WorldWideScience

Sample records for radiation effects bibliography

  1. Radiation Effects Research Foundation bibliography of published papers, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This issue is the bibliography of the publication by the staffs of the Radiation Effects Research Institute (RERF) in 1989. Titles in original and English language with author names are enumerated. Indexes by research areas and by author name are also attached. (J.P.N.) 62 refs

  2. Radiation Effects Research Foundation bibliography of published papers, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This issue is the bibliography of the publication by the staffs of the Radiation Effects Research Institute (RERF) in 1988. Titles in original and English language with author names are enumerated. Indeces by research areas and by author name are also attached. (J.P.N.) 99 refs

  3. Radiation Effects Research Foundation bibliography of published papers, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The bibliography lists the titles of a total of 75 papers published by members of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in 1986 (three of them published in 1985). The papers cover; 'The central nervous system and in utero exposure to ionizing radiation', 'Future directions for biostatistics and cancer epidemiology in Japan', 'Passive smoking and lung cancer among Japanese women', 'Late effects of atomic bomb radiation on human immune response', 'Delayed effects of atomic bomb radiation to human cellular immune competence', 'Characterization of three electrophoretic variants of human erythrocyte triosephosphate isomerase found in Japanese', 'A follow-up study of clonal T-lymphocytes with chromosome aberrations in Hiroshima A-bomb survivors', 'Comments on recent cytogenetic findings at RERF', 'Cytogenetic 'rogue' cells; What is their frequency, origin, and evolutionary sinificance?', 'A parallel analysis of cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors and patients with ankylosing spondylitis given X-ray therapy', 'Cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands', 'Analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes of atomic bomb survivors using monoclonal antibodies', 'Celluar immune competence of patients with lung cancer and other lung diseases. I. Analysis of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets using monoclonal antibodies', etc. (N.K.) 75 refs

  4. Bibliographies on radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.Z.; Ross, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    The one-electron oxidation and reduction of metal ions and complexes can yield species in unusual oxidation states, and ligand-radicals coordinated to the central metal. These often unstable species can be mechanistically important intermediates in thermal, photochemical, and electrochemical reactions involving metal-containing substances. Their generation via radiolysis provides an alternate means of characterizing them using kinetic and spectroscopic techniques. We hope these bibliographies on the radiation chemistry of metal ions and complexes, presented according to periodic groups, will prove useful to researchers in metallo-redox chemistry. These bibliographies contain only primary literature sources; reviews are not included. However, a list of general review articles on the radiation chemistry of metal ions and complexes is presented here in the first section which covers cobalt, rhodium and iridium, Group 9 in the new IUPAC notation. Additional parts of the bibliography are planned, covering other periodic groups. Part A of the bibliography was prepared by a search of the Radiation Chemistry Data Center Bibliographic Data Base (RCDCbib) through January 1986 for papers on rhodium, iridium and cobalt compounds, and radiolysis (both continuous and pulsed). Papers in which the use of metal compounds was incidental to the primary objective of the study were excluded. Excluded also were publications in unrefereed and obscure sources such as meeting proceedings, internal reports, dissertations, and patents. The majority of the studies in the resultant compilation deal with experiments performed on solutions, mainly aqueous, although a substantial fraction is devoted to solid-state esr measurements. The references are listed in separate sections for each of the metals, and are presented in approximate chronological order. (author)

  5. Bibliographies on radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstock, C.L.; Ross, A.B.; Helman, W.P.

    1981-01-01

    This bibliography lists about 400 papers dealing solely with the production and reactivity of superoxide radical anions in irradiated aqueous and organic liquids. Only papers dealing with quantitative mechanistic, spectroscopic or kinetic data have been included. The listing was prepared by searching the RCDC bibliographic data base with SELECT keywords O 2 - or HO 2 and aqueous solution. The key words radicals (oxygen), peroxy radicals, pulse radiolysis, flash radiolysis, esr and gamma rays were also used. Additional relevant references were obtained from inspection of reviews, individual author indexes and cited references. The present bibliography excludes solid and gas phase studies, and also technical, government and in-house reports, theses, patents and some symposia proceedings. Several references prior to 1960 have been added, and the list should be reasonably comprehensive from 1965-1980. The listing is in chronological order, according to year of publication in the categories Photochemistry, Radiation Chemistry, Other, and Reviews. (author)

  6. Radiation Effects Research Foundation bibliography of published papers, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    The report lists the titles and authors of the reports of studies made under the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The list include 87 studies, which cover 'immunological diagnosis of lung cancer', 'electrophoretic variants of haptoglobin found in the children of atomic bomb survivors', 'rogue cells in the general human population', 'host variation of X-ray sensitivity among atomic bomb survivors with or without breast cancer', 'disorders in the endocrine gland and gonad of A-bomb survivors', 'incidence of vertebral compression fractures among atomic bomb survivors', 'measurement of the frequency of in vivo somatic mutation in atomic bomb survivors by T-cell cloning', 'mechanism of carcinogenesis in A-bomb survivors', 'effects of aging on blood pressure', 'expediting factors of blood sedimentation of heavily exposed survivors', 'record linkage between local cancer registry and tumor and tissue registries', 'reclassification of diagnosis and types of leukemia in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima', 'cytogenetic study in utero exposed individuals', 'estimation of indoor and outdoor A-bomb gamma-ray doses by thermoluminescence measurement', and many other studies. (N.K.) 87 refs

  7. Biological effects of radiation accidents on humans. September 1970-February 1990 (a Bibliography from the NTIS data base). Report for September 1970-February 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the impact of radiation accidents on humans. Radiation exposure assessment for determining appropriate medical treatment is discussed. The effects of ingesting food or inhaling air irradiated by accident fallout are considered. Follow-up studies of the survivors of specific nuclear accidents are included in an attempt to evaluate long and short term health effects of accidents. (This updated bibliography contains 224 citations, 62 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  8. Selected bibliography of terrestrial freshwater, and marine radiation ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, V.; Whicker, F.W.

    1975-01-01

    An extensive bibliography is presented of publications related to field or laboratory studies of wild species of plants and animals with respect to radiation effects or metabolic studies involving radionuclides. The references are listed under the following headings: status and needs of radiation ecology; environmental radioactivity; radionuclide concentration; ionizing radiation effects; techniques utilizing radionuclides and ionizing radiation in ecology; measurement of ionizing radiation; peaceful uses of atomic energy; waste disposal; nuclear testing and ecological consequences of a nuclear war; glossaries, standards, and licensing procedures; reviews of radionuclides in the environment; and sources of information

  9. A selected bibliography on natural radiation, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Siro; Abe, Michiko; Fujitaka, Kazunobu; Fujimoto, Kenzo.

    1977-03-01

    Natural radioactive substances in the environment are important in general scientific research and impacts on human beings. The natural levels of radiations are then involved in peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The present bibliography is intended to meet the needs in this field. Entries complete with an abstract are selected from Nuclear Science Abstracts of vol. 1 (1948) to vol. 32 (December 1975). Only the primordial radionuclides as follows, without series, are treated concerning the levels, measurements, etc. : 40 K, 50 V, 87 Rb, 115 In, 123 Te, 138 La, 142 Ce, 144 Nd, 147 Sm, 152 Gd, 176 Lu, 174 Hf, 187 Re, and 190 Pt. (Mori, K.)

  10. Low-level radiation: biological interactions, risks, and benefits. A bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-09-01

    The bibliography contains 3294 references that were selected from the Department of Energy's data base (EDB). The subjects covered are lower-level radiation effects on man, environmental radiation, and other biological interactions of radiation that appear to be applicable to the low-level radiation problem.

  11. Low-level radiation: biological interactions, risks, and benefits. A bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The bibliography contains 3294 references that were selected from the Department of Energy's data base (EDB). The subjects covered are lower-level radiation effects on man, environmental radiation, and other biological interactions of radiation that appear to be applicable to the low-level radiation problem

  12. Analysis by absorption and scattering of radiation. A current bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujdoso, E.

    2002-01-01

    A current bibliography with 100 references based on INIS Atomindex has been compiled on Analysis by absorption and scattering of radiation for years 1998-1999. References are arranged by first author's names. (N.T.)

  13. Radiation effects on living systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1980-10-01

    This bibliography includes papers and reports by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited scientists concerning radiation effects on living systems. It is divided into three sections: Radiobiology, Radiation Biochemistry and Radiation Chemistry. (auth)

  14. Radiation effects on living systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1984-04-01

    This bibliography includes papers and reports by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited scientists concerning radiation effects on living systems. It is divided into three sections: Radiobiology, Radiation Biochemistry and Radiation Chemistry. It is intended that the bibliography will be updated regularly

  15. Bibliography of marine radiation ecology prepared for the Seabed Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, V.S.

    1980-02-01

    References on the effects of ionizing radiation on aquatic organisms have been obtained from a number of sources. Many were obtained from reviews and other publications. Although the primary purpose of preparing this bibliography was to obtain information related to the nuclear wastes Seabed Disposal Biology Program of Sandia Laboratories, freshwater organisms are included as a matter of convenience and also with the belief that such a bibliography would be of interest to a wider audience than that restricted to the Seabed Program. While compilation of a list in an area broad in scope is often somewhat arbitrary, an attempt was made to reference publications that were related to field or laboratory studies of wild species of plants and animals with respect to radiation effects. Complete information concerning each reference are provided without excessive library search. Since one often finds references listed in the literature that are incompletely cited, it was not always possible to locate the reference for verification or completion of the citation. Such references are included where they appeared to be of possible value. When known, a reference is followed with its Nuclear Science Abstract designation, or rarely other abstract sources. Those desiring additional information should check Nuclear Science Abstracts utilizing the abstract number presented or other abstracting sources. In addition, the language of the article, other than English, is given when it is known to me

  16. Bibliography of marine radiation ecology prepared for the Seabed Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, V.S.

    1980-02-01

    References on the effects of ionizing radiation on aquatic organisms have been obtained from a number of sources. Many were obtained from reviews and other publications. Although the primary purpose of preparing this bibliography was to obtain information related to the nuclear wastes Seabed Disposal Biology Program of Sandia Laboratories, freshwater organisms are included as a matter of convenience and also with the belief that such a bibliography would be of interest to a wider audience than that restricted to the Seabed Program. While compilation of a list in an area broad in scope is often somewhat arbitrary, an attempt was made to reference publications that were related to field or laboratory studies of wild species of plants and animals with respect to radiation effects. Complete information concerning each reference are provided without excessive library search. Since one often finds references listed in the literature that are incompletely cited, it was not always possible to locate the reference for verification or completion of the citation. Such references are included where they appeared to be of possible value. When known, a reference is followed with its Nuclear Science Abstract designation, or rarely other abstract sources. Those desiring additional information should check Nuclear Science Abstracts utilizing the abstract number presented or other abstracting sources. In addition, the language of the article, other than English, is given when it is known to me.

  17. Bibliography on vapour pressure isotope effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illy, H.; Jancso, G.

    1976-03-01

    The bibliography of research on vapour pressure isotope effects from 1919 to December 1975 is presented in chronological order. Within each year the references are listed alphabetically according to the name of the first author of each work. The bibliography is followed by a Compound Index containing the names o compounds, but the type of isotopic substituation is not shown. The Author Index includes all authors of the papers. (Sz.N.Z.)

  18. Bibliographies on radiation chemistry: Pt. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helman, W.P.; Ross, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    Rate constants have been determined by pulse radiolysis, flash photolysis, and other methods, for a wide variety of reactions involving transient radicals in aqueous solution. Reliable rate constants have been established for reactions of radicals from water (e aq - , ·H, ·OH/·O - ) and the data have been tabulated (Buxton, 1988) through 1986. Kinetic data for HO 2 ·/O 2 · - were tabulated. (Bielski, 1985) from papers published through 1983. A compilation of rate constants, from the literature through Mid-1987, for other nonmetallic inorganic radicals has also appeared recently (Neta, 1988). Together, these compilations contain rate constants for more than 6,000 different reactions, reported in about 2,000 references. The present bibliography provides a list of relevant references which have been collected since the publication of the above-mentioned compilations. The list contains references received through the end of December, 1989. (author)

  19. Bibliographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsted, Ann L., Comp.

    1983-01-01

    Two annotated bibliographies of books are compiled, one devoted to Roosevelt and the New Deal, the other concerned with Hitler, the Weimar Republic, and the rise of Nazism. Annotations indicate scope of the work and occasionally point out bias or point of view. (CS)

  20. Bibliography on vapor pressure isotope effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancso, G.

    1980-04-01

    The first Bibliography on Vapour Pressure Isotope and covered the literature of the period from 1919 through December 1975. The present Supplement reviews the literature from January 1976 through December 1979. The bibliography is arranged in chronological order; within each year the references are listed alphabetically according to the name of the first author of each work. (author)

  1. Thorotrast: A Bibliography of its Diagnostic Use and Biological Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    This bibliography has been compiled primarily to support a study of Thorotrast toxicity which is being conducted in the Medical Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The limited resources of staff and time available for its compilation have dictated a practical compromise between completeness and freedom from error on the one hand and effort on the other. While neither complete nor free of error, it has been stencilled so as to be available to other groups with similar interests. Additions and corrections would be gratefully received. The chief concern of the bibliography is with the toxic effects of Thorotrast. Papers on the diagnostic use of Thorotrast have also been included, both because of their relevance to the subsequent toxic effects and because of the light they shed on the possible numbers and location of Thorotrast cases. Papers on various related topics such as ThX (Ra-224) and MsTh (Ra-228) have been included when found, but no special search for them has been made. Papers are classified under the topics shown in the Table of Contents. In many cases papers have been listed under two or more categories, but a unique classification is obviously impossible. Since a rather abrupt change in outlook on the biological significance of ionizing radiation took place with the advent of nuclear energy, papers are given separately under each topic according to publication dates 1945 and earlier, 1946 and later. Original titles (if available) are given along with their English translations. Authors' addresses are listed for papers of which reprints have been obtained by the Agency.

  2. Thorotrast: A Bibliography of its Diagnostic Use and Biological Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-03-16

    This bibliography has been compiled primarily to support a study of Thorotrast toxicity which is being conducted in the Medical Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The limited resources of staff and time available for its compilation have dictated a practical compromise between completeness and freedom from error on the one hand and effort on the other. While neither complete nor free of error, it has been stencilled so as to be available to other groups with similar interests. Additions and corrections would be gratefully received. The chief concern of the bibliography is with the toxic effects of Thorotrast. Papers on the diagnostic use of Thorotrast have also been included, both because of their relevance to the subsequent toxic effects and because of the light they shed on the possible numbers and location of Thorotrast cases. Papers on various related topics such as ThX (Ra-224) and MsTh (Ra-228) have been included when found, but no special search for them has been made. Papers are classified under the topics shown in the Table of Contents. In many cases papers have been listed under two or more categories, but a unique classification is obviously impossible. Since a rather abrupt change in outlook on the biological significance of ionizing radiation took place with the advent of nuclear energy, papers are given separately under each topic according to publication dates 1945 and earlier, 1946 and later. Original titles (if available) are given along with their English translations. Authors' addresses are listed for papers of which reprints have been obtained by the Agency.

  3. Bibliography on dead-time effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A BIPM (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures) Working Party has assembled a bibliography of the publications dealing with the measurement of dead times, the evaluation of the corresponding corrections and of other closely related subjects. It contains some 350 references, each of which is given with its full title; an author index is added. The search has been stopped in August 1975

  4. Bibliographie (Bibliography).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francais dans le Monde, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents a selective bibliography of dictionaries, books, and articles. References are grouped under three sections: I. Lexicology, II. Dictionaries and III. Didactics. Each item is followed by a concise critical note. The compilation is by the "Centre d'Etudes du Lexique" (CELEX, Paris-Villetaneuse). (MES)

  5. Bibliographies on radiation chemistry. 9. Metal ions and complexes. Part A: Cobalt, rhodium, iridium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, M Z; Ross, A B

    1986-01-01

    The one-electron oxidation and reduction of metal ions and complexes can yield species in unusual oxidation states, and ligand-radicals coordinated to the central metal. These often unstable species can be mechanistically important intermediates in thermal, photochemical, and electrochemical reactions involving metal-containing substances. Their generation via radiolysis provides an alternate means of characterizing them using kinetic and spectroscopic techniques. We hope these bibliographies on the radiation chemistry of metal ions and complexes, presented according to periodic groups, will prove useful to researchers in metallo-redox chemistry. These bibliographies contain only primary literature sources; reviews are not included. However, a list of general review articles on the radiation chemistry of metal ions and complexes is presented here in the first section which covers cobalt, rhodium and iridium, Group 9 in the new IUPAC notation. Additional parts of the bibliography are planned, covering other periodic groups. Part A of the bibliography was prepared by a search of the Radiation Chemistry Data Center Bibliographic Data Base (RCDCbib) through January 1986 for papers on rhodium, iridium and cobalt compounds, and radiolysis (both continuous and pulsed). Papers in which the use of metal compounds was incidental to the primary objective of the study were excluded. Excluded also were publications in unrefereed and obscure sources such as meeting proceedings, internal reports, dissertations, and patents. The majority of the studies in the resultant compilation deal with experiments performed on solutions, mainly aqueous, although a substantial fraction is devoted to solid-state esr measurements. The references are listed in separate sections for each of the metals, and are presented in approximate chronological order.

  6. Selected bibliography on deuterium isotope effects and heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, S.M.; Donde, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great deal of interest in using deuterium and heavy water not only in nuclear industry but also in various fields of basic as well as applied research in physics, chemistry and biology. As a result, the literature is being enriched with a large number of research papers and technical reports published each year. Thus, to enable the scientists to have an easy reference to these works, an endeavour has been made in this selected bibliography, to enlist the publications related to these fields. Since the interest is concerned mainly with heavy water production processes, deuterium isotope effects etc., several aspects (e.g. nuclear) of deuterium have not been covered here. The material in this bibliography which cites 2388 references has been classified under six broad headings, viz. (1) Production of heavy water, (2) Study of deuterium isotope effects, (3) Analysis and Properties of heavy water, (4) Laser Separation of deuterium, (5) Isotopic exchange reactions, and (6) Miscellaneous. The sources of information used for this compilation are chemical abstracts, nuclear science abstracts, INIS Atomindex and also some scattered search through journals and reports available in the B.A.R.C. library. However, in spite of sincere attempts for a wide coverage, no claim is being made towards the exhaustiveness of this bibliography. (author)

  7. Pulse radiolysis of nucleic acids and their base constituents: bibliographies on radiation chemistry: Pt. 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonntag, C von; Ross, A B

    1987-01-01

    For this compilation the data stored by the Radiation Chemistry Data Center bibliographic database through 1986 were processed using the SELECT keywords: purines, pyrimidines, nucleotides, nucleosides, nucleic acids and pulse radiolysis. The number of citations found was reduced by about one-third by eliminating privately published symposia papers, theses and papers not strictly relevant to this topic, e.g. on flavins, NADH, one-electron reduction of nitrouracil or the redox potential of isobarbituric acid. On the other hand, a few more papers known to us but not revealed by the keywords were added. The bibliography is arranged in approximately chronological order, references grouped by year of publication. Reviews are collected at the end of the bibliography in a separate section.

  8. Pulse radiolysis of nucleic acids and their base constituents: bibliographies on radiation chemistry: Pt. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonntag, C. von; Ross, A.B.; Notre Dame Univ., IN

    1987-01-01

    For this compilation the data stored by the Radiation Chemistry Data Center bibliographic database through 1986 were processed using the SELECT keywords: purines, pyrimidines, nucleotides, nucleosides, nucleic acids and pulse radiolysis. The number of citations found was reduced by about one-third by eliminating privately published symposia papers, theses and papers not strictly relevant to this topic, e.g. on flavins, NADH, one-electron reduction of nitrouracil or the redox potential of isobarbituric acid. On the other hand, a few more papers known to us but not revealed by the keywords were added. The bibliography is arranged in approximately chronological order, references grouped by year of publication. Reviews are collected at the end of the bibliography in a separate section. (author)

  9. Bibliography of publications, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This issue is the bibliography of the publication by the staffs of the Radiation Effects Research Institute (RERF) in 1990. Titles in original and English language with author names are enumerated. Indexes by research areas and by author name are also attached. (J.P.N.) 126 refs

  10. Bibliography, subject index, and author index of the literature examined by the Radiation Shielding Information Center. Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trubey, D.K.; Roussin, R.W.; Gustin, A.B.

    1983-08-01

    An indexed bibliography of open literature selected by the Radiation Shielding Information Center since the previous volume was published in 1980 is presented in the area of radiation transport and shielding against radiation from nuclear reactors (fission and fusion), x-ray machines, radioisotopes, nuclear weapons (including fallout, and low energy accelerators (e.g., neutron generators). The bibliography was typeset from computer files constituting the RSIC Storage and Retrieval Information System. In addition to lists of literature titles by subject categories (accessions 6201-10156), an author index is given. Most of the literature selected for Volume VII was published in the years 1977 to 1981.

  11. Bibliography, subject index, and author index of the literature examined by the Radiation Shielding Information Center. Volume 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trubey, D.K.; Roussin, R.W.; Gustin, A.B.

    1983-08-01

    An indexed bibliography of open literature selected by the Radiation Shielding Information Center since the previous volume was published in 1980 is presented in the area of radiation transport and shielding against radiation from nuclear reactors (fission and fusion), x-ray machines, radioisotopes, nuclear weapons (including fallout, and low energy accelerators (e.g., neutron generators). The bibliography was typeset from computer files constituting the RSIC Storage and Retrieval Information System. In addition to lists of literature titles by subject categories (accessions 6201-10156), an author index is given. Most of the literature selected for Volume VII was published in the years 1977 to 1981

  12. Large scale obscuration and related climate effects open literature bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, N.A.; Geitgey, J.; Behl, Y.K.; Zak, B.D.

    1994-05-01

    Large scale obscuration and related climate effects of nuclear detonations first became a matter of concern in connection with the so-called ''Nuclear Winter Controversy'' in the early 1980's. Since then, the world has changed. Nevertheless, concern remains about the atmospheric effects of nuclear detonations, but the source of concern has shifted. Now it focuses less on global, and more on regional effects and their resulting impacts on the performance of electro-optical and other defense-related systems. This bibliography reflects the modified interest

  13. Large scale obscuration and related climate effects open literature bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.A.; Geitgey, J.; Behl, Y.K.; Zak, B.D.

    1994-05-01

    Large scale obscuration and related climate effects of nuclear detonations first became a matter of concern in connection with the so-called ``Nuclear Winter Controversy`` in the early 1980`s. Since then, the world has changed. Nevertheless, concern remains about the atmospheric effects of nuclear detonations, but the source of concern has shifted. Now it focuses less on global, and more on regional effects and their resulting impacts on the performance of electro-optical and other defense-related systems. This bibliography reflects the modified interest.

  14. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA): A Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is a bottom-up analytical process that identifies process hazards, which helps managers understand vulnerabilities of systems, as well as assess and mitigate risk. It is one of several engineering tools and techniques available to program and project managers aimed at increasing the likelihood of safe and successful NASA programs and missions. This bibliography references 465 documents in the NASA STI Database that contain the major concepts, failure modes or failure analysis, in either the basic index of the major subject terms.

  15. Bibliography, subject index, and author index of the literature examined by the radiation shielding information center. Volume 6. Reactor and weapons radiation shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    An indexed bibliography is presented of literature selected by the Radiation Shielding Information Center since the previous volume was published in 1978 in the area of radiation transport and shielding against radiation from nuclear reactors, x-ray machines, radioisotopes, nuclear weapons (including fallout), and low energy accelerators (e.g., neutron generators). The bibliography was typeset from data processed by computer from magnetic tape files. In addition to lists of literature titles by subject categories (accessions 4951-6200), an author index is given

  16. Genetic effects of radiation. Annex I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Annex is aimed at an updating of the 1977 UNSCEAR report, which presented a detailed review of the genetic effects of ionizing radiation, especially those parts that require significant revisions in the light of new data. There is an extensive bibliography with over 1000 references. Particular emphasis is given to those data that are relevant to the evaluation of genetic radiation hazards in man.

  17. Measures of effectiveness:an annotated bibliography.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Philip LaRoche

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide guidance, from the open literature, on developing a set of ''measures of effectiveness'' (MoEs) and using them to evaluate a system. Approximately twenty papers and books are reviewed. The papers that provide the clearest understanding of MoEs are identified (Sproles [46], [48], [50]). The seminal work on value-focused thinking (VFT), an approach that bridges the gap between MoEs and a system, is also identified (Keeney [25]). And finally three examples of the use of VFT in evaluating a system based on MoEs are identified (Jackson et al. [21], Kerchner & Deckro [27], and Doyle et al. [14]). Notes are provided of the papers and books to pursue in order to take this study to the next level of detail.

  18. Thermal effects on aquatic organisms: an annotated bibliography of the 1977 literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmage, S.S.

    1978-12-01

    This bibliography, containing 537 references from the 1977 literature, is the seventh in a series of annotated bibliographies on the effects of heat on aquatic organisms. The effects of thermal discharges at power plant sites are emphasized. Laboratory and field studies on temperature tolerance and the effects of temperature changes on reproduction, development, growth, distribution, physiology, and sensitivity to other stresses are included. References in the bibliography are divided into three subject categories: marine systems, freshwater systems, and estuaries. The references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Indexes are provided for author, keywords, subject category, geographic location of the study, taxon, and title

  19. Radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    An important cause of deterioration in superconducting magnets intended for high-energy physics and fusion-reactor applications is radiation damage. The present chapter deals chiefly with the effects of electron, proton, gamma and neutron irradiation on the properties of stabilized Ti-Nb-base composite superconductors. The authors examine the particle-accelerator environment, electron irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor, proton irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor and its stabilizer, and deuteron irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor. A section discussing the fusion reactor environment in general is presented, and the two principal classes of fusion reactor based on the magnetic-confinement concept, namely the tokamak and the mirrormachine are examined. Also discussed is neutron irradiation of Cu/TiNb composite superconductors and critical current density of neutronirradiated Ti-Nb. Finally, radiation damage to stabilizer and insulating materials is described

  20. Simulator fidelity and training effectiveness: a comprehensive bibliography with selected annotations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.; Bolton, P.A.; Shikiar, R.; Saari, L.M.

    1984-05-01

    This document contains a comprehensive bibliography on the topic of simulator fidelity and training effectiveness, prepared during the preliminary phases of work on an NRC-sponsored project on the Role of Nuclear Power Plant Simulators in Operator Licensing and Training. Section A of the document is an annotated bibliography consisting of articles and reports with relevance to the psychological aspects of simulator fidelity and the effectiveness of training simulators in a variety of settings, including military. The annotated items are drawn from a more comprehensive bibliography, presented in Section B, listing documents treating the role of simulators in operator training both in the nuclear industry and elsewhere

  1. Uranium tailings bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holoway, C.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Eldridge, V.M.

    1975-12-01

    A bibliography containing 1,212 references is presented with its focus on the general problem of reducing human exposure to the radionuclides contained in the tailings from the milling of uranium ore. The references are divided into seven broad categories: uranium tailings pile (problems and perspectives), standards and philosophy, etiology of radiation effects, internal dosimetry and metabolism, environmental transport, background sources of tailings radionuclides, and large-area decontamination

  2. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar energy system (weather survey). Part 1. Bibliography on solar radiation; 1974 nendo taiyo hosha ni kansuru bunken mokuroku. 1. Taiyo energy system no kenkyu kaihatsu (kisho chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    This report is the 1st one among 3 reports 'Bibliography on solar radiation', 'Guideline for using weather data' and 'Observation data on global solar radiation and sunshine duration'. This report is composed of the part 1 'Present state and view of researches on solar radiation' including (1) view of researches on short-wave radiation, (2) atmospheric radiation, (3) scattering of solar radiation, (4) global net radiation and (5) radiometer, and the part 2 including the bibliography and its commentary. (1) describes researches on incident short-wave radiation (solar radiation) and some current issues, (2) describes the basis for quantitative measurement of atmospheric radiation transfer, based on the premise that atmospheric radiation is infrared radiation between the ground surface and atmospheric system. (3) describes scattering of solar radiation in the air, and its effect. (4) describes that the global profile of net radiation of the air-earth system and its seasonal change can be observed directly from the weather satellite roughly, and research on global net radiation is approaching a new era. (NEDO)

  3. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. R and D on solar energy system (weather survey). Part 1. Bibliography on solar radiation; 1974 nendo taiyo hosha ni kansuru bunken mokuroku. 1. Taiyo energy system no kenkyu kaihatsu (kisho chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    This report is the 1st one among 3 reports 'Bibliography on solar radiation', 'Guideline for using weather data' and 'Observation data on global solar radiation and sunshine duration'. This report is composed of the part 1 'Present state and view of researches on solar radiation' including (1) view of researches on short-wave radiation, (2) atmospheric radiation, (3) scattering of solar radiation, (4) global net radiation and (5) radiometer, and the part 2 including the bibliography and its commentary. (1) describes researches on incident short-wave radiation (solar radiation) and some current issues, (2) describes the basis for quantitative measurement of atmospheric radiation transfer, based on the premise that atmospheric radiation is infrared radiation between the ground surface and atmospheric system. (3) describes scattering of solar radiation in the air, and its effect. (4) describes that the global profile of net radiation of the air-earth system and its seasonal change can be observed directly from the weather satellite roughly, and research on global net radiation is approaching a new era. (NEDO)

  4. Bibliography on transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    A selective bibliography of prominent publications on transuranium elements is compiled. Heading papers, symposia proceedings and the textbooks are included in the bibliography. The bibliography is arranged under the headings: (1)Books, Symposia Proceedings, Reviews etc., (2)Discovery, (3)Weighable Isolation, (4)Metal Preparation, (5)Nuclear Properties, (6)Plutonium as Reactor Fuel, (7)Fuel Reprocessing, (8)Solid State Chemistry, Thermochemistry and Spectroscopy, (9)Radiation Safety, (10)Applications, and (11)Some Typical Indian Papers. Total number of references cited are 298. The bibliography, though selective, will serve as a starting point for comprehensive literature search on transuranium elements. (author)

  5. Bibliography, subject index, and author index of the literature examined by the Radiation Shielding Information Center (Reactor and Weapons Radiation Shielding). [1973--1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    An indexed bibliography is presented of literature selected by the Radiation Shielding Information Center since the previous volume was published in 1974 in the area of radiation transport and shielding against radiation from nuclear reactors, x-ray machines, radioisotopes, nuclear weapons (including fallout), and low-energy accelerators (e.g., neutron generators). In addition to lists of literature titles by subject categories (accessions 3501-4950), author and keyword indexes are given. Most of the literature selected for Vol. V was published in the years 1973 to 1976.

  6. Bibliography, subject index, and author index of the literature examined by the Radiation Shielding Information Center (Reactor and Weapons Radiation Shielding)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    An indexed bibliography is presented of literature selected by the Radiation Shielding Information Center since the previous volume was published in 1974 in the area of radiation transport and shielding against radiation from nuclear reactors, x-ray machines, radioisotopes, nuclear weapons (including fallout), and low-energy accelerators (e.g., neutron generators). In addition to lists of literature titles by subject categories (accessions 3501-4950), author and keyword indexes are given. Most of the literature selected for Vol. V was published in the years 1973 to 1976

  7. Thermal effects on aquatic organisms: an annotated bibliography of the 1977 literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmage, S.S. (comp.)

    1978-12-01

    This bibliography, containing 537 references from the 1977 literature, is the seventh in a series of annotated bibliographies on the effects of heat on aquatic organisms. The effects of thermal discharges at power plant sites are emphasized. Laboratory and field studies on temperature tolerance and the effects of temperature changes on reproduction, development, growth, distribution, physiology, and sensitivity to other stresses are included. References in the bibliography are divided into three subject categories: marine systems, freshwater systems, and estuaries. The references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Indexes are provided for author, keywords, subject category, geographic location of the study, taxon, and title (alphabetical listing of keywords-in-context of nontrivial words in the title).

  8. Thermal effects on aquatic organisms: annotated bibliography of the 1974 literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, C.C.; Talmage, S.S.; Carrier, R.F.; Collier, B.N.

    1975-06-01

    The annotated bibliography covers the 1974 literature concerning thermal effects on aquatic organisms. Emphasis is placed on the effects of the release of thermal effluents on aquatic ecosystems. Indexes are provided for: author, keywords, subject category, geographic location, taxon, and title (alphabetical listing of keyword-in-context of the nontrivial words in the title). (CH)

  9. Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect: January 1986-January 1992. Quick Bibliography Series: QB 92-36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Jayne T.

    This bibliography contains 442 journal article, book, and audiovisual citations on global warming and the greenhouse effect entered into the National Agricultural Library's AGRICOLA database between January 1979 and March 1992. The bibliography contains an author and subject index as well as information on obtaining documents. (LZ)

  10. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, S.G.; Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in a continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This volume 8 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected form proceedings of technical meetings and conference journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to the many aspects of radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges form use of robotics, to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 8 contains 232 abstracts, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 8. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  11. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaurin, D.G.; Khan, T.A.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1993-07-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in the continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This is volume 7 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings and conferences, journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges from use of robotics to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 7 contains 293 abstract, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 7. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes

  12. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaurin, D.G.; Khan, T.A.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in the continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This is volume 7 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings and conferences, journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges from use of robotics to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 7 contains 293 abstract, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 7. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  13. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, S.G.; Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W.

    1995-05-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in a continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This volume 8 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected form proceedings of technical meetings and conference journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to the many aspects of radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges form use of robotics, to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 8 contains 232 abstracts, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 8. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes

  14. Radiation effects at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanger, P.A.; Danby, G.T.

    1975-01-01

    Shielding, radiation damage, and radiation heating at the planned ISABELLE storage rings were considered. Radiation shielding studies were reviewed and were found to be adequate for present day dosage limits. Radiation damage could be encountered in some extreme cases, but is not expected to limit the performance of the superconducting magnets. Experiments to study the effect of radiation heating on actual magnets are recommended

  15. Radiation effects and radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengfelder, E.; Forst, D.; Feist, H.; Pratzel, H.

    1988-01-01

    The book presents the facts and the principles of assessment and evaluation of biological radiation effects in general and also with particular reference to the reactor accident of Chernobyl, reviewing the consequences and the environmental situation on the basis of current national and international literature, including research work by the authors. The material compiled in this book is intended especially for physicians, but will also prove useful for persons working in the public health services, in administration, or other services taking care of people. The authors tried to find an easily comprehensible way of presenting and explaining the very complex processes and mechanisms of biological radiation effects and carcinogenesis, displaying the physical primary processes and the mechanisms of the molecular radiation effects up to the effects of low-level radiation, and present results of comparative epidemiologic studies. This section has been given considerable space, in proportion to its significance. It also contains literature references for further reading, offering more insight and knowledge of aspects of special subject fields. The authors also present less known results and data and discuss them against the background of well-known research results and approaches. Apart from the purpose of presenting comprehensive information, the authors intend to give an impact for further thinking about the problems, and helpful tools for independent decisions and action on the basis of improved insight and assessment, and in this context particularly point to the problems induced by the Chernobyl reactor accident. (orig./MG) With 8 maps in appendix [de

  16. Bibliography of published papers, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Papers published by RERF (a cooperative Japan-U.S. research organization) personnel mainly in 1977 issues of journals are listed as bibliography giving the title, authors, etc. Mostly in both Japanese and English. The total of about 50 such cover areas as follows; Variety of diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular, dosimetry, genetics, pathology, radiation effects including such as diseases, and summary reports. (Mori, K.)

  17. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: geochemistry of brine in rock salt in temperature gradients and gamma-radiation fields - a selective annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A.B.; Williams, L.B.

    1985-07-01

    Evaluation of the extensive research concerning brine geochemistry and transport is critically important to successful exploitation of a salt formation for isolating high-level radioactive waste. This annotated bibliography has been compiled from documents considered to provide classic background material on the interactions between brine and rock salt, as well as the most important results from more recent research. Each summary elucidates the information or data most pertinent to situations encountered in siting, constructing, and operating a mined repository in salt for high-level radioactive waste. The research topics covered include the basic geology, depositional environment, mineralogy, and structure of evaporite and domal salts, as well as fluid inclusions, brine chemistry, thermal and gamma-radiation effects, radionuclide migration, and thermodynamic properties of salts and brines. 4 figs., 6 tabs

  18. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: geochemistry of brine in rock salt in temperature gradients and gamma-radiation fields - a selective annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, A.B.; Williams, L.B.

    1985-07-01

    Evaluation of the extensive research concerning brine geochemistry and transport is critically important to successful exploitation of a salt formation for isolating high-level radioactive waste. This annotated bibliography has been compiled from documents considered to provide classic background material on the interactions between brine and rock salt, as well as the most important results from more recent research. Each summary elucidates the information or data most pertinent to situations encountered in siting, constructing, and operating a mined repository in salt for high-level radioactive waste. The research topics covered include the basic geology, depositional environment, mineralogy, and structure of evaporite and domal salts, as well as fluid inclusions, brine chemistry, thermal and gamma-radiation effects, radionuclide migration, and thermodynamic properties of salts and brines. 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. ALARA engineering at Department of Energy facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Khan, T.A.; Lane, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1991-05-01

    Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report, prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health, is the second in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose reduction activities, with a specific focus towards DOE facilities. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste; uranium enrichment; fuel fabrication, storage, and reprocessing; facility decommissioning; hot laboratories; tritium production; research, test and production reactors; weapons fabrication and testing; and accelerators. Material on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, job planning, improved operational techniques, and other topics has also been included. This volume (Volume 2 of the series) contains 127 abstracts numbered from 69 through 195, as well as author and subject indices. The subject index contains the abstract numbers from both the previous volume and the current volume, the latter being indicated in boldface. Information that the reader feels should be included in the next volume of this bibliography should be submitted to the BNL ALARA Center

  20. ALARA engineering at Department of Energy facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Khan, T.A.; Lane, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1991-03-01

    This report is the second in the series of bibliographies supporting the efforts at the Brookhaven National Laboratory ALARA Center on dose reduction at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health to include DOE nuclear facilities. Abstracts for this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy Data Base, and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Information that the reader feels should be included in the next volume of this bibliography may be submitted to the BNL ALARA Center. These abstracts, which have a bearing on dose reduction, consolidates information from publications pertinent to Radiological Engineers and Operational Health Physicists. Volume 2 contains 127 abstracts numbered from 69 through 195 as well as author and subject indices. The subject index contains the abstract numbers from both the previous volume and the current volume, the latter being indicated in boldface

  1. Space radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shiqing; Yan Heping

    1995-01-01

    The authors briefly discusses the radiation environment in near-earth space and it's influences on material, and electronic devices using in space airship, also, the research developments in space radiation effects are introduced

  2. Radiation effects in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the radiation environment in space that astronauts are likely to be exposed to. Emphasis is on proton and HZE particle effects. Recommendations for radiation protection guidelines are presented

  3. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The stages of processes leading to radiation damage are studied, as well as, the direct and indirect mechanics of its production. The radiation effects on nucleic acid and protein macro moleculas are treated. The physical and chemical factors that modify radiosensibility are analysed, in particular the oxygen effects, the sensibilization by analogues of nitrogen bases, post-effects, chemical protection and inherent cell factors. Consideration is given to restoration processes by excision of injured fragments, the bloching of the excision restoration processes, the restoration of lesions caused by ionizing radiations and to the restoration by genetic recombination. Referring to somatic effects of radiation, the early ones and the acute syndrome of radiation are discussed. The difference of radiosensibility observed in mammalian cells and main observable alterations in tissues and organs are commented. Referring to delayed radiation effects, carcinogeneses, alterations of life span, effects on growth and development, as well as localized effects, are also discussed [pt

  4. Biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  5. Radiation effects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to understand and combat potential radiation damage problems in semiconductor devices and circuits. Written by international experts, this book explains the effects of radiation on semiconductor devices, radiation detectors, and electronic devices and components. These contributors explore emerging applications, detector technologies, circuit design techniques, new materials, and innovative system approaches. The text focuses on how the technology is being used rather than the mathematical foundations behind it. It covers CMOS radiation-tolerant circuit implementations, CMOS pr

  6. Radiation Therapy Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy has side effects because it not only kills or slows the growth of cancer cells, it can also affect nearby healthy cells. Many people who get radiation therapy experience fatigue. Other side effects depend on the part of the body that is being treated. Learn more about possible side effects.

  7. Thermal effects on aquatic organisms: an annotated bibliography of the 1976 literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmage, S.S. (comp.)

    1978-05-01

    This bibliography, containing 784 annotated references on the effects of temperature on aquatic organisms, is part of an assessment of the literature on the effects of thermal power plants on the environment. The effects of thermal discharges at power plant sites are emphasized. Laboratory and field studies on temperature tolerance and the effects of temperature changes on reproduction, development, growth, distribution, physiology, and sensitivity to other stresses are included. Indexes are provided for author, keywords, subject category, geographic location of the study, taxon, and title (alphabetical listing of keywords-in-context of nontrivial words in the title).

  8. Radiation effects on polyaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oki, Yuichi; Kondo, Kenjiro; Suzuki, Takenori; Numajiri, Masaharu; Miura, Taichi; Doi, Shuji; Ohnishi, Toshihiro.

