM-102, Aloka). Cosmic radiation equivalent dose rates ranged from 0.7 to 1.43 microsieverts per hour, the average rate was 1.08. For the passenger who travels only occasionally, the cosmic radiation levels are well below occupational limits, and the risks are extremely small. (author)

  2. Bases for establishing radiation exposure limits

    Pochin, E.E.

    1977-01-01

    It is an essential requirement of good radiation protection that all unnecessary exposure of people should be avoided and that any necessary exposure, whether of workers or of members of the general public, should be minimised. It is, however, an additional requirement that such necessary exposures should not exceed certain stated limits. These principles are based on the possibility that even the smallest exposures may involve some risk of harm, that any risk of harm should be justifiable by the circumstances necessitating it, and that risk should always be limited to an appropriately low level. The bases for establishing exposure limits must therefore involve an assessment of the risk involved in any form of radiation exposure, and an opinion as to the degree of safety that should be ensured in circumstances which necessitate any occupational or public exposure to radiation. There is increasing quantitative evidence on the frequency on which harm, and particularly the induction of malignancies, may be caused in people exposed to radiation at high doses; and somewhat clearer bases than previously for inferring the possible frequencies at low doses. It is therefore easier to assess the degree of safety ensured by restricting radiation exposure to particular levels. The degree of safety which should be regarded as appropriate in different circumstances remains a matter for review, but suggestions are made as to levels which would be advocated by informed opinion, and the exposure limits which would correspond to these. It is clear also that a comparable degree of safety should be ensured whether the radiation exposure involves the whole body more of less uniformly, or individual tissues or organs selectively. Increasing epidemiological evidence is available on the relative sensitivity to radiation induction of malignancies in a number of organs, and to the apparently much lower sensitivity of other organs; and experimental evidence in animals allows a comparable

  3. Breast cancer induced by protracted radiation exposures

    Elkind, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    The experience at Hiroshima/Nagasaki demonstrated that breast cancer can be induced by single doses of ionizing radiation following latencies of 10-40 years. Several epidemiological studies, usually involving ancillary low-LET radiation to the breast, have demonstrated that breast cancer can be induced by protracted exposures, with similar latencies, and with similar dependencies on dose. Radiobiologically these results suggest that the target cells involved were deficient in repair of low-LET damage even when the protraction was over months to years. Since three-quarters of breast tumors originate in the ducts where their proliferation is controlled by menstrual-cycle timed estrogen/progesterone secretions, these cells periodically were in cycle. Thus, the two main elements of a conceptual model for radon-induced lung cancer -- kinetics and deficient repair -- are satisfied. The model indicates that breast cancer could be the cumulative effect of protracted small exposures, the risk from any one of which ordinarily would be quite small. (author)

  4. Occupational radiation exposure risks: a review

    Besar, Idris [PUSPATI, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1984-06-01

    This paper presents a review of the health risk as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. A comparison of occupational risk among workers exposed to radiological and nonradiological harms are also presented. This comparison shows that radiation workers exposed to the current nuclear industry average of 3.4 mSv. per year are among the safest of all industry groupings.

  5. Valuing the radiation detriment of occupational exposure

    Robb, J.D.; Crick, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The implications of changes in the radiation risk estimates on the valuation of radiation detriment for use in cost-benefit analysis are being considered at the National Radiological Protection Board. This paper discusses the pertinent factors that are currently being considered for further investigation. An example of relevance to occupational exposure is detailed. (author)

  6. Occupational radiation exposure risks: a review

    Idris Besar

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the health risk as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. A comparison of occupational risk among workers exposed to radiological and nonradiological harms are also presented. This comparison shows that radiation workers exposed to the current nuclear industry average of 3.4 mSv. per year are among the safest of all industry groupings. (author)

  7. Fluoroscopic radiation exposure: are we protecting ourselves adequately?

    Hoffler, C Edward; Ilyas, Asif M

    2015-05-06

    While traditional intraoperative fluoroscopy protection relies on thyroid shields and aprons, recent data suggest that the surgeon's eyes and hands receive more exposure than previously appreciated. Using a distal radial fracture surgery model, we examined (1) radiation exposure to the eyes, thyroid, chest, groin, and hands of a surgeon mannequin; (2) the degree to which shielding equipment can decrease exposure; and (3) how exposure varies with fluoroscopy unit size. An anthropomorphic model was fit with radiation-attenuating glasses, a thyroid shield, an apron, and gloves. "Exposed" thermoluminescent dosimeters overlaid the protective equipment at the eyes, thyroid, chest, groin, and index finger while "shielded" dosimeters were placed beneath the protective equipment. Fluoroscopy position and settings were standardized. The mini-c-arm milliampere-seconds were fixed based on the selection of the kilovolt peak (kVp). Three mini and three standard c-arms scanned a model of the patient's wrist continuously for fifteen minutes each. Ten dosimeter exposures were recorded for each c-arm. Hand exposure averaged 31 μSv/min (range, 22 to 48 μSv/min), which was 13.0 times higher than the other recorded exposures. Eye exposure averaged 4 μSv/min, 2.2 times higher than the mean thyroid, chest, and groin exposure. Gloves reduced hand exposure by 69.4%. Glasses decreased eye exposure by 65.6%. There was no significant difference in exposure between mini and standard fluoroscopy. Surgeons' hands receive the most radiation exposure during distal radial plate fixation under fluoroscopy. There was a small but insignificant difference in mean exposure between standard fluoroscopy and mini-fluoroscopy, but some standard units resulted in lower exposure than some mini-units. On the basis of these findings, we recommend routine protective equipment to mitigate exposure to surgeons' hands and eyes, in addition to the thyroid, chest, and groin, during fluoroscopy procedures

  8. Applied physics of external radiation exposure dosimetry and radiation protection

    Antoni, Rodolphe

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the interaction of living matter with photons, neutrons, charged particles, electrons and ions. The authors are specialists in the field of radiation protection. The book synthesizes many years of experiments with external radiation exposure in the fields of dosimetry and radiation shielding in medical, industrial and research fields. It presents the basic physical concepts including dosimetry and offers a number of tools to be used by students, engineers and technicians to assess the radiological risk and the means to avoid them by calculating the appropriate shields. The theory of radiation interaction in matter is presented together with empirical formulas and abacus. Numerous numerical applications are treated to illustrate the different topics. The state of the art in radiation protection and dosimetry is presented in detail, especially in the field of simulation codes for external exposure to radiation, medical projects and advanced research. Moreover, important data spread in differ...

  9. Radiation exposure modeling and project schedule visualization

    Jaquish, W.R.; Enderlin, V.R.

    1995-10-01

    This paper discusses two applications using IGRIP (Interactive Graphical Robot Instruction Program) to assist environmental remediation efforts at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. In the first application, IGRIP is used to calculate the estimated radiation exposure to workers conducting tasks in radiation environments. In the second, IGRIP is used as a configuration management tool to detect interferences between equipment and personnel work areas for multiple projects occurring simultaneously in one area. Both of these applications have the capability to reduce environmental remediation costs by reducing personnel radiation exposure and by providing a method to effectively manage multiple projects in a single facility

  10. Eighth annual occupational radiation exposure report, 1975

    Brooks, B.G.

    1976-10-01

    This is a report by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the operation of the Commission's centralized repository of personnel occupational radiation exposure information. Annual reports were received from 387 covered licensees indicating that some 78,713 individuals, having an average exposure of 0.36 rems, were monitored for exposure to radiation during 1975 and that 21,601 individuals terminated their employment or work assignment with covered licensees in 1975. The number of personnel overexposures reported in 1975 decreased from previous years. The most significant overexposures which occurred in 1975 are summarized

  11. Troubles in vacuum system and radiation exposure

    Konno, Osamu

    1978-01-01

    It is about eleven years since the LINAC of 300 MeV in Tohoku University has first accelerated electrons. The maintenance and improvement of the accelerator used more than 10 years now give the related personnel an important problem of radiation exposure. 40 days were required for the maintenance and checking-up in 1977, and other 26 days were used for other construction works. The troubles in the vacuum system occurred 81 times in total. The vacuum system is divided into two subsystems, each being provided with a leak detector. Either of them enables to detect and locate the leak. Silver-alloy brazing of a duct with a cooling water tube has deteriorated in the strength because of repeated baking temperature and/or the copper tubes for cooling have been eroded due to the large local cell action by purified water. The similar phenomena have occurred in RF windows, outside of which is cooled with water. Carbonaceous matter has stuck to the element of the ion pump, but successfully been cleaned. Though the energy compression system was installed for the efficient use of electrons, the troubles due to overheating of the current monitor have increased because of its limited space, and the change of location was made. Considerable surface residual radiation dose was found at some parts of transport system, and a few personnel have been exposed to radiation over 1000 mrem/year as a result of the troubles in vacuum system. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  12. ACREM: A new air crew radiation exposure measuring system

    Beck, P.; Duftschmid, K.; Kerschbaumer, S.; Schmitzer, C.; Strachotinsky, C.; Grosskopf, A.; Winkler, N.

    1996-01-01

    Cosmic radiation has already been discovered in 1912 by the Austrian Nobel Laureate Victor F. Hess. After Hess up to now numerous measurements of the radiation exposure by cosmic rays in different altitudes have been performed, however, this has not been taken serious in view of radiation protection.Today, with the fast development of modern airplanes, an ever increasing number of civil aircraft is flying in increasing altitudes for considerable time. Members of civil aircrew spending up to 1000 hours per year in cruising altitudes and therefore are subject to significant levels of radiation exposure. In 1990 ICRP published its report ICRP 60 with updated excess cancer risk estimates, which led to significantly higher risk coefficients for some radiation qualities. An increase of the radiation weighting factors for mean energy neutron radiation increases the contribution for the neutron component to the equivalent dose by about 60%, as compared to the earlier values of ICRP26. This higher risk coefficients lead to the recommendation of the ICRP, that cosmic radiation exposure in civil aviation should be taken into account as occupational exposure. Numerous recent exposure measurements at civil airliners in Germany, Sweden, USA, and Russia show exposure levels in the range of 3-10 mSv/year. This is significantly more than the average annual dose of radiation workers (in Austria about 1.5 mSv/year). Up to now no practicable and economic radiation monitoring system for routine application on board exits. A fairly simple and economic approach to a practical, active in-flight dosimeter for the assessment of individual crew exposure is discussed in this paper

  13. Ultraviolet radiation exposure from UV-transilluminators.

    Akbar-Khanzadeh, Farhang; Jahangir-Blourchian, Mahdi

    2005-10-01

    UV-transilluminators use ultraviolet radiation (UVR) to visualize proteins, DNA, RNA, and their precursors in a gel electrophoresis procedure. This study was initiated to evaluate workers' exposure to UVR during their use of UV-transilluminators. The levels of irradiance of UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C were determined for 29 UV-transilluminators at arbitrary measuring locations of 6, 25, 62, and 125 cm from the center of the UV-transilluminator's filter surface in the direction of the operator's head. The operators (faculty, research staff, and graduate students) worked within 62 cm of the transilluminators, with most subjects commonly working at time ranged from 1 to 60 min. Actinic hazard (effective irradiance level of UVR) was also determined for three representative UV-transilluminators at arbitrary measuring locations of 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, and 50 cm from these sets' filter surface in the direction of the operator's head. The allowable exposure time for these instruments was less than 20 sec within 15 cm, less than 35 sec within 25 cm, and less than 2 min within 50 cm from the UV-transilluminators' filter surface. The results of this study suggest that the use of UV-transilluminators exposes operators to levels of UVR in excess of exposure guidelines. It is recommended that special safety training be provided for the affected employees and that exposure should be controlled by one or the combination of automation, substitution, isolation, posted warning signs, shielding, and/or personal protective equipment.

  14. Routine medicare and radiation exposure. Introductory remarks

    Hirata, Hideki; Saito, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    As an introduction of the title series, outlines of radiation in physics, chemistry, biochemistry, biological effect and protection are explained from the clinical doctors' aspect of routine medicare, and of radiation exposure in which people's interest is raised after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident in 2011. For physics, ionizing effects of radiation are described in relation to its quantum energy transfer and its medical utilization like imaging and radiotherapy. Then mentioned in brief is the radiation from elements consisting of human body, cosmic ray and background radiation from the earth, with reference to natural and standardized limits of exposure doses. Radiations from 226 Rn and 40 K are explained as an instance of environmental natural sources together with the concepts of radioactive decay series/scheme, of internal exposure, of hazard like double strand break (DSB) and of medical use such as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). For an artifact radiation source, shown are fission products of 235 U by neutron, first yielded in 1945. Evidence of evolution in biochemical repair mechanisms of DSB is explained with a comparison of irradiated drosophila mutation where linear non-threshold (LNT) hypothesis is proposed, and human non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination. Historical process of occupational, medical, public exposures and their protection is finally described from the discovery of X-ray in 1895 to the first ICRP publication in 1958 via the A-bomb explosion in 1945. (T.T.)

  15. Risks and management of radiation exposure.

    Yamamoto, Loren G

    2013-09-01

    High-energy ionizing radiation is harmful. Low-level exposure sources include background, occupational, and medical diagnostics. Radiation disaster incidents include radioactive substance accidents and nuclear power plant accidents. Terrorism and international conflict could trigger intentional radiation disasters that include radiation dispersion devices (RDD) (a radioactive dirty bomb), deliberate exposure to industrial radioactive substances, nuclear power plant sabotage, and nuclear weapon detonation. Nuclear fissioning events such as nuclear power plant incidents and nuclear weapon detonation release radioactive fallout that include radioactive iodine 131, cesium 137, strontium 90, uranium, plutonium, and many other radioactive isotopes. An RDD dirty bomb is likely to spread only one radioactive substance, with the most likely substance being cesium 137. Cobalt 60 and strontium 90 are other RDD dirty bomb possibilities. In a radiation disaster, stable patients should be decontaminated to minimize further radiation exposure. Potassium iodide (KI) is useful for iodine 131 exposure. Prussian blue (ferric hexacyanoferrate) enhances the fecal excretion of cesium via ion exchange. Ca-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) and Zn-DTPA form stable ionic complexes with plutonium, americium, and curium, which are excreted in the urine. Amifostine enhances chemical and enzymatic repair of damaged DNA. Acute radiation sickness ranges in severity from mild to lethal, which can be assessed by the nausea/vomiting onset/duration, complete blood cell count findings, and neurologic symptoms.

  16. Long-term exposure to mobile communication radiation: An analysis of time-variability of electric field level in GSM900 down-link channels

    Miclaus, S.; Bechet, P.; Gheorghevici, M.

    2013-01-01

    Interest for knowing long-term human exposure levels due to mobile communications has increased in the last years. It has been shown that short-term exposure assessment made under standard procedural restrictions is not reliable when it comes to conclusions on long-term exposure levels. The present work is the result of a several week analysis of time variability of electric field level inside traffic and control channels of the GSM900 mobile communication down-link band and it indicates that a temporal model to allow future predictions of exposure on the long run is obtainable. Collecting, processing and statistically analysing the data provide expression of the maximum and weighted field strengths and their evolution in time. Specific electromagnetic footprints of the channels have been extracted, differentiations between their characteristics have been emphasised and practical advice is provided, with the scope of contributing to the development of reliable procedures for long-term exposure assessment. (authors)

  17. Ocular ultraviolet radiation exposure of welders.

    Tenkate, Thomas D

    2017-05-01

    I read with interest a recent paper in your journal by Slagor et al on the risk of cataract in relation to metal arc welding (1). The authors highlight that even though welders are exposed to substantial levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), "no studies have reported data on how much UVR welders' eyes are exposed to during a working day. Thus, we do not know whether welders are more or less exposed to UVR than outdoor workers" (1, p451). Undertaking accurate exposure assessment of UVR from welding arcs is difficult, however, two studies have reported ocular/facial UVR levels underneath welding helmets (2, 3). In the first paper, UVR levels were measured using polysulphone film dosimeters applied to the cheeks of a patient who suffered from severe facial dermatitis (2). UVR levels of four times the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) maximum permissible exposure (MPE) (4) were measured on the workers left cheek and nine times the MPE on the right cheek. The authors concluded that the workers dermatitis was likely to have been due to the UVR exposure received during welding. In the other paper, a comprehensive exposure assessment of personal UVR exposure of workers in a welding environment was reported (3). The study was conducted at a metal fabrication workshop with participants being welders, boilermakers and non-welders (eg, supervisors, fitters, machinists). Polysulphone film dosimeters were again used to measure UVR exposure of the workers, with badges worn on the clothing of workers (in the chest area), on the exterior of welding helmets, attached to 11 locations on the inside of welding helmets, and on the bridge and side-shields of safety spectacles. Dosimeters were also attached to surfaces throughout the workshop to measure ambient UVR levels. For welding subjects, mean 8-hour UVR doses within the welding helmets ranged from around 9 mJ/cm 2 (3×MPE) on the inside of the helmets to around 15 mJ/cm 2 (5×MPE) on the headband (a

  18. Bases for establishing radiation exposure limits

    Pochin, E.E.

    1977-01-01

    It is an essential requirement of good radiation protection that all unnecessary exposure of people should be avoided and that any necessary exposure, whether of workers or of members of the general public, should be minimized. It is, however, an additional requirement that such necessary exposures should not exceed certain stated limits. These principles are based on the possibility that even the smallest exposures may involve some risk of harm, that any risk of harm should be justifiable by the circumstances necessitating it, and that risk should always be limited to an appropriately low level. The bases for establishing exposure limits must therefore involve an assessment of the risk involved in any form of radiation exposure, and an opinion as to the degree of safety that should be ensured in circumstances which necessitate any occupational or public exposure to radiation. There is increasing quantitative evidence on the frequency on which harm, and particularly the induction of malignancies, may be caused in people exposed to radiation at high doses; and somewhat clearer bases than previously for inferring the possible frequencies at low doses. It is therefore easier to assess the degree of safety ensured by restricting radiation exposure to particular levels. It is clear also that a comparable degree of safety should be ensured whether the radiation exposure involves the whole body more of less uniformly, or individual tissues or organs selectively. The ''weighting'' factors appropriate to irradiation of particular tissues from internal emitters can thus be defined in terms of their likely individual contributions to the harm of whole-body irradiation. In this way the limits for different modes of exposure by external or internal radiation can be related so as to ensure that protection should be equally effective for different distributions of absorbed dose in the body. In particular, the over-simplified concept of a single critical organ determining the

  19. Guidance as to restrictions on exposures to time varying electromagnetic fields and the 1988 recommendations of the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee

    Dennis, J A

    1989-01-01

    Under a direction from the Health Ministers, NRPB is required to advise on the acceptability to the United Kingdom of standards recommended or proposed by certain international bodies relating to protection from both ionising radiations and non-ionising electromagnetic radiations. This document contains the Board's advice in response to guidelines recommended by the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee (INIRC) on limiting exposures to electromagnetic fields in the frequency range 100 kHz to 300 GHz (Health Physics, 54, 115 (1988)). The Board's advice, however, extends over all frequencies up to 300 GHz. It has been prepared after considering advice from the Medical Research Council and responses to consultative documents published by the Board in 1982 and 1986. The Board's advice is intended to protect against the thermal effects of the absorption of electromagnetic energy and against the possibilities of electric shock and burn. It consists of a set of basic restrictions both on the average rate of...

  20. Human exposure to ultraviolet radiation

    Bernhardt, J.H.; Matthes, R.

    1987-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is that part of the electromagnetic spectrum located between the softest ionizing radiation and visible radiation. The lower limit of 100 nm is equivalent to photon energies of 12.4 eV, which corresponds approximately to the limit for the production of ionization in biologically important materials. A historical subdividing of the UV-region takes some of the biological effects into account. In this arrangement the range 400-315 nm, the so-called black light region, is called UV-A. In this wavelength region, fluorescence can be induced in many substances. UV-B covers the range 315-280 nm (the skin erythemal region). Most of the biologically active and potentially harmful UV from the sun reaching the surface of the earth is part of this spectral region. UV-C includes the radiation of wavelengths less than 280 nm (the germicidal region). It should be noted that this classification is somewhat arbitrary, and today it is more usual to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the whole UV-range from 200 to 400 nm

  1. Radiation risk due to occupational exposure

    Kargbo, A.A

    2012-04-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation occurs in many occupations. Workers can be exposed to both natural and artificial sources of radiation. Any exposure to ionizing radiation incurs some risk, either to the individual or to the individual's progeny. This dissertation investigated the radiation risk due to occupational exposure in industrial radiography. Analysis of the reported risk estimates to occupational exposure contained in the UNSCEAR report of 2008 in industrial radiography practice was done. The causes of accidents in industrial radiography include: Lack of or inadequate regulatory control, inadequate training, failure to follow operational procedures, human error, equipment malfunction or defect, inadequate maintenance and wilful violation have been identified as primary causes of accidents. To minimise radiation risks in industrial radiography exposure devices and facilities should be designed such that there is intrinsic safety and operational safety ensured by establishing a quality assurance programme, safety culture fostered and maintained among all workers, industrial radiography is performed in compliance with approved local rules, workers engaged have appropriate qualifications and training, available safe operational procedures are followed, a means is provided for detecting incidents and accidents and an analysis of the causes and lessons learned. (author)

  2. Biological effects and hazards of radiation exposure

    Boas, J.F.; Solomon, S.B.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis form the main risk to health from exposure to low levels of radiation. This risk effects can be at least qualitatively understood by considering the effects of radiation on cell DNA. Whilst exposure to high levels of radiation results in a number of identifiable effects, exposure to low levels of radiation may result in effects which only manifest themselves after many years. Risk estimates for low levels of radiation have been derived on the basis of a number of assumptions. In the case of uranium mine workers a major hazard arises from the inhalation of radon daughters. Whilst the correlation between radon daughter exposure and lung cancer incidence is well established, the numerical value of the risk factor is the subject of controversy. ICRP 50 gives a value of 10 cases per 10 6 person-years at risk per WLM (range 5-15 x 10 -6 PYR -1 WLM -1 ). The effect of smoking on lung cancer incidence rates amongst miners is also controversial. Nevertheless, smoking by miners should be discouraged

  3. Occupational radiation protection: Protecting workers against exposure to ionizing radiation. Contributed papers

    2003-07-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, mining and milling; medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The term 'occupational exposure' refers to the radiation exposure incurred by a worker, which is attributable to the worker's occupation and committed during a period of work. According to the latest (2000) Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), an estimated 11 million workers are monitored for exposure to ionizing radiation. They incur radiation doses attributable to their occupation, which range from a small fraction of the global average background exposure to natural radiation up to several times that value. It should be noted that the UNSCEAR 2000 Report describes a downward trend in the exposure of several groups of workers, but it also indicates that occupational exposure is affecting an increasingly large group of people worldwide. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), which are co-sponsored by, inter alia, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO), establish a system of radiation protection which includes radiation dose limits for occupational exposure. Guidance supporting the requirements of the BSS for occupational protection is provided in three interrelated Safety Guides, jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the ILO. These Guides describe, for example, the implications for employers in discharging their main responsibilities (such as setting up appropriate radiation protection programmes) and similarly for workers (such as properly using the radiation monitoring devices provided to them). The IAEA i organized its first International Conference on Occupational Radiation Protection. The

  4. Radiation exposure from civil aviation

    Schalch, D.

    1994-01-01

    The question as to whether civil air crews and frequent air passengers ought to be classified among the group of occupationally exposed persons has in principle been decided by the recommendations adopted by the ICRP, the competent bodies of the EU, and national authorities. Measurements for more information on the radiation fields involved are planned. The German Radiation Protection Office (BfS) recently published a statement on dose commitments, assuming a maximum annual dose of approx. 8 mSv in addition to the mean value already determined. Legal provisions, which ought to be adopted also on EU level since civil aviation is a transboundary traffic system, have yet to come. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Cancer risks following diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure in children

    Kleinerman, Ruth A. [National Institutes of Health, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, EPS 7044, Rockville, MD (United States)

    2006-09-15

    The growing use of interventional and fluoroscopic imaging in children represents a tremendous benefit for the diagnosis and treatment of benign conditions. Along with the increasing use and complexity of these procedures comes concern about the cancer risk associated with ionizing radiation exposure to children. Children are considerably more sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation than adults, and children have a longer life expectancy in which to express risk. Numerous epidemiologic cohort studies of childhood exposure to radiation for treatment of benign diseases have demonstrated radiation-related risks of cancer of the thyroid, breast, brain and skin, as well as leukemia. Many fewer studies have evaluated cancer risk following diagnostic radiation exposure in children. Although radiation dose for a single procedure might be low, pediatric patients often receive repeated examinations over time to evaluate their conditions, which could result in relatively high cumulative doses. Several cohort studies of girls and young women subjected to multiple diagnostic radiation exposures have been informative about increased mortality from breast cancer with increasing radiation dose, and case-control studies of childhood leukemia and postnatal diagnostic radiation exposure have suggested increased risks with an increasing number of examinations. Only two long-term follow-up studies of cancer following cardiac catheterization in childhood have been conducted, and neither reported an overall increased risk of cancer. Most cancers can be induced by radiation, and a linear dose-response has been noted for most solid cancers. Risks of radiation-related cancer are greatest for those exposed early in life, and these risks appear to persist throughout life. (orig.)

  6. Cancer risks following diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure in children

    Kleinerman, Ruth A.

    2006-01-01

    The growing use of interventional and fluoroscopic imaging in children represents a tremendous benefit for the diagnosis and treatment of benign conditions. Along with the increasing use and complexity of these procedures comes concern about the cancer risk associated with ionizing radiation exposure to children. Children are considerably more sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation than adults, and children have a longer life expectancy in which to express risk. Numerous epidemiologic cohort studies of childhood exposure to radiation for treatment of benign diseases have demonstrated radiation-related risks of cancer of the thyroid, breast, brain and skin, as well as leukemia. Many fewer studies have evaluated cancer risk following diagnostic radiation exposure in children. Although radiation dose for a single procedure might be low, pediatric patients often receive repeated examinations over time to evaluate their conditions, which could result in relatively high cumulative doses. Several cohort studies of girls and young women subjected to multiple diagnostic radiation exposures have been informative about increased mortality from breast cancer with increasing radiation dose, and case-control studies of childhood leukemia and postnatal diagnostic radiation exposure have suggested increased risks with an increasing number of examinations. Only two long-term follow-up studies of cancer following cardiac catheterization in childhood have been conducted, and neither reported an overall increased risk of cancer. Most cancers can be induced by radiation, and a linear dose-response has been noted for most solid cancers. Risks of radiation-related cancer are greatest for those exposed early in life, and these risks appear to persist throughout life. (orig.)

  7. Patient radiation exposure during different kyphoplasty techniques

    Panizza, D.; Barbieri, M.; Parisoli, F.; Moro, L.

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this study was to quantify patient radiation exposure during two different techniques of kyphoplasty (KP), which differ by a cement delivery method, in order to assess whether or not one of the two used methods can reduce the patient dose. Twenty patients were examined for this investigation. One X-ray fluoroscopy unit was used for localization, navigation and monitoring of cement delivery. The patient bio-metric data, the setting of the fluoroscope, the exposure time and the kerma-area product (KAP) were monitored in all the procedures for anteroposterior (AP) and lateral (LL) fluoroscopic projections in order to assess the range of radiation doses imparted to the patient. Theoretical entrance skin dose (ESD) and effective dose (E) were calculated from intraoperatively measured KAP. An average ET per procedure was 1.5±0.5 min for the manual injection technique (study A) and 1.4±0.4 min for the distance delivery technique (study B) in the AP plane, while 3.2±0.7 and 5.1±0.6 min in the lateral plane, respectively. ESD was estimated as an average of 0.10±0.06 Gy for study A and 0.13±0.13 Gy for study B in the AP or/and 0.59±0.46 and 1.05±0.36 Gy in the lateral view, respectively. The cumulative mean E was 1.9±1.0 mSv procedure -1 for study A and 3.6±0.9 mSv procedure -1 for study B. Patient radiation exposure and associated effective dose from KP may be considerable. The technique of distance cement delivery appears to be slower than the manual injection technique and it requires a more protracted fluoroscopic control in the lateral projection, so that this system entails a higher amount of dose to the patient. (authors)

  8. Patient radiation exposure during different kyphoplasty techniques.

    Panizza, Denis; Barbieri, Massimo; Parisoli, Francesco; Moro, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this study was to quantify patient radiation exposure during two different techniques of kyphoplasty (KP), which differ by a cement delivery method, in order to assess whether or not one of the two used methods can reduce the patient dose. Twenty patients were examined for this investigation. One X-ray fluoroscopy unit was used for localization, navigation and monitoring of cement delivery. The patient biometric data, the setting of the fluoroscope, the exposure time and the kerma-area product (KAP) were monitored in all the procedures for anteroposterior (AP) and lateral (LL) fluoroscopic projections in order to assess the range of radiation doses imparted to the patient. Theoretical entrance skin dose (ESD) and effective dose (E) were calculated from intraoperatively measured KAP. An average ET per procedure was 1.5±0.5 min for the manual injection technique (study A) and 1.4±0.4 min for the distance delivery technique (study B) in the AP plane, while 3.2±0.7 and 5.1±0.6 min in the lateral plane, respectively. ESD was estimated as an average of 0.10±0.06 Gy for study A and 0.13±0.13 Gy for study B in the AP or/and 0.59±0.46 and 1.05±0.36 Gy in the lateral view, respectively. The cumulative mean E was 1.9±1.0 mSv procedure(-1) for study A and 3.6±0.9 mSv procedure(-1) for study B. Patient radiation exposure and associated effective dose from KP may be considerable. The technique of distance cement delivery appears to be slower than the manual injection technique and it requires a more protracted fluoroscopic control in the lateral projection, so that this system entails a higher amount of dose to the patient.

  9. Proposal of radiation exposure index, REXI

    Katoh, Kazuaki

    2002-01-01

    As a measure of harmful effect of radiation, radiation exposure index (REXI) is proposed. It is an integer expression of logarithmic ratio of radiation dose to a standard value. REXI is a dimensionless quantity and is free from the requirement of additivity, in contrast with dose. Not a few kinds of doses are used in the field of radiation protection and among them the effective dose plays main role, since the main target of radiation control is of the so-called stochastic effect and the effective dose is used as the controlling quantity. Effective dose is a radiation dose, namely, a quantity of caused to describe the effect, but it cannot be a representation of the effect itself. It is nothing but a measure of possibility of the effect. In addition, the LNT (linearity and non threshold) Postulation adopted by ICRP makes it difficult to understand the foreseen associated effect quantitatively. (author)

  10. New Horizons in Enhancing the Proliferation and Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells Using Stimulatory Effects of the Short Time Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation.

    Eghlidospour, M; Mortazavi, S M J; Yousefi, F; Mortazavi, S A R

    2015-09-01

    Mobile phone use and wireless communication technology have grown explosively over the past decades. This rapid growth has caused widespread global concern about the potential detrimental effects of this technology on human health. Stem cells generate specialized cell types of the tissue in which they reside through normal differentiation pathways. Considering the undeniable importance of stem cells in modern medicine, numerous studies have been performed on the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation on cellular processes such as: proliferation, differentiation, cell cycle and DNA repair processes. We have conducted extensive studies on beneficial (stimulatory) or detrimental biological effects of exposure to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as mobile phones, mobile phone base stations, mobile phone jammers, radar systems, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems and dentistry cavitrons over the past years. In this article, recent studies on the biological effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation in the range of radiofrequency (RF) on some important features of stem cells such as their proliferation and differentiation are reviewed. Studies reviewed in this paper indicate that the stimulatory or inhibitory effects of RF radiation on the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells depend on various factors such as the biological systems, experiment conditions, the frequency and intensity of RF and the duration of exposure.

  11. A computer system for occupational radiation exposure information

    Hunt, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    A computerized occupational radiation exposure information system has been developed to maintain records for contractors at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. The system also allows indexing and retrieval of three million documents from microfilm, thus significantly reducing storage needs and costs. The users are linked by display terminals to the data base permitting them instant access to dosemetry and other radiation exposure information. Personnel dosemeter and bioassay results, radiation training, respirator fittings, skin contaminations and other radiation occurrence records are included in the data base. The system yields immediate analysis of radiological exposures for operating management and health physics personnel, thereby releasing personnel to use their time more effectively

  12. Radiation exposure in nucleomedical examinations of children

    Hahn, K.; Hach, A.; Reber, H.

    1995-01-01

    The problem of radiation exposure must be subjected to particularly careful scrutiny in nuclear diagnostic procedures in children. The contribution provides a survey of factors influencing the radiation exposure of children in the diagnostic use of radionuclides. These include the age of the child examined, the type of radiopharmaceutical used, the dose of the radiopharmaceutical and the procedure followed. Any state-of-the-art renal function study or skeletal examination using radionuclides requires previous measures to ensure that the child is sufficiently hydrated. The tables in the appendix provide estimations of the doses from the individual nucleomedical procedures used in paediatrics. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Radiation exposure from radium-226 ingestion

    Keefer, D.H.; Fenyves, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    The contribution of radium to total radiation exposure resulting from the consumption of natural levels of 226 Ra in several public water supplies in an Oklahoma county was determined. A pilot-level study of total dietary intake indicated that the culinary use of water anomalously high in radium and the consumption of water-based beverages contributed significantly to radiation exposure. The mean dietary intake of 226 Ra was 20.6 pCi/day in one community and resulted in an estimated bone dose of 310 mrem/year

  14. Haematological and immunological indicators for radiation exposure

    Dehos, A.

    1990-01-01

    It is examined if haematological and immunological parameters can be used as biological indicators for radiation exposure. Additional criteria for biological indicators, apart from the dose dependence of the effect, are listed here. The state of the art concerning the development of haematological and immunological indicators is discussed. Several haematological indicators are currently used in diagnosis when excess radiation exposure has occurred (e.g., after the Chernobyl accident). However, further research work has to be done in the field of immunological indicators. (orig.) [de

  15. Basic units and concepts in radiation exposures

    Mlekodaj, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Some of the most common units, concepts and models in use today in dealing with radiation exposures and the associated risks are presented. Discussions toward a better understanding of some of the basic difficulties in quantifying risks associated with low levels of radiation are presented. The main thrust of this talk is to lay a foundation for better understanding and appreciation of the talks to follow in this symposium

  16. Radiation hormesis at occupational exposure

    Georgieva, R.; Rupova, I.; Zaharieva, E.; Acheva, A.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: The idea in favour of the auspicious effect of low dose ionizing radiation in biological systems exists for years and serves as basis of the radiation hormesis hypothesis. The results in support of this phenomenon are not accepted as reliable by ICRP. The available epidemiological data could only suppose the presence of hormetic effect because of statistics limitations and relatively high spontaneous rate of the examined effects. The present work was aimed at finding appropriate biomarkers applicable in molecular epidemiological surveys of occupationally exposed individuals and/or population to prove radiation hormesis. Methods: Blood samples were taken from more than 400 NPP workers, divided in two groups: from the 'strict regimen' area (exposed) and from the administration staff (control). Two levels of evaluation were used: 1) molecular - spontaneous and induced DNA repair by UDS, protein synthesis evaluated radio-metrically, DNA damage by SCGE - all of them in white blood cells, concentration of malonedialdehyde in blood serum; and 2) cellular - the Ly-subsets by flow cytometry, using a FacScan analyzer and immunofluorescent stained mouse monoclonal antibodies. Results: A significant decrease of potentially lethal damage was found in persons with 'mean annual dose' lower or equal to 5 mSv/a, compared to the control group. The highest repair capacity after a challenging dose of 2,0 Gy gamma rays as well as a significant decrease in the level of oxidative stress was evaluated for persons from the same group. At doses below 200 mSv statistically different decrease of the index of CD3+4+, CD4+25+, CD4+62L+ lymphocyte populations and CD4/CD8 cell ratio was established, and increased levels of NK cells, CD57+8+ , CD8+28+ and CD8+38 were recorded. Conclusion: The present investigation showed that annual doses lower than twice the natural radiation background exert positive effects on DNA damage and repair, increase

  17. Case of child abuse by radiation exposure

    Collins, V.P.; Gaulden, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    On 2 May 1974, a father was convicted of castrating his 13-year-old son by exposing him to a 1-curie source of 137 Cs to be used for oil gas well logging. The child was subjected to perhaps eight exposures or attempted exposures over a six-month period. A brief discussion of the medical descriptions of the radiation effects upon the skin and testes and the chromosomal system is included

  18. Natural radiation exposure modified by human activities

    Fujimoto, Kenzo

    1995-01-01

    We are now living in the radiation environment modified by our technology. It is usually called 'Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation' and have been discussed in the UNSCEAR Reports as an important source of exposure. The terrestrial radionuclide concentrations as well as the intensity of cosmic rays are considered to have been constant after our ancestors came down from trees and started walking on their two feet. However, we have been changing our environment to be more comfortable for our life and consequently ambient radiation levels are nomore what used to be. In this paper exposures due to natural radiation modified by our following activities are discussed: housing, balneology, cave excursion, mountain climbing, skiing, swimming, smoking and usage of mineral water, well water, coal, natural gas, phosphate rocks and minerals. In the ICRP Publication No. 39, it is clearly mentioned that even natural radiation should be controlled as far as it is controllable. We have to pay more attention to our activities not to enhance the exposure due to unnecessary, avoidable radiation. (author)

  19. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its radiological operations to ensure the health and safety of all DOE employees including contractors and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures and releases to levels that are ``As Low As Reasonably Achievable`` (ALARA). The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 provides summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE and precursor agency sites, and energy research. Collective exposure at DOE has declined by 80% over the past decade due to a cessation in opportunities for exposure during the transition in DOE mission from weapons production to cleanup, deactivation and decommissioning, and changes in reporting requirements and dose calculation methodology. In 1996, the collective dose decreased by 10% from the 1995 value due to decreased doses at five of the seven highest-dose DOE sites. For 1996, these sites attributed the reduction in collective dose to the completion of several decontamination and decommissioning projects, reduced spent fuel storage activities, and effective ALARA practices. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for managers in their management of radiological safety programs and commitment of resources.

  20. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    1996-01-01

    The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its radiological operations to ensure the health and safety of all DOE employees including contractors and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures and releases to levels that are ''As Low As Reasonably Achievable'' (ALARA). The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 provides summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE and precursor agency sites, and energy research. Collective exposure at DOE has declined by 80% over the past decade due to a cessation in opportunities for exposure during the transition in DOE mission from weapons production to cleanup, deactivation and decommissioning, and changes in reporting requirements and dose calculation methodology. In 1996, the collective dose decreased by 10% from the 1995 value due to decreased doses at five of the seven highest-dose DOE sites. For 1996, these sites attributed the reduction in collective dose to the completion of several decontamination and decommissioning projects, reduced spent fuel storage activities, and effective ALARA practices. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for managers in their management of radiological safety programs and commitment of resources

  1. Realtime radiation exposure monitor and control apparatus

    Cowart, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    This patent application relates to an apparatus and methods used to obtain image information from modulation of a uniform flux. An exposure measuring apparatus is disclosed which comprises a multilayered detector structure having an external circuit connected to a transparent insulating layer and to a conductive plate a radiation source adapted to irradiate the detector structure with radiation capable of producing electron-hole pairs in a photoconductive layer of the detector wherein the flow of current within the external circuit is measured when the detector is irradiated by the radiation source. (author)

  2. Measurement of Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure in Epidemiological Studies (invited paper)

    Swerdlow, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    The measurement of radiofrequency (RF) exposure is important to the quality of epidemiological studies of the possible association of RF exposure with disease. The extent and type of exposure measurement in past epidemiological studies of RF, and the features of measurement that would be desirable for better studies in the future are summarised. Measurement characteristics that are discussed include quantification of radiation frequency and of intensity and timing of exposures, measurement (or good estimation) of exposures for individuals rather than only for groups, quality of measurement, and measurement of RF exposures experienced outside the study setting. Integration of exposure measurement into the design of epidemiological studies is needed for better assessments of possible RF effects. (author)

  3. Controlling criteria for radiation exposure of astronauts and space workers

    Katoh, Kazuaki

    1989-01-01

    Space workers likely to suffer from radiation exposure in the outer space are currently limited to the U.S. and Soviet Union, and only a small amount of data and information is available concerning the techniques and criteria for control of radiation exposure in this field. Criteria used in the Soviet Union are described first. The criteria (TRS-75), called the Radiation Safety Criteria for Space Navigation, are tentative ones set up in 1975. They are based on risk assessment. The standard radiation levels are established based on unit flight time: 50rem for 1 month, 80rem for 3 months, 110rem for 6 months and 150rem for 12 months. These are largely different from the emergency exposure limit of 100mSv (10rem) specified in a Japanese law, and the standard annual exposure value of 50mSv (5rem) for workers in nuclear power plants at normal times. For the U.S., J.A. Angelo, Jr., presented a paper titled 'Radiation Protection Issues and Techniques concerning Extended Manned Space Missions' at an IAEA meeting held in 1988. Though the criteria shown in the paper are not formal ones at the national level, similar criteria are expected to be adopted by the nation in the near future. The exposure limits recommended in the paper include a depth dose of 1-4Sv for the whole life span of a worker. (Nogami, K.)

