WorldWideScience

Sample records for radiation desensitivity bracket

  1. Influence of bleaching and desensitizing gel on bond strength of orthodontic brackets

    Fernanda Alves Rodrigues Britto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess, in vitro, the influence of bleaching gel and the use of desensitizing agent over bond strength of ceramic brackets bonded to bovine enamel. METHODS: One hundred bovine incisors were selected and randomly divided into five groups (n = 20: Group 1, control group (without bleaching; Group 2, bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide; Group 3, bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide (three applications, 15 minutes each and desensitizing agent applied for 10 minutes; Group 4, bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide for 40 minutes; Group 5, bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide for 40 minutes with desensitizing agent applied for 10 minutes. Brackets were bonded 7 days after bleaching and submitted to shear bond strength test after 24 hours at a compression rate of 1 mm/minute. After fracture, the adhesive remnant index (ARI was assessed under stereoscopic at 40 x magnification. Shear strength data (MPa were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test with significance level set at 5%. RESULTS: Group 5 (29.33 MPa showed significantly higher bond strength than Group 1 (19.19 MPa, Group 2 (20.59 MPa and Group 4 (23.25 MPa, but with no difference in comparison to Group 3. There was no significant difference among the other groups. The adhesive remnant index showed predominance of score 3, that is, all resin remained adhered to enamel for all groups. CONCLUSION: Bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide with calcium associated with desensitizing agent application produced higher bond strength values of brackets bonded to bovine enamel.

  2. Bracket debonding by mid-infrared laser radiation

    Jelínková, H; Šulc, J; Koranda, P; Němec, M; Dostálová, T; Hofmanova, P

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the proper laser radiation for ceramic bracket debonding and the investigation of the tooth root temperature injury. The debonding was investigated by diode-pumped continuously running Tm:YAP and Nd:YAG lasers, and by GaAs laser diode generating radiation with the wavelengths 1.997 μm, 1.444 μm, and 0.808 μm, respectively. The possibility of brackets removal by laser radiation was investigated together with the tooth and, it specifically, root temperature rise. From the results it follows that continuously running diode pumped Tm:YAG or Nd:YAG laser generating wavelengths 1.997 μm or 1.444 μm, respectively, having the output power 1 W can be good candidates for ceramic brackets debonding

  3. Radiation-induced segregation in desensitized type 304 austenitic stainless steel

    Ahmedabadi, Parag; Kain, V.; Arora, K.; Samajdar, I.; Sharma, S.C.; Bhagwat, P.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of overall experimental and results, indicating attack, after the DL-EPR test, on grain boundaries, twin boundaries and pit-like features within grains at the depth of maximum attack. The sensitized specimen also showed severe attack on grain boundaries, however, attack on twin-boundaries and pit-like features were not noticed. Display Omitted Highlights: → Characterization of radiation-induced segregation done by EPR and AFM examination. → Cr depletion adjacent to carbides due to RIS in irradiated desensitized 304 SS. → Effectiveness as defect sink: twins > pit-like features > grain boundary. - Abstract: Radiation-induced segregation (RIS) in desensitized type 304 stainless steel (SS) was investigated using a combination of electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR) test and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Desensitized type 304 SS was irradiated to 0.43 dpa (displacement per atom) using 4.8 MeV protons at 300 deg. C. The maximum attack in the EPR test for the irradiated desensitized SS was measured at a depth of 70 μm from the surface. Grain boundaries and twin boundaries got attacked and pit-like features within the grains were observed after the EPR test at the depth of 70 μm. The depth of attack, as measured by AFM, was higher at grain boundaries and pit-like features as compared to twin boundaries. It has been shown that the chromium depletion due to RIS takes place at the carbide-matrix as well as at the carbide-carbide interfaces at grain boundaries. The width of attack at grain boundaries after the EPR test of the irradiated desensitized specimen appeared larger due to the dislodgement of carbides at grain boundaries.