    1992-01-01

    Effects of γ-irradiation on electrical conductivity of polyaniline were investigated. A drastic increase of the conductivity due to radiation-induced doping was observed in combined systems of polyaniline films and halogen-containing polymers. This effect can be applied to measure an integrated radiation dose. (author)

  9. Radiation effects in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-07-01

    As more people spend more time in space, and the return to the moon and exploratory missions are considered, the risks require continuing examination. The effects of microgravity and radiation are two potential risks in space. These risks increase with increasing mission duration. This document considers the risk of radiation effects in space workers and explorers. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  10. Radiation effects and radioprotectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, R.K., E-mail: dr_rajendra_purohit@yahoo.co.in [Radiation Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Govt. Dungar College, Bikaner (India); Bugalia, Saroj [Department of Zoology, S.K. Kalyan College, Sikar (India); Dakshene, Monika [Department of Chemistry, Govt. College, Kota (India)

    2012-07-01

    Radiation exposure causes damage to biological systems and these damages are mediated by the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species targeting vital cellular components such as DNA and membranes. DNA repair systems and the endogenous cellular biochemical defense mechanisms against reactive oxygen species and antioxidants enzymes like reduced Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase catalase etc. fail upon exposures to higher as well as chronic radiation doses leading to alterations in cell functions, cell death or mutations. Radioprotectors prevent these alterations and protect cells and tissues from the deleterious effects of radiations. Radioprotectors are of great importance due to their possible and potential application during planned radiation exposures such as radiotherapy, diagnostic scanning, clean up operations in nuclear accidents, space expeditions etc. and Unplanned radiations exposures such as accidents in nuclear industry, nuclear terrorism, natural background radiation etc. Many of the available synthetic radioprotectors are toxic to mammalian system at doses required to be effective as radioprotector. Increasing uses of ionizing radiation have drawn the attention of many radiobiologists towards their undesired side effects produced in various tissues and for modifying them to facilitate the beneficial uses of radiation. Modification of radiation response is obtained by means of chemical substances that can significantly decrease the magnitude of response when present in a biological system during irradiation. Radioprotectors are chemicals that modify a cell's response to radiation. Radioprotectors are drugs that protect normal (non cancerous) cells from the damage caused by radiation therapy. These agents promote the repair of normal cells that are exposed to radiation. Various chemicals, like Cysteamine, MPG , WR-2721 have been tested for the protection against harmful effects of radiation. These radio

  11. Radiation effects and radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.K.; Bugalia, Saroj; Dakshene, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure causes damage to biological systems and these damages are mediated by the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species targeting vital cellular components such as DNA and membranes. DNA repair systems and the endogenous cellular biochemical defense mechanisms against reactive oxygen species and antioxidants enzymes like reduced Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase catalase etc. fail upon exposures to higher as well as chronic radiation doses leading to alterations in cell functions, cell death or mutations. Radioprotectors prevent these alterations and protect cells and tissues from the deleterious effects of radiations. Radioprotectors are of great importance due to their possible and potential application during planned radiation exposures such as radiotherapy, diagnostic scanning, clean up operations in nuclear accidents, space expeditions etc. and Unplanned radiations exposures such as accidents in nuclear industry, nuclear terrorism, natural background radiation etc. Many of the available synthetic radioprotectors are toxic to mammalian system at doses required to be effective as radioprotector. Increasing uses of ionizing radiation have drawn the attention of many radiobiologists towards their undesired side effects produced in various tissues and for modifying them to facilitate the beneficial uses of radiation. Modification of radiation response is obtained by means of chemical substances that can significantly decrease the magnitude of response when present in a biological system during irradiation. Radioprotectors are chemicals that modify a cell's response to radiation. Radioprotectors are drugs that protect normal (non cancerous) cells from the damage caused by radiation therapy. These agents promote the repair of normal cells that are exposed to radiation. Various chemicals, like Cysteamine, MPG , WR-2721 have been tested for the protection against harmful effects of radiation. These radio

  12. Man and radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, L.

    1982-01-01

    The book describes the effects of ionizing radiation on man in a simple, popular, detailed and generally valid manner and gives a comprehensive picture of the concepts, elements, principles of function, and perspectives of medical radiobiology. Radiobiology in general is explained, and its application in research on the causes of radiolesions and radiation diseases as well as a radiotherapy and radiation protection is discussed in popular form. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Effects of low-level radiation on biologic systems: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, T.L.; Hoditschek, B.

    1980-12-01

    This review presents an organized survey of scientific literature dealing with the biologic effects of low-level radiation. It includes brief discussions of topics of particular interest, a listing of useful review articles, an extensive bibliography, and listings of sources that can be used to update this document in the future. The topics discussed include experimental studies, the linear hypothesis, medical effects, occupational effects, effects of exposure to naturally occurring radiation, consumer products, and laws and regulations

  14. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, J.

    1989-01-01

    The book covers all aspects of biological radiation effects. The physical basis is dealt with in some detail, and the effects at the subcellular and the cellular level are discussed, taking into account modern developments and techniques. The effects on the human organism are reviewed, both from the point of view of applications in medicine as well as with regard to radiation hazards (teratogenic, gonadal and carcinogenic effects)

  15. Biophysical radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidorra, J.

    1982-07-01

    The biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation is based upon the absorption of energy in molecular structures of a cell. Because of the quantum nature of radiation large fluctuations of energy concentration in subcellulare regions has to be considered. In addition both the spatial distribution of a sensitive molecular target and cellulare repair processes has to be taken into consideration for an assessment of radiation action. In radiation protection the difference between the quality factor and the Relative Biological Effectiveness has a fundamental meaning and will be discussed in more detail. The present report includes a short review on some relevant models on radiation action and a short discussion on effects of low dose irradiation. (orig.) [de

  16. Radiation effects in gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Problems in the studies of radiation effects in gases are discussed. By means of ionization- excitation- and electron-capture yields various applications are characterized: ionization detectors, X-ray detectors, radionuclide battery, and radiation-induced chemical gas-phase reactions. Some new results of basic research in respect to the SO 2 oxidation are discussed. (author)

  17. Effects of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussens, G.

    1984-08-01

    After recalling radiation-matter interaction, influence on radiation effects of chemical composition, structure, irradiation atmosphere, dose rate, temperature of organic materials and evolution of electrical, mechanical and physical properties are reviewed. Then behaviour under irradiation of main organic materials: elastomers, thermoplastics, thermosetting plastics, oils and paints are examined. 68 refs [fr

  18. Bibliography Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Sam

    1983-01-01

    This annotated listing describes materials dealing with nuclear warfare, including annotated bibliographies, nonfiction, fiction, organizations, journals, newsletters, and curriculum materials for elementary and secondary schools. (RM)

  19. Ionizing radiation, radiation sources, radiation exposure, radiation effects. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, E.

    1985-01-01

    Part 2 deals with radiation exposure due to artificial radiation sources. The article describes X-ray diagnosis complete with an analysis of major methods, nuclear-medical diagnosis, percutaneous radiation therapy, isotope therapy, radiation from industrial generation of nucler energy and other sources of ionizing radiation. In conclusion, the authors attempt to asses total dose, genetically significant dose and various hazards of total radiation exposure by means of a summation of all radiation impacts. (orig./WU) [de

  20. Environmental effects of postfire logging: literature review and annotated bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. McIver; Lynn Starr

    2000-01-01

    The scientific literature on logging after wildfire is reviewed, with a focus on environmental effects of logging and removal of large woody structure. Rehabilitation, the practice of planting or seeding after logging, is not reviewed here. Several publications are cited that can be described as “commentaries,” intended to help frame the public debate. We review 21...

  1. Radiation. Doses, effect, risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vapirev, E.; Todorov, P.

    1994-12-01

    This book outlines in a popular form the topic of ionizing radiation impacts on living organisms. It contains data gathered by ICRP for a period of 35 years. The essential dosimetry terms and units are presented. Natural and artificial sources of ionizing radiation are described. Possible biological radiation effects and diseases as a consequence of external and internal irradiation at normal and accidental conditions are considered. An assessment of genetic risk for human populations is presented and the concept of 'acceptable risk' is discussed

  2. Bibliography of astatine chemistry and biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berei, K.; Vasaros, L.

    1992-02-01

    An overall bibliography is presented on astatine chemistry and on the biomedical applications of its 211 At isotope. The references were grouped in the following chapters: General reviews; Discovery, Natural Occurence; Nuclear Data; Preparation, Handling, Radiation Risk; Physico-chemical Properties; Astatine Compounds and Chemical Reactions; Biological Effects and Applications. Entries are sorted alphabetically by authors name in each chapter, and cross-references to other chapters are provided if appropriate. (R.P.)

  3. Chernobyl bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, F. Jr.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time.

  4. Chernobyl bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, F. Jr.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database project is to create and maintain an information system to provide usable information for research studies related to the nuclear accident. The system is the official United States repository for information about the Chernobyl accident and its consequences, and currently includes an extensive bibliography and diverse radiological measurements with supporting information. PNL has established two resources: original (not summarized) measurement data, currently about 80,000 measurements, with ancillary information; and about 2,200 bibliographic citations, some including abstracts. Major organizations that have contributed radiological measurement data include the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services; United States Environmental Protection Agency (domestic and foreign data); United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Stone ampersand Webster; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Commissariat A L'energie Atomique in France; Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food in the United Kingdom; Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences; and the Finnish Centre For Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Scientists in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, England, Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Romania, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, Wales, and Yugoslavia have made contributions. Bibliographic materials have been obtained from scientists in the above countries that have replied to requests. In addition, literature searches have been conducted, including a search of the DOE Energy Database. The last search was conducted in January, 1989. This document lists the bibliographic information in the DOE/OHER Chernobyl Database at the current time

  5. Handbook of radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes-Siedle, A.; Adams, L.

    1993-01-01

    This handbook is intended to serve as a tool for designers of equipment and scientific instruments in cases where they are required to ensure the survival of the equipment in radiation environments. High-technology materials, especially semiconductors and optics, tend to degrade on exposure to radiation in many different ways. Intense high-energy radiation environments are found in nuclear reactors and accelerators, machines for radiation therapy, industrial sterilization, and space. Some engineers have to build equipment which will survive a nuclear explosion from a hostile source. Proper handling of a disaster with radioactive materials requires equipment which depends utterly on semiconductor microelectronics and imaging devices. Thus the technology of radiation-tolerant electronics is an instrument for good social spheres as diverse as disaster planning and the exploration of Mars. In order to design equipment for intense environments like those described above, then degradation from high-energy irradiation must be seen as a basic design parameter. The aim of this handbook is to assist the engineer or student in that thought; to make it possible to write intelligent specifications; to offer some understanding of the complex variety of effects which occur when high-technology components encounter high-energy radiation; and to go thoroughly into the balance of choices of how to alleviate the effects and hence achieve the design aims of the project. Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 chapters of this book

  6. Biological Effects of Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatau, B.D.; Garba, N.N.; Yusuf, A.M.; Yamusa, Y. A.; Musa, Y.

    2013-01-01

    In earlier studies, researchers aimed a single particle at the nucleus of the cell where DNA is located. Eighty percent of the cells shot through the nucleus survived. This contradicts the belief that if radiation slams through the nucleus, the cell will die. But the bad news is that the surviving cells contained mutations. Cells have a great capacity to repair DNA, but they cannot do it perfectly. The damage left behind in these studies from a single particle of alpha radiation doubled the damage that is already there. This proved, beyond a shadow of doubt, those there biological effects occur as a result of exposure to radiation, Radiation is harmful to living tissue because of its ionizing power in matter. This ionization can damage living cells directly, by breaking the chemical bonds of important biological molecules (particularly DNA), or indirectly, by creating chemical radicals from water molecules in the cells, which can then attack the biological molecules chemically. At some extent these molecules are repaired by natural biological processes, however, the effectiveness of this repair depends on the extent of the damage. The interaction of ionizing with the human body, arising either from external sources outside the body or from internal contamination of the body by radioactive materials, leads to the biological effects which may later show up as a clinical symptoms. Basically, this formed the baseline of this research to serve as a yardstick for creating awareness about radiation and its resulting effects.

  7. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  8. Radiation effects on and dose enhancement of electronic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srour, J.R.; Long, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    This book describes radiation effects on and dose enhancement factors for electronic materials. Alteration of the electrical properties of solid-state devices and integrated circuits by impinging radiation is well-known. Such changes may cause an electronic subsystem to fail, thus there is currently great interest in devising methods for avoiding radiation-induced degradation. The development of radiation-hardened devices and circuits is an exciting approach to solving this problem for many applications, since it could minimize the need for shielding or other system hardening techniques. Part 1 describes the basic mechanisms of radiation effects on electronic materials, devices, and integrated circuits. Radiation effects in bulk silicon and in silicon devices are treated. Ionizing radiation effects in silicon dioxide films and silicon MOS devices are discussed. Single event phenomena are considered. Key literature references and a bibliography are provided. Part II provides tabulations of dose enhancement factors for electronic devices in x-ray and gamma-ray environments. The data are applicable to a wide range of semiconductor devices and selected types of capacitors. Radiation environments discussed find application in system design and in radiation test facilities

  9. Epidemiologic research program: Selected bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This bibliography is a current listing of scientific reports from epidemiologic and related activities sponsored by the Department of Energy. The Office of Epidemiology and Health Surveillance now is the departmental focal point for these activities and any others relating to the study of human health effects. The Office's mission is evolving to encompass the new role of the Department in environmental restoration, weapons dismantlement and nuclear material storage, and development of new energy technologies. Publications in these areas will be included in future editions of the bibliography. The present edition brings the listing up to date, and should facilitate access to specific reports. The program has been divided into several general areas of activity: the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, which supports studies of survivors of the atomic weapons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; mortality and morbidity studies of DOE workers; studies on internally deposited alpha emitters; medical/histologic studies; studies on the genetic aspects of radiation damage; community health surveillance studies; and the development of computational techniques and of databases to make the results as widely useful as possible

  10. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heribanova, A.

    1995-01-01

    The basic principles and pathways of effects of ionizing radiation on living organisms and cells are outlined. The following topics are covered: effects of radiation on living matter (direct effects, radical or indirect effects, dual radiation action, and molecular biological theories); effects of radiation on cells and tissues (cell depletion, changes in the cytogenetic information, reparation mechanisms), dose-response relationship (deterministic effects, stochastic effects), and the effects of radiation on man (acute radiation sickness, acute local changes, fetus injuries, non-tumorous late injuries, malignant tumors, genetic changes). (P.A.). 3 tabs., 2 figs., 5 refs

  11. Bystander effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar, Neethu Fathima; Daniel, Nittu

    2013-01-01

    The Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect is the phenomenon in which unirradiated cells show irradiated effects due to the signals received from nearby irradiated cells. Evidence suggests that targeted cytoplasmic irradiation results in mutation in the nucleus of the hit cells. Cells that are not directly hit by an alpha particle, but are in the vicinity of one that is hit, also contribute to the genotoxic response of the cell population. When cells are irradiated, and the medium is transferred to unirradiated cells, these unirradiated cells show bystander responses when assayed for clonogenic survival and oncogenic transformation. The demonstration of a bystander effect in human tissues and, more recently, in whole organisms have clear implication of the potential relevance of the non-targeted response to human health. This effect may also contribute to the final biological consequences of exposure to low doses of radiation. The radiation-induced bystander effect represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of the radiobiological effects of ionizing radiation, in that extranuclear and extracellular events may also contribute to the final biological consequences of exposure to low doses of radiation. Multiple pathways are involved in the bystander phenomenon, and different cell types respond differently to bystander signalling. Using cDNA microarrays, a number of cellular signalling genes, including cyclooxygenase-2 (CQX-2), have been shown to be casually linked to the bystander phenomenon. The observation that inhibition of the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) suppressed the bystander response further confirmed the important role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling cascade in the bystander process. The cells deficient in mitochondrial DNA showed a significantly reduced response to bystander signalling, suggesting a functional role of mitochondria in the signalling process. (author)

  12. Radiation effects on superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.S.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of radiation on the superconducting transition temperature (T/sub c/), upper critical field (H/sub c2/), and volume-pinning-force density (F/sub p/) were discussed for the three kinds of superconducting material (elements, alloys, and compounds). 11 figures, 3 tables, 86 references

  13. Genetic effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, P.B.

    1977-01-01

    Many of the most important findings concerning the genetic effects of radiation have been obtained in the Biology Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The paper focuses on some of the major discoveries made in the Biology Division and on a new method of research that assesses damage to the skeletons of mice whose fathers were irradiated. The results discussed have considerable influence upon estimates of genetic risk in humans from radiation, and an attempt is made to put the estimated amount of genetic damage caused by projected nuclear power development into its proper perspective

  14. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marko, A.M.

    1981-05-01

    In this review radiation produced by the nuclear industry is placed into context with other sources of radiation in our world. Human health effects of radiation, derivation of standards and risk estimates are reviewed in this document. The implications of exposing the worker and the general population to radiation generated by nuclear power are assessed. Effects of radiation are also reviewed. Finally, gaps in our knowledge concerning radiation are identified and current research on biological effects, on environmental aspects, and on dosimetry of radiation within AECL and Canada is documented in this report. (author)

  15. Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The last day of March 1978 marked the completion of the first 3 years of operation of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. RERF was established on 1 April 1975 as successor to the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission which had been in continuous operation since 1947. This record of the first 3 years of operation consists of selected reports and other documents prepared in the course of conducting the business of RERF and includes a brief history, a late radiation effects that might be conducted at RERF. The wisdom and thought given to the research program and its operation by the Scientific Council and the Board of Directors is reflected in the minutes of their meetings which are included in the Appendix. (Mori, K.)

  16. Radiation Bystander Effects Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokohzaman Soleymanifard

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radiation Induced Bystander Effect (RIBE which cause radiation effects in non-irradiated cells, has challenged the principle according to which radiation traversal through the nucleus of a cell is necessary for producing biological responses. What is the mechanism of this phenomenon? To have a better understanding of this rather ambiguous concept substantial number of original and reviewed article were carefully examined. Results: Irradiated cells release molecules which can propagate in cell environment and/or transmit through gap junction intercellular communication. These molecules can reach to non-irradiated cells and transmit bystander signals. In many investigations, it has been confirmed that these molecules are growth factors, cytokines, nitric oxide and free radicals like reactive oxygen species (ROS. Transmission of by stander signal to neighboring cells persuades them to produce secondary growth factors which in their turn cause further cell injuries. Some investigators suggest, organelles other than nucleus (mitochondria and cell membrane are the origin of these signals.  There is another opinion which suggests double strand breaks (DSB are not directly generated in bystander cells, rather they are due to smaller damage like single strand breaks which accumulate and end up to DSB. Although bystander mechanisms have not been exactly known, it can be confirmed that multiple mechanisms and various pathways are responsible for this effect. Cell type, radiation type, experimental conditions and end points identify the dominant mechanism. Conclusion: Molecules and pathways which are responsible for RIBE, also cause systemic responses to other non-irradiation stresses. So RIBE is a kind of systemic stress or innate immune responses, which are performed by cell microenvironment. Irradiated cells and their signals are components of microenvironment for creating bystander effects.

  17. Radiation effects in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leteurtre Jean.

    1978-01-01

    The current understanding of radiation damage in metals is reviewed, simplifying the actual complexity of the effects by considering some aspects separately. The production of point defects in metals, the primary damage state are first studied. The second part of the lecture is devoted to the evolution of this primary damage state as a function of temperature and dose: the steady state concentration of point defects, the nucleation of secondary defects and their growth are successively considered

  18. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1993-12-01

    This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose reduction activities, with a focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and aocelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts. An author index and a subject index are provided to facilitate use. Both indices contain the abstract numbers from previous volumes, as well as the current volume. Information that the reader feels might be included in the next volume of this bibliography should be submitted to the BNL ALARA Center.

  19. Cumulative radiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, J.; Gray, W.M.; Watson, E.R.

    1977-01-01

    In five previous papers, the concept of Cumulative Radiation Effect (CRE) has been presented as a scale of accumulative sub-tolerance radiation damage, with a unique value of the CRE describing a specific level of radiation effect. Simple nomographic and tabular methods for the solution of practical problems in radiotherapy are now described. An essential feature of solving a CRE problem is firstly to present it in a concise and readily appreciated form, and, to do this, nomenclature has been introduced to describe schedules and regimes as compactly as possible. Simple algebraic equations have been derived to describe the CRE achieved by multi-schedule regimes. In these equations, the equivalence conditions existing at the junctions between schedules are not explicit and the equations are based on the CREs of the constituent schedules assessed individually without reference to their context in the regime as a whole. This independent evaluation of CREs for each schedule has resulted in a considerable simplification in the calculation of complex problems. The calculations are further simplified by the use of suitable tables and nomograms, so that the mathematics involved is reduced to simple arithmetical operations which require at the most the use of a slide rule but can be done by hand. The order of procedure in the presentation and calculation of CRE problems can be summarised in an evaluation procedure sheet. The resulting simple methods for solving practical problems of any complexity on the CRE-system are demonstrated by a number of examples. (author)

  20. Radiation effects on microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gover, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Applications of radiation-hardened microelectronics in nuclear power systems include (a) light water reactor (LWR) containment building, postaccident instrumentation that can operate through the beta and gamma radiation released in a design basis loss-of-coolant accident; (b) advanced LWR instrumentation and control systems employing distributed digital integrated circuit (IC) technology to achieve a high degree of artificial intelligence and thereby reduce the probability of operator error under accident conditions; (c) instrumentation, command, control and communication systems for space nuclear power applications that must operate during the neutron and gamma-ray core leakage environments as well as the background electron, proton, and heavy charged particle environments of space; and (d) robotics systems designed for the described functions. Advanced microelectronics offer advantages in cost and reliability over alternative approaches to instrumentation and control. No semiconductor technology is hard to all classes of radiation effects phenomena. As the effects have become better understood, however, significant progress has been made in hardening IC technology. Application of hardened microelectronics to nuclear power systems has lagged military applications because of the limited market potential of hardened instruments and numerous institutional impediments

  1. Radiation effect on implanted pacemakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourhamidi, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    It was previously thought that diagnostic or therapeutic ionizing radiation did not have an adverse effect on the function of cardiac pacemakers. Recently, however, some authors have reported damaging effect of therapeutic radiation on cardiac pulse generators. An analysis of a recently-extracted pacemaker documented the effect of radiation on the pacemaker pulse generator

  2. Radiation effects on polyethylenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Oki, Y.; Numajiri, M.; Miura, T.; Kondo, K.; Tanabe, Y.; Ishiyama, M.; Ito, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation effects on four kinds of polyethylenes were studied from the viewpoints of mechanical properties, free radicals and free volumes. The samples were irradiated using a cobalt 60 gamma source to give doses up to 3MGy. The degradation of mechanical strength due to gamma-irradiation was evaluated by the elongation at break and its tensile strength. Radiation induced free radicals were measured by ESR. Free volumes observed by the o-Ps component of the positron annihilation spectrum are normally the large ones located in the amorphous regions and after irradiation these are created in crystalline regions, too. The sizes and the relative numbers of free volumes were evaluated by lifetimes and intensities of a long-lived component of positronium, respectively. Using these data, the properties of polyethylenes before and after irradiation are discussed. (author)

  3. Impingement: an annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uziel, M.S.; Hannon, E.H.

    1979-04-01

    This bibliography of 655 annotated references on impingement of aquatic organisms at intake structures of thermal-power-plant cooling systems was compiled from the published and unpublished literature. The bibliography includes references from 1928 to 1978 on impingement monitoring programs; impingement impact assessment; applicable law; location and design of intake structures, screens, louvers, and other barriers; fish behavior and swim speed as related to impingement susceptibility; and the effects of light, sound, bubbles, currents, and temperature on fish behavior. References are arranged alphabetically by author or corporate author. Indexes are provided for author, keywords, subject category, geographic location, taxon, and title

  4. Biological effects of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reports the proceedings of a conference organised jointly by Friends of the Earth (U.K.) and Greenpeace (International). The aim of the conference was to discuss the effects of low level radiation, particularly on man, within the terms of dose/risk relationships. The topics discussed included: sources of radiation, radiation discharges from nuclear establishments, predictive modelling of radiation hazards, radiation effects at Hiroshima, low dose effects and ICRP dose limits, variation in sensitivity to radiation, and the link between childhood cancer and nuclear power. (U.K.)

  5. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koggl, D.; Dedenkov, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    All nowadays problems of radio biology are considered: types of ionizing radiations, their interaction with material; damage of molecular structures and their reparation; reaction of cells and their recovery from radiation damage; reaction of the whole organism and its separate systems. Particular attention is given to the problems of radiation carcinogenesis and radiation hazard for man

  6. Cumulative radiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, J.; Cain, O.; Gray, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Cumulative Radiation Effect (CRE) represents a scale of accumulative sub-tolerance radiation damage, with a unique value of the CRE describing a specific level of radiation effect. Computer calculations have been used to simplify the evaluation of problems associated with the applications of the CRE-system in radiotherapy. In a general appraisal of the applications of computers to the CRE-system, the various problems encountered in clinical radiotherapy have been categorised into those involving the evaluation of a CRE at a point in tissue and those involving the calculation of CRE distributions. As a general guide, the computer techniques adopted at the Glasgow Institute of Radiotherapeutics for the solution of CRE problems are presented, and consist basically of a package of three interactive programs for point CRE calculations and a Fortran program which calculates CRE distributions for iso-effect treatment planning. Many examples are given to demonstrate the applications of these programs, and special emphasis has been laid on the problem of treating a point in tissue with different doses per fraction on alternate treatment days. The wide range of possible clinical applications of the CRE-system has been outlined and described under the categories of routine clinical applications, retrospective and prospective surveys of patient treatment, and experimental and theoretical research. Some of these applications such as the results of surveys and studies of time optimisation of treatment schedules could have far-reaching consequences and lead to significant improvements in treatment and cure rates with the minimum damage to normal tissue. (author)

  7. Biotechnology bibliographies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaudette, L.A.; McCready, R.G.L.

    1987-01-01

    Four bibliographies are included in this document, covering articles and scientific papers from around the world written mostly in English. Citations are presented alphabetically by author under the topics of: acid mine drainage (coal and metals) and bioadsorption of metals; solution mining; metabolism and physiology of thiobacillus and other microorganisms; and bacterial leaching of metals.

  8. Biotechnology bibliographies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaudette, L.A.; McCready, R.G.L.

    1986-01-01

    This bibliography consists of articles and scientific papers on biotechnology in areas in which BIOMINET is currently involved. The reports are categorized in four areas: 1) acid mine drainage (coals and metals) and bioadsorption of metals; 2) solution mining; 3) metabolism and physiology of Thiobacillus and other microorganisms; and 4) bacterial leaching of metals.

  9. Multiphoton bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberly, J.H.; Gallagher, J.W.

    1981-12-01

    A bibliography is presented of approximately 275 references from literature published since 1980 on multiphoton research. A subject list is provided which divides the references into four subdivisions, i.e., ionization, bound-bound transitions, dissociation, and free-free transitions. An author index is included

  10. LOGO Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proud, Jim

    This bibliography lists 168 articles, books, and instructional materials for anyone interested in learning more about the LOGO programming language. Items listed range from research reports and program descriptions to lesson plans and activities. Specific titles include "A Beginner's Guide to LOGO"; "LOGO Music"; "Printing…

  11. Effects of background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, E.G.; Stewart, A.M.; Gilman, E.A.; Kneale, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is to measure the relationship between exposure to different levels of background gamma radiation in different parts of the country, and different Relative Risks for leukaemias and cancers in children. The investigation is linked to an earlier analysis of the effects of prenatal medical x-rays upon leukaemia and cancer risk; the prior hypothesis on which the background-study was based, is derived from the earlier results. In a third analysis, the authors attempted to measure varying potency of medical x-rays delivered at different stages of gestation and the results supply a link between the other two estimates. (author)

  12. Radiation effects on vasoproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaura, Hirotsugu; Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1975-01-01

    The authors quantitatively examined radiation effects on vascular proliferarion, using the rat transparent chamber technique to observe the living microcirculation. We studied the process of vasoproliferation and revascularization from the surrounding pre-existing vessels into the surgically avascularized area in the chamber, by measuring the vascular lenght photographically. A hyper-vascularized zone, about 0.5 mm in with, was formed on the vascularizing frontier, the significance of which is so far not known. When the chambers were irradiated with various doses of 60 Co γ-rays, a dose dependent inhibition of vasoproliferation was observed. (auth.)

  13. Radiation effects on vasoproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaura, H; Matsuzawa, T [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Cancer

    1975-06-01

    The authors quantitatively examined radiation effects on vascular proliferarion, using the rat transparent chamber technique to observe the living microcirculation. We studied the process of vasoproliferation and revascularization from the surrounding pre-existing vessels into the surgically avascularized area in the chamber, by measuring the vascular lenght photographically. A hyper-vascularized zone, about 0.5 mm in with, was formed on the vascularizing frontier, the significance of which is so far not known. When the chambers were irradiated with various doses of /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays, a dose dependent inhibition of vasoproliferation was observed.

  14. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejourne, Michele.

    1977-01-01

    This work examines ionizing radiations: what they are, where they come from, their actions and consequences, finally the norms and preventive measures necessary to avoid serious contamination, whether the individual or the population in general is involved. Man has always been exposed to natural irradiation, but owing to the growing use of ionizing radiations both in medicine and in industry, not to mention nuclear tests and their use as an argument of dissuasion, the irradiation of human beings is increasing daily. Radioactive contamination does remain latent, apart from acute cases, but this is where the danger lies since the consequences may not appear until long after the irradiation. Of all biological effects due to the action of radioelements the genetic risk is one of the most important, affecting the entire population and especially the generations to come. The risk of cancer and leukemia induction plays a substantial part also since a large number of people may be concerned, depending on the mode of contamination involved. All these long-term dangers do not of course exclude the various general or local effects to which the individual alone may be exposed and which sometimes constitute a threat to life. As a result the use of ionizing radiations must be limited and should only be involved if no other process can serve instead. The regulations governing radioelements must be stringent and their application strictly supervised for the better protection of man. This protection must be not only individual but also collective since pollution exists in air, water and land passes to plants and animals and finally reaches the last link in the food chain, man [fr

  15. Pulsed power bibliography. Volume 2: Annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemesderfer, J.; Druce, R. L.; Frantz, B.; Guenther, A. H.; Kristiansen, M.; Oloughlin, J. P.; Pendleton, W. K.

    1983-08-01

    Pulsed power and high-voltage technologies are playing an ever increasing role in weapons' effects simulation, fusion power research, power distribution, materials processing and medical research. It is a rapidly expanding field of applied physics as evidenced by the growth in published literature. Three years ago, the Air Force Weapons Laboratory (AFWL) initiated a project to compile a computerized data base of pulsed power research papers. The data base is stored on our IBM System 2000. This AFWL Technical Report is the first release of the bibliography to date. It contains about 2,500 full bibliographic citations, original sources, availability, key words and abstracts. There are three indices: Subject, Personal Author, and Corporate. There are 30 main subject headings, from Breakdown Studies to Switching. Volume II contains the citations. In addition to these entries, the data base contains about 7,500 additional titles. As these titles are added to the full bibliography, they will be published.

  16. Radiation effects and radiation risks. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengfelder, E.; Forst, D.; Feist, H.; Pratzel, H.G.

    1990-01-01

    The book presents the facts and the principles of assessment and evaluation of biological radiation effects in general and also with particular reference to the reactor accident of Chernobyl, reviewing the consequences and the environmental situation on the basis of current national and international literature, including research work by the authors. The material compiled in this book is intended especially for physicians, but will also prove useful for persons working in the public health services, in administration, or other services taking care of people. The authors tried to find an easily comprehensible way of presenting and explaining the very complex processes and mechanisms of biological radiation effects and carcinogenesis, displaying the physical primary processes and the mechanisms of the molecular radiation effects up to the effects of low-level radiation, and present results of comparative epidemiologic studies. This section has been given considerable space, in proportion to its significance. It also contains literature references for further reading, offering more insight and knowledge of aspects of special subject fields. The authors also present less known results and data and discuss them against the background of well-known research results and approaches. Apart from the purpose of presenting comprehensive information, the authors intend to give an impact for further thinking about the problems, and helpful tools for independent decisions and action on the basis of improved insight and assessment, and in this context particularly point to the problems induced by the Chernobyl reactor accident. (orig.) With 10 maps in appendix [de

  17. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.; Khan, T.A.

    1986-10-01

    This report is the third in a series of bibliographies supporting the efforts at Brookhaven National Laboratory on dose reduction at nuclear power plants. Abstracts for this report were selected from papers presented at recent technical meetings, journals and research reports reviewed at the BNL ALARA Center, and searches of the DOE/RECON data base on energy-related publications. The references selected for inclusion in the bibliography relate not only to operational health physics topics but also to plant chemistry, stress corrosion cracking, and other aspects of plant operation which have important impacts on occupational exposure. Also included are references to improved design, planning, materials selection and other topics related to what might be called ALARA engineering. Thus, an attempt has been made to cover a broad spectrum of topics related directly or indirectly to occupational exposure reduction. The report contains 252 abstracts and both author and subject indices

  18. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA; Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health. It contains the fifth in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE`s Office of Environment, Safety and Health, to include DOE nuclear facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose-reduction activities, with a specific focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and accelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts.

  19. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA; Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health. It contains the fifth in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health, to include DOE nuclear facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose-reduction activities, with a specific focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and accelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts

  20. Effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, R.

    2006-01-01

    The medical consequences of a whole-body irradiation come from the destruction of cells and inflammatory reactions it provokes. The most sensitive organs are the tissues that actively split. The embryo is particularly sensitive, from 200 mSv for the effects on the brain development. The reproduction functions are reached for man from 2000 mSv, the ovary sensitivity is less, the oocytes do not split after the fetus life. For adult the bone marrow outrage leads to the disappearing of blood cells (4000 mSv). The doses from 6000 to 10000 mSv lead the failure of the digestive system and lung. for the upper doses every tissue is reached, particularly by the effects on cells of blood vessels. Important brain dysfunctions appear beyond 10000 mSv. As regards the delayed effects of overexposures the epidemiology brings to light sanitary consequences of the exposure of the population to the ionizing radiations and requires that all the possible factors associated for that purpose are considered. About hereditary effects, it appears that moderate acute radiation exposures of even a relatively large human population must have little impact, in spite of the rate of spontaneous congenital deformations is of the order of 6 %. For the induction of cancers, it is not observed excess for doses lower than 200 mSv for adults and 100 mSv for children (the populations studied are survival people of hiroshima and Nagasaki, patients treated by irradiation, uranium miners, children exposed to radioactive iodine after Chernobylsk accident). To simplify an expression of the risk has been fixed to 5% of induced cancer by Sv for population and 4% by Sv for workers, the different being explained by the demography and the sensitivity of the youngest age groups. As regards the low doses of radiations, a bundle of convergent epidemiological observations notices the absence of effects of the low doses rates. Biological mechanisms, notably of repair are approached, then certain accidents (Goiania

  1. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Lane, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1991-11-01

    Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report, prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health, contains the third in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. This report also contains abstracts from the two previous volumes. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health to include DOE nuclear facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose-reduction activities, with a specific focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy Data Base, and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, storage, and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, and accelerators. Material on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, job planning, improved operational techniques, and other topics are also included

  2. Radiation effects in optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.E.

    1977-03-01

    A summary is given of studies on radiation effects in light-emitting diodes, laser diodes, detectors, optical isolators and optical fibers. It is shown that the study of radiation damage in these devices can provide valuable information concerning the nature of the devices themselves, as well as methods of hardening these devices for applications in radiation environments

  3. Genetic effects of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.A.H.

    1991-12-01

    Ionizing radiation effects on the gem cells, which can result in genetic abnormalities, are described. The basic mechanisms of radiation interactions with chromosomes, or specifically DNA, which can result in radiation induced mutation are discussed. Methods of estimating genetic risks, and some values for quantitative risk estimates are given. (U.K.). 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  4. Biological effects of particle radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Kiyohiko

    1988-01-01

    Conventional radiations such as photons, gamma rays or electrons show several physical or biological disadvantages to bring tumors to cure, therefore, more and more attentions is being paid to new modalitie such as fast neutrons, protons, negative pions and heavy ions, which are expected to overcome some of the defects of the conventional radiations. Except for fast neutrons, these particle radiations show excellet physical dose localization in tissue, moreover, in terms of biological effects, they demonstrate several features compared to conventional radiations, namely low oxygen enhancement ratio, high value of relative biological effectiveness, smaller cellular recovery, larger therapeutic gain factor and less cell cycle dependency in radiation sensitivity. In present paper the biological effects of particle radiations are shown comparing to the effects of conventional radiations. (author)

  5. Biology of ionizing radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferradini, C.; Pucheault, J.

    1983-01-01

    The present trends in biology of ionizing radiation are reviewed. The following topics are investigated: interaction of ionizing radiations with matter; the radiolysis of water and aqueous solutions; properties of the free radicals intervening in the couples O 2 /H 2 O and H 2 O/H 2 ; radiation chemistry of biological compounds; biological effects of ionizing radiations; biochemical mechanisms involving free radicals as intermediates; applications (biotechnological applications, origins of life) [fr

  6. Bibliography of selected references on the effects of coal mine pollutants on aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, T F; Daniels, L K; Olsen, R D; Johnson, D O

    1979-12-01

    This bibliography contains more than 1400 references dealing with field and laboratory research on potential toxicities and disturbances known or postulated to be caused by pollutants found in coal mine effluents. The first of the three sections into which the bibliography is divided contains a select list of published bibliographies and literature reviews. In the second section are references on mine drainage studies, general references on environmental pollutants, and references dealing with two or more specific parameters. The third section includes references for 40 parameters under individual parameter headings. The multi parameter references in the second section are therefore also listed in the third section under individual headings. An author index is also provided.

  7. The biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The hazards of radiations to man are briefly covered in this paper. The natural background sources of radiations are stated and their resulting doses are compared to those received voluntarily by man. The basis of how radiations cause biological damage is given and the resulting somatic effects are shown for varying magnitude of dose. Risk estimates are given for cancer induction and genetic effects are briefly discussed. Finally four case studies of radiation damage to humans are examined exemplifying the symptoms of large doses of radiations [af

  8. Asbestos bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jentschke, M

    1982-01-01

    The publication of this special bibliography meets the desire for information on the problem of asbestos from the viewpoint of safety at work. It was compiled from the information stored at the Central Institute for Safety at work in Dresden, the Central Institute of Occupational Medicine in Berlin, the Authority for Safety at Work with the Ministry of Building in Berlin and the Medical Service of the Transport Business in Berlin, as well as with specialists from the institutions mentioned and of the authority for Safety at work, occupational hygiene and toxicology in the chemical industry of Halle and the inspector of occupational hygiene of the council of the district of Schwerin. The bibliography is a selection of the information sources available at the above-mentioned institutions. It makes no claim to completeness.

  9. Radiation effects on lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, B.

    1976-01-01

    This review of the ontogeny of lymphocyte populations concentrates on sites of production, rates of production, and the factors governing the differentiation and longevity of the various lymphocyte pools. The physiology of the lymphocyte pools is described with particular emphasis on recirculation from blood to lymph through lymphoid tissues. The separate routes of recirculation of both thymus-derived and nonthymus-derived lymphocytes and the possible anatomical sites and mechanisms of lymphocyte cooperation are discussed. Radiation effects on lymphocyte populations are divided into two sections. First, the effects of whole-body irradiation on the total lymphocyte pools are discussed including the differential effects of irradiation on T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, lymphoblasts, and plasma cells. The differential sensitivity of various types of immune response is correlated, where possible, with the differential sensitivity of the lymphocyte types involved. Second, experimental attempts to selectively deplete discrete subpopulations of the total lymphocyte pools, e.g., recirculating cells, are briefly discussed with particular emphasis on studies on the effects of the localization of radionuclides in lymphoid tissue

  10. Open Bibliography

    OpenAIRE

    Murray-Rust, Peter; Pollock, Rufus; MacGillivray, Mark; O'Steen, Ben; Waites, William

    2011-01-01

    Poster presented at the VSMF Symposium held at the Unilever Centre on 2011-01-17. More research is published currently than can be understood or followed by a researcher without the aid of a computer. We need Open shareable information on research publications, an Open Bibliography, to build the services that enable researchers to explore their field and discover the research they need. Producers of bibliographic data such as libraries, publishers, universities, scholars or social referenc...

  11. Bibliography section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    This bibliography contains 2180 references. They are arranged according to the following subjects: gas chromatography, column chromatography, paper chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, and electrophoretic techniques. Each subject is in principle divided into 36 categories. The following category falls within the INIS scope: radioactive and other isotope compounds. For the above mentioned subjects there are 21 references in this category. Other categories that might be partially in scope are: reviews and books; fundamentals, theory and general; techniques; pollution

  12. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments with small animals, tissue cultures, and inanimate materials help with understanding the effects of ionizing radiation that occur at the molecular level and cause the gross effects observed in man. Topics covered in this chapter include the following: Radiolysis of Water; Radiolysis of Organic Compounds; Radiolysis in Cells; Radiation Exposure and Dose Units; Dose Response Curves; Radiation Effects in Animals; Factors Affecting Health Risks. 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Effects of radiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.A.H.

    1981-01-01

    The available evidence on the effects of radiation on man and the predictions that have been made of possible low level effects are reviewed. Data from United Nations Scientific Committee of the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) and the committee on the Biological Effects of Ionising Radiation (BEIR) is used to illustrate the acute, delayed and hereditary effects of high dose levels. The effects of low dose levels are discussed on the assumption that both somatic and hereditary effects can be predicted on the basis of linear extrapolation from high dose effects. (U.K.)

  14. Health effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, B.

    1989-12-01

    Ionizing radiation is energy that travels through space as electromagnetic waves or a stream of fast moving particles. In the workplace, the sources of ionizing radiation are radioactive substances, nuclear power plants, x-ray machines and nuclear devices used in medicine, research and industry. Commonly encountered types of radiation are alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays. Alpha particles have very little penetrating power and pose a risk only when the radioactive substance is deposited inside the body. Beta particles are more penetrating than alpha particles and can penetrate the outer body tissues causing damage to the skin and the eyes. Gamma rays are highly penetrating and can cause radiation damage to the whole body. The probability of radiation-induced disease depends on the accumulated amount of radiation dose. The main health effects of ionizing radiation are cancers in exposed persons and genetic disorders in the children, grandchildren and subsequent generations of the exposed parents. The fetus is highly sensitive to radiation-induced abnormalities. At high doses, radiation can cause cataracts in the eyes. There is no firm evidence that ionizing radiation causes premature aging. Radiation-induced sterility is highly unlikely for occupational doses. The data on the combined effect of ionizing radiation and other cancer-causing physical and chemical agents are inconclusive

  15. Chemical effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philips, G.O.

    1986-01-01

    Ionizing radiations initiate chemical changes in materials because of the high energy of their quanta. In water, highly reactive free radicals are produced which can initiate secondary changes of solutes, and in chemical of biological molecules in contact with the water. Free radicals can also be directly produced in irradiated medical products. Their fate can be identified and the molecular basis of radiation inactivation clarified. Methods have now been developed to protect and minimise such radiation damage. (author)

  16. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA: Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.

    1989-06-01

    This report is the fourth in the series of bibliographies supporting the efforts at the Brookhaven National Laboratory on dose reduction at nuclear power plants. Abstracts for this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports and searches of the DOE's Energy Data Base. The abstracts included in this report to operational health physics as well as other subjects which have a bearing on dose reduction at nuclear power plants, such as stress corrosion, cracking, plant chemistry, use of robotics and remote devices, etc. Material on improved design, materials selection, planning and other topics which are related to dose reduction efforts are also included. The report contains 327 abstracts as well as subject and author indices. All information in the current volume is also available from the ALARA Center's bulletin board service which is accessible by personal computers with the help of a modem. The last section of the report explains the features of the bulletin board. The bulletin board will be kept up-to-date with new information and should be of help in keeping people current in the area of dose reduction

  17. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1993-03-01

    This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose-reduction activities, with a specific focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and accelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well other topics, has been included. This volume (Volume 4 of the series) contains 209 abstracts. An author index and a subject index are provided to facilitate use. The subject index contains the abstract numbers from previous volumes, as well as the current volume

  18. Diffusion effects in undulator radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Agapov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantum diffusion effects in undulator radiation in semiclassical approximation are considered. Short-term effects on the electron beam motion are discussed and it is shown that approaches based on diffusion approximation with drift-diffusion coefficients derived from undulator or bending magnet radiation spectrum, and on Poisson statistics with radiation spectrum defined by the local beding field, all lead to similar results in terms of electron energy spread for cases of practical interest. An analytical estimate of the influence of quantum diffusion on the undulator radiation spectrum is derived.

