WorldWideScience

Sample records for radiation effects facility

  1. The Brookhaven Radiation Effects Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grand, P.; Snead, C.L.; Ward, T.

    1988-01-01

    The Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) Radiation Effects Facility (REF), funded by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO) through the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) and the Air Force Weapons Laboratory (AFWL), has been constructed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Operation started in October 1986. The facility is capable of delivering pulsed H{sup -}, H{sup o}, and H{sup +} beams of 100 to 200 MeV energy up to 30 mA peak current. Pulses can be adjusted from 5 {mu}s to 500 {mu}s length at a repetition rate of 5 pps. The beam spot on target is adjustable from 3 to 100 cm diameter (2 {sigma}) resulting in a maximum dose of about 10 MRads (Si) per pulse (small beam spot). Experimental use of the REF is being primarily supported by the SDI lethality (LTH-4) program. The program has addressed ionization effects in electronics, both dose rate and total dose dependence, radiation-sensitive components, and dE/dx effects in energetic materials including propellants and high explosives (HE). This paper describes the facility, its capabilities and potential, and the experiments that have been carried out to date or are being planned. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  2. The Brookhaven Radiation Effects Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, P.; Snead, C.L.; Ward, T.

    1988-01-01

    The Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) Radiation Effects Facility (REF), funded by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO) through the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) and the Air Force Weapons Laboratory (AFWL), has been constructed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Operation started in October 1986. The facility is capable of delivering pulsed H - , H/sup o/, and H + beams of 100 to 200 MeV energy up to 30 mA peak current. Pulses can be adjusted from 5 μs to 500 μs length at a repetition rate of 5 pps. The beam spot on target is adjustable from 3 to 100 cm diameter (2 σ) resulting in a maximum dose of about 10 MRads (Si) per pulse (small beam spot). Experimental use of the REF is being primarily supported by the SDI lethality (LTH-4) program. The program has addressed ionization effects in electronics, both dose rate and total dose dependence, radiation-sensitive components, and dE/dx effects in energetic materials including propellants and high explosives (HE). This paper describes the facility, its capabilities and potential, and the experiments that have been carried out to date or are being planned. 2 refs., 10 figs

  3. NASA FACILITY FOR THE STUDY OF SPACE RADIATION EFFECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, David R.

    1963-04-15

    Information on the energies andd fluxes of trapped electrons and protons in space is summarized, and the Space Radiation Effects Laboratory being constructed to simulate most of the space particulate-energy spectrum is described. A 600-Mev proton synchrocyclotron of variable energy and electron accelerators of 1 to 10 Mev will be included. The accelerator characteristics and the arrangement of the experimental and support buildings, particularly the beam facilities, are discussed; and the planned activities of the laboratory are given. (D.C.W.)

  4. Auditing radiation sterilization facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jeffrey A.

    The diversity of radiation sterilization systems available today places renewed emphasis on the need for thorough Quality Assurance audits of these facilities. Evaluating compliance with Good Manufacturing Practices is an obvious requirement, but an effective audit must also evaluate installation and performance qualification programs (validation_, and process control and monitoring procedures in detail. The present paper describes general standards that radiation sterilization operations should meet in each of these key areas, and provides basic guidance for conducting QA audits of these facilities.

  5. Synchrotron radiation facilities

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Particularly in the past few years, interest in using the synchrotron radiation emanating from high energy, circular electron machines has grown considerably. In our February issue we included an article on the synchrotron radiation facility at Frascati. This month we are spreading the net wider — saying something about the properties of the radiation, listing the centres where synchrotron radiation facilities exist, adding a brief description of three of them and mentioning areas of physics in which the facilities are used.

  6. Status and update of the National Ignition Facility radiation effects testing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J F; Serduke, F J; Wuest, C R.

    1998-01-01

    We are progressing in our efforts to make the National Ignition Facility (NIF) available to the nation as a radiation effects simulator to support the Services needs for nuclear hardness and survivability testing and validation. Details of our program were summarized in a paper presented at the 1998 HEART Conference [1]. This paper describes recent activities and updates plans for NIF radiation effects testing. research. Radiation Effects Testing

  7. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, B.

    1985-01-01

    How a European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has developed into a detailed proposal recently accepted as the basis for construction of the facility at Grenoble is discussed. In November 1977, the General Assembly of the European Science Foundation (ESF) approved the report of the ESF working party on synchrotron radiation entitled Synchrotron Radiation - a Perspective View for Europe. This report contained as one of its principal recommendations that work should commence on a feasibility study for a European synchrotron radiation laboratory having a dedicated hard X-ray storage ring and appropriate advanced instrumentation. In order to prepare a feasibility study the European Science Foundation set up the Ad-hoc Committee on Synchrotron Radiation, which in turn formed two working groups: one for the machine and another for instrumentation. This feasibility study was completed in 1979 with the publication of the Blue Book describing in detail the so called 1979 European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The heart of the facility was a 5 GeV electron storage ring and it was assumed that mainly the radiation from bending magnets will be used. The facility is described

  8. Additional measurements of the radiation environment at the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, D.R.; Reedy, R.C.; Greenwood, L.R.; Sommer, W.F.; Wechsler, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    Foil activation dosimetry experiments were conducted in a ''rabbit'' system at the completed Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF). The ''raffit'' system contains four tubes spaced radially outward 0.12, 0.18, 0.27, and 0.38 meters off beam centerline. Foils were irradiated for 3 to 62 hours to measure the neutron flux and energy spectrum radially from beam centerline, along the beamline, and the effect of the Isotope Production (IP) target loadings on the neutron flux in the neutron irradiation locations. Irradiations showed a decrease in the radial flux by a factor of 6 in 0.15 meters of iron outside the IP targets. An enchancement was seen in the 24-keV energy region outside 0.15 meters. There was little difference in the shape of the spectra outside the IP targets and the beam stop with the exception of the high energy tail (energies above 20 MeV). The decrease in the high energy tail outside the beam stop is due to the degradation of the energy of the proton beam in the IP targets. Irradiations outside the beam stop with zero and eight IP targets gave the same spectral shape with the exception of the high energy tail. The magnitude of the integral flux decreased by a factor of 2 when eight IP targets were present. Irradiations with five ''rabbits'' stacked on top of each other showed no difference in the integral flux below, on and above beam centerline

  9. Evaluation of pelletron accelerator facility to study radiation effects on semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, A. P. Gnana; Pushpa, N.; Praveen, K. C.; Naik, P. S.; Revannasiddaiah, D.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the comprehensive results on the effects of different radiation on the electrical characteristics of different semiconductor devices like Si BJT, n-channel MOSFETs, 50 GHz and 200 GHz silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistor (SiGe HBTs). The total dose effects of different radiation are compared in the same total dose ranging from 100 krad to 100 Mrad. We show that the irradiation time needed to reach very high total dose can be reduced by using Pelletron accelerator facilities instead of conventional irradiation facilities.

  10. Evaluation of pelletron accelerator facility to study radiation effects on semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, A. P. Gnana; Pushpa, N.; Praveen, K. C.; Naik, P. S.; Revannasiddaiah, D. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore-570006, Karnataka (India)

    2012-06-05

    In this paper we present the comprehensive results on the effects of different radiation on the electrical characteristics of different semiconductor devices like Si BJT, n-channel MOSFETs, 50 GHz and 200 GHz silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistor (SiGe HBTs). The total dose effects of different radiation are compared in the same total dose ranging from 100 krad to 100 Mrad. We show that the irradiation time needed to reach very high total dose can be reduced by using Pelletron accelerator facilities instead of conventional irradiation facilities.

  11. Effect of distance to radiation treatment facility on use of radiation therapy after mastectomy in elderly women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punglia, Rinaa S.; Weeks, Jane C.; Neville, Bridget A.; Earle, Craig C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to study the effect of distance to the nearest radiation treatment facility on the use of postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) in elderly women. Methods and Materials: Using data from the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare (SEER-Medicare) database, we analyzed 19,787 women with Stage I or II breast cancer who received mastectomy as definitive surgery during 1991 to 1999. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association of distance with receipt of PMRT after adjusting for clinical and sociodemographic factors. Results: Overall 2,075 patients (10.5%) treated with mastectomy received PMRT. In addition to cancer and patient characteristics, in our primary analysis, increasing distance to the nearest radiation treatment facility was independently associated with a decreased likelihood of receiving PMRT (OR 0.996 per additional mile, p = 0.01). Secondary analyses revealed that the decline in PMRT use appeared at distances of more than 25 miles and was statistically significant for those patients living more than 75 miles from the nearest radiation facility (odds of receiving PMRT of 0.58 [95% CI 0.34-0.99] vs. living within 25 miles of such a facility). The effect of distance on PMRT appeared to be more pronounced with increasing patient age (>75 years). Variation in the effect of distance on radiation use between regions of the country and nodal status was also identified. Conclusions: Oncologists must be cognizant of the potential barrier to quality care that is posed by travel distance, especially for elderly patients; and policy makers should consider this fact in resource allocation decisions about radiation treatment centers

  12. Automatic beam position control at Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oothoudt, M.; Pillai, C.; Zumbro, M.

    1997-01-01

    Historically the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) has used manual methods to control the position of the 800 kW, 800 MeV proton beam on targets. New experiments, however, require more stringent position control more frequently than can be done manually for long periods of time. Data from an existing harp is used to automatically adjust steering magnets to maintain beam position to required tolerances

  13. In situ TEM-tandem/implanter interface facility in Wuhan University for investigation of radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Liping; Li Ming; Liu Chuansheng; Song Bo; Ye Mingsheng; Fan Xiangjun; Fu Dejun

    2007-01-01

    Transmission electron microscope (TEM) interfaced to one or more ion implanters and/or accelerators, i.e. in situ TEM, provides effective tools to observe microstructural changes of studied samples during the ion irradiation. Evolution of both radiation damages and irradiation-induced nano-sized microstructures can be investigated with this technique, much more convenient than conventional ex situ techniques. In situ TEM technique has been widely applied in various fields, especially in the study of radiation damages of structural materials of fission and fusion nuclear reactors, and in evaluation and qualification of radioactive waste forms. Nowadays there are more than a dozen such facilities located in Japan, France, and the United States. Recently, we have constructed the first TEM-Tandem/Implanter interface facility of China in Wuhan University. A modified Hitachi H800 TEM was interfaced to a 200 kV ion implanter and a 2 x 1.7 MV tandem accelerator. Effective steps were taken to isolate the TEM from mechanical vibration from the ion beam line, and no obvious wobbling of the TEM image was observed during the ion implantation. The amorphization process of Si crystal irradiated by 115 keV N + ion beam was observed in the primary experiments, demonstrating that this interface facility is capable of in situ study of radiation effects. An online low energy gaseous ion source which may provide 1-20 keV H + and He + is under construction. (authors)

  14. Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Studies the effects of UV radiation and X rays on solids, and calibrates X-ray optics, detectors, and instruments.DESCRIPTION: Research focuses on applying...

  15. Additional measurements of the radiation environment at the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, D.R.; Reedy, R.C.; Greenwood, L.R.; Sommer, W.F.; Wechsler, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Foil activation dosimetry experiments were conducted in a ''rabbit'' system at the completed Los Alamos Spallation Effects Facility(LASREF). The ''rabbit'' system contains four test tubes spaced radially outward 0.12, 0.18, 0.27, and 0.38 m off beam centerline. Foils were irradiated for 3 to 62 h to measure the neutron flux and energy spectrum radially from beam centerline, along the beamline, and the effect of isotope production (IP) target loadings on the neutron flux in the neutron irradiation locations. Irradiations showed a decrease in the radial flux by a factor of 6 in 0.15 m of iron outside the IP targets. An enhancement was seen in the 24-keV energy region outside 0.15m. There was little difference in the shape of the spectra outside the IP targets and the beam stop with the exception of the high energy tail (energies above 20 MeV). The decrease in the high energy tail outside the beam stop is due to the degradation of the energy of the proton beam in the IP targets. Irradiations outside the beam stop with zero and eight IP targets gave the same spectral shape with the exception of the high energy tail. The magnitude of the integral flux decreased by a factor of two when eight IP targets were present. Irradiations with five ''rabbits'' stacked on top of each other showed no difference in the integral flux below, on and above beam centerline

  16. Radiation-induced bystander effects. Mechanisms, biological implications, and current investigations at the Leipzig LIPSION facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterreicher, J.; Prise, K.M.; Michael, B.D.; Vogt, J.; Butz, T.; Tanner, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: The bystander effect is a relatively new area of radiobiological research, which is aimed at studying post-radiation changes in neighboring non-hit cells or tissues. The bystander effect of ionizing irradiation is important after low-dose irradiation in the range of up to 0.2 Gy, where a higher incidence of stochastic damage was observed than was expected from a linear-quadratic model. It is also important when the irradiation of a cell population is highly non-uniform. Objective: This review summarizes most of the important results and proposed bystander effect mechanisms as well as their impact on theory and clinical practice. The literature, in parts contradictory, is collected, the main topics are outlined, and some basic papers are described in more detail. In order to illustrate the microbeam technique, which is considered relevant for the bystander effect research, the state of the Leipzig LIPSION nanoprobe facility is described. Results: The existence of a radiation-induced bystander effect is now generally accepted. The current state of knowledge on it is summarized here. Several groups worldwide are working on understanding its different aspects and its impact on radiobiology and radiation protection. Conclusion: The observation of a bystander effect has posed many questions, and answering them is a challenging topic for radiobiology in the future. (orig.)

  17. Radiation-induced bystander effects. Mechanisms, biological implications, and current investigations at the Leipzig LIPSION facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oesterreicher, J. [Dept. of Nuclear Solid State Physics, Univ. of Leipzig (Germany); Dept. of Radiobiology and Immunology, Purkyne Military Medical Academy, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Prise, K.M.; Michael, B.D. [Gray Cancer Inst., Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Vogt, J.; Butz, T. [Dept. of Nuclear Solid State Physics, Univ. of Leipzig (Germany); Tanner, J.M. [Clinic and Polyclinic of Radiation Oncology, Martin Luther Univ. Halle-Wittenberg (Germany)

    2003-02-01

    Background: The bystander effect is a relatively new area of radiobiological research, which is aimed at studying post-radiation changes in neighboring non-hit cells or tissues. The bystander effect of ionizing irradiation is important after low-dose irradiation in the range of up to 0.2 Gy, where a higher incidence of stochastic damage was observed than was expected from a linear-quadratic model. It is also important when the irradiation of a cell population is highly non-uniform. Objective: This review summarizes most of the important results and proposed bystander effect mechanisms as well as their impact on theory and clinical practice. The literature, in parts contradictory, is collected, the main topics are outlined, and some basic papers are described in more detail. In order to illustrate the microbeam technique, which is considered relevant for the bystander effect research, the state of the Leipzig LIPSION nanoprobe facility is described. Results: The existence of a radiation-induced bystander effect is now generally accepted. The current state of knowledge on it is summarized here. Several groups worldwide are working on understanding its different aspects and its impact on radiobiology and radiation protection. Conclusion: The observation of a bystander effect has posed many questions, and answering them is a challenging topic for radiobiology in the future. (orig.)

  18. The current status and possible future of the Los Alamos spallation radiation effects facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borden, M.J.; Sommer, W.F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) has been configured for both proton and spallation neutron irradiations since 1985. The facility makes use of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility 1 mA 800 MeV proton beam. Environment controlled proton and neutron irradiations have been demonstrated over the past nine years. The current copper beam stop configuration produces a maximum measured neutron flux of 4.6 x 10{sup 17} m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} for energies greater than 1 KeV. The maximum proton flux at the center of Gaussian shaped beam is 1.2 x 10{sup 14} protons cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} with beam spot diameter of 3.5 cm at 2{sigma}. Previously published work has shown that the neutron flux can be increased by a factor of ten by changing the beam stop to tungsten and decreasing the diameter. Expertise exists at Los Alamos to further optimize this design to tailor neutron production and spectrum. Consideration and preliminary planning has also been done for increasing the LAMPF proton current from 1 mA to a few mA with a possible maximum of 10 mA. An upgrade of this type would produce current densities comparable to those proposed for the Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies (ADTT) programs.

  19. Evaluation of the effectiveness of lamination for preventing discoloration and fading of radiation warning signs posted on the exterior of radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroi, Tomoko; Ootaki, Masanori; Nawa, Yukino; Kuwabara, Rie; Tatsunami, Shinobu; Matsui, Hiroaki; Kumazawa, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Takio

    2014-01-01

    Radiation warning signs posted on the exterior of radiation facilities become faded and discolored with time. There are various types of commercially available laminating films for protecting signs from ultraviolet light. We examined the protection effect of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), acrylic resin and fluororesin films applied to the surface of radiation warning signs. The laminated signs were exposed to direct sunlight on the wall of an air filter chamber of a radiation facility for 1200 days. Simultaneously, another set of laminated signs was exposed to light from a xenon-arc weatherometer for 1200 hours. After exposure, the colors on the surface of each sign were evaluated digitally by using a spectrum colorimeter. The results indicated that lamination with a film that blocks ultraviolet light is effective for protecting the signs from fading and discoloration. For long-term protection under direct sunlight, PVC was the most effective among the three materials tested. (author)

  20. Radiation effects on active camera electronics in the target chamber at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, M.; Datte, P.; Carpenter, A.; Eckart, M.; Manuel, A.; Khater, H.; Hargrove, D.; Bell, P.

    2017-08-01

    The National Ignition Facility's (NIF) harsh radiation environment can cause electronics to malfunction during high-yield DT shots. Until now there has been little experience fielding electronic-based cameras in the target chamber under these conditions; hence, the performance of electronic components in NIF's radiation environment was unknown. It is possible to purchase radiation tolerant devices, however, they are usually qualified for radiation environments different to NIF, such as space flight or nuclear reactors. This paper presents the results from a series of online experiments that used two different prototype camera systems built from non-radiation hardened components and one commercially available camera that permanently failed at relatively low total integrated dose. The custom design built in Livermore endured a 5 × 1015 neutron shot without upset, while the other custom design upset at 2 × 1014 neutrons. These results agreed with offline testing done with a flash x-ray source and a 14 MeV neutron source, which suggested a methodology for developing and qualifying electronic systems for NIF. Further work will likely lead to the use of embedded electronic systems in the target chamber during high-yield shots.

  1. Radiation protection at nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, K.; Momose, T.; Furuta, S.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation protection methodologies concerning individual monitoring, workplace monitoring and environmental monitoring in nuclear fuel facilities have been developed and applied to facilities in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories (NCL) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) for over 40 y. External exposure to photon, beta ray and neutron and internal exposure to alpha emitter are important issues for radiation protection at these facilities. Monitoring of airborne and surface contamination by alpha and beta/photon emitters at workplace is also essential to avoid internal exposure. A critical accident alarm system developed by JAEA has been proved through application at the facilities for a long time. A centralised area monitoring system is effective for emergency situations. Air and liquid effluents from facilities are monitored by continuous monitors or sampling methods to comply with regulations. Effluent monitoring has been carried out for 40 y to assess the radiological impacts on the public and the environment due to plant operation. (authors)

  2. Radiation protection in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piechowski, J.; Lochard, J.; Lefaure, Ch.; Schieber, C.; Schneider, Th; Lecomte, J.F.; Delmont, D.; Boitel, S.; Le Fauconnier, J.P.; Sugier, A; Zerbib, J.C.; Barbey, P.

    1998-01-01

    Close ties exist between nuclear safety and radiation protection. Nuclear safety is made up of all the arrangements taken to prevent accidents occurring in nuclear facilities, these accidents would certainly involved a radiological aspect. Radiation protection is made up of all the arrangements taken to evaluate and reduce the impact of radiation on workers or population in normal situations or in case of accident. In the fifties the management of radiological hazards was based on the quest for minimal or even zero risk. This formulation could lead to call some activities in question whereas the benefits for the whole society were evident. Now a new attitude more aware of the real risks and of no wasting resources prevails. This attitude is based on the ALARA principle whose purpose is to maintain the exposure to radiation as low as reasonably achievable taking into account social and economic concerns. This document regroups articles illustrating different aspects of the radiation protection in nuclear facilities such as a research center, a waste vitrification workshop and a nuclear power plant. The surveillance of radiological impacts of nuclear sites on environment is examined, a point is made about the pending epidemiologic studies concerning La Hague complex. (A.C.)

  3. Audits of radiation sterilization facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkar, Prabhakar M.

    2001-01-01

    Johnson and Johnson is the world leader in sterilization science and technology. A special group of scientists and technologists are engaged in the development of new methods of sterilization, worldwide monitoring of sterilization processes, equipment and approvals for all types of sterilization processes. Kilmer Conference in the alternate year for the benefit of all those involved in improvement in sterilization science is held. Cobalt-60 gamma radiation for sterilization of medical products on commercial scale is used. This kind of mammoth task can only be achieved through systematic method of planning, auditing, expert review and approval of facilities

  4. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo

    2012-03-15

    Environmental Radiation Monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment. radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis on the sites of KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactors and their environments. The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by an ERM and the accumulated radiation dose by a TLD were almost same level compared with the previous years. The activity of gross {alpha} and gross {beta}, Tritium, Uranium and Strontium in environmental samples showed a environmental level. The {gamma}-radionuclides such as natural radionuclides 40K or 7Be were detected in pine needle and food. The nuclear radionuclides 134Cs, 137Cs or 131I were temporarily detected in the samples of air particulate and rain in April and of fall out in 2nd quarter from the effect of Fukusima accident.

  5. Radiation therapy facilities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballas, Leslie K.; Elkin, Elena B.; Schrag, Deborah; Minsky, Bruce D.; Bach, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: About half of all cancer patients in the United States receive radiation therapy as a part of their cancer treatment. Little is known, however, about the facilities that currently deliver external beam radiation. Our goal was to construct a comprehensive database of all radiation therapy facilities in the United States that can be used for future health services research in radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: From each state's health department we obtained a list of all facilities that have a linear accelerator or provide radiation therapy. We merged these state lists with information from the American Hospital Association (AHA), as well as 2 organizations that audit the accuracy of radiation machines: the Radiologic Physics Center (RPC) and Radiation Dosimetry Services (RDS). The comprehensive database included all unique facilities listed in 1 or more of the 4 sources. Results: We identified 2,246 radiation therapy facilities operating in the United States as of 2004-2005. Of these, 448 (20%) facilities were identified through state health department records alone and were not listed in any other data source. Conclusions: Determining the location of the 2,246 radiation facilities in the United States is a first step in providing important information to radiation oncologists and policymakers concerned with access to radiation therapy services, the distribution of health care resources, and the quality of cancer care

  6. A comprehensive centralized control system for radiation waste treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive centralized control system is designed for the radiation waste treatment facility that lacking of coordinated operational mechanism for the radiation waste treatment. The centralized control and alarm linkage of various systems is implemented to ensure effectively the safety of nuclear facility and materials, improve the integral control ability through advanced informatization ways. (author)

  7. Summary of the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility at LAMPF (LASREF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the components and procedures in place at LASREF. It also lists the irradiation experiments performed. Active experiments, major results, and future plans are briefly described. The papers covering theoretical aspects, facility characterization/description and experiments at LASREF are listed

  8. The Synchrotron Radiation Facility ESFR in Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haensel, R.

    1994-01-01

    The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESFR) is the first synchrotron radiation source of the 3-th generation for Roentgen radiations.It permits a new series of experiments in the domains of physics, chemistry, materials studies, micromechanics, biology, medicine and crystallography. The main part of device represents the 850 meter storage ring of 6 GeV electrons. (MSA)

  9. CERN Radiation Protection (RP) calibration facilities

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082069; Macián-Juan, Rafael

    Radiation protection calibration facilities are essential to ensure the correct operation of radiation protection instrumentation. Calibrations are performed in specific radiation fields according to the type of instrument to be calibrated: neutrons, photons, X-rays, beta and alpha particles. Some of the instruments are also tested in mixed radiation fields as often encountered close to high-energy particle accelerators. Moreover, calibration facilities are of great importance to evaluate the performance of prototype detectors; testing and measuring the response of a prototype detector to well-known and -characterized radiation fields contributes to improving and optimizing its design and capabilities. The CERN Radiation Protection group is in charge of performing the regular calibrations of all CERN radiation protection devices; these include operational and passive dosimeters, neutron and photon survey-meters, and fixed radiation detectors to monitor the ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), inside CERN accelera...

  10. Radiation monitoring around accelerator facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Shinichi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The present status of a network of radiation monitors (NORM) working at KEK is described in detail. NORM consists of there parts; stand-alone radiation monitors (SARM), local-monitoring stations (STATION) and a central data-handling system (CENTER). NORM has developed to a large-scaled monitoring system in which more than 250 SARMs are under operation for monitoring the radiation fields and radioactivities around accelerators in KEK. (author)

  11. Integration of radiation and physical safety in large radiator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, P.P.M.; Benedito, A.M.; Lima, C.M.A.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    Growing international concern about radioactive sources after the Sept. 11, 2001 event has led to a strengthening of physical safety. There is evidence that the illicit use of radioactive sources is a real possibility and may result in harmful radiological consequences for the population and the environment. In Brazil there are about 2000 medical, industrial and research facilities with radioactive sources, of which 400 are Category 1 and 2 classified by the - International Atomic Energy Agency - AIEA, where large irradiators occupy a prominent position due to the very high cobalt-60 activities. The radiological safety is well established in these facilities, due to the intense work of the authorities in the Country. In the paper the main aspects on radiological and physical safety applied in the large radiators are presented, in order to integrate both concepts for the benefit of the safety as a whole. The research showed that the items related to radiation safety are well defined, for example, the tests on the access control devices to the irradiation room. On the other hand, items related to physical security, such as effective control of access to the company, use of safety cameras throughout the company, are not yet fully incorporated. Integration of radiation and physical safety is fundamental for total safety. The elaboration of a Brazilian regulation on the subject is of extreme importance

  12. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Geun Sik and others

    2001-02-01

    Environmental Radiation Monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment. Radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor are the follows : The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with the past years. Gross {alpha}, {beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul Research Reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by {gamma}-spectrometry.

  13. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Young Ho

    2000-02-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor are the follows: The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost some level compared with the past years. Gross α, β radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. γ-radionuclides in water sample were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul Research Reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by γ-spectrometry. (author)

  14. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Young Ho

    2000-02-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor are the follows: The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost some level compared with the past years. Gross {alpha}, {beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water sample were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul Research Reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by {gamma}-spectrometry. (author)

  15. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Young Ho; Lee, M.H. [and others

    1999-02-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul research reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul research reactor are the follows : The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with the past years. Gross {alpha}, {beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul research reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by {gamma}-spectrometry. (author). 3 refs., 50 tabs., 12 figs.

  16. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Geun Sik and others

    2001-02-01

    Environmental Radiation Monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment. Radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor are the follows : The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with the past years. Gross α, β radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. γ-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul Research Reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by γ-spectrometry

  17. Radiation sterilization facility for melon fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danno, A.

    1985-01-01

    The melon fly (Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett) has been observed in Amami Island since l975. Kagoshima Prefecture has had a melon fly eradication project underway since 1979. A mass-fearing facility and a radiation sterilization facility were constructed in Naze in March of l98l. In the early stages of the project, sterile insects were produced at the rate of 4 x l0/sup 6/ pupae/week. In the later stages, the activity of the project was enlarged by tenfold. The conditions for design of the radiation sterilization facility, which has been developed with a central control system for automated irradiation, are examined from an engineering standpoint

  18. Effect of pre-entry instruction as an additional part of radiation training beginner's course on reduction of radioactive contamination in two independent unsealed radioisotope facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Naoki; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takao, Hideaki; Kaneko, Mamoru; Okumura, Yutaka; Shimasaki, Tatsuya; Kojima, Akihiro; Shiraishi, Yoshioki; Horiuchi, Seikoh

    2005-01-01

    The education for radiation workers is essential for the safety of radiation facility that stands on radiation protection practice by each worker. Japanese laws concerning radiation safety requires each radiation worker attending the 6 hours beginner's training course before entering the control area. However, in unsealed radioisotope facilities, radioactive contaminations in the control area may still take place because practical procedures for radiation safety vary depending on the type of experiments and the characteristics of radioisotopes. Therefore, an additional and practical training for each radiation worker is needed. In an attempt to give the workers an additional training of this kind, the pre-entry instruction was performed independently in Center for Frontier Life Sciences, Nagasaki University and in Institute of Resource Development and Analysis Kumamoto University. In this study, the efficacy of the instruction in each facility was assessed quantitatively on the basis of the incidence of contamination in the control area. The instruction covered laboratory rules, radioisotope ordering information, description of sign-up sheets, radioactive waste management, use of survey meters, and lab tour with an appropriate modification to meet with a specificity of each experiment. The instruction was given to beginners and to refreshers who have not handled radioisotopes for a long period, in a face-to-face manner for 1 hour before they start working radioisotopes. To examine the education effect on the reduction of contamination in a typical and frequently used laboratory, the contamination in molecular biology room of Nagasaki University was surveyed directly by a GM survey meter on a daily basis. In Kumamoto University, contamination on the surface of the entire floor in the control area was surveyed monthly by the smear method to know the education effect on general reduction of contamination. The results revealed that the number of contamination decreased

  19. Radiation safety in X-ray facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    The guide specifies the radiation safety requirements for structural shielding and other safety arrangements used in X-ray facilities in medical and veterinary X-ray activities and in industry, research and education. The guide is also applicable to premises in which X-ray equipment intended for radiation therapy and operating at a voltage of less than 25 kV is used. The guide applies to new X-ray facilities in which X-ray equipment that has been used elsewhere is transferred. The radiation safety requirements for radiation therapy X-ray devices operating at a voltage exceeding 25 kV, and for the premices in which such devices are used, are set out in Guide ST 2.2

  20. Radiation safety in X-ray facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    The guide specifies the radiation safety requirements for structural shielding and other safety arrangements used in X-ray facilities in medical and veterinary X-ray activities and in industry, research and education. The guide is also applicable to premises in which X-ray equipment intended for radiation therapy and operating at a voltage of less than 25 kV is used. The guide applies to new X-ray facilities in which X-ray equipment that has been used elsewhere is transferred. The radiation safety requirements for radiation therapy X-ray devices operating at a voltage exceeding 25 kV, and for the premices in which such devices are used, are set out in Guide ST 2.2.

  1. New radiation protection calibration facility at CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, Markus; Carbonez, Pierre; Pozzi, Fabio; Silari, Marco; Vincke, Helmut

    2014-10-01

    The CERN radiation protection group has designed a new state-of-the-art calibration laboratory to replace the present facility, which is >20 y old. The new laboratory, presently under construction, will be equipped with neutron and gamma sources, as well as an X-ray generator and a beta irradiator. The present work describes the project to design the facility, including the facility placement criteria, the 'point-zero' measurements and the shielding study performed via FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. CERN radiation protection (RP) calibration facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, Fabio

    2016-04-14

    Radiation protection calibration facilities are essential to ensure the correct operation of radiation protection instrumentation. Calibrations are performed in specific radiation fields according to the type of instrument to be calibrated: neutrons, photons, X-rays, beta and alpha particles. Some of the instruments are also tested in mixed radiation fields as often encountered close to high-energy particle accelerators. Moreover, calibration facilities are of great importance to evaluate the performance of prototype detectors; testing and measuring the response of a prototype detector to well-known and -characterized radiation fields contributes to improving and optimizing its design and capabilities. The CERN Radiation Protection group is in charge of performing the regular calibrations of all CERN radiation protection devices; these include operational and passive dosimeters, neutron and photon survey-meters, and fixed radiation detectors to monitor the ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), inside CERN accelerators and at the CERN borders. A new state-of-the-art radiation protection calibration facility was designed, constructed and commissioned following the related ISO recommendations to replace the previous ageing (more than 30 years old) laboratory. In fact, the new laboratory aims also at the official accreditation according to the ISO standards in order to be able to release certified calibrations. Four radiation fields are provided: neutrons, photons and beta sources and an X-ray generator. Its construction did not only involve a pure civil engineering work; many radiation protection studies were performed to provide a facility that could answer the CERN calibration needs and fulfill all related safety requirements. Monte Carlo simulations have been confirmed to be a valuable tool for the optimization of the building design, the radiation protection aspects, e.g. shielding, and, as consequence, the overall cost. After the source and irradiator installation

  3. Consenting process for radiation facilities. V. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    Safety codes and standards are formulated on the basis of nationally and internationally accepted safety criteria for design, construction and operation of specific equipment, systems, structures and components of nuclear and radiation facilities. Safety, codes establish the objectives and set requirements that shall be fulfilled to provide adequate assurance for safety. Safety codes establish the objectives and set requirements that shall be fulfilled to provide adequate assurance for safety. Safety guides elaborate various requirements and furnish approaches for their implementation. Safety manuals deal with specific topics and contain detailed scientific and technical information on the subject. These documents are prepared by experts in the relevant fields and are extensively reviewed by advisory committees of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) before they are published. The documents are revised when necessary, in the light of experience and feedback from users as well as new developments in the field. AERB issued a safety code on Regulation of Nuclear and Radiation Facilities (AERB/SC/G) to spell out the requirements/obligations to be met by a nuclear or radiation facility for the issue of regulatory consent at every stage. This safety guide apprises the details of the regulatory requirements for setting up the radiation facility such as consenting process, the stages requiring consent, wherever applicable documents to be submitted and the nature and extent of review. The guide also gives information on methods of review and assessment adopted by AERB

  4. Consenting process for radiation facilities. V. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    Safety codes and standards are formulated on the basis of nationally and internationally accepted safety criteria for design, construction and operation of specific equipment, systems, structures and components of nuclear and radiation facilities. Safety, codes establish the objectives and set requirements that shall be fulfilled to provide adequate assurance for safety. Safety codes establish the objectives and set requirements that shall be fulfilled to provide adequate assurance for safety. Safety guides elaborate various requirements and furnish approaches for their implementation. Safety manuals deal with specific topics and contain detailed scientific and technical information on the subject. These documents are prepared by experts in the relevant fields and are extensively reviewed by advisory committees of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) before they are published. The documents are revised when necessary, in the light of experience and feedback from users as well as new developments in the field. AERB issued a safety code on Regulation of Nuclear and Radiation Facilities (AERB/SC/G) to spell out the requirements/obligations to be met by a nuclear or radiation facility for the issue of regulatory consent at every stage. This safety guide apprises the details of the regulatory requirements for setting up the radiation facility such as consenting process, the stages requiring consent, wherever applicable documents to be submitted and the nature and extent of review. The guide also gives information on methods of review and assessment adopted by AERB

  5. Consenting process for radiation facilities. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    Safety codes and standards are formulated on the basis of nationally and internationally accepted safety criteria for design, construction and operation of specific equipment, systems, structures and components of nuclear and radiation facilities. Safety, codes establish the objectives and set requirements that shall be fulfilled to provide adequate assurance for safety. Safety codes establish the objectives and set requirements that shall be fulfilled to provide adequate assurance for safety. Safety guides elaborate various requirements and furnish approaches for their implementation. Safety manuals deal with specific topics and contain detailed scientific and technical information on the subject. These documents are prepared by experts in the relevant fields and are extensively reviewed by advisory committees of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) before they are published. The documents are revised when necessary, in the light of experience and feedback from users as well as new developments in the field. AERB issued a safety code on Regulation of Nuclear and Radiation Facilities (AERB/SC/G) to spell out the requirements/obligations to be met by a nuclear or radiation facility for the issue of regulatory consent at every stage. This safety guide apprises the details of the regulatory requirements for setting up the radiation facility such as consenting process, the stages requiring consent, wherever applicable documents to be submitted and the nature and extent of review. The guide also gives information on methods of review and assessment adopted by AERB

  6. Frost Effects Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Full-scale study in controlled conditionsThe Frost Effects Research Facility (FERF) is the largest refrigerated warehouse in the United States that can be used for a...

  7. Operational and safety requirement of radiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulkafli Ghazali

    2007-01-01

    Gamma and electron irradiation facilities are the most common industrial sources of ionizing radiation. They have been used for medical, industrial and research purposes since the 1950s. Currently there are more than 160 gamma irradiation facilities and over 600 electron beam facilities in operation worldwide. These facilities are either used for the sterilization of medical and pharmaceutical products, the preservation of foodstuffs, polymer synthesis and modification, or the eradication of insect infestation. Irradiation with electron beam, gamma ray or ultra violet light can also destroy complex organic contaminants in both liquid and gaseous waste. EB systems are replacing traditional chemical sterilization methods in the medical supply industry. The ultra-violet curing facility, however, has found more industrial application in printing and furniture industries. Gamma and electron beam facilities produce very high dose rates during irradiation, and thus there is a potential of accidental exposure in the irradiation chamber which can be lethal within minutes. Although, the safety record of this industry has been relatively very good, there have been fatalities recorded in Italy (1975), Norway (1982), El Salvador (1989) and Israel (1990). Precautions against uncontrolled entry into irradiation chamber must therefore be taken. This is especially so in the case of gamma irradiation facilities those contain large amounts of radioactivity. If the mechanism for retracting the source is damaged, the source may remain exposed. This paper will, to certain extent, describe safety procedure and system being installed at ALURTRON, Nuclear Malaysia to eliminate accidental exposure of electron beam irradiation. (author)

  8. Radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    An important cause of deterioration in superconducting magnets intended for high-energy physics and fusion-reactor applications is radiation damage. The present chapter deals chiefly with the effects of electron, proton, gamma and neutron irradiation on the properties of stabilized Ti-Nb-base composite superconductors. The authors examine the particle-accelerator environment, electron irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor, proton irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor and its stabilizer, and deuteron irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor. A section discussing the fusion reactor environment in general is presented, and the two principal classes of fusion reactor based on the magnetic-confinement concept, namely the tokamak and the mirrormachine are examined. Also discussed is neutron irradiation of Cu/TiNb composite superconductors and critical current density of neutronirradiated Ti-Nb. Finally, radiation damage to stabilizer and insulating materials is described

  9. Environmental Radiation Monitoring Around the Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Chang Woo

    2008-05-15

    Environmental Radiation Monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment. radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis on the sites of KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactors and their environments. The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by an ERM and the accumulated radiation dose by a TLD were almost same level compared with the previous years. The activity of gross {alpha} and gross {beta}, Tritium, Uraniu and Strontium in environmental samples showed a environmental level. The radioactivities of most {gamma}-radionuclides in air particulate, surface water and ground water were less than MDA except {sup 40}K or {sup 7}Be which are natural radionuclides. However, not only {sup 40}K or {sup 7}Be but also {sup 137}Cs were detected at the background level in surface soil, discharge sediment and fallout or pine needle.

  10. Radiation monitoring considerations for radiobiology facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClelland, T.W.; McFall, E.D.

    1976-01-01

    Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, conducts a wide variety of radiobiology and radioecology research in a number of facilities on the Hanford Reservation. Review of radiation monitoring problems associated with storage, plant and animal experiments, waste handling and sterile facilities shows that careful monitoring, strict procedural controls and innovative techniques are required to minimize occupational exposure and control contamination. Although a wide variety of radioactivity levels are involved, much of the work is with extremely low level materials. Monitoring low level work is mundane and often impractical but cannot be ignored in today's ever tightening controls

  11. Design and operation of radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, H.G.

    1983-01-01

    The design, manufacture, and operation of Cobalt-60 Radiation Processing Facilities is a well established technology. However, the products requiring radiation processing are constantly increasing. Product and dose variations create different requirements in the irradiator design. Several basic design concepts which have been developed and installed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited are discussed. Irradiators are most efficient when designed to handle a limited product density range at an established dose. Requirements for irradiators to process a multitude of different products at different doses leads to a reduction of irradiator efficiency with resultant increase in processing costs

  12. Development of application program and building database to increase facilities for using the radiation effect assessment computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun Seok Ko; Young Min Kim; Suk-Hoon Kim; Dong Hoon Shin; Chang-Sun Kang

    2005-01-01

    The current radiation effect assessment system is required the skillful technique about the application for various code and high level of special knowledge classified by field. Therefore, as a matter of fact, it is very difficult for the radiation users' who don't have enough special knowledge to assess or recognize the radiation effect properly. For this, we already have developed the five Computer codes(windows-based), that is the radiation effect assessment system, in radiation utilizing field including the nuclear power generation. It needs the computer program that non-specialist can use the five computer codes to have already developed with ease. So, we embodied the A.I-based specialist system that can infer the assessment system by itself, according to the characteristic of given problem. The specialist program can guide users, search data, inquire of administrator directly. Conceptually, with circumstance which user to apply the five computer code may encounter actually, we embodied to consider aspects as follows. First, the accessibility of concept and data to need must be improved. Second, the acquirement of reference theory and use of corresponding computer code must be easy. Third, Q and A function needed for solution of user's question out of consideration previously. Finally, the database must be renewed continuously. Actually, to express this necessity, we develop the client program to organize reference data, to build the access methodology(query) about organized data, to load the visible expression function of searched data. And It is embodied the instruction method(effective theory acquirement procedure and methodology) to acquire the theory referring the five computer codes. It is developed the data structure access program(DBMS) to renew continuously data with ease. For Q and A function, it is embodied the Q and A board within client program because the user of client program can search the content of question and answer. (authors)

  13. Occupational radiation protection organisation, facility and design safety features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    There is no absolute standard or excellence in radiation protection. The concept of excellence implies a continuous search for improvement in performance and full utilization of available resources. Radiation protection requires the commitment of all plant staff, including higher levels of executive management. The improvements in performance must therefore be based primarily on management rather than technical factors and must be aimed at more effective use of investments already made in plant facilities

  14. New synchrotron radiation facility project. Panel on new synchrotron radiation facility project

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, S; Kimura, Y

    2003-01-01

    The project for constructing a new synchrotron radiation facility dedicated to the science in VUV (or EUV) and Soft X-ray (SX) region has been discussed for these two years at the Panel on New Synchrotron Radiation Facility Project. The Panel together with the Accelerator Design Working Group (WG), Beamline Design WG and Research Program WG suggested to the Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sports the construction of a 1.8 GeV electron storage ring suitable for 'Top-Up' operation and beamlines and monochromators designed for undulator radiation. The scientific programs proposed by nationwide scientists are summarized with their requirements of the characteristics of the beam. (author)

  15. Synchrotron radiation facilities for chemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Yoshihiko

    1995-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) research is of great importance in understanding radiation chemistry, physics, and biology. It is also clearly recognized in the international chemical community that chemical applications of SR are greatly advanced and divided into 1) Molecular Spectroscopy and Dynamics Studies-Gases, Surfaces, and Condensed Matter- , 2) Radiation Chemistry and Photochemistry, 3) X-ray Structural and XAFS Studies-Crystals, Surfaces, and Liquids- , 4) Analytical Chemistry, and 5) Synthesis or R and D of New Materials. In this paper, a survey is given of recent advances in the application of SR to the chemistry of excitation and ionization of molecules, i.e., SR chemistry, in the wavelength region between near-ultraviolet and hard X-rays. The topics will be chosen from those obtained at some leading SR facilities. (J.P.N.)

  16. Radiation safely culture in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coates, R.

    2018-01-01

    The importance of developing a sound radiation safety culture is a relatively new development in the practical application of radiation protection in operational facilities. It is instructive to trace the evolution of the fundamental approaches to controlling operational exposures, staring with the engineering-based 'Distance, Shielding and Time' mantra, through the growing emphasis on ALARA and systematic management-based approaches, towards a recognition of the importance of developing a more 'hearts and minds' approach based within the wider safety culture of the organization. The underlying requirements for developing a strong radiation safety culture are not novel, and are largely identical to those necessary for nuclear safety culture, which is why an integrated approach to culture within the organization is essential

  17. [RADIATION SAFETY DURING REMEDIATION OF THE "SEVRAO" FACILITIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandala, N K; Kiselev, S M; Titov, A V; Simakov, A V; Seregin, V A; Kryuchkov, V P; Bogdanova, L S; Grachev, M I

    2015-01-01

    Within a framework of national program on elimination of nuclear legacy, State Corporation "Rosatom" is working on rehabilitation at the temporary waste storage facility at Andreeva Bay (Northwest Center for radioactive waste "SEVRAO"--the branch of "RosRAO"), located in the North-West of Russia. In the article there is presented an analysis of the current state of supervision for radiation safety of personnel and population in the context of readiness of the regulator to the implementation of an effective oversight of radiation safety in the process of radiation-hazardous work. Presented in the article results of radiation-hygienic monitoring are an informative indicator of the effectiveness of realized rehabilitation measures and characterize the radiation environment in the surveillance zone as a normal, without the tendency to its deterioration.