  4. Radiation-induced segregation in desensitized type 304 austenitic stainless steel

    Ahmedabadi, Parag, E-mail: adit@barc.gov.in [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kain, V. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Arora, K. [PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh (India); Samajdar, I. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Sharma, S.C.; Bhagwat, P. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2011-09-30

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of overall experimental and results, indicating attack, after the DL-EPR test, on grain boundaries, twin boundaries and pit-like features within grains at the depth of maximum attack. The sensitized specimen also showed severe attack on grain boundaries, however, attack on twin-boundaries and pit-like features were not noticed. Display Omitted Highlights: > Characterization of radiation-induced segregation done by EPR and AFM examination. > Cr depletion adjacent to carbides due to RIS in irradiated desensitized 304 SS. > Effectiveness as defect sink: twins > pit-like features > grain boundary. - Abstract: Radiation-induced segregation (RIS) in desensitized type 304 stainless steel (SS) was investigated using a combination of electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR) test and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Desensitized type 304 SS was irradiated to 0.43 dpa (displacement per atom) using 4.8 MeV protons at 300 deg. C. The maximum attack in the EPR test for the irradiated desensitized SS was measured at a depth of 70 {mu}m from the surface. Grain boundaries and twin boundaries got attacked and pit-like features within the grains were observed after the EPR test at the depth of 70 {mu}m. The depth of attack, as measured by AFM, was higher at grain boundaries and pit-like features as compared to twin boundaries. It has been shown that the chromium depletion due to RIS takes place at the carbide-matrix as well as at the carbide-carbide interfaces at grain boundaries. The width of attack at grain boundaries after the EPR test of the irradiated desensitized specimen appeared larger due to the dislodgement of carbides at grain boundaries.

  5. Single interval longwave radiation scheme based on the net exchanged rate decomposition with bracketing

    Geleyn, J.- F.; Mašek, Jan; Brožková, Radmila; Kuma, P.; Degrauwe, D.; Hello, G.; Pristov, N.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 143, č. 704 (2017), s. 1313-1335 ISSN 0035-9009 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : numerical weather prediction * climate models * clouds * parameterization * atmospheres * formulation * absorption * scattering * accurate * database * longwave radiative transfer * broadband approach * idealized optical paths * net exchanged rate decomposition * bracketing * selective intermittency Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 3.444, year: 2016

  6. Aspirin Desensitization

    ... Nerve Decompression Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly Aspirin Desensitization Kevin C. Welch, MD Zara Patel, MD Introduction The term "aspirin-sensitive asthma" (also known as "aspirin triad" or " ...

  7. Lazy & quarrelsome brackets

    Visser, A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we study two (kinds of) systems of brackets in an algebraic way. Lazy brackets have the same effect as introducing or eliminating 'a sufficient amount' of ordinary brackets at the same time. Quarrelsome brackets are brackets corresponding to different types of 'levels': think

  8. Lazy & quarrelsome brackets

    Visser, A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we study two (kinds of) systems of brackets in an algebraic way. Lazy brackets have the same effect as introducing or eliminating 'a sufficient amount' of ordinary brackets at the same time. Quarrelsome brackets are brackets corresponding to different types of 'levels': think e.g. of term levels versus sentence levels. A modest framework is proposed to study these kinds of brackets simultaneously.

  9. Universal Cable Brackets

    Vanvalkenburgh, C.

    1985-01-01

    Concept allows routing easily changed. No custom hardware required in concept. Instead, standard brackets cut to length and installed at selected locations along cable route. If cable route is changed, brackets simply moved to new locations. Concept for "universal" cable brackets make it easy to route electrical cable around and through virtually any structure.

  10. Motivational Goal Bracketing

    Nafziger, Julia; Koch, Alexander

    It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because th...... of the tasks. Narrow goals have a stronger motivational force and thus can be optimal. In particular, if one task outcome becomes known before working on the second task, narrow bracketing is always optimal.......It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because...

  11. RF and dc desensitized electroexplosive device

    Krainiak, John W.; Speaks, Paul D.; Cornett, Michael S.