  19. Radiation effect on polytetrafluoroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Pengyang; Zhong Xiaoguang; Sun Jiazhen

    1999-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) has always been regarded as a typical kind of radiation degradation polymer. But, in fact, PTFE can be induced crosslinking by γ-ray or electron beam at some special conditions (free oxygen and a narrow temperature region at 335 +- 5 degree C). Compared with radiation degradiation PTFE, cosslinking PTFE owns a lot of new properties. Some articles concerning with these have been published, which will be systematically reviewed in this

  20. Radiation effects on cell membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeteles, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental data are presented concerning the effects of relatively low doses of x radiation and low concentration of tritiated water (HTO) on various receptor functions - concanavalin A, cationized ferritin, poliovirus of plasma membranes of animal and human cells which point to early and temporary disturbances of the composite structures and functions of membranes. References are given to the manifold influence of radiation-induced membrane phenomenon on the development and regeneration of radiation injuries. (author)

  1. Radiation effects in optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.E.; Wiczer, J.J.

    1984-05-01

    Purpose of this report is to provide not only a summary of radiation damage studies at Sandia National Laboratories, but also of those in the literature on the components of optoelectronic systems: light emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes, photodetectors, optical fibers, and optical isolators. This review of radiation damage in optoelectronic components is structured according to device type. In each section, a brief discussion of those device properties relevant to radiation effects is given

  2. Annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    Under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science and Technology, Waste Policy Institute (WPI) is conducting a five-year research project to develop a research-based approach for integrating communication products in stakeholder involvement related to innovative technology. As part of the research, WPI developed this annotated bibliography which contains almost 100 citations of articles/books/resources involving topics related to communication and public involvement aspects of deploying innovative cleanup technology. To compile the bibliography, WPI performed on-line literature searches (e.g., Dialog, International Association of Business Communicators Public Relations Society of America, Chemical Manufacturers Association, etc.), consulted past years proceedings of major environmental waste cleanup conferences (e.g., Waste Management), networked with professional colleagues and DOE sites to gather reports or case studies, and received input during the August 1996 Research Design Team meeting held to discuss the project's research methodology. Articles were selected for annotation based upon their perceived usefulness to the broad range of public involvement and communication practitioners

  3. Effects of radiation; Effets des radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, R [Office de Protection contre les Rayonnements Ionisants, 78 - le Vesinet (France)

    2006-07-01

    The medical consequences of a whole-body irradiation come from the destruction of cells and inflammatory reactions it provokes. The most sensitive organs are the tissues that actively split. The embryo is particularly sensitive, from 200 mSv for the effects on the brain development. The reproduction functions are reached for man from 2000 mSv, the ovary sensitivity is less, the oocytes do not split after the fetus life. For adult the bone marrow outrage leads to the disappearing of blood cells (4000 mSv). The doses from 6000 to 10000 mSv lead the failure of the digestive system and lung. for the upper doses every tissue is reached, particularly by the effects on cells of blood vessels. Important brain dysfunctions appear beyond 10000 mSv. As regards the delayed effects of overexposures the epidemiology brings to light sanitary consequences of the exposure of the population to the ionizing radiations and requires that all the possible factors associated for that purpose are considered. About hereditary effects, it appears that moderate acute radiation exposures of even a relatively large human population must have little impact, in spite of the rate of spontaneous congenital deformations is of the order of 6 %. For the induction of cancers, it is not observed excess for doses lower than 200 mSv for adults and 100 mSv for children (the populations studied are survival people of hiroshima and Nagasaki, patients treated by irradiation, uranium miners, children exposed to radioactive iodine after Chernobylsk accident). To simplify an expression of the risk has been fixed to 5% of induced cancer by Sv for population and 4% by Sv for workers, the different being explained by the demography and the sensitivity of the youngest age groups. As regards the low doses of radiations, a bundle of convergent epidemiological observations notices the absence of effects of the low doses rates. Biological mechanisms, notably of repair are approached, then certain accidents (Goiania

  4. Effects of radiation; Effets des radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, R. [Office de Protection contre les Rayonnements Ionisants, 78 - le Vesinet (France)

    2006-07-01

    The medical consequences of a whole-body irradiation come from the destruction of cells and inflammatory reactions it provokes. The most sensitive organs are the tissues that actively split. The embryo is particularly sensitive, from 200 mSv for the effects on the brain development. The reproduction functions are reached for man from 2000 mSv, the ovary sensitivity is less, the oocytes do not split after the fetus life. For adult the bone marrow outrage leads to the disappearing of blood cells (4000 mSv). The doses from 6000 to 10000 mSv lead the failure of the digestive system and lung. for the upper doses every tissue is reached, particularly by the effects on cells of blood vessels. Important brain dysfunctions appear beyond 10000 mSv. As regards the delayed effects of overexposures the epidemiology brings to light sanitary consequences of the exposure of the population to the ionizing radiations and requires that all the possible factors associated for that purpose are considered. About hereditary effects, it appears that moderate acute radiation exposures of even a relatively large human population must have little impact, in spite of the rate of spontaneous congenital deformations is of the order of 6 %. For the induction of cancers, it is not observed excess for doses lower than 200 mSv for adults and 100 mSv for children (the populations studied are survival people of hiroshima and Nagasaki, patients treated by irradiation, uranium miners, children exposed to radioactive iodine after Chernobylsk accident). To simplify an expression of the risk has been fixed to 5% of induced cancer by Sv for population and 4% by Sv for workers, the different being explained by the demography and the sensitivity of the youngest age groups. As regards the low doses of radiations, a bundle of convergent epidemiological observations notices the absence of effects of the low doses rates. Biological mechanisms, notably of repair are approached, then certain accidents (Goiania

  5. Ionizing radiations: effects and sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignes, S.; Nenot, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Having first mentioned the effects of ionizing radiations in cancerogenisis, pre-natal, and genetic fields, the authors present the different sources of radiations and estimate their respective contributions to the total irradiation dose. Their paper makes reference to the main elements of a report issued by the United Nations Scientific Committee in 1977 [fr

  6. Genetic effects of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.

    1981-01-01

    The mutagenic effects of ionising radiation on germ cells with resulting genetic abnormalities in subsequent generations, are considered. Having examined a simple model to explain the interaction of ionising radiation with genetic material and discussed its limitations, the methods whereby mutations are transmitted are discussed. Methods of estimating genetic risks and the results of such studies are examined. (U.K.)

  7. Epigenetic effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Naggar, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Data generated during the last three decades provide evidence of Epigenetic Effects that ave-induced by ionizing radiation, particularly those of high LET values, and low level dose exposures. Epigenesist is defined as the stepwise process by which genetic information, as modified by environmental influences, is translated into the substance and behavior of cells, tissues, organism.The epigenetic effects cited in the literature are essentially classified into fine types depending on the type and nature of the effect induced.The most accepted postulation, for the occurrence of these epigenetic effects, is a radiation induced bio electric disturbances in the environment of the non-irradiated cellular volume. This will trigger signals that will induce effects in the unirradiated cells.The epigenetic effects referenced in the literature up to date are five types; namely, Genomic Instability, Bystander. Effects, Clastogenic Plasma Factors,, Abscopal Effects, and Tran generational Effects.The demonstration of Epigenetic Effects associated with exposure to ionizing radiation indicates the need to re- examine the concept of radiation dose and target size. Also an improved understanding of qualifiring and quantifying radiation risk estimates may be attained. Also, a more logical means to understand the underlying mechanisms of radiation induced carcinogenic transformation of cells

  8. Radiation hazards and biological effects of ionising radiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Najila Mohd Janib

    2004-01-01

    The contents of this chapter are follows - Mechanism of damage: direct action of radiation, indirect action of radiation. Classification of effects: somatic effect, induction of cancer, factors, affecting somatic effects, genetic effect, inherited abnormalities, induced effects, early effects, late effects, deterministic effect, stochastic effect. Effect of specific group: development abnormality, childhood Cancer, fertile women, risk and uncertainty, comparison of risk

  9. Radon: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepman, S.R.; Boegel, M.L.; Hollowell, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, with the support of the Department of Energy, has developed a computerized database to manage research information in the area of building ventilation and indoor air quality. This literature survey contains references pertaining to the physical properties of radon and its daughters, instrumentation for their measurement, health effects, surveys and measurements, and regulatory information. The references in the bibliography are sequenced in alphabetical order and abstracts are included when supplied by the author. The objective of this report is to disseminate the bibliographic references compiled at the laboratory relating to radon research portion of the program. Interested database users are encouraged to contact the laboratory to receive instructions for direct database acess. A flyer describing the database is supplied at the end of the bibliography and a brief overview of the Radon Research porgram is given

  10. Radon: a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepman, S.R.; Boegel, M.L.; Hollowell, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, with the support of the Department of Energy, has developed a computerized database to manage research information in the area of building ventilation and indoor air quality. This literature survey contains references pertaining to the physical properties of radon and its daughters, instrumentation for their measurement, health effects, surveys and measurements, and regulatory information. The references in the bibliography are sequenced in alphabetical order and abstracts are included when supplied by the author. The objective of this report is to disseminate the bibliographic references compiled at the laboratory relating to radon research portion of the program. Interested database users are encouraged to contact the laboratory to receive instructions for direct database acess. A flyer describing the database is supplied at the end of the bibliography and a brief overview of the Radon Research porgram is given.

  11. Radiation and radiation effects; Strahlung und Strahlenwirkung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumaier, S. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Strahlenschutz; Janssen, H. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany). Abt. Ionisierende Strahlung

    2006-12-15

    The average dose incurred by the German population is about 4 millisievert p.a., about half of which results from natural radiation sources. The second half is caused nearly completely by medical applications. Only a very small fraction of the annual dose results from technical applications. This special issue of PTB focuses on the measuring problems relating to natural radiation sources and technical applications of ionizing radiation. The current contribution also outlines some important aspects of radiation exposure from medical applications. (orig.)

  12. Radiation effects on structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoniem, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the effect radiation has on thermonuclear reactor materials: Atomic Displacements; Microstructure Evolution; Materials Engineering, Mechanics, and Design; Research on Low-Activation Steels; and Research Motivated by Grant Support

  13. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, Pablo; Perez, Maria R.

    2001-01-01

    It has been emphasised the importance of DNA as the main target for ionizing radiation, that can induce damage by its direct action on this molecule or by an indirect effect mediated by free-radicals generated by water radiolysis. Biological effects of ionizing radiation are influenced not only by the dose but also by the dose-rate and the radiation quality. Radiation induced damage, mainly DNA single and double strand breaks, is detected by molecular sensors which in turn trigger signalling cascades leading to cell cycle arrest to allow DNA repair or programmed cell death (apoptosis). Those effects related with cell death, named deterministic, exhibits a dose-threshold below which they are not observed. Acute radiation syndrome and radiological burns are examples of this kind of effects. Other radiation induced effects, called stochastic, are the consequence of cell transformation and do not exhibit a dose-threshold. This is the case of cancer induction and hereditary effects. The aim of this presentation is briefly describe the main aspects of deterministic and stochastic effects from the point of view of radiobiology and radio pathology. (author)

  14. Effects after prenatal radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.

    2001-01-01

    The mammalian organism is highly radiosensitive during all prenatal developmental periods. For most effects a dose relationship with a threshold is observed. These threshold doses are generally above the exposures from medical diagnostic procedures. The quality and extent of radiation effects are very much dependent on the developmental stage during which an exposure takes place and on the radiation dose. An exposure during the preimplantation period will cause lethality. Malformations are usually induced after exposures during the major organogenesis. Growth retardation is also possible during the late organogenesis and foetal periods. The lower limits of threshold doses for these effects are in the range of 100 mGy. A radiation exposure during the early foetal period can lead to severe mental retardation and impairment of intelligence. There are very serious effects with radiation doses above 0.3 Gy. Carcinogenesis can apparently occur after radiation exposures during the total prenatal development period. The radiation risk factor up to now has not been clear, but it seems that it is in the range of risk factors for cancer that are observed after exposures during childhood. For radiation doses that are used in radiological diagnostics the risk is zero or very low. A termination of pregnancy after doses below 100 mGy should not be considered. (author)

  15. Effects of radiation on erythropoiesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harriss, E B

    1971-04-01

    Since the pioneer work of Heineke (1903; 1905) many workers have studied the effect of radiation on haemopoiesis. Their work has been reviewed by Bloom (1948), by Jacobson (1954) and more recently by Bond et al. (1965). The subject continues to stimulate much interest but is now more concerned with the effects of radiation on the multipotential stem cell pool than on radiation damage to the erythropoietic cells themselves. Death from haemopoietic failure following an LD{sub 50/30} dose of radiation is probably not attributable to failure of erythropoiesis; while damage to the erythropoietic system certainly plays a part in the syndrome, it is not a major factor contributing to the death of the animal. Although the severity and time course of the response vary with the species studied, the general effects of radiation on erythropoiesis are similar in all mammalian bone marrow studied to date. Likewise, though the severity of the reaction varies somewhat with the energy of the radiation and has been used to compare the relative biological effectiveness of different types of radiation (Sinclair et al., 1962; Sztanyik, 1967), the response is different only in degree and not in its fundamental pattern. The initial syndrome of depression and recovery will therefore be described largely by reference to work performed on the response of the rat to single acute exposures of either whole-body or partial-body irradiation with conventional X-rays.

  16. Aerosol effects in radiation transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binenko, V.I.; Harshvardhan, H.

    1993-01-01

    The radiative properties and effects of aerosols are assessed for the following aerosol sources: relatively clean background aerosol, dust storms and dust outbreaks, anthropogenic pollution, and polluted cloud layers. Studies show it is the submicron aerosol fraction that plays a dominant radiative role in the atmosphere. The radiative effect of the aerosol depends not only on its loading but also on the underlying surface albedo and on solar zenith angle. It is only with highly reflecting surfaces such as Arctic ice that aerosols have a warming effect. Radiometric, microphysical, mineral composition, and refractive index measurements are presented for dust and in particular for the Saharan aerosol layer (SAL). Short-wave radiative heating of the atmosphere is caused by the SAL and is due mainly to absorption. However, the SAL does not contribute significantly to the long-wave thermal radiation budget. Field program studies of the radiative effects of aerosols are described. Anthropogenic aerosols deplete the incoming solar radiation. A case field study for a regional Ukrainian center is discussed. The urban aerosol causes a cooling of metropolitan centers, compared with outlying areas, during the day, which is followed by a warming trend at night. In another study, an increase in turbidity by a factor of 3 due to increased industrialization for Mexico City is noted, together with a drop in atmospheric transmission by 10% over a 50-year period. Numerous studies are cited that demonstrate that anthropogenic aerosols affect both the microphysical and radiative properties of clouds, which in turn affect regional climate. Particles acting as cloud nuclei are considered to have the greatest indirect effect on cloud absorptivity of short-wave radiation. Satellite observations show that low-level stratus clouds contaminated by ship exhaust at sea lead to an increase in cloud albedo

  17. Low level radiation: biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    It is imperative that physicians and scientists using radiations in health care delivery continue to assess the benefits derived, vs. potential risk, to patients and radiation workers being exposed to radiation in its various forms as part of our health delivery system. Insofar as possible we should assure our patients and ourselves that the benefits outweigh the potential hazards involved. Inferences as to the possible biological effects of low level radiation are generally based on extrapolations from those effects observed and measured following acute exposures to considerably higher doses of radiation. Thus, in order to shed light on the question of the possible biological effects of low level radiation, a wide variety of studies have been carried out using cells in culture and various species of plant and animal life. This manuscript makes reference to some of those studies with indications as to how and why the studies were done and the conclusions that might be drawn there from. In addition reference is made to the handling of this information by scientists, by environmentalists, and by the news media. Unfortunately, in many instances the public has been misled by what has been said and/or written. It is hoped that this presentation will provide an understandable and reasonable perspective on the various appropriate uses of radiation in our lives and how such uses do provide significant improvement in our health and in our quality of life

  18. Topical Day on Biological Effects of Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baatout, S.; Jacquet, P.

    1997-05-15

    The topical day has been focussed on the potential effects of ionizing radiation on human health. A general overview on molecular and biophysical aspects of radiation, its effects on cells and organisms, and the contribution of radiobiology to radiation protection and risk assessment is given. The genetic effects of radiation and its effects on the developing organism, the effects of radiation on the cell cycle and the mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis were also discussed.

  19. Topical Day on Biological Effects of Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baatout, S.; Jacquet, P.

    1997-01-01

    The topical day has been focussed on the potential effects of ionizing radiation on human health. A general overview on molecular and biophysical aspects of radiation, its effects on cells and organisms, and the contribution of radiobiology to radiation protection and risk assessment is given. The genetic effects of radiation and its effects on the developing organism, the effects of radiation on the cell cycle and the mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis were also discussed

  20. Bibliographies on radiation chemistry: Pt. 12; Rate constants for reactions of nonmetallic inorganic radicals in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helman, W P; Ross, A B [Notre Dame Univ., IN (USA). Radiation Chemistry Data Center

    1990-01-01

    Rate constants have been determined by pulse radiolysis, flash photolysis, and other methods, for a wide variety of reactions involving transient radicals in aqueous solution. Reliable rate constants have been established for reactions of radicals from water (e{sub aq}{sup -}, {center dot}H, {center dot}OH/{center dot}O{sup -}) and the data have been tabulated (Buxton, 1988) through 1986. Kinetic data for HO{sub 2}{center dot}/O{sub 2}{center dot}{sup -} were tabulated. (Bielski, 1985) from papers published through 1983. A compilation of rate constants, from the literature through Mid-1987, for other nonmetallic inorganic radicals has also appeared recently (Neta, 1988). Together, these compilations contain rate constants for more than 6,000 different reactions, reported in about 2,000 references. The present bibliography provides a list of relevant references which have been collected since the publication of the above-mentioned compilations. The list contains references received through the end of December, 1989. (author).

  1. Effects of radiation-counselling convergence education on radiation awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seoung, Youl Hun [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Cheongju University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of study was to analysis on the effects of radiation-counselling convergence education on radiation awareness. The survey objects were students of radiation-counselling convergence education from 12th May to 22th June in 2016. The questionnaires were education satisfactions and radiation awareness (risk, benefit, control) by Likert-type 5 scales. The analysis results revealed that education satisfactions of men students showed a significant higher female students and correlation coefficient of education satisfactions were the best high in the benefit and control of radiation. Finally radiation-counselling convergence education had a significant effect on radiation benefit. This convergence education influenced positive recognition on radiation benefit and it was indicated that radiation-counselors could treat clients on the basis of radiation benefit.

  2. Effects of radiation-counselling convergence education on radiation awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seoung, Youl Hun

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of study was to analysis on the effects of radiation-counselling convergence education on radiation awareness. The survey objects were students of radiation-counselling convergence education from 12th May to 22th June in 2016. The questionnaires were education satisfactions and radiation awareness (risk, benefit, control) by Likert-type 5 scales. The analysis results revealed that education satisfactions of men students showed a significant higher female students and correlation coefficient of education satisfactions were the best high in the benefit and control of radiation. Finally radiation-counselling convergence education had a significant effect on radiation benefit. This convergence education influenced positive recognition on radiation benefit and it was indicated that radiation-counselors could treat clients on the basis of radiation benefit

  3. Radiation, chemicals and combined effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, W.K.

    1991-01-01

    A brief background has been provided on current carcinogenic risks from ionizing radiation and their magnitude in background circumstances. The magnitude of the risks from possibly carcinogenic chemicals at background levels in air, water and food are surprisingly similar. The exception is, perhaps, for the single source of radon which, while variable, on the average stands out above all other sources. Some basic principles concerning the interaction of combined radiation and chemicals and some practical examples where the two interact synergistically to enhance radiation effects has also been provided. Areas for human research in the future are discussed. (Author)

  4. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Bahadori Amir; Semones Edward; Ewert Michael; Broyan James; Walker Steven

    2017-01-01

    Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles ...

  5. Radiation effects in optical components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friebele, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    This report discusses components of high performance optical devices may be exposed to high energy radiation environments during their lifetime. The effect of these adverse environments depends upon a large number of parameters associated with the radiation (nature, energy, dose, dose rate, etc.) or the system (temperature, optical performance requirements, optical wavelength, optical power, path length, etc.), as well as the intrinsic susceptibility of the optical component itself to degradation

  6. Environmental dosimetry and radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    Specific assessment of the potential effects on wild organisms of increased radiation exposure arising from the authorized disposal of radioactive wastes to the environment requires two interrelated sets of information. First, an estimate is required of the incremental radiation exposure; and second, dose rate-response relationships are necessary to predict the potential impact of the estimated incremental exposure. Each of these aspects will be discussed in detail. (author)

  7. Radiation effects at the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilchriese, M.G.D. [ed.] [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1988-06-01

    This report contains a preliminary study of the effects of the radiation levels expected at the SSC on potential detector components and a subset of materials to be used in the SSC accelerators. The report does not contain a discussion of radiation damage to electronics components that may be used at the SSC. We have investigated many of the effects of radiation on silicon detectors, on wire chambers, on scintillating materials and the associated readout, on optical fibers for data transmission and on structural or other materials to be used in detector or accelerator components. In the SSC accelerator complex, in particular the storage rings, radiation damage will not present significant problems different than those now faced by existing high energy accelerators. We find that the effects of radiation damage on SSC detector components will be significant at the design luminosity of the ssc and will limit, or determine, many of the options for different detector components. In this regard the reader should keep in mind that, in the absence of a specific detector design, it is not possible to form definitive conclusions regarding the viability of the detector components. Since the radiation levels in experiments at the SSC will depend on the geometry and composition of the apparatus, simple yes /no generalizations about the feasibility of a detector component are not possible.

  8. Annual report of Radiation Effects Research Foundation, April 1, 1988 - March 31, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This annual report summarizes the research activities of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in the fiscal year 1988. Outcome of the work is presented, covering the two major workshops for 'immunology' and for 'radiation-induced carcinogenesis' which were held in Hiroshima on November 28-29, 1988, and on March 16-18, 1989, respectively. Study meeting of 'medical radiation research program' and Japan-the U.S. joint meeting of 'DS 86' are reported, as well as the other scientific lectures and campus study seminars. Included are research abstracts published by the Research Foundation staff. The bibliography of papers, published in scientific journals and presented in scientific meetings, is provided. Appendices give the details of the aforementioned workshops, the continuing research issues, and the personnel list of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. (N.K.)

  9. Indoor air: Reference bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.; Staves, D.; McDonald, S.

    1989-07-01

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency initially established the indoor air Reference Bibliography in 1987 as an appendix to the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan. The document was submitted to Congress as required under Title IV--Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The Reference Bibliography is an extensive bibliography of reference materials on indoor air pollution. The Bibliography contains over 4500 citations and continues to increase as new articles appear

  10. Health effects of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Human and animal studies have shown an increased incidence of cancer and malformation due to radioactive materials and external radiation. The biological effects of radiation on tissues are the occurrence of morphological and functional changes in the body. The critical parts of the body are those tissues or organs which when irradiated, are likely to influence the health of the individual or its offspring. The probability of these changes depends on the radiation dose. There are two main types of damage due to radiation dose. Radiation Sickness with well-defined symptoms like cancer and inherited disorders which can appear after several years. A second type of damage, namely Acute Radiation Sickness results after exposure of the whole or parts of the body to high doses of radiation greater than 1 Gy. There are safety standards for the amount of dose equivalent that is taken as acceptable. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has given norms in which natural and medical causes were not included. These are given as recommended values (1966) and proposed values (2000), both in mSv/yr: population at large: 1.7 and 0.4; members of the public: 5 and 2; and radiologic workers: 50 and 20, respectively. Taking into account the increased number of reactor accidents, the question is how safe is our safety standards? Even when one is able to connect a quantitative risk with a radiation dose, there are three fundamental principles which we should obey in dealing with risks from radiation. These are: (1) Avoid any risk. (2) The risk should be related to the possible benefit. (3) Any dose below the politically agreed limits is acceptable

  11. Harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Tanning for cosmetic purposes by sunbathing or by using artificial tanning devices is widespread. The hazards associated with exposure to ultraviolet radiation are of concern to the medical profession. Depending on the amount and form of the radiation, as well as on the skin type of the individual exposed, ultraviolet radiation causes erythema, sunburn, photodamage (photoaging), photocarcinogenesis, damage to the eyes, alteration of the immune system of the skin, and chemical hypersensitivity. Skin cancers most commonly produced by ultraviolet radiation are basal and squamous cell carcinomas. There also is much circumstantial evidence that the increase in the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma during the past half century is related to increased sun exposure, but this has not been proved. Effective and cosmetically acceptable sunscreen preparations have been developed that can do much to prevent or reduce most harmful effects to ultraviolet radiation if they are applied properly and consistently. Other safety measures include (1) minimizing exposure to ultraviolet radiation, (2) being aware of reflective surfaces while in the sun, (3) wearing protective clothing, (4) avoiding use of artificial tanning devices, and (5) protecting infants and children

  12. Dungeness bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, H.

    1989-01-01

    This report is a bibliography of material relating to the ecology of Dungeness in Kent and has been produced, under contract, for the Nature Conservancy Council. Since its first appearance in 1985, much new material has been published or has come to light, and is included in this 1989 edition. The area concerned comprises the system of shingle beaches between Jury's Gap and Greatstone-on-Sea on the south Kent/Sussex coast, and is a site of international conservation importance. It is one of the finest examples of an apposition shingle beach in the world and in terms of physiography, botany, entomology and ornithology it is an area of high scientific interest. As well as being of great scientific importance, Dungeness is subject to a high degree of 'human' pressure: excavation and building operations, military activity, vehicular damage and trampling threaten to destroy what is left of the natural shingle ecosystem at Dungeness. In recognition of this the Nature Conservancy Council is supporting a renewed programme of research into the ecology of the site, to try to determine how best to protect the remaining intact areas. (author)

  13. Biological effects of nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotz, G.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief survey about the main radiobiological effects caused by ionizing radiation, human symptoms after irradiation and incorporation are shown. The special radiotoxic effect of radionuclides which are chemically associated with metabolism-specific elements such as calcium and potassium is shown and methods of treatment are indicated. (ORU) [de

  14. Radiation Effects in Carbon Nanoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory D. Cress

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally investigate the effects of Co-60 irradiation on the electrical properties of single-walled carbon nanotube and graphene field-effect transistors. We observe significant differences in the radiation response of devices depending on their irradiation environment, and confirm that, under controlled conditions, standard dielectric hardening approaches are applicable to carbon nanoelectronics devices.

  15. Kinetic theory of radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, L.K.

    1987-01-01

    To help achieve the quantitative and mechanistic understanding of these processes, the kinetic theory of radiation effects has been developed in the DOE basic energy sciences radiation effects and fusion reactor materials programs, as well as in corresponding efforts in other countries. This discipline grapples with a very wide range of phenomena and draws on numerous sub-fields of theory such as defect physics, diffusion, elasticity, chemical reaction rates, phase transformations and thermodynamics. The theory is cast in a mathematical framework of continuum dynamics. Issues particularly relevant to the present inquiry can be viewed from the standpoints of applications of the theory and areas requiring further progress

  16. The Slovenian bibliography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Wagner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Slovenian bibliography is our national bibliography. We want to show the criteria of the selection of the particular materials, which are included in the Slovenian bibliography. We described the bibliographic description and classification of the records with UDC and the descriptors. The printing and the CD-ROM issues of the Slovenian bibli¬ography are described. We compared UNESCO guidelines for the national bibliography on the field of the selection, bibliographic description and classification, arrangement of the records and the useful of the national bibliography.

  17. Radiation research contracts: Biological effects of small radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hug, O [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Health, Safety and Waste Disposal, Vienna (Austria)

    1959-04-15

    To establish the maximum permissible radiation doses for occupational and other kinds of radiation exposure, it is necessary to know those biological effects which can be produced by very small radiation doses. This particular field of radiation biology has not yet been sufficiently explored. This holds true for possible delayed damage after occupational radiation exposure over a period of many years as well as for acute reactions of the organism to single low level exposures. We know that irradiation of less than 25 Roentgen units (r) is unlikely to produce symptoms of radiation sickness. We have, however, found indications that even smaller doses may produce certain instantaneous reactions which must not be neglected

  18. The effects and control of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.A.H.

    1982-12-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; ionising radiation (alpha and beta particles, gamma- and X-radiation, neutrons, half-life, sources of radiation); biological effects; risk estimates (somatic) (early effects, delayed effects); risk estimates (hereditary); control of radiation; risk estimates (accidents). (U.K.)

  19. Health effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    This presentation is restricted to the health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation. In general, these cumulative exposures are well below 100 rem, or about 50 times background or less. The two effects of interest in this dose range are genetic mutations and cancer production. The genetic effects will not be discussed in detail. The chief reason for the rise in risk estimates for cancer is the longer follow-up of exposed populations

  20. Cooling towers: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitson, M.O.

    1981-02-01

    This bibliography cites 300 selected references containing information on various aspects of large cooling tower technology, including design, construction, operation, performance, economics, and environmental effects. The towers considered include natural-draft and mechanical-draft types employing wet, dry, or combination wet-dry cooling. A few references deal with alternative cooling methods, principally ponds or spray canals. The citations were compiled for the DOE Energy Information Data Base (EDB) covering the period January to December 1980. The references are to reports from the Department of Energy and its contractors, reports from other government or private organizations, and journal articles, books, conference papers, and monographs from US originators

  1. Annual report of Radiation Effects Research Foundation, April 1, 1989 - March 31, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This annual report summarizes the research activities of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in the fiscal year, 1989. Outcome of the work is presented, covering epidemiology, Adult Health Survey Program, cytogenetics, genetic biochemical survey, immunology, cytobiology, and statistics. Symposium entitled 'update information on effects of radiation', held on October 8, 1989, and the final workshop on 'aging', held on March 29-31, 1990, are outlined, accompanied by the other scientific lectures and campus study seminars. The report also includes research abstracts published by the Research Foundation staff. Bibliography of papers, published in scientific journals and presented in scientific meetings, is provided. Appendices give the proceedings of the aforementioned workshop on 'aging', the continuing research issues, and the personal list of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. (N.K.)

  2. Stimulating effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworowski, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of low doses on human organism is not definite known up to now. The worldwide discussion on this topic has been presented. A lot of analysed statistical data proved that the stimulating effect of low doses of ionizing radiation really exists and can have a beneficial influence on human health. 43 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  3. Radiation effects on video imagers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, G.J.; Bujnosek, J.J.; Jaramillo, S.A.; Walton, R.B.; Martinez, T.M.; Black, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation sensitivity of several photoconductive, photoemissive, and solid state silicon-based video imagers was measured by analyzing stored photocharge induced by irradiation with continuous and pulsed sources of high energy photons and neutrons. Transient effects as functions of absorbed dose, dose rate, fluences, and ionizing particle energy are presented

  4. Biopositive Effects of Ionizing Radiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1972-01-01

    This paper was written for a talk given by E. Broda in Vienna for an event organised by the chemical physical society, the Austrian biochemical society and the Austrian biophysical society in December 1972. In this paper Broda analyses the question of biopositive effects of ionizing radiation. (nowak)

  5. Modification of radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenbaum, A.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported from studies on the tissue distribution of 239 Pu and 241 Am in mice and beagle dogs and the effectiveness of various therapeutic treatments for decorporation. In dogs injected with monomeric Pu the value of a regimen of early and prolonged treatment with DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) for minimizing the Pu burden in the soft tissues and skeleton was demonstrated. These results have immediate implication for DTPA treatment in man. New studies in mice verified the action of pyran copolymer antiviral agents in enhancing the effectiveness of DTPA for removal of polymeric Pu from the liver. Recent application of autoradiographic procedures for quantitatively comparing short- and long-term localization of monomeric and polymeric 239 Pu in dog liver showed that there is no net translocation of monomeric Pu within the liver between 6 and 90 days following injection. One of the molecular studies presently underway aims at synthesis of a variety of DTPA esters. The diethyl ester has already been prepared and tested for toxicity in mice. These compounds are designed to bring DTPA into contact with plutonium deposits unavailable to the action of ionic DTPA. (U.S.)

  6. Radiation effects on eye components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durchschlag, H.; Fochler, C.; Abraham, K.; Kulawik, B.

    1999-08-01

    The most important water-soluble components of the vertebrate eye (lens proteins, aqueous humor, vitreous, hyaluronic acid, ascorbic acid) have been investigated in aqueous solution, after preceding X- or UV-irradiation. Spectroscopic, chromatographic, electrophoretic, hydrodynamic and analytic techniques have been applied, to monitor several radiation damages such as destruction of aromatic and sulfur-containing amino acids, aggregation, crosslinking, dissociation, fragmentation, and partial unfolding. Various substances were found which were able to protect eye components effectively against radiation, some of them being also of medical relevance.

  7. Radiation Effects in Paediatric radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutwasi, O.

    2006-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging has evolved from single technique to a field which we have a choice from many modalities. Some without radiation. Radiation producing modalities include plain films (low dose), Fluoroscopy (mid range dose), Computed tomography (high dose). Radiography dose can significantly be influenced in plain radiography by varying speed of screens, cassette construction and type of radiography. E.g. digital or computed. In computed or digital radiography we are no longer able to tell h igh dose b y the quality of images. The final image is by great extend a product of post processing algorithms. It's for this reasons that the basic understanding of the sensitivity and specifying of various types of examinations and of specifically radiation effects is mandatory for a paediatric imager

  8. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadori Amir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles is described. Using accelerated alpha particles at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the method is applied to sample tiles from the Heat Melt Compactor, which were created by melting material from a simulated astronaut waste stream, consisting of materials such as trash and unconsumed food. The shielding effectiveness calculated from measurements of the Heat Melt Compactor sample tiles is about 10% less than the shielding effectiveness of polyethylene. Shielding material produced from the astronaut waste stream in the form of Heat Melt Compactor tiles is therefore found to be an attractive solution for protection against space radiation.

  9. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Amir; Semones, Edward; Ewert, Michael; Broyan, James; Walker, Steven

    2017-09-01

    Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles is described. Using accelerated alpha particles at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the method is applied to sample tiles from the Heat Melt Compactor, which were created by melting material from a simulated astronaut waste stream, consisting of materials such as trash and unconsumed food. The shielding effectiveness calculated from measurements of the Heat Melt Compactor sample tiles is about 10% less than the shielding effectiveness of polyethylene. Shielding material produced from the astronaut waste stream in the form of Heat Melt Compactor tiles is therefore found to be an attractive solution for protection against space radiation.

  10. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, A.

    2000-01-01

    Everyone is exposed to a complex mix of electromagnetic fields (EMF) of different frequencies that permeate our environment. Exposures to these EMF are increasing significantly as technology advances unabated and new applications are found. Technological progress in the broadest sense of the word has always been associated with various hazards and risks, both perceived and real. The industrial, commercial and household application on EMF is no exception. Throughout the world, the general public is concerned that exposure to EMF from such sources as high voltage power lines, broadcasting networks, mobile telephones and their base stations could lead to adverse health consequences, especially in children. As a result, the construction of new power lines and broadcasting and mobile telephone network has met with considerable opposition in many countries. Public exposure to EMF is regulated by a variety of voluntary and legal limits, together with various national safety standards. Guidelines are designed to avoid all identified hazards, from short and long term exposure, recommended limits. The aim of this paper is to report the summary of the actual scientific knowledge about the potential health effects and hazards due to man made EMF and the new tendencies of the social and political choices [it

  11. Children and Advertising: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Better Business Bureaus, Inc., New York, NY. Clearinghouse for Research on Children's Advertising.

    More than 600 entries are contained in this annotated bibliography of materials concerning the effects of television advertising on children. Entries are alphabetized by author and are divided into the following categories: special interest articles; general interest articles; books and pamphlets; government publications; transcripts of oral…

  12. Genomic instability and radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian Streffer

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Cancer, genetic mutations and developmental abnormalities are apparently associated with an increased genomic instability. Such phenomena have been frequently shown in human cancer cells in vitro and in situ. It is also well-known that individuals with a genetic predisposition for cancer proneness, such as ataxia telangiectesia, Fanconi anaemia etc. demonstrate a general high genomic instability e.g. in peripheral lymphocytes before a cancer has developed. Analogous data have been found in mice which develop a specific congenital malformation which has a genetic background. Under these aspects it is of high interest that ionising radiation can increase the genomic instability of mammalian cells after exposures in vitro an in vivo. This phenomenon is expressed 20 to 40 cell cycles after the exposure e.g. by de novo chromosomal aberrations. Such effects have been observed with high and low LET radiation, high LET radiation is more efficient. With low LET radiation a good dose response is observed in the dose range 0.2 to 2.0 Gy, Recently it has been reported that senescence and genomic instability was induced in human fibroblasts after 1 mGy carbon ions (1 in 18 cells are hit), apparently bystander effects also occurred under these conditions. The instability has been shown with DNA damage, chromosomal aberrations, gene mutation and cell death. It is also transferred to the next generation of mice with respect to gene mutations, chromosomal aberrations and congenital malformations. Several mechanisms have been discussed. The involvement of telomeres has gained interest. Genomic instability seems to be induced by a general lesion to the whole genome. The transmission of one chromosome from an irradiated cell to an non-irradiated cell leads to genomic instability in the untreated cells. Genomic instability increases mutation rates in the affected cells in general. As radiation late effects (cancer, gene mutations and congenital

  13. Ion implantation: an annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, R.N.; Subramanyam, K.

    1975-10-01

    Ion implantation is a technique for introducing controlled amounts of dopants into target substrates, and has been successfully used for the manufacture of silicon semiconductor devices. Ion implantation is superior to other methods of doping such as thermal diffusion and epitaxy, in view of its advantages such as high degree of control, flexibility, and amenability to automation. This annotated bibliography of 416 references consists of journal articles, books, and conference papers in English and foreign languages published during 1973-74, on all aspects of ion implantation including range distribution and concentration profile, channeling, radiation damage and annealing, compound semiconductors, structural and electrical characterization, applications, equipment and ion sources. Earlier bibliographies on ion implantation, and national and international conferences in which papers on ion implantation were presented have also been listed separately

  14. Notes on radiation effects on materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anno, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of radiation from nuclear reactions on various classes of materials are examined in an introductory textbook for students of nuclear engineering. Topics discussed include the units and general scale of radiation damage, fundamental interactions of neutrons and gamma rays with materials, transient radiation effects on electrical components, radiation effects on organic materials and on steels, nuclear fission effects, surface effects of nuclear radiations, radiation effects on biological material, and neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry. Graphs, diagrams, tables of numerical data, and problems for each chapter are provided. 122 references

  15. Thermal effects in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1985-01-01

    The balance of ionizing radiation energy incident on an object being processed is discussed in terms of energy losses, influencing the amount really absorbed. To obtain the amount of heat produced, the absorbed energy is corrected for the change in internal energy of the system and for the heat effect of secondary reactions developing after the initiation. The temperature of a processed object results from the heat evolved and from the specific heat of the material comprising the object. The csub(p) of most materials is usually much lower than that of aqueous systems and therefore temperatures after irradiation are higher. The role of low specific heat in radiation processing at cryogenic conditions is stressed. Adiabatic conditions of accelerator irradiation are contrasted with the steady state thermal conditions prevailing in large gamma sources. Among specific questions discussed in the last part of the paper are: intermediate and final temperature of composite materials, measurement of real thermal effects in situ, neutralization of undesired warming experienced during radiation processing, processing at temperatures other than ambient and administration of very high doses of radiation. (author)

  16. Radiation effects in silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Howitt, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    The study of radiation effects in complex silicate glasses has received renewed attention because of their use in special applications such as high level nuclear waste immobilization and fiber optics. Radiation changes the properties of these glasses by altering their electronic and atomic configurations. These alterations or defects may cause dilatations or microscopic phase changes along with absorption centers that limit the optical application of the glasses. Atomic displacements induced in the already disordered structure of the glasses may affect their use where heavy irradiating particles such as alpha particles, alpha recoils, fission fragments, or accelerated ions are present. Large changes (up to 1%) in density may result. In some cases the radiation damage may be severe enough to affect the durability of the glass in aqueous solutions. In the paper, the authors review the literature concerning radiation effects on density, durability, stored energy, microstructure and optical properties of silicate glasses. Both simple glasses and complex glasses used for immobilization of nuclear waste are considered

  17. Thermal effects in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1984-01-01

    The balance of ionizing radiation energy incident on an object being processed is discussed in terms of energy losses, influencing the amount really absorbed. To obtain the amount of heat produced, the absorbed energy is corrected for the change in internal energy of the system and for the heat effect of secondary reactions developing after the initiation. The temperature of a processed object results from the heat evolved and from the specific heat of the material comprising the object. The specific heat of most materials is usually much lower than that of aqueous systems and therefore temperatures after irradiation are higher. The role of low specific heat in radiation processing at cryogenic conditions is stressed. Adiabatic conditions of accelerator irradiation are contrasted with the steady state thermal conditions prevailing in large gamma sources. Among specific questions discussed in the last part of the paper are: intermediate and final temperature of composite materials, measurement of real thermal effects in situ, neutralization of undesired warming experienced during radiation processing, processing at temperatures other than ambient and administration of very high doses of radiation

  18. Health effects of radiation and the implications for radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.; Anderer, J.

    1991-01-01

    In this Paper two elements of a multiphase analysis of radiation exposures in the living environment - the human health effects of ionizing radiation and the implications for radiation safety policy and practices - are presented. Part 1 draws together the current state of scientific knowledge and insight about the human health effects of radiation, describing these in terms of known cause-related deterministic effects and of the estimated incidence of stochastic effects as defined by biostatistics and biological models. The 1988 UNSCEAR report provides an authoritative basis for such an examination. Part 2 explores some of the major implications that the state-of-the-art of radiation biology has - or should have - for radiation safety policy and practices. (author)

  19. Research on radiation effect and radiation protection at JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kimiaki

    2007-01-01

    Researches on radiation effect and radiation protection at JAEA have been carried out in different sections. In recent years, the organizations were rearranged to attain better research circumstances, and new research programs started. At present, radiation effect studies focus on radiation effect mechanisms at atomic, molecular and cellular levels including simulation studies, and protection studies focus on dosimetry for conditions difficult to cover with currently used methods and data as well as the related basic studies. The outlines of the whole studies and also some descriptions on selected subjects will be given in this paper. (author)

  20. Alcohol fuels bibliography, 1901-March 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    This annotated bibliography is subdivided by subjects, as follows: general; feedstocks-general; feedstocks-sugar; feedstocks-starch; feedstocks-cellulose crops and residues; production; coproducts; economics; use as vehicle fuel; government policies; and environmental effects and safety. (MHR)

  1. Health effects of radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasimova, K; Azizova, F; Mehdieva, K.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : A summary of the nature of radiactive contamination would be incomplete without some mention of the human health effects relatied to radioactivity and radioactive materials. Several excellent reviews at the variety of levels of detail have been written and should be consulted by the reader. Internal exposures of alpha and beta particles are important for ingested and inhaled radionuclides. Dosimetry models are used to estimate the dose from internally deposited radioactive particles. As mentioned above weighting parameters that take into account the radiation type, the biological half-life and the tissue or organ at risk are used to convert the physically absorbed dose in units of gray (or red) to the biologically significant committed equivalent dose and effective dose, measured in units of Sv (or rem). There is considerable controversy over the shape of the dose-response curve at the chronic low dose levels important for enviromental contamination. Proposed models include linear models, non-linear models and threshold models. Because risks at low dose must be extrapolated from available date at high doses, the shape of the dose-response curve has important implications for the environmental regulations used to protect the general public. The health effect of radiation damage depends on a combination of events of on the cellular, tissue and systemic levels. These lead to mutations and cellular of the irradiated parent cell. The dose level at which significant damage occurs depends on the cell type. Cells that reproduce rapidily, such as those found in bone marrow or the gastrointestinal tract, will be more sensitive to radiation than those that are longer lived, such as striated muscle or nerve cells. The effects of high radiation doses on an organ depends on the various cell types it contains

  2. Genetic and somatic effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This is the ninth substantive report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) to the General Assembly. This report contains reviews on three special topics in the field of biological effects of ionizing radiation that are among those presently under consideration by the Committee: genetic effects of radiation, dose-response relationships for radiation-induced cancer and biological effects of pre-natal irradiation

  3. Polarization effects in coherent and incoherent photon scattering: survey of measurements and theory relevant to radiation transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    This report reviews available information on polarization effects arising when photons in the X-ray and gamma-ray energy regime undergo coherent (Rayleigh) scattering and incoherent (Compton) scattering by atomic electrons. In addition to descriptions and discussions of these effects, including estimates of their magnitudes as they apply to radiation transport calculations, an annotated bibliography of 102 selected works covering the period 1905-1991 is provided, with particularly relevant works for the purpose of this report flagged with asterisks (*). A major resource for this report is a 1948 unpublished informal report by L.V. Spencer which has been quoted here almost in its entirety, since, of all the works cited in the annotated bibliography, it appears to be the only one which explicitly and directly addresses the purpose of this report. Hence this valuable material should be re-introduced into the available and current literature. (author). 119 refs., 7 figs

  4. The theory of heat radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Planck, Max

    2003-01-01

    Nobel laureate's classic exposition of the theory of radiant heat in terms of quantum action. Kirchoff's law, black radiation, Maxwell's radiation pressure, entropy, other topics. 1914 edition. Bibliography.