  18. Radiation safety program in a high dose rate brachytherapy facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, L.V.; Hermoso, T.M.; Solis, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    The use of remote afterloading equipment has been developed to improve radiation safety in the delivery of treatment in brachytherapy. Several accidents, however, have been reported involving high dose-rate brachytherapy system. These events, together with the desire to address the concerns of radiation workers, and the anticipated adoption of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation (IAEA, 1996), led to the development of the radiation safety program at the Department of Radiotherapy, Jose R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center and at the Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's Medical Center. The radiation safety program covers five major aspects: quality control/quality assurance, radiation monitoring, preventive maintenance, administrative measures and quality audit. Measures for evaluation of effectiveness of the program include decreased unnecessary exposures of patients and staff, improved accuracy in treatment delivery and increased department efficiency due to the development of staff vigilance and decreased anxiety. The success in the implementation required the participation and cooperation of all the personnel involved in the procedures and strong management support. This paper will discuss the radiation safety program for a high dose rate brachytherapy facility developed at these two institutes which may serve as a guideline for other hospitals intending to install a similar facility. (author)

  19. Radiation protection at radioisotope processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillier, L.R.; Decaire, R.

    2002-01-01

    MDS Inc. is Canada's largest diversified health and life sciences company and provides health care services and products to prevent, diagnose and treat disease. MDS Nordion Inc. is a subsidiary of MDS Inc. and is located in Ottawa, Ontario. It provides much of the world's supply of radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine primarily to diagnose, but also to treat disease. MDS Nordion is composed of three major production divisions at its Ottawa location and serves customers in three major markets. These are primarily: radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine (Nuclear Medicine Division), radiation processing for sterilization of medical equipment and supplies, and food (Ion Technologies Division), and teletherapy equipment used in cancer treatment (Therapy Systems Division). MDS Nordion supplies customers in over 100 countries, exporting more than 95 percent of its product processed in Canada. Every year, 15 to 20 million diagnostic imaging tests are carried out in hospitals around the world, using radioisotopes supplied by MDS Nordion. In addition, 150 to 200 million cubic feet (that's enough to cover an entire CFL field - including the end zones - stacked over half a kilometer high) of single use medical products are sterilized using MDS Nordion supplied equipment. MDS Nordion receives medical isotopes from AECL, Chalk River Laboratories and processes the material to purify and quantify the radioisotope product. Sealed sources, comprised of cobalt 60, are supplied from CANDU reactors. Production processes include ventilated shielded cells with remote manipulators, gloveboxes and fumehoods, to effectively control the safety of the workplace and the environment, and to prevent contamination of the products. The facilities are highly regulated by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) for safety and environmental protection. Products are also regulated by Health Canada and the US-Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (author)

  20. Radiation processing facilities and services in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulkafli Ghazali

    2007-01-01

    It is envisaged that radiation processing will continue to play an important role towards the progress and development of industry in Malaysia. Malaysian Government will continue to play an active role to support R and D in this field by providing the necessary infrastructure, facility, trained manpower and research funds. Additional e-beam accelerator is planned to be installed at Nuclear Malaysia in 2007. The medium energy electron beam accelerator (1 MeV, 50 mA) will be mainly use to evaluate the commercial viability for treating aqueous products such as wastewater. (author)

  1. Control of radiation in animal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hightower, D.; Hood, D.M.; Neff, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    Use of radioactive materials in animals for research and clinical studies is on the increase. These studies may be undertaken with little or no disruption of normal facility operations if a few facts are considered. The primary factor of consideration is the radiopharmaceutical - its pharmacologic behavior and physical characteristics. The preferred radionuclide is one with the shortest half-life compatible with the variables to be measured. The fact that an animal is a source of radiation as well as a potential source of contamination must be kept in mind. Improper use of radiopharmaceuticals is inexcusable

  2. Synchrotron radiation research facility conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    A report is presented to define, in general outline, the extent and proportions, the type of construction, the schedule for accomplishment, and the estimated cost for a new Synchrotron Radiation Facility, as proposed to the Energy Research and Development Administration by the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The report is concerned only indirectly with the scientific and technological justification for undertaking this project; the latter is addressed explicitly in separate documents. The report does consider user requirements, however, in order to establish a basis for design development. Preliminary drawings, outline specifications, estimated cost data, and other descriptive material are included as supporting documentation on the current status of the project in this preconstruction phase

  3. Security of radioactive sources in radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    Safety codes and safety standards are formulated on the basis of internationally accepted safety criteria for design, construction and operation of specific equipment, systems, structures and components of nuclear and radiation facilities. Safety codes establish the objectives and set requirements that shall be fulfilled to provide adequate assurance for safety. Safety guides and guidelines elaborate various requirements and furnish approaches for their implementation. Safety manuals deal with specific topics and contain detailed scientific and technical information on the subject. These documents are prepared by experts in the relevant fields and are extensively reviewed by advisory committees of the Board before they are published. The documents are revised when necessary, in the light of experience and feedback from users as well as new developments in the field. In India, radiation sources are being widely used for societal benefits in industry, medical practices, research, training and agriculture. It has been reported from all over the world that unsecured radioactive sources caused serious radiological accidents involving radiation injuries and fatalities. Particular concern was expressed regarding radioactive sources that have become orphaned (not under regulatory control) or vulnerable (under weak regulatory control and about to be orphaned). There is a concern about safety and security of radioactive sources and hence the need of stringent regulatory control over the handling of the sources and their security. In view of this, this guide is prepared which gives provisions necessary to safeguard radiation installations against theft of radioactive sources and other malevolent acts that may result in radiological consequences. It is, therefore, required that the radiation sources are used safely and managed securely by only authorised personnel. This guide is intended to be used by users of radiation sources in developing the necessary security plan for

  4. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.D.; Lee, Y.B.; Lee, W.Y.; Park, D.W.; Chung, B.G.

    1980-01-01

    For the KAERI site, various environmental samples were collected three times a month, and the natural environmental radiation levels were also measured at each sampling point. Measurements for gross alpha and beta radioactivities of the samples were routinely measured for all samples. Strontium-90 concentrations were also analysed for the fallout and air samples collected daily basis on the roof of the main building. Accumulated exposure including the possibility of determination of low level environmental radiation field by employing thermoluminescent dosimeter, CaSO 4 : Dsub(y)-0.4 teflon disc type, at 6 posts in on-site of the KAERI. As for Kori site, at 19 points of ON, OFF-site, and at the same time the environmental radiation exposure rate at each sampling point were measured. Several environmental samples such as surface soil, pine needles, water samples, milk sample and pasture samples were collected and analysed on a quarterly basis. As a result of the survey it can be said that no significant release of radiation to the environment due to the operations of nuclear facilities including research reactor at the KAERI and power reactor at the Kori has been found during the period of the survey and monitoring. (author)

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LR Roeder

    2008-12-01

    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  6. Safety guide data on radiation shielding in a reprocessing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Noboru; Naito, Yoshitaka

    1986-04-01

    In a reprocessing facility, various radiation sources are handled and have many geometrical conditions. To aim drawing up a safety guidebook on radiation shielding in order to evaluate shielding safety in a reprocessing facility with high reliability and reasonableness, JAERI trusted investigation on safety evaluation techniques of radiation shielding in a reprocessing facility to Nuclear Safety Research Association. This report is the collection of investigation results, and describes concept of shielding safety design principle, radiation sources in reprocessing facility and estimation of its strength, techniques of shielding calculations, and definite examples of shielding calculation in reprocessing facility. (author)

  7. European synchrotron radiation facility at Risoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The results of the feasibility study on a potential European Synchrotron Radiation Facility site at Risoe, Denmark, can be summarized as follows: The site is located in a geologically stable area. The ground is fairly flat, free from vibrations and earth movements, and the foundation properties are considered generally good. The study is based upon the machine concept and main geometry as presented in the ESF feasibility study of May 1979. However, the proposed site could accomodate a larger machine (e.g. 900 m of circumference) or a multi-facility centre. The site is located in the vicinity of Risoe National Laboratory, a R and D establishment with 850 employees and a well-developed technical and scientific infrastructure, which can provide support to the ESRF during the plant construction and operation. In particular the possible combination of synchrotron radiation with the existing neutron scattering facilities in DR 3 is emphasized. The site is located 35 km west of Copenhagen with easy access to the scientific, technological and industrial organizations in the metropolitan area. The regional infrastructure ensures easy and fast communication between the ESRF and locations in the host country as well as abroad. The site is located 35 minutes drive from Copenhagen International Airport and on a main communication route out of Copenhagen. The estimated time duration for the design, construction and commissioning of ESRF phase 1 - taking into account national regulatory procedures - is consistent with that of the ESF feasibility study, i.e. approx. 6 years. The estimated captal costs associated with site-specific structures are consistent with those of the ESF feasibility study, taking into account price increase between 1979 and 1981. It should be emphasized that the study is based upon technical and scientific assessments only, and does not reflect any official position or approval from appropriate authorities. (author)

  8. The effectiveness of UV-C radiation for facility-wide environmental disinfection to reduce health care-acquired infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Nathanael A; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Tang, Weiming

    2015-12-01

    Health care-acquired infections (HAIs) constitute an increasing threat for patients worldwide. Potential contributors of HAIs include environmental surfaces in health care settings, where ultraviolet-C radiation (UV-C) is commonly used for disinfection. This UV-C intervention-based pilot study was conducted in a hospital setting to identify any change in the incidence of HAIs before and after UV-C intervention, and to determine the effectiveness of UV-C in reducing pathogens. In a hospital in Culver City, CA, during 2012-2013, bactericidal doses of UV-C radiation (254 nm) were delivered through a UV-C-based mobile environmental decontamination unit. The UV-C dosing technology and expertise of the specifically trained personnel were provided together as a dedicated service model by a contracted company. The incidence of HAIs before and after the intervention period were determined and compared. The dedicated service model dramatically reduced HAIs (incidence difference, 1.3/1000 patient-days, a 34.2% reduction). Reductions in the total number and incidence proportions (28.8%) of HAIs were observed after increasing and maintaining the coverage of UV-C treatments. The dedicated service model was found to be effective in decreasing the incidence of HAIs, which could reduce disease morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. This model provides a continuously monitored and frequently UV-C-treated patient environment. This approach to UV-C disinfection was associated with a decreased incidence of HAIs. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiation Monitoring System in Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Gil Sung; Kook, D. H.; Choung, W. M.; Ku, J. H.; Cho, I. J.; You, G. S.; Kwon, K. C.; Lee, W. K.; Lee, E. P

    2006-09-15

    The Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process is under development for effective management of spent fuel by converting UO{sub 2} into U-metal. For demonstration of this process, {alpha}-{gamma} type new hot cell was built in the IMEF basement . To secure against radiation hazard, this facility needs radiation monitoring system which will observe the entire operating area before the hot cell and service area at back of it. This system consists of 7 parts; Area Monitor for {gamma}-ray, Room Air Monitor for particulate and iodine in both area, Hot cell Monitor for hot cell inside high radiation and rear door interlock, Duct Monitor for particulate of outlet ventilation, Iodine Monitor for iodine of outlet duct, CCTV for watching workers and material movement, Server for management of whole monitoring system. After installation and test of this, radiation monitoring system will be expected to assist the successful ACP demonstration.

  10. Radiation Monitoring System in Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Gil Sung; Kook, D. H.; Choung, W. M.; Ku, J. H.; Cho, I. J.; You, G. S.; Kwon, K. C.; Lee, W. K.; Lee, E. P.

    2006-09-01

    The Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process is under development for effective management of spent fuel by converting UO 2 into U-metal. For demonstration of this process, α-γ type new hot cell was built in the IMEF basement . To secure against radiation hazard, this facility needs radiation monitoring system which will observe the entire operating area before the hot cell and service area at back of it. This system consists of 7 parts; Area Monitor for γ-ray, Room Air Monitor for particulate and iodine in both area, Hot cell Monitor for hot cell inside high radiation and rear door interlock, Duct Monitor for particulate of outlet ventilation, Iodine Monitor for iodine of outlet duct, CCTV for watching workers and material movement, Server for management of whole monitoring system. After installation and test of this, radiation monitoring system will be expected to assist the successful ACP demonstration

  11. Safety and radiation protection in mining and milling facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Maisa H.; Schenato, Flavia; Cruz, Paulo R., E-mail: maisahm@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: schenato@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: pcruz@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Xavier, Ana M., E-mail: axavier@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (ESPOA/CNEN-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escritorio de Porto Alegre

    2011-07-01

    Federal Legislation in Brazil establishes that the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN - is responsible for the surveillance of the industrialization of nuclear ores and the production and commerce of nuclear materials in such way that activities such as buying, selling, import and export, are subject to previous licensing and surveillance. Regulation CNEN-NN-4.01 on Safety and Radiation Protection in Mining and Milling Facilities of conventional ores containing naturally occurring radioactive materials, NORM, was issued in 2004 establishing both a methodology for classification of these facilities into three Categories, taking into account both the contents of uranium and thorium in the ores and the applicable radiation and safety requirements based on a graded approach. Although the lack of a licensing process in the above mentioned Regulation made its implementation a difficult task, CNEN, by means of an initial survey, identified ca. 30 mining and milling industries of conventional ores containing uranium and thorium with concentrations above 10 Bq/g. More recently, a new juridical understanding of the legislation concluded that CNEN must issue licences and authorizations for the possession and storage of all ores with uranium and thorium concentrations above exemption levels. A proper surveillance programme encompassing 13 of these mining facilities was then put forward aiming at the improvement of their safety and radiation protection. This article presents an overview of NORM exploitation in Brazil and put forward suggestions for achieving viable solutions for the protection of workers, general public and environment from the effects of ionizing radiation. (author)

  12. Radiation safety of gamma and electron irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    There are currently some 160 gamma irradiation facilities and over 600 electron beam facilities in operation throughout virtually all Member States of the IAEA. The most widespread uses of these facilities are for the sterilization of medical and pharmaceutical products, the preservation of foodstuffs, polymer synthesis and modification, and the eradication of insect infestation. The safety record of this industry has been very good. Nevertheless, there is a potential for accidents with serious consequences. Gamma and electron beam facilities produce very high dose rates during irradiation, so that a person accidentally present in the irradiation chamber can receive a lethal dose within minutes or seconds. Precautions against uncontrolled entry must therefore be taken. Furthermore, gamma irradiation facilities contain large amounts of radioactivity and if the mechanism for retracting the source is damaged, the source may remain exposed, inhibiting direct access to carry out remedial work. Contamination can result from corroded or damaged sources, and decontamination can be very expensive. These aspects clearly indicate the need to achieve a high degree of safety and reliability in the facilities. This can be accomplished by effective quality control together with careful design, manufacture, installation, operation and decommissioning. The guidance in this Safety Series publication is intended for competent authorities responsible for regulating the use of radiation sources as well as the manufacturers, suppliers, installers and users of gamma and electron beam facilities. 20 refs, 6 figs

  13. Operational experience of gamma radiation processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Nilesh

    2014-01-01

    Universal lSO-MED is now proud to announce an extension of its irradiation service for low-dose applications specifically in agriculture commodities, food and healthcare applications with the start of Gujarat Agro Radiation Processing Facility at Village: Bavla, Ahmedabad (A Government Enterprise) Operated, Maintained and Managed by Universal Medicap Ltd. Availability of hygienic, safe and nutritious food commodities is essential for any sustainable human development. Food stability is an important element of economic stability and self-reliance of a nation. Though the need to preserve food has been felt by the mankind since the time immemorial, it is even stronger in today's context. The rising population and increasing gap between demand and supply, agro-climatic conditions, in adequate post-harvest practices, seasonal nature of produce and long distances between production and consumption centers underscore the need to device improved conservation and preservation strategies

  14. Facility Activity Inference Using Radiation Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S. [ORNL; Ramirez Aviles, Camila A. [ORNL

    2017-11-01

    We consider the problem of inferring the operational status of a reactor facility using measurements from a radiation sensor network deployed around the facility’s ventilation off-gas stack. The intensity of stack emissions decays with distance, and the sensor counts or measurements are inherently random with parameters determined by the intensity at the sensor’s location. We utilize the measurements to estimate the intensity at the stack, and use it in a one-sided Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) to infer on/off status of the reactor. We demonstrate the superior performance of this method over conventional majority fusers and individual sensors using (i) test measurements from a network of 21 NaI detectors, and (ii) effluence measurements collected at the stack of a reactor facility. We also analytically establish the superior detection performance of the network over individual sensors with fixed and adaptive thresholds by utilizing the Poisson distribution of the counts. We quantify the performance improvements of the network detection over individual sensors using the packing number of the intensity space.

  15. Work for radiation shielding concrete in large-scaled radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konomi, Shinzo; Sato, Shoni; Otake, Takao.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reports the radiation shielding concrete work in the construction of radiation laboratory facilities of Electrotechnical Laboratory, a Japanese Government agency for the research and development of electronic technology. The radiation shielding walls of the facilities are made of ordinary concrete, heavy weight concrete and raw iron ore. This paper particularly relates the use of ordinary concrete which constitutes the majority of such concretes. The concrete mix was determined so as to increase its specific gravity for better shielding effect, to improve mass concrete effect and to advance good workability. The tendency of the concrete to decrease its specific gravity and the temperature variations were also made on how to place concrete to secure good shielding effect and uniform quality. (author)

  16. Radiation risk and its estimation for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, F.W.

    1979-01-01

    The level of knowledge achieved in estimating risks due to the operation of nuclear facilities is discussed. In this connection it is analyzed to what extent risk estimates may be used for establishing requirements for facilities and measures of radiation protection and accident prevention. At present, estimates of risks are subject to great uncertainties. However, the results attainable already permit to discern the causes of possible accidents and to develop effective measures for preventing such accidents. For the time being (and maybe in principle) risk estimation is possible only with more or less arbitrary premises. Within the foreseeable future, cost-benefit comparisons cannot compensate for discretionary decisions in establishing requirements for measures of radiation protection and accident prevention. In preparing such decisions based on experience, expert opinions, political and socio-economic reflections and views, comparison of the risk of novel technologies with existing ones or accepted risks may be a useful means. (author)

  17. A synchrotron radiation facility for x-ray astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, C.J.; Lewis, R.A.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1997-01-01

    A proposal for an x-ray optics test facility based at a synchrotron radiation source is presented. The facility would incorporate a clean preparation area, and a large evacuable test area. The advantages of using a synchrotron as the source of the test radiation are discussed. These include the a...

  18. Operation of radiation monitoring system in radwaste form test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Young Gerl; Kim, Ki Hong; Lee, Jae Won; Kwac, Koung Kil

    1998-08-01

    RWFTF (RadWaste Form Test Facility) must have a secure radiation monitoring system (RMS) because of having a hot-cell capable of handling high radioactive materials. And then in controlled radiation zone, which is hot-cell and its maintenance and operation / control room, area dose rate, radioactivities in air-bone particulates and stack, and surface contamination are monitored continuously. For the effective management such as higher utilization, maintenance and repair, the status of this radiation monitoring system, the operation and characteristics of all kinds of detectors and other parts of composing this system, and signal treatment and its evaluation were described in this technical report. And to obtain the accuracy detection results and its higher confidence level, the procedure such as maintenance, functional check and system calibration were established and appended to help the operation of RMS. (author). 6 tabs., 30 figs

  19. Immunological monitoring of the personnel at radiation hazardous facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, S.M.; Sokolnikov, M.E.; Lyss, L.V.; Ilyina, N.I.

    2017-01-01

    The study of possible mechanisms resulting in changes in the immune system after exposure to ionizing radiation is an area that has not been thoroughly evaluated during recent years. This article presents an overview of immunological monitoring studies of personnel from the radiation-hazardous factories that took place over the past 20 years in Russia. The methodology of these studies is based on: (1) the preclinical evaluation of immune status of workers whose occupation involves potential exposure to ionizing radiation; (2) selecting at risk groups according to the nature of immune deficiency manifestation; and (3) studying the changes of immune status of employees with regard to the potential effects of radiation exposure. The principal aim of these studies is accumulation of new data on the impact of radiation exposure on the human immune system and search for the relationship between the clinical manifestations of immune disorders and laboratory parameters of immunity to improve the monitoring system of the health status of the professional workers involved in radiation-hazardous industrial environments and the population living close to these facilities. (authors)

  20. Radiation effects at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanger, P.A.; Danby, G.T.

    1975-01-01

    Shielding, radiation damage, and radiation heating at the planned ISABELLE storage rings were considered. Radiation shielding studies were reviewed and were found to be adequate for present day dosage limits. Radiation damage could be encountered in some extreme cases, but is not expected to limit the performance of the superconducting magnets. Experiments to study the effect of radiation heating on actual magnets are recommended

  1. State of damage of radiation facilities in great Hanshin earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The southern Hyogo Prefecture earthquake of magnitude 7.2 occurred in the early morning of January 17, 1995. The outline of the earthquake and dead and injured, the damages of buildings, life lines, roads, railways and harbors, liquefaction phenomena, the state of occurrence of fires and so on are reported. The districts where the earthquakes of magnitude 5 or stronger occurred, and the radiation facilities in those districts are shown. The state of damage of radiation facilities in past earthquakes is summarized. From January 17 to 19 after the earthquake, Science and Technology Agency gave necessary instruction to and heard the state of damage from 79 permitted facilities in the areas of magnitude 7 or 6 by telephone, and received the report that there was not the fear of radiation damage in all facilities. Also the state of damage of radiation facilities was investigated at the actual places, and the questionnaires on the state of radiation facilities and the action at the time of the earthquake were performed. The state of radiation facilities accompanying the earthquake is reported. The matters to be reflected to the countermeasures to earthquakes anew for the protection of facilities, communication system, facility checkup system and the resumption of use are pointed out. (K.I.)

  2. Status Report of Simulated Space Radiation Environment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Phil Hyun; Nho, Young Chang; Jeun, Joon Pyo; Choi, Jae Hak; Lim, Youn Mook; Jung, Chan Hee; Jeon, Young Kyu

    2007-11-15

    The technology for performance testing and improvement of materials which are durable at space environment is a military related technology and veiled and securely regulated in advanced countries such as US and Russia. This core technology cannot be easily transferred to other country too. Therefore, this technology is the most fundamental and necessary research area for the successful establishment of space environment system. Since the task for evaluating the effects of space materials and components by space radiation plays important role in satellite lifetime extension and running failure percentage decrease, it is necessary to establish simulated space radiation facility and systematic testing procedure. This report has dealt with the status of the technology to enable the simulation of space environment effects, including the effect of space radiation on space materials. This information such as the fundamental knowledge of space environment and research status of various countries as to the simulation of space environment effects of space materials will be useful for the research on radiation hardiness of the materials. Furthermore, it will be helpful for developer of space material on deriving a better choice of materials, reducing the design cycle time, and improving safety.

  3. Status Report of Simulated Space Radiation Environment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Phil Hyun; Nho, Young Chang; Jeun, Joon Pyo; Choi, Jae Hak; Lim, Youn Mook; Jung, Chan Hee; Jeon, Young Kyu

    2007-11-01

    The technology for performance testing and improvement of materials which are durable at space environment is a military related technology and veiled and securely regulated in advanced countries such as US and Russia. This core technology cannot be easily transferred to other country too. Therefore, this technology is the most fundamental and necessary research area for the successful establishment of space environment system. Since the task for evaluating the effects of space materials and components by space radiation plays important role in satellite lifetime extension and running failure percentage decrease, it is necessary to establish simulated space radiation facility and systematic testing procedure. This report has dealt with the status of the technology to enable the simulation of space environment effects, including the effect of space radiation on space materials. This information such as the fundamental knowledge of space environment and research status of various countries as to the simulation of space environment effects of space materials will be useful for the research on radiation hardiness of the materials. Furthermore, it will be helpful for developer of space material on deriving a better choice of materials, reducing the design cycle time, and improving safety

  4. Radiation effects and radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengfelder, E.; Forst, D.; Feist, H.; Pratzel, H.

    1988-01-01

    The book presents the facts and the principles of assessment and evaluation of biological radiation effects in general and also with particular reference to the reactor accident of Chernobyl, reviewing the consequences and the environmental situation on the basis of current national and international literature, including research work by the authors. The material compiled in this book is intended especially for physicians, but will also prove useful for persons working in the public health services, in administration, or other services taking care of people. The authors tried to find an easily comprehensible way of presenting and explaining the very complex processes and mechanisms of biological radiation effects and carcinogenesis, displaying the physical primary processes and the mechanisms of the molecular radiation effects up to the effects of low-level radiation, and present results of comparative epidemiologic studies. This section has been given considerable space, in proportion to its significance. It also contains literature references for further reading, offering more insight and knowledge of aspects of special subject fields. The authors also present less known results and data and discuss them against the background of well-known research results and approaches. Apart from the purpose of presenting comprehensive information, the authors intend to give an impact for further thinking about the problems, and helpful tools for independent decisions and action on the basis of improved insight and assessment, and in this context particularly point to the problems induced by the Chernobyl reactor accident. (orig./MG) With 8 maps in appendix [de

  5. ELF radiation from the Tromsoe super heater facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, R.; Stubbe, P.

    1991-01-01

    Direct comparisons have been made of the ionospheric ELF radiation produced by the new (1 GW ERP) and old (250 MW ERP) antennas of the Tromsoe heater system, but no significant differences in the ELF signal strength have been detected. This initially surprising result is shown to require a value of unity for the index relating the received ELF signal strength to HF power input to the antenna. A series of experiments performed solely to derive more accurate values for this power index provided values ranging from 0.74 to 0.97, dependent on the ELF frequencies generated. It has been suggested that ELF radiation from the normal Tromsoe heater facility should be limited by saturation effects, even when operating well below the maximum HF power density (3mW/m 2 in the D-region). No evidence for such saturation effects has been found even at power densities greater than 10mW/m 2

  6. Radiation safety and regulatory aspects in Medical Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Sharmila

    2017-01-01

    Radiation safety and regulatory aspect of medical facilities are relevant in the context where radiation is used in providing healthcare to human patients. These include facilities, which carry out radiological procedures in diagnostic radiology, including dentistry, image-guided interventional procedures, nuclear medicine, and radiation therapy. The safety regulations provide recommendations and guidance on meeting the requirements for the safe use of radiation in medicine. The different safety aspects which come under its purview are the personnel involved in medical facilities where radiological procedures are performed which include the medical practitioners, radiation technologists, medical physicists, radiopharmacists, radiation protection and over and above all the patients. Regulatory aspects cover the guidelines provided by ethics committees, which regulate the administration of radioactive formulation in human patients. Nuclear medicine is a modality that utilizes radiopharmaceuticals either for diagnosis of physiological disorders related to anatomy, physiology and patho-physiology and for diagnosis and treatment of cancer

  7. Development of fusion first-wall radiation damage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, R.J.; Atkins, T.

    1986-11-01

    The report describes work performed on the development of fusion-reactor first-wall simulation facilities on the Variable Energy Cyclotron, at Harwell, United Kingdom. Two irradiation facilities have been constructed: i) a device for helium and hydrogen filling up to 1000 ppm for post-irradiation mechanical properties studies, and ii) a helium implantation and damage facility for simultaneous injection of helium and radiation damage into a specimen under stress. These facilities are now fully commissioned and are available for investigations of first-wall radiation damage and for intercorrelation of fission- and fusion -reactor materials behaviour. (U.K.)

  8. Radiation protection programme for a radioisotope production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makgato, Thutu Nelson

    2015-02-01

    The present project reviews reactor based radioisotope production facilities. An overview of techniques and methodologies used as well as laboratory facilities necessary for the production process are discussed. Specific details of reactor based production and processing of more commonly used industrial and pharmaceutical radioisotopes are provided. Ultimately, based on facilities and techniques utilized as well as the associated hazard assessment, a proposed radiation protection programme is discussed. Elements of the radiation protection programme will also consider lessons from recent incidents and accidents encountered in radioisotope production facilities. (au)

  9. Multi-MGy Radiation Hardened Camera for Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Sylvain; Boukenter, Aziz; Ouerdane, Youcef; Goiffon, Vincent; Corbiere, Franck; Rolando, Sebastien; Molina, Romain; Estribeau, Magali; Avon, Barbara; Magnan, Pierre; Paillet, Philippe; Duhamel, Olivier; Gaillardin, Marc; Raine, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in developing cameras for surveillance systems to monitor nuclear facilities or nuclear waste storages. Particularly, for today's and the next generation of nuclear facilities increasing safety requirements consecutive to Fukushima Daiichi's disaster have to be considered. For some applications, radiation tolerance needs to overcome doses in the MGy(SiO 2 ) range whereas the most tolerant commercial or prototypes products based on solid state image sensors withstand doses up to few kGy. The objective of this work is to present the radiation hardening strategy developed by our research groups to enhance the tolerance to ionizing radiations of the various subparts of these imaging systems by working simultaneously at the component and system design levels. Developing radiation-hardened camera implies to combine several radiation-hardening strategies. In our case, we decided not to use the simplest one, the shielding approach. This approach is efficient but limits the camera miniaturization and is not compatible with its future integration in remote-handling or robotic systems. Then, the hardening-by-component strategy appears mandatory to avoid the failure of one of the camera subparts at doses lower than the MGy. Concerning the image sensor itself, the used technology is a CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) designed by ISAE team with custom pixel designs used to mitigate the total ionizing dose (TID) effects that occur well below the MGy range in classical image sensors (e.g. Charge Coupled Devices (CCD), Charge Injection Devices (CID) and classical Active Pixel Sensors (APS)), such as the complete loss of functionality, the dark current increase and the gain drop. We'll present at the conference a comparative study between these radiation-hardened pixel radiation responses with respect to conventional ones, demonstrating the efficiency of the choices made. The targeted strategy to develop the complete radiation hard camera

  10. Multi-MGy Radiation Hardened Camera for Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Sylvain; Boukenter, Aziz; Ouerdane, Youcef [Universite de Saint-Etienne, Lab. Hubert Curien, UMR-CNRS 5516, F-42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Goiffon, Vincent; Corbiere, Franck; Rolando, Sebastien; Molina, Romain; Estribeau, Magali; Avon, Barbara; Magnan, Pierre [ISAE, Universite de Toulouse, F-31055 Toulouse (France); Paillet, Philippe; Duhamel, Olivier; Gaillardin, Marc; Raine, Melanie [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2015-07-01

    There is an increasing interest in developing cameras for surveillance systems to monitor nuclear facilities or nuclear waste storages. Particularly, for today's and the next generation of nuclear facilities increasing safety requirements consecutive to Fukushima Daiichi's disaster have to be considered. For some applications, radiation tolerance needs to overcome doses in the MGy(SiO{sub 2}) range whereas the most tolerant commercial or prototypes products based on solid state image sensors withstand doses up to few kGy. The objective of this work is to present the radiation hardening strategy developed by our research groups to enhance the tolerance to ionizing radiations of the various subparts of these imaging systems by working simultaneously at the component and system design levels. Developing radiation-hardened camera implies to combine several radiation-hardening strategies. In our case, we decided not to use the simplest one, the shielding approach. This approach is efficient but limits the camera miniaturization and is not compatible with its future integration in remote-handling or robotic systems. Then, the hardening-by-component strategy appears mandatory to avoid the failure of one of the camera subparts at doses lower than the MGy. Concerning the image sensor itself, the used technology is a CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) designed by ISAE team with custom pixel designs used to mitigate the total ionizing dose (TID) effects that occur well below the MGy range in classical image sensors (e.g. Charge Coupled Devices (CCD), Charge Injection Devices (CID) and classical Active Pixel Sensors (APS)), such as the complete loss of functionality, the dark current increase and the gain drop. We'll present at the conference a comparative study between these radiation-hardened pixel radiation responses with respect to conventional ones, demonstrating the efficiency of the choices made. The targeted strategy to develop the complete radiation hard camera

  11. Radiation safety training for accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinoskey, P.A.

    1997-02-01

    In November 1992, a working group was formed within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) accelerator facilities to develop a generic safety training program to meet the basic requirements for individuals working in accelerator facilities. This training, by necessity, includes sections for inserting facility-specific information. The resulting course materials were issued by DOE as a handbook under its technical standards in 1996. Because experimenters may be at a facility for only a short time and often at odd times during the day, the working group felt that computer-based training would be useful. To that end, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) together have developed a computer-based safety training program for accelerator facilities. This interactive course not only enables trainees to receive facility- specific information, but time the training to their schedule and tailor it to their level of expertise

  12. Radiation safety management system in a radioactive facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, Zayda H.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This paper illustrates the Cuban experience in implementing and promoting an effective radiation safety system for the Centre of Isotopes, the biggest radioactive facility of our country. Current management practice demands that an organization inculcate culture of safety in preventing radiation hazard. The aforementioned objectives of radiation protection can only be met when it is implemented and evaluated continuously. Commitment from the workforce to treat safety as a priority and the ability to turn a requirement into a practical language is also important to implement radiation safety policy efficiently. Maintaining and improving safety culture is a continuous process. There is a need to establish a program to measure, review and audit health and safety performance against predetermined standards. All those areas of the radiation protection program are considered (e.g. licensing and training of the staff, occupational exposure, authorization of the practices, control of the radioactive material, radiological occurrences, monitoring equipment, radioactive waste management, public exposure due to airborne effluents, audits and safety costs). A set of indicators designed to monitor key aspects of operational safety performance are used. Their trends over a period of time are analyzed with the modern information technologies, because this can provide an early warning to plant management for searching causes behind the observed changes. In addition to analyze the changes and trends, these indicators are compared against identified targets and goals to evaluate performance strengths and weaknesses. A structured and proper radiation self-auditing system is seen as a basic requirement to meet the current and future needs in sustainability of radiation safety. The integrated safety management system establishment has been identified as a goal and way for the continuous improvement. (author)

  13. Ion chambers compliance results of Brazilian radiation therapy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joana, G; Salata, C; Leal, P; Vasconcelos, R; Couto, N do; Teixeira, F C; Soares, A D; Santini, E S; Gonçalves, M

    2018-03-01

    The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (cnen) has been making a constant effort to keep up to date with international standards and national needs to strengthen the status of radiological protection of the country. The guidelines related to radiation therapy facilities have been revised in the last five years in order to take into consideration the most relevant aspects of the growing technology as well as to mitigate the accidents or incidents observed in practice. Hence, clinical dosimeters have gained special importance in this matter. In the present work, we discuss the effectiveness of regulation and inspections to the enforcement of instrument calibration accuracy for the improvement of patient dosimetry and quality control. As a result, we observed that the number of calibrated instruments, mainly well chambers, is increasing each year. The same behavior is observed for instruments employed in technologically advanced radiation treatments such as intensity modulated radiotherapy, volumetric therapy and stereotatic radiosurgery. We ascribe this behavior to the new regulation.

  14. Medical response to effects of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, W.A.; Gittus, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on 'Medical Response to Effects of Ionising Radiation' in 1989 in the form of nineteen papers published as a book. Topics discussed include radiation accidents at nuclear facilities, the medical management of radiation casualties, the responsibilities, plans and resources for coping with a nuclear accident and finally the long term effects of radiation, including leukaemia epidemiology studies. All papers were selected and indexed separately. (UK)

  15. Radiation Safety of Accelerator Facility with Regard to Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedi Sunaryadi; Gloria Doloresa

    2003-01-01

    The radiation safety of accelerator facility and the status of the facilities according to licensee in Indonesia as well as lesson learned from the accidents are described. The atomic energy Act No. 10 of 1997 enacted by the Government of Indonesia which is implemented in Radiation Safety Government Regulation No. 63 and 64 as well as practice-specific model regulation for licensing request are discussed. (author)

  16. Radiation protection requirements for dental X-ray diagnostic facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taschner, P.; Koenig, W.; Andreas, M.; Trinius, W.

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of radiation protection regulations the planning of dental X-ray facilities is discussed considering organizational, technical and structural measures suitable for fulfilling protection requirements. Finally, instructions are given aimed at reducing radiation doses to personnel and patients. (author)

  17. Radiation protection requirements for dental X-ray diagnostic facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taschner, P; Koenig, W [Staatliches Amt fuer Atomsicherheit und Strahlenschutz, Berlin (German Democratic Republic); Andreas, M [Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Fachrichtung Stomatologie; Trinius, W [Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik

    1976-03-01

    On the basis of radiation protection regulations the planning of dental X-ray facilities is discussed considering organizational, technical and structural measures suitable for fulfilling protection requirements. Finally, instructions are given aimed at reducing radiation doses to personnel and patients.

  18. Synchrotron radiation facilities at DESY, a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, E.E.

    1979-12-01

    A short summary of the developments which have led to the present extensive use of Synchrotron Radiation at DESY is presented and a description of the Synchrotron Radiation facilities presently available and under development is given with emphasis on the new HASYLAB project at the storage ring DORIS. (orig.) 891 HSI/orig. 892 MKO

  19. Radiological Considerations in the Desgin of Synchrotron Radiation Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipe, Nisy E.

    1999-01-06

    As synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities are rapidly being designed and built all over the world, the radiological considerations should be weighed carefully at an early stage in the design of the facility. This necessitates the understanding and identification of beam losses in the machines, especially the storage ring. The potential sources of radiation are photons and neutrons from loss of injected or stored beam, gas bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation. Protection against radiation is achieved through the adequate design of the shielding walls of the storage ring and the synchrotron radiation beam lines. In addition safety systems such as stoppers and shutters provide protection in the forward direction for entry into the experimental enclosures. Special care needs to be exercised in the design of SR experimental enclosures to minimize radiation leakage through penetrations and gaps between doors and walls, and doors and floors.

  20. Radiation monitoring in high energy research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyajima, Mitsuhiro

    1975-01-01

    In High Energy Physics Research Laboratory, construction of high energy proton accelerator is in progress. The accelerator is a cascaded machine comprising Cockcroft type (50 keV), linac (20 MeV), booster synchrotron (500 MeV), and synchrotron (8-12 GeV). Its proton beam intensity is 1x10 13 photons/pulse, and acceleration is carried out at the rate of every 2 minutes. The essential problems of radiation control in high energy accelerators are those of various radiations generated secondarily by proton beam and a number of induced radiations simultaneously originated with such secondary particles. In the Laboratory, controlled areas are divided into color-coded four regions, red, orange, yellow and green, based on each dose-rate. BF 3 counters covered with thick paraffin are used as neutron detectors, and side-window GM tubes, NaI (Tl) scintillators and ionization chambers as γ-detectors. In red region, however, ionization chambers are applied to induced radiation detection, and neutrons are not monitored. NIM standards are adopted for the circuits of all above monitors considering easy maintenance, economy and interchangeability. Notwithstanding the above described systems, these monitors are not sufficient to complete the measurement of whole radiations over wide energy region radiated from the accelerators. Hence separate radiation field measurement is required periodically. An example of the monitoring systems in National Accelerator Laboratory (U.S.) is referred at the last section. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. Space radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shiqing; Yan Heping

    1995-01-01

    The authors briefly discusses the radiation environment in near-earth space and it's influences on material, and electronic devices using in space airship, also, the research developments in space radiation effects are introduced

  2. Radiation effects in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the radiation environment in space that astronauts are likely to be exposed to. Emphasis is on proton and HZE particle effects. Recommendations for radiation protection guidelines are presented

  3. Radioactive clearance discharge of effluent from nuclear and radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinhua; Xu Chunyan

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the basic concepts of radiation safety management system exemption, exclusion and clearance, we expound that the general industrial gaseous and liquid effluent discharges are exempted or excluded, gaseous and liquid effluent discharged from nuclear and radiation facilities are clearance, and non-radioactive. The main purpose of this paper is to clarify the concepts, reach a consensus that the gaseous and liquid effluent discharged from nuclear and radiation facilities are non-radioactive and have no hazard to human health and natural environment. (authors)

  4. Heavy ion facility for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemann, C.; Alonso, J.; Clark, D.; Grunder, H.; Hoyer, E.; Lou, K.; Staples, J.; Voelker, F.

    1977-03-01

    The accelerator requirements of particle radiation therapy are reviewed and a preliminary design of a heavy ion synchrotron for hospital installation is presented. Beam delivery systems and multi-treatment room arrangements are outlined

  5. Improving and extending performance at synchrotron radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, A.

    1997-05-01

    Synchrotron radiation facilities around the world have now matured through three generations. The latest facilities have all met or exceeded their design specifications and are learning how to cope with the ever more demanding requests of the user community, especially concerning beam stability. The older facilities remain competitive by extending the unique features of their design, and by developing novel insertion devices. In this paper we survey the beam characteristics achieved at third-generation sources and explore the improvements made at earlier generation facilities

  6. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The stages of processes leading to radiation damage are studied, as well as, the direct and indirect mechanics of its production. The radiation effects on nucleic acid and protein macro moleculas are treated. The physical and chemical factors that modify radiosensibility are analysed, in particular the oxygen effects, the sensibilization by analogues of nitrogen bases, post-effects, chemical protection and inherent cell factors. Consideration is given to restoration processes by excision of injured fragments, the bloching of the excision restoration processes, the restoration of lesions caused by ionizing radiations and to the restoration by genetic recombination. Referring to somatic effects of radiation, the early ones and the acute syndrome of radiation are discussed. The difference of radiosensibility observed in mammalian cells and main observable alterations in tissues and organs are commented. Referring to delayed radiation effects, carcinogeneses, alterations of life span, effects on growth and development, as well as localized effects, are also discussed [pt

  7. Facility - Radiation Source Features and User Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gover, A.; Abramovich, A.; Eichenbaum, A.L.; Kanter, M.; Sokolowski, J.; Yahalom, A.; Shiloh, J.; Schnitzer, I.; Pinhasi, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Recent measurements of the radiation characteristics of the tandem FEL prove .that the device operates as a high quality, tunable radiation source in the mm wave regime. Tuning range of 60% around a central frequency of 100 GHz was demonstrated by varying the tandem accelerator energy from 1 to 1.5 MeV with 1-1.5 Amp. Beam current. Fourier transform limited linewidth of Δ f/f -5 was measured in single-mode lasing operation. The FEL power in pulse operation (10μsec) was 10 kWatt. Operating the FEL at high repetition rate with 0.1 to 1 mSec pulses will make it possible to obtain high average power (1 kWatt) and narrow linewidth (10 -7 ). Based ,on these exceptional properties of the FEL as a high quality spectroscopic tool and as a source of high average power radiation, the FEL consortium, supported by a body of 10 radiation user groups from various universities and research institutes, embark on a new project for development of an Israeli FEL radiation user laboratory. The laboratory is presently in a design and building stage in the academic campus in Ariel. The FEL will be moved to this laboratory after completion of X-ray protection structure in the allocated building. In the first phase of development, the radiation user laboratory will consist of three user stations: a. Spectroscopic station (low average power). Material studies are planned in the fields of H.T.S.C., submicron semiconductor devices, gases. b. Material processing station (high average power). Experiments are planned in the fields of thin film ceramic sintering (including H.T.S.C.), functionally graded materials, surface treatment of metals, interaction with biological tissues. c. Atmospheric study station. Experiments are planned in the fields of aerosol, dust and clouds mapping, remote sensing of gases, wide-band mm wave communication The FEL experimental results and the user laboratory features will be described

  8. Biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  9. Radiation applications research and facilities in AECL research company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, S. L.