  4. Exposure to UV radiation and human health

    Kimlin, Michael G.

    2005-08-01

    This paper will overview the significant issues facing researchers in relating the impact of exposure to sunlight and human health. Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is the major causative factor in most sun-related skin and eye disorders, however, very little is known quantitatively about human UV exposures. Interestingly, human exposure to sunlight also has a nutritional impact, namely the development of pre-Vitamin D, which is an important nutrient in bone health. New research suggest that low vitamin D status may be a causative factor in the development of selective types of cancer and autoimminue diseases, as well as a contributing factor in bone health. The 'health duality' aspect of sunlight exposure is an interesting and controversial topic that is a research focus of Kimlin's research group.

  5. A translatable predictor of human radiation exposure.

    Lucas, Joseph; Dressman, Holly K; Suchindran, Sunil; Nakamura, Mai; Chao, Nelson J; Himburg, Heather; Minor, Kerry; Phillips, Gary; Ross, Joel; Abedi, Majid; Terbrueggen, Robert; Chute, John P

    2014-01-01

    Terrorism using radiological dirty bombs or improvised nuclear devices is recognized as a major threat to both public health and national security. In the event of a radiological or nuclear disaster, rapid and accurate biodosimetry of thousands of potentially affected individuals will be essential for effective medical management to occur. Currently, health care providers lack an accurate, high-throughput biodosimetric assay which is suitable for the triage of large numbers of radiation injury victims. Here, we describe the development of a biodosimetric assay based on the analysis of irradiated mice, ex vivo-irradiated human peripheral blood (PB) and humans treated with total body irradiation (TBI). Interestingly, a gene expression profile developed via analysis of murine PB radiation response alone was inaccurate in predicting human radiation injury. In contrast, generation of a gene expression profile which incorporated data from ex vivo irradiated human PB and human TBI patients yielded an 18-gene radiation classifier which was highly accurate at predicting human radiation status and discriminating medically relevant radiation dose levels in human samples. Although the patient population was relatively small, the accuracy of this classifier in discriminating radiation dose levels in human TBI patients was not substantially confounded by gender, diagnosis or prior exposure to chemotherapy. We have further incorporated genes from this human radiation signature into a rapid and high-throughput chemical ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (CLPA) which was able to discriminate radiation dose levels in a pilot study of ex vivo irradiated human blood and samples from human TBI patients. Our results illustrate the potential for translation of a human genetic signature for the diagnosis of human radiation exposure and suggest the basis for further testing of CLPA as a candidate biodosimetric assay.

  6. A translatable predictor of human radiation exposure.

    Joseph Lucas

    Full Text Available Terrorism using radiological dirty bombs or improvised nuclear devices is recognized as a major threat to both public health and national security. In the event of a radiological or nuclear disaster, rapid and accurate biodosimetry of thousands of potentially affected individuals will be essential for effective medical management to occur. Currently, health care providers lack an accurate, high-throughput biodosimetric assay which is suitable for the triage of large numbers of radiation injury victims. Here, we describe the development of a biodosimetric assay based on the analysis of irradiated mice, ex vivo-irradiated human peripheral blood (PB and humans treated with total body irradiation (TBI. Interestingly, a gene expression profile developed via analysis of murine PB radiation response alone was inaccurate in predicting human radiation injury. In contrast, generation of a gene expression profile which incorporated data from ex vivo irradiated human PB and human TBI patients yielded an 18-gene radiation classifier which was highly accurate at predicting human radiation status and discriminating medically relevant radiation dose levels in human samples. Although the patient population was relatively small, the accuracy of this classifier in discriminating radiation dose levels in human TBI patients was not substantially confounded by gender, diagnosis or prior exposure to chemotherapy. We have further incorporated genes from this human radiation signature into a rapid and high-throughput chemical ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (CLPA which was able to discriminate radiation dose levels in a pilot study of ex vivo irradiated human blood and samples from human TBI patients. Our results illustrate the potential for translation of a human genetic signature for the diagnosis of human radiation exposure and suggest the basis for further testing of CLPA as a candidate biodosimetric assay.

  7. [Effects of radiation exposure on human body].

    Kamiya, Kenji; Sasatani, Megumi

    2012-03-01

    There are two types of radiation health effect; acute disorder and late on-set disorder. Acute disorder is a deterministic effect that the symptoms appear by exposure above a threshold. Tissues and cells that compose the human body have different radiation sensitivity respectively, and the symptoms appear in order, from highly radiosensitive tissues. The clinical symptoms of acute disorder begin with a decrease in lymphocytes, and then the symptoms appear such as alopecia, skin erythema, hematopoietic damage, gastrointestinal damage, central nervous system damage with increasing radiation dose. Regarding the late on-set disorder, a predominant health effect is the cancer among the symptoms of such as cancer, non-cancer disease and genetic effect. Cancer and genetic effect are recognized as stochastic effects without the threshold. When radiation dose is equal to or more than 100 mSv, it is observed that the cancer risk by radiation exposure increases linearly with an increase in dose. On the other hand, the risk of developing cancer through low-dose radiation exposure, less 100 mSv, has not yet been clarified scientifically. Although uncertainty still remains regarding low level risk estimation, ICRP propound LNT model and conduct radiation protection in accordance with LNT model in the low-dose and low-dose rate radiation from a position of radiation protection. Meanwhile, the mechanism of radiation damage has been gradually clarified. The initial event of radiation-induced diseases is thought to be the damage to genome such as radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Recently, it is clarified that our cells could recognize genome damage and induce the diverse cell response to maintain genome integrity. This phenomenon is called DNA damage response which induces the cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, apoptosis, cell senescence and so on. These responses act in the direction to maintain genome integrity against genome damage, however, the death of large number of

  8. Risk of cardiovascular disease following radiation exposure

    Trivedi, A.; Vlahovich, S.; Cornett, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Excess radiation-induced cardiac mortalities have been reported among radiotherapy patients. Many case reports describe the occurrence of atherosclerosis following radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease and breast cancer. Some case reports describe the cerebral infarction following radiotherapy to neck region, and of peripheral vascular disease of the lower extremities following radiotherapy to the pelvic region. The association of atomic bomb radiation and cardiovascular disease has been examined recently by incidence studies and prevalence studies of various endpoints of atherosclerosis; all endpoints indicated an increase of cardiovascular disease in the exposed group. It is almost certain that the cardiovascular disease is higher among atomic bomb survivors. However, since a heavy exposure of 10-40 Gy is delivered in radiotherapy and the bomb survivors were exposed to radiation at high dose and dose-rate, the question is whether the results can be extrapolated to individuals exposed to lower levels of radiation. Some recent epidemiological studies on occupationally exposed workers and population living near Chernobyl have provided the evidence for cardiovascular disease being a significant late effect at relatively low doses of radiation. However, the issue of non-cancer mortality from radiation is complicated by lack of adequate information on doses, and many other confounding factors (e.g., smoking habits or socio-economic status). This presentation will evaluate possible radiobiological mechanisms for radiation-induced cardiovascular disease, and will address its relevance to radiation protection management at low doses and what the impact might be on future radiation risk assessments. (authors)

  9. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation in Kenya

    Shadrack, Anthony Kiti

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This project is based on studies of radiation doses received by radiation workers from sample of radiation facilities in Nairobi, Kenya, using TLD badges. Radiation doses received by workers during performance of a few types of radiological exposures and application of sealed and unsealed radionuclides have been measured at a number of x ray departments (diagnostic radiology), radiotherapy and nuclear medicine and training and research. Radiation dose measurements were based on thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) techniques, using the laboratory facilities of the National Radiation Protection Laboratory (NRPL) at KNH, in Nairobi, Kenya. Evaluation of doses from TLD badges exposed to X-rays and radioisotopes are discussed. Nuclear medicine recorded the highest dose as compared to Radiotherapy, Training and research and Diagnostic radiology. Age and gender have no relation with dose absorption. Yearly average dose seems to have been reducing from 2002 to 2005, representing an improvement in radiation protection. Overall, the results show that radiation workers in Kenya are working under safe environments since the doses received are within acceptable limits of radiation protection. The data presented in this research provides a database, which should serve as a useful reference for comparison with similar studies in the future. (author)

  10. Human exposure to low level ionising radiation

    Paix, David

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the low-level radiation sources and their effects on human populations, from a global perspective. 'Low-level' means exposures in the range of the natural background to which everybody is exposed. The quoted values are whole-world averages, but individual variations are mentioned in a few cases. (author). 22 refs

  11. Control of radiation exposures by decontamination

    LeSurf, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    The radiation exposures of workers at light water and heavy water cooled reactors can be reduced by dilute chemical decontamination as exemplified by the CAN-DECON process. The cost effectiveness of the CAN-DECON process is illustrated by actual service experience and by hypothetical cases

  12. Radiation exposure mitigation through food

    Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Yukawa, Masae; Watanabe, Yoshito; Shiraishi, Kunio; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Uchida, Shigeo; Watabe, Teruhisa; Miyazaki, Taeko

    2001-01-01

    137 CsCl 2 was incorporated into plants (tomyao and broccoli) and these homogenized solutions were administered to rats. The whole-body retention was determined with an Armac counter. The whole body retention patterns of 137 Cs incorporated into the plants were not significantly different from that of the 137 CsCl 2 solution. Chitosan is derived from chitin, which is a cellulose-like biopolymer distributed widely in nature, especially in crustaceans, insects, fungi and yeast. The present study was to investigate whether chitosan can be applied to animal and human bodies in order to reduce the bioavailability of radio-iron and -zinc in food. Chitosan inhibits dietary iron absorption only when rats eat on iron-deficient diet. The effectiveness of phytate (myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis dihydrogen phosphate) and chitosan in reducing the bioavailability of radio-zinc depend on the concentration of phytate and chitosan. Recently, the share of imported foods increased ca. 40% of Japanese total food consumption. Radioactivities in imported foods must be checked from the viewpoints of internal radiation for Japanese subjects. Concentrations of 232 Th and 238 U in some imported mineral waters were higher than domestic waters. However, internal doses of portable waters are negligible. Individual foodstuffs in major food groups (fish and shellfish, meats, mushrooms, root vegetables and so on), which contributed to some radionuclide intakes in Japanese, were also analyzed to clarify the critical pathway in Japanese subjects. (author)

  13. Cosmic radiation exposure and persistent cognitive dysfunction

    Parihar, Vipan K.; Allen, Barrett D.; Caressi, Chongshan; Kwok, Stephanie; Chu, Esther; Tran, Katherine K.; Chmielewski, Nicole N.; Giedzinski, Erich; Acharya, Munjal M.; Britten, Richard A.; Baulch, Janet E.; Limoli, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars mission will result in an inevitable exposure to cosmic radiation that has been shown to cause cognitive impairments in rodent models, and possibly in astronauts engaged in deep space travel. Of particular concern is the potential for cosmic radiation exposure to compromise critical decision making during normal operations or under emergency conditions in deep space. Rodents exposed to cosmic radiation exhibit persistent hippocampal and cortical based performance decrements using six independent behavioral tasks administered between separate cohorts 12 and 24 weeks after irradiation. Radiation-induced impairments in spatial, episodic and recognition memory were temporally coincident with deficits in executive function and reduced rates of fear extinction and elevated anxiety. Irradiation caused significant reductions in dendritic complexity, spine density and altered spine morphology along medial prefrontal cortical neurons known to mediate neurotransmission interrogated by our behavioral tasks. Cosmic radiation also disrupted synaptic integrity and increased neuroinflammation that persisted more than 6 months after exposure. Behavioral deficits for individual animals correlated significantly with reduced spine density and increased synaptic puncta, providing quantitative measures of risk for developing cognitive impairment. Our data provide additional evidence that deep space travel poses a real and unique threat to the integrity of neural circuits in the brain. PMID:27721383

  14. Radiation exposure in CT-guided interventions

    Kloeckner, Roman, E-mail: Roman.Kloeckner@unimedizin-mainz.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Santos, Daniel Pinto dos; Schneider, Jens [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Kara, Levent [Department of Radiology, Inselspital Bern, Freiburgstraße 18, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Dueber, Christoph; Pitton, Michael B. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Langenbeckstraße 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate radiation exposure in computed tomography (CT)-guided interventions, to establish reference levels for exposure, and to discuss strategies for dose reduction. Materials and methods: We analyzed 1576 consecutive CT-guided procedures in 1284 patients performed over 4.5 years, including drainage placements; biopsies of different organs; radiofrequency and microwave ablations (RFA/MWA) of liver, bone, and lung tumors; pain blockages, and vertebroplasties. Data were analyzed with respect to scanner settings, overall radiation doses, and individual doses of planning CT series, CT intervention, and control CT series. Results: Eighy-five percent of the total radiation dose was applied during the pre- and post-interventional CT series, leaving only 15% applied by the CT-guided intervention itself. Single slice acquisition was associated with lower doses than continuous CT-fluoroscopy (37 mGy cm vs. 153 mGy cm, p < 0.001). The third quartile of radiation doses varied considerably for different interventions. The highest doses were observed in complex interventions like RFA/MWA of the liver, followed by vertebroplasty and RFA/MWA of the lung. Conclusions: This paper suggests preliminary reference levels for various intervention types and discusses strategies for dose reduction. A multicenter registry of radiation exposure including a broader spectrum of scanners and intervention types is needed to develop definitive reference levels.

  15. Radiation exposure reduction in APR1400

    Bae, C. J.; Hwang, H. R.; Matteson, D. M.

    2002-01-01

    The primary contributors to the total occupational radiation exposure in operating nuclear power plants are operation and maintenance activities during refueling outages. The Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400) includes a number of design improvements and plans to utilize advanced maintenance methods and robotics to minimize the annual collective dose. The major radiation exposure reduction features implemented in APR1400 are a permanent refueling pool seal, quick opening transfer tube blind flange, improved hydrogen peroxide injection at shutdown, improved permanent steam generator work platforms, and more effective temporary shielding. The estimated average annual occupational radiation exposure for APR1400 based on the reference plant experience and an engineering judgment is determined to be in the order of 0.4 man-Sv, which is well within the design goal of 1 man-Sv. The basis of this average annual occupational radiation exposure estimation is an eighteen (18) month fuel cycle with maintenance performed to steam generators and reactor coolant pumps during refueling outage. The outage duration is assumed to be 28 days. The outage work is to be performed on a 24 hour per day basis, seven (7) days a week with overlapping twelve (12) hour work shifts. The occupational radiation exposure for APR1400 is also determined by an alternate method which consists of estimating radiation exposures expected for the major activities during the refueling outage. The major outage activities that cause the majority of the total radiation exposure during refueling outage such as fuel handling, reactor coolant pump maintenance, steam generator inspection and maintenance, reactor vessel head area maintenance, decontamination, and ICI and instrumentation maintenance activities are evaluated at a task level. The calculated value using this method is in close agreement with the value of 0.4 man-Sv, that has been determined based on the experience and engineering judgement

  16. The occupational exposure of radiation workers, 1

    Kawasaki, S; Yamada, N; Sakurai, K [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-03-01

    Because the medical use of x-rays and radioisotopes is gradually increasing for diagnosis and therapy, radiation workers, special doctors, nurses and radiological technicians have occupational exposure. Procedures for monitoring external exposure of personnel include the wearing of a filmbadge or a pocket chamber. The results of filmbadge monitoring in Yamaguchi University Hospital for the last 10 years were described. In 1964, the total number of filmbadges that radiation workers used during a 2 week period of radiological examination and therapy was 610. This has been increasing yearly, and in 1972 it was 1999. Radiological technicians generally had low occupational exposure, and about 90 per cent of their filmbadges were exposed to less than 10 mR. Approximately 65 per cent of the filmbadges that nurses used were less than 10 mR, but some nurses who worked in radium therapy at the isotope ward suffered large doses. Some nurses had occasionally exposure higher than 100 mR in radiological examination. Some doctors sustained an occupational exposure of more than 150 mR. From these data, some problems on radiation monitoring using a filmbadge were discussed.

  17. The occupational exposure of radiation workers, 1

    Kawasaki, Shoji; Yamada, Norimasa; Sakurai, Koh

    1975-01-01

    Because the medical use of x-rays and radioisotopes is gradually increasing for diagnosis and therapy, radiation workers, special doctors, nurses and radiological technicians have occupational exposure. Procedures for monitoring external exposure of personnel include the wearing of a filmbadge or a pocket chamber. The results of filmbadge monitoring in Yamaguchi University Hospital for the last 10 years were described. In 1964, the total number of filmbadges that radiation workers used during a 2 week period of radiological examination and therapy was 610. This has been increasing yearly, and in 1972 it was 1999. Radiological technicians generally had low occupational exposure, and about 90 per cent of their filmbadges were exposed to less than 10 mR. Approximately 65 per cent of the filmbadges that nurses used were less than 10 mR, but some nurses who worked in radium therapy at the isotope ward suffered large doses. Some nurses had occasionally exposure higher than 100 mR in radiological examination. Some doctors sustained an occupational exposure of more than 150 mR. From these data, some problems on radiation monitoring using a filmbadge were discussed. (author)

  18. Efficacy of a radiation safety education initiative in reducing radiation exposure in the pediatric IR suite

    Sheyn, David D.; Racadio, John M.; Patel, Manish N.; Racadio, Judy M.; Johnson, Neil D.; Ying, Jun

    2008-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation is essential for diagnostic and therapeutic imaging in the interventional radiology (IR) suite. As the complexity of procedures increases, radiation exposure risk increases. We believed that reinforcing staff education and awareness would help optimize radiation safety. To evaluate the effect of a radiation safety education initiative on IR staff radiation safety practices and patient radiation exposure. After each fluoroscopic procedure performed in the IR suite during a 4-month period, dose-area product (DAP), fluoroscopy time, and use of shielding equipment (leaded eyeglasses and hanging lead shield) by IR physicians were recorded. A lecture and article were then given to IR physicians and technologists that reviewed ALARA principles for optimizing radiation dose. During the following 4 months, those same parameters were recorded after each procedure. Before education 432 procedures were performed and after education 616 procedures were performed. Physician use of leaded eyeglasses and hanging shield increased significantly after education. DAP and fluoroscopy time decreased significantly for uncomplicated peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) procedures and non-PICC procedures after education, but did not change for complicated PICC procedures. Staff radiation safety education can improve IR radiation safety practices and thus decrease exposure to radiation of both staff and patients. (orig.)

  19. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    none,

    1996-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in their management of radiological safety programs and to assist them in the prioritization of resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside the DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of collective data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  20. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2000 report

    none,

    2000-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safety and Health publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE in making this report most useful to them. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  1. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2003 report

    none,

    2003-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  2. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2004 report

    none,

    2004-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors, as well as members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  3. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1997 report

    none,

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  4. Evaluation of diseases associated to occupational exposure to ionizing radiations

    Suarez, Ileana Frometa

    1997-01-01

    A retrospective investigation of all cases of radiation workers with diseases and injuries, considered as occupational diseases caused by ionizing radiation is presented. The investigation includes all cases registered in the Institute of Occupational Health over five years period (1990-1995). The incidence of that diseases are studied, as well as the correlation between each type of source, time of exposure and annual average equivalent individual dose

  5. Radiation exposure mitigation through food

    Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Yukawa, Masae; Watanabe, Yoshito; Shiraishi, Kunio; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Uchida, Shigeo [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Watabe, Teruhisa; Miyazaki, Taeko [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki (Japan). Lab. for Radioecology

    2001-12-01

    {sup 137}CsCl{sub 2} was incorporated into plants (tomyao and broccoli) and these homogenized solutions were administered to rats. The whole-body retention was determined with an Armac counter. The whole body retention patterns of {sup 137}Cs incorporated into the plants were not significantly different from that of the {sup 137}CsCl{sub 2} solution. Chitosan is derived from chitin, which is a cellulose-like biopolymer distributed widely in nature, especially in crustaceans, insects, fungi and yeast. The present study was to investigate whether chitosan can be applied to animal and human bodies in order to reduce the bioavailability of radio-iron and -zinc in food. Chitosan inhibits dietary iron absorption only when rats eat on iron-deficient diet. The effectiveness of phytate (myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis dihydrogen phosphate) and chitosan in reducing the bioavailability of radio-zinc depend on the concentration of phytate and chitosan. Recently, the share of imported foods increased ca. 40% of Japanese total food consumption. Radioactivities in imported foods must be checked from the viewpoints of internal radiation for Japanese subjects. Concentrations of {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U in some imported mineral waters were higher than domestic waters. However, internal doses of portable waters are negligible. Individual foodstuffs in major food groups (fish and shellfish, meats, mushrooms, root vegetables and so on), which contributed to some radionuclide intakes in Japanese, were also analyzed to clarify the critical pathway in Japanese subjects. (author)

  6. Effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation

    Miller, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation induces some effects that are seen at birth and others that cannot be detected until later in life. Data from A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki show a diminished number of births after exposure under 4 wk of gestational age. Although a wide array of congenital malformations has been found in animal experimentation after such exposure to x rays, in humans only small head size (exposure at 4-17 wk) and mental retardation (exposure primarily at 8-15 wk) have been observed. In Hiroshima, small head size occurred after doses of 0.10-0.19 Gy or more, and an excess of mental retardation at 0.2-0.4 Gy or more. Intelligence test scores were reduced among A-bomb survivors exposed at 8-15 wk of gestational age by 21-29 IQ points per Gy. Other effects of in-utero exposure to atomic radiation include long-lasting complex chromosome abnormalities

  7. Effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation

    Miller, R.W. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation induces some effects that are seen at birth and others that cannot be detected until later in life. Data from A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki show a diminished number of births after exposure under 4 wk of gestational age. Although a wide array of congenital malformations has been found in animal experimentation after such exposure to x rays, in humans only small head size (exposure at 4-17 wk) and mental retardation (exposure primarily at 8-15 wk) have been observed. In Hiroshima, small head size occurred after doses of 0.10-0.19 Gy or more, and an excess of mental retardation at 0.2-0.4 Gy or more. Intelligence test scores were reduced among A-bomb survivors exposed at 8-15 wk of gestational age by 21-29 IQ points per Gy. Other effects of in-utero exposure to atomic radiation include long-lasting complex chromosome abnormalities.

  8. Diagnostic radiation exposure in pediatric trauma patients.

    Brunetti, Marissa A; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; Nabaweesi, Rosemary; Locke, Paul; Ziegfeld, Susan; Brown, Robert

    2011-02-01

    The amount of imaging studies performed for disease diagnosis has been rapidly increasing. We examined the amount of radiation exposure that pediatric trauma patients receive because they are an at-risk population. Our hypothesis was that pediatric trauma patients are exposed to high levels of radiation during a single hospital visit. Retrospective review of children who presented to Johns Hopkins Pediatric Trauma Center from July 1, 2004, to June 30, 2005. Radiographic studies were recorded for each patient and doses were calculated to give a total effective dose of radiation. All radiographic studies that each child received during evaluation, including any associated hospital admission, were included. A total of 945 children were evaluated during the study year. A total of 719 children were included in the analysis. Mean age was 7.8 (±4.6) years. Four thousand six hundred three radiographic studies were performed; 1,457 were computed tomography (CT) studies (31.7%). Average radiation dose was 12.8 (±12) mSv. We found that while CT accounted for only 31.7% of the radiologic studies performed, it accounted for 91% of the total radiation dose. Mean dose for admitted children was 17.9 (±13.8) mSv. Mean dose for discharged children was 8.4 (±7.8) mSv (pcumulative radiation exposure can be high. In young children with relatively long life spans, the benefit of each imaging study and the cumulative radiation dose should be weighed against the long-term risks of increased exposure.

  9. Radiation exposure of operator during various interventional procedures

    Yu, In Kyu; Chung, Jin Wook; Han, Joon Koo; Park, Jae Hyung; Kang, Wee Saing

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the levels of radiation exposure of an operator which may be influenced by the wearing an apron, type of procedure, duration of fluoroscopy and operator's skill during various interventional procedures. Radiation doses were measured both inside and outside the apron(0.5 mm lead equivalent) of the operator by a film badge monitoring method and the duration of fluoroscopy was measured in 96 procedures prospectively. The procedures were 30 transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE), 25 percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainages (PTBD), 16 stone removals (SR), 15 percutaneous needle aspirations (PNCA) and 10 percutaneous nephrostomies(PCN). To assess the difference of exposure by the operator's skill, the procedures of TAE and PTBD were done separately by groups of staffs and residents. Average protective effect of the apron was 72.8%. Average radiation exposure(unit: μ Sv/procedure was 23.3 in PTBD by residents, 10.0 in PTBD by staffs, 10.0 in SR, 8.7 in TAE by residents, 7.3 in TAE by staffs, 9.0 in PCN and 6.0 in PCNA. Average radiation exposure of residents were 1.9 times greater than those of staffs. Radiation exposure was not proportionally related to the duration of fluoroscopy, but influenced by wearing an apron, various types of procedure and operator's skills

  10. Reduction of radiation exposure in Japanese BWR Nuclear Power Plants

    Morikawa, Yoshitake

    1995-01-01

    The reduction of occupational exposure to radiation during the annual inspection and maintenance outages of Japanese boiling water reactors (BWR) is one of the most important objectives for stable and reliable operation. It was shown that this radiation exposure is caused by radionuclides, such as Co-60, Co-58 and Mn-54 which are produced from the metal elements Co, Ni, and Fe present in the corrosion products of structural materials that had been irradiated by neutrons. Therefore, to reduce radiation sources and exposures in Japanese BWRs, attempts have been reinforced to remove corrosion products and activated corrosion products from the primary coolant system. This paper describes the progress of the application of these measures to Japanese BWRs. Most Japanese BWR-4 and BWR-5 type nuclear power plants started their commercial operations during the 1970s. With the elapse of time during operations, a problem came to the forefront, namely that occupational radiation exposure during plant outages gradually increased, which obstructed the smooth running of inspections and maintenance work. To overcome this problem, extensive studies to derive effective countermeasures for radiation exposure reduction were undertaken, based on the evaluation of the plants operation data

  11. Reduction of radiation exposure in Japanese BWR Nuclear Power Plants

    Morikawa, Yoshitake [ISOGO Nuclear Engineering Center, Yokohama (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    The reduction of occupational exposure to radiation during the annual inspection and maintenance outages of Japanese boiling water reactors (BWR) is one of the most important objectives for stable and reliable operation. It was shown that this radiation exposure is caused by radionuclides, such as Co-60, Co-58 and Mn-54 which are produced from the metal elements Co, Ni, and Fe present in the corrosion products of structural materials that had been irradiated by neutrons. Therefore, to reduce radiation sources and exposures in Japanese BWRs, attempts have been reinforced to remove corrosion products and activated corrosion products from the primary coolant system. This paper describes the progress of the application of these measures to Japanese BWRs. Most Japanese BWR-4 and BWR-5 type nuclear power plants started their commercial operations during the 1970s. With the elapse of time during operations, a problem came to the forefront, namely that occupational radiation exposure during plant outages gradually increased, which obstructed the smooth running of inspections and maintenance work. To overcome this problem, extensive studies to derive effective countermeasures for radiation exposure reduction were undertaken, based on the evaluation of the plants operation data.

  12. Safety of natural radiation exposure. A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies on natural radiation

    Osaki, S.

    2000-01-01

    People have been exposed every time and everywhere to natural radiation and ''intuitively'' know the safety of this radiation exposure. On the other hand the theory of no threshold value on radiological carcinogenesis is known widely, and many people feel danger with even a smallest dose of radiation exposure. The safety of natural radiation exposure can be used for the risk communication with the public. For this communication, the safety of natural radiation exposure should be proved ''scientifically''. Safety is often discussed scientifically as the risks of the mortality from many practices, and the absolute risks of safe practices on the public are 1E-5 to 1E-6. The risks based on the difference of natural radiation exposure on carcinogenesis have been analyzed by epidemiological studies. Much of the epidemiological studies have been focused on the relationship between radiation doses and cancer mortalities, and their results have been described as relative risks or correlation factors. In respect to the safety, however, absolute risks are necessary for the discussion. Cancer mortalities depend not only on radiation exposure, but also on ethnic groups, sexes, ages, social classes, foods, smoking, environmental chemicals, medical radiation, etc. In order to control these confounding factors, the data are collected from restricted groups or/and localities, but any these ecological studies can not perfectly compensate the confounding factors. So positive or negative values of relative risks or the meaningful correlation factors can not be confirmed that their values are derived originally from the difference of their exposure doses. The absolute risks on these epidemiological studies are also affected by many factors containing radiation exposure. The absolute risk or the upper value of the confidence limit obtained from the epidemiological study which is well regulated confounding factors is possible to be a maximum risk on the difference of the exposure doses

  13. Predicted Radiation Exposure from Mining at Kvanefjeld

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Roos, Per; Andersson, Kasper Grann

    Baseline surveys of gamma radiation and environmental radioactivity have been carried out by Greenland Minerals and Energy Ltd (GMEL) to show existing levels in the town of Narsaq and in the Kvanefjeld project area. Radiation levels in Narsaq are low but elevated in the project area due the prese......Baseline surveys of gamma radiation and environmental radioactivity have been carried out by Greenland Minerals and Energy Ltd (GMEL) to show existing levels in the town of Narsaq and in the Kvanefjeld project area. Radiation levels in Narsaq are low but elevated in the project area due...... the presence of large uranium and thorium deposits in Kvanefjeld. These deposits are also the reason that radon in outdoor air show elevated concentrations in Narsaq and in the project area. It is recommended that future monitoring of external exposure and radon should be based on measurement techniques using...

  14. Radiation exposure and radiation risk of the population

    Jacobi, W.; Paretzke, H.G.; Ehling, U.H.

    1981-02-01

    The major scientifically founded results concerning the assessment of the radiation exposure and the analysis and evaluation of the radiationhazards for the population, particularly in the range of low doses, are presented. As to the risk analysis special attention is paid to the rays with low ionization density (X-, γ-, β- and electronrays). Contents: 1) Detailed survey of the results and conclusions; 2) Data on the radiation load of the population; 3) Results to epidemiological questioning on the risk of cancer; 4) Genetical radiation hazards of the population. For quantification purposes of the risk of cancer by γ-radiation the observations with the a-bomb survivors in Japan are taken as a basis, as the available dosimetrical data have to be revised. Appendices: 1) German translation of the UNSCEAR-Report (1977); 2) BEIR-Report (1980); 3) Comments from the SSK on the comparability of the risks of natural-artificial radiation exposure; 4) Comments from the SSK on the importance of synergistical influences for the radiation protection (23.9.1977). (HP) [de

  15. Cumulative radiation exposure in children with cystic fibrosis.

    O'Reilly, R

    2010-02-01

    This retrospective study calculated the cumulative radiation dose for children with cystic fibrosis (CF) attending a tertiary CF centre. Information on 77 children with a mean age of 9.5 years, a follow up time of 658 person years and 1757 studies including 1485 chest radiographs, 215 abdominal radiographs and 57 computed tomography (CT) scans, of which 51 were thoracic CT scans, were analysed. The average cumulative radiation dose was 6.2 (0.04-25) mSv per CF patient. Cumulative radiation dose increased with increasing age and number of CT scans and was greater in children who presented with meconium ileus. No correlation was identified between cumulative radiation dose and either lung function or patient microbiology cultures. Radiation carries a risk of malignancy and children are particularly susceptible. Every effort must be made to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure in these patients whose life expectancy is increasing.

  16. Radiation exposure of the UK population

    Taylor, F.E.; Webb, G.A.M.

    1978-11-01

    Man is continuously exposed to radiation from many sources, both natural and man-made. The man-made sources include medical irradiation, exposure from radioactive waste disposal, fallout from nuclear weapons tests and various 'miscellaneous sources' which include consumer products. The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) keeps these contributions to the radiation exposure of the population under continuous review and publishes reports on the subject periodically. This is the second such report and contains considerably more information than the first published in 1974. The balance of the report reflects the availability of data and the advice given in the sixth report of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. The conclusions are: (a) that the major contribution to the dose to the population is from natural background radiation; (b) that the largest man-made contribution is from medical uses of radiation; (c) that the largest contribution from environmental contamination is still from the residual effects of fallout from nuclear weapons testing; (d) that occupational exposure and irradiation from miscellaneous sources, considered as contributions to the per caput dose to the population, are the next largest components; (e) that radioactive waste disposal is the smallest contributor to the per caput dose to the population. It was also felt useful to review the past trends in the doses resulting from the various sources and the authors have attempted to make some tentative predictions of doses up to the year 2000. (author)

  17. A review of child medical radiation exposure

    Anon.

    2017-01-01

    During their first year, children may undergo a lot of X-ray exams: of hips at the age of 4 months to detect any deformities, of lungs to detect bronchiolitis, of bones to detect breaks, of jaw (dental panoramic) to prepare for possible medical care in orthodontics. A survey shows that the medical radiation dose received by children is less than 0.35 mSv a year while the average dose for an adult is 4.5 mSv. This figure is reassuring but children exposure needs to be carefully monitored as children are more sensitive to radiation because they are growing. The control of radiation exposure is made through a compulsory survey: every year radiologists must send to the IRSN (Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety) the radiation doses received by 30 patients for the most common radiological examinations and the IRSN will then define reference doses based on these figures. The feedback over the 2013-2015 period for children exposure is very low. A new methodology must be defined to compensate this lack of data. The strategy is to reduce the global dose by performing only fully justified examinations and to adapt the dose to the real size and weight of the child. (A.C.)

  18. Assessment of health risks from exposure to ionizing radiation

    Beebe, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    Rapid development in the assessment of health risks from exposure to ionizing radiation has produced an impressive array of risk differentials of presumed biologic significance. In the human data these differentials involve: (1) the variety of cancer, especially its size; (2) host factors, especially age; (3) time following exposure; (4) magnitude of dose; and (5) type of radiation. From experimental work we may presume that dose-rate also plays a role, especially for sparsely ionizing radiation. Current research is extending the scope of differentials with respect to these and other variables, including cell type and concomitant environmental risk factors, and testing dose-response models suggested by experimental and theoretical work. As facts to be explained, differentials in risk may lead to hypotheses to be explored experimentally and improve our understanding of how ionizing radiation causes cancer. 74 references

  19. Accounting for Unobservable Exposure Time Bias Wh...

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Accounting for Unobservable Exposure Time Bias When Using Medicare Prescription Drug Data Unobservable exposure time is common among Medicare Part D beneficiaries,...

  20. Retrospective internal radiation exposure assessment in occupational epidemiology

    Neton, J.W.; Flora, J.T.; Spitz, H.B.; Taulbee, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of workers at U.S. Department of Energy facilities are being conducted by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to evaluate the health risk associated with exposure to sources of external and internal ionizing radiation. While exposure to external sources of radiation can be estimated from personal dosimeter data, reconstruction of exposure due to internally deposited radioactivity is more challenging because bioassay monitoring data is frequently less complete. Although comprehensive monitoring was provided for workers with the highest internal exposures, the majority of workers were monitored relatively infrequently. This monitoring was conducted to demonstrate compliance with regulations rather than to evaluate exposure for use in epidemiologic studies. Attributes of past internal monitoring programs that challenge accurate exposure assessment include: incomplete characterization of the workplace source term; a lack of timely measurements; insensitive and/or nonspecific bioassay measurements; and the presence of censored data. In spite of these limitations, many facilities have collected a large amount of worker and workplace monitoring information that can be used to evaluate internal exposure while minimizing worker misclassification. This paper describes a systematic approach for using the available worker and workplace monitoring data that can lead to either a qualitative or quantitative retrospective assessment of internal exposures. Various aspects of data analysis will be presented, including the evaluation of minimum detectable dose, the treatment of censored data, and the use of combinations of bioassay and workplace data to characterize exposures. Examples of these techniques applied to a cohort study involving chronic exposure scenarios to uranium are provided. A strategy for expressing exposure or dose in fundamental, unweighted units related to the quantity of radiation delivered to an organ will also

  1. Justification of novel practices involving radiation exposure

    Webb, G.; Boal, T.; Mason, C.; Wrixon, T.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of 'justification' of practices has been one of the three basic principles of radiation protection for many decades. The principle is simple in essence - that any practice involving radiation exposure should do more good than harm. There is no doubt that the many uses of radiation in the medical field and in industry generally satisfy this principle, yielding benefits that could not be achieved using other techniques; examples include CT scanning and industrial radiography. However, even in the early period after the introduction of the justification principle, there were practices for which the decision on justification was not clear and for which different decisions were made by the authorities in different countries. Many of these involved consumer products such as luminous clocks and watches, telephone dials, smoke detectors, lightning preventers and gas mantles. In most cases, these practices were relatively small scale and did not involve large exposures of either individual workers or members of the public. Decisions on justification were therefore often made by the regulator without extensive national debate. Over recent years, several practices have been proposed and undertaken that involve exposure to radiation for purposes that were generally not envisaged when the current system of radiation protection was created. Some of these practices were reviewed during a recent symposium held in Dublin, Ireland and involve, for example, the x-raying of people for theft detection purposes, for detection of weapons or contraband, for the prediction of physical development of young athletes or dancers, for age determination, for insurance purposes and in cases of suspected child abuse. It is particularly in the context of such novel practices that the need has emerged for clearer international guidance on the application of the justification principle. This paper reviews recent activities of the IAEA with respect to these issues, including the

  2. Justification of novel practices involving radiation exposure

    Webb, G. [Radiation Protection Consul tant, Brighton (United Kingdom); Boal, T.; Mason, C.; Wrixon, T. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    The concept of 'justification' of practices has been one of the three basic principles of radiation protection for many decades. The principle is simple in essence - that any practice involving radiation exposure should do more good than harm. There is no doubt that the many uses of radiation in the medical field and in industry generally satisfy this principle, yielding benefits that could not be achieved using other techniques; examples include CT scanning and industrial radiography. However, even in the early period after the introduction of the justification principle, there were practices for which the decision on justification was not clear and for which different decisions were made by the authorities in different countries. Many of these involved consumer products such as luminous clocks and watches, telephone dials, smoke detectors, lightning preventers and gas mantles. In most cases, these practices were relatively small scale and did not involve large exposures of either individual workers or members of the public. Decisions on justification were therefore often made by the regulator without extensive national debate. Over recent years, several practices have been proposed and undertaken that involve exposure to radiation for purposes that were generally not envisaged when the current system of radiation protection was created. Some of these practices were reviewed during a recent symposium held in Dublin, Ireland and involve, for example, the x-raying of people for theft detection purposes, for detection of weapons or contraband, for the prediction of physical development of young athletes or dancers, for age determination, for insurance purposes and in cases of suspected child abuse. It is particularly in the context of such novel practices that the need has emerged for clearer international guidance on the application of the justification principle. This paper reviews recent activities of the IAEA with respect to these issues, including the

  3. Radio frequency (RF) radiation exposure and health

    Visser, H.J.; Mahmoudi, R.; Iniewski, K.

    2013-01-01

    Through the history of wireless communication I show the explosive growth in time of mobile telephony and explain how this affects the perception of fear of the general public for electromagnetic radiation. Then, after explaining the physics of electromagnetic radiation, I discuss the interaction

  4. Radiation exposure profile and dose estimates to flyers en route Frankfurt to Mumbai

    Rao, D.D.; Hegde, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    The earth is continuously bombarded by the high energy radiation (galactic radiation) from solar system commonly known as cosmic radiation. Intensity of cosmic ray radiation exposures change with altitude and increases rapidly with the increase in altitude from the earth. Passenger and cargo flights fly at different altitudes and therefore the crew and passengers are exposed to radiation levels significantly higher than the average background levels on the earth. A typical commercial jet aircraft fly at an altitude of 30,000 - 40,000 feet (9-12 km) and at these heights radiation exposure rates increase by about 100 times from the background levels. European countries have guidelines and suggestions on radiation exposure to air crew members in sectors that may potentially expose them to levels exceeding 1 mSv per annum. The paper details the radiation exposure profile recorded in Frankfurt-Dubai-Mumbai sector and evaluation of average radiation exposure received by the flyers and air crew members

  5. Reducing occupational radiation exposures at LWRs

    Lattanzi, D.; Neri, C.; Papa, C.; Paribelli, S.