    1989-07-01

    This patent application relates to electroexplosive devices (EEDs) such as detonators, blasting caps and squibs, in particular to a method and device for desensitizing EEDs to electromagnetic radiation and electrostatic charges with the added ability to desensitize the device to essentially dc currents. An insensitive electroexplosive device to electrically ignite explosive is disclosed. This device is inherently immune to radio frequency (RF) radiation, and also provides protection against dc or very low frequency RF induced by arcing. A central feature is use of zeners and capacitors to form a reactively balanced bridge circuit. When constructed in semiconductor form, as described in this application, the device is capable of incorporation in small caliber ordnance.

  12. Active, Passive, and Vicarious Desensitization

    Denney, Douglas R.

    1974-01-01

    Two variations of desensitization therapy for reducing test anxiety were studied, active desensitization in which the client describes his visualizations of the scenes and vicarious desensitization in which the client merely observes the desensitization treatment of another test anxious client. The relaxation treatment which emphasized application…

  13. Generalized Moshinsky bracket recurrence relations

    Bevelacqua, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    Recurrence relations for generalized Talmi-Moshinsky brackets are derived. These relations permit the generation of transformation brackets once appropriate starting brackets are determined. The savings in computer time, when compared with generating brackets individually, is at least a factor of 10 for brackets with radial quantum numbers as large as 9 and angular quantum numbers as large as 2. (author)

  14. Desensitization with oxaliplatin in patients intolerant of carboplatin desensitization.

    Rose, Peter G; Metz, Carol; Link, Nicolas

    2014-11-01

    The tolerance and efficacy of oxaliplatin desensitization in patients who were intolerant of carboplatin desensitization were determined. We retrospectively reviewed the Gynecologic Oncology patients who received carboplatin or oxaliplatin from December 2007 until August 2014. The number of treatments and number of patients of carboplatin standard infusions, carboplatin desensitizations, and oxaliplatin desensitizations were determined. Carboplatin infusions (2294) were administered to 281 patients. Twenty-eight (10%) of these patients developed carboplatin hypersensitivity and were treated with 205 carboplatin desensitizations. Nine (29%) patients were subsequently treated with 61 oxaliplatin desensitizations due to intolerance of carboplatin desensitization. Nine of the 10 patients tolerated this infusion well. Four of 9 evaluable patients had an objective response, 2 complete and 2 partial. Oxaliplatin desensitization seems well tolerated and effective in most patients who are intolerant of carboplatin desensitization.

  15. Bracket for photovoltaic modules

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

    2014-06-24

    Brackets for photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. In one embodiment, a saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. The gusset can have a first leg and a second leg extending at an angle relative to the mounting surface. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets. The mounting feature can be coupled to the first gusset and configured to stand the one or more PV modules off the tube.

  16. Desensitization of animals to the inflammatory effects of ultraviolet radiation is mediated through mechanisms which are distinct from those responsible for endotoxin tolerance

    Gahring, L.C.; Daynes, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Desensitization to the inflammatory properties of either UVR or LPS appears to be controlled at the site of interaction between the tissues capable of producing epidermal-derived thymocyte-activating factor (ETAF)/IL 1 (epidermal keratinocytes or reticuloendothelial cells, respectively) and the exogenous inflammatory stimulus. Peritoneal macrophages obtained from LPS-desensitized mice were found to have a markedly reduced capacity to secrete ETAF/IL 1 in vitro when compared to peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) obtained from normal mice. In parallel with this decreased secretory potential by PEC was the appearance of membrane-associated IL 1 was not found to be present on PEC obtained from normal mice. Keratinocytes obtained from the skin of normal mice or keratinocytes isolated from the irradiated skin site of UVR-desensitized mice were both found to secrete high levels of ETAF/IL 1 constitutively in vitro. Furthermore, both sources of keratinocytes also expressed membrane-associated forms of ETAF/IL 1 constitutively. Therefore, unlike LPS desensitization, the phenomenon of UVR desensitization does not appear to induce changes in the ability of keratinocytes to secrete soluble forms or to express membrane forms of ETAF/IL 1. UVR desensitization may be a result of the inability of ETAF/IL 1 generated within the skin to reach the various IL 1 responsive target cells throughout the body, or may result from the impaired ability of UVR to stimulate ETAF/IL 1 production due to changes in the structure of the skin of chronically UVR-exposed animals

  17. Poisson brackets of orthogonal polynomials

    Cantero, María José; Simon, Barry

    2009-01-01

    For the standard symplectic forms on Jacobi and CMV matrices, we compute Poisson brackets of OPRL and OPUC, and relate these to other basic Poisson brackets and to Jacobians of basic changes of variable.