  5. Bibliography of GRASER research. Informal report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, G.C.

    1979-04-01

    The bibliography contains 161 references to literature on the problem of developing gamma-ray lasers or of observing stimulated emission or coherent spontaneous emission of nuclear gamma radiation, together with a number of references that deal with phenomena that are expected to be central to their realization. The period covered is 1917 through 1979

  6. An Annotated Bibliography for Environmental Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, Thomas R.

    This bibliography is organized according to occupations: biology and agriculture, business, marketing, management, health, industrial, and public service. In addition, entries are further classified as air, water, public water supply, land pollution, noise, atomic radiation, and general. Over 130 books, publications, and articles are cited, with…

  7. Ionising radiation - physical and biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holter, Oe.; Ingebretsen, F.; Parr, H.

    1979-01-01

    The physics of ionising radiation is briefly presented. The effects of ionising radiation on biological cells, cell repair and radiosensitivity are briefly treated, where after the effects on man and mammals are discussed and related to radiation doses. Dose limits are briefly discussed. The genetic effects are discussed separately. Radioecology is also briefly treated and a table of radionuclides deriving from reactors, and their radiation is given. (JIW)

  8. Radiation effects on microelectronics in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srour, J.R.; McGarrity, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The basic mechanisms of space radiation effects on microelectronics are reviewed in this paper. Topics discussed include the effects of displacement damage and ionizing radiation on devices and circuits, single event phenomena, dose enhancement, radiation effects on optoelectronic devices and passive components, hardening approaches, and simulation of the space radiation environment. A summary is presented of damage mechanisms that can cause temporary or permanent failure of devices and circuits operating in space

  9. Effect of radiation in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Hideki; Fujibuchi, Toshio; Saito, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    The title subject is easily explained for the deterministic effect, secondary cancer formation and case reports of accidental exposure at radiotherapy. For the deterministic effect, the dose-effect relationship is sigmoidal in normal and cancer tissues, and the more separated are their curves, the more favorable is the radiotherapy. TD 5/5 is the tolerable dose to yield <5% of irreversible radiation injury to the normal tissue within 5 years after the therapy and is generally dose-limiting. The curves are of various shapes depending on the tissue composition that its functional subunit (FSU) is parallel like lobules of the liver, or in series like neuron. Symptoms appear complicated on these factors. Recent development of CT-based therapeutic planning has made it possible to analyze the partial tissue volume to be irradiated and its absorbed dose by the relationship (dose volume histogram, DVH) between the electron density vs CT value regardless to anatomy. The normal tissue complication probability is a model composed from the physical DVH and biological factors of FSU composition and cellular radiation susceptibility, and is a measure of the irreversible late effect manifested in normal tissues. Epidemiology has shown the increased risk of secondary cancer formation by radiotherapy. Children are highly susceptible to this, and in adults undergoing the therapy of a certain cancer, it is known that the risk of radiation carcinogenesis is increased in the particular tissue. There are presented such case reports of accidental excessive exposure at radiotherapy as caused by an inappropriate use of detector, partial loss of data in a therapeutic planning device, reading of reversed MRI image, and too much repeated use of the old-type electric portal imaging device. (T.T.)

  10. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Thomé

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to outstanding physicochemical properties, ceramics are key engineering materials in many industrial domains. The evaluation of the damage created in ceramics employed in radiative media is a challenging problem for electronic, space, and nuclear industries. In this latter field, ceramics can be used as immobilization forms for radioactive wastes, inert fuel matrices for actinide transmutation, cladding materials for gas-cooled fission reactors, and structural components for fusion reactors. Information on the radiation stability of nuclear materials may be obtained by simulating the different types of interactions involved during the slowing down of energetic particles with ion beams delivered by various types of accelerators. This paper presents a review of the radiation effects occurring in nuclear ceramics, with an emphasis on recent results concerning the damage accumulation processes. Energetic ions in the KeV-GeV range are used to explore the nuclear collision (at low energy and electronic excitation (at high energy regimes. The recovery by electronic excitation of the damage created by ballistic collisions (SHIBIEC process is also addressed.

  11. Radiation effects on cell membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeteles, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    The recent developments in the field of membrane biology of eukaryotic cells result in revival of relevant radiobiological studies. The spatial relations and chemical nature of membrane components provide rather sensitive targets. Experimental data are presented concerning the effects of relatively low doses of X-irradiation and low concentration of tritiated water (HTO) on various receptor functions - concanavalin A, cationized ferritin, poliovirus - of plasma membranes of animal and human cells which point to early and temporary disturbances of the composite structures and functions of membranes. References are given to the multifold roles of radiationinduced membrane phenomena on the development and regeneration of radiation injuries. (orig.)

  12. Radiation effects on cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeteles, G.J.

    1982-11-01

    The recent developments in the field of membrane biology of eukaryotic cells result in revival of relevant radiobiological studies. The spatial relations and chemical nature of membrane components provide rather sensitive targets. Experimental data are presented concerning the effects of relatively low doses of X-irradiation and low concentration of tritiated water (HTO) on various receptor functions - concanavalin A, cationized ferritin, poliovirus - of plasma membranes of animal and human cells which point to early and temporary disturbances of the composite structures and functions of membranes. References are given to the multifold roles of radiationinduced membrane phenomena on the development and regeneration of radiation injuries.

  13. Effect of radiation on food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofyan, R [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre

    1983-07-01

    Research reports on the effect on radiation on food are reviewed. Irradiation processing inhibits the sprouting of vegetables, delays ripening, reduces the number of microorganisms that spoil food, controls patrogenic organisms and parasites found in food, disinfests food of insects, and disinfects spices of microbes. So far there has been no evidence that food irradiaton introduces nutritional or microbiological problems. The FAO/WHO/IAEA expert committee on the wholesomeness of irradiated food recommend the acceptability from a toxicological stand-point of any food commodity irradiated up to an overall average dose of 10 kilograys.

  14. Effect of radiation on food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofyan, Rochestri

    1983-01-01

    Research reports on the effect on radiation on food are reviewed. Irradiation processing inhibits the sprouting of vegetables, delays ripening, reduces the number of microorganisms that spoil food, controls patrogenic organisms and parasites found in food, disinfests food of insects, and disinfects spices of microbes. So far there has been no evidence that food irradiaton introduces nutritional or microbiological problems. The FAO/WHO/IAEA expert committee on the wholesomeness of irradiated food recommend the acceptability from a toxicological stand-point of any food commodity irradiated up to an overall average dose of 10 kilograys. (RUW)

  15. Women: A Select Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnerz, Peggy A., Comp.; Pollack, Ann M., Comp.

    This select bibliography lists books, monographs, journals and newsletters which relate to feminism, women's studies, and other perspectives on women. Selections are organized by topic: general, bibliographies, art and literature, biography/autobiography, economics, education, family and marriage, history, politics and sex roles. Also included is…

  16. Intracultural Communication: Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Marquita L.

    The 63 books and journal articles listed in this bibliography address the problem of intracultural communication. A short introduction to the bibliography defines intracultural communication as the creation and sharing of meaning among citizens of the same geo-political system who come from various tributary cultures (groups distinguishable from…

  17. PR Bibliography, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Shirley, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This annotated bibliography presents an overview of journal articles and books published in 2000 on public relations that can be helpful to teachers and students as well as to practitioners and managers. This bibliography is subdivided into 29 categories including campaigns; community relations; corporate image; education; employee relations;…

  18. PR Bibliography, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Shirley, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Encompassing both the practical and the scholarly, this annotated bibliography on public relations aims to provide a window into some of each of the offerings in academic and business journals, as well as in trade and professional journals published in 1997. The introduction notes that many entries in the bibliography deal with the Internet, the…

  19. PR Bibliography, 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Albert, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Based on searches of nearly 200 periodicals as well as publishers' flyers and brochures from 30 major publishing houses and university presses, this annotated bibliography presents a representative collection of books and journal articles related to the knowledge and practice of public relations published in 1996. The annotated bibliography is…

  20. PR Bibliography, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Shirley, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This annotated bibliography presents an overview of journal articles and books published in 2001 on public relations that can be helpful to teachers and students as well as to practitioners and managers. This bibliography is subdivided into 40 categories including campaigns; consumer relations; community relations; corporate social responsibility;…

  1. PR Bibliography, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Shirley, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This annotated bibliography presents an overview of journal articles and books on public relations that can be helpful to teachers and students as well as to practitioners and managers. New categories for this 1999 edition of the bibliography include Public Relations Theory, Feminist Issues in Public Relations, and Environmental Public Relations.…

  2. PR Bibliography, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Albert, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Based on searches of over 200 periodicals, this annotated bibliography of books and journal articles presents material related to the knowledge and practice of public relations published in 1992. The annotated bibliography is subdivided into more than 30 different categories ranging from business ethics to writing techniques. The largest…

  3. PR Bibliography, 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Albert, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Based on searches of more than 100 periodicals as well as flyers and brochures from 24 major publishing houses and university presses, this annotated bibliography presents a representative collection of books and journal articles (published in 1995) related to the knowledge and practice of public relations. The annotated bibliography is divided…

  4. Annotated Bibliography: Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Jens Elo; Gøtze, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The bibliography includes the most important DaNISH BOOKS OF GENERAL INTEREST IN THE FIELD OF PUBLIC LAW IN THE PERIOD FROM 2006 - 2007.......The bibliography includes the most important DaNISH BOOKS OF GENERAL INTEREST IN THE FIELD OF PUBLIC LAW IN THE PERIOD FROM 2006 - 2007....

  5. Art Therapy: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Linda, Comp.; Schmal, Marilyn Strauss, Comp.

    The bibliography on art therapy presents 1175 citations (1940-1973) drawn from searches of the medical indexes, computer systems of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institute of Mental Health, other bibliographies, Centre International de Documentation Concernant les Expressions Plastiques, and the American Journal of Art Therapy.…

  6. Effects of radiation upon gastrointestinal motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mary F Otterson

    2007-01-01

    Whether due to therapeutic or belligerent exposure, the gastrointestinal effects of irradiation produce symptoms dreaded by a majority of the population. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal cramping are hallmarks of the prodromal phase of radiation sickness, occurring hours to days following radiation exposure. The prodromal phase is distinct from acute radiation sickness in that the absorptive, secretory and anatomic changes associated with radiation damage are not easily identifiable. It is during this phase of radiation sickness that gastrointestinal motility significantly changes. In addition, there is evidence that motor activity of the gut contributes to some of the acute and chronic effects of radiation.

  7. The Brookhaven Radiation Effects Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grand, P.; Snead, C.L.; Ward, T.

    1988-01-01

    The Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) Radiation Effects Facility (REF), funded by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO) through the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) and the Air Force Weapons Laboratory (AFWL), has been constructed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Operation started in October 1986. The facility is capable of delivering pulsed H{sup -}, H{sup o}, and H{sup +} beams of 100 to 200 MeV energy up to 30 mA peak current. Pulses can be adjusted from 5 {mu}s to 500 {mu}s length at a repetition rate of 5 pps. The beam spot on target is adjustable from 3 to 100 cm diameter (2 {sigma}) resulting in a maximum dose of about 10 MRads (Si) per pulse (small beam spot). Experimental use of the REF is being primarily supported by the SDI lethality (LTH-4) program. The program has addressed ionization effects in electronics, both dose rate and total dose dependence, radiation-sensitive components, and dE/dx effects in energetic materials including propellants and high explosives (HE). This paper describes the facility, its capabilities and potential, and the experiments that have been carried out to date or are being planned. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  8. The Brookhaven Radiation Effects Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, P.; Snead, C.L.; Ward, T.

    1988-01-01

    The Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) Radiation Effects Facility (REF), funded by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO) through the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) and the Air Force Weapons Laboratory (AFWL), has been constructed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Operation started in October 1986. The facility is capable of delivering pulsed H - , H/sup o/, and H + beams of 100 to 200 MeV energy up to 30 mA peak current. Pulses can be adjusted from 5 μs to 500 μs length at a repetition rate of 5 pps. The beam spot on target is adjustable from 3 to 100 cm diameter (2 σ) resulting in a maximum dose of about 10 MRads (Si) per pulse (small beam spot). Experimental use of the REF is being primarily supported by the SDI lethality (LTH-4) program. The program has addressed ionization effects in electronics, both dose rate and total dose dependence, radiation-sensitive components, and dE/dx effects in energetic materials including propellants and high explosives (HE). This paper describes the facility, its capabilities and potential, and the experiments that have been carried out to date or are being planned. 2 refs., 10 figs

  9. Effects of radiation on DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braddock, M.

    1985-07-01

    The hydroxyl radical (OH radical) is the most damaging radical produced by the effect of ionizing radiation in water. The rate of reaction of the OH radical with purified, native and isodisperse DNA has been determined as compared with calf thymus DNA. This has been achieved by direct observation of the rate of formation of the DNA-OH radical adduct, and by competition with SCN - . Results obtained from direct observation are consistent with calculations which have been performed using the encounter frequency model of Braams and Ebert. However, results obtained for OH radical with DNA derived from competition plots suggest a rate constant somewhat lower than that obtained from direct observation. The relative merits of both techniques are discussed. In order to study the effect of energy deposited directly in the DNA, dry films of purified plasmid DNA have been irradiated in a system where the indirect effects of radical interaction have been minimized. The present results indicate that with different molecular lengths of plasmid DNA, non-random breakage may occur, and that additional damage may be brought about at sites of previously existing damage. Differences in the sensitivity of plasmid DNA molecules of varying lengths to radiation induced double strand breaks have been demonstrated. (author)

  10. Effects of ionizing radiation on vitamins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, D.W.; Fox, J.B. Jr.; Lakritz, L.

    1991-01-01

    Vitamins are known to be sensitive to the effects of ionizing radiation. Since most foods contain a large proportion of water, the most probable reaction of the ionizing radiation would be with water; and as vitamins are present in very small amounts compared with other substances in the food they will be affected indirectly by the radiation. This chapter discusses the effect of ionizing radiation on water soluble vitamins and fat soluble vitamins. (author)

  11. Radiation effects of high and low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The extensive proliferation of the uses and applications of atomic and nuclear energy resulted in possible repercussions on human health. The prominent features of the health hazards that may be incurred after exposure to high and low radiation doses are discussed. The physical and biological factors involved in the sequential development of radiation health effects and the different cellular responses to radiation injury are considered. The main criteria and features of radiation effects of high and low doses are comprehensively outlined

  12. Medical response to effects of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, W.A.; Gittus, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on 'Medical Response to Effects of Ionising Radiation' in 1989 in the form of nineteen papers published as a book. Topics discussed include radiation accidents at nuclear facilities, the medical management of radiation casualties, the responsibilities, plans and resources for coping with a nuclear accident and finally the long term effects of radiation, including leukaemia epidemiology studies. All papers were selected and indexed separately. (UK)

  13. Radiation effects in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begay, F.; Rosen, L.; Petersen, D.F.; Mason, C.; Travis, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Yazzie, A. [Navajo Nation, Window Rock, AZ (United States). Dept. of History; Isaac, M.C.P.; Seaborg, G.T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Leavitt, C.P. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1999-04-01

    Although the Navajo possess substantial resource wealth-coal, gas, uranium, water-this potential wealth has been translated into limited permanent economic or political power. In fact, wealth or potential for wealth has often made the Navajo the victims of more powerful interests greedy for the assets under limited Navajo control. The primary focus for this education workshop on the radiation effects in the environment is to provide a forum where scientists from the nuclear science and technology community can share their knowledge toward the advancement and diffusion of nuclear science and technology issues for the Navajo public. The scientists will make an attempt to consider the following basic questions; what is science; what is mathematics; what is nuclear radiation? Seven papers are included in this report: Navajo view of radiation; Nuclear energy, national security and international stability; ABC`s of nuclear science; Nuclear medicine: 100 years in the making; Radon in the environment; Bicarbonate leaching of uranium; and Computational methods for subsurface flow and transport. The proceedings of this workshop will be used as a valuable reference materials in future workshops and K-14 classrooms in Navajo communities that need to improve basic understanding of nuclear science and technology issues. Results of the Begay-Stevens research has revealed the existence of strange and mysterious concepts in the Navajo Language of nature. With these research results Begay and Stevens prepared a lecture entitled The Physics of Laser Fusion in the Navajo language. This lecture has been delivered in numerous Navajo schools, and in universities and colleges in the US, Canada, and Alaska.

  14. Effects of ionizing radiation on life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, L.

    1982-01-01

    Radiobiology in the last years was able to find detailed explanations for the effects of ionizing radiation on living organisms. But it is still impossible to make exact statements concerning the damages by radiation. Even now, science has to content itself with probability data. Moreover no typical damages of ionizing radiation can be identified. Therefore, the risks of ionizing radiation can only be determined by comparison with the spontaneous rate of cancerous or genetic defects. The article describes the interaction of high-energy radiation with the molecules of the organism and their consequences for radiation protection. (orig.)

  15. Acid precipitation; an annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Denise A.; Evans, Margaret L.

    1984-01-01

    This collection of 1660 bibliographies references on the causes and environmental effects of acidic atmospheric deposition was compiled from computerized literature searches of earth-science and chemistry data bases. Categories of information are (1) atmospheric chemistry (gases and aerosols), (2) precipitation chemistry, (3) transport and deposition (wet and dry), (4) aquatic environments (biological and hydrological), (5) terrestrial environments, (6) effects on materials and structures, (7) air and precipitation monitoring and data collection, and (8) modeling studies. References date from the late 1800 's through December 1981. The bibliography includes short summaries of most documents. Omitted are unpublished manuscripts, publications in press, master 's theses and doctoral dissertations, newspaper articles, and book reviews. Coauthors and subject indexes are included. (USGS)

  16. γ radiation effects on Collembola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loring, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Pitfall traps were used to collect surface-active Collembola at intervals of 10-100 m from a γ radiation source on Long Island, N.Y., during the summer of 1968. Thirty-two species of Collembola were collected along the radiation transect. Community diversities were similar at all intervals except 10 m. Collembola appeared resistant to γ radiation; only chronic, very high γ radiation exposure seriously affected population levels and community diversity of surface Collembola

  17. Pulsed power bibliography. Volume 2. Annotated bibliography. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemesderfer, J.; Druce, R.L.; Frantz, B.; Guenther, A.H.; Kristiansen, M.

    1983-08-01

    Pulsed power and high-voltage technologies are playing an ever increasing role in weapons' effects simulation, fusion power research, power distribution, materials processing and medical research. It is a rapidly expanding field of applied physics as evidenced by the growth in published literature. Three years ago, the Air Force Weapons Laboratory (AFWL) initiated a project to compile a computerized data base of pulsed power research papers. The data base is stored on our IBM System 2000. This AFWL Technical Report is the first release of the bibliography to date. It contains about 2,500 full bibliographic citations, original sources, availability, key words and abstracts. There are three indices: Subject, Personal Author, and Corporate. There are 30 main subject headings, from Breakdown Studies to Switching. Volume II contains the citations. In addition to these entries, the data base contains about 7,500 additional titles. As these titles are added to the full bibliography, they will be published.

  18. Biologic effects of electromagnetic radiation and microwave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Hua

    2002-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation and microwave exist mankind's environment widely. People realize they disserve authors' health when authors make use of them. Electromagnetic radiation is one of the major physic factors which injure people's health. A review of the biologic mechanism about electromagnetic radiation and microwave, their harmful effects to human body, problems in authors' research and the prospect

  19. Study of biological effect of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guisheng

    1992-01-01

    The some progress on the study of biological effect for protract exposure to low dose rate radiation is reported, and it is indicated that the potential risk of this exposure for the human health and the importance of the routine monitoring of radiation dose for various nuclear installations. The potential exposure to the low dose rate radiation would attract people's extra attention

  20. Molecular and cellular effects of radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peak, M.J.; Peak, J.G.; Ito, A.; Roth, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    This program is concerned with the basic nature of the biological effects of mutagenic and carcinogenic environmental radiations, including those solar ultraviolet and visible radiations responsible for the most common form of human cancer: cancer of the skin. Concentrating on the damages to DNA caused by these radiations, the program attempts to delineate the basic mechanisms whereby such damage may occur. 14 refs

  1. Radiation effects on biochemical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddon, G.M.

    2000-04-01

    Xanthine oxidase catalyses the oxidative hydroxylation of hypoxanthine, xanthine and a wide range of carbonyl compounds. The enzyme exists as an oxidase and a dehydrogenase; both catalyze the oxidation of the same substrates. Steady state radiolysis and pulse radiolysis were used to generate oxidative and reductive free radicals. Their effects on the enzymatic activity of xanthine oxidase were determined. Initially inactivation studies were carried out to evaluate the extent to which radiolysis in aqueous solution affects the enzyme activity. Values of D 37 and G inactivation were calculated following irradiation in the presence of free radical scavengers and in the presence of catalase and superoxide dismutase. The kinetic constants Vmax and Km were also determined following radiolysis. The effect of ionising radiation on the iron content of xanthine oxidase was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. Native gel electrophoresis and iso-electric focussing were performed in an attempt to demonstrate changes in the overall structure of the enzyme. The binding of xanthine oxidase to heparin was carried out by measuring, (1) the displacement of methylene blue (MB + ) from a heparin-MB + complex, (2) affinity chromatography and, (3) pulse radiolysis. The effect of irradiation on the binding process was investigated using techniques (1) and (2). Finally the radiation-induced conversion of xanthine oxidase to dehydrogenase was established. The results indicate that xanthine oxidase is inactivated greatest in the presence of air and irradiation causes Vmax to he reduced and Km to increase. The iron content of irradiated xanthine oxidase is unaffected. Electrophoresis shows the enzyme becomes fragmented and the isoelectric points of the fragments vary over a wide range of pH. Binding of xanthine oxidase to heparin as measured by displacement of MB + from a heparin-MB + complex suggests that irradiation increases the affinity of the enzyme for the polyanion, whereas

  2. The effects of radiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.

    1981-01-01

    Available evidence on the effects of high levels of radiation on man and the predictions which have been made on possible low level effects, by extrapolation of the high level data, are summarised. The factors which influence the biological effects of radiation are examined and acute, delayed, somatic and hereditary effects as reported in the literature, are discussed. (U.K.)

  3. Bibliography in irradiation of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delincee, H.; Ehlermann, D.; Geisen, R.; Mayer-Miebach, E.

    1994-01-01

    This bibliography lists 531 original documents that have appeared mainly during the last two years. Both the original titles and an English translation are given. Papers are grouped in the following categories: basics of foodstuff irradiation, applications at low dose levels, applications at higher dose levels, effects on foodstuffs and their constituents, as well as microbiology. The index part contains a conference index, an author index, a report number index as well as a subject, corporations, and journals index. (vhe) [de

  4. Long term effects of radiation in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso Chih Ping; Idris Besar

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the long term effects of radiation in man is presented, categorizing into somatic effects, genetic effects and teratogenic effects, and including an indication of the problems that arise in their determination. (author)

  5. Non controlled effect of ionizing radiations : involvement for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, J. B.

    2005-01-01

    It is widely accepted that damage to DNA is the critical event on irradiated cells, and that double strand breaks are the primary DNA lesions responsible for the biological effects of ionizing radiation. This has lead to the long standing paradigm that these effects, be they cytotoxicity, mutagenesis or malignant transformation, occur in irradiated cells as a consequences of the DNA damage they incur. Evidence has been accumulating over the past decade, however, to indicate that radiation may induce effects that ar not targeted to the irradiated cells itself. Two non-targeted effects will be described in this review. The first, radiation-induced genomic instability, is a phenomenon whereby signals are transmitted to the progeny of the irradiated cell over many generations, leading to the occurrence of genetic effects such as mutations and chromosomal aberrations arising in the distant descendants of the irradiated cell. Second, the bystander effect, is a phenomenon whereby irradiated cells transmit damage signals to non-irradiated cells in a mixed population, leading to genetic effects arising in these bystander cells that received no radiation exposure. the model system described in this review involves dense monolayer cultures exposed to very low fluences of alpha particles. The potential implications of these two phenomena for the analysis of the risk to the human population of exposure to low levels of ionising radiation is discussed. (Author) 111 refs

  6. Radiation effects on materials in high-radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.J.; Mansur, L.K.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Parkin, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    A workshop on Radiation Effects on Materials in High-Radiation Environments was held in Salt Lake City, Utah (USA) from August 13 to 15, 1990 under the auspices of the Division of Materials Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US Department of Energy. The workshop focused on ceramics, alloys, and intermetallics and covered research needs and capabilities, recent experimental data, theory, and computer simulations. It was concluded that there is clearly a continuing scientific and technological need for fundamental knowledge on the underlying causes of radiation-induced property changes in materials. Furthermore, the success of many current and emerging nuclear-related technologies critically depend on renewed support for basic radiation-effects research, irradiation facilities, and training of scientists. The highlights of the workshop are reviewed and specific recommendations are made regarding research needs. (orig.)

  7. Graphene Field Effect Transistor for Radiation Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mary J. (Inventor); Chen, Zhihong (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a graphene field effect transistor-based radiation sensor for use in a variety of radiation detection applications, including manned spaceflight missions. The sensing mechanism of the radiation sensor is based on the high sensitivity of graphene in the local change of electric field that can result from the interaction of ionizing radiation with a gated undoped silicon absorber serving as the supporting substrate in the graphene field effect transistor. The radiation sensor has low power and high sensitivity, a flexible structure, and a wide temperature range, and can be used in a variety of applications, particularly in space missions for human exploration.

  8. ALARA [as low as reasonably achievable] engineering at Department of Energy facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, S.W.; Kaplan, E.; Dionne, B.J.; Khan, T.A.; Lane, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1989-09-01

    This report is the first in the series of bibliographies supporting the efforts at the Brookhaven National Laboratory ALARA Center on dose reduction at DOE facilities. Abstracts for this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, and searches of the DOE Energy Data Base. The abstracts included in this report relate to operational health physics as well as other subjects which have a bearing on dose reduction. Facilities covered include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fabrication, unirradiated fissile materials storage, irradiated fissile material storage, reprocessing, decommissioning, recovery, hot laboratories, tritium production, reactors (research, test and production but not power reactors), and accelerators. We have also included material in improved design, materials selection, planning, and other topics which are related to dose-reduction efforts. The report contains 68 abstracts as well as subject and author indices

  9. Radiation-induced polymerization and radiation effect on polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguchi, Tadao

    1977-12-01

    The processes of radiation-induced polymerization of monomers and also radiation effects on polymers have been studied by instrumental analyses of electron spin resonance (ESR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron microscopy. In radiation-induced polymerization, graft-copolymerization and absorbed state polymerization were taken up. For graft-copolymerization, monomers such as methylmethacrylate and butadiene were made to react with irradiated polyethylene, and behaviors of the initiating radicals and propagating radicals were followed under the reaction by ESR. For absorbed state polymerization, acrylonitrile/zeolite and methylmethacrylate/zeolite were chosen. Absorbed monomers were irradiated at 77 0 K and polymerized at room temperature. Active species and the concentrations were measured by ESR and the yields of polymer were observed by NMR. In radiation effect on polymers, polyvinylfluoride, polyvinylidenfluoride and polytetrafluoroethylene were taken up. Active species trapped in the polymer matrixes were identified and decay and reactivity of the species were also studied. On the basis of information from the electron microscopy and x-ray analysis, radiation effects on these polymers are described. In polytetrafluoroethylene produced by radiation polymerization, the relation between morphology and polymerization conditions and also the process of crystallization during polymerization were studied. (auth.)

  10. Untargeted effects of ionizing radiation: Implications for radiation pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Eric G; Coates, Philip J

    2006-01-01

    The dogma that genetic alterations are restricted to directly irradiated cells has been challenged by observations in which effects of ionizing radiation, characteristically associated with the consequences of energy deposition in the cell nucleus, arise in non-irradiated cells. These, so called, untargeted effects are demonstrated in cells that have received damaging signals produced by irradiated cells (radiation-induced bystander effects) or that are the descendants of irradiated cells (radiation-induced genomic instability). Radiation-induced genomic instability is characterized by a number of delayed adverse responses including chromosomal abnormalities, gene mutations and cell death. Similar effects, as well as responses that may be regarded as protective, have been attributed to bystander mechanisms. Whilst the majority of studies to date have used in vitro systems, some adverse non-targeted effects have been demonstrated in vivo. However, at least for haemopoietic tissues, radiation-induced genomic instability in vivo may not necessarily be a reflection of genomically unstable cells. Rather the damage may reflect responses to ongoing production of damaging signals; i.e. bystander responses, but not in the sense used to describe the rapidly induced effects resulting from direct interaction of irradiated and non-irradiated cells. The findings are consistent with a delayed and long-lived tissue reaction to radiation injury characteristic of an inflammatory response with the potential for persisting bystander-mediated damage. An important implication of the findings is that contrary to conventional radiobiological dogma and interpretation of epidemiologically-based risk estimates, ionizing radiation may contribute to malignancy and particularly childhood leukaemia by promoting initiated cells rather than being the initiating agent. Untargeted mechanisms may also contribute to other pathological consequences

  11. A-bomb radiation effects digest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, Itsuzo; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Sasaki, Hideo; Ito, Chikako; Kamada, Nanao.

    1993-01-01

    This publication is the digest of the book 'Genbaku Hoshasen no Jintai Eikyo (Effects of A-bomb Radiation on the Human Body)' (365p.), published in Japanese by Hiroshima International Council for Medical Care of the Radiation-Exposed. Following a brief description on the damage of the atomic bomb, the subjects of malignant tumors, endocrine and metabolic deseases, ocular lesions, dermatologic effects, prenatal exposure, chromosoal aberrations, mutations, sensitivity to radiation, immune function, genetic effects and other effects of radiation are summarized. (J.P.N.)

  12. Long-term effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Alexander; Burkart, Werner; Grosche, Bernd; Jung, Thomas; Martignoni, Klaus; Stephan, Guenther

    1997-01-01

    This paper approaches the long-term effects of ionizing radiation considering the common thought that killing of cells is the basis for deterministic effects and that the subtle changes in genetic information are important in the development of radiation-induced cancer, or genetic effects if these changes are induced in germ cells

  13. Radiation hazards and their effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunu, Shyam; Kumar, Hemant; Joshi, Pankaj Kumar; Songara, Venkteshwer

    2012-01-01

    Radiation can be classified into ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation, based on whether it is capable of ionizing atoms and breaking chemical bonds. Ultraviolet and higher frequency such as X-rays, gamma rays are ionizing. These pose their own special hazards. Non ionizing radiation is associated with two major potential hazards. i.e. electrical and biological. Additionally includes electric current caused by radiation can generate sparks and create a fire or explosive hazards. Strong radiation can induce current capable of delivering an electric shock. Extremely high power electromagnetic radiation can cause electric currents strong enough to create sparks when an induced voltage exceeds the breakdown voltage of surrounding mediums. A 2009 study at the University of Basal in Switzerland found that intermitted exposure of human cells to a 50 Hz electromagnetic field at a flux density of 10 Gy induced a slight but significant increase of DNA fragmentation in the comet assay. Mobile phones radiation and health concerns have been raised, especially following the enormous increase in the use of wireless mobile telephony throughout the world. Mobile phones use electromagnetic radiation in the microwaves range and some believes this may be harmful to human health. (author)

  14. Bibliographies: The Librarian's Bookshelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Cathleen

    2003-01-01

    This selective bibliography is organized by subject headings that include administration and personnel; bibliographic instruction/information literacy; cataloging and classification; children's and young adults; collection development; copyright; customer service; distance education; electronic libraries; evaluation of library services; fund…

  15. Bibliographies. The Librarian's Bookshelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Cathleen

    2002-01-01

    This bibliography for materials helpful to librarians includes works relating to administration and personnel; bibliographic instruction; information literacy; cataloging and classification; children's and adolescent services and materials; collection development; copyright; distance education; electronic libraries; evaluation; fund raising;…

  16. Coastal Wetland Restoration Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yozzo, David

    1997-01-01

    This bibliography was compiled to provide biologists, engineers, and planners at Corps Districts and other agencies/ institutions with a guide to the diverse body of literature on coastal wetland restoration...

  17. Bibliography [On Drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Personnel Administrators, Detroit, MI.

    A bibliography of materials on drugs is presented. The book and paper back entries are annotated. Selected technical references are listed under these major findings: (1) dependency, (2) barbiturates, (3) amphetamines, and (4) general pharmacology. (PS)

  18. Bibliography of Fynbos ecology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jarman, ML

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available References to 814 publications are presented, together with keyword listings and a keyword index. This bibliography forms part of the Phase I review and synthesis activity of the Fynbos Biome Project....

  19. Bibliography on Collegiate Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Denise; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A bibliography on collegiate athletics with approximately 400 items is presented. Topics include: sports administration, sports histories, women's athletics, physical education, problems and scandals, sports organizations, sports and health, and references on many specific sports, especially football. (JMD)

  20. GSV Annotated Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Randy S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pope, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jiang, Ming [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Trucano, Timothy G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aragon, Cecilia R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ni, Kevin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wei, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chilton, Lawrence K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bakel, Alan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2011-06-14

    The following annotated bibliography was developed as part of the Geospatial Algorithm Veri cation and Validation (GSV) project for the Simulation, Algorithms and Modeling program of NA-22. Veri cation and Validation of geospatial image analysis algorithms covers a wide range of technologies. Papers in the bibliography are thus organized into the following ve topic areas: Image processing and analysis, usability and validation of geospatial image analysis algorithms, image distance measures, scene modeling and image rendering, and transportation simulation models.

  1. Energy transition. Selective bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    At the occasion of the promulgation on August 17, 2015 of law no. 2015-992 relative to energy transition, this bibliography reviews the legal, economical and political aspects of the recent evolutions in the energy domain. Basic and synthetic documents are listed first. Then follow documents dealing with: general data, energy models, sustainable agriculture, green technologies, energy conservation, waste processing, renewable energy sources, sustainable cities and buildings. The bibliography ends with a selection of relevant web sites

  2. Some characteristics and effects of natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Laughlin, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Since life first appeared on the Earth, it has, in all its subsequent evolved forms including human, been exposed to natural radiation in the environment both from terrestrial and extra-terrestrial sources. Being an environmental mutagen, ionising natural radiation may have played a role of some significance in the evolution of early life forms on Earth. It has been estimated by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation that at the present time, exposure to natural radiation globally results in an annual average individual effective dose of about 2.4 mSv. This represents about 80 % of the total dose from all sources. The three most important components of natural radiation exposure are cosmic radiation, terrestrial radioactivity and indoor radon. Each of these components exhibits both geographical and temporal variabilities with indoor radon exposure being the most variable and also the largest contributor to dose for most people. In this account, an overview is given of the characteristics of the main components of the natural radiation environment and some of their effects on humans. In the case of cosmic radiation, these range from radiation doses to aircrew and astronauts to the controversial topic of its possible effect on climate change. In the case of terrestrial natural radiation, accounts are given of a number of human exposure scenarios. (author)

  3. Entrainment: an annotated bibliography. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrier, R.F.; Hannon, E.H.

    1979-04-01

    The 604 annotated references in this bibliography on the effects of pumped entrainment of aquatic organisms through the cooling systems of thermal power plants were compiled from published and unpublished literature and cover the years 1947 through 1977. References to published literature were obtained by searching large-scale commercial data bases, ORNL in-house-generated data bases, relevant journals, and periodical bibliographies. The unpublished literature is a compilation of Sections 316(a) and 316(b) demonstrations, environmental impact statements, and environmental reports prepared by the utilities in compliance with Federal Water Pollution Control Administration regulations. The bibliography includes references on monitoring studies at power plant sites, laboratory studies of physical and biological effects on entrained organisms, engineering strategies for the mitigation of entrainment effects, and selected theoretical studies concerned with the methodology for determining entrainment effects

  4. Radiation effects in ice: New results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baragiola, R.A.; Fama, M.; Loeffler, M.J.; Raut, U.; Shi, J.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of radiation effects in ice are motivated by intrinsic interest and by applications in astronomy. Here we report on new and recent results on radiation effects induced by energetic ions in ice: amorphization of crystalline ice, compaction of microporous amorphous ice, electrostatic charging and dielectric breakdown and correlated structural/chemical changes in the irradiation of water-ammonia ices

  5. Radiation effects of ion beams on polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Seiichi

    1993-01-01

    Recent progress in the radiation effects of ion beams on polymers are reviewed briefly. Our recent work on the radiation effects of ion beams on polystyrene thin films on silicon wafers and time resolved emission studies on polymers are described. (orig.)

  6. Thermal effects on aquatic organisms. Annotated bibliography of the 1975 literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, C.C.; Talmage, S.S.; Carrier, R.F.; Collier, B.N.; Dailey, N.S.

    1976-10-01

    Abstracts are presented of 716 papers published during 1975 concerning thermal effects on aquatic organisms. Indexes are included for author, subject category, geographic location, toxon, title, and keywords

  7. A selected bibliography of radiation effects on whole organisms, populations and ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.R.

    1980-09-01

    An overview is presented of the recent radiobiological literature pertaining to whole organisms, populations and ecosystems. A list of 310 key references includes major current review articles and a selection of recent original research papers. These are indexed accoridng to the subject areas and taxonomic categories that they discuss, providing an introduction to the literature on specific topics. (auth)

  8. Recent information on the genetical effects of radiation: A bibliography and notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penrose, L S; Stevenson, A C

    1960-12-01

    Shortly after the publication of the 1956 report it was demonstrated that the nuclei of diploid somatic cells contain 46 chromosomes, 22 autosomal pairs and one pair of sex chromosomes, XX in the female and XY in the male. The nuclei of mature human germ cells contain 23 chromosomes, not 24 as previously accepted. The chromosomes are morphologically distinguishable from one another and there is already a standard nomenclature. An extra sex chromosome in Klinefelter's syndrome and an extra autosome in mongols were the first variants of the normal pattern to be recorded. Since then a great many numerical anomalies and structural aberrations have been described. Some of them are associated with gross malformations and others are compatible with normal health.

  9. Recent information on the genetical effects of radiation: A bibliography and notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, L.S.; Stevenson, A.C.

    1960-01-01

    Shortly after the publication of the 1956 report it was demonstrated that the nuclei of diploid somatic cells contain 46 chromosomes, 22 autosomal pairs and one pair of sex chromosomes, XX in the female and XY in the male. The nuclei of mature human germ cells contain 23 chromosomes, not 24 as previously accepted. The chromosomes are morphologically distinguishable from one another and there is already a standard nomenclature. An extra sex chromosome in Klinefelter's syndrome and an extra autosome in mongols were the first variants of the normal pattern to be recorded. Since then a great many numerical anomalies and structural aberrations have been described. Some of them are associated with gross malformations and others are compatible with normal health

  10. Radiobiologic effects at low radiation levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casarett, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    Data are reviewed on the effects of low radiation doses on mammals. Data from the 1972 report on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation issued by the Advisory Committee of the National Academy of Sciences and National Research Council are discussed. It was concluded that there are certain radiosensitive systems in which low doses of radiation may cause degenerative effects, including gametogenic epithelium, lens of the eye, and developing embryos. Despite extensive investigation of genetic effects, including chromosomal effects, neither the amount of change that will be caused by very low levels of irradiation nor the degree of associated detriment is known

  11. Physics of intense, high energy radiation effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Hartman, E. Frederick; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Crozier, Paul Stewart

    2011-02-01

    This document summarizes the work done in our three-year LDRD project titled 'Physics of Intense, High Energy Radiation Effects.' This LDRD is focused on electrical effects of ionizing radiation at high dose-rates. One major thrust throughout the project has been the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) produced by the ionizing radiation. Another important consideration has been the electrical effect of dose-enhanced radiation. This transient effect can produce an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The unifying theme of the project has been the dielectric function. This quantity contains much of the physics covered in this project. For example, the work on transient electrical effects in radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) has been a key focus for the work on the EMP effects. This physics in contained in the dielectric function, which can also be expressed as a conductivity. The transient defects created during a radiation event are also contained, in principle. The energy loss lead the hot electrons and holes is given by the stopping power of ionizing radiation. This information is given by the inverse dielectric function. Finally, the short time atomistic phenomena caused by ionizing radiation can also be considered to be contained within the dielectric function. During the LDRD, meetings about the work were held every week. These discussions involved theorists, experimentalists and engineers. These discussions branched out into the work done in other projects. For example, the work on EMP effects had influence on another project focused on such phenomena in gases. Furthermore, the physics of radiation detectors and radiation dosimeters was often discussed, and these discussions had impact on related projects. Some LDRD-related documents are now stored on a sharepoint site (https://sharepoint.sandia.gov/sites/LDRD-REMS/default.aspx). In the remainder of this document the work is described in catergories but there is much overlap between the atomistic

  12. Physics of intense, high energy radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Hartman, E. Frederick; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Crozier, Paul Stewart

    2011-01-01

    This document summarizes the work done in our three-year LDRD project titled 'Physics of Intense, High Energy Radiation Effects.' This LDRD is focused on electrical effects of ionizing radiation at high dose-rates. One major thrust throughout the project has been the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) produced by the ionizing radiation. Another important consideration has been the electrical effect of dose-enhanced radiation. This transient effect can produce an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The unifying theme of the project has been the dielectric function. This quantity contains much of the physics covered in this project. For example, the work on transient electrical effects in radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) has been a key focus for the work on the EMP effects. This physics in contained in the dielectric function, which can also be expressed as a conductivity. The transient defects created during a radiation event are also contained, in principle. The energy loss lead the hot electrons and holes is given by the stopping power of ionizing radiation. This information is given by the inverse dielectric function. Finally, the short time atomistic phenomena caused by ionizing radiation can also be considered to be contained within the dielectric function. During the LDRD, meetings about the work were held every week. These discussions involved theorists, experimentalists and engineers. These discussions branched out into the work done in other projects. For example, the work on EMP effects had influence on another project focused on such phenomena in gases. Furthermore, the physics of radiation detectors and radiation dosimeters was often discussed, and these discussions had impact on related projects. Some LDRD-related documents are now stored on a sharepoint site (https://sharepoint.sandia.gov/sites/LDRD-REMS/default.aspx). In the remainder of this document the work is described in catergories but there is much overlap between the atomistic calculations, the

  13. Radiation Effects on Polymers - XI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghanem, N. A.; El-Awady, N. I.; Singer, Klaus Albert Julius

    1979-01-01

    With the aim of improving properties of cellulose acetate membranes for reverse osmosis desalination, grafting was performed using high energy electrons. In this paper, the grafting parameters (radiation dose and method, monomer concentration, solvents, chain transfer agent and redox system...