    1980-01-01

    The occupational radiation doses received by nuclear power plant personnel during a period of several years of operation are briefly reviewed. Comparisons are made between the data for BWRs and PWRs in order to identify the more ''critical'' reactor type, from a radiological poin; of view. Attention is also devoted to GCRs. Furthermore the areas which contribute most to personnel doses are considered and briefly reviewed. The main steps to be taken in order to reduce occupational radiation exposures at LWRs are discussed. (H.K.)

  6. Distribution of Radiation Exposure from Natural Radiation in Big Cities

    Udiyani, P.M.; Ahmad, Yus R.

    2000-01-01

    The measurement of radiation exposure from the natural radiation in the big city in Java such as Jakarta, Bandung, Semarang, Yogyakarta, and Surabaya have be done. Based on radiation dose and population at the sample location, the dose collective and risk probability will be know. The maximal exposure at Yogyakarta is 0.291 mSv/year and the minimal exposure at Surabaya is 0.216 mSv/year. Collective dose at Jakarta is 1.649.526 men mSv/year; Bandung 124.844 men mSv/year; Semarang : 64.558 men mSv/year; Yogyakarta 136.188 men mSv/year; and Surabaya 145.152 men mSv/year. The person probability of radiation disease at jakarta is 16.49 person/year, Bandung is 1.24 person/year, Semarang 1.64 person/year, Yogyakarta is 1.36 person/year, and Surabaya is 1.45 person/year

  7. Radiation exposure after permanent prostate brachytherapy

    Cattani, Federica; Vavassori, Andrea; Polo, Alfredo; Rondi, Elena; Cambria, Raffaella; Orecchia, Roberto; Tosi, Giampiero

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Limited information is available on the true radiation exposure and associated risks for the relatives of the patients submitted to prostate brachytherapy with permanent implant of radioactive sources and for any other people coming into contact with them. In order to provide appropriate information, we analyzed the radiation exposure data from 216 prostate cancer patients who underwent 125 I or 103 Pd implants at the European Institute of Oncology of Milan, Italy. Patients and methods: Between October 1999 and October 2004, 216 patients with low risk prostate carcinoma were treated with 125 I (200 patients) or 103 Pd (16 patients) permanent seed implantation. One day after the procedure, radiation exposure measurements around the patients were performed using an ionization chamber survey meter (Victoreen RPO-50) calibrated in dose rate at an accredited calibration center (calibration Centre SIT 104). Results: The mean dose rate at the posterior skin surface (gluteal region) following 125 I implants was 41.3 μSv/h (range: 6.2-99.4 μSv/h) and following 103 Pd implants was 18.9 μSv/h (range 5.0-37.3 μSv/h). The dose rate at 50 cm from the skin decreased to the mean value of 6.4 μSv/h for the 125 I implants and to the mean value of 1.7 μSv/h for the 103 Pd implants. Total times required to reach the annual dose limit (1 mSv/year) recommended for the general population by the European Directive 96/29/Euratom and by the Italian law (Decreto Legislativo 241/2000) at a distance of 50 cm from the posterior skin surface of the implanted patient would be 7.7 and 21.6 days for 125 I and for 103 Pd. Good correlation between the measured dose rates and both the total implanted activity and the distance between the most posteriorly implanted seed and the skin surface of the patients was found. Conclusions: Our data show that the dose rates at 50 cm away from the prostate brachytherapy patients are very low and that the doses possibly absorbed by the

  8. Personnel radiation exposure in HTGR plants

    Su, S.; Engholm, B.A.

    1981-01-01

    Occupational radiation exposures in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) plants were assessed. The expected rate of dose accumulations for a large HTGR steam cycle unit is 0.07 man-rem/MW(e)y, while the design basis is 0.17 man-rem/MW(e)y. The comparable figure for actual light water reactor experience is 1.3 man-rem/MW(e)y. The favorable HTGR occupational exposure is supported by results from the Peach Bottom Unit No. 1 HTGR and Fort St. Vrain HTGR plants and by operating experience at British gas-cooled reactor stations

  9. Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure from Cellular Base Station: A ...

    Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure from Cellular Base Station: A Concern for Public ... as well as safety guidelines relating to exposure of non-ionizing radiation. Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) operators claimed that their ...

  10. Radically Reducing Radiation Exposure during Routine Medical Imaging

    Exposure to radiation from medical imaging in the United States has increased dramatically. NCI and several partner organizations sponsored a 2011 summit to promote efforts to reduce radiation exposure from medical imaging.

  11. Radiographic apparatus and method for monitoring film exposure time

    Vatne, R.S.; Woodmansee, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    In connection with radiographic inspection of structural and industrial materials, method and apparatus are disclosed for automatically determining and displaying the time required to expose a radiographic film positioned to receive radiation passed by a test specimen, so that the finished film is exposed to an optimum blackening (density) for maximum film contrast. A plot is made of the variations in a total exposure parameter (representing the product of detected radiation rate and time needed to cause optimum film blackening) as a function of the voltage level applied to an X-ray tube. An electronic function generator storing the shape of this plot is incorporated into an exposure monitoring apparatus, such that for a selected tube voltage setting, the function generator produces an electrical analog signal of the corresponding exposure parameter. During the exposure, another signal is produced representing the rate of radiation as monitored by a diode detector positioned so as to receive the same radiation that is incident on the film. The signal representing the detected radiation rate is divided, by an electrical divider circuit into the signal representing total exposure, and the resulting quotient is an electrical signal representing the required exposure time. (author)

  12. Radiation protection programme for existing exposure situation

    Ramadhani, Hilali Hussein

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to develop the Radiation protection Programme (RPP) to ensure that measures are in place for protection of individuals from the existing source of exposure. The study established a number of protective and remedial actions to be considered by the responsible regulatory Authority, licensee for existing exposure in workplace and dwellings. Tanzania is endowed with a number NORMs processing industries with an experience of uncontrolled exploration and extraction of minerals and the use of unsafe mining methods leading to severe environmental damage and appalling living conditions in the mining communities. Some of NORMs industries have been abandoned due to lack of an effect management infrastructure. The residual radioactive materials have been found to be the most import source of existing exposure resulted from NORMs industries. The Radon gas and its progeny have also been found to be a source of existing exposure from natural source as well as the major source of risk and health effects associated with existing exposure situation. The following measures have been discovered to play a pivotal role in avoiding or reducing the source of exposure to individuals such as restriction of the use of the construction materials, restriction on the consumption of foodstuffs and restriction on the access to the land and buildings, the removal of the magnitude of the source in terms of activity concentration as well as improvement of ventilation in dwellings. Therefore, the regulatory body (Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission) should examine the major areas outlined in the established RRP for existing exposure situation resulted from the NORMs industries and natural sources so as to develop strategies that will ensure the adequate protection of members of the public and the environment as well as guiding operating organizations to develop radiation protection and safety measures for workers. (au)

  13. Radiation protection of aviation personnel at exposure by cosmic radiation

    Vicanova, M.; Pinter, I.; Liskova, A.

    2008-01-01

    For determination of radiation dose of aviation personnel we used the software EPCARD (European Program Package for the Calculation of Aviation Route Doses) developed by National Research Center for Environmental Health - Institute of Radiation Protection (Neuherberg, Germany) and the software CARI 6, developed by the FAA's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (USA). Both codes are accomplished by the Joint Aviation Authorities. Experimental measurement and estimation of radiation doses of aviation personnel at exposure by cosmic radiation were realised in the period of lowered solar activity. All-year effective dose of pilots, which worked off at least 11 months exceeds the value 1 mSv in 2007. The mean all-year effective dose of member of aviation personnel at exposure by cosmic radiation is 2.5 mSv and maximal all-year effective dose, which we measured in 2007 was 4 mSv. We assumed that in the period of increased solar activity the all-year effective doses may by higher

  14. Population exposure to ionising radiation in India

    Narayanan, K.K.; Krishnan, D.; Subba Ramu, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    Estimates of exposure from various radiation sources to Indian population are given. The per caput dose from all the identifiable sources, both natural and man-made is estimated to be 2490 μSv per year to the present population of India. 97.9% of this dose is contributed by natural sources which include cosmic and terrestrial radiations, 1.93% by medical sources used for diagnostic and treatment purpose, 0.3% by exposures due to activities related nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear tests and nuclear accidents, and 0.07% by miscellaneous sources such as industrial applications, consumer products, research activities, air travel etc. The monograph is written for the use of the common man. (M.G.B.). 25 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs

  15. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure and cancer in airline cabin crew.

    Kojo, K.

    2013-03-15

    Cosmic radiation dose rates are considerably higher at cruising altitudes of airplanes than at ground level. Previous studies have found increased risk of certain cancers among aircraft cabin crew, but the results are not consistent across different studies. Despite individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment is important for evaluating the relation between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk, only few previous studies have tried to develop an exposure assessment method. The evidence for adverse health effects in aircrews due to ionizing radiation is inconclusive because quantitative dose estimates have not been used. No information on possible confounders has been collected. For an occupational group with an increased risk of certain cancers it is very important to assess if the risk is related to occupational exposure. The goal of this thesis was to develop two separate retrospective exposure assessment methods for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. The methods included the assessment based on survey on flight histories and based on company flight timetables. Another goal was to describe the cancer incidence among aircraft cabin crew with a large cohort in four Nordic countries, i.e., Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Also the contribution of occupational as well as non-occupational factors to breast and skin cancer risk among the cabin crew was studied with case-control studies. Using the survey method of cosmic radiation exposure assessment, the median annual radiation dose of Finnish airline cabin crew was 0.6 milliSievert (mSv) in the 1960s, 3.3 mSv in the 1970s, and 3.6 mSv in the 1980s. With the flight timetable method, the annual radiation dose increased with time being 0.7 mSv in the 1960 and 2.1 mSv in the 1995. With the survey method, the median career dose was 27.9 mSv and with the timetable method 20.8 mSv. These methods provide improved means for individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment compared to studies where cruder

  16. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure and cancer in airline cabin crew

    Kojo, K.

    2013-03-01

    Cosmic radiation dose rates are considerably higher at cruising altitudes of airplanes than at ground level. Previous studies have found increased risk of certain cancers among aircraft cabin crew, but the results are not consistent across different studies. Despite individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment is important for evaluating the relation between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk, only few previous studies have tried to develop an exposure assessment method. The evidence for adverse health effects in aircrews due to ionizing radiation is inconclusive because quantitative dose estimates have not been used. No information on possible confounders has been collected. For an occupational group with an increased risk of certain cancers it is very important to assess if the risk is related to occupational exposure. The goal of this thesis was to develop two separate retrospective exposure assessment methods for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. The methods included the assessment based on survey on flight histories and based on company flight timetables. Another goal was to describe the cancer incidence among aircraft cabin crew with a large cohort in four Nordic countries, i.e., Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Also the contribution of occupational as well as non-occupational factors to breast and skin cancer risk among the cabin crew was studied with case-control studies. Using the survey method of cosmic radiation exposure assessment, the median annual radiation dose of Finnish airline cabin crew was 0.6 milliSievert (mSv) in the 1960s, 3.3 mSv in the 1970s, and 3.6 mSv in the 1980s. With the flight timetable method, the annual radiation dose increased with time being 0.7 mSv in the 1960 and 2.1 mSv in the 1995. With the survey method, the median career dose was 27.9 mSv and with the timetable method 20.8 mSv. These methods provide improved means for individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment compared to studies where cruder

  17. Controlling occupational radiation exposure. Alternatives to regulation

    Sagan, L.A.; Squitieri, R.; Wildman, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    The principal strategy adopted for the control of occupational radiation exposure has been the establishment of standards expressed as maximum permissible exposures. The use of such standards is subject to a number of defects, among which is the neglect of the economic impact of imposing such standards. Furthermore, such standards carry the implication of a threshold for radiation effects, a concept now widely challenged. Lastly, the use of standards makes it impossible to evaluate the efficiency of the regulatory agency or to compare its performance with other similar agencies. An alternative to the use of standards, i.e. cost-benefit analysis, is discussed. The advantages of this technique meet many of the objections to the use of standards alone and allow health and safety resources to be allocated in a manner most likely to save the most lives. The greatest disadvantage of cost-benefit analysis has been the difficulty in evaluating the benefit side of the equation. Although the risks of radiation exposure are not known with precision, they are nevertheless well understood. Therefore, the application of cost-benefit analysis to occupational radiation exposure is rational. There are a number of barriers to reform in the use of standards and the adoption of cost-benefit analysis. These attitudinal and institutional constraints are discussed. The nature of private or market systems of control are discussed, i.e. the use of liability and insurance mechanisms. These also have shortcomings that require further development but are seen as potentially more efficient for both employer and employee than is the use of regulatory standards. (author)

  18. Assessment of health consequences of steel industry welders′ occupational exposure to ultraviolet radiation

    Zahra Zamanian

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: This study showed that the time period of UV exposure in welders is higher than the permissible contact threshold level. Therefore, considering the outbreak of the eye and skin disorders in the welders, decreasing exposure time, reducing UV radiation level, and using personal protective equipment seem indispensable. As exposure to UV radiation can be linked to different types of skin cancer, skin aging, and cataract, welders should be advised to decrease their occupational exposures.

  19. Reducing waste generation and radiation exposure by analytical method modification

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    The primary goal of an analytical support laboratory has traditionally been to provide accurate data in a timely and cost effective fashion. Added to this goal is now the need to provide the same high quality data while generating as little waste as possible. At the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), we have modified and reengineered several methods to decrease generated waste and hence reduce radiation exposure. These method changes involved improving detection limits (which decreased the amount of sample required for analysis), decreasing reaction and analysis time, decreasing the size of experimental set-ups, recycling spent solvent and reagents, and replacing some methods. These changes had the additional benefits of reducing employee radiation exposure and exposure to hazardous chemicals. In all cases, the precision, accuracy, and detection limits were equal to or better than the replaced method. Most of the changes required little or no expenditure of funds. This paper describes these changes and discusses some of their applications

  20. Radiation exposures for DOE and DOE contractor employees, 1990

    Smith, M.H.; Hui, T.E.; Millet, W.H.; Scholes, V.A.

    1994-03-01

    This is the 23rd in a series of annual radiation exposure reports published by the Department of Energy (DOE) or its predecessors. This report summarizes the radiation exposures received by both employees and visitors at DOE and DOE contractor facilities during 1990. Trends in radiation exposures are evaluated by comparing the doses received in 1990 to those received in previous years. The significance of the doses is addressed by comparing them to the DOE limits and by correlating the doses to health risks based on risk estimated from expert groups. This report is the third that is based on detailed exposure data for each individual monitored at a DOE facility. Prior to 1988, only summarized data from each facility were available. This report contains information on different types of radiation doses, including total effective, internal, penetrating, shallow, neutron, and extremity doses. It also contains analysis of exposures by age, sex, and occupation of the exposed individuals. This report also continues the precedent established in the Twenty-First (1988) Annual Report by conducting a detailed, one-time review and analysis of a particular topic of interest. The special topic for this report is a comparison of total effective, internal, and extremity dose equivalent values against penetrating dose equivalent values

  1. Microwave radiation - Biological effects and exposure standards

    Lindsay, I.R.

    1980-06-01

    The thermal and nonthermal effects of exposure to microwave radiation are discussed and current standards for microwave exposure are examined in light of the proposed use of microwave power transmission from solar power satellites. Effects considered include cataractogenesis at levels above 100 mW/sq cm, and possible reversible disturbances such as headaches, sleeplessness, irritability, fatigue, memory loss, cardiovascular changes and circadian rhythm disturbances at levels less than 10 mW/sq cm. It is pointed out that while the United States and western Europe have adopted exposure standards of 10 mW/sq cm, those adopted in other countries are up to three orders of magnitude more restrictive, as they are based on different principles applied in determining safe limits. Various aspects of the biological effects of microwave transmissions from space are considered in the areas of the protection of personnel working in the vicinity of the rectenna, interactions of the transmitted radiation with cardiac pacemakers, and effects on birds. It is concluded that thresholds for biological effects from short-term microwave radiation are well above the maximal power density of 1 mW/sq cm projected at or beyond the area of exclusion of a rectenna.

  2. Radiation exposures due to fossil fuel combustion

    Beck, Harold L.

    The current consensus regarding the potential radiation exposures resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels is examined. Sources, releases and potential doses to humans are discussed, both for power plants and waste materials. It is concluded that the radiation exposure to most individuals from any pathway is probably insignificant, i.e. only a tiny fraction of the dose received from natural sources in soil and building materials. Any small dose that may result from power-plant emissions will most likely be from inhalation of the small insoluble ash particles from the more poorly controlled plants burning higher than average activity fuel, rather than from direct or indirect ingestion of food grown on contaminated soil. One potentially significant pathway for exposure to humans that requires further evaluation is the effect on indoor external γ-radiation levels resulting from the use of flyash in building materials. The combustion of natural gas in private dwellings is also discussed, and the radiological consequences are concluded to be generally insignificant, except under certain extraordinary circumstances.

  3. Low Magnitude Occupational Radiation Exposures Are They Safe or Unsafe

    Ravichandran, R.

    2013-01-01

    Man has always been exposed to ionizing radiation from natural sources and background exposure varies with the locations. No deleterious effects have been uniquely correlated, either they are not produced at low levels of exposure or their frequency is too low to be statistically observable. Direct source of information on radiation hazards in man is obviously based on follow up of population groups exposed to certain levels of radiation. Harmful effects of ionizing radiations are traced to documented exposures; for radiologists during 1920 s and 30 s, miners exposed to airborne radioactivity, workers in the radium industry, follow-up data of Japanese nuclear bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Marshallese accident in 1954, and the victims of the limited number of accidents at nuclear installations including Chernobyl. Mostly these information are from situations involving higher doses and dose rates. Ionizing radiations have been used extensively on the peaceful applications of atomic energy in general and medical applications in particular have shown to outweigh benefits over the risks. Personnel, low magnitude of exposures are encountered during routine work in handling radiation sources. In the light of present knowledge there is need to reassess the quantum of actual risk instead of projected risk based on long time models. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) described models for dose-response relationships and micro-dosimetric arguments for defining low doses. The definition of low doses could also be based on direct observations in experimental or epidemiological studies. Through measurement of cell damage or death using human lymphocytes, linear and quadratic terms have been fitted the response and low doses have been judged to be 20-40 mSv. Data derived from epidemiological studies, mainly the atomic bomb survivors, suggests that for solid tumours and leukaemia, 200 mSv could be considered the

  4. The global assessment of medical radiation exposures

    Shannoun, F.

    2010-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) is the United Nations specialized agency which acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. It was established in 1948. It has 147 Country Offices, 6 Regional Offices and 193 Member States Ministries of Health Its headquarters is in Geneva. The World Health Assembly (WHA) requested WHO to s tudy the optimum use of ionizing radiation in medicine and the risks to health of excessive or improper use . (WHA, 1971) International Basic Safety Standards BSS) The (BSS) mark the culmination of efforts towards global harmonization of radiation safety requirements. However, the involvement of the health sector in the BSS implementation is still weak and scant. There is a need to mobilize the health sector towards safer and effective use of radiation in medicine. Radiation in Health Care The use of radiation in health care is by far the largest contributor to the exposure of the general population from artificial sources. Annually worldwide there are 3,600 million X-ray exams (> 300 million in children), 37 million nuclear medicine procedures and 7.5 million radiation oncology treatments [UNSCEAR Report 2008]. WHO Global Initiative on Radiation Safety in Health Care Settings Was launched in December 2008 It involved the following:- There was involvement of international organizations and professionals bodies, national health and radiation protection authorities, etc. Its aim is to improve the protection of patients and health care workers through better implementation of the BSS. It complements the International Action Plan for Radiological Protection of Patients established by the IAEA 7 UNSCEAR's medical exposure survey Objectives of UNSCEAR's survey were to facilitate evaluation of: - Global estimates of frequency and levels of exposures, with break-downs by medical procedure, age, sex, health care level, and country; - Trends in practice (including those relatively fast-changing); with supporting contextual

  5. Lung cancer following exposure to ionizing radiation

    Blot, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    A case-control study of lung cancer was conducted in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, to evaluate risk factors for this common neoplasm, with special attention given to assessing the potentially interactive roles of cigarette smoking and atomic radiation. The investigation involved interviews with 428 patients with primary lung cancer and 957 matched controls, or with their next of kin in the event of death or disability. The interview information was supplemented by data on atomic bomb radiation exposure for each individual and on smoking and other factors from prior surveys of subsets of the population studied. Separate effects of smoking and high dose (greater than 100 rad) radiation were found, with the two exposures combining to affect lung cancer risk in an approximate additive fashion. The additive rather than multiplicative model was favored whether the smoking variable was dichotomized (ever vs. never smoked), categorized into one of several groups based on amount smoked, or treated as a discrete variable. The findings are contrasted with those for Colorado uranium miners and other cohorts occupationally exposed to radon and its daughter products, where smoking and radiation have been reported to combine multiplicatively to enhance lung cancer risk

  6. Unjustified prenatal radiation exposure in medical applications

    Cardenas Herrera, J.; Lamadrid, A.I.; Garcia Lima, O.; Diaz Bernal, E.; Freixas, V.; Lopez Bejerano, G.; Sanchez, R.

    2001-01-01

    The exposure to the radiation ionising of pregnant women, frequently constitutes motive of preoccupation for the expectant mother and the medical professionals taken the responsibility with its attention. The protection of the embryo-fetus against the ionising radiation is of singular importance due to its special vulnerability to this agent. On the other hand the diagnosis or treatment with radiations ionising beneficial for the expectant mother, are only indirectly for the embryo-fetus that is exposed to a hazard without perceiving anything. The present paper presents the experience obtained in the clinical and dosimetric evaluation from twenty-one pregnant patients subjected to diverse radiodiagnostic procedures or nuclear medicine during the years 1999-2000. The obtained results evidence that 24% of the patients was subjected to procedures of nuclear medicine with diagnostic purposes. While the period of pregnancy of the patients ranged between 4 and 12 weeks, it could be concluded that in all the cases the doses received by the patients in the whole body did not exceed 2 mSv. When conjugating the period of pregnancy of the patients with the doses received, there is no evidence of significant risk for the embryo-fetus. Paradoxically the physicians of assistance suggested to their patients in all the cases to carry out the interruption of the pregnancy, demonstrating with this decision ignorance on the biological effects of the ionizing radiations during the prenatal exposures. (author)

  7. Occupational radiation exposure. Twelfth annual report, 1979

    Brooks, B.; McDonald, S.; Richardson, E.

    1982-08-01

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that is maintained in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Radiation Exposure Information and Reports System (REIRS). This report is usually published on an annual basis and is available at all NRC public document rooms. The bulk of the information contained in the report was extracted from annual statistical reports submitted by all NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.407. Four categories of licensees - operating nuclear power reactors, fuel fabricators and reprocessors, industrial radiographers, and manufacturers and distributors of specified quantities of byproduct materials - also submit personal identification and exposure information for terminating employees pursuant to 10 CFR 20.408, and some analysis of this data is also presented in this report

  8. The natural sources of ionizing radiation exposure

    Maximilien, R.

    1982-01-01

    Natural sources of ionizing radiation include external sources (cosmic rays, natural radionuclides present in the crust of the earth and in building materials) and internal sources (naturally occuring radionuclides in the human body, especially the potassium 40 and radon short lived decay products). The principal ways of human exposure to theses different components in ''normal'' areas are reviewed; some examples of the variability of exposure with respect to different regions of the world or the habits of life are given. Actual estimations of the doses delivered to the organs are presented; for the main contributors to population exposure, the conversion into effective dose equivalent has been made for allowing a better evaluation of their respective importance [fr

  9. Evaluation of medical radiation exposure in pediatric interventional radiology procedures

    Navarro, Valeria Coelho Costa; Navarro, Marcus Vinicius Teixeira; Oliveira, Aline da Silva Pacheco, E-mail: vccnavarro@gmail.com [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Maia, Ana Figueiredo [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Oliveira, Adriano Dias Dourado [Sociedade Brasileira de Hemodinamica e Cardiologia Intervencionista, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Objective: To evaluate pediatric radiation exposure in procedures of interventional radiology in two hospitals in the Bahia state, aiming at contributing to delineate the scenario at the state and national levels. The knowledge of exposure levels will allow an evaluation of the necessity of doses optimization, considering that peculiarities of radiology and pediatrics become even more significant in interventional radiology procedures which involve exposure to higher radiation doses. Materials and Methods: A total of 32 procedures were evaluated in four rooms of the two main hospitals performing pediatric interventional radiology procedures in the Bahia state. Air kerma rate and kerma-area product were evaluated in 27 interventional cardiac and 5 interventional brain procedures. Results: Maximum values for air kerma rate and kerma-area product and air kerma obtained in cardiac procedures were, respectively, 129.9 Gy.cm{sup 2} and 947.0 mGy; and, for brain procedures were 83.3 Gy.cm{sup 2} and 961.0 mGy. Conclusion: The present study results showed exposure values up to 14 times higher than those found in other foreign studies, and approximating those found for procedures in adults. Such results demonstrate excessive exposure to radiation, indicating the need for constant procedures optimization and evaluation of exposure rates. (author)

  10. What happens at very low levels of radiation exposure ? Are the low dose exposures beneficial ?

    Deniz, Dalji

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radiation is naturally present in our environment and has been since the birth of this planet. The human population is constantly exposed to low levels of natural background radiation, primarily from environmental sources, and to higher levels from occupational sources, medical therapy, and other human-mediated events. Radiation is one of the best-investigated hazardous agents. The biological effects of ionizing radiation for radiation protection consideration are grouped into two categories: The deterministic and the stochastic ones. Deterministic radiation effects can be clinically diagnosed in the exposed individual and occur when above a certain t hreshold a n appropriately high dose is absorbed in the tissues and organs to cause the death of a large number of cells and consequently to impair tissue or organ functions early after exposure. A clinically observable biological effect (Acute Radiation Sendromes, ARS) occurs days to months after an acute radiation dose. Stochastic radiation effects are the chronic effects of radiation result from relatively low exposure levels delivered over long periods of time. These are sort of effects that might result from occupational exposure, or to the background exposure levels. Such late effects might be the development of malignant (cancerous) disease and of the hereditary consequences. These effects may be observed many years after the radiation exposure. There is a latent period between the initial radiation exposure and the development of the biological effect. For this reason, a stochastic effect is called a Linear or Zero-Threshold (LNT) Dose-Response Effect. There is a stochastic correlation between the number of cases of cancers or genetic defects developed inside a population and the dose received by the population at relatively large levels of radiation. These changes in gene activation seem to be able to modify the response of cells to subsequent radiation exposure, termed the a daptive response

  11. Candidate protein biomarkers as rapid indicators of radiation exposure

    Horn, Simon, E-mail: sjh.horn@gmail.com [Health Protection Agency, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Chilton, Oxfordshire OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom); Queen' s University Belfast, Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Belfast BT9 7BL (United Kingdom); Rothkamm, Kai [Health Protection Agency, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Chilton, Oxfordshire OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    For large scale exposures of the human population to ionising radiation, there is a need for cost-effective high throughput assessment of radiation exposure levels from biological samples to allow triage decisions to be made. Here we assess the usefulness of H2AX phosphorylation, 53BP1 foci formation, p53 induction and caspase activation as tools for biological dosimetry. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy donors were isolated and exposed to X-rays. Cells were fixed, permeabilised and then stained with primary antibodies for {gamma}-H2AX and/or 53BP1, p53 or FLICA caspase detection kit followed by fluorescently tagged secondary antibodies. Cell nuclei were DAPI or propidium iodide counterstained for microscopy or cytometry respectively. Average {gamma}-H2AX/53BP1 foci numbers and {gamma}-H2AX fluorescence intensities increased with dose. Foci loss occurred over a period of 24 h post exposure with foci levels remaining above baseline levels for at least 24 h following exposure to 0.5 Gy or more of X-rays. p53 levels increased with dose and over time, peaking at 48 h post exposure. Apoptotic cells were highlighted with greatly increased levels of activated caspases. A single dose of 4 Gy increased the percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes to over 60% at 96 h post exposure. The finding that the biomarkers analysed here have different temporal dynamics following radiation exposure suggests that they could be combined to enable detection of exposures over a period of hours to several days after a radiation incident to help facilitate rapid triage.

  12. Monitoring and control of occupational radiation exposure in Switzerland

    Moser, M.

    1997-01-01

    Occupational exposure is the most prominent example for the prolonged exposure to low level ionizing radiation characterized by low doses and dose rates. In this paper the occupational exposure in Switzerland is presented and the regulatory control of this exposure in the framework of the new radiation protection regulations is discussed. (author)

  13. The radiation exposure regulation for XXI century

    Keirim-Markus, I.B.

    2000-01-01

    The regulation of the people radiation exposure by the ICRP and IAEA is subject to well-founded criticism for the excessive severity and complexity. In Russia these shortcomings adversely affected at the removal of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The future regulation system must be better coordinated with the other sources of human life risks. In the advanced countries the death probability from the all reasons is equal 1-2·10 -2 year -1 with the age variation from 5·10 -4 to 2·10 -1 . Therefore it is reasonable to consider that death risk from radiation less than 1·10 -5 - 1·10 -3 depending on age, as an insignificant, but not 1·10 -6 as it is accepted now. Whatever heritable effects of human irradiation are not revealed by the observation during a half on century. Therefore, there is no any reason to account them. As concern the dose dependence of the stochastic effects of radiation the new information is already demonstrating that more than an a half of the whole human's radiation cancers are submitted to dependence with the threshold from 0.3 to tens of sievert at the low dose rate. Therefore, the linear nonthreshold dependence is not true. This fact is undermining the modern system of irradiation regulation institution. One can't use the effective dose. One hasn't to fear of the radiation exposure in small doses. There isn't the necessity in optimization of such exposure all the more the balance detriment-benefit depends on not only dose but even not so much on dose. It is reasonable to base the future system regulation of radiation exposure with the only one principle: one mustn't exceed the limit of the personal life-span dose, which must be set at the level 2.5 Sv for the staff. The limit equal to 0.5 Sv during every 10 consecutive years will ensure that. For the population, the limit as 50-70 mSv during every 10 consecutive years will ensure the level 0.35-05 Sv for life-span. Equally, with the half century dose it is necessary to regulate

  14. Optical Real-Time Space Radiation Monitor, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Real-time dosimetry is needed to provide immediate feedback, so astronauts can minimize their exposure to ionizing radiation during periods of high solar activity....

  15. Measuring and modeling exposure from environmental radiation on tidal flats

    Gould, T.J.; Hess, C.T.

    2005-01-01

    To examine the shielding effects of the tide cycle, a high pressure ion chamber was used to measure the exposure rate from environmental radiation on tidal flats. A theoretical model is derived to predict the behavior of exposure rate as a function of time for a detector placed one meter above ground on a tidal flat. The numerical integration involved in this derivation results in an empirical formula which implies exposure rate ∝tan-1(sint). We propose that calculating the total exposure incurred on a tidal flat requires measurements of only the slope of the tidal flat and the exposure rate when no shielding occurs. Experimental results are consistent with the model

  16. Assessment of occupational exposure to radiofrequency fields and radiation

    Cooper, T. G.; Allen, S. G.; Blackwell, R. P.; Litchfield, I.; Mann, S. M.; Pope, J. M.; Van Tongeren, M. J. A.

    2004-01-01

    The use of personal monitors for the assessment of exposure to radiofrequency fields and radiation in potential future epidemiological studies of occupationally exposed populations has been investigated. Data loggers have been developed for use with a commercially available personal monitor and these allowed personal exposure records consisting of time-tagged measurements of electric and magnetic field strength to be accrued over extended periods of the working day. The instrumentation was worn by workers carrying out tasks representative of some of their typical daily activities at a variety of radio sites. The results indicated significant differences in the exposures of workers in various RF environments. A number of measures of exposure have been examined with a view to assessing possible exposure metrics for epidemiological studies. There was generally a good correlation between a given measure of electric field strength and the same measure of magnetic field strength. (authors)

  17. Fast exposure time decision in multi-exposure HDR imaging

    Piao, Yongjie; Jin, Guang

    2012-10-01

    Currently available imaging and display system exists the problem of insufficient dynamic range, and the system cannot restore all the information for an high dynamic range (HDR) scene. The number of low dynamic range(LDR) image samples and fastness of exposure time decision impacts the real-time performance of the system dramatically. In order to realize a real-time HDR video acquisition system, this paper proposed a fast and robust method for exposure time selection in under and over exposure area which is based on system response function. The method utilized the monotony of the imaging system. According to this characteristic the exposure time is adjusted to an initial value to make the median value of the image equals to the middle value of the system output range; then adjust the exposure time to make the pixel value on two sides of histogram be the middle value of the system output range. Thus three low dynamic range images are acquired. Experiments show that the proposed method for adjusting the initial exposure time can converge in two iterations which is more fast and stable than average gray control method. As to the exposure time adjusting in under and over exposed area, the proposed method can use the dynamic range of the system more efficiently than fixed exposure time method.

  18. Radiation exposure during travelling in Malaysia

    Omar, M.; Hassan, A.; Sulaiman, I.

    2006-01-01

    Absorbed dose rates in vehicles during travelling by different modes of transport in Malaysia were measured. Radiation levels measured on roads in Peninsular Malaysia were within a broad range, i.e. between 36 and 1560 nGy h -1 . The highest reading, recorded while travelling near monazite and zircon mineral dumps, was 13 times the mean environmental radiation level of Malaysia. It is evident that radioactive material dumps on the roadsides can influence the radiation level on the road. The absorbed dose rates measured while travelling on an ordinary train were between 60 and 350 nGy h -1 . The highest reading was measured when the train passed a tunnel built through a granite rock hill. The measurement during sea travelling by ferries gave the lowest radiation level owing to merely cosmic radiation at the sea level. (authors)

  19. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2013; Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung im Jahr 2013

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    The report on the environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2013 covers the natural radiation exposure due to radon, food, cosmic and terrestric radiation and the radiation exposure due to nuclear medicine nuclear facilities, mining, industry household and fallout. Special issues are the occupational radiation exposure the medical radiation exposure and the exposure to non-ionizing radiation.

  20. Cost benefit analysis for occupational radiation exposure

    Caruthers, G.F.; Rodgers, R.C.; Donohue, J.P.; Swartz, H.M.

    1978-01-01

    In the course of system design, many decisions must be made concerning different aspects of that particular system. The design of systems and components in a nuclear power plant has the added faction of occupational exposure experienced as a result of that design. This paper will deal with the different methods available to factor occupational exposure into design decisions. The ultimate goal is to have exposures related to the design 'As Low As Reasonably Achievable' or ALARA. To do this an analysis should be performed to show that the cost of reducing exposures any further cannot be justified in a cost-benefit analysis. In this paper examples will be given that will show that it is possible to change to a design which would increase occupational exposure somewhat but would increase the benefit over the cost of the extra exposure received. It will also be shown that some changes in design or additional equipment could be justified due to a reduction in exposure while some changes could not be justified on a reduction in exposure aspect alone but are justified on a time saving aspect such as during a refueling outage. (author)

  1. Radiation exposure distribution in patients undergoing CT brain scans

    Yang Zhanshan; Feng Dinghua; Chang Zichi; Li Shijun

    1989-12-01

    The distribution of surface exposures in patients undergoing single and multiple computerized tomographic brain scans with Hitachi CT-W500 was measured by LiF(Mg, Ti) thermoluminescent dosimetry. It was found that there was no significant difference in the sufrace exposures from different scanning slices. However, the exposure doses at different scanning angles around the head were different significantly. The reference point of the maximum surface exposure was at the temporal part of the head. the maximum surface exposure was at 1.65 x 10 -3 C·kg -1 while the average exposure was 1.55 x 10 -3 C·kg -1 . The ratio of the average dose resulting from nine scans to that from a single scan was 1.3, and the surface exposure contribution of scattered radiation was computed. At the same time the radiation doses to eyes, thyroid, chest and gonads of patiens at corresponding position were also measured and were compared with those from CT cranial scans in children and skull radiographic procedures respectively

  2. Radiation exposures to technologists from nuclear medicine imaging procedures

    Sloboda, R.S.; Schmid, M.G.; Willis, C.P.

    1986-05-01

    Radiation exposures incurred by nuclear medicine technologists during diagnostic imaging and gamma camera quality control (QC) were measured on a procedural basis over a three-month period using a portable, low-range, self-reading ion chamber. A total of more than 400 measurements were made for 15 selected procedures. From these, mean procedural exposures and standard deviations were calculated. The results show that daily flood phantom QC, at 0.58 mR, and gated cardiac studies, at 0.45 mR, were the two greatest sources of exposure. Other procedures resulted in exposures varying roughly from 0.10 to 0.20 mR. Difficult patients were responsible for a doubling of technologist exposure for many procedures. Standard deviations were large for all procedures, averaging 65% of the mean values. Comparison of technologist exposure inferred from the procedural measurements with the time coincident collective dose equivalent recorded by the TLD service of the Radiation Protection Bureau indicates that approximately half of the collective technologist exposure arose from patient handling and flood QC

  3. Occupational radiation exposure in Korea: 2002

    Jeong, Je Ho; Kwon, Jeong Wan; Lee, Jai Ki

    2005-01-01

    Dose distribution of Korean radiation workers classified by occupational categories was analyzed. Statistics of the Occupational Radiation Exposure(ORE) in 2002 of the radiation workers in diagnostic and dental radiology were obtained from the Korea Food and Drug Agency(KFDA) who maintains the database for individual radiation dose records. Corresponding statistics for the rest of radiation workers were obtained by processing the individual annual doses provided by the Korea RadioIsotope Association(KRIA) after deletion of individual information. The ORE distribution was classified in term of 28 occupational categories, annual individual dose levels, age groups and gender of 52733 radiation workers as of the year of 2002. The total collective dose was 66.4 man-Sv and resulting average individual ORE was 1.26 mSv. Around 80% of the workers were exposed to minimal doses less than 1.2 mSv. However, it appeared that the recorded doses exceeded 20 mSv for 43 workers in the industrial radiography and for 147 workers in the field of radiology. Particularly, recorded doses of 23 workers in radiology exceeded the annual dose limits of 50 mSv, which is extraordinary when the working environment is considered. It is uncertain whether those doses are real or caused by careless placing of dosimeters in the imaging rooms while the X-ray units are in operation. No one in the workforce of 16 operating nuclear power plant units was exposed over 20 mSv in 2002. Number of workers was the largest in their 30's of age and the mean individual dose was the highest in their 20's. Women were around 20% of the radiation workers and their average dose was around one half of that of man workers

  4. Effects upon health of occupational exposure to microwave radiation (radar)

    Robinette, C.D.; Silverman, C.; Jablon, S.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of occupational experience with microwave radiation (radar) on the health of US enlisted Naval personnel were studied in cohorts of approximately 20,000 men with maximum opportunity for exposure (electronic equipment repair) and 20,000 with minimum potential for exposure (equipment operation) who served during the Korean War period. Potential exposure was assessed in terms of occupational duties, length of time in occupation and power of equipment at the time of exposure. Actual exposure to members of each cohort could not be established. Mortality by cause of death, hospitalization during military service, later hospitalization in Veterans Administration (VA) facilities, and VA disability compensation were the health indexes studied, largely through the use of automated record systems. No adverse effects were detected in these indexes that could be attributed to potential microwave radiation exposures during the period 1950-1954. Functional and behavioral changes and ill-defined conditions, such as have been reported as microwave effects, could not be investigated in this study but subgroups of the living study population can be identified for expanded follow-up

  5. Report on emergency exposure to external radiation

    Pochin, E.E.; Rock Carling, Ernest; Court Brown, W.M.