    In the 60's and 70's Atomic Energy of Canada had a very active R&D program to discover and develop applications of ionizing radiation. Out of this grew the technology underlying the company's current product line of industrial irradiators. With the commercial success of that product line the company turned its R&D attention to other activities. Presently, widespread interest in the use of radiation for food processing and the possibility of developing reliable and competitive machine sources of radiation hold out the promise of a major increase in industrial use of radiation. While many of the applications being considered are straightforward applications of existing knowledge, others depend on more subtle effects including combined effects of two or more agents. Further research is required in these areas. In March 1985 a new branch, Radiation Applications Research, began operations with the objective of working closely with industry to develop and assist the introduction of new uses of ionizing radiation. The Branch is equipped with appropriate analytical equipment including HPLC (high performance liquid chromatograph) and GC/MS (gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer) as well as a Gammacell 220 and an I-10/1, one kilowatt 10 MeV electron accelerator. The accelerator is located in a specially designed facility equipped for experimental irradiation of test quantities of packaged products as well as solids, liquids and gases in various configurations. A conveyor system moves the packaged products from the receiving area, through a maze, past the electron beam at a controlled rate and finally to the shipping area. Other necessary capabilities, such as gamma and electron dosimetry and a microbiology laboratory, have also been developed. Initial projects in areas ranging from food through environmental and industrial applications have been assessed and the most promising have been selected for further work. As an example, the use of charcoal adsorbent beds to concentrate

  10. Radiation effects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to understand and combat potential radiation damage problems in semiconductor devices and circuits. Written by international experts, this book explains the effects of radiation on semiconductor devices, radiation detectors, and electronic devices and components. These contributors explore emerging applications, detector technologies, circuit design techniques, new materials, and innovative system approaches. The text focuses on how the technology is being used rather than the mathematical foundations behind it. It covers CMOS radiation-tolerant circuit implementations, CMOS pr

  11. Early-time radiation flux symmetry optimization and its effect on gas-filled hohlraum ignition targets on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milovich, J. L., E-mail: milovich1@llnl.gov; Dewald, E. L.; Pak, A.; Michel, P.; Town, R. P. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Landen, O.; Edwards, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Achieving ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is tied to our ability to control and minimize deviations from sphericity of the capsule implosion. Low-mode asymmetries of the hot spot result from the combined effect of radiation drive asymmetries throughout the laser pulse and initial roughness on the capsule surface. In this paper, we report on simulations and experiments designed to assess, measure, and correct the drive asymmetries produced by the early-time (≈first 2 ns or “picket”) period of the laser pulse. The drive asymmetry during the picket is commonly thought to introduce distortions in the hot-spot shape at ignition time. However, a more subtle effect not previously considered is that it also leads to an asymmetry in shock velocity and timing, thereby increasing the fuel adiabat and reducing the margin for ignition. It is shown via hydrodynamic simulations that minimizing this effect requires that the early-time asymmetry be kept below 7.5% in the second Legendre mode (P{sub 2}), thus keeping the loss of performance margin below ≈10% for a layered implosion. Asymmetries during the picket of the laser pulse are measured using the instantaneous self-emission of a high-Z re-emission sphere in place of an ignition capsule in a hohlraum with large azimuthal diagnostic windows. Three dimensional simulations using the code HYDRA (to capture the effect of non-azimuthal hohlraum features) coupled to a cross-beam energy transfer model [Michel et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056305 (2010)] are used to establish the surrogacy of the re-emit target and to assess the early-time drive symmetry. Calculations using this model exhibit the same sensitivity to variations in the relative input powers between the different cones of NIF beams as measured for the “Rev5” CH target [Haan et al., Phys Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)] and reported by Dewald et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 235001 (2013)]. The same methodology applied to recently improved implosions

  12. Early-time radiation flux symmetry optimization and its effect on gas-filled hohlraum ignition targets on the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milovich, J. L.; Dewald, E. L.; Pak, A.; Michel, P.; Town, R. P. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Landen, O.; Edwards, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Achieving ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is tied to our ability to control and minimize deviations from sphericity of the capsule implosion. Low-mode asymmetries of the hot spot result from the combined effect of radiation drive asymmetries throughout the laser pulse and initial roughness on the capsule surface. In this paper, we report on simulations and experiments designed to assess, measure, and correct the drive asymmetries produced by the early-time (≈first 2 ns or “picket”) period of the laser pulse. The drive asymmetry during the picket is commonly thought to introduce distortions in the hot-spot shape at ignition time. However, a more subtle effect not previously considered is that it also leads to an asymmetry in shock velocity and timing, thereby increasing the fuel adiabat and reducing the margin for ignition. It is shown via hydrodynamic simulations that minimizing this effect requires that the early-time asymmetry be kept below 7.5% in the second Legendre mode (P_2), thus keeping the loss of performance margin below ≈10% for a layered implosion. Asymmetries during the picket of the laser pulse are measured using the instantaneous self-emission of a high-Z re-emission sphere in place of an ignition capsule in a hohlraum with large azimuthal diagnostic windows. Three dimensional simulations using the code HYDRA (to capture the effect of non-azimuthal hohlraum features) coupled to a cross-beam energy transfer model [Michel et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056305 (2010)] are used to establish the surrogacy of the re-emit target and to assess the early-time drive symmetry. Calculations using this model exhibit the same sensitivity to variations in the relative input powers between the different cones of NIF beams as measured for the “Rev5” CH target [Haan et al., Phys Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)] and reported by Dewald et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 235001 (2013)]. The same methodology applied to recently improved implosions using

  13. Early-time radiation flux symmetry optimization and its effect on gas-filled hohlraum ignition targets on the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovich, J. L.; Dewald, E. L.; Pak, A.; Michel, P.; Town, R. P. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Landen, O.; Edwards, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    Achieving ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is tied to our ability to control and minimize deviations from sphericity of the capsule implosion. Low-mode asymmetries of the hot spot result from the combined effect of radiation drive asymmetries throughout the laser pulse and initial roughness on the capsule surface. In this paper, we report on simulations and experiments designed to assess, measure, and correct the drive asymmetries produced by the early-time (≈first 2 ns or "picket") period of the laser pulse. The drive asymmetry during the picket is commonly thought to introduce distortions in the hot-spot shape at ignition time. However, a more subtle effect not previously considered is that it also leads to an asymmetry in shock velocity and timing, thereby increasing the fuel adiabat and reducing the margin for ignition. It is shown via hydrodynamic simulations that minimizing this effect requires that the early-time asymmetry be kept below 7.5% in the second Legendre mode (P2), thus keeping the loss of performance margin below ≈10% for a layered implosion. Asymmetries during the picket of the laser pulse are measured using the instantaneous self-emission of a high-Z re-emission sphere in place of an ignition capsule in a hohlraum with large azimuthal diagnostic windows. Three dimensional simulations using the code HYDRA (to capture the effect of non-azimuthal hohlraum features) coupled to a cross-beam energy transfer model [Michel et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056305 (2010)] are used to establish the surrogacy of the re-emit target and to assess the early-time drive symmetry. Calculations using this model exhibit the same sensitivity to variations in the relative input powers between the different cones of NIF beams as measured for the "Rev5" CH target [Haan et al., Phys Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)] and reported by Dewald et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 235001 (2013)]. The same methodology applied to recently improved implosions using different

  14. The radiation protection code of practice in teletherapy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadlalla, N. S. M.

    2010-05-01

    This study aimed to provide a document (code) for the standard practice in teletherapy facilities to be a reference and guide for establishing new teletherapy facilities or mending an existing one, another aim was to evaluated the teletherapy facilities with regard to their compliance to the recommendations and guides mentioned in this document. This document includes: safety specifications for teletherapy equipment, facility planning and shielding design, radiation protection and work practice, quality assurance and personnel requirements and responsibilities. In order to assess the degree of compliance of the two centers in the country with what was stated in the developed document IAEA inspection checklist was utilized and made some radiation measurement were made around the treatment rooms. The results of such inspection mission revealed that the current status of radiation protection in both of inspected centers is almost similar and both are not satisfactory as many of the essential items of radiation protection as stipulated in this document were not followed, which lead to unnecessary, radiation exposure to patients and staff. Finally, some recommendations that may help to improve the status of radiation protection in radiotherapy departments in Sudan are given. (Author)

  15. Shielding technology for high energy radiation production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Heon Il

    2004-06-01

    In order to develop shielding technology for high energy radiation production facility, references and data for high energy neutron shielding are searched and collected, and calculations to obtain the characteristics of neutron shield materials are performed. For the evaluation of characteristics of neutron shield material, it is chosen not only general shield materials such as concrete, polyethylene, etc., but also KAERI developed neutron shields of High Density PolyEthylene (HDPE) mixed with boron compound (B 2 O 3 , H 2 BO 3 , Borax). Neutron attenuation coefficients for these materials are obtained for later use in shielding design. The effect of source shape and source angular distribution on the shielding characteristics for several shield materials is examined. This effect can contribute to create shielding concept in case of no detail source information. It is also evaluated the effect of the arrangement of shield materials using current shield materials. With these results, conceptual shielding design for PET cyclotron is performed. The shielding composite using HDPE and concrete is selected to meet the target dose rate outside the composite, and the dose evaluation is performed by configuring the facility room conceptually. From the result, the proper shield configuration for this PET cyclotron is proposed

  16. Radiation Therapy Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy has side effects because it not only kills or slows the growth of cancer cells, it can also affect nearby healthy cells. Many people who get radiation therapy experience fatigue. Other side effects depend on the part of the body that is being treated. Learn more about possible side effects.

  17. Radiation risk management at DOE accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, O.B. van.

    1997-01-01

    The DOE accelerator contractors have been discussing among themselves and with the Department how to improve radiation safety risk management. This activity-how to assure prevention of unplanned high exposures-is separate from normal exposure management, which historically has been quite successful. The ad-hoc Committee on the Accelerator Safety Order and Guidance [CASOG], formed by the Accelerator Section of the HPS, has proposed a risk- based approach, which will be discussed. Concepts involved are risk quantification and comparison (including with non-radiation risk), passive and active (reacting) protection systems, and probabilistic analysis. Different models of risk management will be presented, and the changing regulatory environment will also be discussed

  18. Irradiation Facilities of the Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Kurashima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The ion beam facility at the Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, the National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, consists of a cyclotron and three electrostatic accelerators, and they are dedicated to studies of materials science and bio-technology. The paper reviews this unique accelerator complex in detail from the viewpoint of its configuration, accelerator specification, typical accelerator, or irradiation technologies and ion beam applications. The institute has also irradiation facilities for electron beams and 60Co gamma-rays and has been leading research and development of radiation chemistry for industrial applications in Japan with the facilities since its establishment. The configuration and utilization of those facilities are outlined as well.

  19. Radiation protection studies for the SHiP facility

    CERN Document Server

    Strabel, Claudia Christina; Vincke, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The enlarged scope of the recently proposed experiment to search for Heavy Neutral Leptons, SPSC-EOI-010, is a general purpose fixed target facility which in the initial phase is aimed at a general Search for Hidden Particles (SHiP) as well as tau neutrino physics. This report summarizes radiation protection considerations for the SHiP facility and the primary beam extraction for SHiP.

  20. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.D.; Lee, W.Y.; Park, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements and monitoring of the environmental radiation levels, as well as radioactivity of the various environmental samples were carried out three times a month in the on-site and the off-site around the KAERI site. Measurements were made for both gross alpha and beta radioactivity of all environmental samples. Gross beta measurements were made for radioactivity of the fallout, airborne particulates and precipitations which were collected on a daily basis on the roof of the main building. Measurements of the accumulated doses were also carried out at 10 posts on a bimonthly basis by employing thermoluminescent dosimeters

  1. The NSSDC trapped radiation model facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffey, J.D. Jr.; Bilitza, D.

    1990-01-01

    The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) trapped radiation models calculate the integral and differential electron and proton flux for given values of the particle energy E, drift shell parameter L, and magnetic field strength B for either solar maximum or solar minimum. The most recent versions of the series of models, which have been developed and continuously improved over several decades by Dr. James Vette and coworkers at NSSDC, are AE-8 for electrons and AP-8 for protons. The present status of the NSSDC trapped particle models is discussed. The limits of validity of the models are described. 17 refs

  2. Synchrotron radiation facilities in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, G.

    1996-01-01

    With the successful commissioning and achievement of significant milestones at both the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) and the 1.5- GeV Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, synchrotron radiation research capability in the United States holds the promise of many important discoveries in the decade to come. An overview of current accelerator commissioning performance at the American third-generation light sources, state-of-the-art developments at first- and second-generation sources, and a preview of fourth-generation source progress is presented

  3. The TRIUMF radiative muon capture facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, D.H.; Macdonald, J.A.; Poutissou, J.M.; Poutissou, R.; Ahmad, S.; Chen, C.Q.; Gorringe, T.P.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Sample, D.G.; Zhang, N.S.; Armstrong, D.S.; Blecher, M.; Serna-Angel, A.; Azuelos, G.; Bertl, W.; Henderson, R.S.; Robertson, B.C.; Taylor, G.

    1992-01-01

    Radiative muon capture (RMC) on hydrogen produces photons with a yield of ≅ 10 -8 per stopped muon. To measure RMC at TRIUMF we have constructed a lage-solid-angle photon pair-spectrometer which surrounds the liquid hydrogen target. The spectrometer consists of a cylindrical photon converter and a larget-volume cylindrical drift chamber to track the e + e - pairs. It is enclosed in a spectrometer magnet which produces a highly uniform axial magnetic field. The detector subsystems, the hardware trigger and the data acquisition system are described, chamber calibration and tracking techniques are presented, and the spectrometer performance and its Monte Carlo simulation are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Introduction to symposium 'radiation protection at nuclear facilities'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stricker, L.

    1996-01-01

    An introduction to the symposium 'radiation protection of nuclear facilities' on Wednesday, April 17, 1996 in Vienna has been given. The number of operating reactors and the total collective dose per reactor in OECD countries has been discussed. The evolution of the total collective dose associated with the replacement of steam generators at nuclear power reactors from 1979 to 1995 is presented. The background and culture of radiation protection, regulatory aspects, strategic formulation, plan management policy and organization responsibilities are discussed generally. (Suda)

  5. Compact synchrotron radiation depth lithography facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knüppel, O.; Kadereit, D.; Neff, B.; Hormes, J.

    1992-01-01

    X-ray depth lithography allows the fabrication of plastic microstructures with heights of up to 1 mm but with the smallest possible lateral dimensions of about 1 μm. A resist is irradiated with ``white'' synchrotron radiation through a mask that is partially covered with x-ray absorbing microstructures. The plastic microstructure is then obtained by a subsequent chemical development of the irradiated resist. In order to irradiate a reasonably large resist area, the mask and the resist have to be ``scanned'' across the vertically thin beam of the synchrotron radiation. A flexible, nonexpensive and compact scanner apparatus has been built for x-ray depth lithography at the beamline BN1 at ELSA (the 3.5 GeV Electron Stretcher and Accelerator at the Physikalisches Institut of Bonn University). Measurements with an electronic water level showed that the apparatus limits the scanner-induced structure precision to not more than 0.02 μm. The whole apparatus is installed in a vacuum chamber thus allowing lithography under different process gases and pressures.

  6. Calibration of high-dose radiation facilities (Handbook)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, B.L.; Bhat, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    In India at present several high intensity radiation sources are used. There are 135 teletheraphy machines and 65 high intensity cobalt-60 sources in the form of gamma chambers (2.5 Ci) and PANBIT (50 Ci). Several food irradiation facilities and a medical sterilization plant ISOMED are also in operation. The application of these high intensity sources involve a wide variation of dose from 10 Gy to 100 kGy. Accurate and reproducible radiation dosimetry is essential in the use of these sources. This handbook is especially compiled for calibration of high-dose radiation facilities. The first few chapters discuss such topics as interaction of radiation with matter, radiation chemistry, radiation processing, commonly used high intensity radiation sources and their special features, radiation units and dosimetry principles. In the chapters which follow, chemical dosimeters are discussed in detail. This discussion covers Fricke dosimeter, FBX dosimeter, ceric sulphate dosimeter, free radical dosimetry, coloured indicators for irrdiation verification. A final chapter is devoted to practical hints to be followed in calibration work. (author)

  7. Radiation effects on polyaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oki, Yuichi; Kondo, Kenjiro; Suzuki, Takenori; Numajiri, Masaharu; Miura, Taichi; Doi, Shuji; Ohnishi, Toshihiro.

    1992-01-01

    Effects of γ-irradiation on electrical conductivity of polyaniline were investigated. A drastic increase of the conductivity due to radiation-induced doping was observed in combined systems of polyaniline films and halogen-containing polymers. This effect can be applied to measure an integrated radiation dose. (author)

  8. Radiation effects in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-07-01

    As more people spend more time in space, and the return to the moon and exploratory missions are considered, the risks require continuing examination. The effects of microgravity and radiation are two potential risks in space. These risks increase with increasing mission duration. This document considers the risk of radiation effects in space workers and explorers. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  9. Radiation monitoring system in medical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuno, Kiyoshi

    1981-01-01

    (1) RI selective liquid effluent monitor is, in many cases, used at medical facilities to obtain data for density of radioactivity of six radionuclides. In comparison with the conventional gross measuring systems, over-evaluation is less, and the monitor is more practical. (2) Preventive monitor for loss of radium needle is a system which prevents missing of radium needle at a flush-toilet in radium treatment wards, and this monitor is capable of sensing a drop-off of radium needle of 0.5 mCi (minimum). (3) Short-lived positron gas measuring device belongs to a BABY CYCLOTRON installed in a hospital, and this device is used to measure density of radioactivity, radioactive impurity and chemical impurity of produced radioactive gas. (author)

  10. Fire and earthquake counter measures in radiation handling facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    'Fire countermeasures in radiation handling facilities' published in 1961 is still widely utilized as a valuable guideline for those handling radiation through the revision in 1972. However, science and technology rapidly advanced, and the relevant laws were revised after the publication, and many points which do not conform to the present state have become to be found. Therefore, it was decided to rewrite this book, and the new book has been completed. The title was changed to 'Fire and earthquake countermeasures in radiation handling facilities', and the countermeasures to earthquakes were added. Moreover, consideration was given so that the book is sufficiently useful also for those concerned with fire fighting, not only for those handling radiation. In this book, the way of thinking about the countermeasures against fires and earthquakes, the countermeasures in normal state and when a fire or an earthquake occurred, the countermeasures when the warning declaration has been announced, and the data on fires, earthquakes, the risk of radioisotopes, fire fighting equipment, the earthquake counter measures for equipment, protectors and radiation measuring instruments, first aid, the example of emergency system in radiation handling facilities, the activities of fire fighters, the example of accidents and so on are described. (Kako, I.)

  11. A collaborative effort of medical and educational facilities for radiation safety training of nurses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Naoki; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takao, Hideaki

    2005-01-01

    The proper understanding of radiation safety by nursing staffs in hospitals are essential not only for radiation protection of themselves against occupational radiation exposure but for quality nursing for patients who receive medical radiation exposure. The education program on radiation in nursing schools in Japan is, however, rather limited, and is insufficient for nurses to acquire basic knowledge of radiation safety and protection. Therefore, the radiation safety training of working nurses is quite important. A hospital-based training needs assignment of radiation technologists and radiologists as instructors, which may result in temporary shortage of these staffs for patients' services. Additionally, the equipments and facilities for radiation training in a hospital might not be satisfactory. In order to provide an effective education regarding radiation for working nurses, the radiation safety training course has been conducted for nurse of the university hospital by the collaboration of medical and educational staffs in Nagasaki University. This course was given for 6 hours in Radioisotope Research Center, a research and education facility for radiation workers using radioisotopes. The curriculum of this course included basics of radiation, effects of radiation on human health, procedures in clinical settings for radiation protection and practical training by using survey meters, which were mainly based on the radiation safety training for beginners according to the Japanese law concerning radiation safety with a modification to focus on medical radiation exposure. This course has been given to approximately 25 nurses in a time, and held 13 times in May 2000 through October 2003 for 317 nurse overall. The pre-instruction questionnaire revealed that 60% of nurses felt fears about radiation diagnosis or therapy, which reduced to less than 15% in the post-instruction surveillance. The course also motivated nurses to give an answer to patients' questions about

  12. Optimization of radiation protection in gamma radiography facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio Filho, Joao

    1999-01-01

    To determine optimized dose limits for workers, a study of optimization of radiation protection was undertaken in gamma radiography facilities closed, using the Technique Multiple Attributes Utility Analysis. A total of 217 protection options, distributed in 34 irradiation scenarios for tree facility types ( fixed open, moveable and closed (bunker) were analyzed. In the determination of the optimized limit dose, the following attributes were considered; costs of the protection barriers, costs attributed to the biological detriment for different alpha (the reference value of unit collective dose), size of the isolation area, constrained limits dose of annual individual equivalent doses and collective dose. The variables studied in the evaluation included: effective work load, type and activity of the sources of radiation ( 192 Ir and 60 Co), source-operator distance related to the characteristic of the length of the command cable and the guide tube, type and thickness of the materials used in the protection barriers (concrete, barite, ceramic, lead, steel alloy and tungsten). The optimal analytic solutions obtained in the optimization process that resulted in the indication of the optimized dose limit were determined by means of a sensitivity analysis and by direct and logic evaluations, thus, independent of the values of the monetary coefficient attributed to the biological detriment, of the annual interest rate applied to the protection cost and of the type of installation studied, it was concluded that the primary limit of annual equivalent dose for workers (now 50 mSv) can be easily reduced to an optimized annual dose limit of 5 mSv. (author)

  13. Radiation effects and radioprotectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, R.K., E-mail: dr_rajendra_purohit@yahoo.co.in [Radiation Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Govt. Dungar College, Bikaner (India); Bugalia, Saroj [Department of Zoology, S.K. Kalyan College, Sikar (India); Dakshene, Monika [Department of Chemistry, Govt. College, Kota (India)

    2012-07-01

    Radiation exposure causes damage to biological systems and these damages are mediated by the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species targeting vital cellular components such as DNA and membranes. DNA repair systems and the endogenous cellular biochemical defense mechanisms against reactive oxygen species and antioxidants enzymes like reduced Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase catalase etc. fail upon exposures to higher as well as chronic radiation doses leading to alterations in cell functions, cell death or mutations. Radioprotectors prevent these alterations and protect cells and tissues from the deleterious effects of radiations. Radioprotectors are of great importance due to their possible and potential application during planned radiation exposures such as radiotherapy, diagnostic scanning, clean up operations in nuclear accidents, space expeditions etc. and Unplanned radiations exposures such as accidents in nuclear industry, nuclear terrorism, natural background radiation etc. Many of the available synthetic radioprotectors are toxic to mammalian system at doses required to be effective as radioprotector. Increasing uses of ionizing radiation have drawn the attention of many radiobiologists towards their undesired side effects produced in various tissues and for modifying them to facilitate the beneficial uses of radiation. Modification of radiation response is obtained by means of chemical substances that can significantly decrease the magnitude of response when present in a biological system during irradiation. Radioprotectors are chemicals that modify a cell's response to radiation. Radioprotectors are drugs that protect normal (non cancerous) cells from the damage caused by radiation therapy. These agents promote the repair of normal cells that are exposed to radiation. Various chemicals, like Cysteamine, MPG , WR-2721 have been tested for the protection against harmful effects of radiation. These radio

  14. Radiation effects and radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.K.; Bugalia, Saroj; Dakshene, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure causes damage to biological systems and these damages are mediated by the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species targeting vital cellular components such as DNA and membranes. DNA repair systems and the endogenous cellular biochemical defense mechanisms against reactive oxygen species and antioxidants enzymes like reduced Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase catalase etc. fail upon exposures to higher as well as chronic radiation doses leading to alterations in cell functions, cell death or mutations. Radioprotectors prevent these alterations and protect cells and tissues from the deleterious effects of radiations. Radioprotectors are of great importance due to their possible and potential application during planned radiation exposures such as radiotherapy, diagnostic scanning, clean up operations in nuclear accidents, space expeditions etc. and Unplanned radiations exposures such as accidents in nuclear industry, nuclear terrorism, natural background radiation etc. Many of the available synthetic radioprotectors are toxic to mammalian system at doses required to be effective as radioprotector. Increasing uses of ionizing radiation have drawn the attention of many radiobiologists towards their undesired side effects produced in various tissues and for modifying them to facilitate the beneficial uses of radiation. Modification of radiation response is obtained by means of chemical substances that can significantly decrease the magnitude of response when present in a biological system during irradiation. Radioprotectors are chemicals that modify a cell's response to radiation. Radioprotectors are drugs that protect normal (non cancerous) cells from the damage caused by radiation therapy. These agents promote the repair of normal cells that are exposed to radiation. Various chemicals, like Cysteamine, MPG , WR-2721 have been tested for the protection against harmful effects of radiation. These radio

  15. Man and radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, L.

    1982-01-01

    The book describes the effects of ionizing radiation on man in a simple, popular, detailed and generally valid manner and gives a comprehensive picture of the concepts, elements, principles of function, and perspectives of medical radiobiology. Radiobiology in general is explained, and its application in research on the causes of radiolesions and radiation diseases as well as a radiotherapy and radiation protection is discussed in popular form. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, J.

    1989-01-01

    The book covers all aspects of biological radiation effects. The physical basis is dealt with in some detail, and the effects at the subcellular and the cellular level are discussed, taking into account modern developments and techniques. The effects on the human organism are reviewed, both from the point of view of applications in medicine as well as with regard to radiation hazards (teratogenic, gonadal and carcinogenic effects)

  17. The 88-Inch Cyclotron: A One-Stop Facility for Electronics Radiation and Detector Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kireeff Covo, M.; Albright, R. A.; Ninemire, B. F.; Johnson, M. B.; Hodgkinson, A.; Loew, T.; Benitez, J. Y.; Todd, D. S.; Xie, D. Z.; Perry, T.; Phair, L.; Bernsteiny, L. A.; Bevins, J.; Brown, J. A.; Goldblum, B. L.; Harasty, M.; Harrig, K. P.; Laplace, T. A.; Matthews, E. F.; Bushmaker, A.; Walker, D.; Oklejas, V.; Hopkins, A. R.; Bleuel, D. L.; Chen, J.; Cronin, S. B.

    2017-10-01

    In outer space down to the altitudes routinely flown by larger aircrafts, radiation can pose serious issues for microelectronics circuits. The 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is a sector-focused cyclotron and home of the Berkeley Accelerator Space Effects Facility, where the effects of energetic particles on sensitive microelectronics are studied with the goal of designing electronic systems for the space community. This paper describes the flexibility of the facility and its capabilities for testing the bombardment of electronics by heavy ions, light ions, and neutrons. Experimental capabilities for the generation of neutron beams from deuteron breakups and radiation testing of carbon nanotube field effect transistor will be discussed.

  18. The design of diagnostic medical facilities using ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This Code, setting out the general principles of radiological protection as applied to diagnostic radiation facilities in hospitals and clinics, is intended as a guide to architects and to works departments concerned with their design and construction, and with the modification of existing units

  19. Review of radiation sources, calibration facilities and simulated workplace fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacoste, V., E-mail: veronique.lacoste@irsn.f [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, BP3, Bat. 159, F-13115 Saint-Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2010-12-15

    A review on radiation sources, calibration facilities and realistic fields is presented and examples are given. The main characteristics of the fields are shortly described together with their domain of applications. New emerging fields are also mentioned and the question of needs for additional calibration fields is raised.

  20. A commercial multipurpose radiation processing facility for Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welt, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The State of Hawaii offers a unique challenge for the designer of an economically feasible radiation processing system. Based on the prevailing agricultural export requirements, the radiation facility must be capable for handling a variety of bulky fruit and vegetable products for insect disinfestation purposes and, yet, provide proper economies for the users of the facility. A capability must exist for irradiating other types of products requiring higher doses, e.g., fish and shellfish products for shelf-life extension, which might require a dose approximately eight times higher than the disinfestation dose, or even medical product or a food sterilization dose, which would be approximately twelve times higher than the required shelf-life extension dose. The Radiation Technology Model RT 4l0l-4048 radiation processing facility provides the necessary versatility and operational reliability to meet the challenge. The technical features and economic analyses demonstrate the advantages of this computer-operated pallet irradiation system. Actual performance data from the Radiation Technology subsidiary operations in West Memphis, Arkasas, and Burlilngton, North Carolina, are presented along with photographs of the proposed system for Hawaii

  1. Biophysical radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidorra, J.

    1982-07-01

    The biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation is based upon the absorption of energy in molecular structures of a cell. Because of the quantum nature of radiation large fluctuations of energy concentration in subcellulare regions has to be considered. In addition both the spatial distribution of a sensitive molecular target and cellulare repair processes has to be taken into consideration for an assessment of radiation action. In radiation protection the difference between the quality factor and the Relative Biological Effectiveness has a fundamental meaning and will be discussed in more detail. The present report includes a short review on some relevant models on radiation action and a short discussion on effects of low dose irradiation. (orig.) [de

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, July 2001.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    Global Warming and Methane-Global warming, an increase in Earth's near-surface temperature, is believed to result from the buildup of what scientists refer to as ''greenhouse gases.'' These gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluoro-carbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Greenhouse gases can absorb outgoing infrared (heat) radiation and re-emit it back to Earth, warming the surface. Thus, these gases act like the glass of a greenhouse enclosure, trapping infrared radiation inside and warming the space. One of the more important greenhouse gases is the naturally occurring hydrocarbon methane. Methane, a primary component of natural gas, is the second most important contributor to the greenhouse effect (after carbon dioxide). Natural sources of methane include wetlands, fossil sources, termites, oceans, fresh-waters, and non-wetland soils. Methane is also produced by human-related (or anthropogenic) activities such as fossil fuel production, coal mining, rice cultivation, biomass burning, water treatment facilities, waste management operations and landfills, and domesticated livestock operations (Figure 1). These anthropogenic activities account for approximately 70% of the methane emissions to the atmosphere. Methane is removed naturally from the atmosphere in three ways. These methods, commonly referred to as sinks, are oxidation by chemical reaction with tropospheric hydroxyl ion, oxidation within the stratosphere, and microbial uptake by soils. In spite of their important role in removing excess methane from the atmosphere, the sinks cannot keep up with global methane production. Methane concentrations in the atmosphere have increased by 145% since 1800. Increases in atmospheric methane roughly parallel world population growth, pointing to anthropogenic sources as the cause (Figure 2). Increases in the methane concentration reduce Earth's natural cooling efficiency by trapping more of the outgoing

  3. Radiation effects in gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Problems in the studies of radiation effects in gases are discussed. By means of ionization- excitation- and electron-capture yields various applications are characterized: ionization detectors, X-ray detectors, radionuclide battery, and radiation-induced chemical gas-phase reactions. Some new results of basic research in respect to the SO 2 oxidation are discussed. (author)

  4. Effects of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussens, G.

    1984-08-01

    After recalling radiation-matter interaction, influence on radiation effects of chemical composition, structure, irradiation atmosphere, dose rate, temperature of organic materials and evolution of electrical, mechanical and physical properties are reviewed. Then behaviour under irradiation of main organic materials: elastomers, thermoplastics, thermosetting plastics, oils and paints are examined. 68 refs [fr

  5. ASPECTS OF QMS IN RADIATION PROCESSING FACILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUNGU Ion Bogdan

    2016-05-01

    there are numerous factors that influence the effectiveness of service process, the objective is to analyze few important criteria like traceability, maintenance, and control of nonconform products and how it influence the desired results. The expected results show the necessity and utility of such an assessment in order to achieve improved results and implicitly, the increase in customer satisfaction.

  6. Ionizing radiation, radiation sources, radiation exposure, radiation effects. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, E.

    1985-01-01

    Part 2 deals with radiation exposure due to artificial radiation sources. The article describes X-ray diagnosis complete with an analysis of major methods, nuclear-medical diagnosis, percutaneous radiation therapy, isotope therapy, radiation from industrial generation of nucler energy and other sources of ionizing radiation. In conclusion, the authors attempt to asses total dose, genetically significant dose and various hazards of total radiation exposure by means of a summation of all radiation impacts. (orig./WU) [de

  7. Radiation exposure to workers at cyclotron facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, M.S.; Sanches, M.P.; Sanchez, A.S.; Rodrigues, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals quickly furnish the information doctors need to establish a precise diagnosis of the patient's condition, and therefore to prescribe the most effective therapy. In cancerology, F18-FDG, the most widely used PET imaging tracer, excels in the early detection of cancer tumors, even very tiny ones, which it locates and clearly distinguishes from healthy surrounding tissues. IPEN-CNEN/SP has two cyclotron accelerators used mainly for radioisotope production to be utilized in nuclear medicine for diagnosis and therapy. The first is a CV-28 cyclotron, variable energy that came into operation in 1982, which was used to produce F18-FDG and Iodine 123 up to 1998. The second, a Cyclone 30 cyclotron, 30 MeV, commenced operation in 1998 for certification purpose, and due to increase demand for radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil, started F18-FDG production in 1999. Cyclotron Laboratory will be a reference Research and Developing Center in our country and will help the Brazilian and Latin-American community. It is necessary to have an adequate database to allow regular follow up and analysis of the individual dose distributions for each group involved in the cyclotron activities. These databases are also important means to assess the effectiveness of efforts in order to maintain doses ALARA and reduce inequalities. The official individual occupational dosimetry is provided by certified Laboratory of Thermoluminescent Dosimetry at IPEN-CNEN/SP. This paper describes the occupational doses distribution in Laboratory of Cyclotrons at IPEN-CNEN/SP from January, 1998 to July, 2000 and propose improvements for the future. (author)

  8. Planning study for advanced national synchrotron-radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    A new generation of synchrotron-radiation sources based on insertion devices offers gains in photon-beam brilliance as large as the gains that present-day synchrotron sources provided over conventional sources. This revolution in synchrotron capability and its impact on science and technology will be as significant as the original introduction of synchrotron radiation. This report recommends that insertion-device technology be pursued as our highest priority, both through the full development of insertion-device potential on existing machines and through the building of new facilities

  9. External radiation exposure control system in accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Iimoto, Takeshi; Kosako, Toshiso

    2011-01-01

    The external exposure control systems in KEK and CERN are discussed to find out good practices and unreasonableness of radiation control in accelerator facilities, which plays an important role in optimizing national and/or site specific radiological regulations, referring to relevant ICRP publications. Personal dose limits and radiation area classifications were analyzed and their reasonableness were explored. Good example of supervised areas, area classification based on realistic assumptions on working time etc are found. On the other hand, unreasonable systems, that are often attributed to the national regulation or ideas presented in the old publications are also found. (author)

  10. Radiologic safety program for ionizing radiation facilities in Parana, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.F.S.; Tilly Junior, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    A radiologic safety program for inspection, licensing and control of the use of ionizing radiation in medical, industrial and research facilities in Parana, Brazil is presented. The program includes stages such as: 1- division into implementation phases considering the activity development for each area; 2-use of the existing structure to implement and to improve services. The development of the program will permit to evaluate the improvement reached and to correct operational strategic. As a result, a quality enhancement at the services performed, a reduction for radiation dose exposure and a faster response for emergency situations will be expected

  11. Radiation protection calibration facilities at the National Radiation Laboratory, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    The National Radiation Laboratory (NRL), serving under the Ministry of Health, provides radiation protection services to the whole of New Zealand. Consequently it performs many functions that are otherwise spread amongst several organizations in larger countries. It is the national regulatory body for radiation protection. It writes and enforces codes of safe practice, and conducts safety inspections of all workplaces using radiation. It provides a personal monitoring service for radiation workers. It also maintains the national primary standards for x-ray exposure and 60 Co air kerma. These standards are transferred to hospitals through a calibration service. The purpose of this report is to outline the primary standards facilities at NRL, and to discuss the calibration of dosemeters using these facilities. (J.P.N.)

  12. Radiation. Doses, effect, risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vapirev, E.; Todorov, P.

    1994-12-01

    This book outlines in a popular form the topic of ionizing radiation impacts on living organisms. It contains data gathered by ICRP for a period of 35 years. The essential dosimetry terms and units are presented. Natural and artificial sources of ionizing radiation are described. Possible biological radiation effects and diseases as a consequence of external and internal irradiation at normal and accidental conditions are considered. An assessment of genetic risk for human populations is presented and the concept of 'acceptable risk' is discussed

  13. Radiation shielding design for a hot repair facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtney, J.C.; Dwight, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    A new repair and decontamination area is being built to support operations at the demonstration fuel cycle facility for the Integral Fast Reactor program at Argonne National Laboratory's site at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Provisions are made for remote, glove wall, and contact maintenance on equipment removed from hot cells where spent fuel will be electrochemically processed and recycled to the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II. The source for the shielding design is contamination from a mix of fission and activation products present on items removed from the hot cells. The repair facility also serves as a transfer path for radioactive waste produced by processing operations. Radiation shields are designed to limit dose rates to no more than 5 microSv h-1 (0.5 mrem h-1) in normally occupied areas. Point kernel calculations with buildup factors have been used to design the shielding and to position radiation monitors within the area

  14. Radiation facilities and irradiation technology for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunaga, Hiromi

    2005-01-01

    Progress made during these 30 years in the field of radiation treatment of food is reviewed by describing features of the process including elementary processes, quality control of the products and the dosimetric techniques widely employed. The Co-60 gamma-ray irradiation facilities to be used for radiation-sterilization of medical supplies and food preservation are presented. For electron beam irradiation, accelerators for processing with the energy from 0.3 to 10 MeV are generally employed. The electron-guns, the method of acceleration such as rectification, types of acceleration as Cockcroft-Walton, dynamitron, or linear acceleration and X-ray producing facility, with various countermeasures for safety management, are briefly explained. The concepts of dose and traceability are given. The dosimeters including reference dosimeter and routine ones with validation are explained. (S. Ohno)

  15. Application of PSA techniques to synchrotron radiation source facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyasi Rao, V.V.S.; Vinod, G.; Vaze, K.K.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation sources are increasingly being used in research and medical applications. Various instances of overexposure in these facilities have been reported in literature. These instances have lead to the investigation of the risks associated with them with a view to minimise the risks and thereby increasing the level of safety. In nuclear industry, Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) methods are widely used to assess the risk from nuclear power plants. PSA presents a systematic methodology to evaluate the likelihood of various accident scenarios and their possible consequences using fault/event tree techniques. It is proposed to extend similar approach to analyse the risk associated with synchrotron radiation sources. First step for such an analysis is establishing the failure criteria, considering the regulatory stipulations on acceptable limits of dose due to ionization radiation from normal as well as beam loss scenarios. Some possible scenarios considered in this study are (1) excessive Bremsstrahlung in the ring due to loss of vacuum, (2) Target failure due to excessively focused beam (3) mis-directed/mis-steered beam (4) beam loss and sky shine. Hazard analysis needs to cover the beam transfer line, storage ring and experimental beam line areas. Various safety provisions are in place to minimize the hazards from these facilities such as access control interlock systems, radiation shielding for storage ring and beam lines and safety shutters (for beam lines). Experimental beam line area is the most vulnerable locations that need to be critically analysed. There are multiple beam lines, that have different safety provisions and consequences from postulated beam strikes will also be different and this increases the complexity of analysis. Similar studies conducted for such experimental facilities have identified that the radiation safety interlock system, used to control access to areas inside ring and the hutches of beamline facilities has an

  16. Radiation protection program at an accelerator facility complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanuja, Jaya

    2007-01-01

    Broad aspects of Radiation Protection Program at the Tyco Healthcare/Mallinckrodt Inc. will be presented with emphasis on Occupational dose, Public dose and ALARA program. Regulatory requirements, compliance and radio nuclides of concern for external exposure and internal contamination will be discussed. The facility is subject to in depth annual inspections by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to ensure compliance with regulations and operating license requirements. The facility is required to have an emergency contingency plan in place. A simulated emergency drill scenario is witnessed and graded by the NRC and state inspectors, with full participation by the fire department and the local hospital. Radiation Safety Officer (RSO) is in charge of all radiological aspects of the facility, and reports to the plant manager directly. The RSO or any of his staff has the authority to stop a job if there is a radiological concern. The Radiation protection organization interfaces with Production, QA and Engineering and ensures there is no conflict with Industrial Safety, OSHA and FDA requirements. Any employee has the right to call the regulatory officials if he/she has a concern. Operational aspects of Radiation protection program such as radiological survey, contamination control and limits, air sample survey, radio active waste processing and record retention requirements are per plant procedures and regulatory requirements. Shielding and administrative requirements for designing a modification to an existing design or a new lab/hot cell is subject to in-depth review and approval by Radiation Safety Committee. Each department has a Dose Reduction Subcommittee which meets periodically to discuss if any changes in procedures or facility can be made to decrease the dose. The subcommittee also trends the dose to ensure it is trending downward. Even though 99 Mo/ 99m TC generators are manufactured at the facility, majority of the dose is from cyclotron maintenance

  17. Quality control through dosimetry at a contract radiation processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.; Roediger, A.H.A.

    1985-01-01

    Reliable dosimetry procedures constitute a very important part of process control and quality assurance at a contract gamma radiation processing facility that caters for a large variety of different radiation applications. The choice, calibration and routine intercalibration of the dosimetry systems employed form the basis of a sound dosimetry policy in radiation processing. With the dosimetric procedures established, detailed dosimetric mapping of the irradiator upon commissioning (and whenever source modifications take place) is carried out to determine the radiation processing characteristics and peformance of the plant. Having established the irradiator parameters, routine dosimetry procedures, being part of the overall quality control measures, are employed. In addition to routine dosimetry, independent monitoring of routine dosimetry is performed on a bi-monthly basis and the results indicate a variation of better than 3%. On an annaul basis the dosimetry systems are intercalibrated through at least one primary standard dosimetry laboratory and to date a variation of better than 5% has been experienced. The company also participates in the Pilot Dose Assurance Service of the International Atomic Energy Agency, using the alanine/ESR dosimetry system. Routine calibration of the instrumentation employed is carried out on a regular basis. Detailed permanent records are compiled on all dosimetric and instrumentation calibrations, and the routine dosimetry employed at the plant. Certificates indicating the measured absorbed radiation doses are issued on request and in many cases are used for the dosimetric release of sterilized medical and pharmaceutical products. These procedures, used by Iso-Ster at its industrial gamma radiation facility, as well as the experience built up over a number of years using radiation dosimetry for process control and quality assurance are discussed. (author)

  18. Supervision of radiation environment management of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Mingyan

    2013-01-01

    Through literature and documents, the basis, content and implementation of the supervision of radiation environment management of nuclear facilities were defined. Such supervision was extensive and complicated with various tasks and overlapping duties, and had large social impact. Therefore, it was recommend to make further research on this supervision should be done, clarify and specify responsibilities of the executor of the supervision so as to achieve institutionalization, standardization and routinization of the supervision. (author)

  19. "Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Research Facility at Oliktok Point Alaska"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsel, F.; Ivey, M.; Hardesty, J.; Roesler, E. L.; Dexheimer, D.

    2017-12-01

    Scientific Infrastructure To Support Atmospheric Science, Aerosol Science and UAS's for The Department Of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Programs At The Mobile Facility 3 Located At Oliktok Point, Alaska.The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Mobile Facility 3 (AMF3) located at Oliktok Point, Alaska is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site designed to collect data and help determine the impact that clouds and aerosols have on solar radiation. AMF3 provides a scientific infrastructure to support instruments and collect arctic data for the international arctic research community. The infrastructure at AMF3/Oliktok is designed to be mobile and it may be relocated in the future to support other ARM science missions. AMF3's present base line instruments include: scanning precipitation Radars, cloud Radar, Raman Lidar, Eddy correlation flux systems, Ceilometer, Balloon sounding system, Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), Micro-pulse Lidar (MPL) Along with all the standard metrological measurements. In addition AMF3 provides aerosol measurements with a Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS). Ground support for Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and tethered balloon flights. Data from these instruments and systems are placed in the ARM data archives and are available to the international research community. This poster will discuss what instruments and systems are at the ARM Research Facility at Oliktok Point Alaska.

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, James [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Mission and Vision Statements for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Mission The ARM Climate Research Facility, a DOE scientific user facility, provides the climate research community with strategically located in situ and remote-sensing observatories designed to improve the understanding and representation, in climate and earth system models, of clouds and aerosols as well as their interactions and coupling with the Earth’s surface. Vision To provide a detailed and accurate description of the Earth atmosphere in diverse climate regimes to resolve the uncertainties in climate and Earth system models toward the development of sustainable solutions for the nation's energy and environmental challenges.

  1. Decommissioning an uranium and thorium facility: a radiation protection approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feijo Vasques, Francisco Mario; Saburo Todo, Alberto; Mestre, Paulo Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Decommissioning means actions taken at the end of the useful life of a facility in retiring it from service with adequate regard for the health and safety of workers and members of the public. In the present work, we introduce a radiation protection approach for the removal of radioactive material to the extent that the facility or site becomes available for use without restriction. The facility to be decommissioned is a fuel cycle pilot plant that operated with natural uranium and thorium for almost two decades and then, kept inactive for about 10 years at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - IPEN. Even after this long period of inactivity, it has presented significant levels of radiation and contamination spread over the floor, walls, windows, doors and ceiling. The fuel cycle pilot plant was completely dismantled, remaining only the walls and the concrete structures. In this work we present the job done to restore the area. According to each step of dismantling a continuous monitoring of the contaminated surfaces was carried out including the survey of the deep material from the floor and walls. The material identified as radioactive waste was stored into appropriated metal drums. A radiation protection team guided this stage of the work, prescribing the tasks, and the amount of material that should be removed from floors, windows and ceiling. For this, repetitive surveys had to be done. The results of monitoring and contamination levels were analysed, thus guiding the next steps of the job. In this way radiation protection team took over the tasks, running the work with the purpose of achieving acceptable levels of radiation, restoring the area for unrestricted use. (author)

  2. Radiation exposures in reprocessing facilities at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, G.; Caldwell, R.D.; Hall, R.M.