  14. Thermal effects on aquatic organisms. Annotated bibliography of the 1975 literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutant, C.C.; Talmage, S.S.; Carrier, R.F.; Collier, B.N.; Dailey, N.S. (comps.)

    1976-10-01

    Abstracts are presented of 716 papers published during 1975 concerning thermal effects on aquatic organisms. Indexes are included for author, subject category, geographic location, toxon, title, and keywords. (CH)

  15. Radiation effects in polycarbonate capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujisić Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the influence of neutron and gamma irradiation on the dissipation factor and capacitance of capacitors with polycarbonate dielectrics. The operation of capacitors subject to extreme conditions, such as the presence of ionizing radiation fields, is of special concern in military industry and space technology. Results obtained show that the exposure to a mixed neutron and gamma radiation field causes a decrease of capacitance, while the loss tangent remains unchanged.

  16. Biological effects of high LET radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masami [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    1997-03-01

    Biological effect of radiation is different by a kind of it greatly. Heavy ions were generally more effective in cell inactivation, chromosome aberration induction, mutation induction and neoplastic cell transformation induction than {gamma}-rays in SHE cells. (author)

  17. Genetic effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Childs, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    The genetic material in living organisms is susceptible to damage from a wide variety of causes including radiation exposure. Most of this damage is repaired by the organism; the residual damage and damage which is not correctly repaired can lead to genetic changes such as mutations. In lower organisms, most offspring carry an unaltered copy of the genetic information that was present in the parental organism, most of the genetic changes which do occur are not caused by natural background radiation, and the increase in frequency of genetic changes after irradiation at low-dose rates is directly proportional to total radiation dose. The same principles appear to be valid in mammals and other higher organisms. About 105 out of every 1000 humans born suffer from some genetic or partly-genetic condition requiring medical attention at some time. It has been estimated that approximately 1 person in every 2000 born carry a deleterious genetic mutation that was caused by the continued exposure of many generations of our ancestors to natural background radiation. On the same basis, it is predicted that the incidence of genetic diseases would be increased to 106 per 1000 in the children and grandchildren of radiation workers who were exposed to 1 rem per year commencing at age 18. However, there was no detectable change in the health and fitness of mice whose male ancestors were repeatedly exposed to high radiation doses up to 900 rem per generation. (auth)

  18. The effect of ionizing radiation and radionuclides on the embrional development of fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, K.

    1975-01-01

    The work is an attempt to review the bibliography on the effect of ionizing radiation on embrional development of fish, based mainly on Russian literature. The effect of ionizing radiation from exterior sources, as also of radioactive elements in a solution on successive fish embrional development was examined. A list of works on studies carried out with different radioactive elements affecting selected fish species is given. From several indices expressing the effects of radiation, the following are discussed in detail: survival rate, normality of development, histological changes, chromosomal changes, biochemical and physiological indexes. It is pointed out that due to varying experimental conditions it is impossible to compare the results of different authors. The phenomenon of stimulating effect of radiation on production of sex hormones, development of sexual products, survival rate of progeny, and heredity of such features, observed by several authors is still unexplained. Nevertheless, embrional development of fish remains a very sensitive biological element, suitable for testing the toxicity of radioactive substance. (author)

  19. Modification of genetic effects of gamma radiation by laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khotyljova, L.V.; Khokhlova, S.A.; Khokhlov, I.V.

    1988-01-01

    Full text: Mutants obtained by means of ionizing radiation and chemical mutagens often show low viability and productivity that makes their use in plant breeding difficult. Methods reducing the destructive mutagen action on important functions of plant organism and increasing quality and practical value of induced mutants would be interesting. We believe that one method for increasing efficiency of experimental mutagenesis in plants is the application of laser radiation as a modificator of genetic effects of ionizing radiation and chemical mutagens. Combined exposure of wheat seedlings to a gamma radiation dose of 2 kR and to laser radiation with the wave length of 632.8 nm (power density - 20 mVt/cm 2 , exposure - 30 min.) resulted in reducing the chromosomal aberration percentage from 30.5% in the gamma version to 16.3% in the combined treatment version. A radiosensibilizing effect was observed at additional exposure of gamma irradiated wheat seeds to laser light with the wave length of 441.6 nm where chromosomal aberration percentage increased from 22% in the gamma-irradiation version to 31% in the combined treatment version. By laser radiation it is also possible to normalize mitotic cell activity suppressed by gamma irradiation. Additional seedling irradiation with the light of helium-neon laser (632.8 nm) resulted in recovery of mitotic cell activity from 21% to 62% and increasing the average content of DNA per nucleus by 10%. The influence of only laser radiation on plant variability was also studied and it was shown that irradiation of wheat seeds and seedlings with pulsed and continuous laser light of visible spectrum resulted in phenotypically altered forms in M 2 . Their frequencies was dependent upon power density, dose and radiation wave length. Number of altered forms increased in going from long-wave to short-wave spectrum region. In comparing efficiency of different laser types of pulsed and continuous exposure (dose - 180 J/cm 2 ) 2% of altered

  20. Radiation effects on light sources and detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of optoelectronics includes a wide variety of both military and non-military applications in which the systems must meet radiation exposure requirements. Herein, we review the work on radiation effects on sources and detectors for such optoelectronic systems. For sources the principal problem is permanent damage-induced light output degradation, while for detectors it is ionizing radiation-induced photocurrents

  1. Chemical effects in the Corrosion of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys. A Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    tances.II. Effect Of Pomegranate Juice And The Aqueous Extract Of Pomegranate Fruits And Tea leaves On The Corrosion Of Aluminum" The effect of the juices...T7651 tempers to exfoliation and stress- corrosion cracking . 1968-8 D.P. Doyle and H.P. Godard ,a) Tr. Mezhdunar. Kongr. Korroz. Metal, 4, 439-48, (1968...Tapper Brit. Corros. J., 3, 285-87, (1968) "Corrosion Of Aluminum" Summary of the literature of Al corrosion which includes stress- corrosion cracking

  2. Bystander Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, John B. [Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Genetics and Complex Diseases

    2017-01-17

    The objectives of this grant renewal are to provide administrative support and travel funds to allow the continued participation of the principal investigator (Dr. John B. Little) as an advisor to research initiated by several research fellows from his laboratory. The actual research will be carried out under the direction of Dr. Hatsumi Nagasawa with the collaboration of Dr. Joel Bedford at the Colorado State University, and by Drs. Edouard Azzam and Sonia de Toledo at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. Dr. Little will advise on the planning of experiments and development of experimental protocols, the analysis of data, and the preparation of manuscripts for publication. The Specific Aims for several of the planned experiments include: 1) to extend studies of the role of recombinational repair in the bystander effect by examining other genes in this pathway and cell lines deficient in excision repair; 2) to continue studies to determine the nature of the damage signal transmitted to bystander cells including the expression of several connexins in the bystander response, and the extent to which the enhanced oxidative metabolism observed in bystander cells may relate to the nature of the transmitted bystander signal; 3) to utilize a genome-wide approach to examine the genetic basis for the hypersensitivity to ionization we have observed in unaffected parents of patients with hereditary retinoblastoma, as well as from a group of apparently normal individuals that show similar radiosensitivity; 4) to complete studies concerning the induction of high frequencies of cells with massive chromosome damage in clonal derivatives of p53 and p21 knockout mouse cell lines; in particular to examine the role of telomere changes in this phenomenon. Overall, the results of these studies should enhance our understanding of the risk of low-dose exposures to ionizing radiation, including human populations to residential radon as well as occupational exposures.

  3. Bystander Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, John B.

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this grant renewal are to provide administrative support and travel funds to allow the continued participation of the principal investigator (Dr. John B. Little) as an advisor to research initiated by several research fellows from his laboratory. The actual research will be carried out under the direction of Dr. Hatsumi Nagasawa with the collaboration of Dr. Joel Bedford at the Colorado State University, and by Drs. Edouard Azzam and Sonia de Toledo at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. Dr. Little will advise on the planning of experiments and development of experimental protocols, the analysis of data, and the preparation of manuscripts for publication. The Specific Aims for several of the planned experiments include: 1) to extend studies of the role of recombinational repair in the bystander effect by examining other genes in this pathway and cell lines deficient in excision repair; 2) to continue studies to determine the nature of the damage signal transmitted to bystander cells including the expression of several connexins in the bystander response, and the extent to which the enhanced oxidative metabolism observed in bystander cells may relate to the nature of the transmitted bystander signal; 3) to utilize a genome-wide approach to examine the genetic basis for the hypersensitivity to ionization we have observed in unaffected parents of patients with hereditary retinoblastoma, as well as from a group of apparently normal individuals that show similar radiosensitivity; 4) to complete studies concerning the induction of high frequencies of cells with massive chromosome damage in clonal derivatives of p53 and p21 knockout mouse cell lines; in particular to examine the role of telomere changes in this phenomenon. Overall, the results of these studies should enhance our understanding of the risk of low-dose exposures to ionizing radiation, including human populations to residential radon as well as occupational exposures.

  4. Chernobyl health effects: radiation or stress?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinkhal', G.

    1996-01-01

    Consideration is given to results of wide-scale examination of human population, subjected to the effect of radiation in result of Chernobyl accident. The examined contingents consisted of liquidators, evacuated from 30-km zone, people still living in contamination territories, children of irradiated parents and children, who received large radiation doses. High levels of respiratory system diseases, digestive system diseases, cardiovascular diseases and nervous system diseases were revealed for these people. It was revealed that stress, socio-economic and chemical factors played sufficient role in disease incidence. It is shown that fair of radiation may damage more, than radiation itself

  5. Late effects of radiation: host factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.; Storer, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    The paper discusses the influence of host factors on radiation late effects and in particular cancer. Radiation induces cellular changes that result in initiated cells with a potential to become cancers. The expression of the initiated cells as tumors is influenced, if not determined, by both tissue and systemic factors that are sex-, age-, and species-dependent

  6. Biological radiation effects and radioprotection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerc, H.

    1991-03-01

    In this report, after recalling the mode of action of ionizing radiations, the notions of dose, dose equivalents and the values of natural irradiation, the author describes the biological radiation effects. Then he presents the ICRP recommendations and their applications to the french radioprotection system

  7. Radiation effects on Fischer-Tropsch syntheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatada, M.; Matsuda, K.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation effects on Fischer-Tropsch synthesis has been examined using high dose rate electron beams and Fe-Cu-diatomaceous earth catalyst. Yields of saturated hydrocarbons were found to increase by irradiation, but the yields of these compounds were decreased by raising reaction temperature without irradiation, suggesting the presence of radiation chemical process in catalytic reactions. (author)

  8. Annotated bibliography on the effects of water containing fluorides on container-grown crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-01-01

    Most of the literature on fluorine and plants relates to damage caused by atmospheric pollution, for example HF from aluminium works etc, which causes much greater damage than is possible with uptake through the roots. However a few papers do deal with uptake via the roots as follows: reviews of a general nature; uptake of fluorine and its effect on oxygen consumption; and fluoride induced chlorosis. The remainder deal with the effects of various concentrations of fluoride on container grown crops. One suggests that fluorine may be an essential trace element although its growth promoting action is not confirmed elsewhere. For the rest, the limits of fluorine tolerance are shown to be variable, related perhaps to the normal F content of the plant. No plant species however is recorded to have been damaged by concentrations of F below 10 ppM. The influence of nutrition on the appearance of symptoms of F toxicity, especially Ca nutrition but also N supply, is emphasized in two papers.

  9. Radiation effects in charge coupled devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.A.; Nelson, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    Charge coupled devices (CCD s) exhibit a number of advantages (low cost, low power, high bit density) in their several applications (serial memories, imagers, digital filters); however, fairly elementary theoretical considerations indicate that they will be very vulnerable to permanent radiation damage, by both neutrons and ionizing radiation, and to transient upset by pulsed ionizing radiation. Although studies of permanent ionizing-radiation damage in CCD's have been reported, little information has been published concerning their overall nuclear radiation vulnerability. This paper presents a fairly comprehensive experimental study of radiation effects in a 256-cell surface-channel, CCD shift-register. A limited amount of similar work is also presented for a 128-cell surface-channel device and a 130 cell peristaltic CCD shift register. The radiation effects phenomena discussed herein, include transient-ionizing-radiation responses, permanent ionizing- radiation damage to transfer efficiency, charge-carrying capacity and input transfer gate bias, and neutron damage to storage time--determined from dark current and charge-up time measurements

  10. Coherence effects in radiative scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, J.; Lenk, R.

    1993-03-01

    The bremsstrahl-production of photons in dense matter is reinvestigated using the example of an exactly solvable quantum mechanical model in one space dimension. Coherence phenomena between successive radiative scatterings among the constituents lead to a modification of the production cross section in the medium relative to the incoherent quasi-free prescription used in kinetic models. Analytic expressions for the correction factor have been derived comparing the quantum rates with the corresponding incoherent quasi-free rates. The result has implications for the kinetic description of all kinds of radiative processes in nucleus-nucleus collisions, both on the level of hadron and parton dynamics. (orig.)

  11. Physics of radiation effects in crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, RA

    1986-01-01

    ``Physics of Radiation Effects in Crystals'' is presented in two parts. The first part covers the general background and theory of radiation effects in crystals, including the theory describing the generation of crystal lattice defects by radiation, the kinetic approach to the study of the disposition of these defects and the effects of the diffusion of these defects on alloy compositions and phases. Specific problems of current interest are treated in the second part and include anisotropic dimensional changes in x-uranium, zirconium and graphite, acceleration of thermal creep in reactor ma

  12. Effects of radiation on scintillating fiber performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.L.; Cohn, H.; Efremenko, Yu.; Gordeev, A.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Onopienko, D.; Savin, S.; Shmakov, K.; Tarkovsky, E.; Young, K.G.; Carey, R.; Rothman, M.; Sulak, L.; Worstell, W.; Parr, H.

    1992-01-01

    Continued rapid improvements in formulations for scintillating fibers require the ability to parameterize and predict effects of radiation on detector performance. Experimental techniques necessary to obtain needed information and calculational procedures used in performing predications for hadron scintillating fiber calorimetry in the Superconducting Supercollider environment are described. The experimental techniques involve control of the testing environment, consideration of dose rate effects, and other factors. These calculations involve the behavior of particle showers in the detector, expected levels of radiation, and parameterization of the radiation effects. A summary of significant work is also presented

  13. Effects of radiation on scintillating fiber performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, K.G.; Bauer, M.L.; Cohn, H.; Efremenko, Yu.; Gordeev, A.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Onopienko, D.; Savin, S.; Shmakov, K.; Tarkovsky, E.; Carey, R.; Rothman, M.; Sulak, L.; Worstell, W.; Paar, H.

    1993-01-01

    Continued rapid improvements in formulations for scintillating fibers require the ability to parameterize and predict effects of radiation on detector performance. Experimental techniques necessary to obtain desired information and calculational procedures used in performing predictions for hadron scintillating fiber calorimetry in the Superconducting Supercollider environment are described. The experimental techniques involve control of the testing environment, consideration of dose rate effects, and other factors. The calculations involve the behavior of particle showers in the detector, expected levels of radiation, and parameterization of the radiation effects. A summary of significant work is also presented

  14. Characteristics of natural background external radiation and effective dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kenzo

    1989-01-01

    The two sources of natural radiation - cosmic rays and primordial radionuclides - are described. The factors affecting radiation doses received from natural radiation and the calculation of effective dose equivalent due to natural radiation are discussed. 10 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Overview of radiation effects research in photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Robert C.; Cohn, Lewis M.; Taylor, Edward W.; Greenwell, Roger A.

    1995-05-01

    A brief overview of ongoing radiation effects research in photonics is presented focusing on integrated optic and acousto-optic components. A short summary of radiation-induced effects in electro-optic modulators, detector arrays, and other photonic technologies is presented along with extensive references. The coordinated radiation effects studies among researchers within the Tri-Service Organizations and international experimental teams are beginning to demonstrate consistent measurements of radiation-induced effects in photonic components and confirming earlier reported data. This paper will present an overview of these coordinated investigations and focus on key research being conducted with the AFMC Phillips Laboratory, Naval Research Laboratory, Defence Nuclear Agency, NATO Nuclear Effects Task Group, and the Tri-Service Photonics Coordinating Committee.

  16. Effects of small radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, G.

    1986-01-01

    The term 'small radiation dosis' means doses of about (1 rem), fractions of one rem as well as doses of a few rem. Doses like these are encountered in various practical fields, e.g. in X-ray diagnosis, in the environment and in radiation protection rules. The knowledge about small doses is derived from the same two forces, on which the radiobiology of human beings nearly is based: interpretation of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki data, as well as the experience from radiotherapy. Careful interpretation of Hiroshima dates do not provide any evidence that small doses can induce cancer, fetal malformations or genetic damage. Yet in radiotherapy of various diseases, e.g. inflammations, doses of about 1 Gy (100 rad) do no harm to the patients. According to a widespread hypothesis even very small doses may induce some types of radiation damage ('no threshold'). Nevertheless an alternative view is justified. At present no decision can be made between these two alternatives, but the usefullness of radiology is definitely better established than any damage calculated by theories or extrapolations. Based on experience any exaggerated fear of radiations can be met. (author)

  17. TWRS privatization bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. This bibliography is not, nor is intended to be, exhaustive or complete. It was prepared with the intent of providing a sampling of representative documents potentially helpful to Offerors. The documents referenced herein have been identified as representative of those potentially helpful to Offerors. This list of documents does not represent the full extent of available and potentially helpful information, nor should it be taken as a representation of documents determined to be of greater importance than other documents not referenced herein. There are numerous documents available to the public that are NOT cited in this bibliography; the Offeror is encouraged to perform searches for alternate sources of information

  18. Effect of radiation processing on meat tenderisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Chawla, S.P.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-01-01

    The effect of radiation processing (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on the tenderness of three types of popularly consumed meat in India namely chicken, lamb and buffalo was investigated. In irradiated meat samples dose dependant reduction in water holding capacity, cooking yield and shear force was observed. Reduction in shear force upon radiation processing was more pronounced in buffalo meat. Protein and collagen solubility as well as TCA soluble protein content increased on irradiation. Radiation processing of meat samples resulted in some change in colour of meat. Results suggested that irradiation leads to dose dependant tenderization of meat. Radiation processing of meat at a dose of 2.5 kGy improved its texture and had acceptable odour. - Highlights: • Effect of radiation processing on tenderness of three meat systems was evaluated. • Dose dependant reduction in shear force seen in buffalo meat. • Collagen solubility increased with irradiation

  19. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiendl, Toni A.; Wiendl, Fritz W.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Althur, Valter, E-mail: tawiendl@hotmail.com, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  20. Radiation effect on rocket engine performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Huei-Huang; Kross, K. W.; Krebsbach, A. N.

    1990-01-01

    Critical problem areas involving the effect of radiation on the combustion of bipropellants are addressed by formulating a universal scaling law in combination with a radiation-enhanced vaporization combustion model. Numerical algorithms are developed and data pertaining to the Variable Thrust Engine (VTE) and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) are used to conduct parametric sensitivity studies to predict the principal intercoupling effects of radiation. The analysis reveals that low-enthalpy engines, such as the VTE, are vulnerable to a substantial performance setback due to radiative loss, whereas the performance of high-enthalpy engines such as the SSME are hardly affected over a broad range of engine operation. Combustion enhancement by radiative heating of the propellant has a significant impact on propellants with high absorptivity.

  1. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiendl, Toni A.; Wiendl, Fritz W.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Althur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.

    2013-01-01

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  2. Biological effects of proton radiation: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girdhani, S.; Hlatky, L.; Sachs, R.

    2015-01-01

    Proton radiation provides significant dosimetric advantages when compared with gamma radiation due to its superior energy deposition characteristics. Although the physical aspects of proton radiobiology are well understood, biological and clinical endpoints are understudied. The current practice to assume the relative biological effectiveness of low linear energy transfer (LET) protons to be a generic value of about 1.1 relative to photons likely obscures important unrecognised differentials in biological response between these radiation qualities. A deeper understanding of the biological properties induced by proton radiation would have both radiobiological and clinical impact. This article briefly points to some of the literature pertinent to the effects of protons on tissue-level processes that modify disease progression, such as angiogenesis, cell invasion and cancer metastasis. Recent findings hint that proton radiation may, in addition to offering improved radio-therapeutic targeting, be a means to provide a new dimension for increasing therapeutic benefits for patients by manipulating these tissue-level processes. (authors)

  3. The effects of ionizing radiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, G.M.

    1975-08-01

    This paper describes the major effects of ionizing radiation on man and the relationship between such effects and radiation dose, with the conclusion that standards of radiological safety must be based on the carcinogenetic and mutagenic properties of ionizing radiation. Man is exposed to radiation from natural sources and from man-made sources. Exposure from the latter should be regulated but, since there is little observational or experimental evidence for predicting the effects of the very small doses likely to be required for adequate standards of safety, it is necessary to infer them from what is seen at high doses. Because the formal relationship between dose and effect is not fully understood, simplifying assumptions are necessary to estimate the effects of low doses. Two such assumptions are conventionally used; that there is a linear relationship between dose and effect at all levels of dose, and that the rate at which a dose of radiation is given does not alter the magnitude of the effect. These assumptions are thought to be conservative, that is they will not lead to an underestimation of the effects of small radiation doses although they may give an over-estimate. (author)

  4. Fast Neutron Radiation Effects on Bacillus Subtili

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoming; Zhang Jianguo; Chu Shijin; Ren Zhenglong; Zheng Chun; Yang Chengde; Tan Bisheng

    2009-01-01

    To examine the sterilizing effect and mechanism of neutron radiation, Bacillus subtilis var. niger. strain (ATCC 9372) spores were irradiated with the fast neutron from the Chinese fast burst reactor II(CFBR-II). The plate-count results indicated that the D 10 value was 384.6 Gy with a neutron radiation dose rate of 7.4 Gy/min. The rudimental catalase activity of the spores declined obviously with the increase in the radiation dose. Meanwhile, under the scanning electron microscope, no visible influence of the neutron radiation on the spore configuration was detected even if the dose was increased to 4 kGy. The content and distribution of DNA double-strand breaks induced by neutron radiation at different doses were measured and quantified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Further analysis of the DNA release percentage (PR), the DNA breakage level (L), and the average molecular weight, indicated that DNA fragments were obviously distributed around the 5 kb regions at different radiation doses, which suggests that some points in the DNA molecule were sensitive to neutron radiation. Both PR and L varied regularly to some extent with the increase in radiation dose. Thus neutron radiation has a high sterilization power, and can induce falling enzyme activity and DNA breakage in Bacillus subtilis spores

  5. Radiative effects of global MODIS cloud regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Cho, Nayeong; Lee, Dongmin; Kato, Seiji

    2018-01-01

    We update previously published MODIS global cloud regimes (CRs) using the latest MODIS cloud retrievals in the Collection 6 dataset. We implement a slightly different derivation method, investigate the composition of the regimes, and then proceed to examine several aspects of CR radiative appearance with the aid of various radiative flux datasets. Our results clearly show the CRs are radiatively distinct in terms of shortwave, longwave and their combined (total) cloud radiative effect. We show that we can clearly distinguish regimes based on whether they radiatively cool or warm the atmosphere, and thanks to radiative heating profiles to discern the vertical distribution of cooling and warming. Terra and Aqua comparisons provide information about the degree to which morning and afternoon occurrences of regimes affect the symmetry of CR radiative contribution. We examine how the radiative discrepancies among multiple irradiance datasets suffering from imperfect spatiotemporal matching depend on CR, and whether they are therefore related to the complexity of cloud structure, its interpretation by different observational systems, and its subsequent representation in radiative transfer calculations. PMID:29619289

  6. Radiative Effects of Global MODIS Cloud Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oraiopoulos, Lazaros; Cho, Nayeong; Lee, Dong Min; Kato, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    We update previously published MODIS global cloud regimes (CRs) using the latest MODIS cloud retrievals in the Collection 6 dataset. We implement a slightly different derivation method, investigate the composition of the regimes, and then proceed to examine several aspects of CR radiative appearance with the aid of various radiative flux datasets. Our results clearly show the CRs are radiatively distinct in terms of shortwave, longwave and their combined (total) cloud radiative effect. We show that we can clearly distinguish regimes based on whether they radiatively cool or warm the atmosphere, and thanks to radiative heating profiles to discern the vertical distribution of cooling and warming. Terra and Aqua comparisons provide information about the degree to which morning and afternoon occurrences of regimes affect the symmetry of CR radiative contribution. We examine how the radiative discrepancies among multiple irradiance datasets suffering from imperfect spatiotemporal matching depend on CR, and whether they are therefore related to the complexity of cloud structure, its interpretation by different observational systems, and its subsequent representation in radiative transfer calculations.

  7. Predicted solar cell edge radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Solar Cell Orbital Test (ASCOT) will test six types of solar cells in a high energy proton environment. During the design of the experiment a question was raised about the effects of proton radiation incident on the edge of the solar cells and whether edge radiation shielding was required. Historical geosynchronous data indicated that edge radiation damage is not detectable over the normal end of life solar cell degradation; however because the ASCOT radiation environment has a much higher and more energetic fluence of protons, considerably more edge damage is expected. A computer analysis of the problem was made by modeling the expected radiation damage at the cell edge and using a network model of small interconnected solar cells to predict degradation in the cell's electrical output. The model indicated that the deepest penetration of edge radiation was at the top of the cell near the junction where the protons have access to the cell through the low density cell/cover adhesive layer. The network model indicated that the cells could tolerate high fluences at their edge as long as there was high electrical resistance between the edge radiated region and the contact system on top of the cell. The predicted edge radiation related loss was less than 2% of maximum power for GaAs/Ge solar cells. As a result, no edge radiation protection was used for ASCOT

  8. The Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Mammalian Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biaglow, John E.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the effects of radiation on dividing cells and factors influencing these effects; also briefly reviews the radical mechanism for radiation damage. Emphasizes the importance of oxygen in radiation effects. (CS)

  9. GSV Annotated Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Randy S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pope, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jiang, Ming [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Trucano, Timothy G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aragon, Cecilia R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ni, Kevin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wei, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chilton, Lawrence K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bakel, Alan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2010-09-14

    The following annotated bibliography was developed as part of the geospatial algorithm verification and validation (GSV) project for the Simulation, Algorithms and Modeling program of NA-22. Verification and Validation of geospatial image analysis algorithms covers a wide range of technologies. Papers in the bibliography are thus organized into the following five topic areas: Image processing and analysis, usability and validation of geospatial image analysis algorithms, image distance measures, scene modeling and image rendering, and transportation simulation models. Many other papers were studied during the course of the investigation including. The annotations for these articles can be found in the paper "On the verification and validation of geospatial image analysis algorithms".

  10. Vitrification publication bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmieman, E.; Johns, W.E.

    1996-02-01

    This document was compiled by a group of about 12 graduate students in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Material Science at Washington State University and was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The literature search resulting in the compilation of this bibliography was designed to be an exhaustive search for research and development work involving the vitrification of mixed wastes, published by domestic and foreign researchers, primarily during 1989-1994. The search techniques were dominated by electronic methods and this bibliography is also available in electronic format, Windows Reference Manager.

  11. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, G.F. [comp.

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  12. Vitrification publication bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmieman, E.; Johns, W.E.

    1996-02-01

    This document was compiled by a group of about 12 graduate students in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Material Science at Washington State University and was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The literature search resulting in the compilation of this bibliography was designed to be an exhaustive search for research and development work involving the vitrification of mixed wastes, published by domestic and foreign researchers, primarily during 1989-1994. The search techniques were dominated by electronic methods and this bibliography is also available in electronic format, Windows Reference Manager

  13. Internal friction, microstructure, and radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechsler, M.S.; Sommer, W.F.; Davidson, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    A brief review is given of internal friction relaxation peaks and background internal friction. The microstructural origin of the internal friction is discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on radiation effects

  14. Effects of solar radiation on glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Kinser, Donald L.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of solar radiation of selected glasses are reported. Optical property degradation is studied using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Strength changes are measured using a concentric ring bend test. Direct fracture toughness measurements using an indentation test are planned.

  15. Decomposition of radiational effects of model feedbacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellsaesser, H.W.; MacCracken, M.C.; Potter, G.L.; Mitchell, C.S.

    1981-08-01

    Three separate doubled CO 2 experiments with the statistical dynamic model are used to illustrate efforts to study the climate dynamics, feedbacks, and interrelationships of meteorological parameters by decomposing and isolating their individual effects on radiation transport

  16. Sterilizing radiation effects on selected polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skiens, W.E.

    1979-03-01

    The mechanism of radiation effects and their industrial applications are discussed for the following classes of polymers: thermoplastics, thermosets, elastomers, films and fibers, and adhesives/coatings/potting compounds. 35 references, 3 tables

  17. Radiobiology: Biologic effects of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, K.D.

    1987-01-01

    The biologic effects after exposure to ionizing radiation, such as cell death or tissue injury, result from a chain of complex physical, chemical, metabolic, and histologic events. The time scale of these radiation actions spans many orders of magnitude. The physical absorption of ionizing radiation occurs in about 10 -18 s, while late carcinogenic and genetic effects are expressed years or even generations later. Collectively, these effects form the science of radiobiology. Many of the concepts discussed in this chapter have been developed through the study of effects generated in tissues by external radiation sources, but they apply generally and often specifically to internally distributed radiopharmaceuticals which form the central topic of this book

  18. Genetic effects of ionizing radiations in Eucaryocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jullien, Pierre

    1976-01-01

    The litterature on the genetic effects of ionizing radiations is reviewed, especially as concerns specific loci or chromosome mutations. Extrapolation from one species to another is considered as well as extra-nuclear mutations [fr

  19. The effect of ionizing radiation on cyanophyta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'eva, N.V.; Shevchenko, T.F.; Golubkova, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    Publication data on the effect of ionizing radiation on cyanophyta are generalized. The conclusion about the presence of premises for forming cyanophyta radiobiology as special direction of procaryotic algae investigation is made

  20. [Effects of radiation exposure on human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Kenji; Sasatani, Megumi

    2012-03-01

    There are two types of radiation health effect; acute disorder and late on-set disorder. Acute disorder is a deterministic effect that the symptoms appear by exposure above a threshold. Tissues and cells that compose the human body have different radiation sensitivity respectively, and the symptoms appear in order, from highly radiosensitive tissues. The clinical symptoms of acute disorder begin with a decrease in lymphocytes, and then the symptoms appear such as alopecia, skin erythema, hematopoietic damage, gastrointestinal damage, central nervous system damage with increasing radiation dose. Regarding the late on-set disorder, a predominant health effect is the cancer among the symptoms of such as cancer, non-cancer disease and genetic effect. Cancer and genetic effect are recognized as stochastic effects without the threshold. When radiation dose is equal to or more than 100 mSv, it is observed that the cancer risk by radiation exposure increases linearly with an increase in dose. On the other hand, the risk of developing cancer through low-dose radiation exposure, less 100 mSv, has not yet been clarified scientifically. Although uncertainty still remains regarding low level risk estimation, ICRP propound LNT model and conduct radiation protection in accordance with LNT model in the low-dose and low-dose rate radiation from a position of radiation protection. Meanwhile, the mechanism of radiation damage has been gradually clarified. The initial event of radiation-induced diseases is thought to be the damage to genome such as radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Recently, it is clarified that our cells could recognize genome damage and induce the diverse cell response to maintain genome integrity. This phenomenon is called DNA damage response which induces the cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, apoptosis, cell senescence and so on. These responses act in the direction to maintain genome integrity against genome damage, however, the death of large number of

  1. Effects of radiations on ornamental fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anita; Kalyankar, Amol D.; Ohlyan, Sunita; Gupta, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation is a process in which energetic particles or energetic waves travel through a medium or space. There are two distinct types of radiations: ionizing and non-ionizing. Ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays are some examples of radiation. 'Ornamental fish' is designed for aquatic hobbyists and the aquatic industry for several purposes. UV light has two primary uses in fish culture: Controlling green water and disinfecting the water supply. Many proponents of UV disinfection sometimes overlook the additional benefits relating to ornamental fish; those being that cleaner water reduces the stress on the fish by not having to fight off diseases, thus enhancing its immune system and leading to faster growth and more brilliant colors. Ultraviolet sterilizers are often used in aquaria to help control unwanted microorganisms in the water. UV radiation also ensures that exposed pathogens cannot reproduce, thus decreasing the likelihood of a disease outbreak in an aquarium. Despite of these benefits, the ill-effects of radiations cannot be ruled out. Ultraviolet Radiation-induced DNA Damage is seen in the skin of the Platyfish Xiphophorus. Higher radiation doses may cause the gastrointestinal syndrome that leads to defects of the intestinal mucosa barrier with successive contamination of musculature. Exposure to UV radiation can kill the fish and induce sublethal effects in embryos, larvae and adults. The change in skin includes irregularity of skin surface, epidermal oedema, necrosis etc. Irradiation may badly influence the textural attributes of fish muscle. (author)

  2. Effect of ionizing radiations on connective tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, K.I.; Gerber, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiations on connective tissue in lung, heart, vasculature, kidney, skin, and skeletal tissues are reviewed. Special emphasis is given to the effect of ionizing radiations on vasculo-connective tissue and fibrotic changes following radiation-induced injury to organs and tissues. In order to put the subject matter in proper prospective, the general biochemistry, physiology, and pathology of connective tissue is reviewed briefly together with the participation of connective tissue in disease. The review closes with an assessment of future problems and an enumeration and discussion of important, as yet unanswered questions

  3. Radiation abuse and its effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halm, A

    1976-06-01

    This paper delves into overuse practiced in diagnostic radiography. The conventional attitudes to low-dose irradiation are critically examined, as is the MPD related to individual radiosensitivity. Concern is expressed that a sizeable proportion of radiologists ignore important aspects of the Code of Practice and this attitude is readily emulated in the hospital setting. The author advocates education within the medical profession and the community on the risks involved in radiation abuse and the benefits derived from justified exposures to x rays.

  4. Radiation Effects in M and NEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    electrical basis of operation of M&NEM structures? In particular, cumulative damage by non - ionizing energy loss can, in principle, alter the... Radiation Effects in M&NEMS Michael Alles, Kirill Bolotin, Alex Zettl, Brian Homeijer, Jim Davidson, Ronald Schrimpf, Robert Reed, Dan Fleetwood...understanding radiation effects on the relevant properties of the constituent materials and structures, particularly advanced 2D materials, and the

  5. Modifiers of radiation effects in the eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Norman J.; Stewart, Fiona A.; Hall, Eric J.

    2017-11-01

    World events, including the threat of radiological terrorism and the fear of nuclear accidents, have highlighted an urgent need to develop medical countermeasures to prevent or reduce radiation injury. Similarly, plans for manned spaceflight to a near-Earth asteroid or journey to Mars raise serious concerns about long-term effects of space radiation on human health and the availability of suitable therapeutic interventions. At the same time, the need to protect normal tissue from the deleterious effects of radiotherapy has driven considerable research into the design of effective radioprotectors. For more than 70 years, animal models of radiation cataract have been utilized to test the short and long-term efficacy of various radiation countermeasures. While some compounds, most notably the Walter Reed (WR) class of radioprotectors, have reported limited effectiveness when given before exposure to low-LET radiation, the human toxicity of these molecules at effective doses limits their usefulness. Furthermore, while there has been considerable testing of eye responses to X- and gamma irradiation, there is limited information about using such models to limit the injurious effects of heavy ions and neutrons on eye tissue. A new class of radioprotector molecules, including the sulfhydryl compound PrC-210, are reported to be effective at much lower doses and with far less side effects. Their ability to modify ocular radiation damage has not yet been examined. The ability to non-invasively measure sensitive, radiation-induced ocular changes over long periods of time makes eye models an attractive option to test the radioprotective and radiation mitigating abilities of new novel compounds.

  6. Radiation effects on eye components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durchschlag, H.; Fochler, C.; Abraham, K.; Kulawik, B.

    1998-01-01

    The radiation damage (X-ray, UV light) of the most important components of the vertebrate eye (crystallins and other proteins, hyaluronic acid, vitreous, aqueous humour, ascorbic acid) has been investigated by various methods of physical chemistry. UV absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as circular dichroism unveiled changes of the chromophores/fluorophores of the constituent biopolymers and low-molecular components, together with alterations of helix content and the occurrence of aggregation. Size-exclusion chromatography, analytical ultracentrifugation, densimetry, viscometry and light scattering experiments monitored changes of the global structure of proteins and polysaccharides involved. Electrophoreses allowed conclusions on fragmentation, unfolding and crosslinking. Analytical methods provided information regarding the integrity of groups of special concern (SH, SS) and revealed the existence of stable noxious species (H 2 O 2 ). By means of various measures and additives, manifold modifications of the impact of both ionizing and nonionizing radiation may be achieved. Caused by differences in the primary reactions, eye polymers are protected efficaciously by typical OH radical scavengers against X-irradiation, whereas compounds which exhibit absorption behavior in the UV range turn out to act as potent protectives ('chemical filters') against UV light. A few substances, such as ascorbate, are able to provide protection against both sorts of radiation and are even able to exhibit a slight chemical repair of already damaged particles. The results obtained are of importance for understanding pathological alterations of the eye (loss of transparency, cataractogenesis) and for developing new strategies for protection and repair of eye components. (author)

  7. Radiation effects on biodegradable polyesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshi Mitomo; Darmawan Darwis; Fumio Yoshii; Keizo Makuuchi

    1999-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] and its copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] are microbial biodegradable polyesters produced by many types of bacteria. Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(E-caprolactone) (PCL) are also biodegradable synthetic polyesters which have been commercialized. These thermoplastics are expected for wide usage in environmental protection and blocompatible applications. Radiation grafting of hydrophilic monomers onto many polymers, e.g., polyethylene and polypropylene has been studied mainly for biomedical applications. In the present study, radiation-induced graft polymerization of vinyl monomers onto PHB and P(3HB-co-3HV) was carried out and improvement of their properties was studied. Changes in the properties and biodegradability were compared with the degree of grafting. Radiation-induced crosslinking of PBS and PCL which relatively show thermal and irradiation stability was also carried out to improve their thermal stability or processability. Irradiation to PBS and PCL mainly resulted in crosslinking and characterization of these crosslinked polyesters was investigated

  8. Perturbed effects at radiation physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Külahcı, Fatih; Şen, Zekâi

    2013-01-01

    Perturbation methodology is applied in order to assess the linear attenuation coefficient, mass attenuation coefficient and cross-section behavior with random components in the basic variables such as the radiation amounts frequently used in the radiation physics and chemistry. Additionally, layer attenuation coefficient (LAC) and perturbed LAC (PLAC) are proposed for different contact materials. Perturbation methodology provides opportunity to obtain results with random deviations from the average behavior of each variable that enters the whole mathematical expression. The basic photon intensity variation expression as the inverse exponential power law (as Beer–Lambert's law) is adopted for perturbation method exposition. Perturbed results are presented not only in terms of the mean but additionally the standard deviation and the correlation coefficients. Such perturbation expressions provide one to assess small random variability in basic variables. - Highlights: • Perturbation methodology is applied to Radiation Physics. • Layer attenuation coefficient (LAC) and perturbed LAC are proposed for contact materials. • Perturbed linear attenuation coefficient is proposed. • Perturbed mass attenuation coefficient (PMAC) is proposed. • Perturbed cross-section is proposed

  9. Effective dose: a radiation protection quantity

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, H G

    2012-01-01

    Modern radiation protection is based on the principles of justification, limitation, and optimisation. Assessment of radiation risks for individuals or groups of individuals is, however, not a primary objective of radiological protection. The implementation of the principles of limitation and optimisation requires an appropriate quantification of radiation exposure. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has introduced effective dose as the principal radiological protection quantity to be used for setting and controlling dose limits for stochastic effects in the regulatory context, and for the practical implementation of the optimisation principle. Effective dose is the tissue weighted sum of radiation weighted organ and tissue doses of a reference person from exposure to external irradiations and internal emitters. The specific normalised values of tissue weighting factors are defined by ICRP for individual tissues, and used as an approximate age- and sex-averaged representation of th...

  10. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyakov, O.V.

    2008-01-01

    The universality of the target theory of radiation-induced effects is challenged by observations on non-targeted effects such as bystander effects and genomic instability. Essential features of non-targeted effects are that they do not require direct nuclear exposure by radiation and they are particularly significant at low doses. This new evidence suggests a need for a new paradigm in radiation biology. The new paradigm would cover both the classical (targeted) and the non-targeted effects. New aspects include the role of cellular communication and tissue-level responses. A better understanding of non-targeted effects may have important consequences for health risk assessment and, consequently, on radiation protection. Non-targeted effects may contribute to the estimation of cancer risk from occupational, medical and environmental exposures. In particular, they may have implications for the applicability of the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) model in extrapolating radiation risk data into the low-dose region. This also means that the adequacy of the concept of dose to estimate risk is challenged by these findings. Moreover, these effects may provide new mechanistic explanations for the development of non-cancer diseases. Further research is required to determine if these effects, typically measured in cell cultures, are applicable in tissue level, whole animals, and ultimately in humans. (orig.)