    1960-01-01

    The Medical Research Council has continued a study of the effects on the health of persons in the neighbourhood of atomic energy installations should there be a release of radioactive material as a result of fires or other incidents. The Council's Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations has already reported (Medical Research Council, 1959) on the maximum permissible dietary contamination for iodine 131, strontium 89, strontium 90 and caesium. 137, since it was considered that for the members of the public normally resident in the area affected ingestion of contaminated food would generally be the limiting source of hazard after any such accident and that intake by inhalation, or radiation from the exterior, would become of importance only in rather special circumstances The present report deals with the problem of exposure from the exterior, namely, from external sources of beta and gamma radiation. This exposure might be derived from two sources, one of relatively short duration from the passage of a cloud of radioactive material, the other of longer duration from deposited material

  6. Patient radiation exposure in computerized tomography

    Pavlov, V [Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1980-01-01

    Radiation exposure to patients undergoing axial computerized tomography as a tool of neurological X-ray diagnostics was studied. Doses thereby delivered were compared with those from routine head films at X-ray tube parameters 200 W, 70 kV, and 70 cm target-to-patient distance. Radiation exposures were analyzed with a view to improving shielding and procedural techniques. Comparisons were made using LiF TLD measurements with an Alderson phantom (standard for axial computer tomography). Skin and intracranial space doses were compared using two computers, Siretom I and Siretom 2000, for various positionings: frontal, fronto-lateral, temporal, temporo-occipital, and occipital. In addition, patient body doses with or without shielding and doses to subjects attending sick children or restless adults were examined. Achievable protection was estimated for lead shields of 0.5 mm lead equivalent. It was concluded that radiation doses delivered to neurologic patients undergoing axial computer tomography are smaller than those resulting from conventional X-ray examinations.

  7. Report on emergency exposure to external radiation

    Pochin, E E; Rock Carling, Ernest; Court Brown, W M [Medical Research Council, Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations, London (United Kingdom); and others

    1960-12-01

    The Medical Research Council has continued a study of the effects on the health of persons in the neighbourhood of atomic energy installations should there be a release of radioactive material as a result of fires or other incidents. The Council's Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations has already reported (Medical Research Council, 1959) on the maximum permissible dietary contamination for iodine 131, strontium 89, strontium 90 and caesium. 137, since it was considered that for the members of the public normally resident in the area affected ingestion of contaminated food would generally be the limiting source of hazard after any such accident and that intake by inhalation, or radiation from the exterior, would become of importance only in rather special circumstances The present report deals with the problem of exposure from the exterior, namely, from external sources of beta and gamma radiation. This exposure might be derived from two sources, one of relatively short duration from the passage of a cloud of radioactive material, the other of longer duration from deposited material.

  8. Radiation Exposure to Concrete in Israel

    Haquin, G.; Kovler, K.; Yungrais, G. Z.; Lavi, N.

    2014-01-01

    Most building materials of terrestrial origin contain small amounts of radionuclides of natural origin, mainly from the Uranium (238U) and Thorium (232Th) decay chains and the radioactive isotope of potassium, 40K. The external radiation exposure is caused by gamma emitting radionuclides, which in the uranium series mainly belong to the decay chain segment starting with Radium (226Ra). The internal (by inhalation) radiation exposure is due to Radon (222Rn), and its short lived decay products, exhaled from building materials into the room air. Due to economical and environmental reasons there is an increased tendency to use industrial by-products containing relatively high concentrations of radionuclides of natural origin in the building material industry. Fly ash (FA), produced as by-product in the combustion of coal, is extensively used in Israel since mid eighties of the last century in concrete and as an additive to cement . The increase of 226Ra activity concentration, the mineralogical characteristics of the FA and of the concrete may influence on the radon exhalation rate and consequently on the radon exposure of the public. The recently published Israeli Standard 5098 (IS 5098) 'Content of natural radioactive elements in building products' limits the content of natural radionuclides as well as the radon emanation from concrete. This paper presents a compilation of three studies conducted at Soreq Nuclear Research Centre (SNRC), Technion, NRG and Environmental Lab BGU (ELBGU) to investigate and quantify the influence of FA addition in concrete

  9. Radiation exposure in medicare-occupational and medical exposure

    Morozumi, Kunihiko

    2012-01-01

    Recent cases of the occupational and medical exposures are discussed in relation to the justification of practice, optimization of protection and effort to reduce the dose. Instances of the occupational exposure in doctors and nurses like 26.5 mSv/15 mo and 53.9 mSv/y, and of skin cancer were reported in newspapers of 1999-2004, which might have had been prevented by their self evaluation of daily and monthly exposed dose. For reasonably lowering the occupational dose and number of exposed stuff in the present law, the prior radiation protection measures are to be taken in consideration of social/economical factors to conduct beneficial radiation medicare without restriction of practice under safest conditions, protecting personal determinative hazard and preventing stochastic effect. Medical stuff must be equipped with personal dosimeter. Further, recent media also commented such cases as unwished abortions after careless X-CT of pregnant women, and risk of increased cancer prevalence (3.2% in Japan) due to medical exposure, etc (200-2010). The prevalence is calculated on the linear non-threshold (LNT) hypothesis and is probably overestimated, possibly causing patient's fear. There has been a history of proposal by IAEA (1996) of the guidance levels of the ordinary roentgenography and in vivo nuclear medical test, and introduction of the concept of dose constraint by ICRP (Pub. 60). The incident dose rate to the patient under fluoroscopy defined by Japan Medical Service Law (2001) is, as an air-kerma rate, 15,600 residents for their contamination as well as remains, and measured the ambient dose rate of cities nearby. (T.T.)

  10. Exposure of Finnish population to ultraviolet radiation and radiation measurements

    Hoikkala, M.; Lappalainen, J.; Leszczynski, K.; Paile, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report is based on a survey of the literature on radiation risks involved in sunbathing and the use of solaria. The purpose of the report is to provide background information for the development of regulations on solaria and for informing the public about the risks posed by solaria and the sun. The report gives an overview of the properties and biological effects of ultraviolet radiation. The most important regulations and recommendations issued in various countries are presented. The connection between ultraviolet radiation and the risks of skin cancer is examined both on a general level and in reference to information obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry. In Finland, the incidence of melanomas nearly tripled between 1960 and 1980. The most important cause is considered to be the population's increased exposure to the su's ultraviolet radiation. There are no reliable data on the connection between the use of solaria and the risks of skin cancer. It is estimated, however, that solaria account for less than 10 per cent of the skin cancer risk of the whole population. There are some difficult physical problems associated with the measurement of ultraviolet radiation emitted by both natural sources and solaria. A preliminary study of these problems has been undertaken by means of a survey of the available literature, supplemented by a review of measurements performed by the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety. The estimated inaccuracy of the Optronic 742 spectroradiometer used by the Centre in the measurement of ultraviolet radiation emitted by the sun and solaria is about +-14%

  11. Initiatives to reduce the occupational radiation exposure of ABWR plants

    Hirasawa, Hajime; Urata, Hidehiro; Ueda, Taku; Yamamoto, Seiji; Yaita, Yumi

    2014-01-01

    Toshiba has carried out radiation exposure reduction by radiation level reduction, as reduction of reactor water activated corrosion products concentration, reduction of activated corrosion products deposition and radiation shielding, and exposure time reduction, as remote control and improvement of maintenance work procedures. Water chemistry has been mainly carried out reduction of reactor water activated corrosion products concentration and reduction of activated corrosion products deposition in radiation level reduction. The reduction measures of reactor water activated corrosion products concentration are mainly reduction of iron crud concentration and reduction of cobalt ion concentration. The activated corrosion products deposition are reduced by the means of water quality control and the surface treatment. Water quality control for reduction of activated corrosion products deposition moves to ultra low iron high nickel control from Ni/Fe ratio control. The surface treatments are adopted to the stainless steel piping and carbon steel piping. As a measure further to radiation exposure reduction for ABWR (Advanced Boiling Water Reactors), we report on the effect of generation amount reduction by the adoption of alternate material and the effect of deposition reduction by material change of piping and the adoption of advanced water quality control, etc. (author)

  12. Cost and radiation exposure optimization of demineralizer operation

    Bernal, F.E.; Burn, R.R.; Cook, G.M.; Simonetti, L.; Simpson, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    A pool water demineralizer is utilized at a research reactor to minimize impurities that become radioactive; to minimize impurities that react chemically with reactor components; to maintain optical clarity of the pool water; and to minimize aluminum fuel cladding corrosion by maintaining a slightly acidic pH. Balanced against these advantages are the dollar costs of equipment, resins, recharging chemicals, and maintenance; the man-rem costs of radiation exposure during maintenance, demineralizer recharges, and resin replacement; and hazardous chemical exposure. At the Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR), maintenance of the demineralizer system is the second largest source of radiation exposure to operators. Theoretical and practical aspects of demineralizer operation are discussed. The most obvious way to reduce radiation exposure due to demineralizer system operation is to perform recharges after the reactor has been shut down for the maximum possible time. Setting a higher depletion limit and operating with the optimum system lineup reduce the frequency between recharges, saving both exposure and cost. Recharge frequency and resin lifetime seem to be relatively independent of the quality of the chemicals used and the personnel performing recharges, provided consistent procedures are followed

  13. Genetic risks associated with radiation exposures during space flight

    Grahn, D.

    1983-01-01

    Although the genetic risks of space radiation do not pose a significant hazard to the general population, the risks may be very important to the individual astronaut. The present paper summarizes some experimental results on the induction of dominant lethal mutations and chromosomal damage in the first generation which may be used in the prediction of the genetic risks of radiation exposures of space crews. Young adult male mice were exposed to single, weekly and continuous doses of gamma rays, neutrons in single doses and weekly exposures and continuous doses of Pu-239 alpha particles. Evaluation of fetal survival rates in females mated to the exposed males shows the mutation rate in individuals exposed to gamma rays to decline as the exposure period is prolonged and the dose rate is reduced, while the response to neutrons is in the opposite direction. Cytological determinations show the rate of balanced chromosomal translocations to drop as gamma ray exposures change from one-time to continuous, however little or no dose rate effect is seen with neutron radiation and alpha particle exposure shows no regular dose-response. Based on the above results, it is predicted that the rate of dominant mutations and transmissible chromosome aberrations in astronauts on a 100-day mission will increase by 4.5 to 41.25 percent over the spontaneous rate. 35 references

  14. Proposal for the development of ICNIRP guidelines on limits for optical radiation exposure

    Siekmann, H. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut fuer Arbeitsschutz - FIA, Sankt Augustin (Germany); Reidenbach, H.D. [Fachhochschule Koeln (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Guidelines on limits of exposure to incoherent ultraviolet radiation, to incoherent visible and infrared radiation and to laser radiation have been published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). These guidelines are accepted globally and form the basis for risk assessment procedures for optical radiation in many countries. With the appearance of new scientific cognition the ICNIRP guidelines will be revised from time to time. A revision may also concern more formal aspects. Some proposals for the development of the ICNIRP limit value recommendations for optical radiation exposures follow. (orig.)

  15. Radiation exposure to skin following radioactive contamination

    Baumann, H.; Beyermann, M.; Kraus, W.

    1989-01-01

    In the case of skin contamination intensive decontamination measures should not be carried out until the potential radiation exposure to the basal cell layer of the epidermis was assessed. Dose equivalent rates from alpha-, beta- or photon-emitting contaminants were calculated with reference to the surface activity for different skin regions as a function of radiation energy on the condition that the skin was healthy and uninjured and the penetration of contaminants through the epidermis negligible. The results have been presented in the form of figures and tables. In the assessment of potential skin doses, both radioactive decay and practical experience as to the decrease in the level of surface contamination by natural desquamation of the stratum corneum were taken into account. 9 figs., 5 tabs., 46 refs. (author)

  16. Scatter radiation exposure during knee arthrography

    Light, M.C.; Molloi, S.Y.; Yandow, D.R.; Ranallo, F.N.

    1987-01-01

    Knee arthrography, as performed at the authors' institution, was simulated and scattered radiation exposure to a radiologist's gonads, thyroid, and eye lens was measured with a sensitive ionization chamber. Results show that radiologists who regularly conduct knee arthrography examinations can incur doses to the gonads that are less than 6% of the U.S. limits, and to the thyroid and eye that are approximately 10% of the U.S. limits. Since the scatter radiation from overhead imaging of stress views constituted most (greater than or equal to 60%) of the dose to the lens of the eye and the thyroid, spot imaging was evaluated as a substitute for overhead imaging in the assessment of the anterior cruciate ligament. This substitution resulted in no loss of clinical information and has now completely replaced overhead imaging of stress views at this institution

  17. Monitoring of radiation exposure. Annual report 2000

    Rantanen, E.

    2001-03-01

    At the end of 2000, there were 1,779 valid safety licenses in Finland for the use of radiation. In addition, there were 2,038 responsible parties for dental x-ray diagnostics. The registry Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) listed 13,754 radiation sources and 270 radionuclide laboratories. In the year 2000 360 inspections were made concerning the safety licences and 53 concerning dental x-ray diagnostics. The import of radioactive substances amounted to 175,836 GBq and export to 74,420 GBq. Short-lived radionuclides produced in Finland amounted to 55,527 GBq. In the year 2000 there were 10,846 workers monitored for radiation exposure at 1,171 work sites. Of these employees, 27% received an annual dose exceeding the recording level. The annual effective dose limit was not exceeded. The total dose recorded in the dose registry(sum of the individual dosemeter readings) was 6.5 Sv in 2000

  18. DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2009

    2009-01-01

    A major priority of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to ensure the health, safety, and security of DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) provides the corporate-level leadership and strategic vision necessary to better coordinate and integrate health, safety, environment, security, enforcement, and independent oversight programs. One function that supports this mission is the DOE Corporate Operating Experience Program that provides collection, analysis, and dissemination of performance indicators, such as occupational radiation exposure information. This analysis supports corporate decision-making and synthesizes operational information to support continuous environment, safety, and health improvement across the DOE complex.

  19. A radiopharmacological study without human radiation exposure

    Loew, D.; Graul, E.H.; Kunkel, R.

    1984-01-01

    The development, study and control of new drugs today is hardly conceivable without nuclear medicine studies. Nuclear physicians on ethical commissions bear great responsibility in the planning and execution of such studies. In order to protect subjects and patients those nuclear techniques are therefore to be welcome which do not include exposure to radiation. Nuclear techniques used in in-vitro diagnostics (RIA) and the determination of naturally occurring nuclides incorporated in the human body belong to this category. With the aid of a clinico-pharmacological study of a new combination of diuretics it is shown that both methods supply valuable pharmacodynamic evidence. (orig.) [de

  20. Radiation exposure monitoring: a new IHE profile

    O'Donnell, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    A method is described for gathering and distributing radiation exposure data from X-ray-based imaging procedures such as CT, angiography, fluoroscopy, mammography and digital X-ray systems with integrated generators. The data are recorded in a standard format as a DICOM dose object and are managed in a similar fashion to the DICOM images produced by the procedure. The Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) process for standardizing such methods is presented and applications of such data for activities, such as dose QA and national dose repositories, are also discussed. (orig.)

  1. Radiation-induced taste aversion: effects of radiation exposure level and the exposure-taste interval

    Spector, A.C.; Smith, J.C.; Hollander, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation-induced taste aversion has been suggested to possibly play a role in the dietary difficulties observed in some radiotherapy patients. In rats, these aversions can still be formed even when the radiation exposure precedes the taste experience by several hours. This study was conducted to examine whether increasing the radiation exposure level could extend the range of the exposure-taste interval that would still support the formation of a taste aversion. Separate groups of rats received either a 100 or 300 R gamma-ray exposure followed 1, 3, 6, or 24 h later by a 10-min saccharin (0.1% w/v) presentation. A control group received a sham exposure followed 1 h later by a 10-min saccharin presentation. Twenty-four hours following the saccharin presentation all rats received a series of twelve 23-h two-bottle preference tests between saccharin and water. The results indicated that the duration of the exposure-taste interval plays an increasingly more important role in determining the initial extent of the aversion as the dose decreases. The course of recovery from taste aversion seems more affected by dose than by the temporal parameters of the conditioning trial

  2. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation

    Miller, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures

  3. Radiation exposure of airline crew members to the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment

    Angelis, G. De; Ballard, T.; Lagorio, S.; Verdecchia, A.

    2000-01-01

    All risk assessment techniques for possible health effects from low dose rate radiation exposure should combine knowledge both of the radiation environment and of the biological response, whose effects (e.g. carcinogenesis) are usually evaluated through mathematical models and/or animal and cell experiments. Data on human exposure to low dose rate radiation exposure and its effects are not readily available, especially with regards to stochastic effects, related to carcinogenesis and therefore to cancer risks, for which the event probability increases with increasing radiation exposure. The largest source of such data might be airline flight personnel, if enrolled for studies on health effects induced by the cosmic-ray generated atmospheric ionizing radiation, whose total dose, increasing over the years, might cause delayed radiation-induced health effects, with the high-LET and highly ionizing neutron component typical of atmospheric radiation. In 1990 flight personnel has been given the status of 'occupationally exposed to radiation' by the International Commission for Radiation Protection (ICRP), with a received radiation dose that is at least twice larger than that of the general population. The studies performed until now were limited in scope and cohort size, and moreover no information whatsoever on radiation occupational exposure (e.g. dose, flight hours, route haul, etc.) was used in the analysis, so no correlation has been until now possible between atmospheric ionizing radiation and (possibly radiation-induced) observed health effects. Our study addresses the issues, by considering all Italian civilian airline flight personnel, both cockpit and cabin crew members, with about 10,000 people selected, whose records on work history and actual flights (route, aircraft type, date, etc. for each individual flight for each person where possible) are considered. Data on actual flight routes and profiles have been obtained for the whole time frame. The actual dose

  4. Comparative occupational radiation exposure between fixed and mobile imaging systems.

    Kendrick, Daniel E; Miller, Claire P; Moorehead, Pamela A; Kim, Ann H; Baele, Henry R; Wong, Virginia L; Jordan, David W; Kashyap, Vikram S

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular intervention exposes surgical staff to scattered radiation, which varies according to procedure and imaging equipment. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in occupational exposure between procedures performed with fixed imaging (FI) in an endovascular suite compared with conventional mobile imaging (MI) in a standard operating room. A series of 116 endovascular cases were performed over a 4-month interval in a dedicated endovascular suite with FI and conventional operating room with MI. All cases were performed at a single institution and radiation dose was recorded using real-time dosimetry badges from Unfors RaySafe (Hopkinton, Mass). A dosimeter was mounted in each room to establish a radiation baseline. Staff dose was recorded using individual badges worn on the torso lead. Total mean air kerma (Kar; mGy, patient dose) and mean case dose (mSv, scattered radiation) were compared between rooms and across all staff positions for cases of varying complexity. Statistical analyses for all continuous variables were performed using t test and analysis of variance where appropriate. A total of 43 cases with MI and 73 cases with FI were performed by four vascular surgeons. Total mean Kar, and case dose were significantly higher with FI compared with MI. (mean ± standard error of the mean, 523 ± 49 mGy vs 98 ± 19 mGy; P < .00001; 0.77 ± 0.03 mSv vs 0.16 ± 0.08 mSv, P < .00001). Exposure for the primary surgeon and assistant was significantly higher with FI compared with MI. Mean exposure for all cases using either imaging modality, was significantly higher for the primary surgeon and assistant than for support staff (ie, nurse, radiology technologist) beyond 6 feet from the X-ray source, indicated according to one-way analysis of variance (MI: P < .00001; FI: P < .00001). Support staff exposure was negligible and did not differ between FI and MI. Room dose stratified according to case complexity (Kar) showed statistically significantly

  5. Variables influencing radiation exposure during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Review of 298 treatments

    Carter, H.B.; Naeslund, E.B.R.; Riehle, R.A. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Retrospective review of 298 extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) treatments was undertaken to determine the factors which influence radiation exposure during ESWL. Fluoroscopy time averaged 160 seconds (3-509), and the average number of spot films taken per patient was 26 (5-68). The average stone burden was 19.3 mm (3-64). Average calculated skin surface radiation exposure was 17.8 R per treatment. Radiation exposure increased with increasing stone burden and patient weight. Stones treated in the ureter resulted in a higher average patient radiation exposure than for renal stones (19 R vs 16 R), even though the average size of these ureteral stones (11.3 mm) was significantly less than the mean. However, type of anesthetic (general or regional) used was not a significant factor. Operator training, experience, and familiarity with radiation physics should significantly decrease the amount of imaging time and consequent patient radiation exposure during ESWL

  6. Variables influencing radiation exposure during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Review of 298 treatments

    Carter, H.B.; Naeslund, E.B.R.; Riehle, R.A. Jr.

    1987-12-01

    Retrospective review of 298 extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) treatments was undertaken to determine the factors which influence radiation exposure during ESWL. Fluoroscopy time averaged 160 seconds (3-509), and the average number of spot films taken per patient was 26 (5-68). The average stone burden was 19.3 mm (3-64). Average calculated skin surface radiation exposure was 17.8 R per treatment. Radiation exposure increased with increasing stone burden and patient weight. Stones treated in the ureter resulted in a higher average patient radiation exposure than for renal stones (19 R vs 16 R), even though the average size of these ureteral stones (11.3 mm) was significantly less than the mean. However, type of anesthetic (general or regional) used was not a significant factor. Operator training, experience, and familiarity with radiation physics should significantly decrease the amount of imaging time and consequent patient radiation exposure during ESWL.

  7. Plants as warning signal for exposure to low dose radiation

    Rusli Ibrahim; Norhafiz Talib

    2012-01-01

    carries the advantage of observing meaningful data in a short period of time, being able to meditate effects on human health and to prevent possible accidents, when adopted as periodical monitoring. Tradescantia Pallida Purpurea can be regarded as a biosensor plant or a biological warning signal for exposure to low dose radiation which exhibits a noticeable quantity of cell alteration in a short time following exposure to radiation. Hence, the effects caused on the environment might be anticipated, and by extension on the human being, as a result of its occupation exposition level. The use of this method can be recommended for radiation monitoring, therefore into the environment acclimatization, and may be used, in addition, in the prevention of radiological accidents. (author)

  8. Global levels of radiation exposure: Latest international findings

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    The radiation exposure of the world's population has recently been reviewed by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). UNSCEAR has reconfirmed that the normal operation of all peaceful nuclear installations contributes insignificantly to the global exposure to radiation. Even taking into account all the nuclear accidents to date (including Chernobyl), the additional exposure would be equivalent to only about 20 days of natural exposure. Military uses of nuclear energy have committed the world to most of the radiation exposure caused by human activities

  9. Cosmic radiation algorithm utilizing flight time tables

    Katja Kojo, M.Sc.; Mika Helminen, M.Sc.; Anssi Auvinen, M.D.Ph.D.; Katja Kojo, M.Sc.; Anssi Auvinen, M.D.Ph.D.; Gerhard Leuthold, D.Sc.

    2006-01-01

    Cosmic radiation is considerably higher on cruising altitudes used in aviation than at ground level. Exposure to cosmic radiation may increase cancer risk among pilots and cabin crew. The International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) has recommended that air crew should be classified as radiation workers. Quantification of cosmic radiation doses is necessary for assessment of potential health effects of such occupational exposure. For Finnair cabin crew (cabin attendants and stewards), flight history is not available for years prior to 1991 and therefore, other sources of information on number and type of flights have to be used. The lack of systematically recorded information is a problem for dose estimation for many other flight companies personnel as well. Several cosmic radiation dose estimations for cabin crew have been performed using different methods (e.g. 2-5), but they have suffered from various shortcomings. Retrospective exposure estimation is not possible with personal portable dosimeters. Methods that employ survey data for occupational dose assessment are prone to non-differential measurement error i.e. the cabin attendants do not remember correctly the number of past flights. Assessment procedures that utilize surrogate measurement methods i.e. the duration of employment, lack precision. The aim of the present study was to develop an assessment method for individual occupational exposure to cosmic radiation based on flight time tables. Our method provides an assessment method that does not require survey data or systematic recording of flight history, and it is rather quick, inexpensive, and possible to carry out in all other flight companies whose past time tables for the past periods exist. Dose assessment methods that employ survey data are prone to random error i.e. the cabin attendants do not remember correctly the number or types of routes that they have flown during the past. Our method avoids this since survey data are not needed

  10. External radiation exposure control system in accelerator facilities

    Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Iimoto, Takeshi; Kosako, Toshiso

    2011-01-01

    The external exposure control systems in KEK and CERN are discussed to find out good practices and unreasonableness of radiation control in accelerator facilities, which plays an important role in optimizing national and/or site specific radiological regulations, referring to relevant ICRP publications. Personal dose limits and radiation area classifications were analyzed and their reasonableness were explored. Good example of supervised areas, area classification based on realistic assumptions on working time etc are found. On the other hand, unreasonable systems, that are often attributed to the national regulation or ideas presented in the old publications are also found. (author)

  11. Time, temperature, chemical and radiation exposure effects on the mechanical performance of polymeric materials used for the containment of radioactive waste. Abstract 56

    Brown, L.; Bui, V.T.; Bonin, H.W.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The mechanical performance of materials used for the fabrication of materials used for the fabrication of a storage container for radioactive waste is dependent on the environment to which the container will be exposed over its lifetime. There exists a complex relationship between the many variables affecting the properties of the polymer and potentially decreasing the mechanical performance properties of the container. To further complicate the system, the degradation processes are often time dependant. Experimental results for Nylon 6,6, Semi-Aromatic Nylon, and Polycarbonate have been used as a basis for the development of a model, which represents the performance of a polymeric container used for the storage of radioactive waste over time. The experimental work aimed at providing information on the materials performance in a variety of environmental conditions, as well as a function of time. This included exposing the polymeric material samples to a mixed field of radiation in the SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor. A series of dilution viscometry experiments have been used to relate the changes in mechanical performance to changes in the physical characteristics of the polymer molecules. This provided a valuable tool in the extrapolation of the model to other polymeric materials, and allowed for use of the model based on theoretical predictions of a polymer molecules reaction to various environmental conditions. (author)

  12. Time, temperature, chemical and radiation exposure effects on the mechanical performance of polymeric materials used for the containment of radioactive waste. Abstract 56

    Brown, L.; Bui, V.T.; Bonin, H.W. [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: Laura-lee.Brown@rmc.ca; bui-v@rmc.ca; bonin-h@rmc.ca

    2004-07-01

    'Full text:' The mechanical performance of materials used for the fabrication of materials used for the fabrication of a storage container for radioactive waste is dependent on the environment to which the container will be exposed over its lifetime. There exists a complex relationship between the many variables affecting the properties of the polymer and potentially decreasing the mechanical performance properties of the container. To further complicate the system, the degradation processes are often time dependant. Experimental results for Nylon 6,6, Semi-Aromatic Nylon, and Polycarbonate have been used as a basis for the development of a model, which represents the performance of a polymeric container used for the storage of radioactive waste over time. The experimental work aimed at providing information on the materials performance in a variety of environmental conditions, as well as a function of time. This included exposing the polymeric material samples to a mixed field of radiation in the SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor. A series of dilution viscometry experiments have been used to relate the changes in mechanical performance to changes in the physical characteristics of the polymer molecules. This provided a valuable tool in the extrapolation of the model to other polymeric materials, and allowed for use of the model based on theoretical predictions of a polymer molecules reaction to various environmental conditions. (author)

  13. Human population exposure to cosmic radiation

    Bouville, A.; Lowder, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    Critical evaluations of existing data on cosmic radiation in the atmosphere and in interplanetary space have been carried out in order to estimate the exposure of the world's population to this important component of natural background radiation. Data on population distribution and mean terrain heights on a 1 x 1 degree grid have been folded in to estimate regional and global dose distributions. The per caput annual dose equivalent at ground altitudes is estimated to be 270 μSv from charged particles and 50 μSv from neutrons. More than 100 million people receive more than 1 mSv in a year, and two million in excess of 5 mSv. Aircraft flight crews and frequent flyers receive an additional annual dose equivalent in the order of 1 mSv, though the global per caput annual dose equivalent from airplane flights is only about 1 μSv. Future space travellers on extended missions are likely to receive dose equivalents in the range 0.11 Sv, with the possibility of higher doses at relatively high dose rates from unusually large solar flares. These results indicate a critical need for a better understanding of the biological significance of chronic neutron and heavy charged particle exposure. (author)

  14. 47 CFR 1.1310 - Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radiofrequency radiation exposure limits. 1... Procedures Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 § 1.1310 Radiofrequency radiation... exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation as specified in § 1.1307(b), except in the case of portable...

  15. Predictors of radiation exposure to providers during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    David L Wenzler

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Increased stone burden, partial or staghorn calculi, surgery and fluoroscopy duration, and absence of preexisting access were associated with high provider radiation exposure. Radiation safety awareness is essential to minimize exposure and to protect the patient and all providers from potential radiation injury.

  16. Radiation exposures for DOE and DOE contractor employees, 1987

    1989-10-01

    This report is one of series of annual reports provided by the US Department of Energy (DOE) summarizing occupational radiation exposures received by DOE and DOE contractor employees. These reports provide an overview of radiation exposures received each year, as well as identification of trends in exposures being experienced over the years. 5 figs., 30 tabs

  17. Radiation exposure of nursing personnel to brachytherapy patients

    Cobb, P.D.; Kase, K.R.; Bjaerngard, B.E.

    1978-01-01

    The radiation exposure of nursing personnel to brachytherapy patients has been analyzed from data collected during the years 1973-1976, at four different hospitals. The average annual dose per exposed nurse ranged between 25 and 150 mrem. The radiation exposure per nurse was found to be proportional to the total potential exposure and was uncorrelated with the size of the nursing staff. (author)

  18. External exposure due to natural radiation (KINKI)

    1978-01-01

    A field survey of exposure rates due to natural radiation has been conducted throughout the Kinki district of Japan during both September and October 1973. In each location, measurements of exposures at one to fifteen sites, one of where contained 5 stations at least, were made. A total of 143 sites were measured. Observations were made using a spherical ionization chamber and several scintillation surveymeters. The spherical plastic ionization chamber of which inner diameter and wall thickness are 200 mm and 3 mm (acrylate) respectively has adequate sensitivity for field survey. The chamber was used as a standard of apparatus, but it is difficult to use the apparatus in all locations only by the apparatus, so that a surveymeter with a NaI(Tl) 1''phi x 1'' scintillator was used for regular measurements. Two types of surveymeters, the one with a 2''phi x 2'' NaI(Tl) scintillator and the other with a 3''phi x 3'' NaI(Tl) scintillator, were used as auxiliary devices. Both the chamber and the surveymeter were used in 20 sites and their readings were compared for drawing a relationship between them. Practically the direct reading of the surveymeter were reduced into the corresponding value of the plastic chamber through the relationship of linear proportion. Systematic error at calibration ( 60 Co) and reading error (rodoh) of the plastic chamber were within +-6% (maximum over all error) and within +-3.5% (standard error for 6μ R/hr) respectively. Reading error of the surveymeter is about +-3% (standard error for 6μ R/hr). Measurements in open bare field were made at one meter above the ground and outdoor gamma-rays exposure rates (μ R/hr) were due to cosmic rays as well as terrestrial radiation, as it may be considered that the contribution of fallout due to artificial origin was very small. (J.P.N.)

  19. The report of medical exposures in diagnostic radiology. Pt. 1. The questionnaire of medical exposure and standard radiation exposure

    Sasakawa, Yasuhiro; Matsumura, Yoshitaka; Iwasaki, Takanobu; Segawa, Hiroo; Yasuda, Sadatoshi; Kusuhara, Toshiaki

    1997-01-01

    We had made reports of patient radiation exposure for doctors to judge adaptation of medical radiation rightly. By these reports the doctors can be offered data of exposure dose and somatic effect. First, we sent out questionnaires so that we grasped the doctor's understanding about radiation exposure. Consequently we understood that the doctors had demanded data of exposure dose and somatic effect. Secondly, by the result of questionnaires we made the tables of exposure dose about radiological examination. As a result we have be able to presume exposure dose about high radiation sensitive organization as concrete figures. (author)

  20. Occupational exposure to natural radiation in Brazil

    Melo, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    The mining, milling and processing of uranium and thorium bearing minerals may result in radiation doses to workers. A preliminary survey pilot program, that included six mines in Brazil (two coal mines, one niobium mine, one nickel mine, one gold mine and one phosphate mine), was launched in order to determine the need to control the radioactive exposure of the mine-workers. Our survey consisted of the collection and analysis of urine samples, complemented by feces and air samples. The concentrations of uranium, thorium and polonium were measured in these samples and compared to background data from family members of the workers living in the same dwelling and from residents from the general population of Rio de Janeiro. The results from the coal mines indicated that the inhalation of radon progeny may be a source of occupational exposure. The workers from the nickel, gold and phosphate mines that were visited do not require a program to control internal radiological doses. The niobium mine results showed that in some areas of the industry exposure to thorium and uranium might occur. (author)

  1. Real and perceived risks of medical radiation exposure

    Hendee, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    After considering all the evidence related to the health effects of exposure to low levels of radiation, it is apparent that the risk is immeasurably small to any single person in a population exposed to small amounts of radiation. However, multiplying this immeasurably small estimate of risk by very large populations yields numbers that seem to imply that significant health effects (cancer, malformations, genetic effects) occur following exposure to small quantities of radiation. Although many advisory groups have cautioned against this procedure and conclusion, both continue to be used by some scientists and political action groups. In a public opinion poll conducted by Decision Research, Inc. of Eugene, Oregon, three groups were asked to rank the relative risks of various societal activities. Two of the three groups ranked nuclear power as the most hazardous of all societal activities, with a risk factor greater than that for smoking, automobiles, handguns and alcohol. Actually, nuclear power is the least hazardous of all 30 of the activities included in the poll. It is a conservative posture and probably a wise course of action to assume that exposure to any amount of radiation carries with it some element of risk. For example, requests for x-ray studies and nuclear medicine procedures should always be accompanied by an appreciation of the possibility of risk to the patient and to radiological personnel. At the same time, this element of risk should be placed in a realistic perspective by comparing it with other risks we assume every day

  2. Radiation exposure to anesthesiologist and nurse in the orthopedic room

    Arita, Tetsuhiko; Matsuzaki, Akio [Fukuoka Univ., Chikushino (Japan). Chikusi Hospital

    1996-09-01

    We report the radiation exposure dose received by the anesthesiologist and nurse in the orthopaedic operating room, when a fluoroscopic image intensifier is in use. This study was done in 12 femoral neck fracture operations performed from January to May 1995. Radiation was monitored with the MYDOSE MINIX PDM 107 made by Aloka Co. which were attached in front and behind the nurse`s lead apron, in front of the lead apron of the anesthesiologist. The average imaging time was 9.78 min. The average radiation dose in front of the anesthesiologist is lead apron was 2.08{mu}SV, and in front and behind the nurse`s lead apron were 5.67{mu}SV, 0.08{mu}SV respectively. This study and review of the literature indicate that the operating room anesthesiologist and nurse receive a lower exposure than the orthopaedist. We can disregard the problem of radiation exposure to the anesthesiologist and nurse during an orthopaedic operation when they wear lead aprons and stand far from the patient. (author)

  3. Radiation exposure to anesthesiologist and nurse in the orthopedic room

    Arita, Tetsuhiko; Matsuzaki, Akio

    1996-01-01

    We report the radiation exposure dose received by the anesthesiologist and nurse in the orthopaedic operating room, when a fluoroscopic image intensifier is in use. This study was done in 12 femoral neck fracture operations performed from January to May 1995. Radiation was monitored with the MYDOSE MINIX PDM 107 made by Aloka Co. which were attached in front and behind the nurse's lead apron, in front of the lead apron of the anesthesiologist. The average imaging time was 9.78 min. The average radiation dose in front of the anesthesiologist is lead apron was 2.08μSV, and in front and behind the nurse's lead apron were 5.67μSV, 0.08μSV respectively. This study and review of the literature indicate that the operating room anesthesiologist and nurse receive a lower exposure than the orthopaedist. We can disregard the problem of radiation exposure to the anesthesiologist and nurse during an orthopaedic operation when they wear lead aprons and stand far from the patient. (author)

  4. Criteria for radiological protection against exposure to natural radiation

    Cardenas Herrera, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of humans to natural sources of radiation has been a continuous and inevitable feature of life on earth. This exposure exceeds all due to artificial sources combined for most people. Many exposures to natural radiation sources are modified by human action. In particular, natural radionuclides are released into the environment in mineral processing and in activities such as the production of phosphate fertilizers and the use of fossil fuels. An increase of exposures to this natural radiation is caused. The relevance of exposure to natural radiation is confirmed by the fact that, for most people, the exposures to natural background radiation have been much more significant than exposures to artificial sources, with exceptions. Among these exceptions have been noted: medical exposures, accidents with release of radionuclides and some specific workplaces. In all cases, however, the natural background radiation has formed the basis on which all the others exposures are added and is a common level serving as compared to other exposures. Regulations and instructions have begun to establish in some countries to regulate natural radiation, countries like Spain, have already incorporated into its regulations on health protection against ionizing radiation the subject of natural radiation. (author) [es

  5. Diagnosis, injury and prevention of internal radiation exposure

    Tatsuzaki, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure is classified into three categories: external exposure, surface contamination, and internal exposure (also called internal contamination). Internal exposure is an exposure by the ionizing radiation emitted from radioactive materials taken into a human body. Uptake of radioactive materials can go through inhalation, ingestion, or wound contamination. Not like external exposure, alpha ray or beta ray, which has a limited penetration, is also important in internal exposure. Diagnosis of internal exposure is based on measurement and dose assessment in addition to the history taking. Two methods, direct measurement and/or bioassay (indirect measurement), are used for the measurement. These measurements provide information of radioactive materials in the body at the time of the measurement. The exposure dose to the body needs to be calculated in a process of dose assessment, based on the results of these measurements and history of intake, either acute intake or chronic intake. Another method, measurement of environmental samples or food stuff, is also used for dose assessment. For internal exposure, radiation dose to the body is expressed as committed effective dose or committed equivalent dose, which are accumulation of dose over a defined period. Radioactive materials taken into body are transferred among many body components depending on the type of radionuclide or chemicals etc. Some radioactive materials concentrate in a specific organ. Symptoms and signs depend on the distribution of the radioactive materials in the body. Monitoring the concentration in air or foods is conducted in order to control human activities and foods and consequently reduce the amount of intake to human bodies as a preventive measure. Prevention of internal exposure is also conducted by protective gears such as full face masks. Iodine prophylaxis could be used against radioactive iodine intake. Stable iodine, mostly potassium iodide, could be taken into the thyroid and

  6. Intervention in emergency situations involving radiation exposure (1990)

    1992-01-01

    This document covers radiation protection aspects arising in emergency situations. It does not cover the measures necessary to reduce the health consequences of radiation exposure, i.e. the medical care of exposed individuals, nor does it cover psychological problems arising from the exposure of individuals or of a population. These problems may arise from anxiety about possible late effects of radiation exposure and from any actions implemented to reduce exposure. Even though radiation exposure levels may be low and insignificant, these problems must be taken into account in determining any action to be implemented to reduce radiation exposure. The primary concern of this document is with exposure in areas which are close to the source and in the period immediately after a source is out of control. It outlines the principles which can be used for planning and implementing countermeasures for protection of the public. 24 refs., 13 tabs

  7. Radiation dosimetry for crewmember exposure to cosmic radiation during astronaut training operations

    Shavers, M.R.; Gersey, B.B.; Wilkins, R.T.; Semones, E.J.; Cucinotta, F.A.