    1979-06-01

    Two large reprocessing facilities have been operating at the Savannah River Plant since 1955. The plant, which is near Aiken, South Carolina, is operated for the US Department of Energy by the Du Pont Company. The reprocessing facilities have a work force of approximately 1,800. The major processes in the facilities are chemical separations of irradiated material, plutonium finishing, and waste management. This paper presents the annual radiation exposure for the reprocessing work force, particularly during the period 1965 through 1978. It also presents the collective and average individual annual exposures for various occupations including operators, mechanics, electricians, control laboratory technicians, and health physicists. Periodic and repetitive work activities that result in the highest radiation exposures are also described. The assimilation of radionuclides, particularly plutonium, by the work force is reviewed. Methods that have been developed to minimize the exposure of reprocessing personnel are described. The success of these methods is illustrated by experience - there has been no individual worker exposure of greater than 3.1 rems per year and only one plutonium assimilation greater than the maximum permissible body burden during the 24 years of operation of the facilities

  3. Radiation exposures in reprocessing facilities at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, G.; Caldwell, R.D.; Hall, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Two large reprocessing facilities have been operating at the Savannah River Plant since 1955. The plant, which is near Aiken, South Carolina, is operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by the Du Pont Company. The reprocessing facilities have a work force of approximately 1,800. The major processes in the facilities are chemical separations of irradiated material, plutonium finishing, and waste management. This paper presents the annual radiation exposure for the reprocessing work force, particularly during the period 1965 through 1978. It also presents the collective and average individual annual exposures for various occupations including operators, mechanics, electricians, control laboratory technicians, and health physicists. Periodic and repetitive work activities that result in the highest radiation exposures are also described. The assimilation of radionuclides, particularly plutonium, by the work force is reviewed. Methods that have been developed to minimize the exposure of reprocessing personnel are described. The success of these methods is illustrated by experience - there has been no individual worker exposure of greater than 3.1 rems per year and only one plutonium assimilation greater than the maximum permissible body burden during the 24 years of operation of the facilities

  4. Radiation protection problems by the operation of the cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durcik, M.; Nikodemova, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Cyclotron Center in Bratislava will consist of two cyclotrons. First - cyclotron DC-72 with maximal energy of 72 MV for protons for making experiments, for teaching process, for radioisotope production as 123 I and for neutron and proton therapy. Second - compact cyclotron with maximal proton energy of 18 MeV will be used for radioisotopes production for medical diagnosis as 1 *F (fluorodeoxyglucose), 81 Rb/ 81 Kr generator. This paper deals with the radiation protection problems by the operation of tis cyclotron facility as radiation protection of workers, monitoring plan, ventilation, safety lock and limitation and radiation monitoring. For proposed and continuing practices at the accelerator facility, the following general principles have to be fulfilled: (1) practices should produce sufficient benefit to offset the radiation detriment they case (justification); (2) the magnitude of the individual doses should be kept as low as achievable (optimization of protection); (3) individual exposures are subject to dose limits and some control of risk from potential exposures (dose and risk limits)

  5. Handbook of radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes-Siedle, A.; Adams, L.

    1993-01-01

    This handbook is intended to serve as a tool for designers of equipment and scientific instruments in cases where they are required to ensure the survival of the equipment in radiation environments. High-technology materials, especially semiconductors and optics, tend to degrade on exposure to radiation in many different ways. Intense high-energy radiation environments are found in nuclear reactors and accelerators, machines for radiation therapy, industrial sterilization, and space. Some engineers have to build equipment which will survive a nuclear explosion from a hostile source. Proper handling of a disaster with radioactive materials requires equipment which depends utterly on semiconductor microelectronics and imaging devices. Thus the technology of radiation-tolerant electronics is an instrument for good social spheres as diverse as disaster planning and the exploration of Mars. In order to design equipment for intense environments like those described above, then degradation from high-energy irradiation must be seen as a basic design parameter. The aim of this handbook is to assist the engineer or student in that thought; to make it possible to write intelligent specifications; to offer some understanding of the complex variety of effects which occur when high-technology components encounter high-energy radiation; and to go thoroughly into the balance of choices of how to alleviate the effects and hence achieve the design aims of the project. Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 chapters of this book

  6. Early test facilities and analytic methods for radiation shielding: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingersoll, D.T.; Ingersoll, J.K.

    1992-11-01

    This report represents a compilation of eight papers presented at the 1992 American Nuclear Society/European Nuclear Society International Meeting. The meeting is of special significance since it commemorates the fiftieth anniversary of the first controlled nuclear chain reaction. The papers contained in this report were presented in a special session organized by the Radiation Protection and Shielding Division in keeping with the historical theme of the meeting. The paper titles are good indicators of their content and are: (1) The origin of radiation shielding research: The Oak Ridge experience, (2) Shielding research at the hanford site, (3) Aircraft shielding experiments at General Dynamics Fort Worth, 1950-1962, (4) Where have the neutrons gone?, a history of the tower shielding facility, (5) History and evolution of buildup factors, (6) Early shielding research at Bettis atomic power laboratory, (7) UK reactor shielding: then and now, (8) A very personal view of the development of radiation shielding theory

  7. Radiation analysis for a generic centralized interim storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, S.G.; Lopez, P.; Eble, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper documents the radiation analysis performed for the storage area of a generic Centralized Interim Storage Facility (CISF) for commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The purpose of the analysis is to establish the CISF Protected Area and Restricted Area boundaries by modeling a representative SNF storage array, calculating the radiation dose at selected locations outside the storage area, and comparing the results with regulatory radiation dose limits. The particular challenge for this analysis is to adequately model a large (6000 cask) storage array with a reasonable amount of analysis time and effort. Previous analyses of SNF storage systems for Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installations at nuclear plant sites (for example in References 5.1 and 5.2) had only considered small arrays of storage casks. For such analyses, the dose contribution from each storage cask can be modeled individually. Since the large number of casks in the CISF storage array make such an approach unrealistic, a simplified model is required

  8. Biological Effects of Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatau, B.D.; Garba, N.N.; Yusuf, A.M.; Yamusa, Y. A.; Musa, Y.

    2013-01-01

    In earlier studies, researchers aimed a single particle at the nucleus of the cell where DNA is located. Eighty percent of the cells shot through the nucleus survived. This contradicts the belief that if radiation slams through the nucleus, the cell will die. But the bad news is that the surviving cells contained mutations. Cells have a great capacity to repair DNA, but they cannot do it perfectly. The damage left behind in these studies from a single particle of alpha radiation doubled the damage that is already there. This proved, beyond a shadow of doubt, those there biological effects occur as a result of exposure to radiation, Radiation is harmful to living tissue because of its ionizing power in matter. This ionization can damage living cells directly, by breaking the chemical bonds of important biological molecules (particularly DNA), or indirectly, by creating chemical radicals from water molecules in the cells, which can then attack the biological molecules chemically. At some extent these molecules are repaired by natural biological processes, however, the effectiveness of this repair depends on the extent of the damage. The interaction of ionizing with the human body, arising either from external sources outside the body or from internal contamination of the body by radioactive materials, leads to the biological effects which may later show up as a clinical symptoms. Basically, this formed the baseline of this research to serve as a yardstick for creating awareness about radiation and its resulting effects.

  9. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  10. Radiation effects on materials in high-radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.J.; Mansur, L.K.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Parkin, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    A workshop on Radiation Effects on Materials in High-Radiation Environments was held in Salt Lake City, Utah (USA) from August 13 to 15, 1990 under the auspices of the Division of Materials Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US Department of Energy. The workshop focused on ceramics, alloys, and intermetallics and covered research needs and capabilities, recent experimental data, theory, and computer simulations. It was concluded that there is clearly a continuing scientific and technological need for fundamental knowledge on the underlying causes of radiation-induced property changes in materials. Furthermore, the success of many current and emerging nuclear-related technologies critically depend on renewed support for basic radiation-effects research, irradiation facilities, and training of scientists. The highlights of the workshop are reviewed and specific recommendations are made regarding research needs. (orig.)

  11. Radiation effects on living systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1980-10-01

    This bibliography includes papers and reports by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited scientists concerning radiation effects on living systems. It is divided into three sections: Radiobiology, Radiation Biochemistry and Radiation Chemistry. (auth)

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LR Roeder

    2007-12-01

    This annual report describes the purpose and structure of the program, and presents key accomplishments in 2007. Notable achievements include: • Successful review of the ACRF as a user facility by the DOE Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee. The subcommittee reinforced the importance of the scientific impacts of this facility, and its value for the international research community. • Leadership of the Cloud Land Surface Interaction Campaign. This multi-agency, interdisciplinary field campaign involved enhanced surface instrumentation at the ACRF Southern Great Plains site and, in concert with the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study sponsored by the DOE Atmospheric Science Program, coordination of nine aircraft through the ARM Aerial Vehicles Program. • Successful deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility in Germany, including hosting nearly a dozen guest instruments and drawing almost 5000 visitors to the site. • Key advancements in the representation of radiative transfer in weather forecast models from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. • Development of several new enhanced data sets, ranging from best estimate surface radiation measurements from multiple sensors at all ACRF sites to the extension of time-height cloud occurrence profiles to Niamey, Niger, Africa. • Publication of three research papers in a single issue (February 2007) of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.

  13. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heribanova, A.

    1995-01-01

    The basic principles and pathways of effects of ionizing radiation on living organisms and cells are outlined. The following topics are covered: effects of radiation on living matter (direct effects, radical or indirect effects, dual radiation action, and molecular biological theories); effects of radiation on cells and tissues (cell depletion, changes in the cytogenetic information, reparation mechanisms), dose-response relationship (deterministic effects, stochastic effects), and the effects of radiation on man (acute radiation sickness, acute local changes, fetus injuries, non-tumorous late injuries, malignant tumors, genetic changes). (P.A.). 3 tabs., 2 figs., 5 refs

  14. Bystander effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar, Neethu Fathima; Daniel, Nittu

    2013-01-01

    The Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect is the phenomenon in which unirradiated cells show irradiated effects due to the signals received from nearby irradiated cells. Evidence suggests that targeted cytoplasmic irradiation results in mutation in the nucleus of the hit cells. Cells that are not directly hit by an alpha particle, but are in the vicinity of one that is hit, also contribute to the genotoxic response of the cell population. When cells are irradiated, and the medium is transferred to unirradiated cells, these unirradiated cells show bystander responses when assayed for clonogenic survival and oncogenic transformation. The demonstration of a bystander effect in human tissues and, more recently, in whole organisms have clear implication of the potential relevance of the non-targeted response to human health. This effect may also contribute to the final biological consequences of exposure to low doses of radiation. The radiation-induced bystander effect represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of the radiobiological effects of ionizing radiation, in that extranuclear and extracellular events may also contribute to the final biological consequences of exposure to low doses of radiation. Multiple pathways are involved in the bystander phenomenon, and different cell types respond differently to bystander signalling. Using cDNA microarrays, a number of cellular signalling genes, including cyclooxygenase-2 (CQX-2), have been shown to be casually linked to the bystander phenomenon. The observation that inhibition of the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) suppressed the bystander response further confirmed the important role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling cascade in the bystander process. The cells deficient in mitochondrial DNA showed a significantly reduced response to bystander signalling, suggesting a functional role of mitochondria in the signalling process. (author)

  15. Radiation effects on superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.S.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of radiation on the superconducting transition temperature (T/sub c/), upper critical field (H/sub c2/), and volume-pinning-force density (F/sub p/) were discussed for the three kinds of superconducting material (elements, alloys, and compounds). 11 figures, 3 tables, 86 references

  16. Radiation applications research and facilities in AECL Research Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iverson, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the 60's and 70's Atomic Energy of Canada had a very active R and D program to discover and develop applications of ionizing radiation. Widespread interest in the use of radiation for food processing and the possibility of developing reliable and competitive machine sources of radiation hold out the promise of a major increase in industrial use of radiation. In March 1985 a new branch, Radiation Applications Research, began operations with the objective of working closely with industry to develop and assist the introduction of new uses of ionizing radiation. The Branch is equipped with appropriate analytical equipment including HPLC (high performance liquid chromatograph) and GC/MS (gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer) as well as a Gammacell 220 and an I-10/1, one kilowatt 10 MeV electron accelerator. The accelerator is located in a specially designed facility equipped for experimental irradiation of the test quantities of packaged products as well as solids, liquids and gases in various configurations. A conveyor system moves the packaged products from the receiving area, through a maze, past the electron beam at a controlled rate and finally to the shipping area. Other necessary capabilities, such as gamma and electron dosimetry and a microbiology laboratory, have also been developed. Initial projects in areas ranging from food through environmental and industrial applications have been assessed and the most promising have been selected for further work. As an example, the use of charcoal absorbent beds to concentrate the components of gas or liquid waste streams requiring treatment is showing promise as a method of significantly reducing the cost of radiation treatment for some effluents. A number of other projects are described. (author)

  17. Genetic effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, P.B.

    1977-01-01

    Many of the most important findings concerning the genetic effects of radiation have been obtained in the Biology Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The paper focuses on some of the major discoveries made in the Biology Division and on a new method of research that assesses damage to the skeletons of mice whose fathers were irradiated. The results discussed have considerable influence upon estimates of genetic risk in humans from radiation, and an attempt is made to put the estimated amount of genetic damage caused by projected nuclear power development into its proper perspective

  18. Occupational radiation exposure in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Full text: This symposium forms an essential part of the continuing tradition of subjecting nuclear energy to periodic review to assess the adequacy of radiation protection practices and experiences and to identify those areas needing further study and development. Specifically, the symposium focused on a review of statistical data on radiation exposure experience to workers in the nuclear fuel cycle through 1978. The technical sessions were concerned with occupational exposures: experienced in Member States; in research and development facilities; in nuclear power plants; in nuclear Fuel reprocessing facilities; in waste management facilities; and techniques to minimize doses. A critical review was made of internal and external exposures to the following occupational groups: uranium miners; mill workers; fuel fabricators; research personnel, reactor workers; maintenance staff; hot cell workers; reprocessing plant personnel; waste management personnel. In particular, attention was devoted to the work activities causing the highest radiation exposures and successful techniques which have been used to minimize individual and collective doses. Also there was an exchange of information on the trends of occupational exposure over the lifespan of individual nuclear power plants and other facilities in the nuclear fuel cycle. During the last session there was a detailed panel discussion on the conclusions and future needs highlighted during the symposium. While past symposia on nuclear power and its fuel cycle have presented data on occupational dose statistics, this symposium was the first to focus attention on the experience and trends of occupational exposure in recent years. The papers presented an authoritative account of the status of the levels and trends of the average annual individual dose as well as the annual collective dose for occupational workers in most of the world up to 1979. From the data presented it became evident that considerable progress has been

  19. Effect of Information Communication Technology Facilities on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the effect of ICT facilities on students' performance by comparing ... The comparison was conducted using subtests of English language and ... ICT facilities in all secondary schools to enhance teaching and learning.

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, February 2001.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    This newsletter consists of the following: (1) ARM Science Team Meeting Scheduled-The 11th Annual ARM Science Team meeting is scheduled for March 19-23, 2001, in Atlanta, Georgia. Members of the science team will exchange research results achieved by using ARM data. The science team is composed of working groups that investigate four topics: instantaneous radiative flux, cloud parameterizations and modeling, cloud properties, and aerosols. The annual meeting brings together the science team's 150 members to discuss issues related to ARM and its research. The members represent universities, government laboratories and research facilities, and independent research companies. (2) Communications to Extended Facilities Upgraded-New communications equipment has been installed at all of the SGP extended facilities. Shelters were installed to house the new equipment used to transfer data from instruments via the Internet to the site data system at the central facility. This upgrade has improved data availability from the extended facilities to 100% and reduced telephone costs greatly. (3) SGP Goes ''Buggy''-Steve Sekelsky, a researcher from the University of Massachusetts, is planning to bring a 95-GHz radar to the SGP central facility for deployment in March-October 2001. The radar will help to identify signals due to insects flying in the air. The ARM millimeter cloud radar, which operates at 35 GHz, is sensitive to such insect interference. Testing will also be performed by using a second 35-GHz radar with a polarized radar beam, which can differentiate signals from insects versus cloud droplets. (4) Winter Fog-Fog can add to hazards already associated with winter weather. Common types of fog formation include advection, radiation, and steam. Advection fog: An advection fog is a dense fog that forms when a warm, moist air mass moves into an area with cooler ground below. For example, fog can form in winter when warmer, water-saturated air from the south (associated with

  1. Optimization (ALARA) of radiation protection at Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weadock, A.A.; Jones, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    Maintaining worker and public exposures As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) is a key objective of the Department of Energy (DOE). Responsibility for occupational ALARA program policy and guidance resides within the DOE Office of Health. Current Office of Health initiatives related to ALARA include the development of additional regulatory guidance related to ALARA program implementation at DOE contractor facilities, the review of ALARA program status at various facilities and the production of technical reports summarizing this status, and the support of various mechanisms to improve communication among the DOE ALARA community. The Office of Health also monitors revisions to radiogenic risk estimates and radiation protection recommendations to evaluate adequacy of current DOE limits and impacts of potentially revised limits. (author)

  2. Global Horizontal Control Network of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Chenghao; Ke Ming; Du Hanwen; Yin Lixin; Zhao Zhentang; Dong Lan; Huang Kaixi

    2009-01-01

    As a national big scientific engineering, Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) has rigid requirement to the components with sub-millimeter accuracy. In the process of survey and positioning global control network is a connecting link, which determines the position relationship between building and accelerator devices, and provides high accuracy datum to local control network. Within the designing process, building and devices are very restrict. While among observation, it's hard to be observed and abound with disadvantages. With continuous optimization and careful operation, super-high accuracy of 0.3 mm within 400 m circumference was achieved and slab's periodic movement could be seen through 3 times measurement. (authors)

  3. Radiation protection training for personnel employed in medical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, N.L.; Brodsky, A.

    1985-05-01

    This report provides information useful for planning and conducting radiation safety training in medical facilities to keep exposures as low as reasonably achievable, and to meet other regulatory, safety and loss prevention requirements in today's hospitals. A brief discussion of the elements and basic considerations of radation safety training programs is followed by a short bibliography of selected references and sample lecture (or session) outlines for various job categories. This information is intended for use by a professional who is thoroughly acquainted with the science and practice of radiation protection as well as the specific procedures and circumstances of the particular hospital's operations. Topics can be added or substracted, amplified or condensed as appropriate. 8 refs

  4. Radiation Monitoring in a Newly Established Nuclear Medicine Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afroj, Kamila; Anwar-Ul-Azim, Md.; Nath, Khokon Kumar; Khan, Md. Rezaul Karim

    2010-05-01

    A study of area monitoring in a nuclear medicine department's new physical facility was performed for 3 months to ascertain the level of radiation protection of the staff working in nuclear medicine and that of the patients and patient's attendants. Exposure to nuclear medicine personnel is considered as occupational exposure, while exposure to patients is considered medical exposure and exposure to patients' attendants is considered public exposure. The areas for the sources of radiation considered were the hot laboratory, where unsealed isotopes, radionuclides, generators are stored and dosages are prepared, the patients' waiting room, where the radioactive nuclides are administered orally and intravenously for diagnosis and treatment and the SPECT rooms, where the patients' acquisition are taken. The monitoring process was performed using the TLD supplied and measured by the Health Physics Division of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. The result shows no over-exposure of radiation from any of the working areas. The environment of the department is safe for work and free from unnecessary radiation exposure risk. (author)

  5. X-ray and nuclear radiation facilities: personnel safety features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, W.J.; Pipes, E.W.; Rucker, T.R.; Smith, D.N.; West, C.M.

    1976-10-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is a research and production installation. The nature and versatility of this work require the use of a large number and variety of x-ray and radiographic sources for nondestructive testing and material analyses. Presently, there are over 80 x-ray generators in the plant, which range in size from small, portable units which operate at a less than 50 kilovolts potential and 0.1 milliampere current to an electron linear accelerator which operates at 12-million electron volts and produces a radiation beam of such intensity that it could deliver a lethal dose to man in a fraction of a minute. There are also almost 50 gamma and neutron sources in use in the plant. These units range in size from a few millicuries to several hundred curies. Although the radiation safety at each of these facilities was considered adequate, the administrative and maintenance procedures became unduly complicated. Accordingly, engineering standards and uniform operating procedures were considered necessary to alleviate these complications and, in so doing, provide an improved measure of radiation safety. Development and implementation of these standards are described and the general philosophy and approach to these standards are outlined. Use of a matrix (type of installation versus radiation safety feature) to facilitate equipment classification and personnel safety feature requirements is presented. Included is a set of the standards showing formats, matrices, etc., and the detailed standards for each safety feature

  6. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marko, A.M.

    1981-05-01

    In this review radiation produced by the nuclear industry is placed into context with other sources of radiation in our world. Human health effects of radiation, derivation of standards and risk estimates are reviewed in this document. The implications of exposing the worker and the general population to radiation generated by nuclear power are assessed. Effects of radiation are also reviewed. Finally, gaps in our knowledge concerning radiation are identified and current research on biological effects, on environmental aspects, and on dosimetry of radiation within AECL and Canada is documented in this report. (author)

  7. Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The last day of March 1978 marked the completion of the first 3 years of operation of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. RERF was established on 1 April 1975 as successor to the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission which had been in continuous operation since 1947. This record of the first 3 years of operation consists of selected reports and other documents prepared in the course of conducting the business of RERF and includes a brief history, a late radiation effects that might be conducted at RERF. The wisdom and thought given to the research program and its operation by the Scientific Council and the Board of Directors is reflected in the minutes of their meetings which are included in the Appendix. (Mori, K.)

  8. Occupational radiation exposures at radioactive and nuclear facilities in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curti, A.; Pardo, G.; Melis, H.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of occupational radiation exposures at relevant radioactive and nuclear facilities in Argentina, for 1996. The facilities send this information to the Nuclear Regulatory Authority due to the requirements included in their operation licenses and authorizations. Dose distributions of 1891 workers and their parameters are presented. The analysis is performed for each type of the following practices: nuclear power plants, research reactors, radioisotope production, fuel fabrication, industrial irradiation and research in the nuclear fuel cycle. Trends of occupational exposure in different practices are analysed and the highest doses have been identified. Following the 1990 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 60), the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina updated the dose limits for workers in 1995. The individual dose limits are 20 mSv per year averaged over five consecutive years (100 mSv in 5 years), not exceeding 50 mSv in a single year. To evaluate the occupational radiation exposure trend, without taking into account practices, an analysis of the distribution of individual doses accumulated in the period 1995/96, for all workers, is performed. Individual doses received during 1996 were all below 50 mSv and doses accumulated in the period 1995/96 were below 100 mSv. (author). 7 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Radiation Bystander Effects Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokohzaman Soleymanifard

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radiation Induced Bystander Effect (RIBE which cause radiation effects in non-irradiated cells, has challenged the principle according to which radiation traversal through the nucleus of a cell is necessary for producing biological responses. What is the mechanism of this phenomenon? To have a better understanding of this rather ambiguous concept substantial number of original and reviewed article were carefully examined. Results: Irradiated cells release molecules which can propagate in cell environment and/or transmit through gap junction intercellular communication. These molecules can reach to non-irradiated cells and transmit bystander signals. In many investigations, it has been confirmed that these molecules are growth factors, cytokines, nitric oxide and free radicals like reactive oxygen species (ROS. Transmission of by stander signal to neighboring cells persuades them to produce secondary growth factors which in their turn cause further cell injuries. Some investigators suggest, organelles other than nucleus (mitochondria and cell membrane are the origin of these signals.  There is another opinion which suggests double strand breaks (DSB are not directly generated in bystander cells, rather they are due to smaller damage like single strand breaks which accumulate and end up to DSB. Although bystander mechanisms have not been exactly known, it can be confirmed that multiple mechanisms and various pathways are responsible for this effect. Cell type, radiation type, experimental conditions and end points identify the dominant mechanism. Conclusion: Molecules and pathways which are responsible for RIBE, also cause systemic responses to other non-irradiation stresses. So RIBE is a kind of systemic stress or innate immune responses, which are performed by cell microenvironment. Irradiated cells and their signals are components of microenvironment for creating bystander effects.

  10. Radiation effects in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leteurtre Jean.

    1978-01-01

    The current understanding of radiation damage in metals is reviewed, simplifying the actual complexity of the effects by considering some aspects separately. The production of point defects in metals, the primary damage state are first studied. The second part of the lecture is devoted to the evolution of this primary damage state as a function of temperature and dose: the steady state concentration of point defects, the nucleation of secondary defects and their growth are successively considered

  11. Radiation and physical protection challenges at advanced nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, Susan E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of this study is to examine challenges and opportunities for radiation protection in advanced nuclear reactors and fuel facilities proposed under the Generation IV (GEN IV) initiative which is examining and pursuing the exploration and development of advanced nuclear science and technology; and the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), which seeks to develop worldwide consensus on enabling expanded use of economical, carbon-free nuclear energy to meet growing energy demand. The International Energy Agency projects nuclear power to increase at a rate of 1.3 to 1.5 percent a year over the next 20 years, depending on economic growth. Much of this growth will be in Asia, which, as a whole, currently has plans for 40 new nuclear power plants. Given this increase in demand for new nuclear power facilities, ranging from light water reactors to advanced fuel processing and fabrication facilities, it is necessary for radiation protection and physical protection technologies to keep pace to ensure both worker and public health. This paper is based on a review of current initiatives and the proposed reactors and facilities, primarily the nuclear fuel cycle facilities proposed under the GEN IV and GNEP initiatives. Drawing on the Technology Road map developed under GEN IV, this work examines the potential radiation detection and protection challenges and issues at advanced reactors, including thermal neutron spectrum systems, fast neutron spectrum systems and nuclear fuel recycle facilities. The thermal neutron systems look to improve the efficiency of production of hydrogen or electricity, while the fast neutron systems aim to enable more effective management of actinides through recycling of most components in the discharged fuel. While there are components of these advanced systems that can draw on the current and well-developed radiation protection practices, there will inevitably be opportunities to improve the overall quality of radiation

  12. Radiation dosimetry for commissioning Egypt's 'ega-gamma I' facility for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Behay, A.Z.; Rageh, S.I.; El-Assy, N.B.; Roushdy, H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation for sterilization of medical products and biological tissues has become an alternative to autoclaving or gas treatment by ethylene oxide. Moreover, large radiation facilities are now increasing for processing many industrial products, such as rubber, textiles, plastics, coatings, films, wire and cable. For quality control of irradiated products released to the public, greater consideration is now being given to the use of physical radiation dosimetry, since it is simple, reliable, and reproducible. This work describes dosimetry for the new 60 Co irradiation plant, located at the National Center for Radiation Research and Technology of Egypt. Detailed measurements of absorbed dose extremes in product boxes processed in the plant were made using commercially supplied dyed plastic dosimeters (Red Acrylic and Red Perspex). These physical dosimeters were calibrated against the yield of cerous ion due to γ-ray irradiation of ceric sulphate solution as a standard chemical dosimeter. (author)

  13. Cumulative radiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, J.; Gray, W.M.; Watson, E.R.

    1977-01-01

    In five previous papers, the concept of Cumulative Radiation Effect (CRE) has been presented as a scale of accumulative sub-tolerance radiation damage, with a unique value of the CRE describing a specific level of radiation effect. Simple nomographic and tabular methods for the solution of practical problems in radiotherapy are now described. An essential feature of solving a CRE problem is firstly to present it in a concise and readily appreciated form, and, to do this, nomenclature has been introduced to describe schedules and regimes as compactly as possible. Simple algebraic equations have been derived to describe the CRE achieved by multi-schedule regimes. In these equations, the equivalence conditions existing at the junctions between schedules are not explicit and the equations are based on the CREs of the constituent schedules assessed individually without reference to their context in the regime as a whole. This independent evaluation of CREs for each schedule has resulted in a considerable simplification in the calculation of complex problems. The calculations are further simplified by the use of suitable tables and nomograms, so that the mathematics involved is reduced to simple arithmetical operations which require at the most the use of a slide rule but can be done by hand. The order of procedure in the presentation and calculation of CRE problems can be summarised in an evaluation procedure sheet. The resulting simple methods for solving practical problems of any complexity on the CRE-system are demonstrated by a number of examples. (author)

  14. Radiation effects on microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gover, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Applications of radiation-hardened microelectronics in nuclear power systems include (a) light water reactor (LWR) containment building, postaccident instrumentation that can operate through the beta and gamma radiation released in a design basis loss-of-coolant accident; (b) advanced LWR instrumentation and control systems employing distributed digital integrated circuit (IC) technology to achieve a high degree of artificial intelligence and thereby reduce the probability of operator error under accident conditions; (c) instrumentation, command, control and communication systems for space nuclear power applications that must operate during the neutron and gamma-ray core leakage environments as well as the background electron, proton, and heavy charged particle environments of space; and (d) robotics systems designed for the described functions. Advanced microelectronics offer advantages in cost and reliability over alternative approaches to instrumentation and control. No semiconductor technology is hard to all classes of radiation effects phenomena. As the effects have become better understood, however, significant progress has been made in hardening IC technology. Application of hardened microelectronics to nuclear power systems has lagged military applications because of the limited market potential of hardened instruments and numerous institutional impediments

  15. Radiation effect on implanted pacemakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourhamidi, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    It was previously thought that diagnostic or therapeutic ionizing radiation did not have an adverse effect on the function of cardiac pacemakers. Recently, however, some authors have reported damaging effect of therapeutic radiation on cardiac pulse generators. An analysis of a recently-extracted pacemaker documented the effect of radiation on the pacemaker pulse generator

  16. Radiation effects on polyethylenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Oki, Y.; Numajiri, M.; Miura, T.; Kondo, K.; Tanabe, Y.; Ishiyama, M.; Ito, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation effects on four kinds of polyethylenes were studied from the viewpoints of mechanical properties, free radicals and free volumes. The samples were irradiated using a cobalt 60 gamma source to give doses up to 3MGy. The degradation of mechanical strength due to gamma-irradiation was evaluated by the elongation at break and its tensile strength. Radiation induced free radicals were measured by ESR. Free volumes observed by the o-Ps component of the positron annihilation spectrum are normally the large ones located in the amorphous regions and after irradiation these are created in crystalline regions, too. The sizes and the relative numbers of free volumes were evaluated by lifetimes and intensities of a long-lived component of positronium, respectively. Using these data, the properties of polyethylenes before and after irradiation are discussed. (author)

  17. Biological effects of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reports the proceedings of a conference organised jointly by Friends of the Earth (U.K.) and Greenpeace (International). The aim of the conference was to discuss the effects of low level radiation, particularly on man, within the terms of dose/risk relationships. The topics discussed included: sources of radiation, radiation discharges from nuclear establishments, predictive modelling of radiation hazards, radiation effects at Hiroshima, low dose effects and ICRP dose limits, variation in sensitivity to radiation, and the link between childhood cancer and nuclear power. (U.K.)

  18. Overview of radiation protection programme in nuclear medicine facility for diagnostic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Ezzeldein Mohammed Nour Mohammed

    2015-02-01

    This project was conducted to review Radiation Protection Program in Nuclear Medicine facility for diagnostic procedures which will provide guide for meeting the standard and regulatory requirements in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The main objective of this project is to keep dose to staff, patient and public as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). The specific objectives were to review the Radiation Protection Program (RPP) in diagnostic nuclear medicine and to make some recommendation for improving the level of radiation protection in diagnostic nuclear medicine that will help to control normal exposure and prevent or mitigate potential exposure. The methodology used is review of various documents. The review showed that if the Radiation Protection Program is inadequate it leads to unjustified exposure to radiation. Finally, this study stated some recommendations that if implemented could improve the level of radiation protection in nuclear medicine department. One of the most important recommendations is that a qualified Radiation Protection Officer (RPO) should be appointed to lay down and oversee a radiation protection in the nuclear medicine department. The RPO must be given the full authority and the adequate time to enable him to perform his duties effectively. (au)

  19. Comparison of Design and Practices for Radiation Safety among Five Synchrotron Radiation Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, James C.; Rokni, Sayed H.; SLAC; Asano, Yoshihiro; JAERI-RIKEN, Hyogo; Casey, William R.; Brookhaven; Donahue, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    There are more and more third-generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities in the world that utilize low emittance electron (or positron) beam circulating in a storage ring to generate synchrotron light for various types of experiments. A storage ring based SR facility consists of an injector, a storage ring, and many SR beamlines. When compared to other types of accelerator facilities, the design and practices for radiation safety of storage ring and SR beamlines are unique to SR facilities. Unlike many other accelerator facilities, the storage ring and beamlines of a SR facility are generally above ground with users and workers occupying the experimental floor frequently. The users are generally non-radiation workers and do not wear dosimeters, though basic facility safety training is required. Thus, the shielding design typically aims for an annual dose limit of 100 mrem over 2000 h without the need for administrative control for radiation hazards. On the other hand, for operational and cost considerations, the concrete ring wall (both lateral and ratchet walls) is often desired to be no more than a few feet thick (with an even thinner roof). Most SR facilities have similar operation modes and beam parameters (both injection and stored) for storage ring and SR beamlines. The facility typically operates almost full year with one-month start-up period, 10-month science program for experiments (with short accelerator physics studies and routine maintenance during the period of science program), and a month-long shutdown period. A typical operational mode for science program consists of long periods of circulating stored beam (which decays with a lifetime in tens of hours), interposed with short injection events (in minutes) to fill the stored current. The stored beam energy ranges from a few hundreds MeV to 10 GeV with a low injection beam power (generally less than 10 watts). The injection beam energy can be the same as, or lower than, the stored beam energy

  20. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koggl, D.; Dedenkov, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    All nowadays problems of radio biology are considered: types of ionizing radiations, their interaction with material; damage of molecular structures and their reparation; reaction of cells and their recovery from radiation damage; reaction of the whole organism and its separate systems. Particular attention is given to the problems of radiation carcinogenesis and radiation hazard for man

  1. Cumulative radiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, J.; Cain, O.; Gray, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Cumulative Radiation Effect (CRE) represents a scale of accumulative sub-tolerance radiation damage, with a unique value of the CRE describing a specific level of radiation effect. Computer calculations have been used to simplify the evaluation of problems associated with the applications of the CRE-system in radiotherapy. In a general appraisal of the applications of computers to the CRE-system, the various problems encountered in clinical radiotherapy have been categorised into those involving the evaluation of a CRE at a point in tissue and those involving the calculation of CRE distributions. As a general guide, the computer techniques adopted at the Glasgow Institute of Radiotherapeutics for the solution of CRE problems are presented, and consist basically of a package of three interactive programs for point CRE calculations and a Fortran program which calculates CRE distributions for iso-effect treatment planning. Many examples are given to demonstrate the applications of these programs, and special emphasis has been laid on the problem of treating a point in tissue with different doses per fraction on alternate treatment days. The wide range of possible clinical applications of the CRE-system has been outlined and described under the categories of routine clinical applications, retrospective and prospective surveys of patient treatment, and experimental and theoretical research. Some of these applications such as the results of surveys and studies of time optimisation of treatment schedules could have far-reaching consequences and lead to significant improvements in treatment and cure rates with the minimum damage to normal tissue. (author)

  2. Effects of background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, E.G.; Stewart, A.M.; Gilman, E.A.; Kneale, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is to measure the relationship between exposure to different levels of background gamma radiation in different parts of the country, and different Relative Risks for leukaemias and cancers in children. The investigation is linked to an earlier analysis of the effects of prenatal medical x-rays upon leukaemia and cancer risk; the prior hypothesis on which the background-study was based, is derived from the earlier results. In a third analysis, the authors attempted to measure varying potency of medical x-rays delivered at different stages of gestation and the results supply a link between the other two estimates. (author)

  3. Radiation effects on vasoproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaura, Hirotsugu; Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1975-01-01

    The authors quantitatively examined radiation effects on vascular proliferarion, using the rat transparent chamber technique to observe the living microcirculation. We studied the process of vasoproliferation and revascularization from the surrounding pre-existing vessels into the surgically avascularized area in the chamber, by measuring the vascular lenght photographically. A hyper-vascularized zone, about 0.5 mm in with, was formed on the vascularizing frontier, the significance of which is so far not known. When the chambers were irradiated with various doses of 60 Co γ-rays, a dose dependent inhibition of vasoproliferation was observed. (auth.)

  4. Radiation effects on vasoproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaura, H; Matsuzawa, T [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Cancer

    1975-06-01

    The authors quantitatively examined radiation effects on vascular proliferarion, using the rat transparent chamber technique to observe the living microcirculation. We studied the process of vasoproliferation and revascularization from the surrounding pre-existing vessels into the surgically avascularized area in the chamber, by measuring the vascular lenght photographically. A hyper-vascularized zone, about 0.5 mm in with, was formed on the vascularizing frontier, the significance of which is so far not known. When the chambers were irradiated with various doses of /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays, a dose dependent inhibition of vasoproliferation was observed.

  5. Shielding Design and Radiation Shielding Evaluation for LSDS System Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Younggook; Kim, Jeongdong; Lee, Yongdeok

    2015-01-01

    As the system characteristics, the target in the spectrometer emits approximately 1012 neutrons/s. To efficiently shield the neutron, the shielding door designs are proposed for the LSDS system through a comparison of the direct shield and maze designs. Hence, to guarantee the radiation safety for the facility, the door design is a compulsory course of the development of the LSDS system. To improve the shielding rates, 250x250 covering structure was added as a subsidiary around the spectrometer. In this study, the evaluations of the suggested shielding designs were conducted using MCNP code. The suggested door design and covering structures can shield the neutron efficiently, thus all evaluations of all conditions are satisfied within the public dose limits. From the Monte Carlo code simulation, Resin(Indoor type) and Tungsten(Outdoor type) were selected as the shielding door materials. From a comparative evaluation of the door thickness, In and Out door thickness was selected 50 cm

  6. Diamond Ordinance Radiation Facility (DORF) reactor operating experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieseler, Walter

    1970-01-01

    The Diamond Ordnance Radiation Facility Mark F Reactor is described and some of the problems encountered with its operation are discussed. In a period from reactor startup in September 1961 to June 1964, when the aluminum-clad core was changed to a stainless-steel clad core, a total of 30 fuel elements were removed from reactor service because of excessive growth. One leaking fuel element was detected during the lifetime of the aluminum- clad core. In June 1964, the core was changed to the stainless-steel-clad high hydride fuel elements. Since the installation of the stainless-steel-clad fuel element core, there has been a gradual decline of excess reactivity. Various theories were discussed as the cause but the investigations have resulted in no definitive conclusion that could account for the total reactivity loss

  7. Continuous monitoring system for environmental {gamma} radiation near nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Jin; Qingyu, Yue; Wenhai, Wang [Academia Sinica, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of Atomic Energy

    1996-06-01

    The continuous monitoring system which is used for the environmental routine and accident emergency {gamma} radiation monitoring near nuclear facility is described. The continuous monitoring system consists of a high pressurized ionization chamber, integrated weak current amplifier, V/F converter and intelligent data recorder. The data gained by recorder can be transmitted to a PC through a standard RS-232-C interface for the data handling and graph plotting. This continuous monitoring system has the functions of alarm over threshold and recorded output signal of detector and temperature. The measuring range is from 10 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1} to 10 mGy{center_dot}h{sup -1} because a high insulation switch atomically changed measuring ranges is used. The monitoring system has been operating continuously for a long time with high stability and reliability. (5 figs., 2 tabs.).

  8. Continuous monitoring system for environmental γ radiation near nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Hua; Yue Qingyu; Wang Wenhai

    1996-06-01

    The continuous monitoring system which is used for the environmental routine and accident emergency γ radiation monitoring near nuclear facility is described. The continuous monitoring system consists of a high pressurized ionization chamber, integrated weak current amplifier, V/F converter and intelligent data recorder. The data gained by recorder can be transmitted to a PC through a standard RS-232-C interface for the data handling and graph plotting. This continuous monitoring system has the functions of alarm over threshold and recorded output signal of detector and temperature. The measuring range is from 10 nGy·h -1 to 10 mGy·h -1 because a high insulation switch atomically changed measuring ranges is used. The monitoring system has been operating continuously for a long time with high stability and reliability. (5 figs., 2 tabs.)

  9. Continuous monitoring system of environmental γ radiation near nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Hua; Yue Qingyu; Wang Wenhai

    1996-01-01

    The continuous monitoring system for the environmental γ radiation and accident emergency near nuclear facility is described. The continuous monitoring system consists of high pressurized ionization chamber, integrated weak current amplifier, V-F converter and intelligent data recorder. PC 486 microcomputer with standard RS-232C interface is used for data handling and graph plotting. This intelligent data recorder has the functions of alarm over threshold and records the output signal of detector and temperature. The measuring range is from 10 nGy h -1 to 10 mGy h -1 because a high insulation switch automatical changing the measuring ranges is used. The monitoring system has been operating continuously for a long time with high stability and reliability

  10. Design concept of radiation control system for the high intensity proton accelerator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Yukihiro; Ikeno, Koichi; Akiyama, Shigenori; Harada, Yasunori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    Description is given for the characteristic radiation environment for the High Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility and the design concept of the radiation control system of it. The facility is a large scale accelerator complex consisting of high energy proton accelerators carrying the highest beam intensity in the world and the related experimental facilities and therefore provides various issues relevant to the radiation environment. The present report describes the specifications for the radiation control system for the facility, determined in consideration of these characteristics. (author)

  11. Development of radiation safety monitoring system at gamma greenhouse gamma facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hairul Nizam Idris; Azimawati Ahmad, Ahmad Zaki Hussain; Ahmad Fairuz Mohd Nasir

    2009-01-01

    This paper is discussing about installation of radiation safety monitoring system at Gamma Greenhouse Gamma facility, Agrotechnology and Bioscience Division (BAB). This facility actually is an outdoor type irradiation facility, which first in Nuclear Malaysia and the only one in Malaysia. Source Cs-137 (801 Curie) was use as radiation source and it located at the centre of 30 metres diameter size of open irradiation area. The radiation measurement and monitoring system to be equipped in this facility were required the proper equipment and devices, specially purpose for application at outside of building. Research review, literature study and discussion with the equipment manufacturers was being carried out, in effort to identify the best system should be developed. Factors such as tropical climate, environment surrounding and security were considered during selecting the proper system. Since this facility involving with panoramic radiation type, several critical and strategic locations have been fixed with radiation detectors, up to the distance at 200 meter from the radiation source. Apart from that, this developed system also was built for capable to provide the online real-time reading (using internet). In general, it can be summarized that the radiation safety monitoring system for outdoor type irradiation facility was found much different and complex compared to the system for indoor type facility. Keyword: radiation monitoring, radiation safety, Gamma Greenhouse, outdoor irradiation facility, panoramic radiation. (Author)

  12. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejourne, Michele.

    1977-01-01

    This work examines ionizing radiations: what they are, where they come from, their actions and consequences, finally the norms and preventive measures necessary to avoid serious contamination, whether the individual or the population in general is involved. Man has always been exposed to natural irradiation, but owing to the growing use of ionizing radiations both in medicine and in industry, not to mention nuclear tests and their use as an argument of dissuasion, the irradiation of human beings is increasing daily. Radioactive contamination does remain latent, apart from acute cases, but this is where the danger lies since the consequences may not appear until long after the irradiation. Of all biological effects due to the action of radioelements the genetic risk is one of the most important, affecting the entire population and especially the generations to come. The risk of cancer and leukemia induction plays a substantial part also since a large number of people may be concerned, depending on the mode of contamination involved. All these long-term dangers do not of course exclude the various general or local effects to which the individual alone may be exposed and which sometimes constitute a threat to life. As a result the use of ionizing radiations must be limited and should only be involved if no other process can serve instead. The regulations governing radioelements must be stringent and their application strictly supervised for the better protection of man. This protection must be not only individual but also collective since pollution exists in air, water and land passes to plants and animals and finally reaches the last link in the food chain, man [fr

  13. Facilities for studying radiation damage in nonmetals during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, P.W.

    1984-08-01

    Two facilities have been developed for making optical absorption, luminescence and other measurements on a single sample before, during and after irradiation. One facility uses 60 Co gamma rays and the other 0.5 to 3 MeV electrons from an accelerator. Optical relays function as spectrophotometers, luminescenc detectors, etc. All radiation sensitive components are outside of walk-in irradiation chambers; all measurement control and data recording is computerized. Irradiations are made at controlled temperatures between 5K and 900 0 C. The materials studied include glasses, quartz, alkali halides (especially natural rock salt), organic crystals, etc. As determined from color center measurements the damage formation rate in all materials studied at 25 0 C or above is strongly temperature dependent. The defect concentration during irradiation is usually much greater than that measured after irradiation. The fraction of defects annealing after irradiation and the annealing rate usually increases as the irradiation temperature increases. The completed studies demonstrate that, in most cases, the extent of maximum damage and the damage formation and annealing kinetics can be determined only by making measurements during irradiation

  14. The personnel protection system for a Synchrotron Radiation Accelerator Facility: Radiation safety perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.C.