  11. Biological effects of high-energy radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, S.B.

    1976-01-01

    The biological effects of high-energy radiation are reviewed, with emphasis on the effects of the hadronic component. Proton and helium ion effects are similar to those of the more conventional and sparsely ionizing x- and γ-radiation. Heavy-ions are known to be more biologically effective, but the long term hazard from accumulated damage has yet to be assessed. Some evidence of widely varying but dramatically increased effectiveness of very high-energy (approximately 70 GeV) hadron beams is reviewed. Finally, the importance of the neutron component in many situations around high-energy accelerators is pointed out

  12. Biological effects and hazards of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boas, J.F.; Solomon, S.B.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis form the main risk to health from exposure to low levels of radiation. This risk effects can be at least qualitatively understood by considering the effects of radiation on cell DNA. Whilst exposure to high levels of radiation results in a number of identifiable effects, exposure to low levels of radiation may result in effects which only manifest themselves after many years. Risk estimates for low levels of radiation have been derived on the basis of a number of assumptions. In the case of uranium mine workers a major hazard arises from the inhalation of radon daughters. Whilst the correlation between radon daughter exposure and lung cancer incidence is well established, the numerical value of the risk factor is the subject of controversy. ICRP 50 gives a value of 10 cases per 10 6 person-years at risk per WLM (range 5-15 x 10 -6 PYR -1 WLM -1 ). The effect of smoking on lung cancer incidence rates amongst miners is also controversial. Nevertheless, smoking by miners should be discouraged

  13. Radiation abuse and its effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halm, A.

    1976-01-01

    This paper delves into overuse practiced in diagnostic radiography. The conventional attitudes to low-dose irradiation are critically examined, as is the MPD related to individual radiosensitivity. Concern is expressed that a sizeable proportion of radiologists ignore important aspects of the Code of Practice and this attitude is readily emulated in the hospital setting. The author advocates education within the medical profession and the community on the risks involved in radiation abuse and the benefits derived from justified exposures to x rays. (author)

  14. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION. APPROXIMATELY 85 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1958 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, TEACHING MACHINES, RESPONSE MODE, SELF-INSTRUCTION, AND COMPUTER-ASSISTED…

  15. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ACHIEVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF ACHIEVEMENT. APPROXIMATELY 40 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1952 TO 1965. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE BEHAVIOR TESTS, ACHIEVEMENT BEHAVIOR, ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT, AND SOCIAL-CLASS BACKGROUND. A RELATED REPORT IS ED…

  16. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT. APPROXIMATELY 65 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1958 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE THE NATURE OF LANGUAGE, LINGUISTICS, LANGUAGE LEARNING, LANGUAGE SKILLS, LANGUAGE PATTERNS, AND…

  17. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON CREATIVITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF CREATIVITY. APPROXIMATELY 50 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1961 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE (1) IDENTIFICATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND MEASUREMENT OF CREATIVITY, (2) PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF CREATIVITY, (3)…

  18. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON VERBAL LEARNING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF VERBAL LEARNING. APPROXIMATELY 50 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1960 TO 1965. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE CONDITIONING, VERBAL BEHAVIOR, PROBLEM SOLVING, SEMANTIC SATIATION, STIMULUS DURATION, AND VERBAL…

  19. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIALS ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT. FORTY UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED FOR DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1960 TO 1966. BOOKS, JOURNALS, REPORT MATERIALS, AND SOME UNPUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS ARE LISTED IN SUCH AREAS AS COGNITIVE STUDIES, VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION, INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS, SCIENCE STUDIES, AND…

  20. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON TEACHING. SUPPLEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF TEACHING. APPROXIMATELY 100 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED FOR DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1960 TO 1966. BOOKS, JOURNALS, REPORT MATERIALS, AND SOME UNPUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS ARE LISTED IN SUCH AREAS OF EDUCATION AS HEURISTIC GAMES, TEACHER EVALUATION, CURRICULUMS, TEACHING TECHNIQUES, AND…

  1. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON MENTAL ABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF HUMAN INTELLECT. APPROXIMATELY 50 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1955 TO 1966. BOOKS, REPORTS, JOURNAL MATERIALS, AND SOME UNPUBLISHED TITLES ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE (1) INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT, (2) ABILITY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS, RACES,…

  2. Media Literacy Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Provides an up-to-date bibliography of resources available for teaching media literacy. Groups resources into the areas of media education methodology, mass media texts, general background, television, film, the news and medium of print, advertising, gender and the media, popular culture, popular music and rock video, periodicals, and…

  3. Bibliography 1971 to 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, H.

    1980-03-01

    The bibliography comprises a review of publications by the faculty staff for the period 1971 to 1978. The publications are classified into subject groups including original scientific studies, preprints and review articles, books, textbooks, research reports, patents, theses. (M.S.)

  4. Halley's Comet: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Ruth S., Comp.

    Included in this bibliography are over 3,200 references to publications on Halley's Comet, its history, orbital motion, and physical characteristics, meteor streams associated with it, preparations for space missions to study it in 1986, and popular reaction to its appearances. Also cited are a few papers that, although they devote little…

  5. Selected Resources and Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Directions for Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides an annotated bibliography of resources pertaining to international branch campuses (IBCs). This collection of references has been selected to represent the breadth of emerging scholarship on cross-border higher education and is intended to provide further resources on a range of concerns surrounding cross-border higher…

  6. Defense Mechanisms: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This bibliography includes studies of defense mechanisms, in general, and studies of multiple mechanisms. Defense mechanisms, briefly and simply defined, are the unconscious ego defendants against unpleasure, threat, or anxiety. Sigmund Freud deserves the clinical credit for studying many mechanisms and introducing them in professional literature.…

  7. PR Bibliography, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Ray E., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This annotated bibliography presents an overview of journal articles and books on public relations that can be helpful to teachers and students as well as to practitioners and managers. Categories for this 2000 edition correspond to knowledge needed by public relations undergraduate majors, as determined in a study conducted by the 1999 Commission…

  8. Teleconferencing; A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Dianne, Comp.

    A bibliography lists works on two-way electronic conferencing, as well as several general works on telecommunications. It is in three parts. The record identifications (RECID) index is a list of 168 references to books, parts of books, journal articles, conference papers, news items, and unpublished papers. The author index relists the entire…

  9. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work is to verify the existence of the adaptive response phenomenon induced by low doses of ionizing radiation in living cells.A wild-type yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) was chosen as the biological target.As a parameter to quantify the sensibility of the target to radiation, the Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 ) was observed. In our experimental condition a value of (60 ± 1) Gy was measured for LD50 with Dose Rate of (0.44 ± 0.03) Gy/min. The method employed to show up the adaptive response phenomenon consisted in exposing the sample to low ''conditioning'' doses, which would initiate these mechanisms. Later the samples with and without conditioning were exposed to higher ''challenging'' doses (such as LD50), and the surviving fractions were compared. In order to maximize the differences, the doses and the time between irradiations were varied. The best results were obtained with both a conditioning dose of (0.44 ± 0.03) Gy and a waiting time of 2 hs until the application of the challenging dose. Following this procedures the 80% of the conditioned samples has survived, after receiving the application of the LD50. The adaptive response phenomenon was also verified for a wide range of challenging doses

  10. Bibliography on irradiation of foods. No. 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delincee, H.; Ehlermann, D.; Gruenewald, T.; Muenzner, R.

    1985-09-01

    The latest edition of the bibliography series present here contains 330 quotations mainly from the past 2 years. Contents are structured as follows: basics of food irradiation, applications at low dose levels, applications at higher dose levels, effects on foods and components of foods, microbiology. Various indexes supplied. (RK) [de

  11. An Annotated Bibliography of Accelerated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, GNA

    2007-01-01

    A rich narrative-style bibliography of accelerated learning (reviewing six articles published between 1995-2003). Articles reviewed include: (1) Accelerative learning and the Emerging Science of Wholeness (D. D. Beale); (2) Effective Teaching in Accelerated Learning Programs (D. Boyd); (3) A Critical Theory Perspective on Accelerated Learning (S.…

  12. Radiation effects on ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwer, T.E.; Goldstein, M.; Pillay, K.K.S.

    1977-11-01

    An extensive literature review and data compilation has been completed on the radiation-damage of ion exchange resins. The primary goal of the study has been to review the available literature on ion exchange materials used in, as well as those with potential for use in, the nuclear fuel and waste reprocessing areas. The physical and chemical properties of ion exchangers are reviewed. Experimental parameters useful in characterizing the effects of radiation on synthetic ion exchange resins are identified or defined. In compiling the diverse types of data, an effort was made to present the experimental data or experimentally based parameters in a format that would be useful for inter-comparing radiation effects on resins. When subject to radiation there are various general trends or qualitative effects displayed by the different types of resins. These radiation-trends and effects have been formulated into qualitative statements. The present day level of understanding of the behavior of resins under ionizing radiation is too limited to justify quantitative predictive modeling. The limitations and deficiencies of the literature are discussed and the experimentation needed to achieve quantitative modeling are outlined. 14 figs., 108 references

  13. Radiation effects on ion exchange materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangwer, T.E.; Goldstein, M.; Pillay, K.K.S.

    1977-11-01

    An extensive literature review and data compilation has been completed on the radiation-damage of ion exchange resins. The primary goal of the study has been to review the available literature on ion exchange materials used in, as well as those with potential for use in, the nuclear fuel and waste reprocessing areas. The physical and chemical properties of ion exchangers are reviewed. Experimental parameters useful in characterizing the effects of radiation on synthetic ion exchange resins are identified or defined. In compiling the diverse types of data, an effort was made to present the experimental data or experimentally based parameters in a format that would be useful for inter-comparing radiation effects on resins. When subject to radiation there are various general trends or qualitative effects displayed by the different types of resins. These radiation-trends and effects have been formulated into qualitative statements. The present day level of understanding of the behavior of resins under ionizing radiation is too limited to justify quantitative predictive modeling. The limitations and deficiencies of the literature are discussed and the experimentation needed to achieve quantitative modeling are outlined. 14 figs., 108 references.

  14. Radiation effects on optical data transmission systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.

    1989-01-01

    The state of the art of optical transmitters, low loss fiber waveguides and receivers in both steady state and pulsed radiation environments is reviewed and summarized. Emphasis is placed on the effects of irradiation on the performance of light emitting and laser diodes, optical fiber waveguides and photodiodes. The influence of radiation-induced attenuation of optical fibers due to total dose, dose rate, time after irradiation, temperature, radiation history, photobleaching, OH and impurity content, dopant type and concentration is described. The performance of candidate components of the transmission system intended for deployment in the Superconducting Super Collider Detector and primary beam tunnel nuclear environment is discussed

  15. Radiation effects on the integrity of paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero D'Almeida, Maria Luiza; Medeiros Barbosa, Patricia de Souza; Boaratti, Marcelo Fernando Guerra; Borrely, Sueli Ivone

    2009-01-01

    Books and documents attacked by fungi and insects have already been treated by radiation for disinfestations purposes. However, there is still need to investigate the influence of radiation on the cellulose paper structure. The aim of this research was to study the effects of radiation on paper properties, especially those related to strength and appearance. Paper sheets for this study were prepared in the laboratory, using bleached eucalyptus pulp as raw material. No additives were used to concentrate the attention only on the effects of irradiation on the pure cellulose matrix. The samples were irradiated at IPEN's 60 Co Gammacell irradiator with six radiation doses, from 3 to 15 kGy at the dose rate 0.817 Gy/s. The properties of paper sheets were tested after irradiation and compared with unirradiated samples according to ISO methods. No significant changes were detected in paper samples irradiated up to 15 kGy.

  16. Effect of gamma radiation on Campylobacter jejuni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, J.D.; Maxcy, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation resistance of Campylobacter jejuni in broth, ground beef, and ground turkey meat was determined using dose levels from 0-200 Krad at -30 +/- 10 0 C, at 0-5 0 C, and at 30 +/- 10 0 C. Irradiation at -30 0 C increased radiation resistance of cultures in ground meats; broth cultures were not greatly influenced by temperature. The effect of culture age on radiation resistance was also evaluated using cells in various physiological phases. Age did not have a pronounced effect on radiation resistance. The largest D 10 value for C. jejuni was 32 Krad, which was less than D 10 values commonly reported for salmonellae. 20 references, 4 figures

  17. Radiation effects on DNA methylation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komura, J.; Kurishita, A.; Miyamura, Y.; Ono, T.; Tawa, R.; Sakurai, H.

    1992-01-01

    Effects of ionizing radiation on DNA methylation in liver, brain and spleen were examined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total methylated cytosine level in the genome was reduced within 8 hours after 3.8 Gy of irradiation in liver of adult mice. But no appreciable effect was observed in brain and spleen. When mice were irradiated at newborn, liver DNA revealed no change in methylated cytosine level. Even though slight effects of radiation were detected in he methylation of the c-myc and c-fos genes, they were only temporary and no long-term effects were observed. These data suggest that the effect of radiation on DNA methylation in vivo is not prevailing a DNA damage, but rather influenced much through biological parameters. (author)

  18. Evidence for beneficial low level radiation effects and radiation hormesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinendegen, L.E.

    2005-01-01

    Low doses in the mGy range cause a dual effect on cellular DNA. One effect concerns a relatively low probability of DNA damage per energy deposition event and it increases proportional with dose, with possible bystander effects operating. This damage at background radiation exposure is orders of magnitudes lower than that from endogenous sources, such as ROS. The other effect at comparable doses brings an easily obeservable adaptive protection against DNA damage from any, mainly endogenous sources, depending on cell type, species, and metabolism. Protective responses express adaptive responses to metabolic perturbations and also mimic oxygen stress responses. Adaptive protection operates in terms of DNA damage prevention and repair, and of immune stimulation. It develops with a delay of hours, may last for days to months, and increasingly disappears at doses beyond about 100 to 200 mGy. Radiation-induced apoptosis and terminal cell differentiation occurs also at higher doses and adds to protection by reducing genomic instability and the number of mutated cells in tissues. At low doses, damage reduction by adaptive protection against damage from endogenous sources predictably outweighs radiogenic damage induction. The analysis of the consequences of the particular low-dose scenario shows that the linear-no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis for cancer risk is scientifically unfounded and appears to be invalid in favor of a threshold or hormesis. This is consistent with data both from animal studies and human epidemiological observations on low-dose induced cancer. The LNT hypothesis should be abandoned and be replaced by a hypothesis that is scientifically justified. The appropriate model should include terms for both linear and non-linear response probabilities. Maintaining the LNT-hypothesis as basis for radiation protection causes unressonable fear and expenses. (author)

  19. The radiation effects on the living cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sage, E.; Dutrillaux, B.; Soussi, Th.; Boiteux, S.; Lopez, B.; Feunteun, J.

    1999-06-01

    This publication is a presentation of particular points discussed during the colloquium of the 15-18 june 1999, for which scientific researches are performed at the CEA/CNRS. They deal with the radiobiology, for the radiation effects on living matter; with the DNA, for the knowledge and repair mechanisms on cells submitted to ionizing radiations; with the exposition to UV in correlation with neoplasms; with the P53 gene which is a tumour suppressor. (A.L.B.)

  20. Biological effect of radiation on human

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Sil; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Su Jae [and others

    2000-04-01

    1. Adaptive response when 0.01 Gy was preirradiated before high challenging dose is induced in normal cell types such normal lymphocytes, primary keratinocytes, and L929 fibroblast cells but not in neoplastic cells such as L5178Y lymphoma cells, EL-4 lymphoma cells and 308 papilloma cells. 2. Heat shock protein (HSP) 25 and inducible HSP70 is responsible for the induction of adaptive response and radioresistance - cell cycle regulation, antiapoptotic molecule and PKC activation were involved. 3. Apoptosis was induced at most 5. hrs after irradiation in primary keratinocytes, in v-rasHa transformed keratinocytes, the maximum interval was 16 hrs, and in 308 papilloma cells, the maximum was 48 hrs. 4. PKC response by radiation is correlated with induction of apoptosis. 5. Rapid induction PKCdelta in primary keratinocytes and no response of PKC epsilon may involved in radiation induced apoptosis. 6. The rate of resorption was increased when radiation was given at 2.5 days after gestation. Early death including foetal death were highly expressed when radiation was given at 7.5 days after gestation. There are no difference in incidence of late death including embryonic death. 7. 2 Gy is the most effective dose in radiation induced teratogenesis in mouse model. 8. Growth retardation and small head was present when radiation was given at 5.5, 7.5, 11.5 and 15.5 days after gestation and small head showed high incidence at 11.5 days after gestation. 9. External malformation, internal malformation and skeletal malformation was induced when radiation was given at 7.5 days after gestation. 10. OGG1-mutated cells induced radiosensitive by G2/M cell cycle arrest. 11. Radiation induced G2/M phase cell cycle and correlated with radiosensitivity. 12. PKCalpha induced differentiation. 13. Radiation exposed cells showed carcinogenic effect. 14. Organ specific radiosensitivity was shown and protein expression was involved.

  1. Biological effect of radiation on human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yun Sil; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Su Jae

    2000-04-01

    1. Adaptive response when 0.01 Gy was preirradiated before high challenging dose is induced in normal cell types such normal lymphocytes, primary keratinocytes, and L929 fibroblast cells but not in neoplastic cells such as L5178Y lymphoma cells, EL-4 lymphoma cells and 308 papilloma cells. 2. Heat shock protein (HSP) 25 and inducible HSP70 is responsible for the induction of adaptive response and radioresistance - cell cycle regulation, antiapoptotic molecule and PKC activation were involved. 3. Apoptosis was induced at most 5. hrs after irradiation in primary keratinocytes, in v-rasHa transformed keratinocytes, the maximum interval was 16 hrs, and in 308 papilloma cells, the maximum was 48 hrs. 4. PKC response by radiation is correlated with induction of apoptosis. 5. Rapid induction PKCdelta in primary keratinocytes and no response of PKC epsilon may involved in radiation induced apoptosis. 6. The rate of resorption was increased when radiation was given at 2.5 days after gestation. Early death including foetal death were highly expressed when radiation was given at 7.5 days after gestation. There are no difference in incidence of late death including embryonic death. 7. 2 Gy is the most effective dose in radiation induced teratogenesis in mouse model. 8. Growth retardation and small head was present when radiation was given at 5.5, 7.5, 11.5 and 15.5 days after gestation and small head showed high incidence at 11.5 days after gestation. 9. External malformation, internal malformation and skeletal malformation was induced when radiation was given at 7.5 days after gestation. 10. OGG1-mutated cells induced radiosensitive by G2/M cell cycle arrest. 11. Radiation induced G2/M phase cell cycle and correlated with radiosensitivity. 12. PKCalpha induced differentiation. 13. Radiation exposed cells showed carcinogenic effect. 14. Organ specific radiosensitivity was shown and protein expression was involved

  2. Radiation effects in corundum monocrystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulayman, S.; Attiah, J.; Molhem, A. G.

    2007-01-01

    It is found by this work that the irradiation of corundum monocrystals by energetic particles creates stable lattice defects, as a result of the atomic displacements to the sublattice. We have identified the colour centers (F and F + ) and more complex ones line [Al i + F]. This finding is in an agreement with the experimental results, available in the literature. We have also investigated the mechanism of occurrence of, so called 'radiation memory' in corundum monocrystals. This phenomenon reflects the fact that, after irradiation and annealing at high temperature and irradiation again by the quanta of x-rays, the absorption line 302 nm (4.1 eV) in the spectrum of optical absorption is restored in the range 200-650 nm. A comparison of our results with the results of other researchers in carried out. (author)

  3. Additive effects of ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    A xenon-mercury high pressure lamp and a double monochromator were used to produce ultraviolet (uv) radiation at 295 nm. Pigmented rabbit eyes were irradiated and evaluated by slitlamp biomicroscopy. Corneal threshold (Hc) was 0.05 J.cm-2 and lens threshold (hL) was 0.75 J.cm-2. Other eyes were irradiated with 2 Hc and evaluated from 4 to 24 h at 4 h intervals. Corneal damage was only greater than that expected from a single Hc exposure if the separation between the two Hc exposures did not exceed 8 h. The most repeatable and reliable corneal response to these levels of uv was the development of corneal epithelial granules

  4. Size effect in radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation embrittlement of nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels is mostly measured using small standard specimens in dynamic bend tests. Their dimensions are much smaller than those of the reactor. The increase in the critical temperature (transition temperature from the brittle-to-ductile fracture) is normally measured using standard Charpy-V type specimens or small CT-type specimens. This increase is then used as the main parameter for the pressure vessel safety evaluation. The philosophy of experiments is discussed used for the nonirradiated and irradiated pressure vessel steels. A comparison of the increase in the transition temperature measured in different types of specimens using various testing methods (static and dynamic bend tests with notch or crack) is also made. The results of this comparison and another study showed a relatively good agreement. (author)

  5. Radiation Effects on Spacecraft Structural Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jy-An J.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Hunter, Hamilton T.; Singleterry, Robert C. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Research is being conducted to develop an integrated technology for the prediction of aging behavior for space structural materials during service. This research will utilize state-of-the-art radiation experimental apparatus and analysis, updated codes and databases, and integrated mechanical and radiation testing techniques to investigate the suitability of numerous current and potential spacecraft structural materials. Also included are the effects on structural materials in surface modules and planetary landing craft, with or without fission power supplies. Spacecraft structural materials would also be in hostile radiation environments on the surface of the moon and planets without appreciable atmospheres and moons around planets with large intense magnetic and radiation fields (such as the Jovian moons). The effects of extreme temperature cycles in such locations compounds the effects of radiation on structural materials. This paper describes the integrated methodology in detail and shows that it will provide a significant technological advance for designing advanced spacecraft. This methodology will also allow for the development of advanced spacecraft materials through the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of material degradation in the space radiation environment. Thus, this technology holds a promise for revolutionary advances in material damage prediction and protection of space structural components as, for example, in the development of guidelines for managing surveillance programs regarding the integrity of spacecraft components, and the safety of the aging spacecraft. (authors)

  6. Medical exposure and the effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Chio

    2011-01-01

    Radiation gives cracks to genes. The influence is divided into deterministic effect with a threshold value, and the stochastic effect (tumor and genetic effect) which increases according to the exposure amount. Although we are put to various non-artificial radiations, which we cannot be avoided, on the earth, the contamination by artificial radiation can be defended. Artificial radioactive exposure includes medical exposure and non-medical exposure for example by nuclear power plant. As to medical examinations using radiation, the inquiry about the radiation exposure is increasing after the occurrence of the first nuclear power plant disaster of Fukushima. While concern about non-medical radioactive exposure increases, the uneasiness to medical irradiation is also increasing. The dose limit by artificial radioactive exposure other than medical exposure is set up in order to prevent the influence on the health. While the dose limit of the public exposure is set to the lower value than the total dose of non-artificial exposure concerning of a safety margin for all people, the dose limit of medical exposure is not defined, since it is thought that medical irradiation has a benefit for those who receive irradiation. Making an effort to decrease the radiation dose in performing the best medical treatment is the responsibility with which we are burdened. (author)

  7. Radiation effects concerns at a spallation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    Materials used at spallation neutron sources are exposed to energetic particle and photon radiation. Mechanical and physical properties of these materials are altered; radiation damage on the atomic scale leads to radiation effects on the macroscopic scale. Most notable among mechanical-property radiation effects in metals and metal alloys are changes in tensile strength and ductility, changes in rupture strength, dimensional stability and volumetric swelling, and dimensional changes due to stress-induced creep. Physical properties such as electrical resistivity also are altered. The fission-reactor community has accumulated a good deal of data on material radiation effects. However, when the incident particle energy exceeds 50 MeV or so, a new form of radiation damage ensues; spallation reactions lead to more energetic atom recoils and the subsequent temporal and spatial distribution of point defects is much different from that due to a fission-reactor environment. In addition, spallation reactions cause atomic transmutations with these new atoms representing an impurity in the metal. The higher-energy case is of interest at spallation sources; limited detailed data exist for material performance in this environment. 35 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  8. Radiation effects in LDD MOS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, R.L.; Adams, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the response of lightly doped drain (LDD) n-channel transistors to ionizing radiation. Transistors were fabricated with conventional (non-LDD) and lightly doped drain (LDD) structures using both standard (non-hardened) and radiation hardened gate oxides. Characterization of the transistors began with a correlation of the total-dose effects due to 10 keV x-rays with Co-60 gamma rays. The authors find that for the gate oxides and transistor structures investigated in this work, 10 keV x-rays produce more fixed-charge guild-up in the gate oxide, and more interface charge than do Co-60 gamma rays. They determined that the radiation response of LDD transistors is similar to that of conventional (non-LDD) transistors. In addition, both standard and radiation-hardened transistors subjected to hot carrier stress before irradiation show a similar radiation response. After exposure to 1.0 x 10 6 rads(Si), non-hardened transistors show increased susceptibility to hot-carrier graduation, while the radiation-hardened transistors exhibit similar hot-carrier degradation to non-irradiated devices. The authors have demonstrated a fully-integrated radiation hardened process tht is solid to 1.0 x 10 6 rads(Si), and shows promise for achieving 1.0 x 10 7 rad(Si) total-dose capability

  9. Solar Radiation effect on the bituminous binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadeo Rico, A.; Torres Perez, A.

    2010-01-01

    Asphalt, used as binder in road construction, becomes more brittle and harder during working life on the surface of the road pavement, conducting toward their deterioration. This is caused by the oxidation of the molecular functional groups of the asphalt molecular structure. Moreover, it is observed that ultraviolet radiation increases the oxidation process. However, the effect of solar light on the asphalt degradation has been poorly researched. The aim of this work is to study asphalt ageing caused by effect of solar radiation, by using standard test. Four commercial asphalts from different companies were selected: two with penetration number 50/70, and the other two polymer modified asphalts. From each of the asphalts forty samples were taken off and placed in four different aging conditions of temperature and radiation for a period ranging from 40 to 500 days. Ring and Ball test, and Fraass breaking Point test, were used to analyse the changes of asphalt properties after exposition to solar radiation. The results of the four analyzed asphalts showed a distinct behaviour; not only in the test temperature increase but also in the rate. Another experiment was carried out. Samples from a hot mix asphalt batch were placed under solar radiation, and were compacted by the Marshall procedure after increasing periods of time. Density and resistance to plastic flow using Marshall Apparatus were measured. Results showed an increase in the stability of samples under radiation. Both experiments show that the solar radiation is enough to cause changes in the asphalt molecular structure due to oxidation. So that, the study of the effect of the solar radiation on the asphalt properties could be a good tool to asses the performances of asphalt pavement. (Author) 26 refs.

  10. Effects of radiation on aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Harbhajan; Lata, Poonam; Sharma, Ankush

    2012-01-01

    With the onset of nuclear age, nuclear fuel cycle products, nuclear medicine techniques, disposal of radio active wastes on land or in water, fall out of testing nuclear weapons has contributed large amount of radio nuclides to the water bodies. Radio nuclides can imbalance aquatic ecosystem resulting in danger to natural life. The biological effects of radiation on aquatic life are mortality, pathophysiological, reproductive, developmental and genetic changes. A broad review of the results obtained about the aquatic organisms related to different phyla indicates that the lower or less developed or more primitive organisms are more resistant than the higher or more advanced, developed and complex organisms to ionizing radiation. The algae, protozoa are more resistant than the insects, crustaceans, molluscs and fishes. The changes in sensitivity between different stages of development have also been noted. A review of the results of exposing salmonoid gametes, eggs, fingerlings and adults to X-rays supports the concepts that radio sensitivity decreases with age. This paper presents a selective review on effects of radiation and radio nuclides on the aquatic life. It include uses and sources of radiation, effective quantity of radiation, lethal and sub lethal effect, effects on survival, growth, reproduction, behaviour, metabolism, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. (author)

  11. Principles and techniques of radiation hardening. Volume 2. Transient radiation effects in electronics (TREE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudie, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    The three-volume book is intended to serve as a review of the effects of thermonuclear explosion induced radiation (x-rays, gamma rays, and beta particles) and the resulting electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Volume 2 deals with the following topics: radiation effects on quartz crystals, tantalum capacitors, bipolar semiconductor devices and integrated circuits, field effect transistors, and miscellaneous electronic devices; hardening electronic systems to photon and neutron radiation; nuclear radiation source and/or effects simulation techniques; and radiation dosimetry

  12. Fire in South African ecosystems: an annotated bibliography.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schrige, GU

    1978-10-01

    Full Text Available References to 258 publications are presented together with summaries, keyword listings and a keyword index. This bibliography forms part of the South African contribution to the SCOPE project "The ecological effects of fire", 1977-1980....

  13. Health effects of low level radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Sadao [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    In 1982, Prof. Thomas Don Luckey of Missouri Univ. asserted `Radiation Hormesis` on the Journal of Health Physics and he published two books. CRIEPI initiated the research program on Radiation Hormesis following his assertion to confirm `is it true or not?` After nearly ten year research activities on data surveys and animal tests with many Universities, we are realizing scientific truth of bio-positive effects by low level radiation exposures. The interesting bio-positive effects we found could be categorized in following five groups. 1) Rejuvenation of cells such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability, 2) Moderation of psychological stress through response of key enzymes, 3) Suppression and therapy of adult-diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, 4) Suppression of cancer through enhancement of immune systems such as lymphocytes, 5) Suppression of cancer and ratio-adaptive response by activation of DNA repair and apoptosis. In the responses of many specialists to our initiation of radiation hormesis research program following T.D. Luckey`s claim about low level radiation, I have to pick up for the first, the great success of Prof. Sakamoto. Prof. Sakamoto had been already applying whole body low dose irradiation for ten years before our radiation hormesis research started on the therapy to suppress the cancer reappearing after treatment. He reported about his successful trial to real patients and showed an enhancement of immune system. (author)

  14. Health effects of low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao

    1998-01-01

    In 1982, Prof. Thomas Don Luckey of Missouri Univ. asserted 'Radiation Hormesis' on the Journal of Health Physics and he published two books. CRIEPI initiated the research program on Radiation Hormesis following his assertion to confirm 'is it true or not?' After nearly ten year research activities on data surveys and animal tests with many Universities, we are realizing scientific truth of bio-positive effects by low level radiation exposures. The interesting bio-positive effects we found could be categorized in following five groups. 1) Rejuvenation of cells such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability, 2) Moderation of psychological stress through response of key enzymes, 3) Suppression and therapy of adult-diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, 4) Suppression of cancer through enhancement of immune systems such as lymphocytes, 5) Suppression of cancer and ratio-adaptive response by activation of DNA repair and apoptosis. In the responses of many specialists to our initiation of radiation hormesis research program following T.D. Luckey's claim about low level radiation, I have to pick up for the first, the great success of Prof. Sakamoto. Prof. Sakamoto had been already applying whole body low dose irradiation for ten years before our radiation hormesis research started on the therapy to suppress the cancer reappearing after treatment. He reported about his successful trial to real patients and showed an enhancement of immune system. (author)

  15. Radiation effects on bovine taste bud membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatzman, A.R.; Mossman, K.L.

    1982-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms of radiation-induced taste loss, the effects of radiation on preparations of enriched bovine taste bud membranes were studied. Taste buds containing circumvallate papilae, and surrounding control epithelial tissues devoid of taste buds, were obtained from steers and given radiation doses of 0-7000 cGy (rad). Tissue fractions were isolated into membrane-enriched and heterogeneous components using differential and sucrose gradient centrifugation of tissue homogenates. The yield of membranes, as measured by protein content in the buoyant membrane-enriched fractions, was reduced in quantity with increasing radiation dose. The relation between radiation dose and membrane quantity in membrane-enriched fractions could be fit by a simple exponential model with taste bud-derived membranes twice as radiosensitive as membranes from control epithelial tissue. Binding of sucrose, sodium, and acetate and fluoride stimulation of adenylate cyclase were nearly identical in both irradiated and nonirradiated intact membranes. Radiation had no effect on fractions of heterogeneous components. While it is not clear what changes are occurring in enriched taste cell membranes, damage to membranes may play an important role in the taste loss observed in patients following radiotherapy

  16. Effects of ionizing radiation on bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhadi, F [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre

    1976-10-01

    The differences of radiosensitivities among bacteria in addition to the dependence upon the species or strains also depends on the environmental condition during irradiation (temperature, medium, the presence of protective or sensitizing agents, the gas phase or atmosphere, and water activity, or degree of hydration) and on the effects of the environmental condition before and after irradiation treatment (temperature of incubation, age of culture and growth medium). In general, spores are more resistant to radiation than vegetatic bacteria, with the exception that a few cocci are the most radiation resistant bacteria (Micrococcus and Streptococcus). The application of ionizing radiation in the fields of microbiology supports the radiation sterilization of medical and pharmaceutical products. In addition, microbiological aspects of food preservation, especially radurization, radicidation, and immunization studies by using irradiated microorganisms, are also important.

  17. Electromagnetic and radiation environments: effects on pacemakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouton, J.; Trochet, R.; Vicrey, J.; Sauvage, M.; Chauvenet, B.; Ostrovski, A.; Leroy, E.; Haug, R.; Dodinot, B.; Joffre, F.

    1999-01-01

    Nowadays, medical care development allows many people to share the benefits of implanted pacemakers (PM). PM can be perturbed and even fall in complete breakdowns in an electromagnetic and radiation environment. A stimuli-dependent patient can thus be seriously in danger. This article presents the effect of ionizing radiation from either a cobalt-60 source or from a linear accelerator (Saturne 43) on 12 pacemakers. It seems that technological progress make electronic circuits more sensitive to the cumulated dose of radiation. This survey shows that pacemakers have great difficulties to sustain ionizing radiation doses that are commonly delivered to patients during therapies. Usually perturbed functioning appears suddenly and means a strong shift of stimuli that might lead to heart failure

  18. Effect of radiation processing on meat tenderisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Chawla, S. P.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-06-01

    The effect of radiation processing (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on the tenderness of three types of popularly consumed meat in India namely chicken, lamb and buffalo was investigated. In irradiated meat samples dose dependant reduction in water holding capacity, cooking yield and shear force was observed. Reduction in shear force upon radiation processing was more pronounced in buffalo meat. Protein and collagen solubility as well as TCA soluble protein content increased on irradiation. Radiation processing of meat samples resulted in some change in colour of meat. Results suggested that irradiation leads to dose dependant tenderization of meat. Radiation processing of meat at a dose of 2.5 kGy improved its texture and had acceptable odour.

  19. The toxic effects of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draghita Payet, A.C.

    2006-06-01

    The sources of radiations to which the human body is subjected are of natural or artificial origin and the irradiation of the human body can take place either by internal or external way. The ionizing radiations act at several levels of the human body, the main thing being the molecule of DNA. The ionizing radiations have no specificity, the effects on the human body can be: somatic, genetic or hereditary, teratogen. In the case of a human being irradiation, we proceed to the diagnosis and to the treatment of the irradiated person, however, to decrease the incidence of injuries we use the radiation protection. The treatment if necessary will be established according to the irradiation type. (N.C.)

  20. Effects of radiation on the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopewell, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of X-irradiation on pig skin are described, comparing and contrasting the effects seen in human and rodent skin. It is concluded that, anatomically, pig skin is the best animal model for human skin. The applications of the 'pig skin model' to investigations of the problems of radiation therapy and radiological protection of human skin are discussed. (U.K.)

  1. Radiation dose effects, hardening of electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont-Nivet, E.

    1991-01-01

    This course reviews the mechanism of interaction between ionizing radiation and a silicon oxide type dielectric, in particular the effect of electron-hole pairs creation in the material. Then effects of cumulated dose on electronic components and especially in MOS technology are examined. Finally methods hardening of these components are exposed. 93 refs

  2. Cardiovascular effects of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Jose A.G.; Leiva, Gustavo

    2001-01-01

    Therapeutic mediastinal irradiation can induce heart disease with variable degree of cardiac engagement. Heart disease manifestations depend on the grade of involvement of the different cardiac structures. During the first two years following irradiation, pericarditis with or without pericardial effusion is the most common manifestation of toxicity related to radiation therapy. Later on, after a latency period of five to ten years, a constrictive pericarditis may develop. Other type of late cardiac toxicities due to irradiation are restrictive cardiomyopathy, multiple valvular disease, coronary artery disease and different atrioventricular conduction disturbances. The therapeutic approach to this kind of heart disease has to be focused on its progressive course and in the possibility of a global involvement of all the cardiac structures. Pericardiectomy is strongly recommended for recurrent pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade. Cardiac surgery for myocardial revascularization or valvular disease can be performed with variable results; the presence of myocardial fibrosis can significantly affect perioperative management and long-term results. Cardiac transplantation is a promissory option for those patients with end-stage cardiac failure. Immunosuppressive regimens are not associated with recurrence of malignancy. (author) [es

  3. Technologically modified exposures to natural radiation. Annex C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Annex deals with some examples of technologically modified exposures to natural radiation. Radiation exposures due to coal-fired power plants, geothermal energy production, exploitation of phosphate rock, aircraft travel, and consumer products are discussed. The present state of knowledge does not allow an accurate estimate of the collective effective dose equivalent from technologically modified exposures to natural radiation to be made. This annex has an extensive bibliography with at least 200 references.

  4. Radiation effects, nuclear energy and comparative risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinath, D.V.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear energy had a promising start as an unlimited, inexpensive and environmentally benign source of energy for electricity generation. However, over the decades its growth was severely retarded due to concerns about its possible detrimental effects on the well-being of mankind and the environment. Since such concerns are essentially due to the gigantic magnitude of radioactivity and ionizing radiations associated with nuclear energy, this article starts with a comprehensive account of effects of the ionizing radiation on living systems. Quantitative description of types of radiation exposure and their varied effects is given. The origin, type and magnitude of mutagenic effects of radiation are described. The concept of radiation risk factors, basis for their evaluation and their currently accepted values are presented. With this background, origin and magnitude of radioactivity and associated ionizing radiations in nuclear reactors are presented and the elaborate measures to contain them are described. It is recognized that notwithstanding all the measures taken in the nuclear industry, certain amount of radiation exposure, however small, is inevitable and the values, based on the experience world over, are presented. Estimated health risk due to such exposures is evaluated. For a comparative analysis, risks in other options of electricity generation such as hydel and fossil-fuelled plants are described. It is seen that on an overall basis, the nuclear option is no more risky than the other commonly employed options, and is in fact, significantly less. Lastly, since every option of electricity generation entails some risk, the case of 'no addition of electricity, and its impact on the society are considered. Based on the analysis of extensive data provided by UNDP on the human development parameters for different countries in the world, it is shown that at least for developing countries, any option of addition of electricity would be far more desirable than the

  5. Ionizing radiation effect on human reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirous, J.

    1987-01-01

    A review is presented of the existing knowledge on the adverse effects of ionizing radiation on human reproduction. Some interesting findings have been obtained by interapolating the results of studies in mouse embryos to humans, important knowledge has been obtained in studies involving the population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The review summarizes the knowledge in the following conclusions: (1) prior to the blastocyst stage, the mammalian embryo is insensitive to teratogenic and growth retarding radiation effects but is highly sensitive to the lethal radiation effect; (2) in the early organogenesis, the embryo is very sensitive to growth retarding, teratogenic and lethal radiation effects. It can, however, partly offset growth retardation in the post-natal period; (3) in the early fetal development stage, the fetus shows reduced sensitivity to teratogenic damage of many organs; sensitivity of the central nervous system and growth retardation remain which can only be compensated post-natally with difficulties; (4) in the late stage of pregnancy the fetus is not significantly deformed as a result of irradiation but permanent cellular depletion can result in various organs and tissues post-natally if radiation doses are high. (L.O.). 22 refs

  6. Effects of UV radiation on freshwater metazooplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartarotti, B.

    1999-06-01

    There is evidence that fluxes of solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 290-320 nm) are increasing over wide parts of the earth's surface due to stratospheric ozone depletion. UV radiation (290-400 nm) can have damaging effects on biomolecules and cell components that are common to most living organisms. The aim of this thesis is to gain a more thorough understanding of the potential impacts of solar radiation on freshwater metazooplankton. To detect UV-vulnerability in zooplankton populations dominating the zooplankton community of two clear-water, high mountain lakes located one in the Austrian Alps and another in the Chilean Andes, the survival of two copepod species was studied. The organisms were exposed to a 10- to 100-fold increase in UV-B radiation compared to those levels found at their natural, maximum daytime distribution. Both species vertically migrate and are pigmented. UV-absorbing compounds with a maximum absorption at ∼334 nm were also detected. Cyclops abyssorum tatricus, a common cyclopoid copepod species of Alpine lakes, was highly resistant to UV-B radiation and no significant lethal effect was observed. The calanoid copepod Boeckella gracilipes, frequent in Andean lakes, had a mortality ∼5 times higher in the treatment receiving full sunlight than in the UV-B excluded treatment (3.2 %) only when exposed for 70 h. The resistance of B. gracilipes was higher than that reported in the literature for the same species suggesting the existence of intraspecific differences in UV sensitivity. Survival, fecundity and development of the zooplankton community of a clear-water, high elevation Andean lake (33 o S) were studied with mesocosms experiments after prolonged UV exposure (48 days). When exposed to full sunlight, the population of the cladoceran Chydorus sphaericus and the rotifer Lepadella ovalis were strongly inhibited by UV-B, whereas both species were resistant to UV-A radiation. Conversely, UV-B radiation had no effect on the survival of the

  7. Cytogenetic effects of low-dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metalli, P.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation on chromosomes have been known for several decades and dose-effect relationships are also fairly well established in the mid- and high-dose and dose-rate range for chromosomes of mammalian cells. In the range of low doses and dose rates of different types of radiation few data are available for direct analysis of the dose-effect relationships, and extrapolation from high to low doses is still the unavoidable approach in many cases of interest for risk assessment. A review is presented of the data actually available and of the attempts that have been made to obtain possible generalizations. Attention is focused on some specific chromosomal anomalies experimentally induced by radiation (such as reciprocal translocations and aneuploidies in germinal cells) and on their relevance for the human situation. (author)

  8. The late biological effects of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-06-15

    Full text: The principal objective of the symposium was to review the current status of understanding of the late biological effects of ionizing radiation from external and internal sources. A second objective was to critically evaluate information obtained from epidemiological studies of human population groups as well as from animal experimentation in order to provide a solid scientific basis upon which problems of current concern, such as radiation protection standards and risk-benefit analysis, could be deliberated. Eighty-one papers were presented in 10 sessions which covered epidemiological studies of late effects in human populations exposed to internal and/or external ionizing radiation; quantitative and qualitative data from animal experimentation of late effects; methodological problems and modern approaches; factors influencing susceptibility or expression of late radiation injury; comparative evaluation of late effects induced by radiation and other environmental pollutants, and problems of risk assessment. In addition, there were two evening sessions for free discussion of problems of interpreting animal data, and of the epidemiological studies of occupationally exposed populations. Reports on atomic bomb survivors showed that these epidemiological studies are providing dependable data, such as dose-related excess infant mortality. The reports also revealed the need for consensus in the method employed in the interpretation of data. That was also the case with studies on occupationally exposed populations at Hanford plant, where disparate results were presented on radiation-induced neoplasia among radiation workers. These data are, however, considered not so significant in relative terms when compared to risks involved in other industries. It was recommended that national registry systems for the dosimetry and medical records of radiation workers be established and co-ordinated internationally in order to facilitate reliable epidemiological

  9. Long-term effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.; Smith, T.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that sources of long-term damage from radiation are two-fold. People who have been exposed to doses of radiation from initial early fallout but have recovered from the acute effects may still suffer long-term damage from their exposure. Those who have not been exposed to early fallout may be exposed to delayed fallout, the hazards from which are almost exclusively from ingesting strontium, caesium and carbon isotopes present in food; the damage caused is relatively unimportant compared with that caused by the brief doses from initial radiation and early fallout. A brief discussion is presented of the distribution of delayed long-lived isotope fallout, and an outline is sketched of late biological effects, such as malignant disease, cataracts, retarded development, infertility and genetic effects. (U.K.)

  10. Radiation effects on Brassica seeds and seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoli, Naresh; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-07-01

    Space radiation consists of high energy charged particles and affects biological systems, but because of its stochastic, non-directional nature is difficult to replicate on Earth. Radiation damages biological systems acutely at high doses or cumulatively at low doses through progressive changes in DNA organization. These damages lead to death or cause of mutations. While radiation biology typically focuses on mammalian or human systems, little is known as to how radiation affects plants. In addition, energetic ion beams are widely used to generate new mutants in plants considering their high-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) as compared to gamma rays and X-rays. Understanding the effect of ionizing radiation on plant provides a basis for studying effects of radiation on biological systems and will help mitigate (space) radiation damage in plants. We exposed dry and imbibed Brassica rapa seeds and seedling roots to proton beams of varying qualities and compared the theoretical penetration range of different energy levels with observable growth response. We used 1, 2 and 3 MeV protons in air at the varying fluences to investigate the effect of direct irradiation on the seeds (1012 - 1015 ions/cm2) and seedlings (1013 ions/cm2). The range of protons in the tissue was calculated using Monte-Carlo based SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) software. The simulation and biological results indicate that ions did not penetrate the tissue of dry or hydrated seeds at all used ion energies. Therefore the entire energy was transferred to the treated tissue. Irradiated seeds were germinated vertically under dim light and roots growth was observed for two days after imbibition. The LD50 of the germination was about 2×1014 ions/cm2 and about 5×1014 ions/cm2 for imbibed and dry seeds, respectively. Since seedlings are most sensitive to gravity, the change in gravitropic behavior is a convenient means to assess radiation damage on physiological responses other than direct tissue

  11. Gas centrifuge bibliography 1970 - 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, G.E.; Edwards, K.J.

    1978-05-01

    A bibliography, with abstract, is presented of the gas centrifuge literature published during 1970 to 1974. It supplements PG Information Series 25 (CA) which covered the period 1895 to 1970. Following reference to bibliographies, books and pamphlets, and a few items omitted from the previous bibliography, main items are grouped under the headings Reports, Journal articles and Conference papers and are listed chronologically. There are indexes to subject, author, and document number, the latter including the issuing body. (UK)

  12. Congenital abnormalities (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1964-Nov 77

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, E.A.