    2003-01-01

    'Atmospheric exposures' of astronauts to cosmic ions and secondary particles during air-flight training are being measured and analytically modeled for inclusion in the astronaut medical records database. For many of the ∼170 astronauts currently in the astronaut corps, their occupational radiation exposure history will be dominated by cosmic ion exposures during air-travel rather than short-duration spaceflight. Relatively low (usually <10 μSv hr -1 ) and uniform organ dose rates result from the penetrating mix of cosmic particles during atmospheric exposures at all altitudes, but at rates that vary greatly due to differences in flight profiles and the geomagnetic conditions at the time of flight. The precision and accuracy to which possible deleterious effects of the exposures can be assessed suffers from limitations that similarly impact assessment of human exposures in low-Earth orbit: uncertainties associated with the environmental measurements and their interpretation, uncertainties associated with the analytical tools that transport the cosmic radiation environment, and uncertain biological responses to low-dose-rate exposures to radiation fields of mixed radiation 'quality'. Lineal energy spectra will be measured using a Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter designed for training and operational sorties frequently flown in T-38, Space Shuttle Trainer, and high altitude WB-57 aircraft. Linear energy spectra will be measured over multiple flights using CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors, as well. Flight records are available for nearly 200,000 sorties flown in NASA aircraft by astronauts and flight officers in the Johnson Space Center Aircraft Operations Division over the past 25 years, yet this database only partially documents the complete exposure histories. Age-dependent risk analysis indicates significant impact, particularly to young women who anticipate lengthy on-orbit careers

  8. Technologically modified exposures to natural radiation. Annex C

    1982-01-01

    This Annex deals with some examples of technologically modified exposures to natural radiation. Radiation exposures due to coal-fired power plants, geothermal energy production, exploitation of phosphate rock, aircraft travel, and consumer products are discussed. The present state of knowledge does not allow an accurate estimate of the collective effective dose equivalent from technologically modified exposures to natural radiation to be made. This annex has an extensive bibliography with at least 200 references.

  9. Predictors of radiation exposure to providers during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    David L Wenzler; Joel E Abbott; Jeannie J Su; William Shi; Richard Slater; Daniel Miller; Michelle J Siemens; Roger L Sur

    2017-01-01

    Background: Limited studies have reported on radiation risks of increased ionizing radiation exposure to medical personnel in the urologic community. Fluoroscopy is readily used in many urologic surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to determine radiation exposure to all operating room personnel during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), commonly performed for large renal or complex stones. Materials and Methods: We prospectively collected personnel exposure data for all PNL cases at...

  10. Situation of radiation exposure in medical personnel, (2)

    Tanaka, Minoru; Kumazaki, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Mitsuaki; Nakamura, Masamoto; Nonomura, Takuo [Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan)

    1982-09-01

    In connection with the radiation protection for medical personnel, the logarithmic normal distribution of their exposure doses has been examined, which is a prerequisite for the practice. The data were the doses measured by film badges from April, 1976, to March, 1981, for physicians, radiation technicians and nurses. The dose measurement by film badges was carried out monthly, 12 times a year; the values given were mrem/year. For the probability distribution of exposure doses, the following items were surveyed: comparison between three types of the profession and the kinds of film badges, i.e. for X-ray and ..gamma..-ray, the linearity of the logarithmic normal distribution for the types of medical institution, and comparison in the linearity between Japan and other countries. The fitting to linearity was found to be very good.

  11. Physician and nurse knowledge about patient radiation exposure in ...

    2015-11-23

    Nov 23, 2015 ... Physician and nurse awareness of the radiation dose in the ED and the associated cancer risks to ... has activated mass media and Internet communications, and .... explained that radiation exposure has no relationship to.

  12. Radiation effects after low dose chronic long-term exposure

    Fliedner, T.M.; Friesecke, I.

    1997-01-01

    This document approaches the radiation effects after low dose chronic long-term exposure, presenting examples occurred, the pathophysiologic mechanisms for cell system tolerance in elevated radiation fields, and the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities

  13. Radiation exposure with 3D rotational angiography of the skull

    Gosch, D.; Deckert, F.; Schulz, T.; Kahn, T.; Kurze, W.; Patz, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: determination and comparison of radiation exposure for examinations of the skull with unsubtracted 3D rotational angiography (3D RA) and 2D digital subtraction angiography (2D DSA). Materials and methods: measurements were carried out with a skull of an Alderson phantom for 3D RA and for 2D DSA in p.a. and lateral projections using an Innova 4100 angiography system with a digital flat panel detector from GE Healthcare. 45 thermoluminescent dosimeters TLD 100H from Harshaw were placed inside the phantom to measure organ doses. In addition the dose area product was recorded and the effective dose was calculated using the Monte Carlo program PCXMC. Results: for a biplanar DSA run (lateral and p.a. projection), the organ doses were 4 to 5 times higher and the effective dose was 4 times higher than for a 3D RA even though the number of images for the two DSA runs was only half of that for 3D RA. Conclusion: the radiation exposure for unsubtracted 3D RA using a flat panel detector is significantly lower than for biplanar DSA. Using 3D RA in place of 2D DSA can reduce the radiation exposure of patients in neuroradiology procedures. (orig.)

  14. Exposure doses of nurses in the radiation therapy using sealed small radiation sources

    Hatori, N; Yamakawa, K; Eda, T; Habu, T; Endo, H [Gunma Cancer Center Hospital (Japan)

    1979-11-01

    In radiation for malignant tumor, interstitial irradiation and/or intracavitary irradiations are performed in addition to external irradiation. The former two treatments are well applied for the tumors at head and neck region, especially carcinoma of the tongue and for that in gynecological tumor like carcinoma of the cervix. However, nurses are supposed to be irradiated during the treatment, as they help the handling of radiation sourses to insert or to pierce them directly into diseased parts. In this paper, we measured the relationship between working time of nurses for the treatment and exposure doses of nurses, using a thermoluminescence dosimeter, the exposure doses were approximately proportional to the working time, and 3-6 mR working time for a treatment in the cases of the diseases head and neck, and 4 mR working time for a treatment in the cases of gynecological diseases.

  15. Exposure doses of nurses in the radiation therapy using sealed small radiation sources

    Hatori, Noboru; Yamakawa, Katsumi; Eda, Tetsuo; Habu, Takashi; Endo, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    In radiation for malignant tumor, interstitial irradiation and/or intracavitary irradiations are performed in addition to external irradiation. The former two treatments are well applied for the tumors at head and neck region, especially carcinoma of the tongue and for that in gynecological tumor like carcinoma of the cervix. However, nurses are supposed to be irradiated during the treatment, as they help the handling of radiation sourses to insert or to pierce them directly into diseased parts. In this paper, we measured the relationship between working time of nurses for the treatment and exposure doses of nurses, using a thermoluminescence dosimeter, the exposure doses were approximately proportional to the working time, and 3-6 mR working time for a treatment in the cases of the diseases head and neck, and 4 mR working time for a treatment in the cases of gynecological diseases. (author)

  16. Time factors in radiation carcinogenesis

    Sasaki, Shunsaku

    1995-01-01

    Results of experiments using B6C3F 1 female mice were made subject of analysis on the time factors in radiation carcinogenesis. In the experiment for examination of influence of age at irradiation on the lifetime risk and on distribution of ages at death, mice were irradiated at day 12, 14 or 17 of the prenatal period, or day 0, 7, 35, 105, 240 or 365 of the postnatal period with doses ranging from 0.48 to 5.7 Gy gamma-rays from 137 Cs. In the experiment to examine the reduction factor for carcinogenic effect by multiple fractionation of gamma-rays dose 1.9 or 3.8 Gy was divided into 10 fractions, which were delivered once a week during period from 5 to 15 weeks of age. All mice were allowed to live out their life spans under a specific pathogen free condition. The cumulative relative risk for mortality from all causes except lymphoma and leukemia was shown to decrease with age when mice were irradiated at the fetal, neonatal, suckling, adolescent or young adult period, whereas, the decrease in the cumulative relative risk was very little when gamma-rays were given at the intermediate adult period. The lifetime risk for the increase in mortality and for the induction of solid tumors was highest in mice irradiated during neonatal, suckling or adolescent period. Age-dependence of susceptibility to radiation carcinogenesis was different for each type of neoplasm. However, the most susceptible period for induction of each type of neoplasm concentrated in the age from neonatal to adolescent period. Radiation-induced late effects were apparently reduced by multiple fractionation of radiation dose, but the reduction factor for the increase in the long-term mortality did not exceed 2.0. (author)

  17. Environmental exposure to ionizing radiation and childhood leukaemia incidence

    Evrard, Anne-Sophie

    2006-01-01

    This thesis aimed at providing an epidemiological approach of the hypothesis of the existence of an association between environmental exposure to ionizing radiation and childhood leukaemia incidence. From 1990 to 2001, 5,330 cases of acute leukaemia were registered by the French National Registry of Childhood Leukemia and Lymphoma in children under 15 years of age and living in mainland France at the time of diagnosis. Indoor radon concentration was estimated using 13,240 measurements carried out by the Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), and covering the whole country. Exposure to terrestrial gamma radiation was based on continuous measurements, using thermoluminescent dosimeters, at about 1,000 sites covering the whole of France, in order to monitor the level of environmental radioactivity in France. Analyses were conducted using Poisson regressions, including ecological co-variates, at the level of the 'Departments' (95 administrative geographical units in France). A significant positive ecological association between indoor radon concentration and the incidence of acute myeloid leukaemia was evidenced (SIR=1.19 per 100 Bq/m 3 - 95% confidence interval=[1.03-1.38]) and remained significant in multivariate regression analyses including exposure to terrestrial gamma radiation and/or some ecological co-variates. Conversely, there was no evidence of an ecological association between exposure to terrestrial gamma radiation and childhood leukaemia incidence. The epidemiological studies of the incidence of childhood leukaemia around nuclear sites analyzed incidence with respect to the distance from the plants, without considering any information on the levels or geographic distribution of the radiation dose due to discharges from the plants. The present study investigated for the first time the incidence of childhood leukaemia around French nuclear installations using a geographic zoning based on estimated doses due to gaseous

  18. French population's exposure to ionizing radiations

    2016-01-01

    This report deals with the exposure of the French population to ionizing radiation. The exposures taken into account are related to cosmic and telluric radiations, to radon, to ingestion of natural radionuclides, to medical imaging and to industrial and military sources. Additionally to the mean effective dose, considered as the macroscopic indicator of the population exposure, the variations of the effective dose for each source of exposure are also presented. Then, the variation of the total effective dose is presented. (authors)

  19. Radiation exposure in the wismut mines

    Seitz, G.; Ludwig, T.; Bauer, H.D.; Lehmann, F.

    1996-01-01

    Uranium mining grew fast in Saxonia after Second World War. No radiation protection was performed in the first 'wild' years (1946-1954). Winning with air hammer and drilling had been done without dust reduction and led to an enormous airborne dust concentration. These bad working conditions were unique world-wide. Measurements of dustborne activity concentrations had not been taken. To reconstruct the exposure conditions of miners in these years, four series of experiments under original working conditions were carried out. Stress must be laid on the fact that these measurements should result in the received doses according to uranium and it's long living daughters. Personal and stationary air samplers were used to collect the dust. Activity concentration measurements were done by gamma spectrometry. (author)

  20. Occupational radiation exposures in research laboratories

    Vaccari, S.; Papotti, E.; Pedrazzi, G.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive sources are widely used in many research activities at University centers. In particular, the activities concerning use of sealed form ( 57 Co in Moessbauer application) and unsealed form ( 3 H, 14 C, 32 P in radioisotope laboratories) are analyzed. The radiological impact of these materials and potential effective doses to researchers and members of the public were evaluated to show compliance with regulatory limits. A review of the procedures performed by researchers and technicians in the research laboratories with the relative dose evaluations is presented in different situations, including normal operations and emergency situations, for example the fire. A study of the possible exposure to radiation by workers, restricted groups of people, and public in general, as well as environmental releases, is presented. (authors)

  1. Occupational radiation exposures in research laboratories

    Vaccari, S.; Papotti, E. [Parma Univ., Health Physics (Italy); Pedrazzi, G. [Parma Univ., Dept. of Public Health (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Radioactive sources are widely used in many research activities at University centers. In particular, the activities concerning use of sealed form ({sup 57}Co in Moessbauer application) and unsealed form ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 32}P in radioisotope laboratories) are analyzed. The radiological impact of these materials and potential effective doses to researchers and members of the public were evaluated to show compliance with regulatory limits. A review of the procedures performed by researchers and technicians in the research laboratories with the relative dose evaluations is presented in different situations, including normal operations and emergency situations, for example the fire. A study of the possible exposure to radiation by workers, restricted groups of people, and public in general, as well as environmental releases, is presented. (authors)

  2. Controlling radiation exposure during interventional procedures in childhood cancer patients

    Racadio, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Many pediatric cancer patients undergo multiple diagnostic and therapeutic radiologic procedures over the course of their illnesses and are therefore at high risk for radiation exposure. There are a variety of measures that radiologists can employ to reduce this risk. These include limiting the use of radiation whenever possible, using specific strategies to reduce radiation exposure during interventional procedures, using quality assurance programs to ensure compliance, and maintaining continuing staff radiation safety educational programs. Some of the diagnostic and therapeutic interventional radiologic procedures that are performed in pediatric oncology patients are discussed here, along with specific tips for managing radiation exposure. (orig.)

  3. Virtual reality application for simulating and minimizing worker radiation exposure

    Kang, Ki Doo; Hajek, Brian K.; Lee, Yon Sik; Shin, Yoo Jin

    2004-01-01

    To plan work and preclude unexpected radiation exposures in a nuclear power plant, a virtual nuclear plant is a good solution. For this, there are prerequisites such as displaying real time radiation exposure data onto an avatar and preventing speed reduction caused by multiple users on the net-based system. The work space is divided into several sections and radiation information is extracted section by section. Based on the simulation algorithm, real time processing is applied to the events and movements of the avatar. Because there are millions of parts in a nuclear power plant, it is almost impossible to model all of them. Several parts of virtual plant have been modeled using 3D internet virtual reality for the model development. Optimum one-click Active-X is applied for the system, which provides easy access to the virtual plant. Connection time on the net is 20-30 sec for initial loading and 3-4 sec for the 2nd and subsequent times

  4. Cosmic Radiation Exposure of Future Hypersonic Flight Missions.

    Koops, L

    2017-06-15

    Cosmic radiation exposure in air traffic grows with flight altitude, geographical latitude and flight time. For future high-speed intercontinental point-to-point travel, the trade-off between reduced flight time and enhanced dose rate at higher flight altitudes is investigated. Various representative (partly) hypersonic cruise missions are considered and in dependence on solar activity the integral route dose is calculated for envisaged flight profiles and trajectories. Our results are compared to those for corresponding air connections served by present day subsonic airliners. During solar maximum, we find a significant reduction in route dose for all considered high-speed missions compared to the subsonic reference. However, during solar minimum, comparable or somewhat larger doses result on transpolar trajectories with (partly) hypersonic cruise at Mach 5. Both solar activity and routing are hence found to determine, whether passengers can profit from shorter flight times in terms of radiation exposure, despite of altitude-induced higher dose rates. Yet, aircrews with fixed number of block hours are always subject to larger annual doses, which in the considered cases take values up to five times the reference. We comment on the implications of our results for route planning and aviation decision-making in the absence of radiation shielding solutions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Cosmic radiation exposure of future hypersonic flight missions

    Koops, L.

    2017-01-01

    Cosmic radiation exposure in air traffic grows with flight altitude, geographical latitude and flight time. For future high-speed intercontinental point-to-point travel, the trade-off between reduced flight time and enhanced dose rate at higher flight altitudes is investigated. Various representative (partly) hypersonic cruise missions are considered and in dependence on solar activity the integral route dose is calculated for envisaged flight profiles and trajectories. Our results are compared to those for corresponding air connections served by present day subsonic airliners. During solar maximum, we find a significant reduction in route dose for all considered high-speed missions compared to the subsonic reference. However, during solar minimum, comparable or somewhat larger doses result on transpolar trajectories with (partly) hypersonic cruise at Mach 5. Both solar activity and routing are hence found to determine, whether passengers can profit from shorter flight times in terms of radiation exposure, despite of altitude-induced higher dose rates. Yet, air crews with fixed number of block hours are always subject to larger annual doses, which in the considered cases take values up to five times the reference. We comment on the implications of our results for route planning and aviation decision-making in the absence of radiation shielding solutions. (author)

  6. Medical radiation exposure and genetic risks

    Baker, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    Everyone is exposed to background radiation throughout life (100 mrem/year to the gonads or 4 to 5 rem during the reproductive years). A lumbosacral series might deliver 2500 mrem to the male or 400 mrem to the female gonads. A radiologic procedure is a cost/benefit decision, and genetic risk is a part of the cost. Although cost is usually very low compared to benefit, if the procedure is unnecessary then the cost may be unacceptable. On the basis of current estimates, the doubling dose is assumed to be 40 rem (range 20 to 200) for an acute dose, and 100 rem for protracted exposure. Although there is no satisfactory way to predict the size of the risk for an individual exposed, any risk should be incentive to avoid unnecessary radiation to the gonads. Conception should be delayed for at least ten months for women and three or four months for men after irradiation of the gonads. The current incidence of genetically related diseases in the United States population is 60,000 per million live births. Based on the most conservative set of assumptions, an average gonadal dose of 1000 mrem to the whole population would increase the incidence of genetically related diseases by 0.2%

  7. Wide beam reconstruction for half-dose or half-time cardiac gated SPECT acquisitions: optimization of resources and reduction in radiation exposure

    Marcassa, Claudio; Campini, Riccardo; Zoccarato, Orazio; Calza, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    A new iterative reconstruction algorithm (WBR trademark) has been recently proposed for cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The WBR trademark technology is designed to reduce noise, improving lesion identification without affecting the image resolution, allowing SPECT studies with reduced count statistic. This allows for either half-time (HT) or half-dose (HD) cardiac SPECT, with image quality and quantitative data comparable to standard-time (ST) or standard-dose (SD) SPECT. Few data exist on the comparison between conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) and this new algorithm in a clinical setting. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of FBP and WBR trademark. Phantoms studies were performed to compare spatial resolution and contrast recovery with FBP, ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) and WBR trademark. A group of 92 patients, with different cardiac pathology, scheduled for a stress-rest SPECT were studied: 52 patients (group A) were injected with a SD of tracer and underwent both ST and HT SPECT; 40 patients (group B) were injected with a half dose of tracer and underwent ST SPECT and immediately after an additional SPECT at double time/projection (DT), to compensate for the low count statistic. A 2-day 99m Tc-sestamibi protocol was used in all patients. SD/ST and HD/DT SPECT were reconstructed with a conventional FBP; SD/HT and HD/ST SPECT were reconstructed with WBR trademark. The summed stress score (SSS) and summed rest score (SRS) were calculated; the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was automatically derived. In group A (SD), no significant differences were observed between ST FBP SPECT and HT WBR trademark in SSS (11.1 and 11.7, respectively) and SRS (9.4 and 10.3, respectively, NS). LVEF on rest acquisitions was also comparable (50% on ST SPECT and 49% on HT SPECT, NS); LVEF on post-stress studies in HT SPECT (46%) was lower than ST SPECT (50%), although not statistically significant. In

  8. Operation control device under radiation exposure

    Kimura, Kiichi; Murakami, Toichi.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention performs smooth progress of operation by remote control for a plurality of operations in periodical inspections in controlled areas of a nuclear power plant, thereby reducing the operator's exposure dose. Namely, the device monitors the progressing state of the operation by displaying the progress of operation on a CRT of a centralized control device present in a low dose area remote from an operation field through an ITV camera disposed in the vicinity of the operation field. Further, operation sequence and operation instruction procedures previously inputted in the device are indicated to the operation field through an operation instruction outputting device (field CRT) in accordance with the progress of the operation steps. On the other hand, the operation progress can be aided by inputting information from the operation field such as start or completion of the operation steps. Further, the device of the present invention can monitor the change of operation circumstances and exposure dose of operators based on the information from a radiation dose measuring device disposed in the operation circumstance and to individual operators. (I.S.)

  9. External radiation exposure after deposition of man-made radionuclides

    Jacob, P.

    1991-01-01

    The first step in assessing the external radiation exposure of the population is the determination of the gamma dose rate over meadows, which are used as reference points for various reasons. The second step is the description of external radiation exposures in urban and rural environments. The relation to the radiation exposure in a meadow is a function of the radionuclide distribution, i.e. the type of deposition. Finally, a simple method of calculating external radiation exposure is developed on the basis of recent findings. The method is compared with the method used in the UNSCEAR report for calculating radiation exposures after Chernobyl and with the method described in the AVV (General Administrative Regulation) of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Effects of high vs low-level radiation exposure

    Bond, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to appreciate adequately the various possible effects of radiation, particularly from high-level vs low-level radiation exposure (HLRE, vs LLRE), it is necessary to understand the substantial differences between (a) exposure as used in exposure-incidence curves, which are always initially linear and without threshold, and (b) dose as used in dose-response curves, which always have a threshold, above which the function is curvilinear with increasing slope. The differences are discussed first in terms of generally familiar nonradiation situations involving dose vs exposure, and then specifically in terms of exposure to radiation, vs a dose of radiation. Examples are given of relevant biomedical findings illustrating that, while dose can be used with HLRE, it is inappropriate and misleading the LLRE where exposure is the conceptually correct measure of the amount of radiation involved

  11. NCRP study of radiation exposure from consumer products

    Taylor, L.S.

    1978-01-01

    The NCRP is stepping up its concern with radiation exposure resulting from consumer products, and at this time the author would not venture to suggest what its ultimate position may be. The NCRP recognizes that, at some stage, the problem has to be treated in some pseudo-quantitative fashion. However, at the present time, the Council is not enthusiastic about the attempts to legislate or regulate levels of safety into many radiation uses when these levels are based on such shaky models and assumptions as to provide readily distortable conclusions. The Council is seriously examining the matters of radiation risk on a quantitative basis, but not with the over-simplified models that have been applied in recent years. It is fairly certain that, over the next few years, the NCRP will include such details as it considers rational in relationship to consumer products, even though the end result for many of the products may result in the expression of the opinion that they are unimportant. It was suggested in the text that some kind of definition might be provided which would give a dividing line between radiation exposures that are psychologically worrisome and others that are not psychologically worrisome. To illustrate this point two tables are presented which list types of exposure, number exposed, average dose equivalent (mrem/year) and the dose index for various consumer products and natural background. The dose index is the product of the average dose equivalent by the estimated number of individuals exposed. It is deliberately an improper term. The main benefit of this study has been in pointing out what may be a way to avoid future problems rather than indicating any serious problems at the present time

  12. Novel Human Radiation Exposure Biomarker Panel Applicable for Population Triage

    Bazan, Jose G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Chang, Polly; Balog, Robert; D' Andrea, Annalisa; Shaler, Thomas; Lin, Hua; Lee, Shirley; Harrison, Travis [SRI International, Menlo Park, California (United States); Shura, Lei; Schoen, Lucy; Knox, Susan J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Cooper, David E., E-mail: david.cooper@sri.com [SRI International, Menlo Park, California (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To identify a panel of radiation-responsive plasma proteins that could be used in a point-of-care biologic dosimeter to detect clinically significant levels of ionizing radiation exposure. Methods and Materials: Patients undergoing preparation for hematopoietic cell transplantation using radiation therapy (RT) with either total lymphoid irradiation or fractionated total body irradiation were eligible. Plasma was examined from patients with potentially confounding conditions and from normal individuals. Each plasma sample was analyzed for a panel of 17 proteins before RT was begun and at several time points after RT exposure. Paired and unpaired t tests between the dose and control groups were performed. Conditional inference trees were constructed based on panels of proteins to compare the non-RT group with the RT group. Results: A total of 151 patients (62 RT, 41 infection, 48 trauma) were enrolled on the study, and the plasma from an additional 24 healthy control individuals was analyzed. In comparison with to control individuals, tenascin-C was upregulated and clusterin was downregulated in patients receiving RT. Salivary amylase was strongly radiation responsive, with upregulation in total body irradiation patients and slight downregulation in total lymphoid irradiation patients compared with control individuals. A panel consisting of these 3 proteins accurately distinguished between irradiated patients and healthy control individuals within 3 days after exposure: 97% accuracy, 0.5% false negative rate, 2% false positive rate. The accuracy was diminished when patients with trauma, infection, or both were included (accuracy, 74%-84%; false positive rate, 14%-33%, false negative rate: 8%-40%). Conclusions: A panel of 3 proteins accurately distinguishes unirradiated healthy donors from those exposed to RT (0.8-9.6 Gy) within 3 days of exposure. These findings have significant implications in terms of triaging individuals in the case of nuclear or other

  13. Exposing exposure: automated anatomy-specific CT radiation exposure extraction for quality assurance and radiation monitoring.

    Sodickson, Aaron; Warden, Graham I; Farkas, Cameron E; Ikuta, Ichiro; Prevedello, Luciano M; Andriole, Katherine P; Khorasani, Ramin

    2012-08-01

    To develop and validate an informatics toolkit that extracts anatomy-specific computed tomography (CT) radiation exposure metrics (volume CT dose index and dose-length product) from existing digital image archives through optical character recognition of CT dose report screen captures (dose screens) combined with Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine attributes. This institutional review board-approved HIPAA-compliant study was performed in a large urban health care delivery network. Data were drawn from a random sample of CT encounters that occurred between 2000 and 2010; images from these encounters were contained within the enterprise image archive, which encompassed images obtained at an adult academic tertiary referral hospital and its affiliated sites, including a cancer center, a community hospital, and outpatient imaging centers, as well as images imported from other facilities. Software was validated by using 150 randomly selected encounters for each major CT scanner manufacturer, with outcome measures of dose screen retrieval rate (proportion of correctly located dose screens) and anatomic assignment precision (proportion of extracted exposure data with correctly assigned anatomic region, such as head, chest, or abdomen and pelvis). The 95% binomial confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for discrete proportions, and CIs were derived from the standard error of the mean for continuous variables. After validation, the informatics toolkit was used to populate an exposure repository from a cohort of 54 549 CT encounters; of which 29 948 had available dose screens. Validation yielded a dose screen retrieval rate of 99% (597 of 605 CT encounters; 95% CI: 98%, 100%) and an anatomic assignment precision of 94% (summed DLP fraction correct 563 in 600 CT encounters; 95% CI: 92%, 96%). Patient safety applications of the resulting data repository include benchmarking between institutions, CT protocol quality control and optimization, and cumulative

  14. RISKAP, Risk Assessment of Radiation Exposure for Population

    1992-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: RISKAP estimates risk to a population exposed to radioactivity. Risk is measured in terms of the expected number of premature deaths resulting from radiogenic cancers, the number of years of life lost as a result of these deaths, and the average number of years of life lost per premature death. RISKAP accommodates latency and plateau periods that vary with age at exposure and risk functions that vary with age at exposure as well as time after exposure. 2 - Method of solution: The user defines a population by specifying its size and age distribution at reference time zero, its subsequent age-specific mortality rates assuming no radiogenic deaths, and its subsequent birth rates. Radiation doses that may vary with age and time are also assigned by the user. These doses are used to compute an annual, age-specific risk of premature cancer death, based on a dose-response function selected by the user. Calculations of premature radiation deaths, deaths from all causes, and new age distribution of the population are performed for one-year intervals. The population is tracked over any specified period. This version of RISKAP allows the use of a linear, quadratic, or linear-quadratic dose-response function. The user may substitute any preferred dose-response function by editing the code. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: None noted

  15. Biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure

    Reinoehl-Kompa, Sabine; Baldauf, Daniela; Heller, Horst

    2009-01-01

    The report on the meeting of the Strahlenschutzkommission 2007 concerning biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure includes the following contributions: Adaptive response. The importance of DNA damage mechanisms for the biological efficiency of low-energy photons. Radiation effects in mammography: the relative biological radiation effects of low-energy photons. Radiation-induced cataracts. Carcinomas following prenatal radiation exposure. Intercellular apoptosis induction and low-dose irradiation: possible consequences for the oncogenesis control. Mechanistic models for the carcinogenesis with radiation-induced cell inactivation: application to all solid tumors in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Microarrays at low radiation doses. Mouse models for the analysis of biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation. The bystander effect: observations, mechanisms and implications. Lung carcinoma risk of Majak workers - modeling of carcinogenesis and the bystander effect. Microbeam studies in radiation biology - an overview. Carcinogenesis models with radiation-induced genomic instability. Application to two epidemiological cohorts.

  16. Understanding the risk coming from the radiation exposure

    Pierzo, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    From 1972, the National Academy has published a series of reports on the biological effects of ionizing radiation (BEIR) in relation to the health effects of the low level radiation. The Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Energy and the Academy of Sciences of US, began in 1996 the first phase of the BEIR VII report about the health risks associated to the exposure to low level ionizing radiation. The purpose of the first phase of the study is to revise the literature and to decide if enough novel information existed to guarantee the complete study. The National Academies concluded that enough information existed with an appropriate time to carry out the reanalysis. Among the conclusions of BEIR VII are that the current scientific evidence is concordant with the hypothesis of the existence of a linear model without threshold (LSU) in the dose-response relationship among the exposure to ionizing radiation and the cancer development in humans. This implies that very low dose even has the potential of causing deleterious effects in the health, although the risk to low dose is very small. (Author)

  17. Radiation exposure assessment using cytological and molecular biomarkers

    Blakely, W.F

    2001-07-01

    Chromosome aberration analysis is the conventional means of assessing radiation exposure. The Armed Forces Radiobiological Research Institute recently established an alternative method to measure radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in interphase cells. The method uses commercially available chemical agents to induce premature chromosome condensation in 'resting' G{sub 0} human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Then specific whole-chromosome DNA probes are used with fluorescence in situ hybridisation to detect aberrant cells rapidly over a broad dose range. In new research, the real-time fluorogenic 5'-nuclease, or TaqMan{sup TM}, polymerase chain reaction assay is being used to identify radiation-responsive molecular biomarkers, including gene expression targets and DNA mutations. The goal is to establish rapid, precise, high-throughput assay systems that are practical in a variety of radiation exposure scenarios. The new methodologies that have a number of other applications, together with diagnostic software now in development, could improve the United States military's emergency response capability and medical readiness. (author)

  18. Radiation protection philosophy: time for changes?

    Jovanovich, J.V.

    1994-01-01

    Radiation protection philosophy, or paradigm, has evolved over a number of decades and it is still evolving. Traditionally, it has dealt only with man-made, planned, in principle avoidable, radiation exposures of workers and general public. This philosophy, as presently accepted around the world, has some deficiencies. The object of this paper is to discuss these deficiencies and propose some changes. (author)

  19. Wide beam reconstruction for half-dose or half-time cardiac gated SPECT acquisitions: optimization of resources and reduction in radiation exposure

    Marcassa, Claudio [S. Maugeri Fnd, IRCCS, Scientific Institute of Veruno, Cardiology Department (Italy); Campini, Riccardo; Zoccarato, Orazio; Calza, Paolo [S. Maugeri Fnd, IRCCS, Scientific Institute of Veruno, Nuclear Medicine Department (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    A new iterative reconstruction algorithm (WBR trademark) has been recently proposed for cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The WBR trademark technology is designed to reduce noise, improving lesion identification without affecting the image resolution, allowing SPECT studies with reduced count statistic. This allows for either half-time (HT) or half-dose (HD) cardiac SPECT, with image quality and quantitative data comparable to standard-time (ST) or standard-dose (SD) SPECT. Few data exist on the comparison between conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) and this new algorithm in a clinical setting. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of FBP and WBR trademark. Phantoms studies were performed to compare spatial resolution and contrast recovery with FBP, ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) and WBR trademark. A group of 92 patients, with different cardiac pathology, scheduled for a stress-rest SPECT were studied: 52 patients (group A) were injected with a SD of tracer and underwent both ST and HT SPECT; 40 patients (group B) were injected with a half dose of tracer and underwent ST SPECT and immediately after an additional SPECT at double time/projection (DT), to compensate for the low count statistic. A 2-day {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi protocol was used in all patients. SD/ST and HD/DT SPECT were reconstructed with a conventional FBP; SD/HT and HD/ST SPECT were reconstructed with WBR trademark. The summed stress score (SSS) and summed rest score (SRS) were calculated; the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was automatically derived. In group A (SD), no significant differences were observed between ST FBP SPECT and HT WBR trademark in SSS (11.1 and 11.7, respectively) and SRS (9.4 and 10.3, respectively, NS). LVEF on rest acquisitions was also comparable (50% on ST SPECT and 49% on HT SPECT, NS); LVEF on post-stress studies in HT SPECT (46%) was lower than ST SPECT (50%), although not statistically significant

  20. Radiation Exposure in Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Creation

    Miraglia, Roberto, E-mail: rmiraglia@ismett.edu; Maruzzelli, Luigi, E-mail: lmaruzzelli@ismett.edu; Cortis, Kelvin, E-mail: kelvincortis@ismett.edu [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Radiology Service, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services (Italy); D’Amico, Mario, E-mail: mdamico@ismett.edu [University of Palermo, Department of Radiology (Italy); Floridia, Gaetano, E-mail: gfloridia@ismett.edu; Gallo, Giuseppe, E-mail: ggallo@ismett.edu; Tafaro, Corrado, E-mail: ctafaro@ismett.edu; Luca, Angelo, E-mail: aluca@ismett.edu [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Radiology Service, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    PurposeTransjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation is considered as being one of the most complex procedures in abdominal interventional radiology. Our aim was twofold: quantification of TIPS-related patient radiation exposure in our center and identification of factors leading to reduced radiation exposure.Materials and methodsThree hundred and forty seven consecutive patients underwent TIPS in our center between 2007 and 2014. Three main procedure categories were identified: Group I (n = 88)—fluoroscopic-guided portal vein targeting, procedure done in an image intensifier-based angiographic system (IIDS); Group II (n = 48)—ultrasound-guided portal vein puncture, procedure done in an IIDS; and Group III (n = 211)—ultrasound-guided portal vein puncture, procedure done in a flat panel detector-based system (FPDS). Radiation exposure (dose-area product [DAP], in Gy cm{sup 2} and fluoroscopy time [FT] in minutes) was retrospectively analyzed.ResultsDAP was significantly higher in Group I (mean ± SD 360 ± 298; median 287; 75th percentile 389 Gy cm{sup 2}) as compared to Group II (217 ± 130; 178; 276 Gy cm{sup 2}; p = 0.002) and Group III (129 ± 117; 70; 150 Gy cm{sup 2}p < 0.001). The difference in DAP between Groups II and III was also significant (p < 0.001). Group I had significantly longer FT (25.78 ± 13.52 min) as compared to Group II (20.45 ± 10.87 min; p = 0.02) and Group III (19.76 ± 13.34; p < 0.001). FT was not significantly different between Groups II and III (p = 0.73).ConclusionsReal-time ultrasound-guided targeting of the portal venous system during TIPS creation results in a significantly lower radiation exposure and reduced FT. Further reduction in radiation exposure can be achieved through the use of modern angiographic units with FPDS.

  1. Radiation exposure by man-modified materials containing natural radionuclides

    Becker, D.E. [Technical Inspection Agency of Bavaria, Munich (Germany); Eder, E. [Government of Bavaria, Ministry for State Development and Environmental Affairs Development, Munich (Germany); Reichelt, A. [Technical Inspection Agency of Bavaria, Munich (Germany)

    1992-07-01

    More than one hundred materials, containing natural radioactive nuclides, are being investigated due to radiation exposure to people. This paper deals with thoriated gas mantles and shows that the radiation exposure by inhalation of radionuclides released while burning and exchange is not negligible. (author)

  2. Epistemological limitation for attributing health effects to natural radiation exposure

    González, Abel J.

    2010-01-01

    The attribution of health effects to prolonged radiation exposure situations, such as those experienced in nature, is a challenging problem. The paper describes the epistemological limitations for such attribution it demonstrate that in most natural exposure situations, the theory of radiation-related sciences is not capable to provide the scientific evidence that health effects actually occur (or do not occur) and, therefore, that radiation effects are attributable to natural exposure situations and imputable to nature. Radiation exposure at high levels is known to provoke health effects as tissue reactions. If individuals experience these effects they can be attributed to the specific exposure with a high degree of confidence under the following conditions: the dose incurred have been higher that the relevant dose-threshold for the specific effect; and an unequivocal pathological diagnosis is attainable ensuring that possible competing causes have been eliminated. Only under these conditions, the occurrence of the effect may be properly attested and attributed to the exposure. However, even high levels of natural radiation exposure are lower than relevant dose-thresholds for tissue reactions and, therefore, natural radiation exposure is generally unable to cause these type of effects. One exception to this general rule could be situations of high levels of natural radiation exposure that might be sufficient to induce opacities in the lens of the eyes (which could be considered a tissue-reaction type of effect)

  3. Background radiation levels and medical exposure levels in Australia

    Webb, D.V.; Solomon, S.B.; Thomson, J.E.M.

    1999-01-01

    The average effective background dose received by the Australian population has been reassessed to be ∼1.5 millisievert (mSv) per year. Over half of this exposure arises from exposure from terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays, the remainder from radionuclides within the body and from inhalation of radon progeny. This background is to be compared with medical radiation, primarily diagnostic, which could add half as much again to the population exposure. This paper reviews research programmes carried out by the Australian Radiation Laboratory to study radiation exposure from natural background and from medical use. While the latter exposure is accepted to have a social benefit, there is a need to ensure that doses are no more than necessary to provide effective diagnosis and optimal treatment. Copyright (1999) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  4. Optimizing radiation exposure for CT localizer radiographs

    Bohrer, Evelyn; Maeder, Ulf; Fiebich, Martin [Univ. of Applied Sciences, Giessen (Germany). Inst. of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection-IMPS; Schaefer, Stefan; Krombach, Gabriele A. [Univ. Hospital Giessen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Noel, Peter B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2017-08-01

    The trend towards submillisievert CT scans leads to a higher dose fraction of localizer radiographs in CT examinations. The already existing technical capabilities make dose optimization of localizer radiographs worthwhile. Modern CT scanners apply automatic exposure control (AEC) based on attenuation data in such a localizer. Therefore not only this aspect but also the detectability of anatomical landmarks in the localizer for the desired CT scan range adjustment needs to be considered. The effective dose of a head, chest, and abdomen-pelvis localizer radiograph with standard factory settings and user-optimized settings was determined using Monte Carlo simulations. CT examinations of an anthropomorphic phantom were performed using multiple sets of acquisition parameters for the localizer radiograph and the AEC for the subsequent helical CT scan. Anatomical landmarks were defined to assess the image quality of the localizer. CTDI{sub vol} and effective mAs per slice of the helical CT scan were recorded to examine the impact of localizer settings on a helical CT scan. The dose of the localizer radiograph could be decreased by more than 90% while the image quality remained sufficient when selecting the lowest available settings (80 kVp, 20 mA, pa tube position). The tube position during localizer acquisition had a greater impact on the AEC than the reduction of tube voltage and tube current. Except for the use of a pa tube position, all changes of acquisition parameters for the localizer resulted in a decreased total radiation exposure. A dose reduction of CT localizer radiograph is necessary and possible. In the examined CT system there was no negative impact on the modulated helical CT scan when the lowest tube voltage and tube current were used for the localizer.

  5. Radiation exposure of nurses in a coronary care unit

    Jankowski, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    In response to increasing awareness of radiation as a possible occupational hazard, nursing personnel staffing a hospital CCU were monitored over a 3-year period to determine occupational exposure. Portable x-ray machines, fluoroscopic units, and patients injected with radiopharmaceuticals were all potential radiation sources on such a unit. Whole-body TLD badges, exchanged monthly, indicated no cumulative exposures over 80 mR during the entire study period. The minimal exposures reported do not justify regular use of dosimeters. Adherence to standard protective measures precludes most exposure to machine-produced radiation. Close, prolonged contact with a patient after an RVG study that utilizes /sup 99m/Tc may account for some exposure. The data indicate that radiation is not a significant occupational hazard for CCU nurses at this hospital; similar minimal exposures would be expected of other nonoccupationally exposed nursing personnel in like environments

  6. Health risk assessment of exposure to ionizing radiation

    Ogata, Hiromitsu

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment is an essential process for evaluating the human health effects of exposure to ionizing radiation and for determining acceptable levels of exposure. There are two major components of radiation risk assessment: a measure of exposure level and a measure of disease occurrence. For quantitative estimation of health risks, it is important to evaluate the association between exposure and disease occurrence using epidemiological or experimental data. In these approaches, statistical risk models are used particularly for estimating cancer risks related to exposure to low levels of radiation. This paper presents a summary of basic models and methods of risk assessment for studying exposure-risk relationships. Moreover, quantitative risk estimates are subject to several sources of uncertainty due to inherent limitations in risk assessment studies. This paper also discusses the limitations of radiation risk assessment. (author)

  7. Registration and monitoring of radiation exposure from radiological imaging

    Jungmann, F.; Pinto dos Santos, D.; Hempel, J.; Dueber, C.; Mildenberger, P.