    1993-05-01

    The Personnel Protection System (PPS) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory is summarized and reviewed from the radiation safety point of view. The PPS, which is designed to protect people from radiation exposure to beam operation, consists of the Access Control System (ACS) and the Beam Containment System (BCS), The ACS prevents people from being exposed to the very high radiation level inside the shielding housing (also called a PPS area). The ACS for a PPS area consists of the shielding housing and a standard entry module at every entrance. The BCS prevents people from being exposed to the radiation outside a PPS area due to normal and abnormal beam losses. The BCS consists of the shielding (shielding housing and metal shielding in local areas), beam stoppers, active current limiting devices, and an active radiation monitor system. The system elements for the ACS and BCS and the associated interlock network are described. The policies and practices in setting up the PPS are compared with some requirements in the US Department of Energy draft Order of Safety of Accelerator Facilities

  15. Radiation effects and radiation risks. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengfelder, E.; Forst, D.; Feist, H.; Pratzel, H.G.

    1990-01-01

    The book presents the facts and the principles of assessment and evaluation of biological radiation effects in general and also with particular reference to the reactor accident of Chernobyl, reviewing the consequences and the environmental situation on the basis of current national and international literature, including research work by the authors. The material compiled in this book is intended especially for physicians, but will also prove useful for persons working in the public health services, in administration, or other services taking care of people. The authors tried to find an easily comprehensible way of presenting and explaining the very complex processes and mechanisms of biological radiation effects and carcinogenesis, displaying the physical primary processes and the mechanisms of the molecular radiation effects up to the effects of low-level radiation, and present results of comparative epidemiologic studies. This section has been given considerable space, in proportion to its significance. It also contains literature references for further reading, offering more insight and knowledge of aspects of special subject fields. The authors also present less known results and data and discuss them against the background of well-known research results and approaches. Apart from the purpose of presenting comprehensive information, the authors intend to give an impact for further thinking about the problems, and helpful tools for independent decisions and action on the basis of improved insight and assessment, and in this context particularly point to the problems induced by the Chernobyl reactor accident. (orig.) With 10 maps in appendix [de

  16. Epidemiological studies of radiation workers in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Satoshi; Semba, Tsuyoshi; Ishida, Kenji; Takagi, Syunji; Igari, Takafumi

    2017-01-01

    Regarding workers at nuclear facilities, this paper described INWORKS epidemiological research published in 2015, cooperative cohort epidemiological research of IARC 15 countries 10 years before that (15-country study), and the flow of radiation epidemiological research in the period from 15-country study to INWORKS. INWORKS is a retrospective cohort study to investigate the correlation between mortality due to solid cancer, blood cancer, and cardiovascular diseases in workers in three countries of France / the U.K. / the U.S. and low dose exposure through long-term photon external exposure. It obtained the data showing the statistical significance of increased cancer death rate. However, from the subjects of the analysis, no significant evaluation was made on neutron exposure and internal exposure. Statistically significant cancer mortality was confirmed in 15-country study at low dose, low dose rate, and prolonged exposure, but significant cancer mortality rate could not be confirmed excluding Canadian data, which had problems in dose evaluation. In the epidemiological studies of cancer mortality rates of radiation workers in nuclear power industries performed in France / the U.K. / the U.S. in the period ranging from 15-country study to INWORKS, significant difference was not recognized between cancer death rate and excessive relative risk (ERR) compared with LSS epidemiological research studies that handled acute exposure. Several tasks are still remaining. (A.O.)

  17. Effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, R.

    2006-01-01

    The medical consequences of a whole-body irradiation come from the destruction of cells and inflammatory reactions it provokes. The most sensitive organs are the tissues that actively split. The embryo is particularly sensitive, from 200 mSv for the effects on the brain development. The reproduction functions are reached for man from 2000 mSv, the ovary sensitivity is less, the oocytes do not split after the fetus life. For adult the bone marrow outrage leads to the disappearing of blood cells (4000 mSv). The doses from 6000 to 10000 mSv lead the failure of the digestive system and lung. for the upper doses every tissue is reached, particularly by the effects on cells of blood vessels. Important brain dysfunctions appear beyond 10000 mSv. As regards the delayed effects of overexposures the epidemiology brings to light sanitary consequences of the exposure of the population to the ionizing radiations and requires that all the possible factors associated for that purpose are considered. About hereditary effects, it appears that moderate acute radiation exposures of even a relatively large human population must have little impact, in spite of the rate of spontaneous congenital deformations is of the order of 6 %. For the induction of cancers, it is not observed excess for doses lower than 200 mSv for adults and 100 mSv for children (the populations studied are survival people of hiroshima and Nagasaki, patients treated by irradiation, uranium miners, children exposed to radioactive iodine after Chernobylsk accident). To simplify an expression of the risk has been fixed to 5% of induced cancer by Sv for population and 4% by Sv for workers, the different being explained by the demography and the sensitivity of the youngest age groups. As regards the low doses of radiations, a bundle of convergent epidemiological observations notices the absence of effects of the low doses rates. Biological mechanisms, notably of repair are approached, then certain accidents (Goiania

  18. Record of radiation management inside KUR facilities, no. 13 (1976)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsurayama, Kosuke; Tsujimoto, Tadashi; Saito, Masahiro; Tsuruta, Takao; Fukui, Masami.

    1979-01-01

    The record of radiation management inside the KUR buildings in 1976 is reported. Relating to the routine radiation management inside the facilities, the spatial dose rate has been always monitored, utilizing the area monitors which are composed of GM survey meters and BF 3 neutron survey meters, inside the reactor building, the hot laboratory, the tracer building, the waste treatment building, the linear accelerator building, the gamma irradiation building, the solid waste storage and the research building. The measured dose rate at 5000 kW power level was about 2 mrem/h in the reactor building and about 4 mrem/h in the hot laboratory at maximum. Inside the other buildings, the dose rates were almost background level. The cumulative dose was measured utilizing film badges, and the measured maximum value was about 450 mrem in one month in the spent fuel storage pool. The surface contamination was monitored, and about 10 -7 μCi/cm 2 was obtained on the reactor top and in several places in the hot laboratory. The monitoring of radioactivity concentration in water was conducted, and the concentration almost exceeded 1 x 10 -5 μCi/cm 3 in low level water. The monitoring was conducted for radioactive dust concentration, and about 100 x 10 -11 μCi/cm 3 was obtained at maximum in the hot cave. The gas concentration in the reactor room showed about 6 x 10 -7 μCi/cm 3 as the mean value of a month. The external exposure dose around the site was about 2 mrem in one year as the mean value. The status of operation of the KUR, the radiation monitoring systems for spatial dose rate, the cumulative spatial dose, the surface contamination and so on, the monitoring equipments and the regular inspection are explained. (Nakai, Y.)

  19. Summary of ionizing radiation analysis on the Long Duration Exposure Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, T. A.

    1992-01-01

    The ionizing radiation measurements flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) were contained in 15 experiments which utilized passive detectors to pursue objectives in astrophysics and to measure the radiation environment and dosimetric quantities. The spacecraft structure became sufficiently radioactive to permit additional important studies. The induced activity allows extensive radiation mapping in the structure, and independent comparison with experiment dosimetric techniques, and significant studies of secondary effects. The long exposure time, attitude stability, and number and types of measurements produced a unique and critical set of data for low Earth orbit that will not be duplicated for more than a decade. The data allow an unprecedented test, and improvement if required, of models of the radiation environment and the radiation transport methods that are used to calculate the internal radiation and its effects in spacecraft. Results of measurements in the experiments, as well as from radioactivity in the structure, have clearly shown effects from the directional properties of the radiation environment, and progress was made in the dosimetric mapping of LDEF. These measurements have already influenced some Space Station Freedom design requirements. Preliminary results from experiments, reported at this symposium and in earlier papers, show that the 5.8 years exposure considerably enhanced the scientific return of the radiation measurements. The early results give confidence that the experiments will make significant advances in the knowledge of ultra heavy cosmic rays, anomalous cosmic rays, and heavy ions trapped in the radiation belts. Unexpected phenomena were observed, which require explanation. These include stopping iron group ions between the energy ranges anticipated for anomalous and galactic cosmic rays in the LDEF orbit. A surprising concentration of the Be-7 nuclide was discovered on the 'front' surface of LDEF, apparently

  20. Construction and operation of an improved radiation calibration facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Calibration of instruments used to detect and measure ionizing radiation has been conducted over the last 20 years at Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) Radiation Calibration Facility, Building 348. Growth of research facilities, projects in progress, and more stringent Department of Energy (DOE) orders which involve exposure to nuclear radiation have placed substantial burdens on the existing radiation calibration facility. The facility currently does not meet the requirements of DOE Order 5480.4 or American National Standards Institute (ANSI) N323-1978, which establish calibration methods for portable radiation protection instruments used in the detection and measurement of levels of ionizing radiation fields or levels of radioactive surface contaminations. Failure to comply with this standard could mean instrumentation is not being calibrated to necessary levels of sensitivity. The Laboratory has also recently obtained a new neutron source and gamma beam irradiator which can not be made operational at existing facilities because of geometry and shielding inadequacies. These sources are needed to perform routine periodic calibrations of radiation detecting instruments used by scientific and technical personnel and to meet BNL's substantial increase in demand for radiation monitoring capabilities. To place these new sources into operation, it is proposed to construct an addition to the existing radiation calibration facility that would house all calibration sources and bring BNL calibration activities into compliance with DOE and ANSI standards. The purpose of this assessment is to identify potential significant environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of an improved radiation calibration facility at BNL

  1. Epidemiology and effects on health of low ionizing radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Artalejo, F.; Andres Manzano, B. de; Rel Calero, J. del

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the concept and aims of epidemiology, its methods and contribution to the knowledge of the effects of low ionizing radiation doses on health. The advantages of epidemiological studies for knowing the consequences of living near nuclear facilities and the effects of occupational exposure to radiations are also described. (Author) 43 refs

  2. Radiation effects on living systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1984-04-01

    This bibliography includes papers and reports by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited scientists concerning radiation effects on living systems. It is divided into three sections: Radiobiology, Radiation Biochemistry and Radiation Chemistry. It is intended that the bibliography will be updated regularly

  3. Radiation effects in optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.E.

    1977-03-01

    A summary is given of studies on radiation effects in light-emitting diodes, laser diodes, detectors, optical isolators and optical fibers. It is shown that the study of radiation damage in these devices can provide valuable information concerning the nature of the devices themselves, as well as methods of hardening these devices for applications in radiation environments

  4. Genetic effects of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.A.H.

    1991-12-01

    Ionizing radiation effects on the gem cells, which can result in genetic abnormalities, are described. The basic mechanisms of radiation interactions with chromosomes, or specifically DNA, which can result in radiation induced mutation are discussed. Methods of estimating genetic risks, and some values for quantitative risk estimates are given. (U.K.). 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Biological effects of particle radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Kiyohiko

    1988-01-01

    Conventional radiations such as photons, gamma rays or electrons show several physical or biological disadvantages to bring tumors to cure, therefore, more and more attentions is being paid to new modalitie such as fast neutrons, protons, negative pions and heavy ions, which are expected to overcome some of the defects of the conventional radiations. Except for fast neutrons, these particle radiations show excellet physical dose localization in tissue, moreover, in terms of biological effects, they demonstrate several features compared to conventional radiations, namely low oxygen enhancement ratio, high value of relative biological effectiveness, smaller cellular recovery, larger therapeutic gain factor and less cell cycle dependency in radiation sensitivity. In present paper the biological effects of particle radiations are shown comparing to the effects of conventional radiations. (author)

  6. Biology of ionizing radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferradini, C.; Pucheault, J.

    1983-01-01

    The present trends in biology of ionizing radiation are reviewed. The following topics are investigated: interaction of ionizing radiations with matter; the radiolysis of water and aqueous solutions; properties of the free radicals intervening in the couples O 2 /H 2 O and H 2 O/H 2 ; radiation chemistry of biological compounds; biological effects of ionizing radiations; biochemical mechanisms involving free radicals as intermediates; applications (biotechnological applications, origins of life) [fr

  7. Study concerning an integrated radiation monitoring systems for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oprea, I.; Oprea, M.; Stoica, M.; Cerga, V.; Pirvu, V; Badea, E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated radiation monitoring system designed to assess the effects of nuclear accidents and to provide a basis for making right decisions and countermeasures in order to reduce health damages. The system implies a number of stationary monitoring equipment, data processing unit and a communication network. The system meets the demands of efficiency and reliability, providing the needed tools to easily create programs able to process simple input data filling the information management system. (author). 10 refs

  8. The biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The hazards of radiations to man are briefly covered in this paper. The natural background sources of radiations are stated and their resulting doses are compared to those received voluntarily by man. The basis of how radiations cause biological damage is given and the resulting somatic effects are shown for varying magnitude of dose. Risk estimates are given for cancer induction and genetic effects are briefly discussed. Finally four case studies of radiation damage to humans are examined exemplifying the symptoms of large doses of radiations [af

  9. Design of a target and moderator at the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) as a neutron source for fusion reactor materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, P.D.; Mueller, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    The LASREF facility is located in the beam stop area at LAMPF. The neutron spectrum is fission-like with the addition of a 3% to 5% component with E > 20 MeV. The present study evaluates the limits on geometry and material selection that will maximize the neutron flux. MCNP and LAHET were used to predict the neutron flux and energy spectrum for a variety of geometries. The problem considers 760 MeV protons incident on tungsten. The resulting neutrons are multiplied in uranium through (n,xn) reactions. Calculations show that a neutron flux greater than 10 19 n/m 2 /s is achievable. The helium to dpa ratio and the transmutation product generation are calculated. These results are compared to expectations for the proposed DEMO fusion reactor and to FFTF

  10. Radiation effects on lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, B.

    1976-01-01

    This review of the ontogeny of lymphocyte populations concentrates on sites of production, rates of production, and the factors governing the differentiation and longevity of the various lymphocyte pools. The physiology of the lymphocyte pools is described with particular emphasis on recirculation from blood to lymph through lymphoid tissues. The separate routes of recirculation of both thymus-derived and nonthymus-derived lymphocytes and the possible anatomical sites and mechanisms of lymphocyte cooperation are discussed. Radiation effects on lymphocyte populations are divided into two sections. First, the effects of whole-body irradiation on the total lymphocyte pools are discussed including the differential effects of irradiation on T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, lymphoblasts, and plasma cells. The differential sensitivity of various types of immune response is correlated, where possible, with the differential sensitivity of the lymphocyte types involved. Second, experimental attempts to selectively deplete discrete subpopulations of the total lymphocyte pools, e.g., recirculating cells, are briefly discussed with particular emphasis on studies on the effects of the localization of radionuclides in lymphoid tissue

  11. MOSFET dosimetry of the radiation therapy microbeams at the European synchrotron radiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenfeld, A.; Lerch, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: We have developed an innovative on-line MOSFET readout system for use in the quality assurance of radiation treatment beams. Recently the system has found application in areas where excellent spatial resolution is also a requirement in the quality assurance process, for example IMRT, and microbeam radiation therapy. The excellent spatial resolution is achieved by using a quadruple RADFET TM chip in 'edge on' mode. In developing this approach we have found that the system can be utilised to determine any error in the beam profile measurements due to misalignment of RADFET with respect to the radiation beam or microbeam. Using this approach will ensure that the excellent spatial resolution of the RADFET used in 'edge-on' mode is fully utilised. In this work we report on dosimetry measurements performed at the microbeam radiation therapy beamline located at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The synchrotron planar array microbeam with size 10-30 μm and pitch ∼200 μm has found an important application in microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) of brain tumours in infants for whom other kinds of radiotherapy are inadequate and/or unsafe. The radiation damage from an array of parallel microbeams correlates strongly with the range of peak-valley dose ratios (PVDR), ie, the range of the ratio of the absorbed dose to tissue directly in line with the mid-plane of the microbeam to that in the mid-plane between adjacent microbeams. Novel physical dosimetry of the microbeams using the online MOSFET reader system will be presented. Comparison of the experimental results with both GaF film measurements and Monte Carlo computer-simulated dosimetry are described here for selected points in the peak and valley regions of a microbeam-irradiated tissue phantom

  12. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments with small animals, tissue cultures, and inanimate materials help with understanding the effects of ionizing radiation that occur at the molecular level and cause the gross effects observed in man. Topics covered in this chapter include the following: Radiolysis of Water; Radiolysis of Organic Compounds; Radiolysis in Cells; Radiation Exposure and Dose Units; Dose Response Curves; Radiation Effects in Animals; Factors Affecting Health Risks. 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Effects of radiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.A.H.

    1981-01-01

    The available evidence on the effects of radiation on man and the predictions that have been made of possible low level effects are reviewed. Data from United Nations Scientific Committee of the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) and the committee on the Biological Effects of Ionising Radiation (BEIR) is used to illustrate the acute, delayed and hereditary effects of high dose levels. The effects of low dose levels are discussed on the assumption that both somatic and hereditary effects can be predicted on the basis of linear extrapolation from high dose effects. (U.K.)

  14. Health effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, B.

    1989-12-01

    Ionizing radiation is energy that travels through space as electromagnetic waves or a stream of fast moving particles. In the workplace, the sources of ionizing radiation are radioactive substances, nuclear power plants, x-ray machines and nuclear devices used in medicine, research and industry. Commonly encountered types of radiation are alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays. Alpha particles have very little penetrating power and pose a risk only when the radioactive substance is deposited inside the body. Beta particles are more penetrating than alpha particles and can penetrate the outer body tissues causing damage to the skin and the eyes. Gamma rays are highly penetrating and can cause radiation damage to the whole body. The probability of radiation-induced disease depends on the accumulated amount of radiation dose. The main health effects of ionizing radiation are cancers in exposed persons and genetic disorders in the children, grandchildren and subsequent generations of the exposed parents. The fetus is highly sensitive to radiation-induced abnormalities. At high doses, radiation can cause cataracts in the eyes. There is no firm evidence that ionizing radiation causes premature aging. Radiation-induced sterility is highly unlikely for occupational doses. The data on the combined effect of ionizing radiation and other cancer-causing physical and chemical agents are inconclusive

  15. Chemical effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philips, G.O.

    1986-01-01

    Ionizing radiations initiate chemical changes in materials because of the high energy of their quanta. In water, highly reactive free radicals are produced which can initiate secondary changes of solutes, and in chemical of biological molecules in contact with the water. Free radicals can also be directly produced in irradiated medical products. Their fate can be identified and the molecular basis of radiation inactivation clarified. Methods have now been developed to protect and minimise such radiation damage. (author)

  16. Spallation radiation damage and the radiation damage facility at the LAMPF A-6 target station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wechsler, M.S.; Sommer, W.F. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1984-05-01

    A redesign of the Clinton P. Anderson Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) A-6 Target Station is underway that will permit materials irradiations to be conducted in the proton beam and in the spallation neutron environment under more controlled conditions than has been possible heretofore. The protons of energy near 800 MeV and beam current approaching one mA are able to produce radiation damage rates (displacement production rates) as high as can be achieved in fission reactors, and the damage is uniform over macroscopic dimensions. The spallation neutrons have a degraded fission spectrum energy distribution, with the important admixture of a high energy tail up to 800 MeV. Irradiations in these radiation environments can be used to address important problems in the development of materials for fusion reactors. The redesign of the A-6 Target Station is described and plans for its use are discussed.

  17. Radiation protection and environmental surveillance programme in and around Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Radiation safety is an integral part of the operation of the Indian nuclear fuel cycle facilities and safety culture has been inculcated in all the spheres of its operation. Nuclear fuel cycle comprises of mineral exploration, mining, ore processing, fuel fabrication, power plants, reprocessing, waste management and accelerator facilities. Health Physics Division of BARC is entrusted with the responsibility of radiation protection and environmental surveillance in all the nuclear fuel cycle facilities

  18. Calculation of shielding and radiation doses for PET/CT nuclear medicine facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.; Muraduzzaman, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a new modality that is gaining use in nuclear medicine. The use of PET and computed tomography (CT) has grown dramatically. Because of the high energy of the annihilation radiation (511 keV), shielding requirements are an important consideration in the design of a PET or PET/CT imaging facility. The goal of nuclear medicine and PET facility shielding design is to keep doses to workers and the public as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Design involves: 1. Calculation of doses to occupants of the facility and adjacent regions based on projected layouts, protocols and workflows, and 2. Reduction of doses to ALARA through adjustment of the aforementioned parameters. The radiological evaluation of a PET/CT facility consists of the assessment of the annual effective dose both to workers occupationally exposed, and to members of the public. This assessment takes into account the radionuclides involved, the facility features, the working procedures, the expected number of patients per year, and so on. The objective of the study was to evaluate shielding requirements for a PET/CT to be installed in the department of nuclear medicine of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC). Minimizing shielding would result in a possible reduction of structural as well as financial burden. Formulas and attenuation coefficients following the basic AAPM guidelines were used to calculate un-attenuated radiation through shielding materials. Doses to all points on the floor plan are calculated based primarily on the AAPM guidelines and include consideration of broad beam attenuation and radionuclide energy and decay. The analysis presented is useful for both, facility designers and regulators. (author)

  19. Radiation protection planning for decommissioning of research reactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Roger; Harman, Neil; Craig, David; Fecitt, Lorna; Lobach, Yuri; Gorlinskij, Juri; Kolyadin, Vyacheslav; Pavlenko, Vytali

    2008-01-01

    The MR reactor at the Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (RRCKI), Moscow was a 50 MW multipurpose material testing and research reactor equipped with nine experimental loop facilities to test prototype fuel for various nuclear power reactors being developed. The reactor was shut down in 1993 and de-fuelled. The experimental loops are located in basement rooms around the reactor. The nature of the research into the characteristics of fuel design and coolant chemistry resulted in fission products and activation products in the test loop equipment. Decommissioning of the loops therefore presents a number of challenges. In addition the city of Moscow has expanded such that the RRC KI is now surrounded by housing which had to be taken into account in the radiological protection planning. This paper describes the techniques proposed to undertake the dismantling operations in order to minimise the radiation exposure to workers and members of the public. Estimates have been made of the worker doses which could be incurred during the dismantling process and the environmental impacts which could occur. These are demonstrated to be as low as reasonably achievable. The work was funded by the UK Department of Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform (DBERR) (formerly the Department of Trade and Industry) under the Nuclear Safety Programme (NSP) set up to address nuclear safety issues in the Former Soviet Union. (author)

  20. Radiation activities and application of ionizing radiation on cultural heritage at ENEA Calliope gamma facility (Casaccia R.C., Rome, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baccaro Stefania

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, research and qualification activities are being carried out at the 60Co gamma Calliope plant, a pool-type irradiation facility located at the Research Centre ENEA-Casaccia (Rome, Italy. The Calliope facility is deeply involved in radiation processing research and on the evaluation and characterization of the effects induced by gamma radiation on materials for different applications (crystals, glasses, optical fibres, polymers and biological systems and on devices to be used in hostile radiation environment such as nuclear plants, aerospace and high energy physics experiments. All the activities are carried out in the framework of international projects and collaboration with industries and research institutions. In the present work, particular attention will be paid to the cultural heritage activities performed at the Calliope facility, focused on two different aspects: (a conservation and preservation by bio-deteriogen eradication in archived materials, and (b consolidation and protection by degraded wooden and stone porous artefacts consolidation.

  1. Occupational radiation Exposure at Agreement State-Licensed Materials Facilities, 1997-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    2012-07-07

    The purpose of this report is to examine occupational radiation exposures received under Agreement State licensees. As such, this report reflects the occupational radiation exposure data contained in the Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS) database, for 1997 through 2010, from Agreement State-licensed materials facilities.

  2. Safety issues in the handling of radiation sources in category IV gamma radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohli, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    There is potential for incidents/accidents related to handling of radiation sources. This is increasing due to the fact that more number of plants that too with much larger levels of activity are now coming up. Such facilities produce very high levels of exposure rates during irradiation. A person accidentally present in the irradiation cell can receive a lethal dose within a very short time. Apart from safety requirements during operation and maintenance of these facilities, safety during loading and unloading of sources is important. Category IV type irradiators are the most common. Doubly encapsulated Co-60 slugs are employed to form the source pencils. These irradiators employ a water pool for safely storing the source pencils when irradiation of the products is not going on or when human access is needed into the irradiation cell for some maintenance or source loading/unloading operations. Safety during loading/unloading operations of source pencils is important. In design itself care needs to be taken such that all such operations are convenient and any incident will not lead to a situation where it becomes difficult to come out. Different situations, which can arise during handling of radiation sources and suggested designs to obviate such tight situations, are discussed. (Author)

  3. Diffusion effects in undulator radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Agapov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantum diffusion effects in undulator radiation in semiclassical approximation are considered. Short-term effects on the electron beam motion are discussed and it is shown that approaches based on diffusion approximation with drift-diffusion coefficients derived from undulator or bending magnet radiation spectrum, and on Poisson statistics with radiation spectrum defined by the local beding field, all lead to similar results in terms of electron energy spread for cases of practical interest. An analytical estimate of the influence of quantum diffusion on the undulator radiation spectrum is derived.

  4. Radiation effect on polytetrafluoroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Pengyang; Zhong Xiaoguang; Sun Jiazhen

    1999-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) has always been regarded as a typical kind of radiation degradation polymer. But, in fact, PTFE can be induced crosslinking by γ-ray or electron beam at some special conditions (free oxygen and a narrow temperature region at 335 +- 5 degree C). Compared with radiation degradiation PTFE, cosslinking PTFE owns a lot of new properties. Some articles concerning with these have been published, which will be systematically reviewed in this

  5. Radiation effects on cell membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeteles, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental data are presented concerning the effects of relatively low doses of x radiation and low concentration of tritiated water (HTO) on various receptor functions - concanavalin A, cationized ferritin, poliovirus of plasma membranes of animal and human cells which point to early and temporary disturbances of the composite structures and functions of membranes. References are given to the manifold influence of radiation-induced membrane phenomenon on the development and regeneration of radiation injuries. (author)

  6. Radiation effects in optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.E.; Wiczer, J.J.

    1984-05-01

    Purpose of this report is to provide not only a summary of radiation damage studies at Sandia National Laboratories, but also of those in the literature on the components of optoelectronic systems: light emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes, photodetectors, optical fibers, and optical isolators. This review of radiation damage in optoelectronic components is structured according to device type. In each section, a brief discussion of those device properties relevant to radiation effects is given

  7. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, June 2002.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    greenhouse gas studies. These instruments will provide more accurate, detailed global observations of weather and atmospheric parameters that will, in turn, improve the accuracy and quality of weather forecasts. A satellite-based instrument is cost-effective because it can provide continuous global measurements, eliminating isolated yet costly weather balloon releases. Aqua, launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California (Figure 2), carries six state-of-the-art instruments that measure various water vapor parameters: (1) AIRS, which measures atmospheric temperature and humidity, land and sea surface temperatures, cloud properties, and radiative energy flux; (2) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit, which measures atmospheric temperature and humidity during both cloudy and cloud-free periods; (3) Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer, which measures cloud properties, radiative energy flux, precipitation rates, land surface wetness, sea ice, snow cover, sea surface temperature, and wind fields; (4) Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System, which measures radiative energy flux; (5) Humidity Sounder for Brazil, which measures atmospheric humidity by using a passive scanning microwave radiometer; and (6) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, which measures cloud properties, radiative energy flux, aerosol properties, land cover and land use change, vegetation dynamics, land surface temperature, fire occurrence, volcanic effects, sea surface temperature, ocean color, snow cover, atmospheric temperature and humidity, and sea ice. The data-gathering capabilities of the Aqua instruments will provide an unprecedented view of atmosphere-land interactions (Figure 3). The availability of more frequent, more accurate global measurements of important atmospheric parameters will both improve our capabilities for short-term weather forecasting and lead to a better understanding of climate variability and climate change. Simultaneous measurements of many parameters will allow

  8. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, April 2001.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    ) Validation Campaign-Researchers from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California will be deploying instruments at the CART site in May. Portable micrometeorology towers will be used to measure fluxes of carbon dioxide, water, and heat between the surface and the atmosphere. The exchange of these constituents varies with regional climate, soil type, and surface vegetation. Greater knowledge will improve the accuracy of computer models (and hence predictions) of the exchanges. Measurements made with the portable instruments will be compared with measurements being collected by instruments at the central facility. AWS Campaign-The State University of New York at Albany will deploy an oxygen A-band and water vapor band spectrometer (AWS) at the CART site on May 20-June 30, 2001. Measurements made by the AWS will be used to determine absorption of radiation by water vapor within clouds, a quantity important to understanding the behavior of solar radiation as it passes through clouds

  9. Practice for dosimetry in an X-ray (bremsstrahlung) facility for radiation processing. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This practice covers dosimetric procedures to be followed in facility characterization, process qualification, and routine processing using X rays (bremsstrahlung) to ensure that the entire product has been treated within an acceptable range of absorbed doses. Other procedures related to facility characterization, process qualification, and routine processing that may influence absorbed dose in the product are also discussed. The establishment of effective or regulatory dose and X-ray energy limits are not within the scope of this practice. In contrast to monoenergetic gamma rays, the bremsstrahlung energy spectrum extends from low values up to the maximum energy of the electrons incident on the X-ray target (see Section 5 and Annex A1). Dosimetry is only one component of a total quality assurance program for an irradiation facility. Other controls besides dosimetry may be required for specific applications such as medical device sterilization and food preservation. For the irradiation of food and the radiation sterilization of health care products, other specific ISO standards exist. For food irradiation, see ISO/ASTM Practice 51431. For the radiation sterilization of health care products, see ISO 11137:1995. In those areas covered by ISO 11137, that standard takes precedence

  10. Practice for dosimetry in gamma irradiation facilities for radiation processing. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This practice outlines the installation qualification program for an irradiator and the dosimetric procedures to be followed during operational qualification, performance quali- fication, and routine processing in facilities that process product with ionizing radiation from radionuclide gamma sources to ensure that product has been treated within a predetermined range of absorbed dose. Other procedures related to installation qualification, operational qualification, performance qualification, and routine processing that may influence absorbed dose in the product are also discussed. Information about effective or regulatory absorbed-dose limits is not within the scope of this practice

  11. Control of the radiation environment and the worker in high-energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    The philosophy behind the prediction, measurement, monitoring and limitation by access control of the radiation hazard in high-energy accelerator facilities is compared with that which could be employed for controlling similar hazards due to cosmic radiation in civil aircraft flights. Special mention is made of computer simulations of the radiation environment as a means of predicting necessary control measures, of the reliability and integration of radiation measuring devices into control procedures and of the relevance of different access control procedures. (author)

  12. Effects of radiation; Effets des radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, R [Office de Protection contre les Rayonnements Ionisants, 78 - le Vesinet (France)

    2006-07-01

    The medical consequences of a whole-body irradiation come from the destruction of cells and inflammatory reactions it provokes. The most sensitive organs are the tissues that actively split. The embryo is particularly sensitive, from 200 mSv for the effects on the brain development. The reproduction functions are reached for man from 2000 mSv, the ovary sensitivity is less, the oocytes do not split after the fetus life. For adult the bone marrow outrage leads to the disappearing of blood cells (4000 mSv). The doses from 6000 to 10000 mSv lead the failure of the digestive system and lung. for the upper doses every tissue is reached, particularly by the effects on cells of blood vessels. Important brain dysfunctions appear beyond 10000 mSv. As regards the delayed effects of overexposures the epidemiology brings to light sanitary consequences of the exposure of the population to the ionizing radiations and requires that all the possible factors associated for that purpose are considered. About hereditary effects, it appears that moderate acute radiation exposures of even a relatively large human population must have little impact, in spite of the rate of spontaneous congenital deformations is of the order of 6 %. For the induction of cancers, it is not observed excess for doses lower than 200 mSv for adults and 100 mSv for children (the populations studied are survival people of hiroshima and Nagasaki, patients treated by irradiation, uranium miners, children exposed to radioactive iodine after Chernobylsk accident). To simplify an expression of the risk has been fixed to 5% of induced cancer by Sv for population and 4% by Sv for workers, the different being explained by the demography and the sensitivity of the youngest age groups. As regards the low doses of radiations, a bundle of convergent epidemiological observations notices the absence of effects of the low doses rates. Biological mechanisms, notably of repair are approached, then certain accidents (Goiania

  13. Effects of radiation; Effets des radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, R. [Office de Protection contre les Rayonnements Ionisants, 78 - le Vesinet (France)

    2006-07-01

    The medical consequences of a whole-body irradiation come from the destruction of cells and inflammatory reactions it provokes. The most sensitive organs are the tissues that actively split. The embryo is particularly sensitive, from 200 mSv for the effects on the brain development. The reproduction functions are reached for man from 2000 mSv, the ovary sensitivity is less, the oocytes do not split after the fetus life. For adult the bone marrow outrage leads to the disappearing of blood cells (4000 mSv). The doses from 6000 to 10000 mSv lead the failure of the digestive system and lung. for the upper doses every tissue is reached, particularly by the effects on cells of blood vessels. Important brain dysfunctions appear beyond 10000 mSv. As regards the delayed effects of overexposures the epidemiology brings to light sanitary consequences of the exposure of the population to the ionizing radiations and requires that all the possible factors associated for that purpose are considered. About hereditary effects, it appears that moderate acute radiation exposures of even a relatively large human population must have little impact, in spite of the rate of spontaneous congenital deformations is of the order of 6 %. For the induction of cancers, it is not observed excess for doses lower than 200 mSv for adults and 100 mSv for children (the populations studied are survival people of hiroshima and Nagasaki, patients treated by irradiation, uranium miners, children exposed to radioactive iodine after Chernobylsk accident). To simplify an expression of the risk has been fixed to 5% of induced cancer by Sv for population and 4% by Sv for workers, the different being explained by the demography and the sensitivity of the youngest age groups. As regards the low doses of radiations, a bundle of convergent epidemiological observations notices the absence of effects of the low doses rates. Biological mechanisms, notably of repair are approached, then certain accidents (Goiania

  14. Ionizing radiations: effects and sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignes, S.; Nenot, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Having first mentioned the effects of ionizing radiations in cancerogenisis, pre-natal, and genetic fields, the authors present the different sources of radiations and estimate their respective contributions to the total irradiation dose. Their paper makes reference to the main elements of a report issued by the United Nations Scientific Committee in 1977 [fr

  15. Genetic effects of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.

    1981-01-01

    The mutagenic effects of ionising radiation on germ cells with resulting genetic abnormalities in subsequent generations, are considered. Having examined a simple model to explain the interaction of ionising radiation with genetic material and discussed its limitations, the methods whereby mutations are transmitted are discussed. Methods of estimating genetic risks and the results of such studies are examined. (U.K.)

  16. Feasibility study on utilization of radiation from spent fuel in storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wataru, Masumi; Sakamoto, Kazuaki; Saegusa, Toshiari; Sakaya, Tadatsugu; Fujiwara, Hiroaki.

    1997-01-01

    Spent fuels of nuclear power plant are stored safely until reprocessing because they are radioactive in addition to energy resources. It is foreseen that the amount of the stored spent fuel increases in the long term. Therefore, in the government, discussion on the storage away from reactor is in progress as well as one at reactor. Spent fuel emits a radioactive ray for a long time. In the storage facility, radiation is shielded not to have a detrimental influence upon the health and environment. If radioactive ray is incorrectly handled, it is hazardous for the health and the environment. But, it is very useful if it is properly utilized under a careful management. In the industry, radioactive ray by isotopes (e.g. Co-60) is used widely. In a view of the effective utilization of energy, the promotion of the siting, the regional development and the creation of employment opportunities of local inhabitants, it is preferable to make use of radiation from the spent fuel. In this study, feasibility of utilization of radiation energy from the spent fuel in a storage facility was evaluated. (author)

  17. Obtaining laser safety at a synchrotron radiation user facility: The Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, K.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a US national facility for scientific research and development located at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California. The ALS delivers the world's brightest synchrotron radiation in the far ultraviolet and soft X-ray regions of the spectrum. As a user facility it is available to researchers from industry, academia, and laboratories from around the world. Subsequently, a wide range of safety concerns become involved. This article relates not only to synchrotron facilities but to any user facility. A growing number of US centers are attracting organizations and individuals to use the equipment on site, for a fee. This includes synchrotron radiation and/or free electron facilities, specialty research centers, and laser job shops. Personnel coming to such a facility bring with them a broad spectrum of safety cultures. Upon entering, the guests must accommodate to the host facility safety procedures. This article describes a successful method to deal with that responsibility

  18. Epigenetic effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Naggar, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Data generated during the last three decades provide evidence of Epigenetic Effects that ave-induced by ionizing radiation, particularly those of high LET values, and low level dose exposures. Epigenesist is defined as the stepwise process by which genetic information, as modified by environmental influences, is translated into the substance and behavior of cells, tissues, organism.The epigenetic effects cited in the literature are essentially classified into fine types depending on the type and nature of the effect induced.The most accepted postulation, for the occurrence of these epigenetic effects, is a radiation induced bio electric disturbances in the environment of the non-irradiated cellular volume. This will trigger signals that will induce effects in the unirradiated cells.The epigenetic effects referenced in the literature up to date are five types; namely, Genomic Instability, Bystander. Effects, Clastogenic Plasma Factors,, Abscopal Effects, and Tran generational Effects.The demonstration of Epigenetic Effects associated with exposure to ionizing radiation indicates the need to re- examine the concept of radiation dose and target size. Also an improved understanding of qualifiring and quantifying radiation risk estimates may be attained. Also, a more logical means to understand the underlying mechanisms of radiation induced carcinogenic transformation of cells

  19. A cyclotron isotope production facility designed to maximize production and minimize radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickie, W.J.; Stevenson, N.R.; Szlavik, F.F.

    1993-01-01

    Continuing increases in requirements from the nuclear medicine industry for cyclotron isotopes is increasing the demands being put on an aging stock of machines. In addition, with the 1990 recommendations of the ICRP publication in place, strict dose limits will be required and this will have an effect on the way these machines are being operated. Recent advances in cyclotron design combined with lessons learned from two decades of commercial production mean that new facilities can result in a substantial charge on target, low personnel dose, and minimal residual activation. An optimal facility would utilize a well engineered variable energy/high current H - cyclotron design, multiple beam extraction, and individual target caves. Materials would be selected to minimize activation and absorb neutrons. Equipment would be designed to minimize maintenance activities performed in high radiation fields. (orig.)

  20. Radiation hazards and biological effects of ionising radiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Najila Mohd Janib

    2004-01-01

    The contents of this chapter are follows - Mechanism of damage: direct action of radiation, indirect action of radiation. Classification of effects: somatic effect, induction of cancer, factors, affecting somatic effects, genetic effect, inherited abnormalities, induced effects, early effects, late effects, deterministic effect, stochastic effect. Effect of specific group: development abnormality, childhood Cancer, fertile women, risk and uncertainty, comparison of risk

  1. Radiation and radiation effects; Strahlung und Strahlenwirkung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumaier, S. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Strahlenschutz; Janssen, H. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany). Abt. Ionisierende Strahlung

    2006-12-15

    The average dose incurred by the German population is about 4 millisievert p.a., about half of which results from natural radiation sources. The second half is caused nearly completely by medical applications. Only a very small fraction of the annual dose results from technical applications. This special issue of PTB focuses on the measuring problems relating to natural radiation sources and technical applications of ionizing radiation. The current contribution also outlines some important aspects of radiation exposure from medical applications. (orig.)

  2. Team Update on North American Proton Facilities for Radiation Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Label, Kenneth A.; Turflinger, Thomas; Haas, Thurman; George, Jeffrey; Moss, Steven; Davis, Scott; Kostic, Andrew; Wie, Brian; Reed, Robert; Guertin, Steven; hide

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the closure of the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF), this presentation provides an overview of the options for North American proton facilities. This includes those in use by the aerospace community as well as new additions from the cancer therapy regime. In addition, proton single event testing background is provided for understanding the criteria needed for these facilities for electronics testing.

  3. Operational accidents and radiation exposures at DOE facilities. Fiscal year 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Comprehensive safety programs are maintained at DOE facilities in order to protect both personnel and property from accidents. To ensure compliance with safety standards and regulations and maximize effectiveness of the safety programs, an extensive inspection and appraisal program is conducted at the contractor and field office levels by both DOE field and Headquarters safety personnel. When accidents do occur, investigations are conducted to identify causes and determine managerial or safety actions needed to prevent similar occurrences. DOE safety requirements include the reporting of personnel injury, property and motor vehicle losses on a quarterly basis, and radiation doses on an annual basis. The radiation dose data for CY 1978 are presented and reviewed in this report. All other data in this report are for FY 1978

  4. Discussion of some issues in environmental impact reports of nuclear and radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    1995-01-01

    The author discusses some issues in compilation and evaluation of environmental impact reports of nuclear and radiation facilities which should be noticeable. Some recommendations are made to improve the quality of the reports as well

  5. A gas monitoring facility with a quadrupole mass spectrometer for the ZEUS transition-radiation chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp, U.

    1988-07-01

    A gas analysis facility for the ZEUS transition-radiation chambers based on a quadrupole mass spectrometer is described. After a description of the spectrometer, the vacuum system, and the software, some test results are presented. (HSI)

  6. Radiation effects on structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoniem, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the effect radiation has on thermonuclear reactor materials: Atomic Displacements; Microstructure Evolution; Materials Engineering, Mechanics, and Design; Research on Low-Activation Steels; and Research Motivated by Grant Support

  7. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, Pablo; Perez, Maria R.

    2001-01-01

    It has been emphasised the importance of DNA as the main target for ionizing radiation, that can induce damage by its direct action on this molecule or by an indirect effect mediated by free-radicals generated by water radiolysis. Biological effects of ionizing radiation are influenced not only by the dose but also by the dose-rate and the radiation quality. Radiation induced damage, mainly DNA single and double strand breaks, is detected by molecular sensors which in turn trigger signalling cascades leading to cell cycle arrest to allow DNA repair or programmed cell death (apoptosis). Those effects related with cell death, named deterministic, exhibits a dose-threshold below which they are not observed. Acute radiation syndrome and radiological burns are examples of this kind of effects. Other radiation induced effects, called stochastic, are the consequence of cell transformation and do not exhibit a dose-threshold. This is the case of cancer induction and hereditary effects. The aim of this presentation is briefly describe the main aspects of deterministic and stochastic effects from the point of view of radiobiology and radio pathology. (author)

  8. Effects after prenatal radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.

    2001-01-01

    The mammalian organism is highly radiosensitive during all prenatal developmental periods. For most effects a dose relationship with a threshold is observed. These threshold doses are generally above the exposures from medical diagnostic procedures. The quality and extent of radiation effects are very much dependent on the developmental stage during which an exposure takes place and on the radiation dose. An exposure during the preimplantation period will cause lethality. Malformations are usually induced after exposures during the major organogenesis. Growth retardation is also possible during the late organogenesis and foetal periods. The lower limits of threshold doses for these effects are in the range of 100 mGy. A radiation exposure during the early foetal period can lead to severe mental retardation and impairment of intelligence. There are very serious effects with radiation doses above 0.3 Gy. Carcinogenesis can apparently occur after radiation exposures during the total prenatal development period. The radiation risk factor up to now has not been clear, but it seems that it is in the range of risk factors for cancer that are observed after exposures during childhood. For radiation doses that are used in radiological diagnostics the risk is zero or very low. A termination of pregnancy after doses below 100 mGy should not be considered. (author)

  9. Effects of radiation on erythropoiesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harriss, E B

    1971-04-01

    Since the pioneer work of Heineke (1903; 1905) many workers have studied the effect of radiation on haemopoiesis. Their work has been reviewed by Bloom (1948), by Jacobson (1954) and more recently by Bond et al. (1965). The subject continues to stimulate much interest but is now more concerned with the effects of radiation on the multipotential stem cell pool than on radiation damage to the erythropoietic cells themselves. Death from haemopoietic failure following an LD{sub 50/30} dose of radiation is probably not attributable to failure of erythropoiesis; while damage to the erythropoietic system certainly plays a part in the syndrome, it is not a major factor contributing to the death of the animal. Although the severity and time course of the response vary with the species studied, the general effects of radiation on erythropoiesis are similar in all mammalian bone marrow studied to date. Likewise, though the severity of the reaction varies somewhat with the energy of the radiation and has been used to compare the relative biological effectiveness of different types of radiation (Sinclair et al., 1962; Sztanyik, 1967), the response is different only in degree and not in its fundamental pattern. The initial syndrome of depression and recovery will therefore be described largely by reference to work performed on the response of the rat to single acute exposures of either whole-body or partial-body irradiation with conventional X-rays.