    1977-11-01

    Radiation hazards, food additives, gene mutations, musculoskeletal diseases, neoplasms, leukemia, rubella and chromosomes as related to congenital abnormalities are topics covered by the citations of research reports in the bibliography

  13. Effects of radiation on DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, V.F.O.

    1978-01-01

    Irradiation has been shown to depress DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) synthesis resulting in deficient DNA synthesis. In one experiment, Hela S 3 cells completed the next division after a dose of 500 rads to 200 kw X-rays. Another experiment showed that the amount of DNA synthesized was dependent on the stage in the generation cycle at which the cells are irradiated (Giffites and Tolmach, 1975). DNA synthesis was measured by radioactive thymidine incorporation. The smallest deficiency (20-35%) after a dose of 500 rad X-ray was observed in Hela S 3 cells irradiated in early G 1 or early G 2 , while the greatest deficiency (55-70*) after 500 rad X-ray was found in cells irradiated at mitosis or at the Gsub(1)/S transition. Using velocity sedimentation in alkaline gradients of the DNA from hamster, Elkind, et al 1972, studied repair processes as a function of X-ray dose. DNA containing material released by alkaline lysis was found initially contained in a complex-containing lipid, the sedimentation of which was anomalous relative to denatured RNA from unirradated cells. Doses of X-rays small enough to be in the range that permits high survival (100-800 rads) speed the resolution of single-stranded DNA from this DNA complex, giving rise to a species having a number average molecular weight of 2 x 10 8 daltons. Larger doses greater than 1000 to 2000 rads resulted in a degradation of these DNA strands. Incubation after irradiation resulted in the rapid repair of damage, although the rate of repair of damage to the complex resulted in a reassociation of lipid and DNA. This evidence supports the possibility that a large DNA-membrane structure is a principal target of radiation

  14. Ultra violet radiation : effects on animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockdale, P.H.G.

    1993-01-01

    The paper deals with the evolutionary and historical events that have increased the susceptibility of certain genotypes of humanity and domestic animals to ultra violet radiation. Further it discusses the general effects of ultraviolet B (UVB) on vertebrates and then the clinical syndromes seen in such animals as a result of prolonged exposure to this form of radiation. Finally it gives anecdotal comments on evidence for changes in the immediately above types of disease and describes the need for a better recording system for these conditions so that these hypothetical changes could be effectively monitored. (author). 12 refs

  15. Genetic and chromosomal effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The genetic and chromosomal effects of ionizing radiations deal with those effects in the descendants of the individuals irradiated. The information base concerning genetic and chromosomal injury to humans from radiation is less adequate than is the information base for cancer and leukemia. As a result, it is not possible to make the kinds of quantitative estimates that have been made for carcinogenesis in previous chapters of this book. The chapter includes a detailed explanation of various types of genetic injuries such as chromosomal diseases, x-linked diseases, autosomal dominant diseases, recessive diseases, and irregularly inherited diseases. Quantitative estimates of mutation rates and incidences are given based on atomic bomb survivors data

  16. TWRS privatization bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. The organization of this bibliography is by subject area. Some of the documents overlap subject areas, and may be presented in more than one. Additionally, assignment of a document to one subject area does not necessarily preclude that document from containing information relevant to other subject areas not identified. The subject areas include, in order of presentation:. Waste Characterization; Pre-treatment; High-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Melter Test Program; Performance Assessment; and General Safety

  17. Additive effects in radiation grafting and curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viengkhou, V.; Ng, L.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Detailed studies on the accelerative effect of novel additives in radiation grafting and curing using acrylated monomer/oligomer systems have been performed in the presence of ionising radiation and UV as sources. Methyl methacrylate (MMA) is used as typical monomer for these grafting studies in the presence of the additives with model backbone polymers, cellulose and propropylene. Additives which have been found to accelerate these grafting processes are: mineral acid, occlusion compounds like urea, thermal initiators and photoinitiators as well as multifunctional monomers such as multifunctional acrylates. The results from irradiation with gamma rays have also been compared with irradiation from a 90W UV lamp. The role of the above additives in accelerating the analogous process of radiation curing has been investigated. Acrylated urethanes, epoxies and polyesters are used as oligomers together with acrylated monomers in this work with uv lamps of 300 watts/inch as radiation source. In the UV curing process bonding between film and substrate is usually due to physical forces. In the present work the presence of additives are shown to influence the occurrence of concurrent grafting during cure thus affecting the nature of the bonding of the cured film. The conditions under which concurrent grafting with UV can occur will be examined. A mechanism for accelerative effect of these additives in both grafting and curing processes has been proposed involving radiation effects and partitioning phenomena

  18. Radiation effects on custom MOS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, R.

    1999-05-01

    This Thesis consists of four chapters: The first is primarily for background information on the effects of radiation on MOS devices and the theory of wafer bonding; the second gives a full discussion of all practical work carried out for manufacture of Field Effect test Capacitors, the third discusses manufacture of vacuum insulator Field Effect Transistors (FET's) and the fourth discusses the testing of these devices. Using a thermally bonded field effect capacitor structure, a vacuum dielectric was studied for use in high radiation environments with a view to manufacturing a CMOS compatible, micro machined transistor. Results are given in the form of high frequency C-V curves before and after a 120 kGy(Si), 12 MRad(Si), dose from a Co 60 source showing a 1 Volt shift. The work is then extended to the design and manufacture of a micro machined, under-etch technique, Field Effect Transistor for use in high radiation areas. Results are shown for Threshold, Subthreshold and Transfer characteristics before and after irradiation up to a total dose of 100kGy or 10MRad. The conclusion from this work is that it should be possible to commercially manufacture practical vacuum dielectric field effect transistors which are radiation hard to at least 120 kGy(Si). (author)

  19. Nuclear energy. Selective bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    This bibliography gathers articles and books from the French National Library about civil nuclear energy, its related risks, and its perspectives of evolution: general overview (figures, legal framework, actors and markets, policies); what price for nuclear energy (environmental and health risks, financing, non-proliferation policy); future of nuclear energy in energy policies (nuclear energy versus other energies, nuclear phase-out); web sites selection

  20. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  1. Ceramics radiation effects issues for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkle, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    The key radiation effects issues associated with the successful operation of ceramic materials in components of the planned International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are discussed. Radiation-induced volume changes and degradation of the mechanical properties should not be a serious issue for the fluences planned for ITER. On the other hand, radiation-induced electrical degradation effects may severely limit the allowable exposure of ceramic insulators. Degradation of the loss tangent and thermal conductivity may also restrict the location of some components such as ICRH feedthrough insulators to positions far away from the first wall. In-situ measurements suggest that the degradation of physical properties in ceramics during irradiation is greater than that measured in postirradiation tests. Additional in-situ data during neutron irradiation are needed before engineering designs for ITER can be finalized

  2. Effects of radiation rays on construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkurt, I.; Kilicarslan, S.; Basyigit, C.; Kacar, A.

    2006-01-01

    Molecules that are bring into existence material determined as gas, liquid and stiff according to their internal structures and heat. Materials show various reaction to various effects that is result from all kind of materials have various internal structures. Radiation is covert materials' mechanical, physical and chemical properties. Nowadays in construction formation there isn't using only one material it is preferred that kind of materials composition because of there are run into some problems about choosing and decision sort of material. Material that using in construction is classified as metals, plastics and ceramics in three groups. About sixty percent of construction cost is being formed from construction materials. In this study effects of various radiations on construction materials are being investigated and the end of study it is being suggestion some useful construction materials according to usage land and radiation properties

  3. Radiation research contracts: Biological effects of small radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hug, O.

    1959-01-01

    According to its Statute the IAEA has to fulfil a dual function - to help individual countries in solving their specific problems and to undertake tasks in the common interest of all its Member States. With this latter aim in mind the Agency has placed a number of research contracts with national research institutes. The purpose and scope of two of them is described below by the scientists responsible for their execution. The Agency has contributed to this work by putting at the institutes' disposal scientists from its own staff apparatus and financial aid.IAEA placed a research contract concerning the effects of small radiation doses on cells, in particular on nervous cells, with the Pharmacological Institute of the University of Vienna. This Institute appeared well suited to deal with the problem owing to the type of its previous research work. The Director, Prof. Franz Bruecke, and his collaborator Dr. Otto Kraupp, have long been interested in the functioning of the nervous system and in the influence of different drugs upon it. It was particularly fortunate that the electrical properties and functions of cells had been measured by a method specially developed at this Institute. From the above mentioned observations one could expect that instantaneous reactions of cells to radiation would also lead to changes of the electrical status. Consequently, this method is now being applied to the research undertaken for IAEA. Different cells of plants and animals, ranging from algae to muscle fibres of mammals, were chosen as objects. So far changes of potentials-had been observed only during irradiation with very high doses. During these investigations another useful test for small radiation doses was developed, namely the measurement of the through-flow of an artificial blood solution through the blood vessels of an intestinal loop. It was observed that a few seconds after irradiation the flow rate diminishes, and returns to its normal level only when irradiation ends

  4. Radiation research contracts: Biological effects of small radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hug, O

    1959-01-15

    According to its Statute the IAEA has to fulfil a dual function - to help individual countries in solving their specific problems and to undertake tasks in the common interest of all its Member States. With this latter aim in mind the Agency has placed a number of research contracts with national research institutes. The purpose and scope of two of them is described below by the scientists responsible for their execution. The Agency has contributed to this work by putting at the institutes' disposal scientists from its own staff apparatus and financial aid.IAEA placed a research contract concerning the effects of small radiation doses on cells, in particular on nervous cells, with the Pharmacological Institute of the University of Vienna. This Institute appeared well suited to deal with the problem owing to the type of its previous research work. The Director, Prof. Franz Bruecke, and his collaborator Dr. Otto Kraupp, have long been interested in the functioning of the nervous system and in the influence of different drugs upon it. It was particularly fortunate that the electrical properties and functions of cells had been measured by a method specially developed at this Institute. From the above mentioned observations one could expect that instantaneous reactions of cells to radiation would also lead to changes of the electrical status. Consequently, this method is now being applied to the research undertaken for IAEA. Different cells of plants and animals, ranging from algae to muscle fibres of mammals, were chosen as objects. So far changes of potentials-had been observed only during irradiation with very high doses. During these investigations another useful test for small radiation doses was developed, namely the measurement of the through-flow of an artificial blood solution through the blood vessels of an intestinal loop. It was observed that a few seconds after irradiation the flow rate diminishes, and returns to its normal level only when irradiation ends

  5. Effects of gamma radiation in annatto seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Camilo F. de Oliveira; Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Filho, Jose C.; Neto, Miguel B.

    2015-01-01

    The annatto bixin has emerged as a major source of natural dyes used in the world notably by the substitution of synthetics harmful to human health and ecologic tendency in obtaining industrial products free of additives with applications in industries textiles; cosmetics; pharmaceutical and food mainly. The aim of this research was to obtain increased of germination rate and dormancy breaking on annatto seeds by gamma radiation. Annatto dry seeds were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from source of Cobalt-60, type Gammecell-220, at 0.456 kGy/hour dose rate. In order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination rate and dormancy breaking in the seeds. Five treatments with gamma radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 100; 125; 150 and 175 Gy. After irradiation the annatto seeds were planted as for usual seed production. According to the results obtained in this experiment we can conclude that the low doses of gamma radiation utilized on the annatto seeds did not presented significantly effect on the germination of plants. But the best dose to increase the germination of seeds was 150 Gy. (author)

  6. Effects of gamma radiation in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Jose Gilmar; Franco, Suely Salumita Haddad; Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula Bergamin; Franco, Caio Haddad

    2015-01-01

    The degree of radiosensitivity depends mostly on the species, the stage of the embryo at irradiation, the doses employed and the criteria used to measure the effect. One of the most common criteria to evaluate radiosensitivity in seeds is to measure the average plant production. Soya dry seeds were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from source of Cobalt-60, type Gammecell-220, at 0.245 kGy dose rate. In order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination, plant growth and production. Five treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 25; 50; 75 and 100 Gy. Seed germination and harvest of number of seeds and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Soya seeds and plants were handled as for usual seed production in Brazil. The low doses of gamma radiation in the seeds that stimulate the production were doses of 25, 50 and 75 Gy. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production. (author)

  7. Effects of gamma radiation in soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Jose Gilmar; Franco, Suely Salumita Haddad; Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula Bergamin, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Franco, Caio Haddad [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais (LNBio/CNPEM), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio Nacional de Biociencias; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia, E-mail: zegilmar60@gmail.com, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The degree of radiosensitivity depends mostly on the species, the stage of the embryo at irradiation, the doses employed and the criteria used to measure the effect. One of the most common criteria to evaluate radiosensitivity in seeds is to measure the average plant production. Soya dry seeds were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from source of Cobalt-60, type Gammecell-220, at 0.245 kGy dose rate. In order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination, plant growth and production. Five treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 25; 50; 75 and 100 Gy. Seed germination and harvest of number of seeds and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Soya seeds and plants were handled as for usual seed production in Brazil. The low doses of gamma radiation in the seeds that stimulate the production were doses of 25, 50 and 75 Gy. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production. (author)

  8. Effects of gamma radiation in annatto seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Camilo F. de Oliveira, E-mail: camilo.urucum@hotmail.com [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA/EMEPA), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C., E-mail: marcia.harder@fatec.sp.gov.br [Centro Paula Souza, Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Bicombustiveis (FATEC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Filho, Jose C.; Neto, Miguel B., E-mail: jorgecazefilho@yahoo.com.br [Empresa Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuaria da Paraiba (EMEPA), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The annatto bixin has emerged as a major source of natural dyes used in the world notably by the substitution of synthetics harmful to human health and ecologic tendency in obtaining industrial products free of additives with applications in industries textiles; cosmetics; pharmaceutical and food mainly. The aim of this research was to obtain increased of germination rate and dormancy breaking on annatto seeds by gamma radiation. Annatto dry seeds were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from source of Cobalt-60, type Gammecell-220, at 0.456 kGy/hour dose rate. In order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination rate and dormancy breaking in the seeds. Five treatments with gamma radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 100; 125; 150 and 175 Gy. After irradiation the annatto seeds were planted as for usual seed production. According to the results obtained in this experiment we can conclude that the low doses of gamma radiation utilized on the annatto seeds did not presented significantly effect on the germination of plants. But the best dose to increase the germination of seeds was 150 Gy. (author)

  9. Gamma and electron radiation effects on straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.; Baer, M.; Huebner, G.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma and electron radiation effects on wheat straw, oat straw, barley straw and rye straw are reported. In vitro and in vivo studies show that the digestibility of these agricultural rough materials can be increased up to 80% and more at high doses. The increase of the digestibility is connected with a depolymerisation of cellulose and hemicellulose. (author)

  10. The effects and control of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.A.H.

    1985-09-01

    Written for the layman, this booklet describes the effects of ionising radiation on people, and discusses the somatic hereditary risk estimates, and the measures taken to ensure the safe operation of the nuclear industry. New edition based on the sievert. (U.K.)

  11. Antiproton radiation found effective in cancer research

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "An international collaboration of scientists has completed the first ever antiproton beam experiments designed to reveal the biological effectiveness of antiproton radiation in terminating cells used for cancer research...PBar Labs assembled the collaboration at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research in Geneva) to perform the measurements" (1 page).

  12. Aerosol effects on UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koepke, P.; Reuder, J.; Schwander, H.

    2000-01-01

    The reduction of erythemally weighted UV-irradiance (given as UV index, UVI) due to aerosols is analyzed by variation of the tropospheric particles in a wide, but realistic range. Varied are amount and composition of the particles and relative humidity and thickness of the mixing layer. The reduction of UVI increases with aerosol optical depth and the UV change is around 10% for a change aerosol optical depth from 0.25 to 0.1 and 0.4 respectively. Since both aerosol absorption and scattering are of relevance, the aerosol effect depends besides total aerosol amount on relative amount of soot and on relative humidity

  13. DOE (Department of Energy) Epidemiologic Research Program: Selected bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Epidemiologic Research Program is to determine the human health effects resulting from the generation and use of energy, and from the operation of DOE facilities. The program has been divided into seven general areas of activity: the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) which supports studies of survivors of the atomic weapons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, mortality and morbidity studies of DOE workers, studies on internally deposited alpha emitters, medical/histologic studies, studies on the genetic aspects of radiation damage, community health surveillance studies, and the development of computational techniques and of databases to make the results as widely useful as possible. Excluding the extensive literature from the RERF, the program has produced 380 publications in scientific journals, contributing significantly to improving the understanding of the health effects of ionizing radiation exposure. In addition, a large number of public presentations were made and are documented elsewhere in published proceedings or in books. The purpose of this bibliograhpy is to present a guide to the research results obtained by scientists supported by the program. The bibliography, which includes doctoral theses, is classified by national laboratory and by year. Multi-authored studies are indicated only once, according to the main supporting laboratory.

  14. Loading Effect on Tire Noise Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Rui; Bolton, J Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Noise radiated by tires is a prominent noise pollution source and it is affected by many different parameters. Here, the effect of static load on tire noise radiation in a laboratory environment was investigated. The measurement was conducted by using the Tire Pavement Testing Apparatus (TPTA), on which a loaded tire can be run at speeds up to 50 km/hr; the tire noise was measured using a nearfield microphone method. The tire loading was varied from 500 to 900 pounds, and several different co...

  15. Effects of low doses of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Ionizing radiation of cosmic or terrestrial origin is part of the environment in which all living things have evolved since the creation of the universe. The artificial radioactivity generated by medical diagnostic and treatment techniques, some industrial activities, radioactive fallout, etc. has now been added to this natural radioactivity. This article reviews the biological effects of the low doses of ionizing radiation to which the population is thus exposed. Their carcinogenic risk cannot simply be extrapolated from what we know about high-dose exposure. (author)

  16. Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.T.; Fielden, J.M.; Knox, N.P.; Trotter, ES.

    1981-10-01

    This bibliography of 643 references represents the second in a series on nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions to be produced by the Radiation Effects Information Center (REIC) within the Information Center Complex, Information Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information pertaining to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are: Surplus Facilities Management Program; Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; and Uranium Mill Tailings Management. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate affiliation or by title. Indexes are provided for: (1) author; (2) corporate affiliation; (3) title; (4) publication description; (5) geographic location; and (6) keywords. The bibliography was compiled from a specialized data base established and maintained by REIC to provide information support for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program, under the cosponsorship of its four major components: Surplus Facilities Management Program; Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; and the Grand Junction Remedial Action Program

  17. Radiation effects on cultured human lymphoid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, L.; Nilsson, K.; Carlsson, J.; Larsson, B.; Jakobsson, P.

    1981-01-01

    The cloning efficiency of human normal and malignant lymphoid cells is usually low. Radiation effects in vitro on such cells can therefore not be analysed with conventional cloning. However, this problem can be circumscribed by using the growth extrapolation method. A panel of human leukemia-lymphoma cell-lines representing Epstein-Barr virus carrying lymphoblastoid cells of presumed non-neoplastic derivation and neoplastic T- and B-lymphocytes was used to test the efficiency of this method. The sensitivity to radiation could be determined for all these cell types. The growth extrapolation method gave generally the same result as conventional cloning demonstrated by comparison with one exceptional cell-line with capacity for cloning in agar. The sensitivity varied largely between the different cell types. A common feature was that none of the cell lines had a good capacity to accumulate sublethal radiation injury. (Auth.)

  18. Radiation effects in brain and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, H.D.; Lierse, W.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation sensitivity of both the brain and spinal cord in prenatal and postnatal stages, in infancy and adult age is represented also in consideration of a combined treatment with methotrexate. In adults, application of important doses of high-energy radiation increases the risk of injurious effects to the central nervous system. If the spinal cord is involved, more than 60% of the radiolesions have a progredient course ending with death. The pathogenesis and disposing factors are referred to, and the incidence of radiation necrosis with regard to age and sex, the degrees of injury and their frequence within different ranges of dosage are analyzed on the basis of data from universal literature. An examination of 'tolerance doses' for the spinal cord is made by means of Strandquist-diagrams and of the Ellis-formula. The slopes of regression lines are reported for various 'degrees of response' in skin, brain and spinal cord following radiation therapy. In the Strandquist-diagram, slopes of regression lines are dependent on the 'degree of response', flattening if skin and spinal cord are affected by radiation in the same degree, necroses having the same slope for both the organs. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Effect of domperidone on radiation sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakakibara, T; Sato, K [Nihon Univ., Tokyo. School of Medicine; Watari, T; Tanaka, T; Furuta, A

    1981-07-01

    Domperidone was administered to 95 patients with radiation sickness following radiotherapy for various cancers. The chest and the mediastinum were irradiated in 43 patients, the upper and lower abdomen in 40 patients, and the head, neck, and supraclavicular region in 12 patients. As to radiation source, x-ray was used for 46 patients, ..gamma..-ray for 41 patients, electron beam for 3 patients, and more than one radiation was used for 5 patients. The dose given before the onset of radiation sickness totaled 3000 rad in 20 patients, 1000 rad -- 3000 rad in 41, and less than 1000 rad in 34. Domperidone was given to the patients one tablet (5 mg or 10 mg) P.O., 3 times per day before meals, for 1 -- 2 weeks. The overall effective rate of the drug was 68.4%. The 10 mg tablets were slightly more effective than the 5 mg ones. In the patients who were given the drug in a dose of 10 mg, the ameliorating rate of subjective symptoms was 68.1% for nausea, 88.9% for vomiting, 44.6% for anorexia, 17.5% for general fatigue, and 69.2% for dizziness. Laboratory findings showed no abnormal effects of the drug. One patient had itching with eruptions, which, however, was mild and disappeared immediately after withdrawal of the medication.

  20. Biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinoehl-Kompa, Sabine; Baldauf, Daniela; Heller, Horst

    2009-01-01

    The report on the meeting of the Strahlenschutzkommission 2007 concerning biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure includes the following contributions: Adaptive response. The importance of DNA damage mechanisms for the biological efficiency of low-energy photons. Radiation effects in mammography: the relative biological radiation effects of low-energy photons. Radiation-induced cataracts. Carcinomas following prenatal radiation exposure. Intercellular apoptosis induction and low-dose irradiation: possible consequences for the oncogenesis control. Mechanistic models for the carcinogenesis with radiation-induced cell inactivation: application to all solid tumors in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Microarrays at low radiation doses. Mouse models for the analysis of biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation. The bystander effect: observations, mechanisms and implications. Lung carcinoma risk of Majak workers - modeling of carcinogenesis and the bystander effect. Microbeam studies in radiation biology - an overview. Carcinogenesis models with radiation-induced genomic instability. Application to two epidemiological cohorts.

  1. The Hospice: An Integrated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodine, George E.; Sobotor, William

    This extensive bibliography of books and articles provides an interdisciplinary overview of present day terminal care and the hospice alternative. Designed to aid in the development and implementation of terminal care programs stressing palliative and supportive services for both patients and their families, the bibliography includes abstracts of…

  2. Bibliography of Finnish forestry literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography consists primarily of material from Finnish publications. Although, relevant articles published outside Finland are also included in the bibliography. The references listed in the bibliography include articles on forestry sciences taken from 200 different Finnish journals as well as all the material in the journals published by the various departments of forestry of the University of Helsinki, the Society of Forestry in Finland and the Finnish Forest Research Institute. The bibliography is published four times per year, and is compiled annually in a single volume. The bibliography consists of about 2000 references per year. The material is categorized according to the FDC (Forest Decimal Classification, formerly Oxford Decimal Classification). The bibliography contains material of following subject categories: (0) Forests, forestry and the utilization of forest products (general). Dictionaries. Bibliographies. (1) Factors of the environment. Biology. (2) Silviculture. (3) Work science (Work studies). Harvesting of wood: Logging and transport. Forest engineering. (4) Forest injuries and protection. (5) Forest mensuration. Increment; development and structure of stands. Surveying and mapping. (6) Forest management. Business economics of forestry. Administration and organization of forest enterprises. (7) Marketing of forest products: Economics of forest transport and the wood industries. (8) forest products and their utilization. (9) Forests and forestry from the national point of view. Social economics of forestry. The bibliography includes author and subject indexes

  3. Bibliography of Finnish forestry literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography consists primarily of material from Finnish publications. Although, relevant articles published outside Finland are also included in the bibliography. The references listed in the bibliography include articles on forestry sciences taken from 200 different Finnish journals as well as all the material in the journals published by the various departments of forestry of the University of Helsinki, the Society of Forestry in Finland and the Finnish Forest Research Institute. The bibliography is published four times per year, and is compiled annually in a single volume. The bibliography consists of about 2000 references per year. The material is categorised according to the FDC (Forest Decimal Classification, formerly Oxford Decimal Classification). The bibliography contains material of following subject categories: (0) Forests, forestry and the utilisation of forest products (general). Dictionaries. Bibliographies. (1) Factors of the environment. Biology. (2) Silviculture. (3) Work science (Work studies). Harvesting of wood: Logging and transport. Forest engineering. (4) Forest injuries and protection. (5) Forest mensuration. Increment; development and structure of stands. Surveying and mapping. (6) Forest management. Business economics of forestry. Administration and organisation of forest enterprises. (7) Marketing of forest products: Economics of forest transport and the wood industries. (8) forest products and their utilisation. (9) Forests and forestry from the national point of view. Social economics of forestry. The bibliography includes author and subject indexes

  4. Diversified Cooperative Training. A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.

    This bibliography describes 52 materials available for use in cooperative education classes and career and guidance counseling. The materials include books, pamphlets, and brochures, films, curriculum guides, study guides, and workbooks. A few are suited for use with special needs students. Materials for inclusion in the bibliography were located…

  5. Bibliography for thermal neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Masanobu; Chihara, Junzo; Gotoh, Yorio; Kadotani, Hiroyuki; Sekiya, Tamotsu.

    1979-09-01

    Bibliographic references are given for measurements, calculations, reviews and basic studies of thermal neutron scattering and dynamical properties of condensed matter. This is the sixth edition covering 3,326 articles collected up to 1978. The edition being the final issue of the present bibliography series, a forthcoming edition will be published in a new form of bibliography. (author)

  6. Environmental Pollution, A Selective Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Springfield, VA.

    This bibliography on environmental pollution is comprised primarily of reports of federally sponsored research by such departments and agencies as HEW, Interior, AEC, NASA, Defense, Transportation, and others. The reports were selected from Clearinghouse announcement journals during the period 1968 through April 1970. The bibliography contains…

  7. Persuasion: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Steven T.

    Designed to reflect the diversity of approaches to persuasion, this annotated bibliography cites materials selected for their contribution to that diversity as well as for being relatively current and/or especially significant representatives of particular approaches. The bibliography starts with a list of 17 general textbooks on approaches to…

  8. Recent publications on environmental law. Bibliography covering the period July 1, 1991 till June 30, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.; Doerner, E.

    1992-01-01

    The bibliography contains 1685 references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig.) [de

  9. Radiation doses and possible radiation effects of low-level, chronic radiation in vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads, W.A.; Franks, L.A.

    1975-01-01

    Measurements were made of radiation doses in soil and vegetation in Pu-contaminated areas at the Nevada Test Site with the objective of investigating low-level, low-energy gamma radiation (with some beta radiation) effects at the cytological or morphological level in native shrubs. In this preliminary investigation, the exposure doses to shrubs at the approximate height of stem apical meristems were estimated from 35 to 140 R for a ten-year period. The gamma exposure dose estimated for the same period was 20.7 percent +- 6.4 percent of that recorded by the dosimeters used in several kinds of field instrument surveys. Hence, a survey instrument reading made at about 25 cm in the tops of shrubs should indicate about 1 / 5 the dosimeter-measured exposures. No cytology has yet been undertaken because of the drought since last winter. (auth)

  10. Radiation effects in mammalian cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.K.; Han, A.; Elkind, M.M.; Wells, R.L.; Buess, E.M.; Lin, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this research effort is to elucidate the mechanisms for the radiation-induced changes in mammalian cells that lead to cell death, mutation, neoplastic transformation, DNA damage, and chromosomal alterations. Of particular interest are the effects of low-dose-rate and fractionated irradiation on these end points with respect to the mechanisms whereby these effects are influenced by cellular repair processes, inhibitors, and promoters that act at the genetic or biochemical level. 17 refs

  11. Exploring gamma radiation effect on exoelectron emission properties of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, M.; Dekhtyar, Y.; Bogucharska, T.; Noskov, V. [Riga Technical Univ., Biomedical Engineering and Nanotechnology Institute (Latvia)

    2006-07-01

    Gamma radiation is used for radiation therapy to treat carcinogenic diseases including bone cancer. Ionising radiation kills carcinogenic calls. However, there are side effects of the gamma radiation on the bone surface electron structure. One of the effects is in the form of altering electron density of states of bone that, with time, influences biomedical reactions on bone life condition. (authors)

  12. Exploring gamma radiation effect on exoelectron emission properties of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, M.; Dekhtyar, Y.; Bogucharska, T.; Noskov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Gamma radiation is used for radiation therapy to treat carcinogenic diseases including bone cancer. Ionising radiation kills carcinogenic calls. However, there are side effects of the gamma radiation on the bone surface electron structure. One of the effects is in the form of altering electron density of states of bone that, with time, influences biomedical reactions on bone life condition. (authors)

  13. The Goettingen nuclear law catalogue 1976. Pt. B: bibliography - sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieger, G.; Bauer, G.; Bischof, W.; Pelzer, N.

    1976-01-01

    In volume 26, the bibliography covering domestic and foreign publications on atomic energy law is continued. 2,930 publications are cited on: bibliographies, collections of texts, treatises, handbooks, commentaries, reference, books and dictionaries, concept of atomic energy law, organization, radiation protection and reactor safety, liability and insurance, licence and control, nuclear fuels, other radioactive substances and wastes, nuclear installations, nuclear ships, transport, investions and information, economic law, criminal law, mining law, research, training, documentation, environmental protection, and other special subjects. (orig./LN) [de

  14. Radiation effect on PVC/ENR blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantara Thevy Ratnam; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan

    1997-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on the physical properties of Polyvinyl Chloride / Epoxidised Natural Rubber Blends (PVC/ENR blends) were investigated. The enhancement in tensile strength, elongation at break, hardness and aging properties of the blends have confirmed the positive effect of irradiation on the blends. It is evident from gel fraction and infra red spectroscopic studies that the blends of PVC and ENR cross-linked upon irradiation. The results also revealed that at any blend composition, the enhancement in properties depend on irradiation dose which controls the degree of radiation induced cross-linking. In an attempt to maximize the constructive effect of irradiation, the influence of various additives such as stabilizers, radiation sensitizers, fillers and processing aids on the blend properties were studied. The changes in blend properties upon irradiation with the presents of above additives were also presented in this paper

  15. Effects of Scattering of Radiation on Wormholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kirillov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress in the development of observational techniques gives us the hope to directly observe cosmological wormholes. We have collected basic effects produced by the scattering of radiation on wormholes, which can be used in observations. These are the additional topological damping of cosmic rays, the generation of a diffuse background around any discrete source, the generation of an interference picture, and distortion of the cosmic microwave background (CMB spectrum. It turns out that wormholes in the leading order mimic perfectly analogous effects of the scattering of radiation on the standard matter (dust, hot electron gas, etc.. However, in higher orders, a small difference appears, which allows for disentangling effects of wormholes and ordinary matter.

  16. Neurophysiological appropriateness of ionizing radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.; Loganovsky, K.N.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare bioelectrical activity of the brain in remote period of acute radiation sickness (ARS), chronic and prenatal irradiation as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. Registration of computerized 19-channel EEG, visual and somato-sensory evoked potentials have been carried out for 70 patients who had a verified ARS, 100 Chernobyl disaster survivors, who have been working in the Chernobyl exclusion zone since 1986-87 during 5 and more years, 50 prenatally irradiated children, and relevant controls. The relative risks of neurophysiological abnormalities are 4.5 for the ARS-patients, 3.6 for the chronically irradiated persons and 3.7 for the prenatally irradiated children. The data obtained testify to possibility of radiation-induced neurophysiological abnormalities in examined Chernobyl accident survivors which seems to be non-stochastic effects of ionizing radiation. For all examined irradiated patients it was typically an increasing of δ- and β- powers of EEG, particularly, in the frontal lobe shifted to the left fronto-temporal region, but spectral power of both θ- and α-range was significantly depressed. Aforesaid signs together with data of evoked potentials reflect the structural and functional abnormalities of limbic system and the left hemisphere as the first revealed neurophysiological appropriateness of ionizing radiation effects. (author)

  17. Neurophysiological appropriateness of ionizing radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyagu, A I; Loganovsky, K N [Department of Neurology, Inst. of Clinical Radiology, Scientific Centre for Radiation Medicine of Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1997-11-01

    The goal of this study was to compare bioelectrical activity of the brain in remote period of acute radiation sickness (ARS), chronic and prenatal irradiation as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. Registration of computerized 19-channel EEG, visual and somato-sensory evoked potentials have been carried out for 70 patients who had a verified ARS, 100 Chernobyl disaster survivors, who have been working in the Chernobyl exclusion zone since 1986-87 during 5 and more years, 50 prenatally irradiated children, and relevant controls. The relative risks of neurophysiological abnormalities are 4.5 for the ARS-patients, 3.6 for the chronically irradiated persons and 3.7 for the prenatally irradiated children. The data obtained testify to possibility of radiation-induced neurophysiological abnormalities in examined Chernobyl accident survivors which seems to be non-stochastic effects of ionizing radiation. For all examined irradiated patients it was typically an increasing of {delta}- and {beta}- powers of EEG, particularly, in the frontal lobe shifted to the left fronto-temporal region, but spectral power of both {theta}- and {alpha}-range was significantly depressed. Aforesaid signs together with data of evoked potentials reflect the structural and functional abnormalities of limbic system and the left hemisphere as the first revealed neurophysiological appropriateness of ionizing radiation effects. (author). 25 refs.

  18. Ultraviolet radiation and its biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rames, J.; Bencko, V.

    1993-01-01

    In connexion with contamination of the atmosphere with freons, the interest is increasing in geophysical and health aspects of 'ozone holes' - the seasonal incidence of increased intensity of UV radiation. Its biological effects depend on the intensity of the radiation, the exposure time and the wavelength. There is a wide range of various sorts of damage, local as well as general. In addition to skin pigmentation and symptoms produced by an elevated histamine blood level, also changes are found which may have more serious and permanent consequences: changes in the number and structure of Langerhans islets, changes of the peripheral capillary walls, dimerization of pyrimidine and thymine in DNA. These changes demonstrably contribute to the development of skin malignancies. After exposure of the eye, changes in pigmentation are found, and depending on the dose, possibly also development of conjunctivitis or retinal damage. Recently the interaction of UV radiation with arsenic was investigated. On the other side, therapeutic effects of UV radiation combined with chemotherapy are used in dermatology, eg., for inhibition of contact sensitization. (author) 42 refs

  19. Effect of ionizing radiation on cardiovascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milliat, F.; Benderitter, M.; Gaugler, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    Radiotherapy treatment for cancer of the chest, mediastinal area or the neck area is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. With the increasing number of cancer patients and the increased treatment efficiency, the number of cancer survivors is increasing exponentially. The cancer survivors live longer and their long-term follow-up must be considered. The cardiovascular toxicity is mainly associated with the treatment of breast cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma and head and neck cancer. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects are insidious and chronic. Their occurrence is linked to numerous factors including the age of the patient at the beginning of the radiotherapy schedule, the number of years following radiotherapy, the doses (and volume) to the heart and the large vessels (coronary and carotid arteries), and the association with the traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear and, even if similarities with age-related atherosclerosis were established, the specificities of the radiation-induced atherosclerosis for high doses remain to be discovered. For low/moderate doses of ionising radiation, recent epidemiological studies provide evidence of increased risk of cardiovascular pathologies. A better knowledge of the mechanisms associated with the radiation-induced cardiovascular pathologies and the more precise identification of the populations at risk in the future should allow a more effective care of these patients with cardiovascular risk. (authors)

  20. The effects of radiation on electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messenger, G.C.; Ash, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    This book is the first unified treatment of the analysis and design methods for protection of principally electronic systems from the deleterious effects of nuclear and electro-magnetic radiation. Coverage spans from a detailed description of the nuclear radiation sources to pertinent semiconductor physics, then to hardness assurance. This work combines the disciplines of solid state physics, semiconductor physics, circuit engineering, nuclear physics, together with electronics and electromagnetic theory into a book that can be used as a text with problems at the end of the majority of the chapters. Written by veterans in the field, the most significant feature of this book is its comprehensive treatment of the phenomena involved. This treatment includes the analysis and design of the effect of nuclear radiation on electronic systems from the experimental, theoretical, and engineering viewpoints. Unique pedagogical attempts are employed to make the material more understandable from the position of an enlightened engineering and scientific readership whose task is the design and analysis of radiation hardened electronic systems

  1. Radiation effects on two-dimensional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, R.C. II; Robinson, J.A. [Department of Materials Science, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Center for Two-Dimensional Layered Materials, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Shi, T. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Silva, E.C. [GlobalFoundries, Malta, NY (United States); Jovanovic, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The effects of electromagnetic and particle irradiation on two-dimensional materials (2DMs) are discussed in this review. Radiation creates defects that impact the structure and electronic performance of materials. Determining the impact of these defects is important for developing 2DM-based devices for use in high-radiation environments, such as space or nuclear reactors. As such, most experimental studies have been focused on determining total ionizing dose damage to 2DMs and devices. Total dose experiments using X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, protons, and heavy ions are summarized in this review. We briefly discuss the possibility of investigating single event effects in 2DMs based on initial ion beam irradiation experiments and the development of 2DM-based integrated circuits. Additionally, beneficial uses of irradiation such as ion implantation to dope materials or electron-beam and helium-beam etching to shape materials have begun to be used on 2DMs and are reviewed as well. For non-ionizing radiation, such as low-energy photons, we review the literature on 2DM-based photo-detection from terahertz to UV. The majority of photo-detecting devices operate in the visible and UV range, and for this reason they are the focus of this review. However, we review the progress in developing 2DMs for detecting infrared and terahertz radiation. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Microwave radiation - Biological effects and exposure standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, I.R.

    1980-06-01

    The thermal and nonthermal effects of exposure to microwave radiation are discussed and current standards for microwave exposure are examined in light of the proposed use of microwave power transmission from solar power satellites. Effects considered include cataractogenesis at levels above 100 mW/sq cm, and possible reversible disturbances such as headaches, sleeplessness, irritability, fatigue, memory loss, cardiovascular changes and circadian rhythm disturbances at levels less than 10 mW/sq cm. It is pointed out that while the United States and western Europe have adopted exposure standards of 10 mW/sq cm, those adopted in other countries are up to three orders of magnitude more restrictive, as they are based on different principles applied in determining safe limits. Various aspects of the biological effects of microwave transmissions from space are considered in the areas of the protection of personnel working in the vicinity of the rectenna, interactions of the transmitted radiation with cardiac pacemakers, and effects on birds. It is concluded that thresholds for biological effects from short-term microwave radiation are well above the maximal power density of 1 mW/sq cm projected at or beyond the area of exclusion of a rectenna.

  3. Literature survey: health effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.; Garder, K.

    This report was originally written as a chapter of a report entitled 'Air pollution effects of electric power generation, a literature survey', written jointly by the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) and the Institutt for Atomenergi (IFA). (INIS RN242406). A survey is presented of the health effects of radiation. It has not, however, been the intention of the authors to make a complete list of all the literature relevant to this subject. The NILU/IFA report was meant as a first step towards a method of comparing the health effects of electric power generation by fission, gas and oil. Consequently information relevant to quantification of the health effects on humans has been selected. It is pointed out that quantitative information on the health effects of low radiation and dose rates, as are relevant to routine releases, does not exist for humans. The convention of linear extrapolation from higher doses and dose rates is used worldwide, but it is felt by most that the estimates are conservative. As an example of the use of the current best estimates, a calculation of normal release radiation doses is performed. (Auth.)

  4. Radiation effects in semiconductor laser diode arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of radiation events are important for many of the present and future applications that involve optoelectronic components. Laser diodes show a strong resistance to degradation by gamma rays, prompt x-rays and (to a lesser extent), neutrons. This is due to the short carrier lifetime that is associated with stimulated emission and the high current injection conditions that are present in these devices. Radiation-resistant properties should carry over to many of the more recently developed devices such as multi-stripe array and broad area laser diodes. There are, however, additional considerations for radiation tolerance that are introduced by these devices. Arrays and other high power laser diodes have larger active region volumes than lower power single stripe devices. In addition, evanescent field coupling between stripes, the material quality available from newer MOCVD epitaxial growth techniques, and stripe definition methods may all influence the radiation tolerance of the high power laser diode devices. Radiation tests have been conducted on various GaAs-GaAlAs laser diode array and broad area devices. Tests involving total gamma dose have indicated that high power laser diodes and arrays have small degradations in light power output with current input after 4 MRad(Si) of radiation from a Co 60 source. Additional test results involving flash x-rays indicate that high power diode lasers and arrays are tolerant to 10 12 rads(Si)/sec, when observed on microsecond or millisecond time scales. High power diode laser devices were also irradiated with neutrons to a fluence of 10 14 neutrons/cm 2 with some degradation of threshold current level

  5. Laser Hazards Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-31

    light on mandibular fracture healing, Stomatologiia, 57(5): 5-9 (1978). 42 Laser Hazards Bibliography 177. Van Gemert, M.J.C., Schets, G.A.C.M., Bishop...U., Laser-coagulation of ruptured fixation suture after lens implantation, J Am Intraocul Implant Soc, 4(2): 54 (1978). 49. Federman, J. L., Ando, F...laser in pediatric surgery, J Ped Surg, 3: 263-270 (April 1968). 82. Hennessy, R. T., and Leibowitz, H., Subjective measurement of accommodation with

  6. Waste isolation: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1982-12-01

    This bibliography contains information on waste isolation included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from Janurary 1981 through November 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., Radioactive Waste Disposal/Salt Deposits. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  7. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, William J.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, as well as the influence of solid-state radiation effects on aqueous dissolution kinetics, which may impact the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. This work provides the underpinning science to develop improved glass and ceramic waste forms for the immobilization and disposition of high-level tank waste, excess plutonium, plutonium residues and scrap, other actinides, and other nuclear waste streams. Furthermore, this work is developing develop predictive models for the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. Thus, the research performed under this project has significant implications for the immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW) and Nuclear Materials, two mission areas within the Office of Environmental Management (EM). With regard to the HLW mission, this research will lead to improved understanding of radiation-induced degradation mechanisms and their effects on dissolution kinetics, as well as development of predictive models for waste form performance. In the Nuclear Materials mission, this research will lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation effects on the chemical and structural properties of materials for the stabilization and long-term storage of plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, and other actinides. The research uses plutonium incorporation, ion-beam irradiation, and electron-beam irradiation to simulate the effects of alpha decay and beta decay on relevant glasses and ceramics. The research under this project has the potential to result in improved glass and ceramic materials for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, other actinides, and other radioactive materials

  8. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, William J.; Wang, Lumin; Hess, Nancy J.; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, as well as the influence of solid-state radiation effects on aqueous dissolution kinetics, which may impact the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. This work provides the underpinning science to develop improved glass and ceramic waste forms for the immobilization and disposition of high-level tank waste, excess plutonium, plutonium residues and scrap, other actinides, and other nuclear waste streams. Furthermore, this work is developing develop predictive models for the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. Thus, the research performed under this project has significant implications for the immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW) and Nuclear Materials, two mission areas within the Office of Environmental Management (EM). With regard to the HLW mission, this research will lead to improved understanding of radiation-induced degradation mechanisms and their effects on dissolution kinetics, as well as development of predictive models for waste form performance. In the Nuclear Materials mission, this research will lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation effects on the chemical and structural properties of materials for the stabilization and long-term storage of plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, and other actinides. The research uses plutonium incorporation, ion-beam irradiation, and electron-beam irradiation to simulate the effects of alpha decay and beta decay on relevant glasses and ceramics. The research under this project has the potential to result in improved glass and ceramic materials for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, other actinides, and other radioactive materials

  9. Radiation effects in IRAS extrinsic infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnell, L.; Langford, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    During the calibration and testing of the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) focal plane, it was observed that the extrinsic photoconductor detectors were affected by gamma radiation at dose levels of the order of one rad. Since the flight environment will subject the focal plane to dose levels of this order from protons in single pass through the South Atlantic Anomaly, an extensive program of radiation tests was carried out to measure the radiation effects and to devise a method to counteract these effects. The effects observed after irradiation are increased responsivity, noise, and rate of spiking of the detectors after gamma-ray doses of less than 0.1 rad. The detectors can be returned almost to pre-irradiation performance by increasing the detector bias to breakdown and allowing a large current to flow for several minutes. No adverse effects on the detectors have been observed from this bias boost, and this technique will be used for IRAS with frequent calibration to ensure the accuracy of observations made with the instrument.