    2013-01-01

    Strategies for reducing radiation exposure are an important part of optimizing medical imaging and therefore a relevant quality factor in radiology. Regarding the medical radiation exposure, computed tomography has a special relevance. The use of the integrating the healthcare enterprise (IHE) radiation exposure monitoring (REM) profile is the upcoming standard for organizing and collecting exposure data in radiology. Currently most installed base devices do not support this profile generating the required digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) dose structured reporting (SR). For this reason different solutions had been developed to register dose exposure measurements without having the dose SR object. Registration and analysis of dose-related parameters is required for constantly optimizing examination protocols, especially computed tomography (CT) examinations based on the latest research results in order to minimize the individual radiation dose exposure from medical imaging according to the principle as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). (orig.) [de

  8. Maintenance hemodialysis patients have high cumulative radiation exposure.

    Kinsella, Sinead M

    2010-10-01

    Hemodialysis is associated with an increased risk of neoplasms which may result, at least in part, from exposure to ionizing radiation associated with frequent radiographic procedures. In order to estimate the average radiation exposure of those on hemodialysis, we conducted a retrospective study of 100 patients in a university-based dialysis unit followed for a median of 3.4 years. The number and type of radiological procedures were obtained from a central radiology database, and the cumulative effective radiation dose was calculated using standardized, procedure-specific radiation levels. The median annual radiation dose was 6.9 millisieverts (mSv) per patient-year. However, 14 patients had an annual cumulative effective radiation dose over 20 mSv, the upper averaged annual limit for occupational exposure. The median total cumulative effective radiation dose per patient over the study period was 21.7 mSv, in which 13 patients had a total cumulative effective radiation dose over 75 mSv, a value reported to be associated with a 7% increased risk of cancer-related mortality. Two-thirds of the total cumulative effective radiation dose was due to CT scanning. The average radiation exposure was significantly associated with the cause of end-stage renal disease, history of ischemic heart disease, transplant waitlist status, number of in-patient hospital days over follow-up, and death during the study period. These results highlight the substantial exposure to ionizing radiation in hemodialysis patients.

  9. Titanium-Water Thermosyphon Gamma Radiation Exposure and Results

    Sanzi, James, L.A; Jaworske, Donald, A.; Goodenow, Debra, A.

    2012-01-01

    Titanium-water thermosyphons are being considered for use in heat rejection systems for fission power systems. Their proximity to the nuclear reactor will result in some gamma irradiation. Noncondensable gas formation from radiation-induced breakdown of water over time may render portions of the thermosyphon condenser inoperable. A series of developmental thermosyphons were operated at nominal operating temperature under accelerated gamma irradiation, with exposures on the same order of magnitude as that expected in 8 years of heat rejection system operation. Temperature data were obtained during exposure at three locations on each thermosyphon: evaporator, condenser, and condenser end cap. Some noncondensable gas was evident; however, thermosyphon performance was not affected because the noncondensable gas was compressed into the fill tube region at the top of the thermosyphon, away from the heat rejecting fin. The trend appeared to be an increasing amount of noncondensable gas formation with increasing gamma irradiation dose. Hydrogen is thought to be the most likely candidate for the noncondensable gas and hydrogen is known to diffuse through grain boundaries. Post-exposure evaluation of one thermosyphon in a vacuum chamber and at temperature revealed that the noncondensable gas diffused out of the thermosyphon over a relatively short period of time. Further research shows a number of experimental and theoretical examples of radiolysis occurring through gamma radiation alone in pure water.

  10. Optimising work practices to minimise the radiation exposure of PET radiopharmacists

    Hickson, K.; Chan, G.; O'Keefe, G.; Young, K.; Tochon-Danguy, H.; Poniger, S.; Scott, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The recent installation of a new medical cyclotron at Austin Health has given justification to install an automatic radiopharmaceutical dispenser. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the automatic radiopharmaceutical dispenser on the radiation exp sure of the PET radiopharmacist. Radiation measurements performed can be divided into two distinct examinations. These are; a survey of the ambient radiation levels and an estimation of the personal radiation dose to the radiopharmacist. Shielding around the automatic dispenser was modified and radiation levels were then compared pre and post optimisation. Using real time monitoring methods, the yearly projected radiation dose to the radiopharmacist for FOG production was found. For whole body exposure this was approximately 4.1 mSv per year and a dose of 221 mS v per year to the hands. The radiation dose burden from all duties was recorded using TLD's and was found to be 4.5 and 321 mSv for whole body and hand radiation doses respectively. Since the implementation of an automatic radiopharmaceutical dose dispenser, radiation exposure recorded to the hands by TLD measurements have fallen by 39%. Further optimisation has seen the ambient radiation levels fall by 15%. Conclusion It has been shown that by reviewing work practices, radiation exposure continues to remain below the radiation dose constraints required by law. Continuing optimization and reviewing ensures that radiation exposure is kept as low as reasonably achievable. (author)

  11. Routine medicare and radiation exposure (3) biology about radiation exposure for its understanding

    Saito, Tsutomu; Hirata, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Radiation-induced biological responses are easily explained as follows. The process of cancer formation is on the hypothesis of multi-step carcinogenesis of the initiation, promotion and progression. Radiation is an exogenous physical initiator. Physical process of ionization in biomaterials by radiation occurs within the time of 10 -12 sec order, which resulting in chemical process (10 -6 sec) leading to tissue response or to cancerous change (several tens hours to several decades). Direct and indirect effects on DNA are yielded with the high LET (linear energy transfer) radiation and low, through OH-radical formation, respectively. Double strand break of DNA induced by radiation is repaired by the error-free homologous recombination or error-prone non-homologous end-joining. At the early phase of the damage, DNA damage response begins to work for repairing, and when the response is inoperable, cellular response is induced to lead radiation apoptosis as an exclusion mechanism of abnormal cells. The biological effects differ even at the same dose of different radiations when their LET is different, and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is used. For correction of the stochastic radiation effect, the radiation weighting factor (W R ) is used for conversion to the single photon beam dose that ICRP defines as the equivalent dose (H T , Sv). ICRP (Pub. 103) also recommends the use of RBE (Gy) for the definitive effect. Radiation effects are known to be modified by such phenomena as the bystander effect, cluster damage of DNA, radiation adaptation, hormesis, dose rate effect and non-tumor inducing dose. ICRP employs linear non-threshold (LNT) hypothesis for low dose and low dose rate carcinogenesis. (T.T.)

  12. Ocular exposure to ultraviolet and visible radiation from light sources

    Hietanen, M.

    1992-01-01

    Exposure of the eyes to UV radiation and blue light of artificial light sources and the sun was evaluated. A spectroradiometer was used to determine the spectral irradiance at 1 nm intervals from 250 to 800 nm. Various groups of workers are at risk of ocular over-exposure to optical radiation, outdoor workers maintenance personnel of bright light source as and wear eye-protectors with effective filtering of UV radiation and blue light. (author)

  13. Criteria for radiological protection against exposure to natural radiation

    Cardenas Herrera, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation includes natural radiation which has been part cosmic radiation. Radon in homes, irradiation, gamma, among others, they have also been part of ionizing radiation. The activities that have lead to natural radiation materials are: mining and processing of uranium, radio application and thorium, phosphate industry, mining and smelting of metals, oil and gas extraction, coal mining and power generation, rare earth industry and titanium, zirconium and ceramics, building materials, waste water purification. Therefore, different criteria for radiation protection have had to create against exposure to natural radiation. Distinct rules and regulations to control were created in that sense [es

  14. Radiation exposure in gastroenterology: improving patient and staff protection.

    Ho, Immanuel K H

    2014-08-01

    Medical imaging involving the use of ionizing radiation has brought enormous benefits to society and patients. In the past several decades, exposure to medical radiation has increased markedly, driven primarily by the use of computed tomography. Ionizing radiation has been linked to carcinogenesis. Whether low-dose medical radiation exposure will result in the development of malignancy is uncertain. This paper reviews the current evidence for such risk, and aims to inform the gastroenterologist of dosages of radiation associated with commonly ordered procedures and diagnostic tests in clinical practice. The use of medical radiation must always be justified and must enable patients to be exposed at the lowest reasonable dose. Recommendations provided herein for minimizing radiation exposure are based on currently available evidence and Working Party expert consensus.

  15. DOE Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure_2011 pamphlet

    ORAU

    2012-08-08

    This pamphlet focusses on two HSS activities that help ensure radiation exposures are accurately assessed and recorded, namely: 1) the quality and accuracy of occupational radiation exposure monitoring, and 2) the recording, reporting, analysis, and dissemination of the monitoring results. It is intended to provide a short summary of two specific HSS programs that aid in the oversight of radiation protection activities at DOE. The Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) is in place to ensure that radiation exposure monitoring at all DOE sites is precise and accurate, and conforms to national and international performance and quality assurance standards. The DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems (REMS) program provides for the collection, analysis, and dissemination of occupational radiation exposure information. The annual REMS report is a valuable tool for managing radiological safety programs and for developing policies to protect individuals from occupational exposure to radiation. In tandem, these programs provide DOE management and workers an assurance that occupational radiation exposures are accurately measured, analyzed, and reported.

  16. Residual insufficiency of hematopoiesis after acute or chronic exposure to gamma radiation or neutrons

    Wangenheim, K.H. v.; Peterson, H.P.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    Recovery of the stem cell quality is possible after acute exposure to 500 rad γ radiation up to a period of 6 months. Beyond this data, a significant residual damage remains. The same applies to quantitative stem cell recovery. Chronic γ exposure leads to less radiation damage than acute exposure. After a total accumulation of 500 rad, the proliferation factors after chronic exposure were, on an average 20% higher than after acute radiation exposure. 6 MeV neutron exposure reduced the stem cell quality and stem cell count much more efficiently than γ exposure. The relative biological effect of neutrons is at least 2.5 times as high as the γ effect, both for the stem cell count and the stem cell quality. (orig.) [de

  17. The treatment progress of radiation dermatitis from external exposure

    Pu Wangyang; Liu Yulong

    2009-01-01

    Radiation dermatitis is often seen and is often a complication of radiation therapy of tumors. It is characterized by poor healing, stubborn relapse, and carcinogenesis.. The treatment include drug, physical therapy and surgery. This article describes the treatment progress of radiation dermatitis from external exposure. (authors)

  18. On the radiation exposure in temporomandibular joint examinations

    Rother, U.; Hildebrandt, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    The radiation exposure caused by standardized examinations of the temporomandibular joint has been determined with the aid of 660 exposures of an Alderson phantom. Comparative examinations were performed with the classic contact technique according to Parma to elucidate the results obtained. The lowest surface exposure was observed in contact examinations of the temporomandibular joint. Application of a flat cone led to a 13-fold reduction in surface exposure compared to contact examinations according to Parma. Furthermore, radiation exposure strongly decreased from the irradiation field to the adjacent area if a cone (flat cone and ear cone) was used. (author)

  19. Radiation exposure in I-131 iodine therapy

    Friedrich, W.

    1985-01-01

    In the past five years, the applied I-131 radioactivity quantity has doubled with a constant number of beds. In 1984, it was 925 GBq (25 Ci). Despite this development, no changes in the professional radiation exposure were made out. The evaluation shows a dose smaller than 0.04 man Sv/TBq (0.16 man rem/Ci) of I-131 applied. This value is below the traceability limit of the film badges. The incorporation load of the personnel (27 members) was determined by monthly body counter measurements. Only in one measurement thyroid gland activity of 5 kBq (140 nCi) was detected. Most measurements did not show any incorporation; and the few positive results were below 0.74 kBq (20 nCi). The environmental load due to unfiltered release from patients' rooms was determined at the fence of the nuclear research plant. The maximum was 0.24 mSv/a thyroid gland dose of a small child in 1982 taking into account the measured 90% partion of organic compound iodine. The waste water is decayed following chemical treatment in storage tanks. (orig./HP) [de

  20. A novel dosimeter for measuring the amount of radiation exposure of surgeons during percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Instadose?

    Yuruk, Emrah; Gureser, Gokhan; Tuken, Murat; Ertas, Kasim; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of Instadose?, a novel dosimeter designed for radiation workers to provide a measurement of the radiation dose at any time from any computer; to determine the amount of radiation exposure during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL); and to evaluate the factors that affect the amount of radiation exposed. Material and methods Two experienced surgeons wore Instadose? on the outer part of their lead aprons during the PNL procedures...

  1. Occupational hazard: radiation exposure for the urologist: developing a reference standard

    Cohen, Seth A.; Rangarajan, Sriram S.; Chen, Tony; Palazzi, Kerrin L.; Langford, J. Scott; Sur, Roger L., E-mail: rlsur@ucsd.edu [Department of Surgery and Division of Urology, U C San Diego Health Science System, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Introduction: to date, there is a paucity of literature offering practicing urologists a reference for the amount of radiation exposure received while surgically managing urolithiasis. This study examines the cumulative radiation exposure of an urologist over 9 months. Materials and methods: We present a case series of fluoroscopic exposures of an experienced stone surgeon operating at an academic comprehensive stone center between April and December 2011. Radiation exposure measurements were determined by a thermoluminescent dosimeter worn on the outside of the surgeon's thyroid shield. Estimations of radiation exposure (mrem) per month were charted with fluoroscopy times, using scatter plots to estimate Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. Results: the total 9-month radiation exposure was 87 mrems for deep dose equivalent (DDE), 293 mrem for lens dose equivalent (LDE), and 282 mrem for shallow dose equivalent (SDE). Total fluoroscopy time was 252.44 minutes for 64 ureteroscopies (URSs), 29 percutaneous nephrolithtomies (PNLs), 20 cystoscopies with ureteral stent placements, 9 shock wave ithotripsies (SWLs), 9 retrograde pyelograms (RPGs), 2 endoureterotomies, and 1 ureteral balloon dilation. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients examining the association between fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure were not significant for DDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2), LDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2), or SDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2). Conclusions: Over a 9-month period, total radiation exposures were well below annual accepted limits (DDE 5000 mrem, LDE 15,000 mrem and SDE 50,000 mrem). Although fluoroscopy time did not correlate with radiation exposure, future prospective studies can account for co-variates such as patient obesity and urologist distance from radiation source. (author)

  2. Health effects and radiation dose from exposure to radon indoors

    Swedjemark, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Radon exposure has been declared a health hazard by several organisations, for example the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the World Health Organisation (WHO). The basis for the risk estimate has been the results from epidemiological studies on miners exposed to radon, supported by the results of residential epidemiology. Only few of the many residential epidemiological studies carried out hitherto have a design applicable for a risk estimate. The largest is the Swedish national study but several large well designed studies are ongoing. An excess risk has also been found in animal research. The model describes smoking and radon exposure as between additive and multiplicative, found in both miners and residential studies. The relatively few non-smokers among the miners and also among the residents give a problem at estimating the radon risk for these groups. It would also be desirable to know more about the importance of the age and the time period at exposure. Lung dose calculations from radon exposure are not recommended by ICRP in their publication 66. For comparison with other radiation sources the ICRP recommends the concept 'dose conversion convention' obtained as the risk estimate divided by the detriment. Other effects of radon exposure than lung cancer have not been shown epidemiologically, but dose calculations indicate an excess risk of about 5% of the excess lung cancer risk. (author)

  3. Ionizing radiations used in medical diagnostics as a source of radiation exposure of the Bulgarian population

    Ingilizova, K.; Vasilev, G.

    1998-01-01

    X-ray and radionuclide application in medical diagnosing is the major sources of Bulgarian population exposure to ionizing radiations exceeding the radiation background. The number of X-ray examination on a nationwide scale shows an increase from 1600 thousand annually in 1950 to 10300 thousand in 1980 and decreases to about 4700 thousand annually for the period 1992-1993. The frequency for the above mentioned time intervals varies in the range 0.22 to 1.17 examinations per capita annually and decreases to 0.56. The roentgenoscopy to roentgenography ratio varies from 2.5:1 to 0.9:1 (1975) and increases to 2.0:1 (1993). The number of radioisotope examinations increased from 34 thousand in 1970 to 170 thousand annually in 1985 and decreased to about thousand annually in 1992-1993 with a number of studies per capita varying from 0.004 to 0.020 and decreasing to 0.010. In 1993 the annual collective effective dose due to X-ray diagnostics amounts to about 7000 man-Sv/a which exceeds the radiation background exposure by 76%. Radioisotope diagnostics in the period reviewed accounted for nearly 700 man-Sv/a with an exposure exceeding the radiation background by 7.7%. The major problems relating to patient protection and benefit/risk ratio improvement are discussed. (author)

  4. Investigation of radiation exposure dosage in dental and panoramic radiography

    Ishii, Kenichi

    2005-01-01

    Dental radiography and a 10-sheet procedure were conducted at 10 sites in the maxillomandibular anterior teeth and at both sides of the premolar and molar teeth sections with and without a protective apron (total 22 patterns). Experiments, which included a total of five patterns, involving standard ortho-radiography were performed with and without a protective apron, positioning of an apron exclusively on the anterior or the posterior portion of the body and utility of an apron that covered the entire body. Results are as follows: In dental radiography, internal organs included in a bundle demonstrated high radiation exposure, whereas organs excluded from the bundle exhibited low radiation exposure. In organs situated below the thyroid gland, utilization of aprons resulted in lower radiation exposure. In ortho-radiography, radiation exposure was greatest in the parotid gland, followed by the mandibular, sublingual and thyroid glands, respectively. The protective apron resulted in lower radiation exposure at sites situated below the mammary glands; moreover, a protector covering the entire body led to lower radiation exposure in comparison to an apron worn exclusively on the anterior or the posterior aspect of the body. No significant difference was observed in terms of exposure between protective aprons worn on the anterior or the posterior aspect of the body. Furthermore, a protective collar resulted in nearly zero radiation exposure in the thyroid gland. However, a protective collar largely interferes with interpretation of the radiograph; thus, in order to produce interpretable radiographs, protection of the thyroid gland is not possible. In conclusion, radiation exposure dosage can be reduced via utilization of a protective apron positioned below the thyroid gland during dental radiography and below the mammary glands during ortho-radiography. We confirmed evidence indicating that application of a protective apron can reduce patient radiation exposure dosage

  5. The philosophy and assumptions underlying exposure limits for ionising radiation, inorganic lead, asbestos and noise

    Akber, R.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: A review of the literature relating to exposure to, and exposure limits for, ionising radiation, inorganic lead, asbestos and noise was undertaken. The four hazards were chosen because they were insidious and ubiquitous, were potential hazards in both occupational and environmental settings and had early and late effects depending on dose and dose rate. For all four hazards, the effect of the hazard was enhanced by other exposures such as smoking or organic solvents. In the cases of inorganic lead and noise, there were documented health effects which affected a significant percentage of the exposed populations at or below the [effective] exposure limits. This was not the case for ionising radiation and asbestos. None of the exposure limits considered exposure to multiple mutagens/carcinogens in the calculation of risk. Ionising radiation was the only one of the hazards to have a model of all likely exposures, occupational, environmental and medical, as the basis for the exposure limits. The other three considered occupational exposure in isolation from environmental exposure. Inorganic lead and noise had economic considerations underlying the exposure limits and the exposure limits for asbestos were based on the current limit of detection. All four hazards had many variables associated with exposure, including idiosyncratic factors, that made modelling the risk very complex. The scientific idea of a time weighted average based on an eight hour day, and forty hour week on which the exposure limits for lead, asbestos and noise were based was underpinned by neither empirical evidence or scientific hypothesis. The methodology of the ACGIH in the setting of limits later brought into law, may have been unduly influenced by the industries most closely affected by those limits. Measuring exposure over part of an eight hour day and extrapolating to model exposure over the longer term is not the most effective way to model exposure. The statistical techniques used

  6. Survival of human lymphocytes after exposure to densely ionizing radiations

    Madhvanath, U.; Raju, M.R.; Kelly, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    Interphase death of human blood lymphocytes cultured in vitro was studied after exposure to 60 Co gamma rays and to accelerated ions of 1 H, 4 He, 7 Li, 11 B, 12 C, 20 Ne, 40 Ar, and π - meson beam under aerobic conditions. Exposures were also conducted under hypoxic conditions with 60 Co gamma rays, 4 He, 7 Li, and 12 C ion beams. Time course of interphase death was followed for 6 days after irradiation. Percent survivals were determined by using the trypan blue exclusion method. Survival curves at 5 days postirradiation were exponential for all radiations studied. These observations indicate that the production of interphase death of lymphocytes by densely ionizing radiations follows a pattern similar to that observed with colony-forming mammalian cells. However, the reproductive capacity of the latter cells is impaired with maximum effectiveness at energy densities associated with 220 keV/μm for the beam conditions used in this investigation. The much lower energy densities required to kill a lymphocyte suggest that a sensitive structure other than DNA may be responsible for the production of lymphocyte death, perhaps the membranes. The calculated inactivation cross sections for high-LET radiations above 650 keV/μm yielded values larger than the actual cell dimensions. It appears that contributions from delta rays become appreciable in this system at these LET's

  7. Radiation related cancer risk after ionization radiation exposure to the Bulgarian population

    Chobanova, N.; Vasilev, G.; Hadjieva, T.

    2008-01-01

    Average annual individual effective dose of natural radiation background (NRB) for the Bulgarian population is estimated to be 2.33 mSv.a -1 (from 1.60 to 3.06). NRB has been considered nearly constant in time, but during the 20th century the radiation above NRB has gradually increased. It was mainly caused by the medical X-ray and radionuclide diagnostics, radiation treatment, occupational radiation, global radioactive fallout, Chernobyl accident, exploitation of thermal power and nuclear power stations, etc. For the years 1950-2000 collective dose from NRB represents 965 000 man.Sv and radiation over NRB gives 1 042 800 man.Sv. Population risk following radiation exposure is estimated mainly on stochastic health effect by implementation of the so-called Linear non-threshold model (LNM) dose-effect. It postulates no dose threshold for radiation-induced health effects. Using different models, assumptions and assessments, authors have determined the contribution of lethal radiogenic cancer to Bulgarian spontaneous cancer rate to be from 3.7% to 20.6%. Numerous contradictions and concepts about the LNM still persist, because from statistical point of view, LNM can neither be proved nor rejected. (authors)

  8. Prediction of LDEF exposure to the ionizing radiation environment

    Watts, J. W.; Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1996-01-01

    Predictions of the LDEF mission's trapped proton and electron and galactic cosmic ray proton exposures have been made using the currently accepted models with improved resolution near mission end and better modeling of solar cycle effects. An extension of previous calculations, to provide a more definitive description of the LDEF exposure to ionizing radiation, is represented by trapped proton and electron flux as a function of mission time, presented considering altitude and solar activity variation during the mission and the change in galactic cosmic ray proton flux over the mission. Modifications of the AP8MAX and AP8MIN fluence led to a reduction of fluence by 20%. A modified interpolation model developed by Daly and Evans resulted in 30% higher dose and activation levels, which better agreed with measured values than results predicted using the Vette model.

  9. Historical overview of radiation exposure guidance on radioactive consumer products

    Tapert, A.C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper is an historical overview of radiation exposure recommendations suggested by several commissions, committees, and agencies. Guidelines issued by the International Commission of Radiological Protection, International Atomic Energy Agency, Federal Radiation Council, Nuclear Energy Agency (formerly the European Nuclear Energy Agency), National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Food and Drug Administration, Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission are discussed

  10. DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure November 2011

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Analysis

    2011-11-11

    This report discusses radiation protection and dose reporting requirements, presents the 2010 occupational radiation dose data trended over the past 5 years, and includes instructions to submit successful ALARA projects.

  11. Radiation exposure due to nuclear power

    This information brochure contains 12 earlier papers of leading experts on the radiation hazard the population incurs during normal operation of nuclear facilities and the radiation-biological fundamentals of the effects of ionizing radio humans. (HP) [de

  12. Radiation exposure levels in phosphate mining activities

    Othman, I.; Al-Hushari, M.; Raja, G.

    1992-01-01

    Radon, radon daughter concentration and gamma ray exposure rate were measured at different places in the phosphate mining areas of Syria. The grab sampling method was used. For radon measurements, discrete air samples without progeny were collected over short periods of time, whereas daughters were collected on filter paper. A three-count procedure was used for the measurement of radon daughter concentrations to improve accuracy. The measurements were carried out at 37 locations selected in the mines, factories, offices and homes in the mining area. The sampling was repeated monthly for a full calendar year. Workers and their families were classified in different categories according to the nature of their jobs. The doses were estimated using proper occupancy factors. The dose equivalent from radon daughters varies from 1 mSv.y -1 to a maximum of 10 mSv.y -1 . Radon concentrations vary from 100 Bq.m -3 to several hundreds. (author)

  13. Overview of the hazards of low-level exposure to radiation

    Ritenour, E.R.

    1984-01-01

    In this chapter the authors are concerned with low-level radiation, doses of ionizing radiations that are ten to thousands of times smaller than those required to contract ARS. Low-level radiation may be defined as an absorbed dose of 10 rem or less delivered over a short period of time. A larger dose delivered over a long period of time, for instance, 50 rem in 10 years, may also be considered low level. The definition is purposely loose so as to cover a wide variety of sources of radiation exposure, such as natural background (100 mrem/year) occupational exposures (<5 rem/year), and medical applications, such as diagnostic radiography (<1 rem). Low-level radiation exposure does not produce ARS. The health effects that may be of concern in regard to low-level radiation are its long-term sequelae. Studies of survivors of high-level radiation exposure (both human and laboratory animals) have indicated that there are three health effects that should be examined at low levels of exposure: induction of cancer, birth abnormalities (from irradiation in utero), and genetic effects. No other long-term effects of low-level exposure have been conclusively demonstrated in animals or humans

  14. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation: recommendations for cosmetic use

    Dias, C.; Carvalho, F.R.S.

    2000-01-01

    The beginning of the so-called tanning industry made possible the acquisition of a tanned skin independently of the available solar radiation. The tan is produced by ultraviolet radiation and, as well as in solar exposure, there are additional risks on the use of the so-called sun-beds. The damaging effects of ultraviolet exposure are well documented and reasonably quantified. The objective of this paper is to inform the potential effects of ultraviolet radiation exposure in sun-beds and to provide recommendations in order to reduce the associated risks. These recommendations are adapted for cosmetics use only (author)

  15. The Relationship between Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure and Vitamin D Status

    Ola Engelsen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the main factors influencing the synthesis of vitamin D, with particular focus on ultraviolet radiation exposure. On the global level, the main source of vitamin D is the sun. The effect of solar radiation on vitamin D synthesis depends to some extent on the initial vitamin D levels. At moderate to high latitudes, diet becomes an increasingly important source of vitamin D due to decreased solar intensity and cold temperatures, which discourage skin exposure. During the mid-winter season, these factors result in decreased solar radiation exposure, hindering extensively the synthesis of vitamin D in these populations.

  16. Non-Ionizing Radiation - sources, exposure and health effects

    Hietanen, M.

    2003-01-01

    Non-ionizing radiation contains the electromagnetic wavelengths from ultraviolet (UV) radiation to static electric and magnetic fields. Optical radiation consists of UV, visible and infrared (IR) radiation while EM fields include static, extremely low (ELF), low frequency (LF) and radiofrequency (RF) fields. The principal scientific organization on non-ionizing radiation is the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The main activity of ICNIRP is to provide guidance on safe exposure and protection of workers and members of the public by issuing statements and recommendations. (orig.)

  17. Regulation of nuclear radiation exposures in India

    Mishra, U.C. E-mail: ucmishra@yahoo.com

    2004-07-01

    India has a long-term program of wide spread applications of nuclear radiations and radioactive sources for peaceful applications in medicine, industry, agriculture and research and is already having several thousand places in the country where such sources are being routinely used. These places are mostly outside the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) installations. DAE supplies such sources. The most important application of nuclear energy in DAE is in electricity generation through nuclear power plants. Fourteen such plants are operating and many new plants are at various stages of construction. In view of the above mentioned wide spread applications, Indian parliament through an Act, called Atomic Energy Act, 1964 created an autonomous body called Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) with comprehensive authority and powers. This Board issues codes, guides, manuals, etc., to regulate such installations so as to ensure safe use of such sources and personnel engaged in such installations and environment receives radiation exposures within the upper bounds prescribed by them. Periodic reports are submitted to AERB to demonstrate compliance of its directives. Health, Safety and Environment Group of Bhabha Atomic Research Centres, Mumbai carries out necessary surveillance and monitoring of all installations of the DAE on a routine basis and also periodic inspections of other installations using radiation sources. Some of the nuclear fuel cycle plants like nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing involve large radioactive source inventories and have potential of accidental release of radio activity into the environment, an Environmental Surveillance Laboratory (ESL) is set up at each such site much before the facility goes into operation. These ESL's collect baseline data and monitor the environment throughout the life of the facilities including the de- commissioning stage. The data is provided to AERB and is available to members of the public. In addition, a

  18. Regulation of nuclear radiation exposures in India

    Mishra, U.C.

    2004-01-01

    India has a long-term program of wide spread applications of nuclear radiations and radioactive sources for peaceful applications in medicine, industry, agriculture and research and is already having several thousand places in the country where such sources are being routinely used. These places are mostly outside the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) installations. DAE supplies such sources. The most important application of nuclear energy in DAE is in electricity generation through nuclear power plants. Fourteen such plants are operating and many new plants are at various stages of construction. In view of the above mentioned wide spread applications, Indian parliament through an Act, called Atomic Energy Act, 1964 created an autonomous body called Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) with comprehensive authority and powers. This Board issues codes, guides, manuals, etc., to regulate such installations so as to ensure safe use of such sources and personnel engaged in such installations and environment receives radiation exposures within the upper bounds prescribed by them. Periodic reports are submitted to AERB to demonstrate compliance of its directives. Health, Safety and Environment Group of Bhabha Atomic Research Centres, Mumbai carries out necessary surveillance and monitoring of all installations of the DAE on a routine basis and also periodic inspections of other installations using radiation sources. Some of the nuclear fuel cycle plants like nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing involve large radioactive source inventories and have potential of accidental release of radio activity into the environment, an Environmental Surveillance Laboratory (ESL) is set up at each such site much before the facility goes into operation. These ESL's collect baseline data and monitor the environment throughout the life of the facilities including the de- commissioning stage. The data is provided to AERB and is available to members of the public. In addition, a multi

  19. Evaluation of the radiation exposure. Recommendation of the radiation protection commission

    Baldauf, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The recommendation of the Strahlenschutzkommission (radiation protection commission) deals with the realistic requirements for the radiation exposure assessment based on radio-ecological modeling. The recommendation is applicable for all exposure situations that can be derived from FEP (features, events processes) exposure scenarios. In this case the exposure scenario consists of natural and technical features and a set of processes and events that can influence the radiation exposure of the population. The report includes the scientific justification, the previous procedure in Germany and abroad (EURATOM, France, UK, Ukraine, USA).

  20. Time and Place as Modifiers of Personal UV Exposure

    Brian L. Diffey

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available It is a common belief that, if we want to limit our sun exposure during outdoor recreational activities and holidays in order to avoid sunburn or reduce our risk of skin cancer, we need to reach for the bottle of sunscreen or cover up with clothing. As important as these measures are, there is another way to enjoy our time outdoors and still benefit from the experience. In this article, we consider the impact of time, place, and behaviour outdoors on our exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV radiation. Some of the simple actions we can take in controlling our UV exposure include being aware of the position of the sun in the sky, understanding how we can use the UV index to guide our outdoor exposure, and the importance of reducing our sun exposure around the middle of the day. Finally we review our preferred holiday activities and destinations, and the influence of outdoor leisure pursuits. By planning where and when we spend our leisure time in the sun, we can maximise our enjoyment whilst limiting our UV exposure.

  1. Time and Place as Modifiers of Personal UV Exposure.

    Diffey, Brian L

    2018-05-30

    It is a common belief that, if we want to limit our sun exposure during outdoor recreational activities and holidays in order to avoid sunburn or reduce our risk of skin cancer, we need to reach for the bottle of sunscreen or cover up with clothing. As important as these measures are, there is another way to enjoy our time outdoors and still benefit from the experience. In this article, we consider the impact of time, place, and behaviour outdoors on our exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Some of the simple actions we can take in controlling our UV exposure include being aware of the position of the sun in the sky, understanding how we can use the UV index to guide our outdoor exposure, and the importance of reducing our sun exposure around the middle of the day. Finally we review our preferred holiday activities and destinations, and the influence of outdoor leisure pursuits. By planning where and when we spend our leisure time in the sun, we can maximise our enjoyment whilst limiting our UV exposure.

  2. Environmental radiation exposure in case of power plant accidents

    Eder, K.

    1977-01-01

    The paper tries to overcome prejudices concerning radiation effects due to power plant accidents as well as to show the radiation exposure that may be expected near the the patient and to indicate ways and means to avoid or reduce this radiation exposure and to avoid contamination. It is a contribution to better information on radiation accidents and radiolesions in nuclear power plants with the aim of close cooperation between power plants, physicians, and hospitals and of helping to overcome erroneous popular assumptions. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Radiation exposure to patients during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Marti, J.M.; Robles, J.E.; Arbizu, J.; Castro, F. de; Berian, J.M.; Richter, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    We analyzed the radiological exposure to patients during Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) using a second generator lithotriptor. Stone location is accomplished by fluoroscopy and 'quick pics' or snapshots. A prospective study over 55 patients showed a mean exposure of 32.2 R. The introduction of the ALARA criterion reduced it to 16.1 R in the following 145 patients. Mean radiation exposure to patient varies according to treatment difficulty. A mean increase of radiation exposure of 1.6 between low and high difficulty treatment groups was observed. This variation was about 96% when the physician who performed the treatment was considered. (author)

  4. Radiation cancer, safety standards and current levels of exposure

    Mole, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    Cancer can be induced by radiation in any tissue where cancer occurs naturally. The observation that antenatal diagnostic radiography causes a small but definite increase in childhood cancer is as good evidence as could be expected in support of the scientific expectation that there would be no threshold of dose for carcinogenesis. A linear relation between radiation dose and frequency of induced cancer is a necessary assumption for a system of radiological protection but is not necessarily a reasonable basis for realistic assessments of cancer risk. Indeed there are radiobiological and epidemiological reasons to the contrary. If the linear hypothesis is accepted then at the present time in the UK the routine practice of medicine is of about 2 orders of magnitude more important in causing cancer than environmental pollution by discharge of radio-activity. The acceptability of radiation safety standards for occupational exposure may be justified by comparison of radiation cancer risks with risks from fatal accidents in the safer industries. The acceptability of the corresponding standards for members of the public seems to require more public discussion of the concept of negligible risk. Emotional reactions to uncontrolled releases of radio-activity are based at least in part on a failure to appreciate the hypothesis of linearity

  5. Radiation exposure inside reinforced concrete buildings at Nagasaki

    Rhoades, W.A.; Childs, R.L.; Ingersoll, D.T.

    1989-05-01

    The biological effects on the residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki due to initial-irradiation exposure during the nuclear attacks of World War II was recognized immediately as an important source of information. After the war, an extensive effort gathered data concerning the locations of individuals at the time of the attack and their subsequent medical histories. The data from personnel located in reinforced concrete buildings are particularly significant, since large groups of occupants received radiation injury without complications due to blast and thermal effects. In order to correlate the radiation dose with physiological effects, the dose to each individual must be calculated. Enough information about the construction of the buildings was available after the war to allow a radiation transport model to be constructed, but the accurate calculation of penetration into such large, thick-walled three dimensional structures was beyond the scope of computing technology until recently. Now, the availability of Cray vector computers and the development of a specially-constructed discrete ordinates transport code, TORT, have combined to allow the successful completion of such a study. This document describes the radiation transport calculations and tabulates the resulting doses by source component and individual case location. An extensive uncertainty analysis is also included. These data are to be used in another study as input to a formal statistical analysis, resulting in a new value for the LD50 dose, i.e., the dose at which the mortality risk is 50%. 55 refs., 67 figs., 70 tabs

  6. Cytogenetic effects as quantitative indicators of radiation exposure

    Bauchinger, Manfred

    1997-01-01

    Scoring of dicentrics in metaphase preparations of human T lymphocytes is the method of choice for estimating individual whole-body doses of radiation exposure. A quantification of partial-body exposures or non-uniform distribution of the dose is more complicated but it can be achieved by using specific mathematical approaches. For retrospective biodosimetry, conventional scoring of dicentrics is less precise because these unstable aberrations are eliminated with time post-exposure. Symmetrical translocations are not selected against during mitotic division in the haematopoietic cell reproductive centres, so the frequencies of these stable aberrations are generally assumed to remain constant even for decades. They can now be analysed precisely by fluorescence in situ hybridization using whole chromosome-specific DNA probes (chromosome painting) with a α-satellite DNA probe for centromere detection. Based on in vitro calibration curves established with single or multicolour paints covering 4-22% of the total human genomic DNA content, scoring of translocations has been applied for dose construction in smaller groups of atomic bomb survivors and victims of the Chernobyl and Goiania radiation accidents. However, prior to routine use, the method requires further validation. Such work includes the precise evaluation of the unexpectedly high frequency of complex exchanges (≥ 3 breaks in ≥ 2 chromosomes) found both at > 2 Gy doses of low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and generally for high LET α-particles. Data on the long-term stability of translocations and the appearance of clonal aberrations, as well as improved measurements of the linear coefficient of standard calibration curves, are also required. (Author)

  7. Occupational radiation exposure in upper Austrian water supplies and Spas

    Ringer, W.; Simader, M.; Bernreiter, M.; Aspek, W.; Kaineder, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM lays down the basic safety standards for the protection of the workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionising radiation, including natural radiation. Based on the directive and on the corresponding Austrian legislation a comprehensive study was conducted to determine the occupational radiation exposure in Upper Austrian water supplies and spas. The study comprises 45 water supplies and 3 spas, one of them being a radon spa. Most measurements taken were to determine the radon concentration in air at different workplaces (n = 184), but also measurements of the dose rate at dehumidifiers (n = 7) and gamma spectrometric measurements of back washing water (n = 4) were conducted. To determine the maximum occupational radon exposure in a water supply measurements were carried out in all water purification buildings and in at least half o f the drinking water reservoirs of the water supply. The results were combined with the respective working times in these locations (these data having been collected by means of a questionnaire). Where the calculated exposure was greater than 1 MBq h/m then all drinking water reservoirs of the concerned water suppl y were measured for their radon concentration to ensure a reliable assessment of the exposure. The results show that the radon concentrations in the water supplies were lower as expected, being in 55% of all measurement sites below 1000 Bq/m in 91% below 5000 Bq/m and with a maximum value of 38700 Bq/m.This leads to exposures that are below 2 MBq h/m (corresponding to approx. 6 mSv/a) in 42 water supplies. However, for the remaining three water supplies maximal occupational exposures due to radon of 2.8 MBq h/m (∼ 10 mSv/a), 15 MBq h/m (∼ 50 mSv/a), and 17 MBq h/m ( ∼ 56 mSv/a), respectively, were determined. In these water supplies remediation measures were proposed, based mainly on improved ventilation of and/or reduction of working time in the building

  8. Operator dependency of the radiation exposure in cardiac interventions: feasibility of ultra low dose levels

    Emre Ozpelit, Mehmet; Ercan, Ertugrul; Pekel, Nihat; Tengiz, Istemihan; Yilmaz, Akar; Ozpelit, Ebru; Ozyurtlu, Ferhat

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Mean radiation exposure in invasive cardiology varies greatly between different centres and interventionists. The International Commission on Radiological Protection and the EURATOM Council stipulate that, despite reference values, 'All medical exposure for radiodiagnostic purposes shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA). The purpose of this study is to establish the effects of the routine application of ALARA principles and to determine operator and procedure impact on radiation exposure in interventional cardiology. Materials and methods: A total of 240 consecutive cardiac interventional procedures were analysed. Five operators performed the procedures, two of whom were working in accordance with ALARA principles (Group 1 operators) with the remaining three working in a standard manner (Group 2 operators). Radiation exposure levels of these two groups were compared. Results: Total fluoroscopy time and the number of radiographic runs were similar between groups. However, dose area product and cumulative dose were significantly lower in Group 1 when compared with Group 2. Radiation levels of Group 1 were far below even the reference levels in the literature, thus representing an ultra-low-dose radiation exposure in interventional cardiology. Conclusion: By use of simple radiation reducing techniques, ultra-low-dose radiation exposure is feasible in interventional cardiology. Achievability of such levels depends greatly on operator awareness, desire, knowledge and experience of radiation protection. (authors)

  9. Water Chemistry Control in Reducing Corrosion and Radiation Exposure at PWR Reactor

    Febrianto

    2006-01-01

    Water chemistry control plays an important role in relation to plant availability, reliability and occupational radiation exposures. Radiation exposures of nuclear plant workers are determined by the radiation rate dose and by the amount maintenance and repair work time Water chemistry has always been, from beginning of operation of power Pressurized Water Reactor, an important factor in determining the integrity of reactor components, fuel cladding integrity and minimize out of core radiation exposures. For primary system, the parameters to control the quality of water chemistry have been subject to change in time. Reactor water coolant pH need to be optimally controlled and be operated in range pH 6.9 to 7.4. At pH lower than 6.9, cause increasing the radiation exposure level and increasing coolant water pH higher than 7.4 will decrease radiation exposure level but increasing risk to fuel cladding and steam generator tube. Since beginning 90 decade, PWR water coolant pH tend to be operated at pH 7.4. This paper will discuss concerning water chemistry development in reducing corrosion and radiation exposure dose in PWR reactor. (author)

  10. Exposure Influences Expressive Timing Judgments in Music

    Honing, Henkjan; Ladinig, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    This study is concerned with the question whether, and to what extent, listeners' previous exposure to music in everyday life, and expertise as a result of formal musical training, play a role in making expressive timing judgments in music. This was investigated by using a Web-based listening experiment in which listeners with a wide range of…

  11. Exposure influences expressive timing judgments in music

    Honing, H.; Ladinig, O.