  10. Atmospheric radiation measurement program facilities newsletter, September 2001.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    Our Changing Climate-Is our climate really changing? How do we measure climate change? How can we predict what Earth's climate will be like for generations to come? One focus of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is to improve scientific climate models enough to achieve reliable regional prediction of future climate. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the global mean surface temperature has increased by 0.5-1.0 F since the late 19th century. The 20th century's 10 warmest years all occurred in the last 15 years of the century, with 1998 being the warmest year of record. The global mean surface temperature is measured by a network of temperature-sensing instruments distributed around the world, including ships, ocean buoys, and weather stations on land. The data from this network are retrieved and analyzed by various organizations, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the World Meteorological Organization. Worldwide temperature records date back to 1860. To reconstruct Earth's temperature history before 1860, scientists use limited temperature records, along with proxy indicators such as tree rings, pollen records, and analysis of air frozen in ancient ice. The solar energy received from the sun drives Earth's weather and climate. Some of this energy is reflected and filtered by the atmosphere, but most is absorbed by Earth's surface. The absorbed solar radiation warms the surface and is re-radiated as heat energy into the atmosphere. Some atmospheric gases, called greenhouse gases, trap some of the re-emitted heat, keeping the surface temperature regulated and suitable for sustaining life. Although the greenhouse effect is natural, some evidence indicates that human activities are producing increased levels of some greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Scientists believe that the combustion of fossil fuels is

  11. Aerosol effects in radiation transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binenko, V.I.; Harshvardhan, H.

    1993-01-01

    The radiative properties and effects of aerosols are assessed for the following aerosol sources: relatively clean background aerosol, dust storms and dust outbreaks, anthropogenic pollution, and polluted cloud layers. Studies show it is the submicron aerosol fraction that plays a dominant radiative role in the atmosphere. The radiative effect of the aerosol depends not only on its loading but also on the underlying surface albedo and on solar zenith angle. It is only with highly reflecting surfaces such as Arctic ice that aerosols have a warming effect. Radiometric, microphysical, mineral composition, and refractive index measurements are presented for dust and in particular for the Saharan aerosol layer (SAL). Short-wave radiative heating of the atmosphere is caused by the SAL and is due mainly to absorption. However, the SAL does not contribute significantly to the long-wave thermal radiation budget. Field program studies of the radiative effects of aerosols are described. Anthropogenic aerosols deplete the incoming solar radiation. A case field study for a regional Ukrainian center is discussed. The urban aerosol causes a cooling of metropolitan centers, compared with outlying areas, during the day, which is followed by a warming trend at night. In another study, an increase in turbidity by a factor of 3 due to increased industrialization for Mexico City is noted, together with a drop in atmospheric transmission by 10% over a 50-year period. Numerous studies are cited that demonstrate that anthropogenic aerosols affect both the microphysical and radiative properties of clouds, which in turn affect regional climate. Particles acting as cloud nuclei are considered to have the greatest indirect effect on cloud absorptivity of short-wave radiation. Satellite observations show that low-level stratus clouds contaminated by ship exhaust at sea lead to an increase in cloud albedo

  12. Modernization of safety system for the radiation facility for industrial sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drndarevic, V.; Djuric, D.; Koturovic, A.; Arandjelovic, M.; Mikic, R.

    1995-01-01

    Modernization of the existing safety system of the radiation facility for industrial sterilization at the Vinca Institute of nuclear science is done. In order to improve radiation safety of the facility, the latest recommendations and requirements of IAEA have been implemented. Concept and design of the modernized system are presented. The new elements of the safety system are described and the improvements achieved by means of this modernization are pointed out. (author)

  13. Cell/Tissue Culture Radiation Exposure Facility, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the development of automated systems to improve radiobiology research capabilities at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National...

  14. Solar Radiation Research Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) has been collecting continuous measurements of basic solar continuous operation. More than 75 instruments contribute to the Baseline Measurement System by recording

  15. Low level radiation: biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    It is imperative that physicians and scientists using radiations in health care delivery continue to assess the benefits derived, vs. potential risk, to patients and radiation workers being exposed to radiation in its various forms as part of our health delivery system. Insofar as possible we should assure our patients and ourselves that the benefits outweigh the potential hazards involved. Inferences as to the possible biological effects of low level radiation are generally based on extrapolations from those effects observed and measured following acute exposures to considerably higher doses of radiation. Thus, in order to shed light on the question of the possible biological effects of low level radiation, a wide variety of studies have been carried out using cells in culture and various species of plant and animal life. This manuscript makes reference to some of those studies with indications as to how and why the studies were done and the conclusions that might be drawn there from. In addition reference is made to the handling of this information by scientists, by environmentalists, and by the news media. Unfortunately, in many instances the public has been misled by what has been said and/or written. It is hoped that this presentation will provide an understandable and reasonable perspective on the various appropriate uses of radiation in our lives and how such uses do provide significant improvement in our health and in our quality of life

  16. Radiation effects testing at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahan, Margaret A.; Koga, Rokotura

    2002-01-01

    The effects of ionizing particles on sensitive microelectronics is an important component of the design of systems as diverse as satellites and space probes, detectors for high energy physics experiments and even internet server farms. Understanding the effects of radiation on human cells is an equally important endeavor directed towards future manned missions in space and towards cancer therapy. At the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the Berkeley Laboratory, facilities are available for radiation effects testing (RET) with heavy ions and with protons. The techniques for doing these measurements and the advantages of using a cyclotron will be discussed, and the Cyclotron facilities will be compared with other facilities worldwide. RET of the same part at several facilities of varying beam energy can provide tests of the simple models used in this field and elucidate the relative importance of atomic and nuclear effects. The results and implications of such measurements will be discussed

  17. A novel DC Magnetron sputtering facility for space research and synchrotron radiation optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, A.M.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Pareschi, G.

    1998-01-01

    A new DC magnetron sputtering facility has been build up at the Danish Space Research Institute (DSRI), specially designed to enable uniform coatings of large area curved optics, such as Wolter-I mirror optics used in space telescopes and curved optics used in synchrotron radiation facilities...

  18. Radiation monitoring in a synchrotron light source facility using magnetically levitated electrode ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Hirofumi; Kawaguchi, Toshirou; Utsunomiya, Yoshitomo; Ishibashi, Kenji; Ikeda, Nobuo; Korenaga, Kazuhito

    2009-01-01

    We developed a highly accurate differential-type automatic radiation dosimeter to measure very low radiation doses. The dosimeter had two ionization chambers, each of which had a magnetically levitated electrode and it was operated in a repetitive-time integration mode. We first installed the differential-type automatic radiation dosimeter with MALICs at a high-energy electron accelerator facility (Kyushu Synchrotron Light Research Center Facility) and measured the background and ionizing radiations in the facility as well as the gaseous radiation in air. In the background dose measurements, the accuracy of the repetitive-time integration-type dosimeter was three times better than that of a commercial ionization chamber. When the radiation dose increased momentarily at the electron injection from the linac to the operating storage ring, the dosimeter with repetitive-time integral mode gave a successful response to the actual dose variation. The gaseous radiation dose in the facility was at the same level as that in Fukuoka City. We confirmed that the dosimeter with magnetically levitated electrode ionization chambers was usable in the accelerator facility, in spite of its limited response when operated in the repetitive-time integration mode. (author)

  19. Topical Day on Biological Effects of Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baatout, S.; Jacquet, P.

    1997-05-15

    The topical day has been focussed on the potential effects of ionizing radiation on human health. A general overview on molecular and biophysical aspects of radiation, its effects on cells and organisms, and the contribution of radiobiology to radiation protection and risk assessment is given. The genetic effects of radiation and its effects on the developing organism, the effects of radiation on the cell cycle and the mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis were also discussed.

  20. Topical Day on Biological Effects of Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baatout, S.; Jacquet, P.

    1997-01-01

    The topical day has been focussed on the potential effects of ionizing radiation on human health. A general overview on molecular and biophysical aspects of radiation, its effects on cells and organisms, and the contribution of radiobiology to radiation protection and risk assessment is given. The genetic effects of radiation and its effects on the developing organism, the effects of radiation on the cell cycle and the mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis were also discussed

  1. Effects of radiation-counselling convergence education on radiation awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seoung, Youl Hun [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Cheongju University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of study was to analysis on the effects of radiation-counselling convergence education on radiation awareness. The survey objects were students of radiation-counselling convergence education from 12th May to 22th June in 2016. The questionnaires were education satisfactions and radiation awareness (risk, benefit, control) by Likert-type 5 scales. The analysis results revealed that education satisfactions of men students showed a significant higher female students and correlation coefficient of education satisfactions were the best high in the benefit and control of radiation. Finally radiation-counselling convergence education had a significant effect on radiation benefit. This convergence education influenced positive recognition on radiation benefit and it was indicated that radiation-counselors could treat clients on the basis of radiation benefit.

  2. Effects of radiation-counselling convergence education on radiation awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seoung, Youl Hun

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of study was to analysis on the effects of radiation-counselling convergence education on radiation awareness. The survey objects were students of radiation-counselling convergence education from 12th May to 22th June in 2016. The questionnaires were education satisfactions and radiation awareness (risk, benefit, control) by Likert-type 5 scales. The analysis results revealed that education satisfactions of men students showed a significant higher female students and correlation coefficient of education satisfactions were the best high in the benefit and control of radiation. Finally radiation-counselling convergence education had a significant effect on radiation benefit. This convergence education influenced positive recognition on radiation benefit and it was indicated that radiation-counselors could treat clients on the basis of radiation benefit

  3. Radiation hygienic annual report 2012. General environmental radioactivity and radiation surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear facilities in Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfau, T.; Bernkopf, J.; Klement, R.; Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Augsburg

    2013-01-01

    The radiation hygienic annual report 2012 includes the following issues: (1) Introduction: Legal aspects of the surveillance, implementation of the radiation protection law, nuclear facility sites in Bavaria, interim storage facilities in Bavaria. (2) Natural radioactivity surveillance: measured data for the exposure paths air, water, food chain land, food chain water, residuals and waste. (3) Radiation surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear facilities in Bavaria: measures for air, precipitation, soils, plants, food chain land, milk and milk products, surface water, food chain water, drinking and ground water; measured data in the vicinity of NNP Isar 1 bd Isar 2 (KKI1/KKI2), NPP Gundremmingen (KGG), NPP Grafenrheinfeld (KKG), research neutron source Muenchen FRM II; emissions, meteorological conditions, spreading calculations.

  4. Standards and general criteria for the planning and certification of need of megavoltage radiation oncology units in health care facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Minimum standards and guidelines to be applied by State agencies and New Jersey health systems agencies in the examination of certificate-of-need applications and in the development of planning activities for radiation oncology units in health care facilities are presented. Radiation oncology is a medical discipline devoted to education and research in the use of ionizing radiation for the treatment of neoplastic disease. The proper application of radiation can be directed at either curative or palliative intent. It is an important and effective technique for the management of cancer. Radiotherapy equipment in clinical use is divided into four main categories: superficial, orthovoltage, megavoltage, and treatment planning facilities. Particular attention is given to megavoltage equipment which emits or generates rays over 1,000 kilovolts. These high energy rays effect better penetration of human tissue and are skin-sparing in nature, thus allowing for better tumor-to- skin dose ratios. The regionalization of megavoltage therapy services is discussed. Data on hospital megavoltage facilities in New Jersey for 1974, 1975, and 1976 are provided. The standards and guidelines pertain to utilization, personnel, and general criteria. A form for use by megavoltage radiation therapy units is appended

  5. Complex workplace radiation fields at European high-energy accelerators and thermonuclear fusion facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Bilski, P; D'Errico, F; Esposito, A; Fehrenbacher, G; Fernàndez, F; Fuchs, A; Golnik, N; Lacoste, V; Leuschner, A; Sandri, S; Silari, M; Spurny, F; Wiegel, B; Wright, P

    2006-01-01

    This report outlines the research needs and research activities within Europe to develop new and improved methods and techniques for the characterization of complex radiation fields at workplaces around high-energy accelerators and the next generation of thermonuclear fusion facilities under the auspices of the COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry (CONRAD) project funded by the European Commission.

  6. Simulation of Thermal, Neutronic and Radiation Characteristics in Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radwaste Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poskas, P.; Bartkus, G.

    1999-01-01

    The overview of the activities in the Division of Thermo hydro-mechanics related with the assessment of thermal, neutronic and radiation characteristics in spent nuclear fuel and radwaste facilities are performed. Also some new data about radiation characteristics of the RBMK-1500 spent nuclear fuel are presented. (author)

  7. An economic benefit analysis on the cobalt-60 irradiation facility of Beijing Radiation Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Binlin

    1995-01-01

    The peculiarity, the investment and annual operating cost of the 3.7 x 10 16 Bq (MCi) cobalt-60 irradiation facility at Beijing Radiation Application Research Centre are described. Its economic benefits each year are analyzed according to several year operating practice. Some related questions on carrying out radiation processing are raised and discussed. (author)

  8. Radiation, chemicals and combined effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, W.K.

    1991-01-01

    A brief background has been provided on current carcinogenic risks from ionizing radiation and their magnitude in background circumstances. The magnitude of the risks from possibly carcinogenic chemicals at background levels in air, water and food are surprisingly similar. The exception is, perhaps, for the single source of radon which, while variable, on the average stands out above all other sources. Some basic principles concerning the interaction of combined radiation and chemicals and some practical examples where the two interact synergistically to enhance radiation effects has also been provided. Areas for human research in the future are discussed. (Author)

  9. The association betweeen cancers and low level radiation: An evaluation of the epidemiological evidence at the Hanford Nuclear Weapons Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, J.

    1993-05-01

    Cancer has traditionally been linked to exposure to high doses of radiation, but there is considerable controversy regarding the carcinogenicity of low doses of ionizing radiation in humans. Over the past 30 years there have been 14 studies conducted on employees at the Hanford nuclear weapons facility to investigate the relationship between exposure to low doses of radiation and mortality due to cancer (1-14). Interest in this issue was originally stimulated by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) which was trying to determine whether the linear extrapolation of health effects from high to low dose exposure was accurate. If the risk has been underestimated, then the maximum permissible occupational radiation exposure in the United States had been set too high. Because the health risk associated with low level radiation are unclear and controversial it seems appropriate to review the studies relating to Hanford at this time

  10. Regulatory control and challenges in Medical facilities using ionising radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    Medical facilities utilising ionising radiation sources for diagnostic and treatment of cancer are regulated under the provisions of Atomic Energy (Radiation Protection) Rules, 2004 promulgated under the Atomic Energy Act 1962. The Competent Authority for the enforcement of the rules is Chairman, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). Practice specific codes are issued by AERB for medical facilities such as Radiotherapy, Nuclear Medicine and Radiology. Regulatory process for control of medical facilities covers the entire life cycle of the radiation sources in three stages viz pre-Iicensing, during useful life and decommissioning and disposal. Pre-Iicensing requirements include use of type approved sources and equipment, approval of design layout of the facility and installation, exclusive (safe and secure) source storage facility when the equipment is not in use, radiation (area/individual) monitoring devices, qualified, trained and certified manpower, emergency response plans and commitment from the licensee for the safe disposal of disused/decayed sources. Compliance to these requirements makes the applicant eligible to obtain license from AERB for the operation of the medical facility. During the use of radiation sources, specific prior approval of the Competent Authority is required in respect of every source replacement, sale, transfer, transport, import and export. Further, all licensees are required to send the periodic safety Status reports to AERB as well as reporting of any off normal events. AERB conducts inspection of the facilities to ensure compliance with the safety requirements during operation of the facility. Violation of safety norms by licensee attracts enforcement action which includes suspension, modification or withdrawal of licensee for operation of the facility. Upon completion of the useful life of the source, the licensee decommissions the facility and returns the source to the original supplier. For returning the source, prior

  11. The Development of a Radiation Hardened Robot for Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Seung Ho; Kim, Chang Hoi; Seo, Yong Chil (and others)

    2007-04-15

    We has been developed two remotely controlled robotic systems. One is a underwater vehicle for inspection of the internal structures of PWRs and retrieving foreign stubs in the reactor pressure vessels and reactor coolant pipes. The other robotic system consists of a articulated-type mobile robot capable of recovering the failure of the fuel exchange machine and a mini modular mobile robot for inspection of feeder pipes with ultrasonic array sensors in PHWRs. The underwater robot has been designed by considering radiation effect, underwater condition, and accessibility to the working area. The size of underwater robot is designed to enter the cold legs. A extendable manipulator is mounted on the mobile robot, which can restore nuclear fuel exchange machine. The mini modular mobile robot is composed of dual inch worm mechanisms, which are constructed by two gripper bodies that can fix the robot body on to the pipe and move along the longitudinal and to rotate in a circumferential direction to access all of the outer surfaces of the pipe.

  12. Report of questionnaire result concerning the radiation control in medicare facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yutaka

    2009-01-01

    Radiation control in Japanese medicare facilities is regulated generally by multiple laws of radiation and the Committee has investigated their actual radiation control practice through questionnaire, of which result and its analysis are described here. The questionnaire on web (Committee's homepage) was conducted in the period Apr., 13-May, 1, 2009, by asking to medical radiology personnel (MRP) with 20 items, mainly about personnel working for radiation medicare (RM), monitoring of their external dose, notice of exposure dose to individual person, archiving of the dose record, and questions about the Law Concerning Prevention from Radiation Hazard due to Radioisotopes, Etc.; was answered by 378 facilities where 15,281 persons in total worked for RM (41/facility in average); and the facilities were under regulation by 1 (Medical, 39%) and 2 (Medical and for Prevention, 61%) laws. Major findings were: 71% of facilities had no clear rule to select MRP; 98% trusted dosimetry outside; in 76%, personnel participating in RM had pocket dosimeter as well; 70% investigated the exposure history at personnel employment; to personnel whose dose could exceed or exceeded 20 mSv/y, 45% transferred the person to other work site, 34% issued warning and 21% had no such personnel; 73% felt the necessity of qualified expert for radiation control; 81% conducted education and training to MRP; 54% used radiation-generating equipments, 27%, unsealed radioisotopes and 19%, sealed ones; and 77% felt the radiation control should be unified in the Medical Law. Based on the findings, the Committee discussed and commented about definition and selection of MRP, dosimetry and its record of MRP having multiple, increasing works, uncertainty of the exact number of MRP in Japan, and desirable unification of radiation control practice in the medicare facility into the Medical Law if amended in future. (K.T.)

  13. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Bahadori Amir; Semones Edward; Ewert Michael; Broyan James; Walker Steven

    2017-01-01

    Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles ...

  14. Radiation effects in optical components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friebele, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    This report discusses components of high performance optical devices may be exposed to high energy radiation environments during their lifetime. The effect of these adverse environments depends upon a large number of parameters associated with the radiation (nature, energy, dose, dose rate, etc.) or the system (temperature, optical performance requirements, optical wavelength, optical power, path length, etc.), as well as the intrinsic susceptibility of the optical component itself to degradation

  15. Environmental dosimetry and radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    Specific assessment of the potential effects on wild organisms of increased radiation exposure arising from the authorized disposal of radioactive wastes to the environment requires two interrelated sets of information. First, an estimate is required of the incremental radiation exposure; and second, dose rate-response relationships are necessary to predict the potential impact of the estimated incremental exposure. Each of these aspects will be discussed in detail. (author)

  16. Radiation effects at the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilchriese, M.G.D. [ed.] [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1988-06-01

    This report contains a preliminary study of the effects of the radiation levels expected at the SSC on potential detector components and a subset of materials to be used in the SSC accelerators. The report does not contain a discussion of radiation damage to electronics components that may be used at the SSC. We have investigated many of the effects of radiation on silicon detectors, on wire chambers, on scintillating materials and the associated readout, on optical fibers for data transmission and on structural or other materials to be used in detector or accelerator components. In the SSC accelerator complex, in particular the storage rings, radiation damage will not present significant problems different than those now faced by existing high energy accelerators. We find that the effects of radiation damage on SSC detector components will be significant at the design luminosity of the ssc and will limit, or determine, many of the options for different detector components. In this regard the reader should keep in mind that, in the absence of a specific detector design, it is not possible to form definitive conclusions regarding the viability of the detector components. Since the radiation levels in experiments at the SSC will depend on the geometry and composition of the apparatus, simple yes /no generalizations about the feasibility of a detector component are not possible.

  17. Basic knowledge from legal provisions of radiation protection for staff members in radiological facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulheim, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    Based on ICRP recommendations the GDR legislation of radiation protection is performed by the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection of the GDR. The legal regulations of radiation protection in biomedical radiography and radiotherapy are specified. The main content of the atomic energy law and of the regulation on guarantee of nuclear safety and radiation protection is outlined. Basic principles such as radiation workers, operating personnel of nuclear facilities and the categories of their working conditions, areas of radiation protection and unusual events are defined. Responsibility, tasks of responsive staff members, measures of control by state and plant, guarantee of radiation protection, limitation of radiation doses and last not least regulations of sentences and fines, resp., are specified

  18. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Cruas-Meysse nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 111 and 112). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  19. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Belleville-sur-Loire nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 127 and 128). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  20. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Paluel nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 103, 104, 114 and 115). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  1. Building 772 - CERN’s new calibration facility for radiation protection instruments is ready to go

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Building 772 is becoming the new home of CERN’s calibration facility for radiation protection instrumentation. The new laboratory in Prévessin will be a state-of-the-art calibration facility and the first of its kind in both France and Switzerland, offering a wide range of possibilities with respect to radiation fields and instrumentation.   New four-axis calibration bench for radiation protection instruments.   Civil engineering work started in November 2013 in Prévessin and Building 772 is now finished and ready for inauguration. CERN’s calibration facility was previously located in Building 172 in Meyrin. Although still very accurate, the technology used was becoming obsolete and needed replacement. “Having considered different options, the decision was taken to build a new facility fully designed and conceived to meet all international safety and technical requirements of such a laboratory,” says Pie...

  2. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Belleville-sur-Loire nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 127 and 128). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  3. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Penly nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 136 and 140). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  4. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Belleville-Sur-Loire nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 127 and 128). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  5. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Flamanville nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 108, 109 and 167 (under construction)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  6. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Fessenheim nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INB no. 75). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  7. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Blayais nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 86 and 110). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  8. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory 1991 activity report. Facility developments January 1991--March 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantwell, K.; St. Pierre, M.

    1992-01-01

    SSRL is a national facility supported primarily by the Department of Energy for the utilization of synchrotron radiation for basic and applied research in the natural sciences and engineering. It is a user-oriented facility which welcomes proposals for experiments from all researchers. The synchrotron radiation is produced by the 3.5 GeV storage ring, SPEAR, located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). SPEAR is a fully dedicated synchrotron radiation facility which operates for user experiments 7 to 9 months per year. SSRL currently has 24 experimental stations on the SPEAR storage ring. There are 145 active proposals for experimental work from 81 institutions involving approximately 500 scientists. There is normally no charge for use of beam time by experimenters. This report summarizes the activity at SSRL for the period January 1, 1991 to December 31, 1991 for research. Facility development through March 1992 is included

  9. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory 1991 activity report. Facility developments January 1991--March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantwell, K.; St. Pierre, M. [eds.

    1992-12-31

    SSRL is a national facility supported primarily by the Department of Energy for the utilization of synchrotron radiation for basic and applied research in the natural sciences and engineering. It is a user-oriented facility which welcomes proposals for experiments from all researchers. The synchrotron radiation is produced by the 3.5 GeV storage ring, SPEAR, located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). SPEAR is a fully dedicated synchrotron radiation facility which operates for user experiments 7 to 9 months per year. SSRL currently has 24 experimental stations on the SPEAR storage ring. There are 145 active proposals for experimental work from 81 institutions involving approximately 500 scientists. There is normally no charge for use of beam time by experimenters. This report summarizes the activity at SSRL for the period January 1, 1991 to December 31, 1991 for research. Facility development through March 1992 is included.

  10. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Nogent-Sur-Seine nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 129 and 130). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  11. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Paluel nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 103, 104, 114 and 115). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  12. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Civaux nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 158 and 159). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  13. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Cruas-Meysse nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 111 and 112). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  14. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Dampierre-en-Burly nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 84 and 85). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  15. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Dampierre-En-Burly nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 84 and 85). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  16. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Civaux nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 158 and 159). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  17. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Penly nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 136 and 140). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  18. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Golfech nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 135 and 142). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  19. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Penly nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 136 and 140). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  20. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Fessenheim nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INB no. 75). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  1. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Saint-Alban Saint-Maurice nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 119 and 120). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  2. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Golfech nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 135 and 142). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  3. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Civaux nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 158 and 159). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  4. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Nogent-sur-Seine nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 129 and 130). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  5. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Dampierre-en-Burly nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 84 and 85). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  6. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Chooz nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 139, 144 and 163 (under dismantling)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  7. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Cattenom nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 124, 125, 126 and 137). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  8. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Chooz nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 139, 144 and 163 (under dismantling)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  9. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Cattenom nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 124, 125, 126 and 137). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  10. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Flamanville nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 108, 109 and 167 (under construction)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  11. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Blayais nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 86 and 110). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  12. Radiation protection of the operation of accelerator facilities. On high energy proton and electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Kenjiro

    1997-01-01

    Problems in the radiation protection raised by accelerated particles with energy higher than several hundreds MeV in strong accelerator facilities were discussed in comparison with those with lower energy in middle- and small-scale facilities. The characteristics in the protection in such strong accelerator facilities are derived from the qualitative changes in the interaction between the high energy particles and materials and from quantitative one due to the beam strength. In the former which is dependent on the emitting mechanism of the radiation, neutron with broad energy spectrum and muon are important in the protection, and in the latter, levels of radiation and radioactivity which are proportional to the beam strength are important. The author described details of the interaction between high energy particles and materials: leading to the conclusion that in the electron accelerator facilities, shielding against high energy-blemsstrahlung radiation and -neutron is important and in the proton acceleration, shielding against neutron is important. The characteristics of the radiation field in the strong accelerator facilities: among neutron, ionized particles and electromagnetic wave, neutron is most important in shielding since it has small cross sections relative to other two. Considerations for neutron are necessary in the management of exposure. Multiplicity of radionuclides produced: which is a result of nuclear spallation reaction due to high energy particles, especially to proton. Radioactivation of the accelerator equipment is a serious problem. Other problems: the interlock systems, radiation protection for experimenters and maintenance of the equipment by remote systems. (K.H.). 11 refs

  13. Design and development of semi-automatic radiation test and calibration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Chouhan, V.K.; Narayan, Pradeep

    2008-01-01

    Semi-automatic gamma radiation test and calibration facility have been designed, developed and commissioned at Defence Laboratory Jodhpur (DLJ). The facility comprises of medium and high dose rate range setup using 30 Ci Cobalt-60 source, in a portable remotely operated Techops camera and a 15000 Ci 60 Co source in a Tele-therapy machine. The radiation instruments can be positioned at any desired position using a computer controlled positioner having three translational and one rotational motion. User friendly software helps in positioning the Device Under Test (DUT) at any desired dose rate or distance and acquire the data automatically. The servo and stepper motor controlled positioner helps in achieving the required precision and accuracy for the radiation calibration of the instruments. This paper describes the semi-automatic radiation test and calibration facility commissioned at DLJ. (author)

  14. Radiation dose evaluation based on exposure scenario during the operation of radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jeong Hyoun; Kim Chang Lak; Choi, Heui Joo; Park, Joo Wan

    1999-01-01

    Radiation dose to worker in disposal facility was calculated by using point kernel MICROSHIELD V5.02 computer code based on exposure scenarios. An conceptual design model for disposal vaults in disposal facility was used for object of shielding calculation model. Selected radionuclides and their activities among radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants were assumed as radiation sources for the exposure calculation. Annual radiation doses to crane workers and to people working on disposal vaults were calculated according to exposure time and distance from the sources with conservative operation scenarios. The scenarios used for this study were based on assumption for representing disposal activities in a future Korean near surface disposal facility. Calculated exposure rates to worker during normal disposal work were very low comparing with annual allowable limit for radiation worker

  15. Technical critique on radiation test facilities for the CTR surface and materials program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.

    1975-02-01

    Major radiation test facilities will be necessary in the near-term (5 years) and long-term (greater than 10 years) future for the timely development and understanding of fusion confinement systems and of prototype fusion power reactors. The study includes the technical justifications and requirements for CTR Neutron and Plasma Radiation Test Facilities. The initial technical critique covers the feasibility and design problems: in upgrading the performance of the accelerator-rotating (solid TiT) target systems, and in transforming the accelerator-supersonic jet target concept into a radiation testing facility. A scoping assessment on the potential of a pulsed high-beta plasma device (dense plasma focus) is introduced to explore plasma concepts as near-term neutron and plasma radiation sources for the CTR Surface and Materials Program. (U.S.)

  16. Health effects of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Human and animal studies have shown an increased incidence of cancer and malformation due to radioactive materials and external radiation. The biological effects of radiation on tissues are the occurrence of morphological and functional changes in the body. The critical parts of the body are those tissues or organs which when irradiated, are likely to influence the health of the individual or its offspring. The probability of these changes depends on the radiation dose. There are two main types of damage due to radiation dose. Radiation Sickness with well-defined symptoms like cancer and inherited disorders which can appear after several years. A second type of damage, namely Acute Radiation Sickness results after exposure of the whole or parts of the body to high doses of radiation greater than 1 Gy. There are safety standards for the amount of dose equivalent that is taken as acceptable. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has given norms in which natural and medical causes were not included. These are given as recommended values (1966) and proposed values (2000), both in mSv/yr: population at large: 1.7 and 0.4; members of the public: 5 and 2; and radiologic workers: 50 and 20, respectively. Taking into account the increased number of reactor accidents, the question is how safe is our safety standards? Even when one is able to connect a quantitative risk with a radiation dose, there are three fundamental principles which we should obey in dealing with risks from radiation. These are: (1) Avoid any risk. (2) The risk should be related to the possible benefit. (3) Any dose below the politically agreed limits is acceptable

  17. Harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Tanning for cosmetic purposes by sunbathing or by using artificial tanning devices is widespread. The hazards associated with exposure to ultraviolet radiation are of concern to the medical profession. Depending on the amount and form of the radiation, as well as on the skin type of the individual exposed, ultraviolet radiation causes erythema, sunburn, photodamage (photoaging), photocarcinogenesis, damage to the eyes, alteration of the immune system of the skin, and chemical hypersensitivity. Skin cancers most commonly produced by ultraviolet radiation are basal and squamous cell carcinomas. There also is much circumstantial evidence that the increase in the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma during the past half century is related to increased sun exposure, but this has not been proved. Effective and cosmetically acceptable sunscreen preparations have been developed that can do much to prevent or reduce most harmful effects to ultraviolet radiation if they are applied properly and consistently. Other safety measures include (1) minimizing exposure to ultraviolet radiation, (2) being aware of reflective surfaces while in the sun, (3) wearing protective clothing, (4) avoiding use of artificial tanning devices, and (5) protecting infants and children

  18. Biological effects of nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotz, G.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief survey about the main radiobiological effects caused by ionizing radiation, human symptoms after irradiation and incorporation are shown. The special radiotoxic effect of radionuclides which are chemically associated with metabolism-specific elements such as calcium and potassium is shown and methods of treatment are indicated. (ORU) [de

  19. Radiation Effects in Carbon Nanoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory D. Cress

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally investigate the effects of Co-60 irradiation on the electrical properties of single-walled carbon nanotube and graphene field-effect transistors. We observe significant differences in the radiation response of devices depending on their irradiation environment, and confirm that, under controlled conditions, standard dielectric hardening approaches are applicable to carbon nanoelectronics devices.

  20. Permanent radiation and weather monitoring systems at the Posiva nuclear waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laukkanen, J.; Palomaeki, M.; Viitanen, P.; Kumpula, L.

    2012-12-01

    Posiva Oy is planning to build a complex of two nuclear waste facilities in Olkiluoto. The facilities will encapsulate and dispose the spent nuclear fuel from the nuclear power plants operated by Posiva's owners into Olkiluoto bedrock. The spent fuel is strongly radioactive, so the radiation safety of the facilities and their processes for its users and the environment must be ensured. This paper deals with of the stationary radiation and weather measurement systems designed for the monitoring of Posiva's nuclear waste facilities and their processes. The systems are used for monitoring the encapsulation and disposal facilities and processes, as well as the emissions to the environment. The document collects also the system design basis and other requirements to be considered in the design of these systems at this early stage. (orig.)

  1. Radiation safety aspects of the AGOR superconducting cyclotron facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, JPM; de Meijer, RJ

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes shielding calculations and skyshine estimates for the new AGOR K=600 superconducting cyclotron facility. Both simple, semi-empirical models and Monte-Carlo simulations were used. The calculations are based on a 200 MeV proton beam incident on a trick aluminum target. Also the

  2. Radiation protection -Operation of chemical wastewater treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M. J.; Lim, M. H.; Ahn, S. S.; Jeong, Y. S.

    1996-12-01

    The wastewater and sewage treatment facility have been operated. From the results of operation, it was confirmed that the quality of treated wastewater was 1/5 or 1/10 lower than that of regulation of law for environmental conservation. The quality of treated sewage has been maintained to 70% of regulation of law for environmental conservation. (author). 14 tabs., 8 figs

  3. Developments in radiation, stimulation and observation facilities in luminescence measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Andersen, C.E.; Duller, G.A.T.

    2003-01-01

    of magnitude up to more than 2 Gy/s. A separate bleaching facility has also been added to the reader, new powerful infrared (IR) light-emitting diodes have replaced the IR laser diode in the general OSL unit, and an IR laser has been included in the single-grain OSL attachment. This paper describes these new...

  4. Kinetic theory of radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, L.K.

    1987-01-01

    To help achieve the quantitative and mechanistic understanding of these processes, the kinetic theory of radiation effects has been developed in the DOE basic energy sciences radiation effects and fusion reactor materials programs, as well as in corresponding efforts in other countries. This discipline grapples with a very wide range of phenomena and draws on numerous sub-fields of theory such as defect physics, diffusion, elasticity, chemical reaction rates, phase transformations and thermodynamics. The theory is cast in a mathematical framework of continuum dynamics. Issues particularly relevant to the present inquiry can be viewed from the standpoints of applications of the theory and areas requiring further progress

  5. Experimental facility for explosive energy conversion into coherent microwave radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vdovin, V.A.; Korzhenevskij, A.V.; Cherepenin, V.A.

    2003-01-01

    The explosive energy conversion into the microwave radiation energy is considered with application of the explosion magnetic generator, heavy-current electron accelerator and Cherenkov microwave range generator. The electron accelerator formed the beam of 33 cm in diameter and current of ∼ 25 kA. The electrodynamic system of the SHF-generator has the diameter of ∼ 35 cm and it is accomplished in the form of the periodical nonuniform dielectric. The proposed explosive energy conversion scheme makes it possible to obtain the radiation capacity of approximately 100 MW in the 3-cm wave range by the pulse duration of ∼ 800 ns [ru

  6. Report of preliminary investigations on the next-generation large-scale synchrotron radiation facility projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Special Committee for Future Project of the Japanese Society for Synchrotron Radiation Research investigated the construction-projects of the large-scaled synchrotron radiation facilities which are presently in progress in Japan. As a result, the following both projects are considered the very valuable research-project which will carry the development of Japan's next-generation synchrotron radiation science: 1. the 8 GeV synchrotron radiation facilities (SPring-8) projected to be constructed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research under the sponsorship of Science Technology Agency at Harima Science Park City, Hyogo Pref., Japan. 2. The project to utilize the Tristan Main Ring (MR) of the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics as the radiation source. Both projects are unique in research theme and technological approach, and complemental each other. Therefore it has been concluded that both projects should be aided and ratified by the Society. (M.T.)

  7. An overview of the facilities of the Ionizing Radiation Laboratory, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostert, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    The Ionising Radiation Laboratory (IRL) of the CSIR-National Metrology Laboratory (NML) in South Africa was recently accepted as a member of the IAEA SSDL network. This article gives a very brief overview of the services and facilities provided by this laboratory. The NML has the responsibility to realize and maintain the national measuring standards in South Africa. In the field of ionizing radiation, this function is performed by the IRL. The IRL provides traceability through its calibration and measurement services for regulatory authorities, institutions providing radiation therapy services such as hospitals and other oncology centres, radiation protection service providers such as the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS), the radiation protection industry in general and to companies providing industrial quality assurance services. These services also extend to a number of countries in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) which do not currently have metrology facilities of their own

  8. Measures to reduce occupational radiation exposure in PET facilities from nurses' point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazawa, Keiko; Takahashi, Juri; Mochiduki, Yoshikazu

    2006-01-01

    In parallel with the increase in the number of institutions having PET facilities, the number of nurse working in these facilities has also increased, and the issue of occupational radiation exposure has assumed ever greater importance. In our clinic, since nurses have started to administer FDG intravenous injections, their annual radiation exposure has amounted to 4.8 - 7.1 mSv. To reduce their annual radiation exposure to less than 5 mSv, we identified sources of increased exposure and considered countermeasures based on this information. By implementing countermeasures such as improvements in daily working conditions and ways to avoid various troubles, it was possible to reduce the annual radiation exposure of all nurses to less than 5 mSv. Our experience demonstrates that to provide a working environment with a minimum of occupational radiation exposure, educational training and enhancement of knowledge and technical skills are vital. (author)

  9. Practice specific model regulations: Radiation safety of non-medical irradiation facilities. Interim report for comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (Standards or BSS) were published as IAEA Safety Series No. 115 in 1996. This publication is the culmination of efforts over the past decades towards harmonization of radiation protection and safety standards internationally, and is jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organisation (ILO), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), the Pan American Health Organisation (PAHO) and the World Health Organisation (WHO). The purpose of the Standards is to establish basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources that may deliver such exposure (hereinafter called 'radiation safety'). The requirements are based on the principles set out in the Safety Fundamentals, published as IAEA Safety Series Nos 110 and 120. The Standards can be implemented only through an effective radiation safety infrastructure that includes adequate laws and regulations, an efficient regulatory system, supporting experts and services, and a 'safety culture' shared by all those with responsibilities for protection, including both management and workers. IAEA-TECDOC-1067, Organization and Implementation of a National Regulatory Infrastructure Governing Protection against Ionizing Radiation and the Safety of Radiation Sources, provides detailed guidance on how to establish or improve national radiation safety infrastructure in order to implement the requirements of the Standards. The TECDOC covers the elements of a radiation safety infrastructure at the national level needed to apply the Standards to radiation sources such as those used in medicine, agriculture, research, industry and education. It also provides advice on approaches to the organization and operation of

  10. Radiation research contracts: Biological effects of small radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hug, O [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Health, Safety and Waste Disposal, Vienna (Austria)

    1959-04-15

    To establish the maximum permissible radiation doses for occupational and other kinds of radiation exposure, it is necessary to know those biological effects which can be produced by very small radiation doses. This particular field of radiation biology has not yet been sufficiently explored. This holds true for possible delayed damage after occupational radiation exposure over a period of many years as well as for acute reactions of the organism to single low level exposures. We know that irradiation of less than 25 Roentgen units (r) is unlikely to produce symptoms of radiation sickness. We have, however, found indications that even smaller doses may produce certain instantaneous reactions which must not be neglected

  11. The effects and control of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.A.H.

    1982-12-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; ionising radiation (alpha and beta particles, gamma- and X-radiation, neutrons, half-life, sources of radiation); biological effects; risk estimates (somatic) (early effects, delayed effects); risk estimates (hereditary); control of radiation; risk estimates (accidents). (U.K.)

  12. Health effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    This presentation is restricted to the health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation. In general, these cumulative exposures are well below 100 rem, or about 50 times background or less. The two effects of interest in this dose range are genetic mutations and cancer production. The genetic effects will not be discussed in detail. The chief reason for the rise in risk estimates for cancer is the longer follow-up of exposed populations

  13. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Bugey nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the facilities (INBs no. 78, 89 (NPPs in operation), 465 (NPP under deconstruction), 102 (fuel storage facility), and 173 (radioactive waste conditioning and storage facility under construction)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  14. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Bugey nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the facilities (INBs no. 78, 89 (NPPs in operation), 465 (NPP under deconstruction), 102 (fuel storage facility), and 173 (radioactive waste conditioning and storage facility under construction)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  15. Personnel Radiation Protection at the ITER Nuclear Fusion Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coniglio, A.; Sandri, S. [ENEA, Radiation Protection Institute, Frascati (Italy); D' Arienzo, M. [RFX, Padova (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The hosting site for the ITER nuclear fusion experiment was finally chosen in France (Cadarache). The radiation protection program for the ITER personnel involved into operation and maintenance activities will be then tested in the near future. Related studies were mainly carried out during the last ten years and important assessments were performed at the Frascati ENEA Research Center in Italy. In this ambit individual and collective doses to the operators were calculated for different categories of working activities involving more and less critical systems. The radiation protection organization was outlined and the related program was proposed. A short review of the analyses performed in this field by the Italian investigators of the ENEA Radiation Protection Institute is shown here. The principal parameter taken into account in these evaluations was the collective dose due to the different working activities. This quantity has been assessed considering the following radiological source terms: a) the prompt radiation during the plasma burning phase, b) the gamma radiation due to the neutron activation of the solid structures, c) the activated corrosion products (ACPs) generated in the water cooling system (WCS) by corrosion of the inner wall of the piping under the neutron flux, d) tritium concentration in the atmosphere of the working premises. Individual doses have been integrated over the different worker typology, considering the design evolution for the different systems and the required person power. Ordinary, inspection and maintenance activities were taken into account to assess the person power, sometime also construction, plant modifications and unscheduled maintenance were included in the working activities list. The collective dose assessed for ITER fusion projects has been compared with that of the fission power stations and analogies and differences have been pointed out. In this review the dose assessment process is recalled starting from the

  16. Personnel Radiation Protection at the ITER Nuclear Fusion Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coniglio, A.; Sandri, S.; D'Arienzo, M.