  10. Simulation of first-wall radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, C.M.; Anderson, J.D.; Hansen, L.F.

    1975-01-01

    Many of the effects induced in metals as a result of exposure to a radiation environment are intimately associated with the energy of primary recoil atoms (PKAs). Protons with an energy of 16 MeV closely reproduce the PKA energy spectrum which will be present at the first wall in a D--T fusion reactor and should therefore closely reproduce the radiation effects induced by PKAs in the first wall. A preliminary experiment with protons was conducted to measure the sputtering rate and to look for the phenomenon of chunk emission recently observed by Kaminsky and co-workers in samples exposed to 14-MeV neutrons. We are also able to observe the average projected transport range of activated PKAs. (U.S.)

  11. Thermal radiation effects on hydromagnetic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelkhalek, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Numerical results are presented for the effects of thermal radiation, buoyancy and heat generation or absorption on hydromagnetic flow over an accelerating permeable surface. These results are obtained by solving the coupled nonlinear partial differential equations describing the conservation of mass, momentum and energy by a perturbation technique. This qualitatively agrees with the expectations, since the magnetic field exerts a retarding force on the free convection flow. A parametric study is performed to illustrate the influence of the radiation parameter, magnetic parameter, Prandtl number, Grashof number and Schmidt number on the profiles of the velocity components and temperature. The effects of the different parameters on the velocity and temperature profiles as well as the skin friction and wall heat transfer are presented graphically. Favorable comparisons with previously published work confirm the correctness of numerical results

  12. Effect of laser radiation on rat radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laprun, I.B.

    1979-03-01

    Quite a few experimental data have been obtained to date indicating that radioresistance of the organism is enhanced under the influence of electromagnetic emissions in the radiofrequency and optical ranges. But no studies were made of the possible radioprotective properties of coherent laser radiation. At the same time, it was demonstrated that the low-energy emission of optical quantum generators (lasers) in the red band stimulates the protective forces of the organism and accelerates regenerative processes; i.e., it induces effects that are the opposite of that of ionizing radiation. Moreover, it was recently demonstrated that there is activation of catalase, a radiosensitive enzyme that plays an important role in the metabolism of peroxide compounds, under the influence of lasers. For this reason, the effect of pre-exposure to laser beams on radiosensitivity of rats was tested.

  13. Combined genetic effects of chemicals and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kada, T.; Inoue, T.; Yokoiyama, A.; Russel, L.B.

    1979-01-01

    Interactions of chemicals and radiation are complex and there may exist other unexpected patterns that are not mentioned. We show some examples. Photodynamic mutation induction by fluorescein dyes and Radiosensitization with iodine compounds are classified as Interactions of chemicals and radiation outside of the cell. On the other hand, the Antimutagenic effects of cobaltous chloride is concerned with events taking place in cells that had already been exposed to a mutagenic agent. It is likely that the action of a mutagenic agent is not direct and that cellular functions, such as mutators or repair systems, are involved in the mutagenesis initiated by the agent. Such cellular functions can be affected by a second agent. In sexually reproducing organisms, the two agents can also act on separate cells (male and female germcells) which subsequently fuse. Interaction effects of all types will be useful in future research in shedding light on the main pathways of mutagenesis

  14. Radiation Effects in the Space Telecommunications Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Winokur, Peter S.

    1999-01-01

    Trapped protons and electrons in the Earth's radiation belts and cosmic rays present significant challenges for electronics that must operate reliably in the natural space environment. Single event effects (SEE) can lead to sudden device or system failure, and total dose effects can reduce the lifetime of a telecommmiications system with significant space assets. One of the greatest sources of uncertainty in developing radiation requirements for a space system is accounting for the small but finite probability that the system will be exposed to a massive solar particle event. Once specifications are decided, standard laboratory tests are available to predict the total dose response of MOS and bipolar components in space, but SEE testing of components can be more challenging. Prospects are discussed for device modeling and for the use of standard commercial electronics in space

  15. Radiation Effects in the Space Telecommunications Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Winokur, Peter S.

    1999-05-17

    Trapped protons and electrons in the Earth's radiation belts and cosmic rays present significant challenges for electronics that must operate reliably in the natural space environment. Single event effects (SEE) can lead to sudden device or system failure, and total dose effects can reduce the lifetime of a telecommmiications system with significant space assets. One of the greatest sources of uncertainty in developing radiation requirements for a space system is accounting for the small but finite probability that the system will be exposed to a massive solar particle event. Once specifications are decided, standard laboratory tests are available to predict the total dose response of MOS and bipolar components in space, but SEE testing of components can be more challenging. Prospects are discussed for device modeling and for the use of standard commercial electronics in space.

  16. Radiation effects on algae and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, Rakesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The effects of radiation on algae have been summarized in this article. Today, algae are being considered to have the great potential to fulfill the demand of food, fodder, fuel and various pharmaceutical products. Red algae are particularly rich in the content of polysaccharides present in their cell wall. For isolation of these polysaccharides, separation of cells cemented together by middle lamella is essential. The gamma rays are known to bring about biochemical changes in the cell wall and cause the breakdown of the middle lamella. These rays ate also known to speed up the starch sugar inter-conversion in the cells which is very useful for the tapping the potential of algae to be used as biofuel as well as in pharmaceutical industries. Cyanobacteria, among algae and other plants are more resistant to the radiation. In some cyanobacteria the radiation treatment is known to enhance the resistance against the antibiotics. Radiation treatment is also known to enhance the diameter of cell and size of the nitrogen fixing heterocyst. (author)

  17. Effect of γ-radiation on the saccharification of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Rosa, A.M.; Banzon, R.B.; Abad, L.V.; Nuguid, Z.F.; Bulos, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on the acid and saccharification of agricultural cellulosic wastes was investigated. Radiation doses of 200 KGy and higher significantly increased the saccharification of rice straw, rice hull and corn husk. The observed radiation effects varied with the cellulosic material. Rice straw exhibited the greatest radiosensitivity while rice hull showed the least susceptibility to gamma radiation. Possible mechanisms for the radiation-induced degradation of cellulose and agricultural cellulosic wastes are discussed. (author)

  18. Advanced CMOS Radiation Effects Testing and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellish, J. A.; Marshall, P. W.; Rodbell, K. P.; Gordon, M. S.; LaBel, K. A.; Schwank, J. R.; Dodds, N. A.; Castaneda, C. M.; Berg, M. D.; Kim, H. S.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Presentation at the annual NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Electronic Technology Workshop (ETW). The material includes an update of progress in this NEPP task area over the past year, which includes testing, evaluation, and analysis of radiation effects data on the IBM 32 nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The testing was conducted using test vehicles supplied by directly by IBM.

  19. Transistor Small Signal Analysis under Radiation Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharshar, K.A.A.

    2004-01-01

    A Small signal transistor parameters dedicate the operation of bipolar transistor before and after exposed to gamma radiation (1 Mrad up to 5 Mrads) and electron beam(1 MeV, 25 mA) with the same doses as a radiation sources, the electrical parameters of the device are changed. The circuit Model has been discussed.Parameters, such as internal emitter resistance (re), internal base resistance, internal collector resistance (re), emitter base photocurrent (Ippe) and base collector photocurrent (Ippe). These parameters affect on the operation of the device in its applications, which work as an effective element, such as current gain (hFE≡β)degradation it's and effective parameter in the device operation. Also the leakage currents (IcBO) and (IEBO) are most important parameters, Which increased with radiation doses. Theoretical representation of the change in the equivalent circuit for NPN and PNP bipolar transistor were discussed, the input and output parameters of the two types were discussed due to the change in small signal input resistance of the two types. The emitter resistance(re) were changed by the effect of gamma and electron beam irradiation, which makes a change in the role of matching impedances between transistor stages. Also the transistor stability factors S(Ico), S(VBE) and S(β are detected to indicate the transistor operations after exposed to radiation fields. In low doses the gain stability is modified due to recombination of induced charge generated during device fabrication. Also the load resistance values are connected to compensate the effect

  20. Radiation protection standards: a summary of the biological effects of ionising radiation and principles of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This leaflet in the NRPB At-a-Glance-Series briefly summarises the biological effects of radiation, harm and sensitivity to radiation, radiation protection principles, acceptability of risk and the control of doses to workers, the public and in medical procedures in the UK. (UK)

  1. Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation KidsHealth / For Parents / Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation What's in this article? What to ...

  2. Gamma radiation effects on nestling Tree Swallows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, R.; Mayoh, K.R.

    1984-01-01

    The sensitivity of Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) to the stress of ionizing radiation was investigated with growth analysis. Freshly hatched nestlings were temporarily removed from nests, taken to the laboratory and acutely exposed to 0.9, 2.7, or 4.5 Gy gamma radiation. Some of the unirradiated control nestlings were also taken to the laboratory whereas others were left in the nests. Growth of all the nestlings was measured daily and analyzed by fitting growth models. There was no detectable radiation-induced mortality up to fledgling, approx. = 20 d after irradiation. Radiation exposure did not affect the basic growth pattern; the logistic growth model was most suitable for body mass and foot length, and the von Bertalanffy model for primary-feather length, irrespective of treatment. Parameter values from these models indicated pronounced growth depression in the 2.7-Gy and 4.5-Gy groups, particularly for body mass. Radiation also affected the timing of development. The growth depression of the 2.7-Gy group was similar to that caused by hatching asynchrony in unirradiated nestlings. The 4.5-Cy nestlings grew as well as unexposed nestlings that died from natural causes. Chronic irradiation at approx. = 1.0 Cy/d caused more severe growth effects than acute exposure to 4.5 Gy and may have caused permanent stunting. Growth analysis is a potent tool for assessing man-made environmental stresses. Observed body-mass statistics and model parameters seem to be most sensitive to environmental stresses, but coefficients of variation are not necessarily correlated with sensitivity. 34 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  3. UV radiation and its effects. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The National Science Strategy Committee for Climate Change was established in 1991 by the New Zealand Minister of Research, Science and Technology. It advises government through the Minister on research priorities and on levels of expenditure appropriate in various topics relating to climate change. An additional role is to promote coordination between research groups and the user communities to ensure an appropriate range of research strategies. To assist with implementing the latter aspects the NSS Committee will organise workshops on specific aspects of atmosphere and climate change, with a broad spectrum of participants. The first of these was the Workshop on UV Radiation and its Effects held in Christchurch on 20-21 May 1993. The workshop had 40 participants, including representatives from specialist science groups, medicine, veterinary science, farming, forestry and environmental groups. This publication will update the interested reader, whether scientist or lay-person, on the current state of knowledge on changing UV radiation levels and potential problems. As the summaries of papers show, research on ozone levels and on UV radiation and its effects is particularly appropriate for New Zealand scientists with their access to sites covering a wide range of latitudes from Antarctica to the Pacific Islands. New Zealand is part of an important international monitoring network, measuring local stratospheric ozone levels and related surface UV radiation levels. There are concerns about increasing UVB levels and the consequent effects on human health, plant and tree growth, and phytoplankton growth in the oceans. Priorities for further work on these areas are included in the summary of the workshop. (author). 13 figs.; 5 tabs

  4. Biologically based multistage modeling of radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Hazelton; Suresh Moolgavkar; E. Georg Luebeck

    2005-08-30

    This past year we have made substantial progress in modeling the contribution of homeostatic regulation to low-dose radiation effects and carcinogenesis. We have worked to refine and apply our multistage carcinogenesis models to explicitly incorporate cell cycle states, simple and complex damage, checkpoint delay, slow and fast repair, differentiation, and apoptosis to study the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation in mouse intestinal crypts, as well as in other tissues. We have one paper accepted for publication in ''Advances in Space Research'', and another manuscript in preparation describing this work. I also wrote a chapter describing our combined cell-cycle and multistage carcinogenesis model that will be published in a book on stochastic carcinogenesis models edited by Wei-Yuan Tan. In addition, we organized and held a workshop on ''Biologically Based Modeling of Human Health Effects of Low dose Ionizing Radiation'', July 28-29, 2005 at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington. We had over 20 participants, including Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff as keynote speaker, talks by most of the low-dose modelers in the DOE low-dose program, experimentalists including Les Redpath (and Mary Helen), Noelle Metting from DOE, and Tony Brooks. It appears that homeostatic regulation may be central to understanding low-dose radiation phenomena. The primary effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are cell killing, delayed cell cycling, and induction of mutations. However, homeostatic regulation causes cells that are killed or damaged by IR to eventually be replaced. Cells with an initiating mutation may have a replacement advantage, leading to clonal expansion of these initiated cells. Thus we have focused particularly on modeling effects that disturb homeostatic regulation as early steps in the carcinogenic process. There are two primary considerations that support our focus on homeostatic regulation. First, a number of

  5. TWRS privatization bibliography. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. This bibliography is not, nor is it intended to be, exhaustive or complete. It was prepared with the intent of providing a sampling of representative documents potentially helpful to Offerors. This bibliography is organized by subject area. The subjects covered are: waste characterization; pre-treatment; high-level waste immobilization; low-level waste immobilization; low-level waste melter test program; performance assessment; general; and safety.

  6. Effects of Ionizing Radiation in Atopic Patients Exposed to Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, N.K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease that arises most commonly during early infancy, and is characterized by severe pruritus, age-dependant skin manifestations, and a fluctuating clinical course. Hereditary, environmental and immunological factors are involved in the aetiopathogenesis of AD. Also the differentiation of helper T- cells, local cytokine profile, IgE, infectious agents and superantigens are factors identified as being involved in the pathogenesis of AD. One hundred patients with AD were selected from the outpatient clinic of the National Center for Radiation Research and Technology in Cairo, Egypt. They were divided into 2 groups; group 1 included radiation workers in the Hall of gamma irradiation unit and group 2 included workers outside controlled area and not exposed to radiation with comparable age and sex. The severity of the disease was evaluated according to the grade of atopic dermatitis. Total and specific serum IgE was measured and Complete Blood Count was also carried out. Four Malassezia species were isolated from AD patients M. globosa, M. furfur, M. sympodialis and M. obtusa. The clinical isolates consisted of two bacterial strains, S. aureus and S. epidermidis. The significant increase of AD severity seems to be more closely related to the prevalence of S. aureus and Malassezia on the skin of radiation workers. This was proved by the presence of high IgE and eosinophils in radiation workers. So, the interactions of low gamma radiation and skin seems to further complicate the risk of assessments of atopic dermatitis

  7. Analytic approximate radiation effects due to Bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Zvi I.

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this note is to provide analytic approximate expressions that can provide quick estimates of the various effects of the Bremsstrahlung radiation produced relatively low energy electrons, such as the dumping of the beam into the beam stop at the ERL or field emission in superconducting cavities. The purpose of this work is not to replace a dependable calculation or, better yet, a measurement under real conditions, but to provide a quick but approximate estimate for guidance purposes only. These effects include dose to personnel, ozone generation in the air volume exposed to the radiation, hydrogen generation in the beam dump water cooling system and radiation damage to near-by magnets. These expressions can be used for other purposes, but one should note that the electron beam energy range is limited. In these calculations the good range is from about 0.5 MeV to 10 MeV. To help in the application of this note, calculations are presented as a worked out example for the beam dump of the R&D Energy Recovery Linac.

  8. Combined genetic effects of chemicals and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kada, T.; Inoue, T.; Yokoiyama, A.; Russell, L.B.

    1979-01-01

    The interactions of chemicals and radiation are complex, and there may exist other unexpected patterns. The photodynamic induction of mutation by fluorescein dyes, and the radiosensitization with iodine compounds are classified as the interactions of chemicals and radiation outside cells. On the other hand, the antimutagenic effects of cobaltous chloride is concerned with the events taking place in the cells that had already been exposed to mutagenic agents. It is likely that the action of mutagenic agents is not direct, and that cellular functions, such as mutators or repair systems, are involved in the mutagenesis initiated by the agents. Such cellular functions can be affected by a second agent. In sexually reproducing organisms, two agents can also act on separate cells (male and female germ cells) which subsequently fuse. In mice, the experiments combining the radiation applied to one sex with the chemicals given to the other sex are only in early stages. Males were irradiated with X-ray (spermatozoa and spermatids sampled) and females (mature oocytes) were treated with caffeine. When the endpoint was dominant lethal, the level of X-ray effect induced in the male genome was independent of the caffeine treatment of the female. However, when the endpoint was sex-chromosome-loss, and a different strain of female was used, the caffeine potentiation was statistically significant at 5% level. (Yamashita, S.)

  9. Analytic approximate radiation effects due to Bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to provide analytic approximate expressions that can provide quick estimates of the various effects of the Bremsstrahlung radiation produced relatively low energy electrons, such as the dumping of the beam into the beam stop at the ERL or field emission in superconducting cavities. The purpose of this work is not to replace a dependable calculation or, better yet, a measurement under real conditions, but to provide a quick but approximate estimate for guidance purposes only. These effects include dose to personnel, ozone generation in the air volume exposed to the radiation, hydrogen generation in the beam dump water cooling system and radiation damage to near-by magnets. These expressions can be used for other purposes, but one should note that the electron beam energy range is limited. In these calculations the good range is from about 0.5 MeV to 10 MeV. To help in the application of this note, calculations are presented as a worked out example for the beam dump of the R and D Energy Recovery Linac.

  10. Annual report of Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation was established in April, 1975, as a private nonprofit Japanese Foundation supported equally by the Government of Japan through the Ministry of Health and Welfare, and the Government of the United States through the National Academy of Sciences under contract with the Energy Research and Development Administration. First, the messages from the chairman and the vice-chairman are described. In the annual report, the review of ABCC-RERF studies of atomic bomb survivors, the summary of research activities, the research projects, the technical report abstracts, the research papers published in Japanese and foreign journals, and the oral presentation and lectures, all from April 1, 1978, to March 31, 1979, are reported. Also the report from the Secretariat and the appendixes are given. The surveys and researches carried out in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have offered very valuable informations to the atomic bomb survivors. Many fears were eliminated, medical interests were given to the serious effects of the exposure to atomic bombs, and many things concerning the cancer induced by radiation were elucidated. The knowledges obtained will save many human lives in future by utilizing them for setting up the health and safety standard in the case of handling ionizing radiation. The progress in researches such as life span study, adult health study, pathology study, genetics program, special cancer program and so on is reported. (Kako, I.)

  11. Effective spectrum width of the synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, V. G., E-mail: bagrov@phys.tsu.ru [Department of Physics, Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Institute of High Current Electronics, SB RAS, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Gitman, D. M., E-mail: gitman@if.usp.br [Department of Physics, Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Levin, A. D., E-mail: alevin@if.usp.br [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Loginov, A. S.; Saprykin, A. D. [Department of Physics, Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-25

    For an exact quantitative description of spectral properties of synchrotron radiation (SR), the concept of effective width of the spectrum is introduced. In the most interesting case, which corresponds to the ultrarelativistic limit of SR, the effective width of the spectrum is calculated for the polarization components, and new physically important quantitative information on the structure of spectral distributions is obtained. For the first time, the spectral distribution for the circular polarization component of the SR for the upper half-space is obtained within classical theory.

  12. Effective spectrum width of the synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagrov, V. G.; Gitman, D. M.; Levin, A. D.; Loginov, A. S.; Saprykin, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    For an exact quantitative description of spectral properties of synchrotron radiation (SR), the concept of effective width of the spectrum is introduced. In the most interesting case, which corresponds to the ultrarelativistic limit of SR, the effective width of the spectrum is calculated for the polarization components, and new physically important quantitative information on the structure of spectral distributions is obtained. For the first time, the spectral distribution for the circular polarization component of the SR for the upper half-space is obtained within classical theory

  13. Effective spectrum width of the synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, V.G. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); SB RAS, Institute of High Current Electronics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Gitman, D.M. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Levin, A.D. [University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Loginov, A.S.; Saprykin, A.D. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    For an exact quantitative description of spectral properties of synchrotron radiation (SR), the concept of effective width of the spectrum is introduced. In the most interesting case, which corresponds to the ultrarelativistic limit of SR, the effective width of the spectrum is calculated for the polarization components, and new physically important quantitative information on the structure of spectral distributions is obtained. For the first time, the spectral distribution for the circular polarization component of the SR for the upper half-space is obtained within classical theory. (orig.)

  14. Effects of gluon radiation in hadronic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, Goesta.

    1989-10-01

    In this talk I discuss effects of gluon emission in soft collisions, the so-called 'soft radiation' in the Fritjof model. It is seen e.g. that the pT in the fragmentation regions, the seagull effect, increases with energy in fair agreement with experiments. I also discuss the content of strange and heavier quarks in high-pT gluon jets. Within the dipole scheme for QCD cascades on finds a larger production of heavier quarks than in previous approaches. Qualitative agreement with data is obtained for the K/π ratio and D meson production

  15. MOS modeling hierarchy including radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.R.; Turfler, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    A hierarchy of modeling procedures has been developed for MOS transistors, circuit blocks, and integrated circuits which include the effects of total dose radiation and photocurrent response. The models were developed for use with the SCEPTRE circuit analysis program, but the techniques are suitable for other modern computer aided analysis programs. The modeling hierarchy permits the designer or analyst to select the level of modeling complexity consistent with circuit size, parametric information, and accuracy requirements. Improvements have been made in the implementation of important second order effects in the transistor MOS model, in the definition of MOS building block models, and in the development of composite terminal models for MOS integrated circuits

  16. Radiation in the human environment: health effects, safety and acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.; Anderer, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports selectively on three other aspects of radiation (used throughout to mean ionizing radiation) in the human environment: the human health effects of radiation, radiation safety policy and practices, and the acceptability of scientifically justified practices involving radiation exposures. Our argument is that the science of radiation biology, the judgemental techniques of radiation safety, and the social domain of radiation acceptability express different types of expertise that should complement - and not conflict with or substitute for - one another. Unfortunately, communication problems have arisen among these three communities and even between the various disciplines represented within a community. These problems have contributed greatly to the misperceptions many people have about radiation and which are frustrating a constructive dialogue on how radiation can be harnessed to benefit mankind. Our analysis seeks to assist those looking for a strategic perspective from which to reflect on their interaction with practices involving radiation exposures. (author)

  17. Effects of UV radiation on genetic recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahovic, K.; Zahradka, D.; Petranovic, M.; Petranovic, D.

    1996-01-01

    We have used the model consisting of Escherichia coli cells and l phage to study the effects of UV radiation on genetic recombination. We found two radiation induced processes that reduce or inhibit genetic recombination. One such process leads to the inability of prophage to excise itself from the irradiated bacterial chromosome by the site-specific recombination. The other process was shown to inhibit a type of general recombination by which the prophage transfers one of its genetic markers to the infecting homologous phage. Loss of the prophage ability to take part in both site-specific and general recombination was shown to develop in recB + but not in recB cells. From this we infer that the loss of prophage recombinogenicity in irradiated cells is a consequence of one process in which RecBCD enzyme (the product of recB, recC and recD genes) plays an essential role. (author)

  18. Effects of gamma radiation on fish lipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofyan, R [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre

    1982-04-01

    Investigations on the changes of free fatty acid (FFA) value and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value of fish muscle lipids during chilled storage were carried out. Experimental results showed significant increases in FFA and TBA values during storage. The FFA and TBA values of unirradiated fish were also determined. It was observed that radiation treatments at doses of 2.5 and 5.0 kGy gave no significant effects on FFA values. On the other hand the TBA values of irradiated samples were significantly higher than those of unirradiated samples, indicating that oxidative changes have occured due to radiation. TLC investigations on muscle nonpolar-, phospho- and glycolipids of control and fish samples, irradiated at doses up to 10 kGy revealed that the lipid components or irradiated fish were identical with those of control.

  19. Radiation effects on structural ceramics in fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, G.R.; Price, R.J.; Trester, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    Ceramics are required to serve in a conventional role as electrical and thermal insulators and dielectrics in fusion power reactors. In addition, certain ceramic materials can play a unique structural role in fusion power reactors by virtue of their very low induced radioactivity from fusion neutron capture. The aspects of safety, long-term radioactive waste management, and personnel access for maintenance and repair can all be significantly improved by applying the low-activation ceramics to the structural materials of the first-wall and blanket regions of a fusion reactor. Achievement of long service life at high structural loads and thermal stresses on the materials exposed to high-radiation doses presents a critical challenge for fusion. In this paper, we discuss radiation effects on structural ceramics for fusion application

  20. Effect of radiation on hydrotalcites with chromates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez G, S.; Bulbulian, S.

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays the generation of radioactive wastes is matter of several studies. In this work anion material, chromates, in hydrotalcite are retained which are anion exchangers. It was proposed to heat the hydrotalcite until temperature of 1200 C with the purpose to form the (MgAl 2 O 4 ) spinel is very stable and in this way to immobilize strongly the anions. The effect of radiation on this compound and in particular the chromium lixiviation with solution 1N NaCl. It was found that in all case, the anions are strongly retained in the spinel formed. The radiation dose used for this was 100 Mrad, the samples were treated with NaCl 1N for studying the Cr lixiviation. The results show that for the calcined samples at 1200 C and irradiated there are not chromium escapes, which indicates that it is strongly retained in the spinel that is the formed structure after of the material calcination. (Author)

  1. Radiation effects on active pixel sensors (APS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.; David, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Active pixel sensor (APS) is a new generation of image sensors which presents several advantages relatively to charge coupled devices (CCDs) particularly for space applications (APS requires only 1 voltage to operate which reduces considerably current consumption). Irradiation was performed using 60 Co gamma radiation at room temperature and at a dose rate of 150 Gy(Si)/h. 2 types of APS have been tested: photodiode-APS and photoMOS-APS. The results show that photoMOS-APS is more sensitive to radiation effects than photodiode-APS. Important parameters of image sensors like dark currents increase sharply with dose levels. Nevertheless photodiode-APS sensitivity is one hundred time lower than photoMOS-APS sensitivity

  2. Reliability and radiation effects in compound semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, Allan

    2010-01-01

    This book discusses reliability and radiation effects in compound semiconductors, which have evolved rapidly during the last 15 years. Johnston's perspective in the book focuses on high-reliability applications in space, but his discussion of reliability is applicable to high reliability terrestrial applications as well. The book is important because there are new reliability mechanisms present in compound semiconductors that have produced a great deal of confusion. They are complex, and appear to be major stumbling blocks in the application of these types of devices. Many of the reliability problems that were prominent research topics five to ten years ago have been solved, and the reliability of many of these devices has been improved to the level where they can be used for ten years or more with low failure rates. There is also considerable confusion about the way that space radiation affects compound semiconductors. Some optoelectronic devices are so sensitive to damage in space that they are very difficu...

  3. A work bibliography on native food consumption, demography and lifestyle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, C.E.; Lee, W.J.

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a bibliography for the Native American tribe participants in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project to use. The HEDR Project's primary objective is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Eight Native American tribes are responsible for estimating daily and seasonal consumption of traditional foods, demography, and other lifestyle factors that could have affected the radiation dose received by tribal members. This report provides a bibliography of recorded accounts that tribal researchers may use to verify their estimates. The bibliographic citations include references to information on the specific tribes, Columbia River plateau ethnobotany, infant feeding practices and milk consumption, nutritional studies and radiation, tribal economic and demographic characteristics (1940--1970), research methods, primary sources from the National Archives, regional archives, libraries, and museums

  4. A work bibliography on native food consumption, demography and lifestyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, C.E.; Lee, W.J.

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a bibliography for the Native American tribe participants in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project to use. The HEDR Project's primary objective is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Eight Native American tribes are responsible for estimating daily and seasonal consumption of traditional foods, demography, and other lifestyle factors that could have affected the radiation dose received by tribal members. This report provides a bibliography of recorded accounts that tribal researchers may use to verify their estimates. The bibliographic citations include references to information on the specific tribes, Columbia River plateau ethnobotany, infant feeding practices and milk consumption, nutritional studies and radiation, tribal economic and demographic characteristics (1940--1970), research methods, primary sources from the National Archives, regional archives, libraries, and museums.

  5. Health effects of low-level radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1982-01-01

    Epidemiological surveys have attempted to assess the carcinogenic risk induced by exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation. Such studies are difficult to carry out because the incidence of radiation induced cancers is of only a few per cent, even following relativity large doses, and because there is no way to distinguish radiation induced cancer from the background of natural human cancers; moreover these surveys are exposed to many biases due to relatively small sizes of the populations studied and the difficulties of finding an appropriate control group, of estimating the absorbed doses and of collecting the data. A few national or international expert committees have analysed the available data and evaluated the carcinogenic effects. Their estimations of the risk, are similar and allow one to quantify the carcinogenic risk for doses above 100 rads. The risks of lower doses must be determined by extrapolation from human data at high doses. This extrapolation requires the knowledge of the dose-effect relationship. A linear extrapolation is most common and probably leads to a conservative estimate of the risk. A linear-quadratic function is probably more realistic and in better accordance with most scientific data. However the validity of its use for the estimation of carcinogenic risk is still debated. In experimental animals, the influence of dose-rate is important and some data suggest that this is the same for the carcinogenic effect in human beings. The genetic effects are probably less important than was feared a few years ago. The most important recent observation is the absence of any significant genetic effect in the progeny of the survivors of the A. bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This allows a conservative estimate of the maximum genetic risk for human beings [fr

  6. RADIATION EFFECTS IN NUCLEAR WASTE MATERIALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, William J.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this research was to develop fundamental understanding and predictive models of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics at the atomic, microscopic, and macroscopic levels, as well as an understanding of the effects of these radiation-induced solid-state changes on dissolution kinetics (i.e., radionuclide release). The research performed during the duration of this project has addressed many of the scientific issues identified in the reports of two DOE panels [1,2], particularly those related to radiation effects on the structure of glasses and ceramics. The research approach taken by this project integrated experimental studies and computer simulations to develop comprehensive fundamental understanding and capabilities for predictive modeling of radiation effects and dissolution kinetics in both glasses and ceramics designed for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste (HLW), plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, other actinides, and other highly radioactive waste streams. Such fundamental understanding is necessary in the development of predictive models because all experimental irradiation studies on nuclear waste materials are ''accelerated tests'' that add a great deal of uncertainty to predicted behavior because the damage rates are orders of magnitude higher than the actual damage rates expected in nuclear waste materials. Degradation and dissolution processes will change with damage rate and temperature. Only a fundamental understanding of the kinetics of all the physical and chemical processes induced or affected by radiation will lead to truly predictive models of long-term behavior and performance for nuclear waste materials. Predictive models of performance of nuclear waste materials must be scientifically based and address both radiation effects on structure (i.e., solid-state effects) and the effects of these solid-state structural changes on dissolution kinetics. The ultimate goal of this

  7. Effects of small doses of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, R.

    1998-01-01

    Uncertainty remains about the quantitative effects of doses of ionising radiation less than 0.2 Sv. Estimates of hereditary effects, based on the atomic bomb survivors, suggest that the mutation doubling dose is about 2 Sv for acute low LET radiation, but the confidence limits are wide. The idea that paternal gonadal irradiation might explain the Seascale cluster of childhood leukaemia has been disproved. Fetal irradiation may lead to a reduction in IQ and an increase in seizures in childhood proportional to dose. Estimates that doses to a whole population cause a risk of cancer proportional to dose, with 0.1 Sv given acutely causing a risk of 1%, will need to be modified as more information is obtained, but the idea that there is a threshold for risk above this level is not supported by observations on the irradiated fetus or the effect of fallout. The idea, based on ecological observations, that small doses protect against the development of cancer is refuted by the effect of radon in houses. New observations on the atomic bomb survivors have raised afresh the possibility that small doses may also have other somatic effects. (author)

  8. Basic radiation effects in nuclear power electronics technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gover, J.E.; Srour, J.R.

    1985-05-01

    An overview is presented of the effects of radiation in microelectronics technology. The approach taken throughout these notes is to review microscopic phenomena associated with radiation effects and to show how these lead to macroscopic effects in semiconductor devices and integrated circuits. Bipolar integrated circuits technology is reviewed in Appendix A. Appendix B gives present and future applications of radiation-tolerant microelectronics in nuclear power applications as well as the radiation tolerance requirements of these applications

  9. Ionising radiation effects on food packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragni, P.; Segre, A. L.; Capitani, D.; Danesi, P.R.

    2001-01-01

    The main aim of any food irradiation treatment is to guarantee the best safe quality of the products, reducing the spreading risk ( c ross-contamination ) for several food-associated diseases. Actually, over 40 countries provide clearances for the treatment of about 45 different types of foodstuffs. EU has to homogenise the situation within the associated States. With the European directive 1999/2/EC Italy, as other EU countries, already has brought into force their regulations to comply. The current Italian regulation on irradiation treatment of foodstuffs is referred since 1996 as follows: a) potatoes, onions and garlic; b) spices, herbs and condiments microbial. The new (April 2001) Italian law allows the possibility to ask for special permission of treatment for other foodstuff which is possible to treat in other E.U. countries. Large majority of foods are submitted to irradiation treatment after they have been packaged. In Dutch cases the study of radiation effects on the package becomes crucial, also because polymeric materials may be affected by ionizing radiation. We performed our studies on several materials employed in food packaging, with a particular care to the role of anti-oxidant additives present in food packaging materials. The attention is pointed on the possible chemical-physical effects induced by radiation on foodstuff packaging. After irradiation in plastic materials two main effects may occur: degradation and cross-linking. The result depending on the comparative rates of the two actions. This kind of information was successfully obtained using NMR methods on a large number of polymers effectively used for the food packaging procedures

  10. Radiation-electromagnetic effect in germanium monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikoin, I.K.; Kikoin, L.I.; Lazarev, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    Experimentally investigated is the radiation-electromagnetic effect (REM) in germanium monocrystals on excitation of excess current carriers by α particles, protons and X-rays in magnetic fields up to 8 kOe. A cyclotron was used as an α particle source, and a standard X-ray tube with a copper anode - as an X-ray source. The e.m.f. of the REM effect linearly increases with the increase of the magnetic field and is proportional to the charged particle flux at small flux values, saturation occurs at great flux values (approximately 5x10 11 part./cm 2 xs). In the 4-40 MeV energy range the e.m.f. of the REM effect practically does not depend on the α particle energy. On irradiation of the samples with a grinding front surface the REM e.m.f. changes its sign. The REM and Hall effect measurement on α particle irradiated samples has shown that during irradiation a p-n transition is formed in the samples, which must be taken into account while studying the REM effect. The e.m.f. measured for the even REM effect quadratically increases with the magnetic field increase. The barrier radiation-voltaic effect (the effect e.m.f. is measured between the irradiated and nonirradiated sample faces) is studied. Using special masks the samples with a set of consecutive p-n transitions are produced by irradiation of germanium crystals by α particles. Investigation of the photovoltaic and photoelectromagnetic effects on such samples has shown that using this method the efficiency of the REM devices can be increased

  11. Strategic Vision: A Selected Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moyer, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    Strategic Vision is an enduring theme at the U.S. Army War College. Compiled in support of this theme, this selected bibliography reflects books, documents, periodical articles, and a number of web sites...

  12. Strategic Vision. A Selected Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibish, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Strategic Vision is an enduring theme at the U.S. Army War College. Compiled in support of this theme, the following bibliography reflects books, documents, and periodical articles available in our Library...

  13. Strategic Vision: A Selected Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibish, Jane

    2001-01-01

    Strategic Vision is an enduring theme at the U.S. Army War College. Compiled in support of this theme, the following bibliography reflects books, documents, and periodical articles in the Army War College Library...

  14. Bibliography of Technical Reports - 1974,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bibliography lists all Technical Reports prepared by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in the year 1974. It includes an author index , and also a key relating Reports to ’Contribution Numbers’.

  15. EFFECTS OF INTERFACES ON GAMMA SHIELDING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, C. E.

    1963-06-15

    A survey is presented of studies of interface effects in gamma shielding problems. These studies are grouped into three types of approaches, viz.: sources at the interface; radiation backscattered from the interface; and radiation transmitted through the interface. A bibliography of 54 references is included. Limitations on the applicability of the results are discussed. (T.F.H.)

  16. The radiation effects on lipid bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikigai, Hajime; Matsuura, Tomio; Narita, Noboru; Ozawa, Atsushi.

    1980-01-01

    The Radiation effects on lipid bilayers are studied by the electron spin resonance. Egg lecithin liposomes and human erythrocytes are labeled with spin probes (5 SAL, 12 SAL). Effects of membrane fluidity by X-Ray (or ultraviolet) irradiation are measured by change of the order parameter S. The results obtained are as follows: 1) A similar tendency is observed on the order parameter S between X-Ray irradiated egg lecithin liposomes and human erythrocytes. 2) The rapid changes of the membrane fluidity are observed below 1 krad. The fluctuation of membrane fluidity decreases above 1 krad, consequently the membrane has a tendency changing to a rigid state at low dose area. 3) It is suggested that the more effective radicals are hydroxyl radicals and superoxide radicals. 4) The effects of ultraviolet irradiation with hydrogen peroxide show that hydroxyl radicals lead to changes of membrane fluidity. (author)

  17. Adventitious X-radiation from high voltage equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, E.B.M.

    1979-01-01

    The monograph is concerned with hazards of unwanted x-rays from sources such as television receivers, high voltage equipment, radar transmitters, switchgear and electron beam apparatus for welding, evaporation, analysis and microscopy. Chapters are included on units, production of x radiation, biological effects, protection standards, radiation monitoring, shielding and control of access, medical and dosimetric supervision and types of equipment. A bibliography of 92 references and other cited literature is included. (U.K.)

  18. Effect of infrared radiation on the lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly Eman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infrared (IR radiation is becoming more popular in industrial manufacturing processes and in many instruments used for diagnostic and therapeutic application to the human eye. Aim : The present study was designed to investigate the effect of IR radiation on rabbit′s crystalline lens and lens membrane. Materials and Methods: Fifteen New Zealand rabbits were used in the present work. The rabbits were classified into three groups; one of them served as control. The other two groups were exposed to IR radiation for 5 or 10 minutes. Animals from these two irradiated groups were subdivided into two subgroups; one of them was decapitated directly after IR exposure, while the other subgroup was decapitated 1 hour post exposure. IR was delivered from a General Electric Lamp model 250R 50/10, placed 20 cm from the rabbit and aimed at each eye. The activity of Na + -K + ATPase was measured in the lens membrane. Soluble lens proteins were extracted and the following measurements were carried out: estimation of total soluble protein, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. For comparison between multiple groups, analysis of variance was used with significance level set at P < 0.001. Results: The results indicated a change in the molecular weight of different lens crystalline accompanied with changes in protein backbone structure. These changes increased for the groups exposed to IR for 10 minutes. Moreover, the activity of Na + -K + ATPase significantly decreased for all groups. Conclusions: The protein of eye lens is very sensitive to IR radiation which is hazardous and may lead to cataract.

  19. Physiological and pathological effects of thermal radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hymes, I.

    1983-09-15

    This report deals with man's response to abnormally high levels of thermal radiation. The early sections deal with the properties and biological roles of the skin in some detail as a basis for the definitions and descriptions of pathological damage. The estimation of hazard ranges in thermal radiation exposures requires a moderately accurate knowledge of the intensity and duration of the emitted flux. The (BLEVE) Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion fireball conveniently meets this requirement as well as having the capability to inflict severe burn injuries over considerable distances. Liquid Petroleum Gas fireballs have been used as the source term for the thermal radiation calculations which predict threshold lethality and various categories of burn injury. Inevitably there are areas of uncertainty in such calculations, some contributory factors being atmospheric conditions, fuel container rupture pattern, type of clothing worn etc. The sensitivity of the predicted hazard ranges to these influential parameters is exemplified in several of the graphs presented. The susceptibility of everyday clothing to ignite or melt in thermal fluxes greater than about 70 kW/m/sup 2/ is shown to be a matter of some gravity since burning clothing can thwart escape and inflict serious, if not fatal, burns quite apart from injuries directly received from the incident radiation. The various means by which incident heat fluxes can be reduced or their effects mitigated are reviewed. Two major BLEVE case histories are discussed in some detail and the circumstances compared with those predicted by the theoretical calculations. 38 refs., 36 figs.

  20. Selected bibliography of agroforestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majisu, L.; Labelle, R.

    1982-01-01

    A successor to a preliminary bibliography by Teemba, L. and containing some of the same references. References (1953-1982) were selected from the 3000 reprints in the agroforestry collection in the ICRAF library, and from approximately 1500 monographs, reports etc. They are grouped in 7 main sections: Agroforestry general, including subsections on agroforestry in arid and semi-arid lands, in lowlands - humid tropics, and in highlands; Agroforestry land-use systems, including concepts from agriculture and forestry land-use systems, and agroforestry systems (cropping with trees, silvopastoral and agrosilvopastoral systems); Plants and plant management, including multipurpose trees and shrubs; Physical and ecological aspects, (desertification and deforestation, agricultural meteorology, soils and soil management); social and economic aspects, including rural development and human ecology; Training and education; and Information sources and management. A list of information centres relevant to agroforestry is given, and there are subject, species and geographical indexes. 437 references