    2009-01-01

    This study is concerned with the question whether, and to what extent, listeners' previous exposure to music in everyday life, and expertise as a result of formal musical training, play a role in making expressive timing judgments in music. This was investigated by using a Web-based listening

  12. Radiation exposure around patients after 201Tl-myocardial scintigraphy

    Kurtaran, A.; Preitfellner, J.; Kohoutek, D.; Tousek, A.; Virgolini, I.; Havlik, E.

    1997-01-01

    Aim: It was the aim of the study to assess the additional radiation exposure to patients, attendents and nurses by patients who are undergoing nuclear medicine investigations (myocardial scintigraphy) with 201 Tl-chloride ( 201 Tl-Cl). Methode: In 16 cases the dose rates at 0.5, 1 and 2 m distance from patients were measured at 0.5, 1.5, 3-4 and 24, in some cases until 370 h after administration of 100±10 MBq 201 Tl-Cl. From the time courses of the dose rates around the patients the possible radiation exposure of other persons were estimated. Results: The initial values of the dose rate were 3.82 μSv/h at 0.5 m, 1.18 μSv/h at 1 m and 0.30 μSv/h at 2 m distance from the patients respectively. The dose rates were decreasing following a monoexponential course with an effective half-life of 60 h. The maximum doses to other persons at 1 m distance from the patients were determined by considering three scenarios. The values were 13 μSv in the waiting room, 26 μSv for nurses working in the ward and 105 μSv for persons living in the same household. Conclusion: Even at very restrictive assumptions the doses were far below the maximum permissible dose to non-radiation workers set by radiation protection regulations (1.5 mSv per year). (orig.) [de

  13. The causes and consequences of human exposure to ionising radiation

    Clarke, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    Few phenomena cause as much concern in developed countries as human exposure to artificial sources of radiation, and yet there are more potent threats to health: natural radiation is more pervasive and exposures more substantial; common practices such as smoking and drinking are more detrimental. Developing countries may be more anxious to establish radiological procedures than radiological protection. This paper gives the ranges of exposure to which people are subjected from natural and artificial sources which should help to put all doses in perspective. The relationship between dose and risk is established and used to show that exposures to radiation leak to low levels of risk. Finally, the new recommendations of ICRP for the control of radiation risk are presented. (Author)

  14. Mouse fecal microbiome after exposure to high LET radiation

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space travel is associated with continuous low-dose-rate exposure to high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation. Pathophysiological manifestations after low-dose...

  15. Factors influencing radiation exposure during the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Wei Chuan Chen; Ying Huei Lee; Ming Tsun Chen; Jong Khing Huang; Luke S Chang (Division of Urology, Dept. of Surgery, National Yang-Ming Medical College and Veterans General Hospital-Taipei, Taiwan (China))

    1991-01-01

    A prospective evaluation of 89 consecutive sessions of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was undertaken to try and find the best way of minimising the amount of exposure to radiation. Forty-two patients were randomly allocated to undergo ESWL treatment by experienced surgeons (group A), and 47 to undergo the treatment by inexperienced surgeons (group B). The mean calculated entrance radiation exposure was 3.01 rads (group A: 2.64 (0.97) rads, range 1.00-4.48, group B: 3.38 (0.86) rads, range 1.11-5.75). Among factors that influenced radiation exposure, the tissue: air ratio should be borne in mind and the level of skill in controlling movement of gantry was the most important in reducing the exposure to radiation. (au).

  16. Factors influencing radiation exposure during the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Wei Chuan Chen; Ying Huei Lee; Ming Tsun Chen; Jong Khing Huang; Luke S Chang

    1991-01-01

    A prospective evaluation of 89 consecutive sessions of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was undertaken to try and find the best way of minimising the amount of exposure to radiation. Forty-two patients were randomly allocated to undergo ESWL treatment by experienced surgeons (group A), and 47 to undergo the treatment by inexperienced surgeons (group B). The mean calculated entrance radiation exposure was 3.01 rads (group A: 2.64 (0.97) rads, range 1.00-4.48, group B: 3.38 (0.86) rads, range 1.11-5.75). Among factors that influenced radiation exposure, the tissue: air ratio should be borne in mind and the level of skill in controlling movement of gantry was the most important in reducing the exposure to radiation. (au)

  17. Evaluation of natural radiation exposure of the French population

    Billon, S.; Morin, A.; Baysson, H.; Gambard, J.P.; Rannou, A.; Tirmarche, M.; Laurier, D.; Caer, S.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure of the French population to ionising radiation is mainly due to natural radiation (i.e. exposure through: inhalation of radon decay products, external radiation of terrestrial and cosmic origin and water and food ingestion). In an epidemiological context, it is necessary to estimate as precisely as possible the population exposure, in order to study its influence on health indicators. In this aim, indicators of population exposure should be created taking into account results of environmental measurements by controlling the different factors that may influence these measurements (dwelling characteristics, seasonal variations, population density). The distribution of these exposures should also be studied at different geographical levels (department, job area). This work updates the estimation of the French population exposure to natural radiation. Radon exposure indicators have been based on concentrations measured in dwellings, corrected on season and dwelling characteristics (departmental range: 19-297 Bq/m 3 ). Indicators of terrestrial gamma ray exposure have been based on measured indoor and outdoor dose rates adjusted on dwelling characteristics (22-95 nSv/h). Cosmic ray exposure has been evaluated from altitude and weighted by population density (0.27-0.38 mSv/yr). Due to these three components, the effective annual dose was estimated to be at 2.2 mSv. (author)

  18. Exposure of the Spanish population to radiation from natural sources

    Garcia-Talavera, M.; Suarez, E.; Matarranz, J.L.; Salas, R.; Ramos, L.

    2006-01-01

    We have assessed the exposure of the Spanish population to natural radiation sources. The annual average effective dose is estimated to be 2.38 mSv, taking into account contributions from cosmic radiation (13.8%), terrestrial gamma radiation (39%), radon and thoron inhalation (34%) and ingestion (13.2%). Cosmic radiation doses were calculated from town altitude data. Terrestrial gamma ray exposure outdoors was derived from the M.A.R.N.A. (natural gamma radiation map of Spain). Indoor gamma ray exposure was calculated by multiplying the corresponding outdoor value by a conversion factor, which was obtained by a linear least-squares fit of experimental measurements. Radon doses were estimated from national surveys carried out throughout the country. To assess doses by ingestion of water and foodstuffs we considered the results from a detailed study on consumption habits by age and geographical area in Spain, promoted by C.S.N., and average radioactivity values from UNSCEAR. (authors)

  19. Exposure of the Spanish population to radiation from natural sources

    Garcia-Talavera, M.; Suarez, E.; Matarranz, J.L.; Salas, R.; Ramos, L. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear. Justo Dorado, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    We have assessed the exposure of the Spanish population to natural radiation sources. The annual average effective dose is estimated to be 2.38 mSv, taking into account contributions from cosmic radiation (13.8%), terrestrial gamma radiation (39%), radon and thoron inhalation (34%) and ingestion (13.2%). Cosmic radiation doses were calculated from town altitude data. Terrestrial gamma ray exposure outdoors was derived from the M.A.R.N.A. (natural gamma radiation map of Spain). Indoor gamma ray exposure was calculated by multiplying the corresponding outdoor value conversion factor, which was obtained by a linear least-squares fit of experimental measurements. Radon doses were estimated from national surveys carried out throughout the country. To assess doses by ingestion of water and foodstuffs we considered the results from a detailed study on consumption habits by age and geographical area in Spain, promoted by C.S.N., and average radioactivity values from UNSCEAR. (authors)

  20. Patient radiation exposure during pediatric cardiac catheterization

    Fellows, K.E.; Leibovic, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    Exposure air product (EAP) and center field entrance exposure (free-in-air) were measured in seventeen pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Exposures were recorded separately for biplane fluoroscopy and cine angiocardiography using flat-plate ionization chambers. In the posterior-anterior (PA) projections, median EAP was 425 Roentgen-square centimeter (R-cm 2 ), with a range of 90.5-3,882 R-cm 2 ; 29-35% of this exposure occurred during cine filming. In the lateral projection, median EAP was 276 R-cm 2 (range 117-1,173); 52-59% of this exposure was due to cine filming. Median center field entrance exposure in the PA view was 7.86 Roentgens (R) with a range 2.16-73.9 of and in the lateral projection 7.39 R (range 2.64-24.6). As much as 25% of the exposure from the entire examination was contributed by manual ''test'' exposures to set cine radiographic kVp. We recommend use of testing circuits, which determine cine radiographic factors automatically and thus should lower levels of exposure

  1. Patient radiation exposure during pediatric cardiac catheterization

    Fellows, K.E.; Leibovic, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    Exposure are product (EAP) and center field entrance exposure (free-in-air) were measured in seventeen pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Exposures were recorded separately for biplane fluoroscopy and cine angiocardiography using flat-plate ionization chambers. In the posterior-anterior (PA) projections, median EAP was 425 Roentgen-square centimeter (R-cm 2 ), with a range of 90.5-3,882 R-cm 2 ; 29-35% of this exposure occurred during cine filming. In the lateral projection, median EAP was 276 R-cm 2 (range 117-1,173); 52-59% of this exposure was due to cine filming. Median center field entrance exposure in the PA view was 7.86 Roentgens (R) with a range 2.16-73.9 of and in the lateral projection 7.39 R (range 2.64-24.6). As much as 25% of the exposure from the entire examination was contributed by manual ''test'' exposures to set cine radiographic kVp. We recommend use of testing circuits, which determine cine radiographic factors automatically and thus should lower levels of exposure. (orig.)

  2. Radiation exposure to patients during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Van Swearingen, F.L.; McCullough, D.L.; Dyer, R.; Appel, B.

    1987-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is rapidly becoming an accepted treatment of renal calculi. Since fluoroscopy is involved to image the stones it is important to know how much radiation the patient receives during this procedure. Surface radiation exposure to the patient was measured in more than 300 fluoroscopic and radiographic procedures using thermoluminescent dosimeters. Initial results showed an average skin exposure of 10.1 rad per procedure for each x-ray unit, comparing favorably with exposure rates for percutaneous nephrostolithotomy and other routine radiological procedures. Factors influencing exposure levels include stone characteristics (location, size and opacity), physician experience and number of shocks required. Suggestions are given that may result in a 50 per cent reduction of radiation exposure

  3. Monitoring of radiation exposure and registration of doses

    1996-01-01

    The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and working conditions and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently organizing it. In addition, instructions are given for reporting doses to the Dose Register of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Also the procedures are described for situations leading to exceptional exposures. (10 refs., 1 tab.)

  4. Protection from potential exposures: application to selected radiation sources

    1997-09-01

    This ICRP Report begins with the general principles of radiation protection in the case of potential exposures, followed by special issues in application and compliance with regulatory aims. The rest of the report uses event trees or fault trees to derive the logical structure of six scenarios of potential exposure, i.e. two irradiators, a large research accelerator, an accelerator for industrial isotope production, an industrial radiography device using a mobile source of radiation, and finally a medical gamma radiotherapy device. (UK)

  5. Detriment calculations resulting from occupational radiation exposures in Egypt

    Abdel-Ghani, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    The application of the nominal probability coefficient to evaluate the detriment after the annual occupational exposures of workers from radiation sources and radioactive material have been calculated for workers in medical practices, industrial applications, atomic energy activities and those involved in exploration and mining of radioactive ores and phosphates. The aim of detriment calculations is to provide a foresight for the future occurrence of stochastic effects among the exposed workers. The calculated detriment can be classified into three classes. The first includes workers in diagnostic radiology and atomic energy activities who received the higher doses and consequently represent the higher detriment. The second class comprises workers in radiotherapy and nuclear medicine whose detriment is for times lesser than that of the first class. The third one concerns workers in industrial applications and in exploration and mining of radioactive ores and phosphates, their detriments ten times lesser than that of the second class. The occupational radiation doses are endorsed by the united nation scientific committee on efects of atomic radiation (UNSCEAR) for the period january 1995 to december 1998

  6. Correlation between natural radiation exposure and cancer mortality, (4)

    Noguchi, Kunikazu; Shimizu, Masami; Sairenji, Eiko; Anzai, Ikuro.

    1987-01-01

    In the previous studies, using Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient, we found that in most cases of cancers, statistically significant positive correlations were observed between natural background radiation exposure rate and crude cancer mortality rate over the period 1950 - 1978. Furthermore, we found that the statistical significance of correlation between natural background radiation exposure rate and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate in the same period mostly disappeared. We studied the cause of this apparent correlation and found that the prefecture with a higher natural background radiation exposure rate had a greater component ratio of older people. In Japan, a number of prefectures with a higher natural background exposure rate are located in relatively thinly populated districts which have been experiencing an outflow of the younger generation to more highly industrialized and urbanized areas. Therefore, statistically significant positive correlations were observed for almost all cancers between natural background radiation exposure rate and crude cancer mortality rate. In the present investigation, we statistically tested the frequency distributions of natural background radiation exposure rate and age-adjusted cancer mortality rate, and calculated Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between natural background radiation exposure rate and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate. The frequency distribution of the natural background radiation exposure rate and that of the age-adjusted mortality rate appeared normal in most cases of cancer, and the statistical significance of correlation between natural background exposure rate and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate did not differ much on the whole, even though we used Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between them. (author)

  7. Correlation between natural radiation exposure and cancer mortality, (4)

    Noguchi, Kunikazu; Shimizu, Masami; Sairenji, Eiko; Anzai, Ikuro

    1987-03-01

    In the previous studies, using Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient, we found that in most cases of cancers, statistically significant positive correlations were observed between natural background radiation exposure rate and crude cancer mortality rate over the period 1950 - 1978. Furthermore, we found that the statistical significance of correlation between natural background radiation exposure rate and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate in the same period mostly disappeared. We studied the cause of this apparent correlation and found that the prefecture with a higher natural background radiation exposure rate had a greater component ratio of older people. In Japan, a number of prefectures with a higher natural background exposure rate are located in relatively thinly populated districts which have been experiencing an outflow of the younger generation to more highly industrialized and urbanized areas. Therefore, statistically significant positive correlations were observed for almost all cancers between natural background radiation exposure rate and crude cancer mortality rate. In the present investigation, we statistically tested the frequency distributions of natural background radiation exposure rate and age-adjusted cancer mortality rate, and calculated Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between natural background radiation exposure rate and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate. The frequency distribution of the natural background radiation exposure rate and that of the age-adjusted mortality rate appeared normal in most cases of cancer, and the statistical significance of correlation between natural background exposure rate and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate did not differ much on the whole, even though we used Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between them.

  8. Childhood cancer and occupational radiation exposure in parents

    Hicks, N.; Zack, M.; Caldwell, G.G.; Fernbach, D.J.; Falletta, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that a parent's job exposure to radiation affeOR). its his or her child's risk of cancer, the authors compared this exposure during the year before the child's birth for parents of children with and without cancer. Parents of children with cancer were no more likely to have worked in occupations, industries, or combined occupations and industries with potential ionizing radiation exposure. Bone cancer and Wilms' tumor occurred more frequently among children of fathers in all industries with moderate potential ionizing radiation exposure. Children with cancer more often had fathers who were aircraft mechanics (odds ratio (OR)) . infinity, one-sided 95% lower limit . 1.5; P . 0.04). Although four of these six were military aircraft mechanics, only children whose fathers had military jobs with potential ionizing radiation exposure had an increased cancer risk (OR . 2.73; P . 0.01). Four cancer types occurred more often among children of fathers in specific radiation-related occupations: rhabdomyosarcoma among children whose fathers were petroleum industry foremen; retinoblastoma among children whose fathers were radio and television repairmen; central nervous system cancers and other lymphatic cancers among children of Air Force fathers. Because numbers of case fathers are small and confidence limits are broad, the associations identified by this study need to be confirmed in other studies. Better identification and gradation of occupational exposure to radiation would increase the sensitivity to detect associations

  9. Radiation exposure of patient and surgeon in minimally invasive kidney stone surgery.

    Demirci, A; Raif Karabacak, O; Yalçınkaya, F; Yiğitbaşı, O; Aktaş, C

    2016-05-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) are the standard treatments used in the endoscopic treatment of kidney stones depending on the location and the size of the stone. The purpose of the study was to show the radiation exposure difference between the minimally invasive techniques by synchronously measuring the amount of radiation the patients and the surgeon received in each session, which makes our study unique. This is a prospective study which included 20 patients who underwent PNL, and 45 patients who underwent RIRS in our clinic between June 2014 and October 2014. The surgeries were assessed by dividing them into three steps: step 1: the access sheath or ureter catheter placement, step 2: lithotripsy and collection of fragments, and step 3: DJ catheter or re-entry tube insertion. For the PNL and RIRS groups, mean stone sizes were 30mm (range 16-60), and 12mm (range 7-35); mean fluoroscopy times were 337s (range 200-679), and 37s (range 7-351); and total radiation exposures were 142mBq (44.7 to 221), and 4.4mBq (0.2 to 30) respectively. Fluoroscopy times and radiation exposures at each step were found to be higher in the PNL group compared to the RIRS group. When assessed in itself, the fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure were stable in RIRS, and the radiation exposure was the highest in step 1 and the lowest in step 3 in PNL. When assessed for the 19 PNL patients and the 12 RIRS patients who had stone sizes≥2cm, the fluoroscopy time in step 1, and the radiation exposure in steps 1 and 2 were found to be higher in the PNL group than the RIRS group (PPNL because it has short fluoroscopy time and the radiation exposure is low in every step. 4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiation exposure of workers in nuclear medicine

    Bujnova, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is an interdisciplinary department that deals with diagnosis and therapy using open sources. Therefore workers in nuclear medicine are in daily contact with ionizing radiation and thus it is essential to monitor a radiation load. Each work must therefore carry out monitoring of workers. It monitors compliance with the radiation limits set by law, allows an early detection of deviations from normal operation and to demonstrate whether the radiation protection at the workplace is optimized. This work describes the principles of monitoring of workers in nuclear medicine and monitoring methods for personal dosimetry. In the next section the author specifically deals with personal dosimetry at the Department of Nuclear Medicine St. Elizabeth Cancer Institute, Bratislava (KNM-Ba-OUSA). The main part of the work is to evaluate the results of a one-year monitoring of radiation workers KNM-Ba-OUSA. (author)

  11. Radiation exposure from Chest CT: Issues and Strategies

    Maher, Michael M.; Rizzo, Stefania; Kanarek, David; Shephard, Jo-Anne O.

    2004-01-01

    Concerns have been raised over alleged overuse of CT scanning and inappropriate selection of scanning methods, all of which expose patients to unnecessary radiation. Thus, it is important to identify clinical situations in which techniques with lower radiation dose such as plain radiography or no radiation such as MRI and occasionally ultrasonography can be chosen over CT scanning. This article proposes the arguments for radiation dose reduction in CT scanning of the chest and discusses recommended practices and studies that address means of reducing radiation exposure associated with CT scanning of the chest. PMID:15082885

  12. Estimates of radiation doses from various sources of exposure

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of radiation doses to individuals and to the collective US population from various sources of ionizing radiation. Summary tables present doses from various sources of ionizing radiation. Summary tables present doses from occupational exposures and annual per capita doses from natural background, the healing arts, nuclear weapons, nuclear energy and consumer products. Although doses from non-ionizing radiation are not as yet readily available in a concise form, the major sources of non-ionizing radiation are listed

  13. Effects of radiation exposure from radiopharmaceuticals used in diagnostic studies

    Witcofski, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    In the United States about 90 percent of man-made radiation exposure to the general population is from the use of radiation in diagnostic medicine. Although the doses of radiation from these procedures to individuals are generally quite small, large numbers of people are exposed. Estimates of the radiation doses associated with such use in the healing arts are approximately 15 million person-rem to the general population from diagnostic x ray and 3.3 million person-rem from the diagnostic use of radiopharmaceuticals. The purpose of this paper is to present what is known about the possible effects of radiation from diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals

  14. Is ultraviolet radiation a synergistic stressor in combined exposures? The case study of Daphnia magna exposure to UV and carbendazim

    Ribeiro, Fabianne; Ferreira, Nuno C.G.; Ferreira, Abel; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Loureiro, Susana

    2011-01-01

    The toxicological assessment of chemical compounds released to the environment is more accurate when mixtures of chemicals and/or interactions between chemicals and natural stressors are considered. Ultraviolet radiation can be taken as a natural stressor since the levels of UV are increasing due to the decrease of its natural filter, the stratospheric ozone concentration. Therefore, a combination of chemical exposures and increasing UV irradiance in aquatic environments is likely to occur. In the current study, combined effects of carbendazim and ultraviolet radiation were evaluated, using selected life traits as endpoints on Daphnia magna. To design combined exposures, first single chemical and natural stressor bioassays were performed: a reproduction test with carbendazim and a reproduction, feeding inhibition and Energy budget test with ultraviolet radiation. Following single exposures, the combinations of stressors included exposures to UV radiation and carbendazim for a maximum exposure time of 4 h, followed by a post-exposure period in chemically contaminated medium for a maximum of 15 days, depending on the endpoint, where the effects of the combined exposures were investigated. Statistical analyses of the data set were performed using the MixTox tool and were based on the conceptual model of Independent Action (IA) and possible deviations to synergism or antagonism, dose-ratio or dose-level response pattern. Both ultraviolet radiation and carbendazim as single stressors had negative impacts on the measured life traits of daphnids, a decrease on both feeding rates and reproduction was observed. Feeding rates and reproduction of D. magna submitted to combined exposures of ultraviolet radiation and carbendazim showed a dose-ratio deviation from the conceptual model as the best description of the data set, for both endpoints. For feeding inhibition, antagonism was observed when the UV radiation was the dominant item in combination, and for reproduction

  15. Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation and subsequent development of seizures

    Dunn, K.; Yoshimaru, H.; Otake, M.; Annegers, J.F.; Schull, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    Seizures are a frequent sequela of impaired brain development and can be expected to affect more children with radiation-related brain damage than children without such damage. This report deals with the incidence and type of seizures among survivors prenatally exposed to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and their association with specific stages of prenatal development at the time of irradiation. Fetal radiation dose was assumed to be equal to the dose to the maternal uterus. Seizures here include all references in the clinical record to seizure, epilepsy, or convulsion. Histories of seizures were obtained at biennial routine clinical examinations starting at about the age of 2 years. These clinical records were used to classify seizures as febrile or unprovoked (without precipitating cause). No seizures were ascertained among subjects exposed 0-7 weeks after fertilization at doses higher than 0.10 Gy. The incidence of seizures was highest with irradiation at the eighth through the 15th week after fertilization among subjects with doses exceeding 0.10 Gy and was linearly related to the level of fetal exposure. This obtains for all seizures without regard to the presence of fever or precipitating causes, and for unprovoked seizures. When the 22 cases of severe mental retardation were excluded, the increase in seizures was only suggestively significant and only for unprovoked seizures. After exposure at later stages of development, there was no increase in recorded seizures

  16. Radiation exposure of radiographers who handle 18 F ...

    18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) is used in most diagnostic applications of Positron Emission Tomography (PET). It has high annihilation energy of 511 keV, which results in potentially high radiation doses for staff. This study investigated radiographer radiation exposure during receipt, administration and scanning of ...

  17. Radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging among patients with gastrointestinal disorders.

    Desmond, Alan N

    2012-03-01

    There are concerns about levels of radiation exposure among patients who undergo diagnostic imaging for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), compared with other gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. We quantified imaging studies and estimated the cumulative effective dose (CED) of radiation received by patients with organic and functional GI disorders. We also identified factors and diagnoses associated with high CEDs.

  18. Radiation exposure of the crew in commercial air traffic

    Antic, D.; Markovic, P.; Petrovic, Z.

    1993-01-01

    The routine radiation exposure of the crews in Yugoslav Airlines (JAT) has been studied and some previous results are presented. The flights of four selected groups of pilots (four aircraft types) have been studied during one year. Annual exposures and dose equivalents are presented. Some additional results and discussions are given. (1 fig., 4 tabs.)

  19. Improvement of NSSS design to reduce occupational radiation exposure (ORE)

    Dubourg, M.

    1985-05-01

    As a result of its R and D activities, FRAMATOME has initiated concrete measures to help to reduce personnel radiation exposure. These measures include reduction in the sources and quantity of activable products, and in the duration of personnel exposure during maintenance

  20. Econometric model for age- and population-dependent radiation exposures

    Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M.; Rogers, V.C.

    1991-01-01

    The economic impact associated with ionizing radiation exposures in a given human population depends on numerous factors including the individual's mean economic status as a function age, the age distribution of the population, the future life expectancy at each age, and the latency period for the occurrence of radiation-induced health effects. A simple mathematical model has been developed that provides an analytical methodology for estimating the societal econometrics associated with radiation effects are to be assessed and compared for economic evaluation

  1. Radiation dose evaluation based on exposure scenario during the operation of radioactive waste disposal facility

    Yoon, Jeong Hyoun; Kim Chang Lak; Choi, Heui Joo; Park, Joo Wan

    1999-01-01

    Radiation dose to worker in disposal facility was calculated by using point kernel MICROSHIELD V5.02 computer code based on exposure scenarios. An conceptual design model for disposal vaults in disposal facility was used for object of shielding calculation model. Selected radionuclides and their activities among radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants were assumed as radiation sources for the exposure calculation. Annual radiation doses to crane workers and to people working on disposal vaults were calculated according to exposure time and distance from the sources with conservative operation scenarios. The scenarios used for this study were based on assumption for representing disposal activities in a future Korean near surface disposal facility. Calculated exposure rates to worker during normal disposal work were very low comparing with annual allowable limit for radiation worker

  2. Occupational radiation exposure monitoring among radiation workers in Nepal

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Shrestha, Shanta Lall; Khanal, Tara; Ween, Borgny

    2008-01-01

    Nepal was accepted as a member of the IAEA in 2007. Nepal is one of the world's least developed countries and is defined in Health Level IV. The population counted 26.4 millions in 2007. The health care sector increases with new hospitals and clinics, however, Nepal has no radiation protection authority or radiation protection regulation in the country until now. The radiation producing equipment in the health sector includes conventional X-ray and dental X-ray equipment, fluoroscopes, mammography, CT, catheterization laboratory equipment, nuclear medicine facilities, a few linear accelerators, Co 60 teletherapy and High Dose Rate brachytherapy sources. The situation regarding dosimetry service for radiation workers is unclear. A survey has been carried out to give an overview of the situation. The data collection of the survey was performed by phone call interviews with responsible staff at the different hospitals and clinics. Data about different occupationally exposed staff, use of personal radiation monitoring and type of dosimetry system were collected. In addition, it was asked if dosimetry reports were compiled in files or databases for further follow-up of staff, if needed. The survey shows that less of 25% of the procedures performed on the surveyed hospitals and clinics are performed by staff with personnel radiation monitoring. Radiation monitoring service for exposed staff is not compulsory or standardized, since there is no radiation protection authority. Nepal has taken a step forward regarding radiation protection, with the IAEA membership, although there are still major problems that have to be solved. An evaluation of the existing practice of staff dosimetry can be the first helpful step for further work in building a national radiation protection authority. (author)

  3. Health Effects of Exposure to Low Dose of Radiation

    Alatas, Zubaidah

    2003-01-01

    Human beings are exposed to natural radiation from external sources include radionuclides in the earth and cosmic radiation, and by internal radiation from radionuclides, mainly uranium and thorium series, incorporated into the body. Living systems have adapted to the natural levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources enhance these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Biological effects of ionizing radiation are the outcomes of physical and chemical processes that occur immediately after the exposure, then followed by biological process in the body. These processes will involve successive changes in the molecular, cellular, tissue and whole organism levels. Any dose of radiation, no matter how small, may produce health effects since even a single ionizing event can result in DNA damage. The damage to DNA in the nucleus is considered to be the main initiating event by which radiation causes damage to cells that results in the development of cancer and hereditary disease. It has also been indicated that cytogenetic damage can occur in cells that receive no direct radiation exposure, known as bystander effects. This paper reviews health risks of low dose radiation exposure to human body causing stochastic effects, i.e. cancer induction in somatic cells and hereditary disease in genetic cells. (author)

  4. Occupational radiation exposure and mortality study

    Coppock, E.; Dobson, D.; Fair, M.

    1992-06-01

    An epidemiological cohort study of some 300,000 Canadians enrolled in the National Dose Registry (NDR) is being undertaken to determine if there is excess cancer or other causes of mortality among those workers who are occupationally exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. The results of this study may provide better understanding of the dose-response relationship for low doses of ionizing radiation and aid in the verification of risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer mortality. The Department of National Health and Welfare (DNHW) is responsible for the Registry; this study is being carried out by the Bureau of Radiation and Medical Devices (BRMD) with financial assistance and co-operation of various agencies including Statistics Canada and the Atomic Energy Control Board

  5. electromagnetic radiation exposure from cellular base station

    eobe

    2DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING, FEDERAL ... equipment comply with international standards and thus the radiated field propagated from their installation ... adverse health effects such as blood brain barrier,.

  6. Cosmic radiation and air crew exposure

    Vukovic, B.; Lisjak, I.; Vekic, B.; Planinic, J.

    2005-01-01

    When the primary particles from space, mainly protons, enter the atmosphere, they interact with the air nuclei and induce cosmic-ray shower. When an aircraft is in the air, the radiation field within includes many types of radiation of large energy range; the field comprises mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons. Cosmic radiation dose for crews of air crafts A 320 and ATR 42 was measured using TLD-100 (LiF: Mg, Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter; radon concentration in the atmosphere was measured using the Alpha Guard radon detector. The total annual dose estimated for the A 320 aircraft crew, at altitudes up to 12000 meters, was 5.3 mSv (including natural radon radiation dose of 1.1 mSv).(author)

  7. Radiation exposure of airline crew members to the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment

    De Angelis, G. E-mail: gianni.deangelis@iol.it; Caldora, M.; Santaquilani, M.; Scipione, R.; Verdecchia, A

    2001-06-01

    A study of radiation exposures in the ionizing radiation environment of the atmosphere is currently in progress for the Italian civil aviation flight personnel. After a description of the considered data sources/ the philosophy of the study is presented/ and an overview is given of the data processing with regard to flight routes/ the computational techniques for radiation dose evaluation along the flight paths and for the exposure matrix building/ along with an indication of the results that the study should provide.

  8. Application of maximum values for radiation exposure and principles for the calculation of radiation doses

    2007-08-01

    The guide presents the definitions of equivalent dose and effective dose, the principles for calculating these doses, and instructions for applying their maximum values. The limits (Annual Limit on Intake and Derived Air Concentration) derived from dose limits are also presented for the purpose of monitoring exposure to internal radiation. The calculation of radiation doses caused to a patient from medical research and treatment involving exposure to ionizing radiation is beyond the scope of this ST Guide

  9. Monitoring of radiation exposure and registration of doses

    1993-01-01

    The Section 32 of the Finnish Radiation Act (592/91) defines the requirements to be applied to the monitoring of the radiation exposure and working conditions in Finland. The concepts relevant to the monitoring and guidelines for determining the necessity of the monitoring as well as its organizing are given in the guide. Instructions for reporting doses to the Dose Register of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) are given, also procedures for situations leading to exceptional exposures are described. (9 refs.)

  10. Fitness of equipment used for medical exposures to ionising radiation

    1998-01-01

    The advice in this guidance note is aimed at employers in control of equipment used for medical exposures to ionising radiation and ancillary equipment. This includes NHS trusts, health authorities or boards, private hospitals, clinics, surgeries, medical X-ray facilities in industry, dentists and chiropractors. The guidance should also be useful to radiation protection advisers appointed by such employers. The guidance provides advice on the requirements of regulation 33 of the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 (IRR85). In particular, it covers: (a) the selection, installation, maintenance, calibration and replacement of equipment to ensure that it is capable of restricting, so far as reasonably practicable, the medical exposure of any person to the extent that this is compatible with the intended diagnostic or therapeutic purpose; (b) recommended procedures for the definitive calibration of radiotherapy treatment; and (c) the need to investigate incidents involving a malfunction or defect in any 'radiation equipment' which result in medical exposures much greater than intended and to notify the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). 'Medical exposure' is defined in IRR85 as exposure of a person to ionising radiation for the purpose of his or her medical or dental examination or treatment which is conducted under the direction of a suitably qualified person and includes any such examination or treatment conducted for the purposes of research. For convenience, people undergoing medical exposure will be referred to as 'patients' in this guidance. Nothing in this publication is intended to indicate whether or not patients should be informed of any incident resulting from malfunction or defect in equipment used for medical exposure and the possible consequences of that exposure. As stated above, this guidance concerns medical exposures much greater than intended and although exposures much lower than intended can also have serious consequences, the incident would not

  11. Impact of robotics and a suspended lead suit on physician radiation exposure during percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Madder, Ryan D; VanOosterhout, Stacie; Mulder, Abbey; Elmore, Matthew; Campbell, Jessica; Borgman, Andrew; Parker, Jessica; Wohns, David

    Reports of left-sided brain malignancies among interventional cardiologists have heightened concerns regarding physician radiation exposure. This study evaluated the impact of a suspended lead suit and robotic system on physician radiation exposure during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Real-time radiation exposure data were prospectively collected from dosimeters worn by operating physicians at the head- and chest-level during consecutive PCI cases. Exposures were compared in three study groups: 1) manual PCI performed with traditional lead apparel; 2) manual PCI performed using suspended lead; and 3) robotic PCI performed in combination with suspended lead. Among 336 cases (86.6% manual, 13.4% robotic) performed over 30weeks, use of suspended lead during manual PCI was associated with significantly less radiation exposure to the chest and head of operating physicians than traditional lead apparel (chest: 0.0 [0.1] μSv vs 0.4 [4.0] μSv, probotic PCI performed in combination with suspended lead was 0.0 [0.0] μSv, which was significantly less chest exposure than manual PCI performed with traditional lead (probotic PCI the median head-level exposure was 0.1 [0.2] μSv, which was 99.3% less than manual PCI performed with traditional lead (probotics were observed to result in significantly less radiation exposure to the chest and head of operating physicians during PCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiation exposure of the population due to medical procedures

    Frischauf, H.

    1976-01-01

    The question of individual benefit-risk ratio in X-ray exposures is considered. The growth rate of the number of radiological examinations in New Zealand, Sweden, UK and USA is stated to be between 2 and 6 per cent per annum. The risks of internal radioisotope tests are emphasised and reductions of exposure are reported when 99Tc isotopes are used, counterbalanced by the increasing number of exposures made; the question of radiation-induced leukemia is raised in this respect. The problems of analysing delayed radiation effects are discussed, and the possibility of animal tests is suggested. (G.M.E.)

  13. National registry of workers occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    Cunha, P.G. da; Mota, H.C.; Alegre, S.

    1995-01-01

    The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission started in 1987 a nationwide program in order to collect and maintain the radiation exposure records of the Brazilian workers. This data base consists of several files including: workers - personal data; institutions - section or department where the workers perform their activities; and annual doses - annual integrated doses and any relevant information regarding their exposures. The data base structure is introduced in the present work where its objectives are discussed taking into account the magnitude of the program as well as the difficulties of maintaining and the long term perspectives of a nationwide register of radiation occupational exposures. (author). 15 refs., 1 fig

  14. Radiation exposure and risk of death

    Hongo, Syozo

    1979-01-01

    By using the risk factor given in ICRP publication 26 and an assumption of linear relationship between risk and dose, death rate and death number which correspond to radiation dose level and collective dose level of Japanese are estimated and they are compared with vital statistics of Japanese in 1975 to get out some ideas about radiation risk relative to the risks of everyday life. (author)

  15. Late health effects of chronic radiation exposure of bone marrow

    Yarmoshenko, Ilia V.; Malinovsky, Georgy P.; Konshina, Lidia G.; Zhukovsky, Michael V. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, 620219, 20, Sophy Kovalevskoy St., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Tuzankina, Irina A. [Institute of Immunology and Physiology UB RAS, 620049, 106, Pervomayskaya St., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Accidental explosion of waste storage tank at former soviet plutonium production plant 'Mayak' in 1957 resulted in emission of considerable amount of radioactive substances to the atmosphere. Atmospheric transfer and fallout caused contamination of the environment by Sr-90 and short-lived radionuclides (East-Ural Radioactive Trace, EURT). Due to consumption of contaminated food and milk some internal organs were affected to relatively high radiation exposure. Archive data of causes of deaths of rural population of EURT northern part for period 1957-2000 were used to create the Register on causes of deaths. Register records related to the settlements where initial surface contamination by Sr-90 was above and below 3.7 kBq/m2 were included to exposed (4 844 records) and unexposed (6 158 records) group respectively. Basing on the Register the analysis of cancer and non-cancer health effects of radiation exposure was conducted. By estimating proportionate mortality ratios statistically significant excess mortality due to the groups of causes of death as follow was observed in exposed population: stomach, liver and cervix cancers; group consisted only of stomach cancer; non-cancer deceases of infectious etiology. Non-significant but remarkably high risk was observed for the following groups of causes of death: bone cancer; leukemia; liver cancer; cervix cancer. Insignificant, virtually zero risk was found for: non-gastrointestinal solid cancers; colon and lung cancers; non-infectious non-cancer deceases. At the same time, considerable radiation doses were absorbed in bone (mean bone surface dose about 0.1 Gy) and colon (mean dose about 0.07 Gy). Doses absorbed in other organs and tissues were negligible and amounted less than 0.01 Gy for most tissues. It can be seen that some disagreement between observed effects and absorbed doses is revealed. Most remarkable is the high excess risks of stomach, liver and cervix cancers as well as non-cancer deceases of

  16. Ecological effects of exposure to enhanced levels of ionizing radiation.

    Geras'kin, Stanislav A

    2016-10-01

    Irradiation of plants and animals can result in disruption of ecological relationships between the components of ecosystems. Such effects may act as triggers of perturbation and lead to consequences that may differ essentially from expected ones based on effects observed at the organismal level. Considerable differences in ecology and niches occupied by different species lead to substantial differences in doses of ionizing radiation absorbed by species, even when they all are present in the same environment at the same time. This is especially evident for contamination with α-emitting radionuclides. Radioactive contamination can be considered an ecological factor that is able to modify the resistance in natural populations. However, there are radioecological situations when elevated radioresistance does not evolve or persist. The complexity and non-linearity of the structure and functioning of ecosystems can lead to unexpected consequences of stress effects, which would appear harmless if they were assessed within the narrower context of organism-based traditional radioecology. Therefore, the use of ecological knowledge is essential for understanding responses of populations and ecosystems to radiation exposure. Integration of basic ecological principles in the design and implementation of radioecological research is essential for predicting radiation effects under rapidly changing environmental conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiation exposure and breast cancer: lessons from Chernobyl.