    2006-01-01

    The hosting site for the ITER nuclear fusion experiment was finally chosen in France (Cadarache). The radiation protection program for the ITER personnel involved into operation and maintenance activities will be then tested in the near future. Related studies were mainly carried out during the last ten years and important assessments were performed at the Frascati ENEA Research Center in Italy. In this ambit individual and collective doses to the operators were calculated for different categories of working activities involving more and less critical systems. The radiation protection organization was outlined and the related program was proposed. A short review of the analyses performed in this field by the Italian investigators of the ENEA Radiation Protection Institute is shown here. The principal parameter taken into account in these evaluations was the collective dose due to the different working activities. This quantity has been assessed considering the following radiological source terms: a) the prompt radiation during the plasma burning phase, b) the gamma radiation due to the neutron activation of the solid structures, c) the activated corrosion products (ACPs) generated in the water cooling system (WCS) by corrosion of the inner wall of the piping under the neutron flux, d) tritium concentration in the atmosphere of the working premises. Individual doses have been integrated over the different worker typology, considering the design evolution for the different systems and the required person power. Ordinary, inspection and maintenance activities were taken into account to assess the person power, sometime also construction, plant modifications and unscheduled maintenance were included in the working activities list. The collective dose assessed for ITER fusion projects has been compared with that of the fission power stations and analogies and differences have been pointed out. In this review the dose assessment process is recalled starting from the

  17. Stimulating effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworowski, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of low doses on human organism is not definite known up to now. The worldwide discussion on this topic has been presented. A lot of analysed statistical data proved that the stimulating effect of low doses of ionizing radiation really exists and can have a beneficial influence on human health. 43 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  18. Radiation effects on video imagers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, G.J.; Bujnosek, J.J.; Jaramillo, S.A.; Walton, R.B.; Martinez, T.M.; Black, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation sensitivity of several photoconductive, photoemissive, and solid state silicon-based video imagers was measured by analyzing stored photocharge induced by irradiation with continuous and pulsed sources of high energy photons and neutrons. Transient effects as functions of absorbed dose, dose rate, fluences, and ionizing particle energy are presented

  19. Biopositive Effects of Ionizing Radiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1972-01-01

    This paper was written for a talk given by E. Broda in Vienna for an event organised by the chemical physical society, the Austrian biochemical society and the Austrian biophysical society in December 1972. In this paper Broda analyses the question of biopositive effects of ionizing radiation. (nowak)

  20. Occupational radiation exposures at NRC-licensed facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, B.G.

    1980-01-01

    For the past ten years, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and its predecessor, the Atomic Energy Commission, have required certain licensees to routinely submit two types of occupational radiation exposure reports: termination and annual reports. Each licensee engaged in any one of the activities: (1) operation of nuclear power reactors, (2) industrial radiography, (3) fuel fabrication, processing and reprocessing, and (4) large supply of byproduct material, is required to submit an annual statistical report and a termination report for each monitored employee who ends his employment or work assignment. A new regulation now requires all NRC licensees to submit annual reports for the years 1978 and 1979. These reports have been collected, computerized and maintained by the Commission at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. They are useful to the NRC in the evaluation of the risk of radiation exposure associated with the related activities. (author)

  1. Science experiments via telepresence at a synchrotron radiation source facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J. E.; Diakun, G.; Bushnell-Wye, G.; Fisher, S.; Thalal, A.; Helliwell, M.; Helliwell, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    The application of a turnkey communication system for telepresence at station 9.8 of the Synchrotron Radiation Source, Daresbury, is described and demonstrated, including its use for inter-continental classroom instruction and user training. Station 9.8 is one of the most oversubscribed and high-throughput stations at the Synchrotron Radiation Source, Daresbury, whereby awarded experimental time is limited, data collections last normally no longer than an hour, user changeover is normally every 24 h, and familiarity with the station systems can be low. Therefore time lost owing to technical failures on the station has a dramatic impact on productivity. To provide 24 h support, the application of a turnkey communication system has been implemented, and is described along with additional applications including its use for inter-continental classroom instruction, user training and remote participation

  2. Radiation and contamination survey of the Terengganu offshore facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amran Abd Majid; Sukiman Sarmani

    1995-01-01

    It is well known that low specific activity of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (LSA TENORM) such as U-238 and Th-232 and their daughter products have been associated with oil and gas fields. For the period of October 1988 and August 1989 UKM personels were involved in conducting the radiation and contamination survey at several offshore platforms in Terengganu. The results showed that the maximum external and internal radiation levels was 0. 45 μSv/hr whereas the maximum surface contamination level was 0. 124 Bq cm sup -2. These results indicate that the levels were below the level prescribed by the Malaysian Atomic Energy Licensing Board. However, several measures still need to be considered for the safety of the workers and will be discussed in this paper. (author)

  3. Coherent radiation spectrum measurements at KEK LUCX facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevelev, M., E-mail: mishe@post.kek.jp [KEK: High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Aryshev, A., E-mail: alar@post.kek.jp [KEK: High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Araki, S.; Fukuda, M. [KEK: High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Karataev, P. [John Adams Institute at Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J. [KEK: High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2015-01-21

    This paper demonstrates the detailed design concept, alignment, and initial testing of a Michelson interferometer for the THz spectral range. We present the first results on the measurement of a coherent transition radiation spectrum and describe the performance of a pair of ultra-fast broadband room temperature Schottky barrier diode detectors. We discuss the main criteria of interferometer beam splitter optimization, the alignment technique, the high-precision calibration and linearity check of the motion system.

  4. Modification of radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenbaum, A.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported from studies on the tissue distribution of 239 Pu and 241 Am in mice and beagle dogs and the effectiveness of various therapeutic treatments for decorporation. In dogs injected with monomeric Pu the value of a regimen of early and prolonged treatment with DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) for minimizing the Pu burden in the soft tissues and skeleton was demonstrated. These results have immediate implication for DTPA treatment in man. New studies in mice verified the action of pyran copolymer antiviral agents in enhancing the effectiveness of DTPA for removal of polymeric Pu from the liver. Recent application of autoradiographic procedures for quantitatively comparing short- and long-term localization of monomeric and polymeric 239 Pu in dog liver showed that there is no net translocation of monomeric Pu within the liver between 6 and 90 days following injection. One of the molecular studies presently underway aims at synthesis of a variety of DTPA esters. The diethyl ester has already been prepared and tested for toxicity in mice. These compounds are designed to bring DTPA into contact with plutonium deposits unavailable to the action of ionic DTPA. (U.S.)

  5. Radiation effects on eye components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durchschlag, H.; Fochler, C.; Abraham, K.; Kulawik, B.

    1999-08-01

    The most important water-soluble components of the vertebrate eye (lens proteins, aqueous humor, vitreous, hyaluronic acid, ascorbic acid) have been investigated in aqueous solution, after preceding X- or UV-irradiation. Spectroscopic, chromatographic, electrophoretic, hydrodynamic and analytic techniques have been applied, to monitor several radiation damages such as destruction of aromatic and sulfur-containing amino acids, aggregation, crosslinking, dissociation, fragmentation, and partial unfolding. Various substances were found which were able to protect eye components effectively against radiation, some of them being also of medical relevance.

  6. Ion confinement and radiation losses in the Advanced Toroidal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isler, R.C.; Colchin, R.J.; Wade, M.R.; Lyon, J.F.; Fowler, R.H.; Rome, J.A.; Hiroe, S.; Baylor, L.R.; England, A.; Ma, C.H.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Ochando, M.; Paul, S.

    1991-01-01

    Collapses of stored energy are typically observed in low-density (anti n e ∼ 10 13 cm -3 ) extensively gettered ATF plasmas when the electron density rises to the ECH cutoff point, and the central heating is supplied only by neutral- beam-injection (NBI). However, the decline of stored energy can be avoided if the density is raised rapidly to about 5 x 10 13 cm -3 . Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain the collapses: (1) impurity radiation, (2) excitation of an electron instability driven by the neutral beams, or (3) poor coupling of the beam ions to the thermal plasmas. Detailed spectroscopic studies of plasma cleanliness as a function of the gettering procedure have shown that radiation is an unlikely candidate for initiating collapses, although it may become an important loss mechanism once the electron temperature has fallen to a low level. No specific electron instability has yet been identified with injection, but recent experimental and computational work indicates that losses by shinethrough and charge exchange strongly influence the evolution of low-density plasmas. This report discusses the beam particle losses, thermal ions, and the evolution of radiation profiles

  7. The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility - an overview of planned diffraction capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvick, A.

    1991-01-01

    The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) is a third generation synchrotron radiation facility presently being built as a joint venture between 12 European countries in Grenoble, France. The ESRF will be a low emittance 6 GeV storage ring aimed at producing high-brilliance synchrotron radiation from 29 insertion devices and from 27 bending magnet ports. The general user program will start in the middle of 1994 with seven ESRF beam-lines. By 1999, 30 facility beam-lines as well as beam-lines built and financed by Collaborating Research Groups are scheduled to be in operation. The guidelines for the first beam-lines to be constructed as well as a survey of the diffraction oriented beam-lines built by the ESRF are given in the article. (author)

  8. Standard Guide for Absorbed-Dose Mapping in Radiation Processing Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This document provides guidance in determining absorbed-dose distributions in products, materials or substances irradiated in gamma, X-ray (bremsstrahlung) and electron beam facilities. Note 1—For irradiation of food and the radiation sterilization of health care products, other specific ISO and ISO/ASTM standards containing dose mapping requirements exist. For food irradiation, see ISO/ASTM 51204, Practice for Dosimetry in Gamma Irradiation Facilities for Food Processing and ISO/ASTM 51431, Practice for Dosimetry in Electron and Bremsstrahlung Irradiation Facilities for Food Processing. For the radiation sterilization of health care products, see ISO 11137: 1995, Sterilization of Health Care Products Requirements for Validation and Routine Control Radiation Sterilization. In those areas covered by ISO 11137, that standard takes precedence. ISO/ASTM Practice 51608, ISO/ASTM Practice 51649, and ISO/ASTM Practice 51702 also contain dose mapping requirements. 1.2 Methods of analyzing the dose map data ar...

  9. A novel facility for ageing materials with narrow-band ultraviolet radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerhae, Petri; Ruokolainen, Kimmo; Heikkilae, Anu; Kaunismaa, Merja

    2011-01-01

    A facility for exploring wavelength dependencies in ultraviolet (UV) radiation induced degradation in materials has been designed and constructed. The device is essentially a spectrograph separating light from a lamp to spectrally resolved UV radiation. It is based on a 1 kW xenon lamp and a flat-field concave holographic grating 10 cm in diameter. Radiation at the wavelength range 250-500 nm is dispersed onto the sample plane of 1.5 cm in height and 21 cm in width. The optical performance of the device has been characterized by radiometric measurements. Using the facility, test samples prepared of regular newspaper have been irradiated from 1 to 8 h. Color changes on the different locations of the aged samples have been quantified by color measurements. Yellowness indices computed from the color measurements demonstrate the capability of the facility in revealing wavelength dependencies of the material property changes in reasonable time frames.

  10. Dismantlement of nuclear facilities decommissioned from the Russian navy: Enhancing regulatory supervision of nuclear and radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneve, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of up to date regulatory norms and standards for nuclear and radiation safety, relevant to the management of nuclear legacy situations, combined with effective and efficient regulatory procedures for licensing and monitoring compliance, are considered to be extremely important. Accordingly the NRPA has set up regulatory cooperation programs with corresponding authorities in the Russian Federation. Cooperation began with the civilian regulatory authorities and was more recently extended to include the military authority and this joint cooperation supposed to develop the regulatory documents to improve supervision over nuclear and radiation safety while managing the nuclear military legacy facilities in Northwest Russia and other regions of the country. (Author)

  11. Dismantlement of nuclear facilities decommissioned from the Russian navy: Enhancing regulatory supervision of nuclear and radiation safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneve, M.K.

    2013-03-01

    The availability of up to date regulatory norms and standards for nuclear and radiation safety, relevant to the management of nuclear legacy situations, combined with effective and efficient regulatory procedures for licensing and monitoring compliance, are considered to be extremely important. Accordingly the NRPA has set up regulatory cooperation programs with corresponding authorities in the Russian Federation. Cooperation began with the civilian regulatory authorities and was more recently extended to include the military authority and this joint cooperation supposed to develop the regulatory documents to improve supervision over nuclear and radiation safety while managing the nuclear military legacy facilities in Northwest Russia and other regions of the country. (Author)

  12. Transverse coupling impedance of the storage ring at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Günzel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The vertical and horizontal impedance budgets of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF storage ring are calculated by element-by-element wake potential calculation. Resistive wall wakes are calculated analytically; the short range geometrical wakes are calculated by a 3D electromagnetic field solver. The effect of the quadrupolar wakes due to the flatness of most ESRF vacuum chambers is included in the model. It can well explain the sensitivity of the horizontal single bunch threshold on vacuum chamber changes, in particular, in low-gap sections of the ESRF storage ring. The values of the current thresholds on the transverse planes could be predicted correctly by the model within a factor of 2.

  13. Co-60 irradation facility for hens eggs, radiation field parameters and energy absorption in the egg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giese, W.; Mueller-Buder, A.

    1981-01-01

    For irradiation experiments with 33 530 hens eggs to test the effect of γ-rays on the hatchability of chicken a 60 Co irradiation facility was constructed, which is described in this article. Physical parameters of the radiation field as the dose rate caused by a 60 Co point source in a distance r, the flux of γ-quantae and energy towards an egg and the role of 60 Co betarays are quantitatively described. The intensity decrease, the dose build-up factor and energy absorption due to the interaction of γ-rays with atoms of the eggs content were calculated. Thus this contribution should give an impression of the physical processes involved in the γ-irradiation of eggs and on the magnitude of energy absorbed therein. (orig.) [de

  14. Regulatory measures of BARC Safety Council to control radiation exposure in BARC Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajdeep; Jolly, V.M.; Jayarajan, K.

    2018-01-01

    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is involved in multidisciplinary research and developmental activities, related to peaceful use of nuclear energy including societal benefits. BARC facilities at different parts of India include nuclear fuel fabrication facilities, research reactors, nuclear recycle facilities and various Physics, Chemistry and Biological laboratories. BARC Safety Council (BSC) is the regulatory body for BARC facilities and takes regulatory measures for radiation protection. BSC has many safety committees for radiation protection including Operating Plants Safety Review Committee (OPSRC), Committee to Review Applications for Authorization of Safe Disposal of Radioactive Wastes (CRAASDRW) and Design Safety Review Committees (DSRC) in 2 nd tier and Unit Level Safety Committees (ULSCs) in 3 rd tier under OPSRC

  15. Radiation Effects in Paediatric radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutwasi, O.

    2006-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging has evolved from single technique to a field which we have a choice from many modalities. Some without radiation. Radiation producing modalities include plain films (low dose), Fluoroscopy (mid range dose), Computed tomography (high dose). Radiography dose can significantly be influenced in plain radiography by varying speed of screens, cassette construction and type of radiography. E.g. digital or computed. In computed or digital radiography we are no longer able to tell h igh dose b y the quality of images. The final image is by great extend a product of post processing algorithms. It's for this reasons that the basic understanding of the sensitivity and specifying of various types of examinations and of specifically radiation effects is mandatory for a paediatric imager

  16. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadori Amir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles is described. Using accelerated alpha particles at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the method is applied to sample tiles from the Heat Melt Compactor, which were created by melting material from a simulated astronaut waste stream, consisting of materials such as trash and unconsumed food. The shielding effectiveness calculated from measurements of the Heat Melt Compactor sample tiles is about 10% less than the shielding effectiveness of polyethylene. Shielding material produced from the astronaut waste stream in the form of Heat Melt Compactor tiles is therefore found to be an attractive solution for protection against space radiation.

  17. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Amir; Semones, Edward; Ewert, Michael; Broyan, James; Walker, Steven

    2017-09-01

    Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles is described. Using accelerated alpha particles at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the method is applied to sample tiles from the Heat Melt Compactor, which were created by melting material from a simulated astronaut waste stream, consisting of materials such as trash and unconsumed food. The shielding effectiveness calculated from measurements of the Heat Melt Compactor sample tiles is about 10% less than the shielding effectiveness of polyethylene. Shielding material produced from the astronaut waste stream in the form of Heat Melt Compactor tiles is therefore found to be an attractive solution for protection against space radiation.

  18. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, A.

    2000-01-01

    Everyone is exposed to a complex mix of electromagnetic fields (EMF) of different frequencies that permeate our environment. Exposures to these EMF are increasing significantly as technology advances unabated and new applications are found. Technological progress in the broadest sense of the word has always been associated with various hazards and risks, both perceived and real. The industrial, commercial and household application on EMF is no exception. Throughout the world, the general public is concerned that exposure to EMF from such sources as high voltage power lines, broadcasting networks, mobile telephones and their base stations could lead to adverse health consequences, especially in children. As a result, the construction of new power lines and broadcasting and mobile telephone network has met with considerable opposition in many countries. Public exposure to EMF is regulated by a variety of voluntary and legal limits, together with various national safety standards. Guidelines are designed to avoid all identified hazards, from short and long term exposure, recommended limits. The aim of this paper is to report the summary of the actual scientific knowledge about the potential health effects and hazards due to man made EMF and the new tendencies of the social and political choices [it

  19. Irradiated radiation dose measurements of multilayer mirrors and permanent magnets used at FELI facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakisaka, K.; Tongu, H.; Okuma, S.; Oshita, E.; Wakita, K.; Takii, T.; Tomimasu, Takio

    1997-01-01

    Recently the operation time of the free electron laser (FEL) user's facilities is close on three thousand hours per year. Cavity mirrors of their optical resonators and permanent magnets of their undulators are used under high intensity radiation field along their high current electron beam lines. Among these mirrors and permanent magnets, multilayer mirrors and Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets are not so strong against radiation damage compared with Au-coated copper mirrors and Sm-Co permanent magnets. A radiation damage on Ta 2 O 5 /SiO 2 mirrors was found for the first time after about fifty hours visible FEL operation at the FELI. The damage is due to irradiated bremsstrahlung and intracavity FEL. However, radiation damages on Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets were already reported compared with Sm-Co ones using high energy neutrons, protons, deuterons and 60 Coγ-rays. Mixed irradiation effects of 85-MeV electrons, bremsstrahlung and 60 Coγ-rays and of 17-MeV electrons and 60 Coγ-rays were also studied. The latest results show that the magnetic flux loss of Nd-Fe-B is 2% at an absorbed dose of 10 MGy. The present work was carried out to study the irradiated dose distributions near the multilayer mirrors and Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs). The irradiated dose to the cavity mirrors used in Linac-based FEL experiment is estimated to be 0.3 MGray for fifty hours irradiation. The irradiated dose to the Nd-Fe-B magnets is estimated to be 16 MGray for 2 thousand hours operation. The decrease of their magnetic flux due to 16 MGray is estimated to be about 3%. These dose monitorings are useful to reduce irradiated dosages to the mirrors and the permanent magnets as low as possible and to estimate their safety lifetimes. (author)

  20. Radiation safety aspects of new X-ray free electron laser facility, SACLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    In the safety point of view, X-ray free electron laser facilities have some characteristics in comparison with 3 rd generation synchrotron radiation facilities. One is that the high energy electrons are always injected into the beam dump and the beamlines must be constructed in the direction of the movements of electrons, and another is that the total number of accelerated electrons of X-ray free electron laser facilities is much larger than that of synchrotron radiation facilities. In addition to the importance of safety interlock systems, therefore, it is important that high energy electrons never invade into X-ray free electron laser beamlines and the amount of accelerated electron beam losses must be reduced as much as possible. At SACLA, a safety permanent magnet was installed into the X-ray light beam axis, and a beam halo monitor and beam loss monitors were installed within and around the electron transport pipes, respectively. In comparison with the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility, shielding design of SACLA, outline of the radiation safety systems including the monitors will be presented

  1. Measurements of the ionising radiation level at a nuclear medicine facility performing PET/CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulik, P.; Kowalska, M.; Golnik, N.; Budzynska, A.; Dziuk, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of radiation level measurements at workplaces in a nuclear medicine facility performing PET/ CT examinations. This study meticulously determines the staff radiation exposure in a PET/CT facility by tracking the path of patient movement. The measurements of the instantaneous radiation exposure were performed using an electronic radiometer with a proportional counter that was equipped with the option of recording the results on line. The measurements allowed for visualisation of the staff's instantaneous exposure caused by a patient walking through the department after the administration of "1"8F-FDG. An estimation of low doses associated with each working step and the exposure during a routine day in the department was possible. The measurements were completed by determining the average radiation level using highly sensitive thermoluminescent detectors. (authors)

  2. Synchrotron radiation A general overview and a review of storage rings, research facilities, and insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winick, H.

    1989-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation, the electromagnetic radiation given off by electrons in circular motion, is revolutionizing many branches of science and technology by offering beams of vacuum ultraviolet light and x rays of immense flux and brightness. In the past decade there has been an explosion of interest in these applications leading activity to construct new research facilities based on advanced storage rings and insertion device sources. Applications include basic and applied research in biology, chemistry, medicine, and physics plus many areas of technology. In this article we present a general overview of the field of synchrotron radiation research, its history, the present status and future prospects of storage rings and research facilities, and the development of wiggler and undulator insertion devices as sources of synchrotron radiation

  3. Effect of radiation resistance additives for insulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasuaki; Yagyu, Hideki; Seguchi, Tadao.

    1988-01-01

    For the electric wires and cables used in radiation environment such as nuclear power stations and fuel reprocessing facilities, the properties of excellent radiation resistance are required. For these insulators and sheath materials, ethylene propylene rubber, polyethylene and other polymers have been used, but it cannot be said that they always have good radiation resistance. However, it has been well known that radiation resistance can be improved with small amount of additives, and heat resistance and burning retarding property as well as radiation resistance are given to the insulators of wires and cables for nuclear facilities by mixing various additives. In this research, the measuring method for quantitatively determining the effect of Anti-rad (radiation resistant additive) was examined. Through the measurement of gel fraction, radical formation and decomposed gas generation, the effect of Anti-rad protecting polymers from radiation deterioration was examined from the viewpoint of chemical reaction. The experimental method and the results are reported. The radiation energy for cutting C-H coupling is polymers is dispersed by Anti-rad, and the probability of cutting is lowered. Anti-rad catches and extinguishes radicals that start oxidation reaction. (K.I.)

  4. The development of radiation hardened robot for nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Jung, Seung Ho; Kim, Byung Soo and others

    2000-04-01

    The work conducted in this stage covers development of core technology of tele-robot system including monitoring technique in high-level radioactive area, tele-sensing technology and radiation-hardened technology for the non-destructive tele-inspection system which monitors the primary coolant system during the normal operations of PHWR(Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) NPPs and measures the decrease of bending part of feeder pipe during overall. Based on the developed core technology, the monitoring mobile robot system of the primary coolant system and the feeder pipe inspecting robot system are developed.

  5. The development of radiation hardened robot for nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Jung, Seung Ho; Kim, Byung Soo and others

    2000-04-01

    The work conducted in this stage covers development of core technology of tele-robot system including monitoring technique in high-level radioactive area, tele-sensing technology and radiation-hardened technology for the non-destructive tele-inspection system which monitors the primary coolant system during the normal operations of PHWR(Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) NPPs and measures the decrease of bending part of feeder pipe during overall. Based on the developed core technology, the monitoring mobile robot system of the primary coolant system and the feeder pipe inspecting robot system are developed

  6. Syrinx - a research program for the pulsed power radiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etlicher, B.; Chuvatin, A.S.; Choi, P.

    1996-01-01

    Syrinx is a targeted research program with the objective to study, through practical examples, the fundamentals necessary to define the details of all parts which will be required for a new powerful plasma radiation source. The current level of activities of Syrinx is in the design and construction of a multi-megajoule class IES based pulsed power driver which will use long conduction Plasma Opening Switch technology. The present paper reviews mainly the basic experimental research of the POS a nd Z-pinch accomplished in the framework of Syrinx project. This work has a unique international level of participation, from conceptual designs to particular investigations. (author). 9 figs., 17 refs

  7. Solid state detectors for neutron radiation monitoring in fusion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Ros, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to summarize the main solid state based detectors proposed for neutron diagnostic in fusion applications and their applicability under the required harsh conditions in terms of intense radiation, high temperature and available space restrictions. Activation systems, semiconductor based detectors, luminescent materials and Cerenkov fibre optics sensors (C-FOS) are the main devices that are described. - Highlights: • A state-of-the-art summary of solid state based detectors are described. • Conditions and restrictions for their applicability are described. • A list of the 38 more relevant references has been included

  8. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Chinon nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the facilities (INBs no. 94 (irradiated materials workshop), 99 (fuel storage facility), 107 and 132 (NPPs in operation), 133, 153 and 161 (NPPs under deconstruction)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  9. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Chinon nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the facilities (INBs no. 94 (irradiated materials workshop), 99 (fuel storage facility), 107 and 132 (NPPs in operation), 133, 153 and 161 (NPPs under deconstruction)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  10. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Chinon nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the facilities (INBs no. 94 (irradiated materials workshop), 99 (fuel storage facility), 107 and 132 (NPPs in operation), 133, 153 and 161 (NPPs under deconstruction)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  11. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Bugey nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Bugey nuclear power plant (Ain (FR)): 4 PWR reactors in operation (INB 78 and 89), one partially dismantled graphite-gas reactor (INB 45), an inter-regional fuel storage facility (MIR, INB 102), and a radioactive waste storage and conditioning facility under construction (ICEDA, INB 173). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  12. Genomic instability and radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian Streffer

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Cancer, genetic mutations and developmental abnormalities are apparently associated with an increased genomic instability. Such phenomena have been frequently shown in human cancer cells in vitro and in situ. It is also well-known that individuals with a genetic predisposition for cancer proneness, such as ataxia telangiectesia, Fanconi anaemia etc. demonstrate a general high genomic instability e.g. in peripheral lymphocytes before a cancer has developed. Analogous data have been found in mice which develop a specific congenital malformation which has a genetic background. Under these aspects it is of high interest that ionising radiation can increase the genomic instability of mammalian cells after exposures in vitro an in vivo. This phenomenon is expressed 20 to 40 cell cycles after the exposure e.g. by de novo chromosomal aberrations. Such effects have been observed with high and low LET radiation, high LET radiation is more efficient. With low LET radiation a good dose response is observed in the dose range 0.2 to 2.0 Gy, Recently it has been reported that senescence and genomic instability was induced in human fibroblasts after 1 mGy carbon ions (1 in 18 cells are hit), apparently bystander effects also occurred under these conditions. The instability has been shown with DNA damage, chromosomal aberrations, gene mutation and cell death. It is also transferred to the next generation of mice with respect to gene mutations, chromosomal aberrations and congenital malformations. Several mechanisms have been discussed. The involvement of telomeres has gained interest. Genomic instability seems to be induced by a general lesion to the whole genome. The transmission of one chromosome from an irradiated cell to an non-irradiated cell leads to genomic instability in the untreated cells. Genomic instability increases mutation rates in the affected cells in general. As radiation late effects (cancer, gene mutations and congenital

  13. Notes on radiation effects on materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anno, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of radiation from nuclear reactions on various classes of materials are examined in an introductory textbook for students of nuclear engineering. Topics discussed include the units and general scale of radiation damage, fundamental interactions of neutrons and gamma rays with materials, transient radiation effects on electrical components, radiation effects on organic materials and on steels, nuclear fission effects, surface effects of nuclear radiations, radiation effects on biological material, and neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry. Graphs, diagrams, tables of numerical data, and problems for each chapter are provided. 122 references

  14. Effectiveness of counseling at primary health facilities: Level of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effectiveness of counseling at primary health facilities: Level of knowledge of antenatal attendee and their ... Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of counseling on HIV done in primary health facilities ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  15. Gamma irradiation facilities for radiation tolerance assessment of components and systems at SCK.CEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, S.; Decreton, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the different gamma irradiation facilities available at SCK-CEN (Mol, Belgium). With gamma dose rates ranging from 1 Gy/h up to 50 kGy/h, extensive environmental control and on-line instrumentation possibilities, they offer ideal test environments for the radiation tolerance assessment of components and systems for many applications where radiation tolerance is a concern. (authors)

  16. Thermal effects in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1985-01-01

    The balance of ionizing radiation energy incident on an object being processed is discussed in terms of energy losses, influencing the amount really absorbed. To obtain the amount of heat produced, the absorbed energy is corrected for the change in internal energy of the system and for the heat effect of secondary reactions developing after the initiation. The temperature of a processed object results from the heat evolved and from the specific heat of the material comprising the object. The csub(p) of most materials is usually much lower than that of aqueous systems and therefore temperatures after irradiation are higher. The role of low specific heat in radiation processing at cryogenic conditions is stressed. Adiabatic conditions of accelerator irradiation are contrasted with the steady state thermal conditions prevailing in large gamma sources. Among specific questions discussed in the last part of the paper are: intermediate and final temperature of composite materials, measurement of real thermal effects in situ, neutralization of undesired warming experienced during radiation processing, processing at temperatures other than ambient and administration of very high doses of radiation. (author)

  17. Radiation effects in silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Howitt, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    The study of radiation effects in complex silicate glasses has received renewed attention because of their use in special applications such as high level nuclear waste immobilization and fiber optics. Radiation changes the properties of these glasses by altering their electronic and atomic configurations. These alterations or defects may cause dilatations or microscopic phase changes along with absorption centers that limit the optical application of the glasses. Atomic displacements induced in the already disordered structure of the glasses may affect their use where heavy irradiating particles such as alpha particles, alpha recoils, fission fragments, or accelerated ions are present. Large changes (up to 1%) in density may result. In some cases the radiation damage may be severe enough to affect the durability of the glass in aqueous solutions. In the paper, the authors review the literature concerning radiation effects on density, durability, stored energy, microstructure and optical properties of silicate glasses. Both simple glasses and complex glasses used for immobilization of nuclear waste are considered

  18. Thermal effects in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1984-01-01

    The balance of ionizing radiation energy incident on an object being processed is discussed in terms of energy losses, influencing the amount really absorbed. To obtain the amount of heat produced, the absorbed energy is corrected for the change in internal energy of the system and for the heat effect of secondary reactions developing after the initiation. The temperature of a processed object results from the heat evolved and from the specific heat of the material comprising the object. The specific heat of most materials is usually much lower than that of aqueous systems and therefore temperatures after irradiation are higher. The role of low specific heat in radiation processing at cryogenic conditions is stressed. Adiabatic conditions of accelerator irradiation are contrasted with the steady state thermal conditions prevailing in large gamma sources. Among specific questions discussed in the last part of the paper are: intermediate and final temperature of composite materials, measurement of real thermal effects in situ, neutralization of undesired warming experienced during radiation processing, processing at temperatures other than ambient and administration of very high doses of radiation

  19. Health effects of radiation and the implications for radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.; Anderer, J.

    1991-01-01

    In this Paper two elements of a multiphase analysis of radiation exposures in the living environment - the human health effects of ionizing radiation and the implications for radiation safety policy and practices - are presented. Part 1 draws together the current state of scientific knowledge and insight about the human health effects of radiation, describing these in terms of known cause-related deterministic effects and of the estimated incidence of stochastic effects as defined by biostatistics and biological models. The 1988 UNSCEAR report provides an authoritative basis for such an examination. Part 2 explores some of the major implications that the state-of-the-art of radiation biology has - or should have - for radiation safety policy and practices. (author)

  20. Radiation safety program in high dose rate brachytherapy facility at INHS Asvini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti Tyagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachytherapy concerns primarily the use of radioactive sealed sources which are inserted into catheters or applicators and placed directly into tissue either inside or very close to the target volume. The use of radiation in treatment of patients involves both benefits and risks. It has been reported that early radiation workers had developed radiation induced cancers. These incidents lead to continuous work for the improvement of radiation safety of patients and personnel The use of remote afterloading equipment has been developed to improve radiation safety in the delivery of treatment in brachytherapy. The widespread adoption of high dose rate brachytherapy needs appropriate quality assurance measures to minimize the risks to both patients and medical staff. The radiation safety program covers five major aspects: quality control, quality assurance, radiation monitoring, preventive maintenance, administrative measures and quality audit. This paper will discuss the radiation safety program developedfor a high dose rate brachytherapy facility at our centre which may serve as a guideline for other centres intending to install a similar facility.

  1. MGR COMPLIANCE PROGRAM GUIDANCE PACKAGE FOR RADIATION PROTECTION EQUIPMENT, INSTRUMENTATION, AND FACILITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Compliance Program Guidance Package identifies the regulatory guidance and industry codes and standards addressing radiation protection equipment, instrumentation, and support facilities considered to be appropriate for radiation protection at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Included are considerations relevant to radiation monitoring instruments, calibration, contamination control and decontamination, respiratory protection equipment, and general radiation protection facilities. The scope of this Guidance Package does not include design guidance relevant to criticality monitoring, area radiation monitoring, effluent monitoring, and airborne radioactivity monitoring systems since they are considered to be the topics of specific design and construction requirements (i.e., ''fixed'' or ''built-in'' systems). This Guidance Package does not address radiation protection design issues; it addresses the selection and calibration of radiation monitoring instrumentation to the extent that the guidance is relevant to the operational radiation protection program. Radon and radon progeny monitoring instrumentation is not included in the Guidance Package since such naturally occurring radioactive materials do not fall within the NRC's jurisdiction at the MGR

  2. Research on radiation effect and radiation protection at JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kimiaki

    2007-01-01

    Researches on radiation effect and radiation protection at JAEA have been carried out in different sections. In recent years, the organizations were rearranged to attain better research circumstances, and new research programs started. At present, radiation effect studies focus on radiation effect mechanisms at atomic, molecular and cellular levels including simulation studies, and protection studies focus on dosimetry for conditions difficult to cover with currently used methods and data as well as the related basic studies. The outlines of the whole studies and also some descriptions on selected subjects will be given in this paper. (author)

  3. Health physics experience with nondestructive X-radiation facilities in the US Air Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stencel, J.R.; Piltingsrud, H.V.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation safety experience in the construction and use of enclosed nondestructive inspection (NDI) facilities in the US Air Force, has reaffirmed the constant need for the health physicist to continually monitor and assit in upgrading these facilities. Health physics contributions include evaluation of initial shielding requirements, proper selection of construction material, insuring that adequate safety devices are installed and adequate personnel dosimetry devices are available, surveying the facility, and assisting in the safety education program. There is a need to better define NDI warning/safety devices, using the National Bureau of Standards, (NBS) Handbook 107 as the most applicable guide

  4. Radiation damage evaluation on concrete within a facility for Selective Production of Exotic Species (SPES Project), Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomaro, B.; Salomoni, V.A.; Gramegna, F.; Prete, G.; Majorana, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We present the effect of radiation on concrete as shielding material. → The coupling between hydro-thermal-mechanical fields and radiation damage is shown. → Attention is focused on numerical modelling of concrete in 3D domains. → A new estimate of the radiation damage parameter is given. → A risk assessment of concrete-radiation interactions is developed. - Abstract: Concrete is commonly used as a biological shield against nuclear radiation. As long as, in the design of nuclear facilities, its load carrying capacity is required together with its shielding properties, changes in the mechanical properties due to nuclear radiation are of particular significance and may have to be taken into account in such circumstances. The study presented here allows for reaching first evidences on the behavior of concrete when exposed to nuclear radiation in order to evaluate the consequent effect on the mechanical field, by means of a proper definition of the radiation damage, strictly connected with the strength properties of the building material. Experimental evidences on the decay of the mechanical modulus of concrete have allowed for implementing the required damage law within a 3D F.E. research code which accounts for the coupling among moisture, heat transfer and the mechanical field in concrete treated as a fully coupled porous medium. The development of the damage front in a concrete shielding wall is analyzed under neutron radiation and results within the wall thickness are reported for long-term radiation spans and several concrete mixtures in order to discuss the resulting shielding properties.

  5. A localized navigation algorithm for radiation evasion for nuclear facilities: Optimizing the “Radiation Evasion” criterion: Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasawneh, Mohammed A.; Al-Shboul, Zeina Aman M.; Jaradat, Mohammad A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new navigation algorithm for radiation evasion around nuclear facilities. ► An optimization criteria minimized under algorithm operation. ► A man-borne device guiding the occupational worker towards paths that warrant least radiation × time products. ► Benefits of using localized navigation as opposed to global navigation schemas. ► A path discrimination function for finding the navigational paths exhibiting the least amounts of radiation. -- Abstract: In this paper, we introduce a navigation algorithm having general utility for occupational workers at nuclear facilities and places where radiation poses serious health hazards. This novel algorithm leverages the use of localized information for its operation. Therefore, the need for central processing and decision resources is avoided, since information processing and the ensuing decision-making are done aboard a man-borne device. To acquire the information needed for path planning in radiation avoidance, a well-designed and distributed wireless sensory infrastructure is needed. This will automatically benefit from the most recent trends in technology developments in both sensor networks and wireless communication. When used to navigate based on local radiation information, the algorithm will behave more reliably when accidents happen, since no long-haul communication links are required for information exchange. In essence, the proposed algorithm is designed to leverage nearest neighbor information coming in through the sensory network overhead, to compute successful navigational paths from one point to another. The proposed algorithm is tested under the “Radiation Evasion” criterion. It is also tested for the case when more information, beyond nearest neighbors, is made available; here, we test its operation for different numbers of step look-ahead. We verify algorithm performance by means of simulations, whereby navigational paths are calculated for different radiation fields

  6. A localized navigation algorithm for radiation evasion for nuclear facilities: Optimizing the “Radiation Evasion” criterion: Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khasawneh, Mohammed A., E-mail: mkha@ieee.org [Department of Electrical Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 221 10 (Jordan); Al-Shboul, Zeina Aman M., E-mail: xeinaaman@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 221 10 (Jordan); Jaradat, Mohammad A., E-mail: majaradat@just.edu.jo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 221 10 (Jordan)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► A new navigation algorithm for radiation evasion around nuclear facilities. ► An optimization criteria minimized under algorithm operation. ► A man-borne device guiding the occupational worker towards paths that warrant least radiation × time products. ► Benefits of using localized navigation as opposed to global navigation schemas. ► A path discrimination function for finding the navigational paths exhibiting the least amounts of radiation. -- Abstract: In this paper, we introduce a navigation algorithm having general utility for occupational workers at nuclear facilities and places where radiation poses serious health hazards. This novel algorithm leverages the use of localized information for its operation. Therefore, the need for central processing and decision resources is avoided, since information processing and the ensuing decision-making are done aboard a man-borne device. To acquire the information needed for path planning in radiation avoidance, a well-designed and distributed wireless sensory infrastructure is needed. This will automatically benefit from the most recent trends in technology developments in both sensor networks and wireless communication. When used to navigate based on local radiation information, the algorithm will behave more reliably when accidents happen, since no long-haul communication links are required for information exchange. In essence, the proposed algorithm is designed to leverage nearest neighbor information coming in through the sensory network overhead, to compute successful navigational paths from one point to another. The proposed algorithm is tested under the “Radiation Evasion” criterion. It is also tested for the case when more information, beyond nearest neighbors, is made available; here, we test its operation for different numbers of step look-ahead. We verify algorithm performance by means of simulations, whereby navigational paths are calculated for different radiation fields.

  7. Comparison of a Commonwealth-initiated regional radiation oncology facility in Toowoomba with a Queensland Health facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, M.; Ramsay, R.; Gogna, K.; Middleton, M.; Martin, J.; Khoo, E.; Wong, W.; McQuitty, S.; Walpole, E.; Fairweather, R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to compare a private Commonwealth-initiated regional radiation oncology facility in Toowoomba with a Queensland Health facility (QHF) in Brisbane. The comparison concentrated on staffing, case mix and operational budgets, but was not able to look at changes in access to services. Data were collected from the two facilities from January 2008 to June 2008 inclusive. A number of factors were compared, including case mix, staffing levels, delay times for treatment, research, training and treatment costs. The case mix between the two areas was similar with curative treatments making up just over half the work load in both centres and two-thirds the work being made up of cancers of breast and prostate. Staffing levels were leaner in Toowoomba, especially in the areas of nursing, administration and trial coordinators. Research activity was slightly higher in Toowoomba. The average medicare cost per treatment course was similar in both centres ($5000 per course). Total costs of an average treatment including patient, State and Commonwealth costs, showed a 30% difference in costing favouring Toowoomba. This regional radiation oncology centre has provided state-of-the-art cancer care that is close to home for patients living in the Darling Downs region. Both public and private patients have been treated with modest costs to the patient and significant savings to QH. The case mix is similar to the QHF, and there has been significant activity in clinical research. A paperless working environment is one factor that has allowed staffing levels to be reduced. Ongoing support from Governments are required if private facilities are to participate in important ongoing staff training.

  8. Introduction of radiation protection and dosimetry in new hot cell facility in research center Rez

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svrcula, P.; Petrickova, A.; Srba, O.; Miklos, M.; Svoboda, P.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the poster is to present radiation protection and dosimetry in the new hot cell facility being constructed as part of the SUSEN project. The hot cell facility is composed of 10 hot cells and 1 semi-hot cell. All shielding is made from steel, the outer wall shielding has thickness of 500 mm, internal wall between hot cells 300 mm with the possibility to extension to 500 mm. The ceiling shielding has a thickness of 400 mm and the floor shielding is 300 mm wide. Shielded windows allow direct view into the hot cells. Their shielding effect is equivalent to 500 mm of steel. The dimension of the window in the control room is 800 mm x 600 mm with a thickness of 900 mm. All important operating data are collected in the central system of hot cells. The system monitors under-pressure level and temperature in each chamber. If necessary it can directly control the ventilation system. Each hot cell is equipped with dose rate probes. The system also measures and evaluates airborne radioactivity in the building

  9. Application of personal computer to development of entrance management system for radiating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shogo; Hirai, Shouji

    1989-01-01

    The report describes a system for managing the entrance and exit of personnel to radiating facilities. A personal computer is applied to its development. Major features of the system is outlined first. The computer is connected to the gate and two magnetic card readers provided at the gate. The gate, which is installed at the entrance to a room under control, opens only for those who have a valid card. The entrance-exit management program developed is described next. The following three files are used: ID master file (random file of the magnetic card number, name, qualification, etc., of each card carrier), entrance-exit management file (random file of time of entrance/exit, etc., updated everyday), and entrance-exit record file (sequential file of card number, name, date, etc.), which are stored on floppy disks. A display is provided to show various lists including a list of workers currently in the room and a list of workers who left the room at earlier times of the day. This system is useful for entrance management of a relatively small facility. Though small in required cost, it requires only a few operators to perform effective personnel management. (N.K.)

  10. Engineered and Administrative Safety Systems for the Control of Prompt Radiation Hazards at Accelerator Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, James C.; SLAC; Vylet, Vashek; Walker, Lawrence S.

    2007-01-01

    The ANSI N43.1 Standard, currently in revision (ANSI 2007), sets forth the requirements for accelerator facilities to provide adequate protection for the workers, the public and the environment from the hazards of ionizing radiation produced during and from accelerator operations. The Standard also recommends good practices that, when followed, provide a level of radiation protection consistent with those established for the accelerator communities. The N43.1 Standard is suitable for all accelerator facilities (using electron, positron, proton, or ion particle beams) capable of producing radiation, subject to federal or state regulations. The requirements (see word 'shall') and recommended practices (see word 'should') are prescribed in a graded approach that are commensurate with the complexity and hazard levels of the accelerator facility. Chapters 4, 5 and 6 of the N43.1 Standard address specially the Radiation Safety System (RSS), both engineered and administrative systems, to mitigate and control the prompt radiation hazards from accelerator operations. The RSS includes the Access Control System (ACS) and Radiation Control System (RCS). The main requirements and recommendations of the N43.1 Standard regarding the management, technical and operational aspects of the RSS are described and condensed in this report. Clearly some aspects of the RSS policies and practices at different facilities may differ in order to meet the practical needs for field implementation. A previous report (Liu et al. 2001a), which reviews and summarizes the RSS at five North American high-energy accelerator facilities, as well as the RSS references for the 5 labs (Drozdoff 2001; Gallegos 1996; Ipe and Liu 1992; Liu 1999; Liu 2001b; Rokni 1996; TJNAF 1994; Yotam et al. 1991), can be consulted for the actual RSS implementation at various laboratories. A comprehensive report describing the RSS at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC 2006) can also serve as a reference

  11. Radiation effects on and dose enhancement of electronic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srour, J.R.; Long, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    This book describes radiation effects on and dose enhancement factors for electronic materials. Alteration of the electrical properties of solid-state devices and integrated circuits by impinging radiation is well-known. Such changes may cause an electronic subsystem to fail, thus there is currently great interest in devising methods for avoiding radiation-induced degradation. The development of radiation-hardened devices and circuits is an exciting approach to solving this problem for many applications, since it could minimize the need for shielding or other system hardening techniques. Part 1 describes the basic mechanisms of radiation effects on electronic materials, devices, and integrated circuits. Radiation effects in bulk silicon and in silicon devices are treated. Ionizing radiation effects in silicon dioxide films and silicon MOS devices are discussed. Single event phenomena are considered. Key literature references and a bibliography are provided. Part II provides tabulations of dose enhancement factors for electronic devices in x-ray and gamma-ray environments. The data are applicable to a wide range of semiconductor devices and selected types of capacitors. Radiation environments discussed find application in system design and in radiation test facilities

  12. Shielding of Medical Radiation Facilities - National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Reports No. 147 and No. 151

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KASE, K.R.

    2008-01-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements of the United States (NCRP) has issued two reports in the past 18 months that provide methods and data for designing shielding for diagnostic radiological imaging and radiation therapy facilities. These reports update previous publications on this subject with revised methods that take into account new technologies, results from measurements and new data that have been published in the last 30 years. This paper gives a brief summary of the contents of these reports, the methods recommended for determining the shielding required and the data provided to aid in the calculations

  13. Controlling of degradation effects in radiation processing of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-05-01

    The interest of Member States of the IAEA in introducing radiation technology into the polymer and plastics industry is growing. This publication summarizes a number of studies conducted in the framework of a coordinated research project (CRP) on controlling of degradation effects on polymers by radiation processing technologies. It reviews a variety of applications and details the most important results and achievements of the participating centres and laboratories during the course of the CRP. The publication is intended to be of use to scientists implementing the technology and managers of radiation processing facilities

  14. Radiation safety during remediation of the SevRAO facilities: 10 years of regulatory experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneve, M K; Shandala, N; Kiselev, S; Simakov, A; Titov, A; Seregin, V; Kryuchkov, V; Shcheblanov, V; Bogdanova, L; Grachev, M; Smith, G M

    2015-09-01

    In compliance with the fundamentals of the government's policy in the field of nuclear and radiation safety approved by the President of the Russian Federation, Russia has developed a national program for decommissioning of its nuclear legacy. Under this program, the State Atomic Energy Corporation 'Rosatom' is carrying out remediation of a Site for Temporary Storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive waste (RW) at Andreeva Bay located in Northwest Russia. The short term plan includes implementation of the most critical stage of remediation, which involves the recovery of SNF from what have historically been poorly maintained storage facilities. SNF and RW are stored in non-standard conditions in tanks designed in some cases for other purposes. It is planned to transport recovered SNF to PA 'Mayak' in the southern Urals. This article analyses the current state of the radiation safety supervision of workers and the public in terms of the regulatory preparedness to implement effective supervision of radiation safety during radiation-hazardous operations. It presents the results of long-term radiation monitoring, which serve as informative indicators of the effectiveness of the site remediation and describes the evolving radiation situation. The state of radiation protection and health care service support for emergency preparedness is characterized by the need to further study the issues of the regulator-operator interactions to prevent and mitigate consequences of a radiological accident at the facility. Having in mind the continuing intensification of practical management activities related to SNF and RW in the whole of northwest Russia, it is reasonable to coordinate the activities of the supervision bodies within a strategic master plan. Arrangements for this master plan are discussed, including a proposed programme of actions to enhance the regulatory supervision in order to support accelerated mitigation of threats related to the nuclear legacy in the

  15. Health effects of radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasimova, K; Azizova, F; Mehdieva, K.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : A summary of the nature of radiactive contamination would be incomplete without some mention of the human health effects relatied to radioactivity and radioactive materials. Several excellent reviews at the variety of levels of detail have been written and should be consulted by the reader. Internal exposures of alpha and beta particles are important for ingested and inhaled radionuclides. Dosimetry models are used to estimate the dose from internally deposited radioactive particles. As mentioned above weighting parameters that take into account the radiation type, the biological half-life and the tissue or organ at risk are used to convert the physically absorbed dose in units of gray (or red) to the biologically significant committed equivalent dose and effective dose, measured in units of Sv (or rem). There is considerable controversy over the shape of the dose-response curve at the chronic low dose levels important for enviromental contamination. Proposed models include linear models, non-linear models and threshold models. Because risks at low dose must be extrapolated from available date at high doses, the shape of the dose-response curve has important implications for the environmental regulations used to protect the general public. The health effect of radiation damage depends on a combination of events of on the cellular, tissue and systemic levels. These lead to mutations and cellular of the irradiated parent cell. The dose level at which significant damage occurs depends on the cell type. Cells that reproduce rapidily, such as those found in bone marrow or the gastrointestinal tract, will be more sensitive to radiation than those that are longer lived, such as striated muscle or nerve cells. The effects of high radiation doses on an organ depends on the various cell types it contains

  16. Radiation control aspects of the civil construction for a high power free electron laser (FEL) facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, T.; Neil, G.; Stapleton, G.

    1996-01-01

    The paper discusses some of the assumptions and methods employed for the control of ionizing radiation in the specifications for the civil construction of a planned free electron laser facility based on a 200 MeV, 5 mA superconducting recirculation electron accelerator. Consideration is given firstly to the way in which the underlying building configuration and siting aspects were optimized on the basis of the early assumptions of beam loss and radiation goals. The various design requirements for radiation protection are then considered, and how they were folded into an aesthetically pleasing and functional building

  17. Optimization and decision-making radiation protection in gamma radiography facilities 192 Ir - with roof bunker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio Filho, Joao

    2001-01-01

    To determine optimized dose limits for workers, a study was undertaken of radiation protection optimization in gamma radiography facilities, using the Multi-Attribute Utility Analysis technique. A total of 66 protection options, distributed in 6 irradiation configurations in a closed installation, with roof, type 'bunker', were analyzed. In the determination of the optimized dose limit, the following attributes were considered: cost of the protection, cost of the detriment for different alpha values, cost of the isolation area, individual equivalent doses and collective dose. The variables considered in the evaluation included: effective work load, type and activity of the radiation sources, source-operator distance, and type and thickness of the material used in the protection shielding. Other parameters analyzed included the quality of the radiographic image and the technical procedures employed. The optimal analytic solutions obtained that resulted in the optimized dose limit were determined by means of a sensitivity analysis and by direct and logical evaluations. Thus, independent of the values of the monetary coefficient attributed to the detriment, the annual interests applied to the protection cost, and the type of installation studied, it was concluded that the primary limit of annual dose for workers, 50 mSv, can be easily reduced to an optimized annual dose limit of 5 mSv. (author)

  18. The Midwest Proton Radiation Institute project at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anferov, V; Broderick, B; Collins, J C; Friesel, D L; Jenner, D; Jones, W P; Katuin, J; Klein, S B; Starks, W; Self, J; Schreuder, N [IUCF, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States)

    2001-12-12

    The IUCF cyclotrons ceased delivering particle beams for physics research and became dedicated medical proton beam accelerators in 1999. Removal of the beam lines and nuclear research facilities associated with the cyclotrons to make room for the new medical beam delivery systems was completed in October, 2000. A new achromatic beam line was completed, extending from the main stage cyclotron and ending at a temporary research platform. This beam line is being commissioned during ongoing applied research. The achromatic line will deliver 0.5 {mu}A of 205 MeV protons from which the treatment room technician may draw current at any time via fast switching, laminated magnets located at the entrances to the energy selection systems upstream of each of the treatment rooms. Three treatment rooms are planned, one containing two fixed horizontal lines and two gantry rooms. The cyclotrons will also support full time research in radiation effects, single event upset, radiation biology and pre-clinical research. This contribution describes the status of the medical construction project.

  19. Radiation exposure to the staff working in PET/CT and Cyclotron Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, S.D.

    2016-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has been available in number of centers for more than 25 years, but its use was not wide spread until 10 years ago. In Bulgarian PET/CT was installed for the first time in 2009 and the dose on demand cyclotron also for the first time – in 2013 in Nuclear Medicine Department in University Hospital St. Marina in Varna, Bulgaria. Responsibility of every radiation protection officer is to educate the stuff how to protect their selves from radioactive exposure and to observe and calculate the dose to the people and the stuff. The purpose of this paper is to show how big the doses of the stuff working in Nuclear Medicine Center including PET/CT and Cyclotron facilities situated in University Hospital St. Marina in Varna, Bulgaria are. The Department is working now with about 15 patients every day. The dose rates measured with personal TLD’s and personal dose rate meters for the last 5 years for the stuff are under 3 mSv. As the average dose is under 1 mSv, and the doses over 1mSv are only for nurses who injected the FDG. Keywords: radiation exposure, effective dose, PET/CT, Cyclotron, FDGbf

  20. Radiation impact caused by activation of air from the future GSI accelerator facility fair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutermuth, F.; Wildermuth, H.; Radon, T.; Fehrenbacher, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt is planning a new accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR). Two future experimental areas are regarded to be the most decisive points concerning the activation of air. One is the area for the production of antiprotons. A second crucial experimental area is the so-called Super Fragment Separator. The production of radioactive isotopes in air is calculated using the residual nuclei option of the Monte Carlo program FLUKA. The results are compared with the data for the activation of air given by Sullivan and in IAEA report 283. The resulting effective dose is calculated using a program package from the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection, the Bundesamt fuer Stranlenschutz. The results demonstrate that a direct emission of the total radioactivity produced into the air will probably conflict with the limits of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance. Special measures have to be planned in order to reduce the amount of radioactivity released into the air. (authors)

  1. Quantitative analysis of education effect by the number of contamination in an unsealed radioisotope facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Naoki; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takao, Hideaki; Kaneko, Mamoru; Yamaguchi, Yukiko; Okumura, Yutaka

    2002-01-01

    The educational program for radiation workers is essential for the safety of radiation facility that stands on radiation protection practice by each worker. However, there appears no distinct criterion for quantitative evaluation of the education effect on radiation safety. The effectiveness of education was assessed by the number and the frequency (number of contamination/number of users) of contamination, a major incident involving radioactive materials, based on the long-term contamination surveillance data from 1996 to 2001 in Nagasaki University Radioisotope Center. Facility staffs monitored contamination in the facility every day. In 1996 and 1997, the yearly total number and the frequency of contamination found in a molecular biology room, a most frequently-used laboratory, were 150 and 1.21, respectively. The improvement of education program, including introduction of technical procedures to avoid contamination in molecular biological experiments, pre-entry instruction for fresh workers to demonstrate radiation safety practices on site, and spreading the new concept 'contamination happens by all means' through the radiation workers, markedly reduced both the number and the frequency of contamination to 33 and 0.48, respectively. This reduction seemed to be attributable for two different reasons; improvement of skills to avoid contamination, and thorough execution of monitoring and decontamination. These results suggested that contamination was a possible criterion for evaluating effectiveness of education program for radiation workers. (author)

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, January 2001.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    In the realm of global climate modeling, numerous variables affect the state of the atmosphere and climate. One important area is soil moisture and temperature. The ARM Program uses several types of instruments to gather soil moisture information. An example is the soil water and temperature system (SWATS). A SWATS is located at each of 21 extended facility sites within the CART site boundary. Each system is configured to measure soil moisture and temperature at eight distinct subsurface levels. A special set of probes used in the SWATS measures soil temperature, soil-water potential, and volumetric water content. Sensors are placed at eight different depths below the soil surface, starting at approximately 5 cm (2 in.) below the surface and ending as deep as 175 cm (69 in.). Each site has two identical sets of probes buried 1 m (3.3 ft) apart, to yield duplicate measurements as a quality control measure. At some sites, impenetrable soil or rock layers prevented installation of probes at the deeper levels. The sensors are connected to an electronic data logger that collects and stores the data. Communication equipment transfers data from the site. All of the electronic equipment is housed in a weatherproof enclosure mounted on a concrete slab

  3. A questionnaire about radiation safety management of the draining-water system at nuclear medicine facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizukuishi, Kazuya; Narita, Hiroto

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a questionnaire survey about radiation-safety management condition in Japanese nuclear medicine facilities to make materials of proposition for more reasonable management of medical radioactive waste. We distributed a questionnaire to institutions equipped with Nuclear Medicine facilities. Of 1,125 institutions, 642 institutes (52.8%) returned effective answers. The questionnaire covered the following areas: scale of an institution, presence of enforcement of radiotherapy, system of a tank, size and number of each tank, a form of draining-water system, a displacement in a radioactive rays management area, a measurement method of the concentration of medical radioactive waste in draining water system, planned and used quantity of radioisotopes for medical examination and treatment, an average displacement of hospital for one month. In most institutions, a ratio of dose limitation of radioisotope in draining-water system was less than 1.0, defined as an upper limitation in ordinance. In 499 hospitals without facilities of hospitalization for unsealed radioisotope therapy, 473 hospitals reported that sum of ratios of dose limits in a draining-water system was less than 1.0. It was calculated by used dose of radioisotope and monthly displacement from hospital, on the premise that all used radioisotope entered in the general draining-water system. When a drainage including radioactivity from a controlled area join with that from other area before it flows out of a institution, it may be diluted and its radioactive concentration should be less than its upper limitation defined in the rule. Especially, in all institutions with a monthly displacement of more than 25,000 m 3 , the sum of ratio of the concentration of each radionuclide to the concentration limit dose calculated by used dose of radioisotope, indicated less than 1.0. (author)

  4. Enhanced possibilities of section topography at a third-generation synchrotron radiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano, C.; Rejmankova, P.; Ohler, M.; Matsouli, I.

    1997-01-01

    The authors show the new possibilities of section topography techniques at a third-generation synchrotron radiation facility, taking advantage of the high performances of this machine. Examples of the 1) so-called multiple sections, 2) visibility of weakly misoriented regions, 3) study of thick samples, 4) monochromatic and 5) realtime sections are presented

  5. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raddatz, C.T.

    1993-07-01

    This report summarizes the occupational radiation exposure information that has been reported to the NRC's Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS) by nuclear power facilities and certain other categories of NRC licensees during the years 1969 through 1991. The bulk of the data presented in the report was obtained from annual radiation exposure reports submitted in accordance with the requirements of 10 CFR 20.407 and the technical specifications of nuclear power plants. Data on workers terminating their employment at certain NRC licensed facilities were obtained from reports submitted pursuant to 10 CFR 20.408. The 1991 annual reports submitted by about 436 licensees indicated that approximately 206,732 individuals were monitored, 182,334 of whom were monitored by nuclear power facilities. They incurred an average individual dose of 0.15 rem (cSv) and an average measurable dose of about 0.31 (cSv). Termination radiation exposure reports were analyzed to reveal that about 96,231 individuals completed their employment with one or more of the 436 covered licensees during 1991. Some 68,115 of these individuals terminated from power reactor facilities, and about 7,763 of them were considered to be transient workers who received an average dose of 0.52 rem (cSv)

  6. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raddatz, C.T.

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the occupational radiation exposure information that has been reported to the NRC's Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS) by nuclear power facilities and certain other categories of NRC 1 licensees during the years 1969 through 1989. The bulk of the data presented in the report was obtained from annual radiation exposure reports submitted in accordance with the requirements of 10 CFR 20.407 and the technical specifications of nuclear power plants. Data on workers terminating their employment at certain NRC 1 licensed facilities were obtained from reports submitted pursuant to 10 CFR 20.408. The 1989 annual reports submitted by about 448 licensees indicated that approximately 216,294 individuals were monitored 111,000 of whom were monitored by nuclear power facilities. They incurred an average individual does of 0.18 rem (cSv) and an average measurable dose of 0.36 (cSv). Termination radiation exposure reports were analyzed to reveal that about 113,535 individuals completed their employment with one or more of the 448 covered licensees during 1989. Some 76,561 of these individuals terminated from power reactor facilities, and about 10, 344 of them were considered to be transient workers who received an average dose of 0.64 rem (cSv)

  7. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raddatz, C.T.

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the occupational radiation exposure information that has been reported to the NRC's Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS) by nuclear power facilities and certain other categories of NRC licensees during the years 1969 through 1988. The bulk of the data presented in the report was obtained from annual radiation exposure reports submitted in accordance with the requirements of 10 CFR 20.407 and the technical specifications of nuclear power plants. Data on workers terminating their employment at certain NRC licensed facilities were obtained from reports submitted pursuant to 10 CFR 20.408. The 1988 annual reports submitted by about 429 licensees indicated that approximately 220,048 individuals were monitored, 113,00 of whom were monitored by nuclear power facilities. They incurred an average individual dose of 0.20 rem (cSv) and an average measurable dose of 0.41 (cSv). Termination radiation exposure reports were analyzed to reveal that about 113,072 individuals completed their employment with one or more of the 429 covered licensees during 1988. Some 80,211 of these individuals terminated from power reactor facilities, and about 8,760 of them were considered to be transient workers who received an average dose of 0.27 rem (cSv). 17 refs., 11 figs., 29 tabs

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-01-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  9. Radiation dose distribution monitoring at neutron radiography facility area, Nuclear Energy Unit, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Razak Daud

    1995-01-01

    One experiment was carried out to get the distribution of radiation doses at the neutron radiography facilities, Nuclear Energy Unit, Malaysia. The analysis was done to evaluate the safety level of the area. The analysis was used in neutron radiography work

  10. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Creys-Malville nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the partially dismantled facilities of the Creys-Malville nuclear power plant (also known as Superphenix power plant, INB no. 91, Creys-Mepieu - Isere (FR)) and the other fuel and waste storage facilities of the site (INB no. 141). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  11. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Chinon nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Chinon nuclear power plant (Indre-et-Loire, 37 (FR)): 4 PWR reactors in operation (Chinon B, INB 107 and 132), 3 partially dismantled graphite-gas reactors (Chinon A, INB 133, 153 and 161), a workshop for irradiated materials (AMI, INB 94), and an inter-regional fuel storage facility (MIR, INB 99). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  12. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Creys-Malville nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the partially dismantled facilities of the Creys-Malville nuclear power plant (also known as Superphenix power plant, INB no. 91, Creys-Mepieu - Isere (FR)) and the other fuel and waste storage facilities of the site (INB no. 141). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions

  13. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Chinon nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Chinon nuclear power plant (Indre-et-Loire, 37 (FR)): 4 PWR reactors in operation (Chinon B, INB 107 and 132), 3 partially dismantled graphite-gas reactors (Chinon A, INB 133, 153 and 161), a workshop for irradiated materials (AMI, INB 94), and an inter-regional fuel storage facility (MIR, INB 99). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  14. Radiation protection in nuclear facilities. The Caise environmental surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, H. de; Voelz, E.

    1995-01-01

    The Computer Aided Surveillance System for the Environment of Nuclear Installations (Caise) has been designed for permanent surveillance of the environment of nuclear installations under normal operating conditions and for unusual events on the basis of radiological and meteorological measured data. In normal operation, the data measured on line are fed to the system by way of a defined interface, while off-line data can be entered manually in the dialog mode. Subsequently, the measured data are stored, filed away, and secured. Short-time dispersion factors can be calculated permanently in the on-line mode, while the off-line mode allows short-term and long-term dispersions to be calculated for randomly selectable periods of time under the General Administrative Rule of Sec. 45 of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance. The corresponding dose distributions in the environment of the plant can be determined next. Under conditions of increased emissions (accidents, failures), Caise assists in quick decision-making by its capacity for real-time dispersion calculations including current on-line and off-line emission sample measurements. In this way, the contributions by various different exposure pathways to the calculated dose can be determined more accurately. (orig.) [de

  15. Genetic and somatic effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This is the ninth substantive report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) to the General Assembly. This report contains reviews on three special topics in the field of biological effects of ionizing radiation that are among those presently under consideration by the Committee: genetic effects of radiation, dose-response relationships for radiation-induced cancer and biological effects of pre-natal irradiation

  16. Radiation shielding at interim storage facility for CANDU-type nuclear spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateescu, S.; Radu, M. Pantazi D.; Stanciu, M.

    1997-01-01

    Technical measures in radiological protection are taken in the interim storage facility design to ensure that, during normal operation, exposures of workers and members of public to ionizing radiation are limited to levels lower than regulatory limits. The spent fuel storage design provides for radiation exposure to be as low as reasonable achievable (ALARA principles). The evaluation of radiation shields includes the most conservative provisions: - all locations which may contain spent fuel are full; - the spent fuel has reached the maximum burnup; - the post irradiation cooling period should be the minimum reasonable; - equipment for handling contains the maximum amount of spent fuel. Radiation shields should ensure that external radiation fields do not exceed limits accepted by the Regulatory Body Module. The evaluation has been performed with two computer codes, QAD-5K and MICROSHIELD-4. (authors)

  17. The RaDIATE High-Energy Proton Materials Irradiation Experiment at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammigan, Kavin; et al.

    2017-05-01

    The RaDIATE collaboration (Radiation Damage In Accelerator Target Environments) was founded in 2012 to bring together the high-energy accelerator target and nuclear materials communities to address the challenging issue of radiation damage effects in beam-intercepting materials. Success of current and future high intensity accelerator target facilities requires a fundamental understanding of these effects including measurement of materials property data. Toward this goal, the RaDIATE collaboration organized and carried out a materials irradiation run at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer facility (BLIP). The experiment utilized a 181 MeV proton beam to irradiate several capsules, each containing many candidate material samples for various accelerator components. Materials included various grades/alloys of beryllium, graphite, silicon, iridium, titanium, TZM, CuCrZr, and aluminum. Attainable peak damage from an 8-week irradiation run ranges from 0.03 DPA (Be) to 7 DPA (Ir). Helium production is expected to range from 5 appm/DPA (Ir) to 3,000 appm/DPA (Be). The motivation, experimental parameters, as well as the post-irradiation examination plans of this experiment are described.

  18. PSA Solar furnace: A facility for testing PV cells under concentrated solar radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Reche, J.; Canadas, I.; Sanchez, M.; Ballestrin, J.; Yebra, L.; Monterreal, R.; Rodriguez, J.; Garcia, G. [Concentration Solar Technologies, Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT P.O. Box 22, Tabernas, E-04200 (Almeria) (Spain); Alonso, M.; Chenlo, F. [Photovoltaic Components and Systems, Renewable Energies Department-CIEMAT Avda. Complutense, 22, Madrid, E-28040 (Spain)

    2006-09-22

    The Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA), the largest centre for research, development and testing of concentration solar thermal technologies in Europe, has started to apply its knowledge, facilities and resources to development of the Concentration PV technology in an EU-funded project HiConPV. A facility for testing PV cells under solar radiation concentrated up to 2000x has recently been completed. The advantages of this facility are that, since it is illuminated by solar radiation, it is possible to obtain the appropriate cell spectral response directly, and the flash tests can be combined with prolonged PV-cell irradiation on large surfaces (up to 150cm{sup 2}), so the thermal response of the PV cell can be evaluated simultaneously. (author)

  19. Geographic access to radiation therapy facilities and disparities of early-stage breast cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Few studies of breast cancer treatment have focused on the Northern Plains of the United States, an area with a high mastectomy rate. This study examined the association between geographic access to radiation therapy facilities and receipt of breast cancer treatments among early-stage breast cancer patients in South Dakota. Based on 4,209 early-stage breast cancer patients diagnosed between 2001 and 2012 in South Dakota, the study measured geographic proximity to radiation therapy facilities using the shortest travel time for patients to the closest radiation therapy facility. Two-level logistic regression models were used to estimate for early stage cases i the odds of mastectomy versus breast conserving surgery (BCS; ii the odds of not receiving radiation therapy after BCS versus receiving follow-up radiation therapy. Covariates included race/ethnicity, age at diagnosis, tumour grade, tumour sequence, year of diagnosis, census tract-level poverty rate and urban/rural residence. The spatial scan statistic method was used to identify geographic areas with significantly higher likelihood of experiencing mastectomy. The study found that geographic accessibility to radiation therapy facilities was negatively associated with the likelihood of receiving mastectomy after adjustment for other covariates, but not associated with radiation therapy use among patients receiving BCS. Compared with patients travelling less than 30 minutes to a radiation therapy facility, patients travelling more than 90 minutes were about 1.5 times more likely to receive mastectomy (odds ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.11 and patients travelling more than 120 minutes were 1.7 times more likely to receive mastectomy (odds ratio, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-2.42. The study also identified a statistically significant cluster of patients receiving mastectomy who were located in south-eastern South Dakota, after adjustment for other factors. Because

  20. Design and dosimetry of small animal radiation facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Manuel R.

    The aim of this work was to develop an irradiation system for radiobiology studies. We designed a novel image-guided micro-irradiator capable of partial-body zebrafish embryo irradiation. The radiation source is a 50 kV photon beam from a miniature x-ray source (Xoft Inc., CA). The source is inserted in a cylindrical brass collimator, 3 cm in diameter and 3 cm in length. The collimator has a 1 mm-diameter pinhole along the longitudinal axis, which provides a well-focused beam with a sharp penumbra. A photodiode is installed at one exit of the pinhole collimator to monitor the photon dose rate. The source with the collimator is attached under a movable table. A video camera, connected to the computer, is placed above the movable table to record position of the specimens in relation to the pinhole collimator. The captured images are analyzed, and the relative distances between the specimens and the pinhole are calculated. The coordinates are sent to the computer-controlled movable table to accurately position the specimens in the beam. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to characterize dosimetric properties of the system, to determine dosimetric sensitivity, and to help in the design. The image-guidance and high precision of the movable table enable very accurate specimen position. The beam monitoring system provides accurate, fast and easy dose determination. Portability and self-shielding make this system suitable for any radiobiology laboratory. This novel micro-irradiator is appropriate for partial irradiation of zebrafish embryos; however its potential use is much wider like irradiation of cell cultures or other small specimens.

  1. Heavy ion radiation biology research facility and ongoing activities at the Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, Asitikantha

    2014-01-01

    Heavy Ion Radiation Biology is an interdisciplinary science involving use of charged particle accelerator in the study of molecular biology. It is the study of the interaction of a beam of swift heavy ions with a biological system. In contrast to the sparsely ionizing photon or electron radiation, the high velocity charged heavy ions leave a track of densely populated ionization sites resulting in clustered DNA damage. The growing interest in this field encompasses the studies in gene expression, mechanisms of cell death, DNA damage and repair, signal transduction etc. induced because of this unique assault on the genetic material. IUAC radiation biology programme is focused on the in-vitro studies of different effects of heavy ion irradiation on eukaryotic cells. The facility provides a laboratory for pre and post irradiation treatment of samples. The irradiation system called ASPIRE (Automatic Sample Positioning for Irradiation in Radiation Biology Experiments) is installed at the dedicated Radiation Biology Beam line. It produces a nearly uniform flux distribution over a irradiation field of 40 mm diameter. The particle doses can be preselected and repeated within inherent statistical accuracy. The particle energy can also be measured. The facility is at present utilized by the University researchers of India. A few results obtained by the investigators would be presented. The outcome of the research in heavy ion radiation biology would be of immense use in augmenting the efficacy of Hadron therapy of cancer. The results would also contribute to the field of space radiation protection. It would also help in understanding the phenomena subsequent to complex DNA damage. (author)

  2. Assessment of radiation dose due to fluoroscopic procedures in patients at some selected facilities in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyasi, E.

    2013-07-01

    Radiation doses to 182 adults patients who underwent barium enema, barium meal, barium swallow, myelogram, hysterosalpingography and urethrogram examination collectively at facilities A and B were investigated. Radiation dose was measured using kerma-area-product (KAP) meter. From the KAP readings, patient's data and other relevant information from the control console, effective dose and selective organ doses were estimated using Monte Carlo program software (PCXMC version 1.5). Quality control tests performed on the two fluoroscopy machines were found to be within the acceptance criteria. Mean effective doses were found to be 8.45 ± 0.38mSv, 7.628 ± 0.42 mSv, 1.46 ± 0.13 mSv, 2.02 ± 0.16 mSv, 0.32 ± 0.03 mSv for barium enema, barium meal, barium swallow, myelogram and urethrogram examinations respectively at Facility A. At Facility B the mean effective dose were found to be 4.12 ± 0.15 mSv, 1.83 ± 0.10 mSv, 0.81 ± 0.04 mSv, 0.53 ± 0.036 mSv and 0.27 ± 0.01 mSv for barium enema, barium meal, barium swallow, myelogram, hysterosalpingography and urethrogram examination respectively. Thymus received the highest organ dose of 29.19± 2.07mGy during barium meal studies at Facility A of all the procedures in the two hospitals. Magnitude of organ doses was observed to to be in relation with the closeness to or in the direction of the primary beam of radiation. Organ and effective doses from Facility A were relatively higher than those from Facility B in comparison by a factor of a about 2 with the exception of the barium meal examination at Facility A which was by a factor of about 4. The measured KAP readings fro the two facilities were below the international accepted reference levels with the exception of barium meal examination at Facility A which recorded a higher value of 25.96 ± 1.83 Gy.cm 2 as compared to ICRP (2001) reference value of 25 Gy.cm 2 . Longer radiation beam on time, high number of radiographs taken per patient, wide exposure beam area on

  3. Ionising radiation - physical and biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holter, Oe.; Ingebretsen, F.; Parr, H.

    1979-01-01

    The physics of ionising radiation is briefly presented. The effects of ionising radiation on biological cells, cell repair and radiosensitivity are briefly treated, where after the effects on man and mammals are discussed and related to radiation doses. Dose limits are briefly discussed. The genetic effects are discussed separately. Radioecology is also briefly treated and a table of radionuclides deriving from reactors, and their radiation is given. (JIW)

  4. Radiation effects on microelectronics in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srour, J.R.; McGarrity, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The basic mechanisms of space radiation effects on microelectronics are reviewed in this paper. Topics discussed include the effects of displacement damage and ionizing radiation on devices and circuits, single event phenomena, dose enhancement, radiation effects on optoelectronic devices and passive components, hardening approaches, and simulation of the space radiation environment. A summary is presented of damage mechanisms that can cause temporary or permanent failure of devices and circuits operating in space

  5. Effect of radiation in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Hideki; Fujibuchi, Toshio; Saito, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    The title subject is easily explained for the deterministic effect, secondary cancer formation and case reports of accidental exposure at radiotherapy. For the deterministic effect, the dose-effect relationship is sigmoidal in normal and cancer tissues, and the more separated are their curves, the more favorable is the radiotherapy. TD 5/5 is the tolerable dose to yield <5% of irreversible radiation injury to the normal tissue within 5 years after the therapy and is generally dose-limiting. The curves are of various shapes depending on the tissue composition that its functional subunit (FSU) is parallel like lobules of the liver, or in series like neuron. Symptoms appear complicated on these factors. Recent development of CT-based therapeutic planning has made it possible to analyze the partial tissue volume to be irradiated and its absorbed dose by the relationship (dose volume histogram, DVH) between the electron density vs CT value regardless to anatomy. The normal tissue complication probability is a model composed from the physical DVH and biological factors of FSU composition and cellular radiation susceptibility, and is a measure of the irreversible late effect manifested in normal tissues. Epidemiology has shown the increased risk of secondary cancer formation by radiotherapy. Children are highly susceptible to this, and in adults undergoing the therapy of a certain cancer, it is known that the risk of radiation carcinogenesis is increased in the particular tissue. There are presented such case reports of accidental excessive exposure at radiotherapy as caused by an inappropriate use of detector, partial loss of data in a therapeutic planning device, reading of reversed MRI image, and too much repeated use of the old-type electric portal imaging device. (T.T.)

  6. Analysis of characteristics and radiation safety situation of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in north area of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ruilan; Li Jianhui; Wang Xiaoqing; Huang Mingquan

    2014-01-01

    According to the radiation safety management of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in north area of China, features and radiation safety conditions of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in north area of China were analyzed based on summarizing the inspection data for 2011-2013. So the main problems of radiation environment security on uranium mine were studied. The relevant management measures and recommendations were put forward, and the basis for environmental radiation safety management decision making of uranium mining and metallurgy facilities in future was provided. (authors)

  7. Biological effects of ionizing radiation - changing worker attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, N.; Schenley, C.

    1989-01-01

    Training Resources and Data Exchange (TRADE) Radiation Protection Training Special Interest Group has taken an innovative approach to providing DOE contractors with radiation worker training material information. Newly-hired radiation workers may be afraid to work near radiation and long-term radiation workers may become indifferent to the biological hazard of radiation. Commercially available training material is often presented at an inappropriate technical level or in an uninteresting style. These training problems have been addressed in the DOE system through development of a training videotape and supporting material package entitled Understanding Ionizing Radiation and its Biological Effects. The training package, developed and distributed by TRADE specifically to meet the needs of DOE contractor facilities, contains the videotape and accompanying paper supporting materials designed to assist the instructor. Learning objectives, presentation suggestion for the instructor, trainee worksheets, guided discussion questions, and trainee self-evaluation sheets are included in the training package. DOE contractors have agreed that incorporating this training module into radiation worker training programs enhances the quality of the training and increase worker understanding of the biological effects of ionizing radiation

  8. Assessment of Gamma Radiation Resistance of Spores Isolated from the Spacecraft Assembly Facility During MSL Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Arsh; Ramirez, Gustavo A.; Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.

    2011-01-01

    Spore forming bacteria, a common inhabitant of spacecraft assembly facilities, are known to tolerate extreme environmental conditions such as radiation, desiccation, and high temperatures. Since the Viking era (early 1970's), spores have been utilized to assess the degree and level of microbiological contamination on spacecraft and their associated spacecraft assembly facilities. There is a growing concern that desiccation and extreme radiation resistant spore forming microorganisms associated with spacecraft surfaces can withstand space environmental conditions and subsequently proliferate on another solar body. Such forward contamination would certainly jeopardize future life detection or sample return technologies. It is important to recognize that different classes of organisms are critical while calculating the probability of contamination, and methods must be devised to estimate their abundances. Microorganisms can be categorized based on radiation sensitivity as Type A, B, C, and D. Type C represents spores resistant to radiation (10% or greater survival above 0.8 Mrad gamma radiation). To address these questions we have purified 96 spore formers, isolated during planetary protection efforts of Mars Science Laboratory assembly for gamma radiation resistance. The spores purified and stored will be used to generate data that can be used further to model and predict the probability of forward contamination.

  9. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Thomé

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to outstanding physicochemical properties, ceramics are key engineering materials in many industrial domains. The evaluation of the damage created in ceramics employed in radiative media is a challenging problem for electronic, space, and nuclear industries. In this latter field, ceramics can be used as immobilization forms for radioactive wastes, inert fuel matrices for actinide transmutation, cladding materials for gas-cooled fission reactors, and structural components for fusion reactors. Information on the radiation stability of nuclear materials may be obtained by simulating the different types of interactions involved during the slowing down of energetic particles with ion beams delivered by various types of accelerators. This paper presents a review of the radiation effects occurring in nuclear ceramics, with an emphasis on recent results concerning the damage accumulation processes. Energetic ions in the KeV-GeV range are used to explore the nuclear collision (at low energy and electronic excitation (at high energy regimes. The recovery by electronic excitation of the damage created by ballistic collisions (SHIBIEC process is also addressed.

  10. Radiation damage evaluation on concrete within a facility for Selective Production of Exotic Species (SPES Project), Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomaro, B; Salomoni, V A; Gramegna, F; Prete, G; Majorana, C E

    2011-10-30

    Concrete is commonly used as a biological shield against nuclear radiation. As long as, in the design of nuclear facilities, its load carrying capacity is required together with its shielding properties, changes in the mechanical properties due to nuclear radiation are of particular significance and may have to be taken into account in such circumstances. The study presented here allows for reaching first evidences on the behavior of concrete when exposed to nuclear radiation in order to evaluate the consequent effect on the mechanical field, by means of a proper definition of the radiation damage, strictly connected with the strength properties of the building material. Experimental evidences on the decay of the mechanical modulus of concrete have allowed for implementing the required damage law within a 3D F.E. research code which accounts for the coupling among moisture, heat transfer and the mechanical field in concrete treated as a fully coupled porous medium. The development of the damage front in a concrete shielding wall is analyzed under neutron radiation and results within the wall thickness are reported for long-term radiation spans and several concrete mixtures in order to discuss the resulting shielding properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiation exposure and central nervous system cancers: A case-control study among workers at two nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, A.V.; Flanders, W.D.; Frome, E.L.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.; Fry, S.A.

    1987-03-01

    A nested case-control study was conducted among workers employed between 1943 and 1977 at two nuclear facilities to investigate the possible association of primary malignant neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS) with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external and internal sources. Eighty-nine white male and female workers, who according to the information on death certificates dies of primary CNS cancers, were identified as cases. Four matched controls were selected for each case. External radiation exposure data were available from film badge readings for individual workers, whereas radiation dose to lung from internally deposited radionuclides, mainly uranium, was estimated from area and personnel monitoring data and was used in analyses in lieu of the dose to the brain. Matched sets were included in the analyses only if information was available for the case and at least one of the corresponding controls. Thus, the analyses of external radiation included 27 cases and 90 matched controls, and 47 cases and 120 matched controls were analyzed for the effects of radiation from internally deposited uranium. No association was observed between deaths fron CNS cancers and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external or internal sources. However, due to the small number of monitored subjects and low doses, a weak association could not be ruled out. 43 refs., 1 fig., 15 tabs

  12. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Gravelines nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Gravelines nuclear power plant (INB 96, 97 and 122, Nord (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions

  13. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Saint-Laurent-Des-Eaux nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 46, 74 and 100). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures carried out in 2014. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process) as well as the other pollutions. The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  14. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Tricastin nuclear facility (BCOT) - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the Tricastin operational hot base facility (INB no. 157, Bollene, Vaucluse (FR)), a nuclear workshop for storage and maintenance and qualification operations on some EdF equipments. Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facility are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, if some, are reported as well as the effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the management of the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility is presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  15. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Fessenheim nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant (INB 75, Haut-Rhin, 68 (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  16. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Cattenom nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Cattenom nuclear power plant (INB 124, 125, 126 and 137, Moselle (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  17. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Flamanville nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 108, 109 and 167 (under construction)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  18. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux nuclear power plant (Saint-Laurent-Nouan (FR)): 2 partially dismantled graphite-gas reactors and a graphite sleeves storage silo (INB 46 and 74), and 2 PWR reactors in operation (INB 100). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  19. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux nuclear power plant (Saint-Laurent-Nouan (FR)): 2 partially dismantled graphite-gas reactors and a graphite sleeves storage silo (INB 46 and 74), and 2 PWR reactors in operation (INB 100). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  20. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Saint-Laurent-Des-Eaux nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 46, 74 and 100). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures carried out in 2012. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process) as well as the other pollutions. The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  1. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the CNPE EDF nuclear facilities of Tricastin - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Tricastin nuclear power plant (INB 87 and 88, Saint-Paul-Trois-Chateaux, Drome (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  2. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Gravelines nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Gravelines nuclear power plant (INB 96, 97 and 122, Nord (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  3. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Penly nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Penly nuclear power plant (INB 136 and 140, Seine-Maritime, 76 (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  4. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Fessenheim nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant (INB 75, Haut-Rhin, 68 (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  5. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Chooz nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Chooz nuclear power plant (Ardennes (FR)): 2 PWR reactors in operation (Chooz B, INB 139 and 144) and one partially dismantled PWR reactor (Chooz A, INB 163). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary followed by the viewpoint of the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  6. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Blayais nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Blayais nuclear power plant (INB 86 and 110, Gironde (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  7. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Nogent-sur-Seine nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Nogent-sur-Seine nuclear power plant (INB 129 and 130, Aube (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  8. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Cruas-Meysse nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Cruas-Meysse nuclear power plant (INB 111 and 112, Ardeche (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  9. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the nuclear facility of Brennilis - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the partially dismantled facilities of the Monts d'Arree (EL4-D or Brennilis) site (INB 162 (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  10. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Gravelines nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Gravelines nuclear power plant (INB 96, 97 and 122, Nord (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  11. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Tricastin nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the Tricastin NPPs (INBs no. 87 and 88). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  12. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Paluel nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Paluel nuclear power plant (INB no. 103 - Paluel 1, no. 104 - Paluel 2, no. 114 - Paluel 3 and no. 115 - Paluel 4, Cany-Barville - Seine-Maritime (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document ends with a glossary and no recommendation from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  13. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Paluel nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Paluel nuclear power plant (INB no. 103 - Paluel 1, no. 104 - Paluel 2, no. 114 - Paluel 3 and no. 115 - Paluel 4, Cany-Barville - Seine-Maritime (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  14. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Dampierre-en-Burly nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Dampierre-en-Burly nuclear power plant (INB 84 and 85, Loiret, 45 (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  15. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Cattenom nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 124, 125, 126 and 137). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  16. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Gravelines nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Gravelines nuclear power plant (INB 96, 97 and 122, Nord (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions

  17. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of Chooz nuclear facilities - 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 139, 144 and 163 (under dismantling)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2012, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process). The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  18. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Golfech nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Golfech nuclear power plant (INB 135 and 142, Tarn-et-Garonne (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  19. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Penly nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Penly nuclear power plant (INB 136 and 140, Seine-Maritime, 76 (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  20. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Saint-Laurent-Des-Eaux nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established in accordance with articles L. 125-15 and L. 125-16 of the French environmental code. It presents, first, the NPPs (INBs no. 46, 74 and 100). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures carried out in 2013. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if any, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, the radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility are presented (type of waste, quantities, conditioning process) as well as the other pollutions. The document concludes with a presentation of the actions of communication and public information made by the direction of the facility. A glossary and the list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions are given in appendix

  1. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Cruas-Meysse nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Cruas-Meysse nuclear power plant (INB 111 and 112, Ardeche (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  2. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Gravelines nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Gravelines nuclear power plant (INB 96, 97 and 122, Nord (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions

  3. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Civaux nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Civaux nuclear power plant (INB 158 and 159, Vienne (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  4. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Blayais nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Blayais nuclear power plant (INB 86 and 110, Gironde (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  5. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Tricastin operational hot base nuclear facilities - 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the Tricastin operational hot base facility (INB no. 157, Bollene, Vaucluse (FR)), a nuclear workshop for storage and maintenance and qualification operations on some EdF equipments. Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facility are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2013, if some, are reported as well as the effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility is presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions

  6. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Dampierre-en-Burly nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Dampierre-en-Burly nuclear power plant (INB 84 and 85, Loiret, 45 (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  7. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the nuclear facilities - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the Tricastin operational hot base facility (INB no. 157, Bollene, Vaucluse (FR)), a nuclear workshop for storage and maintenance and qualification operations on some EdF equipments. Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facility are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2014, if some, are reported as well as the effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facility is presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions

  8. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the nuclear facilities of Brennilis - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the partially dismantled facilities of the Monts d'Arree (EL4-D or Brennilis) site (INB 162 (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  9. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Cattenom nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Cattenom nuclear power plant (INB 124, 125, 126 and 137, Moselle (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  10. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Saint-Alban-Saint-Maurice nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Saint-Alban-Saint-Maurice nuclear power plant (INB 119 and 120, Isere (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  11. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Nogent-sur-Seine nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Nogent-sur-Seine nuclear power plant (INB 129 and 130, Aube (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  12. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Belleville-sur-Loire nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Belleville-sur-Loire nuclear power plant (INB no. 127 - Belleville 1 and no. 128 - Belleville 2, Belleville-sur-Loire and Sury-pres-Lere - Cher (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  13. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Civaux nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Civaux nuclear power plant (INB 158 and 159, Vienne (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  14. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Saint-Alban-Saint-Maurice nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Saint-Alban-Saint-Maurice nuclear power plant (INB 119 and 120, Isere (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  15. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Golfech nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Golfech nuclear power plant (INB 135 and 142, Tarn-et-Garonne (FR)). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  16. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Flamanville nuclear facilities - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Flamanville nuclear power plant (Manche (FR)): 2 PWR reactors in operation (INB 108 and 109), and 1 PWR under construction (Flamanville 3, INB 167). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2011, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, water consumption and waste management at Flamanville 3 construction site) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  17. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Flamanville nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Flamanville nuclear power plant (Manche (FR)): 2 PWR reactors in operation (INB 108 and 109), and 1 PWR under construction (Flamanville 3, INB 167). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, water consumption and waste management at Flamanville 3 construction site) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  18. Nuclear safety and radiation protection report of the Chooz nuclear facilities - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    This safety report was established under the article 21 of the French law no. 2006-686 of June 13, 2006 relative to nuclear safety and information transparency. It presents, first, the facilities of the Chooz nuclear power plant (Ardennes (FR)): 2 PWR reactors in operation (Chooz B, INB 139 and 144) and one partially dismantled PWR reactor (Chooz A, INB 163). Then, the nuclear safety and radiation protection measures taken regarding the facilities are reviewed: nuclear safety definition, radiation protection of intervening parties, safety and radiation protection improvement paths, crisis management, external and internal controls, technical situation of facilities, administrative procedures in progress. The incidents and accidents which occurred in 2010, are reported as well as the radioactive and non-radioactive (chemical, thermal) effluents discharge in the environment. Finally, The radioactive materials and wastes generated by the facilities are presented and sorted by type of waste, quantities and type of conditioning. Other environmental impacts (noise, microbial proliferation in cooling towers) are presented with their mitigation measures. Actions in favour of transparency and public information are presented as well. The document concludes with a glossary and a list of recommendations from the Committees for health, safety and working conditions. (J.S.)

  19. Radiation effects on cell membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeteles, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    The recent developments in the field of membrane biology of eukaryotic cells result in revival of relevant radiobiological studies. The spatial relations and chemical nature of membrane components provide rather sensitive targets. Experimental data are presented concerning the effects of relatively low doses of X-irradiation and low concentration of tritiated water (HTO) on various receptor functions - concanavalin A, cationized ferritin, poliovirus - of plasma membranes of animal and human cells which point to early and temporary disturbances of the composite structures and functions of membranes. References are given to the multifold roles of radiationinduced membrane phenomena on the development and regeneration of radiation injuries. (orig.)

  20. Radiation effects on cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeteles, G.J.

    1982-11-01

    The recent developments in the field of membrane biology of eukaryotic cells result in revival of relevant radiobiological studies. The spatial relations and chemical nature of membrane components provide rather sensitive targets. Experimental data are presented concerning the effects of relatively low doses of X-irradiation and low concentration of tritiated water (HTO) on various receptor functions - concanavalin A, cationized ferritin, poliovirus - of plasma membranes of animal and human cells which point to early and temporary disturbances of the composite structures and functions of membranes. References are given to the multifold roles of radiationinduced membrane phenomena on the development and regeneration of radiation injuries.