    Ogrodnik, Aleksandra; Hudon, Tyler W; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y

    2013-04-01

    The lessons learned from the Chernobyl disaster have become increasingly important after the second anniversary of the Fukushima, Japan nuclear accident. Historically, data from the Chernobyl reactor accident 27 years ago demonstrated a strong correlation with thyroid cancer, but data on the radiation effects of Chernobyl on breast cancer incidence have remained inconclusive. We reviewed the published literature on the effects of the Chernobyl disaster on breast cancer incidence, using Medline and Scopus from the time of the accident to December of 2010. Our findings indicate limited data and statistical flaws. Other confounding factors, such as discrepancies in data collection, make interpretation of the results from the published literature difficult. Re-analyzing the data reveals that the incidence of breast cancer in Chernobyl-disaster-exposed women could be higher than previously thought. We have learned little of the consequences of radiation exposure at Chernobyl except for its effects on thyroid cancer incidence. Marking the 27th year after the Chernobyl event, this report sheds light on a specific, crucial and understudied aspect of the results of radiation from a gruesome nuclear power plant disaster.

  18. Response of Caenorhabditis elegans to wireless devices radiation exposure.

    Fasseas, Michael K; Fragopoulou, Adamantia F; Manta, Areti K; Skouroliakou, Aikaterini; Vekrellis, Konstantinos; Margaritis, Lukas H; Syntichaki, Popi

    2015-03-01

    To examine the impact of electromagnetic radiation, produced by GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) mobile phones, Wi-Fi (Wireless-Fidelity) routers and wireless DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications) phones, on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We exposed synchronized populations, of different developmental stages, to these wireless devices at E-field levels below ICNIRP's (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection) guidelines for various lengths of time. WT (wild-type) and aging- or stress-sensitive mutant worms were examined for changes in growth, fertility, lifespan, chemotaxis, short-term memory, increased ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) production and apoptosis by using fluorescent marker genes or qRT-PCR (quantitative Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction). No statistically significant differences were found between the exposed and the sham/control animals in any of the experiments concerning lifespan, fertility, growth, memory, ROS, apoptosis or gene expression. The worm appears to be robust to this form of (pulsed) radiation, at least under the exposure conditions used.

  19. Understanding of radiation protection in medicine. Pt. 2. Occupational exposure and system of radiation protection

    Iida, Hiroji; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Shimada, Yasuhiro

    1997-01-01

    Using a questionnaire we investigated whether radiation protection is correctly understood by medical doctors (n=140) and nurses (n=496). Although medical exposure is usually understood by medical doctors and dentists, their knowledge was found to be insufficient. Sixty-eight percent of medical doctors and 50% of dentists did not know about the system of radiation protection. Dose monitoring was not correctly carried out by approximately 20% of medical staff members, and medical personnel generally complained of anxiety about occupational exposure rather than medical exposure. They did not receive sufficient education on radiation exposure and protection in school. In conclusion, the results of this questionnaire suggested that they do not have adequate knowledge about radiation exposure and protection. The lack of knowledge about protection results in anxiety about exposure. To protect oneself from occupational exposure, individual radiation doses must be monitored, and medical practice should be reconsidered based on the results of monitoring. To eliminate unnecessary medical and occupational exposure and to justify practices such as radiological examinations, radiation protection should be well understood and appropriately carried out by medical doctors and dentists. Therefore, the education of medical students on the subject of radiation protection is required as is postgraduate education for medical doctors, dentists and nurses. (author)

  20. Radiation exposure of the population around Chernobyl

    Botsch, W.; Beltz, D.; Handl, J.; Michel, R.

    1999-01-01

    Although the population in large parts of northern Ukraine, the region around Chernobyl, was resettled, these people are now returning to their accustomed agricultural environment - illegally, but tolerated. In order for evacuated villages to be cleared for resettlement, the dose commitment due to continuous external and internal exposures of the persons returning must be determined. Examination concentrates on the fallout of reactor nuclides, the path of radionuclides through the food chain to people, and on present and post exposures. Special attention in this respect is paid to the deposition density of cesium. On the basis of the data collected so far, the village inhabitants considered in 1998/99 suffer an average external exposure of 0.7±0.2 mSv/a in addition to the natural external exposure of 0.8 mSv/a and, with a conversion factor of 0.038 mSv/a per kBq of 137 Cs whole body activity [8], 0.5±0.2 mSv/a (excluding inhabitants 17 and 18) of additional internal exposure, mainly as a function of mushroom intake. The ban on consumption of mushrooms and fruit growing in the forests, and education of the public about the reasons for it, could help to reduce the additional internal exposure further to approx. 0.1 mSv/a. (orig.) [de

  1. Cytogenetics observation and radiation influence evaluation of exposed persons in a discontinuous radiation exposure event

    Chen Ying; Liu Xiulin; Yang Guoshan; Ge Shili; Jin Cuizhen; Yao Bo

    2003-01-01

    The cytogenetics results and dose estimation of exposed and related persons in an discontinuous radiation exposure event were reported in this paper. According to dicentrics + ring and micronucleus results combined with clinical data, slight (middle) degree of subacute radiation symptom of the victim was diagnosed. A part of 52 examined persons were exposed to radiation in a certain degree

  2. Occupational radiation exposure in the GDR in 1977

    Poulheim, K.F.; Rothe, W.; Scheler, R.

    1980-01-01

    In 1977, radiation workers were monitored for external and internal radiation exposure on the basis of film badges (37,348 persons), measurements with a whole-body counter (198 persons) and analyses of biosamples (174 persons). According to the film badge data, the monthly over-exposures (more than 4 mGy) totalled 253. In 6 cases the monthly exposure exceeded 30 mGy and the 9 highest annual exposure values were in the range of 50 to 120 mGy. Also, annual collective and annual per caput doses have been given for the exposed population as a whole and some subgroups. Based on model considerations, the internal radiation exposure situation resulting from unintentional intakes of radionuclides has been assessed in terms of committed dose equivalents to members of two selected groups of radiation workers: (a) persons with more-than-average internal contamination levels; (b) persons subjected to frequent individual monitoring. Except for some organ doses, the individual radiation exposure was below one-tenth the maximum permissible dose. (author)

  3. Astronaut exposure to space radiation - Space Shuttle experience

    Atwell, W.

    1990-01-01

    Space Shuttle astronauts are exposed to both the trapped radiation and the galactic cosmic radiation environments. In addition, the sun periodically emits high-energy particles which could pose a serious threat to flight crews. NASA adheres to federal regulations and recommended exposure limits for radiation protection and has established a radiological health and risk assessment program. Using models of the space radiation environment, a Shuttle shielding model, and an anatomical human model, crew exposure estimates are made for each Shuttle flight. The various models are reviewed. Dosimeters are worn by each astronaut and are flown at several fixed locations to obtain inflight measurements. The dosimetry complement is discussed in detail. A comparison between the premission calculations and measurements is presented. Extrapolation of Shuttle experience to long-duration exposure is explored. 14 refs

  4. Optimization of costs versus radiation exposures in decommissioning

    Konzek, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    The estimated worth of decommissioning optimization planning during each phase of the reactor's life cycle is dependent on many variables. The major variables are tabulated and relatively ranked. For each phase, optimization qualitative values (i.e., cost, safety, maintainability, ALARA, and decommissioning considerations) are estimated and ranked according to their short-term and long-term potential benefits. These estimates depend on the quality of the input data, interpretation of that data, and engineering judgment. Once identified and ranked, these considerations form an integral part of the information data base from which estimates, decisions, and alternatives are derived. The optimization of costs and the amount of occupational radiation exposure reductions are strongly interrelated during decommissioning. Realizing that building the necessary infrastructure for decommissioning will take time is an important first step in any decommissioning plan. In addition, the following conclusions are established to achieve optimization of costs and reduced occupational radiation exposures: the assignment of cost versus man-rem is item-specific and sensitive to the expertise of many interrelated disciplines; a commitment to long-term decommissioning planning by management will provide the conditions needed to achieve optimization; and, to be most effective, costs and exposure reduction are sensitive to the nearness of the decommissioning operation. For a new plant, it is best to start at the beginning of the cycle, update continually, consider innovations, and realize full potential and benefits of this concept. For an older plant, the life cycle methodology permits a comprehensive review of the plant history and the formulation of an orderly decommissioning program based on planning, organization, and effort

  5. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2015; Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung im Jahr 2015

    NONE

    2017-07-20

    The information of the German Federal Government on the environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2015 covers the following issues: selected topics of radiation protection, natural radiation exposure; civilizing (artificial) radiation exposure: nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, uranium mine recultivation, radioactive materials in industry and households, fallout from nuclear weapon testing and reactor accidents; occupational radiation exposure: exposed personnel in nuclear facilities, aviation personnel, radiation accidents; medical radiation exposure: nuclear medical diagnostics and therapy; non-ionizing radiation: electromagnetic fields, UV radiation, optical radiation.

  6. Natural and anthropogenic radiation exposure of humans in Germany; Natuerliche und zivilisatorische Strahlenexposition des Menschen in Deutschland

    Koelzer, Winfried

    2016-12-15

    The contribution on natural and anthropogenic radiation exposure in Germany covers the following issues: (1) natural radiation exposure: external radiation exposure - cosmic and terrestric radiation, internal radiation exposure - primordial and cosmogenic radionuclides; radiation exposure due to sola neutrinos and geo-neutrinos. (2) Anthropogenic radiation exposure: radiation exposure in medicine, radioactivity in industrial products, radiation exposure during flights, radiation exposure due to nuclear facilities, radiation exposure due to fossil energy carriers in power generation, radiation exposure due to nuclear explosions, radiation exposure due to nuclear accidents. (3) Occupational radiation exposure in Germany: radiation monitoring with personal dosimeters in medicine and industry, dose surveillance of the aviation personal, working places with increases radiation exposure by natural radiation sources.

  7. Tissue response after radiation exposure. Intestine

    Otsuka, Kensuke; Tomita, Masanori; Yamauchi, Motohiro; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal syndrome followed by 'gut death' is due to intestinal disorders. This syndrome is induced by high-dose (>10 Gy) of ionizing radiation. Recovery from the gastrointestinal syndrome would depend on the number of survived clonogens and regeneration capability of crypts. These tissue alterations can be observed by high-dose radiation, however, cellular dynamics in crypts can be affected by low-dose radiation. For example, Potten et al. found that low-dose radiation induce apoptosis of intestinal stem cells, which produce all differentiated function cells. Recently, intestinal stem cells are characterized by molecular markers such as Lgr5. Since intestinal adenomas can be induced by deletion of Apc gene in Lgr5 + stem cells, it is widely recognized that Lgr5 + stem cells are the cell-of-origin of cancer. Duodenal Lgr5 + stem cells are known as radioresistant cells, however, we found that ionizing radiation significantly induces the turnover of colonic Lgr5 + stem cells. Combined with the knowledge of other radioresistant markers, stem-cell dynamics in tissue after irradiation are becoming clear. The present review introduces the history of gastrointestinal syndrome and intestinal stem cells, and discusses those future perspectives. (author)

  8. Occupational standard for exposure to ultraviolet radiation (1989)

    1989-12-01

    The exposure limit (EL) values in this standard refer to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in the spectral region between 180 and 400 nm and represents conditions under which it is believed that nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed without adverse effect. The EL values for exposure of the eye or the skin may be used to evaluate potentially hazardous exposure from UVR. The limits do not apply to ultraviolet lasers. The values should be used as guides in the control of exposure to both pulsed and continuous sources of UVR where the exposure duration is not less than 0.1 μsec. The ELs are below levels used for UV exposures of patients as a part of medical treatment or for elective cosmetic purposes. They are intended as upper limits for non therapeutic and non cosmetic exposure. 2 refs., 2 tabs

  9. Occupational exposure to natural sources of radiation

    Ortiz, T.; Sciocchetti, G.; Rannou, A.

    1993-01-01

    The most important natural sources of radiation are analyzed. The situation in France, Italy, and Spain concerning protection against natural radiation is described, including the identification of sources, and defined practices, organizations charged of national surveys and the responsibility of regulatory bodies and the role of operating management. The activities of the international organizations (ICRP, CEC and IAEA) are presented and discussed, and existing actions toward harmonization in the CEC, IAEA and other international programs is also discussed. (R.P.) 23 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Exposure to low doses of ionizing radiations

    Le Guen, B.

    2008-01-01

    The author discusses the knowledge about the effects of ionizing radiations on mankind. Some of them have been well documented (skin cancer and leukaemia for the pioneer scientists who worked on radiations, some other types of cancer for workers who handled luminescent paints, rock miners, nuclear explosion survivors, patients submitted to radiological treatments). He also evokes the issue of hereditary cancers, and discusses the issue of low dose irradiation where some surveys can now be performed on workers. He discusses the biological effects of these low doses. He outlines that many questions remain about these effects, notably the influence of dose level and of dose rate level on the biological reaction

  11. A novel radiation protection drape reduces radiation exposure during fluoroscopy guided electrophysiology procedures.

    Germano, Joseph J; Day, Gina; Gregorious, David; Natarajan, Venkataraman; Cohen, Todd

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel disposable lead-free radiation protection drape for decreasing radiation scatter during electrophysiology procedures. In recent years, there has been an exponential increase in the number of electrophysiology (EP) procedures exposing patients, operators and laboratory staff to higher radiation doses. The RADPAD was positioned slightly lateral to the incision site for pectoral device implants and superior to the femoral vein during electrophysiology studies. Each patient served as their own control and dosimetric measurements were obtained at the examiner's elbow and hand. Radiation badge readings for the operator were obtained three months prior to RADPAD use and three months after introduction. Radiation dosimetry was obtained in twenty patients: 7 electrophysiology studies, 6 pacemakers, 5 catheter ablations, and 2 implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. Eleven women and nine men with a mean age of 63 +/- 4 years had an average fluoroscopy time of 2.5 +/- 0.42 minutes per case. Mean dosimetric measurements at the hand were reduced from 141.38 +/- 24.67 to 48.63 +/- 9.02 milliroentgen (mR) per hour using the protective drape (63% reduction; p < 0.0001). Measurements at the elbow were reduced from 78.78 +/- 7.95 mR per hour to 34.50 +/- 4.18 mR per hour using the drape (55% reduction; p < 0.0001). Badge readings for three months prior to drape introduction averaged 2.45 mR per procedure versus 1.54 mR per procedure for 3 months post-initiation (37% reduction). The use of a novel radiation protection surgical drape can significantly reduce scatter radiation exposure to staff and operators during a variety of EP procedures.

  12. The new radiation protection law. Exposure scenarios and disposal; Das neue Strahlenschutzrecht. Expositionssituationen und Entsorgung

    NONE

    2017-07-01

    The proceedings of the meeting (October 2017, Hannover) on the new radiation protection law includes abstracts concerning the following sessions: actual development in radiation protection jurisdiction, implementation of the EU basic safety standards (BSS) in Europe, planned exposure scenarios, existing exposure scenarios, emergency exposure situations, final radioactive waste disposal, education, radon, radiation protection issues, statistics, medical radiation exposure.

  13. Spatial Positioning of RET and H4 Following Radiation Exposure Leads to Tumor Development

    Yuri E. Nikiforov

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to ionizing radiation is a well-known risk factor for a number of human cancers, including leukemia, thyroid cancer, soft tissue sarcomas, and many others. Although it has been known for a long time that radiation exposure to the cell results in extensive DNA damage, including double strand DNA breaks, the exact mechanisms of radiation-induced carcinogenesis remain unknown. Recently, a large increase in incidence of thyroid cancer was observed in children exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl nuclear accident [1]. A high prevalence of chromosomal rearrangements involving the RET gene was found among these radiation-induced thyroid tumors [2,3]. As a result of such rearrangement, a portion of the RET gene is fused with another gene, typically with the H4 or ELE1. However, since the DNA targets of ionizing radiation are randomly distributed throughout the cell nucleus, the reason for predilection for the RET rearrangements in thyroid cells was unclear.

  14. Radiation in the living environment: sources, exposure and effects

    Gupta, Rashi

    2013-01-01

    We are living in a milieu of radiations and continuously exposed to radiations from natural sources from conception to death. We are exposed to radiation from Sun and outer space, radioactive materials present in the earth, house we live in, buildings and workplace, food we eat and air we breath. Each flake of snow, grain of soil, drop of rain, a flower, and even each man in the street is a source of this radiation. Even our own bodies contain naturally occurring radioactive elements. The general belief is that the radiations are harmful and everybody is scared of the same. The cancer is the most important concern on account of exposure to Ionizing Radiation which is initiated by the damage to DNA. The level of exposure depends on the environmental and working conditions and may vary from low to moderate to high and depending on the same the exposed humans can be classified as general public, non nuclear workers (NNW) and nuclear workers (NW). Though, the LNT theory which is considered to be the radiation paradigm considers all radiation at all levels to be harmful and the -severity of the deleterious effect increases with the increase in dose, however, the available literature, data and reports (epidemiological and experimental) speaks otherwise particularly at low levels. The purpose of this paper is to address the question, whether the radiation is harmful at all levels or it is simply media hype and the truth is different, and to promote harmony with nature and to improve our quality of life with the knowledge that cancer mortality rates decrease following exposure to LLIR. Various sources of radiation exposure and the subsequent consequences will be discussed. (author)

  15. [Solar exposure time for sunburn in Mexican population].

    Castanedo Cázares, Juan Pablo; Torres Álvarez, Bertha; Sobrevilla Ondarza, Salvador; Ehnis Pérez, Adriana; Gordillo Moscoso, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    THe minimal erythemal dose (MED) quantifies an individual's sensitivity to UV radiation (UVR). To estimate it in our population and establish the time of exposure inducing it during daily activities would allow us to calculate risk intervals. From 2005-2012, the UV solar radiation was measured with terrestrial radiometry and compared to public UV index (UVI). We determined the MED in 90 individuals with the prevalent phototypes in Mexico (III, IV, V), and estimated the time needed for the development of sunburn. The average MED for phototype III was 39 (IC 95%: 35-42) mJ/cm2, for IV 48 (IC 95%:42-53) mJ/cm2, and for V was 84 (IC 95%:75-92) mJ/cm2 (ANOVA, p ≤ 0.001). Approximately, 80% of the daily UVR was accumulated between 10:00-16:00 h, and 77% of the annual UV dose is received between March-October. The public UVI had a high correlation with the one quantified at terrestrial level (r = 0.89; p ≤ 0.001). Mexico receives continuously high levels of UVR. Phototype III will present sunburn after 22-33 min in a summer day, while phototype V will require over one hour of exposure. This last group is at risk of chronic exposure without considering consequences.

  16. Occupational Radiation Exposure Analysis of US ITER DCLL TBM

    Merrill, Brad J; Cadwallader, Lee C; Dagher, Mohamad

    2007-08-01

    This report documents an Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) analysis that was performed for the US International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) Test Blanket Module (TBM). This analysis was performed with the QADMOD dose code for anticipated maintenance activities for this TBM concept and its ancillary systems. The QADMOD code was used to model the PbLi cooling loop of this TBM concept by specifying gamma ray source terms that simulated radioactive material within the piping, valves, heat exchanger, permeator, pump, drain tank, and cold trap of this cooling system. Estimates of the maintenance tasks that will have to be performed and the time required to perform these tasks where developed based on either expert opinion or on industrial maintenance experience for similar technologies. This report details the modeling activity and the calculated doses for the maintenance activities envisioned for the US DCLL TBM.

  17. Reducing radiation exposure during oral I-131 therapy administration

    Trujillo, J.; Krinsky, S.; Wilson, B.; Teague, E.

    1982-01-01

    A new, closed-system method to reduce air-, direct-, and incidental-contamination during therapeutic administration of oral I-131 was experimentally evaluated on twelve patients. We studied a standard control population using the routine practice of drinking the solution through a straw and compared results with our new technique. Various measurements were performed throughout all phases of dose administration to assess the relative difference of the two approaches. Using the closed system method before and during iodine administration revealed between 100 and 1000 times less activity per millimeter of air sample; whereas, the direct radiation exposure values were higher for the control population. Both the experimental and control methods had similar levels of incidental contamination

  18. Adaptive response induced by occupational exposures to ionizing radiation

    Barquinero, J.F.; Caballin, M.R.; Barrios, L.; Murtra, P.; Egozcue, J.; Miro, R.; Ribas, M.

    1997-01-01

    We have found a significant decreased sensitivity to the cytogenetic effects of ionizing radiation (IR) and bleomycin (BLM) in lymphocytes from individuals occupationally exposed to IR when compared with a control population. These results suggest that occupational exposures to IR can induce adaptive response that can be detected by a subsequent treatment by IR or by BLM. However, no correlation between the results obtained with both treatments was observed. A great heterogeneity in the frequencies of chromatid aberrations induced by BLM was observed. The study of the influence of different harvesting times showed that there was no correlation with the frequencies of chromatid breaks. Our results indicate that the use of BLM to detect adaptive response has several difficulties at the individual level. (author)

  19. Delayed development of radiation sickness in animals following partial exposure

    Vershinina, S.F.; Markochev, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    Causes of reduction of the life span of animals after partial exposure of the head, thorax, and abdomen are analyzed. Pulmonosclerosis and cardiosclerosis were mainly responsible for animal death following partial radiation exposure of the thorax; these conditions appreciably shortened the life span of the animals. After exposure of the head deaths were due to pneumonias which negligibly reduced the duration of life. Exposure of the abdomen led to the development of diabetes mellitus which shortened the life span by half. 18 refs., 1 tab

  20. Calculation of radiation exposure in diagnostic radiology. Method and surveys

    Duvauferrier, R.; Ramee, A.; Ezzeldin, K.; Guibert, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A computerized method for evaluating the radiation exposure of the main target organs during various diagnostic radiologic procedures is described. This technique was used for educational purposes: study of exposure variations according to the technical modalities of a given procedure, and study of exposure variations according to various technical protocols (IVU, EGD barium study, etc.). This method was also used for studying exposure of patients during hospitalization in the Rennes Regional Hospital Center (France) in 1982, according to departments (urology, neurology, etc.). This method and results of these three studies are discussed [fr

  1. Risk assessment and management of radiofrequency radiation exposure

    Dabala, Dana [Railways Medical Clinic Cluj-Napoca, Occupational Medicine Department, 16-20 Bilascu Gheorghe St., 400015 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile; Neamtu, Camelia [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath St., 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) industry managers, occupational physicians, security department, and other practitioners must be advised on the basic of biophysics and the health effects of RF electromagnetic fields so as to guide the management of exposure. Information on biophysics of RFR and biological/heath effects is derived from standard texts, literature and clinical experiences. Emergency treatment and ongoing care is outlined, with clinical approach integrating the circumstances of exposure and the patient's symptoms. Experimental risk assessment model in RFR chronic exposure is proposed. Planning for assessment and monitoring exposure, ongoing care, safety measures and work protection are outlining the proper management.

  2. Occupational external radiation exposure in the GDR in 1976

    Rothe, W.

    1980-01-01

    In 1976 a total of 36,794 occupationally exposed persons were monitored by the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection, using film badges. The monthly over-exposures (more than 4 mGy) totalled 415. In 11 cases the monthly exposure exceeded 30 mGy and 6 annual exposure values were in the range of 50 to 120 mGy. An attempt has been made to assess the annual collective and annual per caput doses for the exposed population as a whole and some subgroups without completely summing up the individual exposure data. (author)

  3. Absolute exposure determination of cobalt-60 gamma radiation

    Ahmad, S.S.; Ali, A.; Orfi, S.D.

    1986-02-01

    The report describes the procedure for the determination of absolute exposure for Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. A graphite cavity chamber, nominal volume of 1 cm 3 , manufactured by Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf has been used. The exposure rate at reference distance determined with the graphite chamber was compared with mean exposure rate measured with NPL-Therapy level X-ray exposure meter normalized to same date. An agreement of 0.39% was found between the two measuring systems, which seems to be very encouraging and quite satisfactory. (authors)

  4. Risk assessment and management of radiofrequency radiation exposure

    Dabala, Dana; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile; Neamtu, Camelia

    2013-01-01

    Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) industry managers, occupational physicians, security department, and other practitioners must be advised on the basic of biophysics and the health effects of RF electromagnetic fields so as to guide the management of exposure. Information on biophysics of RFR and biological/heath effects is derived from standard texts, literature and clinical experiences. Emergency treatment and ongoing care is outlined, with clinical approach integrating the circumstances of exposure and the patient's symptoms. Experimental risk assessment model in RFR chronic exposure is proposed. Planning for assessment and monitoring exposure, ongoing care, safety measures and work protection are outlining the proper management

  5. Justification, optimization and classification of exposure situations in radiation protection

    Skrabalek, P.

    2017-01-01

    Inspiration to this brief information was the experience of studying the draft Radiation Protection Act submitted by the Ministry of Health to the Interdepartmental Annotation Procedure (IAP) on July 20, 2017 and of the IRP itself. The bill was drafted by officials from the Public Health Service. People who are expected to be well aware of the issue because they form national safety standards and laws, and manage and direct treatment of ionizing radiation sources, and oversee observing rules of protecting humans from the hazardous effects of ionizing radiation sources. Rules on the handling and protection of radiation sources for dangerous effects are recommended by multinational organizations. They are headed by ICRP International Radiological Protection Committee, which periodically issues updated radiation protection guidelines around the 10-year period. In line with ICRP recommendations, other professional organizations, such as the IAEA, WHO, EURATOM, and, ultimately, national governments, update their basic safety standards, translating recommendations into the national legal system. Most of interested know that ICRP 103 (2007) has brought some changes to the radiation protection system. In particular, there was an increased emphasis on the comprehensive optimization of radiation protection, and in the context of the recitals principle, the meaning of the word 'harm' was broadened. In addition to health damage, in the sense of which we have long been accustomed, it includes all economic and social losses to which comes from the introduction of the radiation source and introduction of protective measures around it. To simplify access to protect people from the effects of radiation and radiation sources, three basic models of human irradiation - exposure situations: - Exposure scenarios are the result of the optimization of human irradiation due to the operation of the radiation source or the performance of activities where the risk of irradiation is not

  6. Assigning a value to transboundary radiation exposure

    1985-01-01

    The document offers guidance on the application of the Basic Safety Standards with regard to the particular problem of using differential cost-benefit analysis in the optimization of radiation protection in the case of transboundary radioactive pollution. Examples of optimization of 14 C retention at a nuclear power plant and of 85 Kr retention at a reprocessing plant are presented

  7. MODELING ACUTE EXPOSURE TO SOLAR RADIATION

    One of the major technical challenges in calculating solar flux on the human form has been the complexity of the surface geometry (i.e., the surface normal vis a vis the incident radiation). The American Cancer Society reports that over 80% of skin cancers occur on the face, he...

  8. Occupational radiation exposure in the GDR in 1978

    Poulheim, K.F.; Rothe, W.; Scheler, R.

    1980-01-01

    In 1978, radiation workers were monitored for external and internal radiation exposure on the basis of film badges (37,980 persons), measurements with a whole-body counter (186 persons) and analyses of biosamples (144 persons). According to the film badge data, the monthly over-exposures (more than 4 mGy) totalled 427. In 13 cases the monthly exposure exceeded 30 mGy, 8 persons received annual doses in the range of 50 to 120 mGy, and the highest annual dose was above 250 mGy. Also, annual collective and annual per caput doses have been given for the exposed population as a whole and some subgroups. Based on model considerations, the internal radiation exposure situation resulting from unintentional intakes of radionuclides has been assessed in terms of committed dose equivalents to members of two selected groups of radiation workers: (a) persons with more-than-average internal contamination levels; (b) persons subjected to frequent individual monitoring. Except for some organ doses, the individual internal radiation exposure was well below one-tenth the maximum permissible dose. (author)

  9. The recovery of the human organism after radiation exposure

    Gerber, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    The repair of radiation damage in the human organism is reviewed. A distinction is made between the single repair steps, first the molecular repair of sublethal damage during the periods of 30 min to 2 h and several days to months, second the substitution of the whole cells during a period of reproduction which is specific for the kind and persistence of the cells. One example is the radiosensitive stem cell with a reproduction rate of 40% and a redoublication time of 10 d at 100 rads and the very low reproduction rate of 1% with redoublication time of 7 d after a dose of 400 rads. 5 rads seems to be acceptable for systems with recovery and repeated exposure, single doses normally should not exceed 25 rads, not 100 rads/d for to save human life, and not a total dose of 500 rads. About 20% of irradiation damage is not repaired and leads to late effects, for example the induction of tumors, the shortening of life span and an increase in embryonic mortality. The author recommends the acceptance of a radiation dose leading to 20 additional cases of leucemia in the whole population of Germany and an increase of tumor frequency of 1%. The shortening of life span should not exceed 0,5%. The equivalent residual dose (ERD) can be calculated by the following equation: ERD = last effective dose minus 5 rads x number of days. (AJ) [de

  10. Human health and exposure to electromagnetic radiation

    Dennis, J.A.; Muirhead, C.R.; Ennis, J.R.

    1992-07-01

    This review consists of three main parts. In the first the general features of electromagnetic fields and their interactions with the human body are described. The second part deals with the epidemiological evidence for effects on general health and birth outcome. The third part describes the epidemiological evidence from occupational and residential studies of a possible association between electromagnetic field exposures and cancer. (author)

  11. Radiation exposures of workers and the public associated with the transport of radioactive material in Germany

    Schwarz, G.; Fett, H.J.; Lange, F.

    2004-01-01

    Most radioactive material packages transported emit penetrating ionising radiation and radiation exposures of transport workers and the public may occur during their transport. The radiation exposures incurred by transport workers and members of the public can vary significantly depending on a number of factors: most important is the type of radiation emitted (primarily gamma and neutron radiation), the radiation field intensity in the surrounding of a package and conveyance and the duration of exposure to ionising radiation. The information and guidance material on occupational exposures has primarily been derived from a survey and analysis of personal monitoring data provided by a number of commercial transport operators in Germany known as major carrier and handler organisations of fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle material (in terms of the number of pack-ages and the activity carriaged). To some extent advantage was taken of compilations of statistical transport and exposure data collated within other transport safety analysis studies including research projects funded by the European Commission. The exposure data collected cover the time period of the last 4 - 8 years and are most representative for routine transport operations closely related to the movement phase of packaged radioactive material, i.e. receipt, vehicle loading, carriage, in-transit storage, intra-/intermodal transfer, vehicle unloading and delivery at the final destination of loads of radioactive material and packages and the related supervisory and health physics functions. Radiation dose monitoring of members of the public, however, is generally impracticable and, consequently, the information available relies on employing dose assessment models and reflects radiation exposures incurred by hypothetical or critical group individuals of members of the public under normal conditions of transport

  12. Elevated Radiation Exposure Associated With Above Surface Flat Detector Mini C-Arm Use.

    Martin, Dennis P; Chapman, Talia; Williamson, Christopher; Tinsley, Brian; Ilyas, Asif M; Wang, Mark L

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to test the hypothesis that: (1) radiation exposure is increased with the intended use of Flat Surface Image Intensifier (FSII) units above the operative surface compared with the traditional below-table configuration; (2) this differential increases in a dose-dependent manner; and (3) radiation exposure varies with body part and proximity to the radiation source. A surgeon mannequin was seated at a radiolucent hand table, positioned for volar distal radius plating. Thermoluminescent dosimeters measured exposure to the eyes, thyroid, chest, hand, and groin, for 1- and 15-minute trials from a mini C-arm FSII unit positioned above and below the operating surface. Background radiation was measured by control dosimeters placed within the operating theater. At 1-minute of exposure, hand and eye dosages were significantly greater with the flat detector positioned above the table. At 15-minutes of exposure, hand radiation dosage exceeded that of all other anatomic sites with the FSII in both positions. Hand exposure was increased in a dose-dependent manner with the flat detector in either position, whereas groin exposure saw a dose-dependent only with the flat detector beneath the operating table. These findings suggest that the surgeon's hands and eyes may incur greater radiation exposure compared with other body parts, during routine mini C-arm FSII utilization in its intended position above the operating table. The clinical impact of these findings remains unclear, and future long-term radiation safety investigation is warranted. Surgeons should take precautions to protect critical body parts, particularly when using FSII technology above the operating with prolonged exposure time.

  13. Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

  14. Radiation exposure of nuclear medicine procedures in Germany

    Hacker, M.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine procedures offer the possibility to detect abnormalities on the basis of physiological and metabolic changes and to treat a growing number of diseases in human beings. However, the use of radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medicine examinations causes a significant component of the total radiation exposure of populations. In Germany it is an essential task of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection to determinate and assess radiation exposure of the population due to nuclear medicine diagnostics and therapy. An important input for this task is the frequency of nuclear-medical examinations with application of ionising radiation and the radiation exposure of patients related to the various procedures. Additional implementation of age- and gender-specific data today allows more exact risk stratification in focusing on different subgroups of patients. Moreover, the collective effective dose as well as the per caput effective dose of the German population may be estimated and compared with earlier collected data or foreign countries. These data reveal where the indication should be questioned particularly critically and if the dose for the various examinations can be reduced and, thus, contribute to the definition of diagnostic reference levels for nuclear medicine procedures in Germany with the aim of both a sufficient image quality and a minimum of radiation exposure. Exceeding the high- as well as the low-values requires documentation and explanation. (orig.)

  15. Savannah River Plant/Savannah River Laboratory radiation exposure report

    Rogers, C.D.; Hyman, S.D.; Keisler, L.L.; Reeder, D.F.; Jolly, L.; Spoerner, M.T.; Schramm, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    The protection of worker health and safety is of paramount concern at the Savannah River Site. Since the site is one of the largest nuclear sites in the nation, radiation safety is a key element in the protection program. This report is a compendium of the results in 1988 of the programs at the Savannah River Plant and the Savannah River Laboratory to protect the radiological health of employees. By any measure, the radiation protection performance at this site in 1988 was the best since the beginning of operations. This accomplishment was made possible by the commitment and support at all levels of the organizations to reduce radiation exposures to ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable). The report provides detailed information about the radiation doses received by departments and work groups within these organizations. It also includes exposure data for recent years to allow Plant and Laboratory units to track the effectiveness of their ALARA efforts. Many of the successful practices and methods that reduced radiation exposure are described. A new goal for personnel contamination cases has been established for 1989. Only through continual and innovative efforts to minimize exposures can the goals be met. The radiation protection goals for 1989 and previous years are included in the report. 27 figs., 58 tabs

  16. Effects of combined radiofrequency radiation exposure on levels of reactive oxygen species in neuronal cells

    Kang, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Hyung Chul; Lee, Je-Jung

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the combined RF radiation (837 MHz CDMA plus 1950 MHz WCDMA) signal on levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neuronal cells. Exposure of the combined RF signal was conducted at specific absorption rate values of 2 W/kg of CDMA plus 2 W/kg of WCDMA for 2 h. Co-exposure to combined RF radiation with either H 2 O 2 or menadione was also performed. The experimental exposure groups were incubator control, sham-exposed, combined RF radiation-exposed with or without either H 2 O 2 or menadione groups. The intracellular ROS level was measured by flow cytometry using the fluorescent probe dichlorofluorescein diacetate. Intracellular ROS levels were not consistently affected by combined RF radiation exposure alone in a time-dependent manner in U87, PC12 or SH-SY5Y cells. In neuronal cells exposed to combined RF radiation with either H 2 O 2 or menadione, intracellular ROS levels showed no statically significant alteration compared with exposure to menadione or H 2 O 2 alone. These findings indicate that neither combined RF radiation alone nor combined RF radiation with menadione or H 2 O 2 influences the intracellular ROS level in neuronal cells such as U87, PC12 or SH-SY5Y. (author)

  17. Research on the radiation exposure “memory effects” in AlGaAs heterostructures

    Gradoboev, A V; Sednev, V V

    2015-01-01

    Radiation exposure and long running time cause degradation of semiconductors' structures as well as semiconductors based on these structures. Besides, long running time can be the reason of partial radiation defects annealing. The purpose of the research work is to study the “memory effect” that happens during fast neuron radiation in AlGaAs heterostructures. Objects of the research are Infrared Light Emitting Electrodes (IRED) based on doubled AlGaAs heterostructures. During the experimental research LEDs were preliminarily radiated with fast neutrons, and radiation defects were annealed within the condition of current training with high temperatures, then emission power was measured. The research proved the existence of the “memory effect” that results in radiation stability enhancement with subsequent radiation. Possible mechanisms of the “memory effect” occurrence are under review. (paper)

  18. Exposure of luminous marine bacteria to low-dose gamma-radiation.

    Kudryasheva, N S; Petrova, A S; Dementyev, D V; Bondar, A A

    2017-04-01

    The study addresses biological effects of low-dose gamma-radiation. Radioactive 137 Cs-containing particles were used as model sources of gamma-radiation. Luminous marine bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum was used as a bioassay with the bioluminescent intensity as the physiological parameter tested. To investigate the sensitivity of the bacteria to the low-dose gamma-radiation exposure (≤250 mGy), the irradiation conditions were varied as follows: bioluminescence intensity was measured at 5, 10, and 20°С for 175, 100, and 47 h, respectively, at different dose rates (up to 4100 μGy/h). There was no noticeable effect of gamma-radiation at 5 and 10°С, while the 20°С exposure revealed authentic bioluminescence inhibition. The 20°С results of gamma-radiation exposure were compared to those for low-dose alpha- and beta-radiation exposures studied previously under comparable experimental conditions. In contrast to ionizing radiation of alpha and beta types, gamma-emission did not initiate bacterial bioluminescence activation (adaptive response). As with alpha- and beta-radiation, gamma-emission did not demonstrate monotonic dose-effect dependencies; the bioluminescence inhibition efficiency was found to be related to the exposure time, while no dose rate dependence was found. The sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene did not reveal a mutagenic effect of low-dose gamma radiation. The exposure time that caused 50% bioluminescence inhibition was suggested as a test parameter for radiotoxicity evaluation under conditions of chronic low-dose gamma irradiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel dosimeter for measuring the amount of radiation exposure of surgeons during percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Instadose™

    Yuruk, Emrah; Gureser, Gokhan; Tuken, Murat; Ertas, Kasim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of Instadose™, a novel dosimeter designed for radiation workers to provide a measurement of the radiation dose at any time from any computer; to determine the amount of radiation exposure during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL); and to evaluate the factors that affect the amount of radiation exposed. Material and methods Two experienced surgeons wore Instadose™ on the outer part of their lead aprons during the PNL procedures performed between December 2013 and July 2014. Patient demographics and stone characteristics were noted. Factors affecting radiation dose were determined. Fluoroscopic screening time was compared with the amount of radiation in order to validate the measurements of Instadose™. Results Overall, 51 patients with a mean age of 43.41 ±18.58 (range 1–75) years were enrolled. Male to female ratio was 35/16. The amount of radiation was greater than 0.01mSv in only 19 (37.25%) cases. Stone location complexity (p = 0.380), dilation type (p = 0.584), stone size (p = 0.565), dilation size (p = 0.891) and access number (p = 0.268) were not associated with increased radiation exposure. Instadose™ measurements were correlated with fluoroscopic screening time (r = 0.519, p = 0.001). Conclusions Instadose™ is a useful tool for the measurement of radiation exposure during PNL. The advantage of measuring the amount of radiation exposure after each PNL operation is that it may aid urologists in taking appropriate precautions to minimize the risk of radiation related complications. PMID:27551558

  20. Dose evaluation for external exposure in radiation accidents

    Maruyama, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    Abnormal exposures including emergency and accidental are categorized into external exposure and internal contamination, although both of these may be associated with external contamination. From a point of view of lifesaving in the abnormal exposures, it is primarily important to evaluate radiation dose of exposed persons as soon as possible. This report reviews the status of early dosimetry in the accidental exposures and discusses the optimum methodology of the early dose determination for external exposures in abnormal exposures. Personal monitors generally give an indication of dose to an exposed person only at a single part of the body. The data obtained from the personal monitors should be interpreted with care and in the light of information about the circumstances of exposure. In most cases, the records of environmental monitors or the survey with area monitors provide valuable information on the radiation fields. In the some cases, the reconstruction of the abnormal exposure is required for the dose evaluation by means of phantom experiments. In the case of neutron exposures, activation products in the body or its components or personnel possession can be useful for the early dosimetry. If the dose received by the whole body is evaluated as being very high, clinical observations and biological investigations may be more important guide to initial medical treatment than the early dosimetry. For the dose evaluation of general public, depending on the size of abnormal exposure, information that could be valuable in the assessment of abnormal exposures will come from the early dose estimates with environmental monitors and radiation survey meters. (author)