  18. Correlates of Narrow Bracketing

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    We examine whether different phenomena of narrow bracketing can be traced back to some common characteristic and whether and how different phenomena are related. We find that making dominated lottery choices or ignoring the endowment when making risky choices are related phenomena and are both as...

  19. A Simplified Lingual Bracket Positioner

    Sharath Kumar Shetty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The indirect bonding system for lingual brackets may be broadly classified as; techniques using setup models and those using diagnostic models. The techniques using setup models are more accurate and many of them require the use of lingual bracket positioners for determining the correct position of brackets. We have devised a simpler yet reliable and effective bracket positioner ′Lingual Bracket Positioner′ in our department. Although many variants are available commercially, this design is easy to fabricate, cheap and ready to use.

  20. [Friction: self-ligating brackets].

    Thermac, Guilhem; Morgon, Laurent; Godeneche, Julien

    2008-12-01

    The manufacturers of self-ligating brackets advertise a reduction of the friction engendered between the wire and the bracket, which is an essential parameter for treatment's speed and comfort. We have compared the friction obtained with four types of self-ligating brackets - In-Ovation R, Damon 3, Smart Clip and Quick - with that of a standard bracket Omniarch associated with an elastomeric ligature. All bracket were tested on a bench of traction with three types of wires: steel .019"x.025", TMA .019"x.025" and NEO sentalloy F300 .020"x.020". The results confirm a clear friction reduction for all tested wire.

  1. Bracketing effects on risk tolerance

    Ester Moher

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that risk tolerance increases when multiple decisions and associated outcomes are presented together in a broader ``bracket'' rather than one at a time. The present studies disentangle the influence of problem bracketing (presenting multiple investment options together from that of outcome bracketing (presenting the aggregated outcomes of multiple decisions, factors which have been deliberately confounded in previous research. In the standard version of the bracketing task, in which participants decide how much of an initial endowment to invest into each in a series of repeated, identical gambles, we find a problem bracketing effect but not an outcome bracketing effect. However, this pattern of results does not generalize to the cases of non-identical gambles nor discrete choice, where we fail to find the standard bracketing effect.

  2. Systematic Desensitization and the Reduction of Anxiety.

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Suinn, Richard M.

    1988-01-01

    Provides detailed information on systematic desensitization, describing in detail the procedures of imaginal desensitization. Briefly describes variants of group, in vivo, massed, and self-administered desensitization. Outlines guidelines for appropriate selection and use of desensitization and presents sampling of research findings with diversity…

  3. Effectiveness of oxaliplatin desensitization protocols.

    Cortijo-Cascajares, Susana; Nacle-López, Inmaculada; García-Escobar, Ignacio; Aguilella-Vizcaíno, María José; Herreros-de-Tejada, Alberto; Cortés-Funes Castro, Hernán; Calleja-Hernández, Miguel-Ángel

    2013-03-01

    Hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) to antineoplastic drugs can force doctors to stop treatment and seek other alternatives. These alternatives may be less effective, not as well tolerated and/or more expensive. Another option is to use desensitization protocols that induce a temporary state of tolerance by gradually administering small quantities of the antineoplastic drug until the therapeutic dosage is reached. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of oxaliplatin desensitization protocols. A retrospective observational study was carried out between January 2006 and May 2011. The inclusion criteria were patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment with oxaliplatin who had developed an HSR to the drug and who were candidates for continuing the treatment using a desensitization protocol. The patients' clinical records were reviewed and variables were gathered relating to the patient, the treatment, the HSR, and the desensitization protocol administered. The data were analysed using version 18.0 of the statistics program SPSS. A total of 53 desensitization protocols were administered to 21 patients. In 89 % of these cases, no new reactions occurred while the drug was being administered. New reactions of mild severity only occurred in 11 % of cases, and none of these reactions were severe enough for treatment to be stopped. All patients were able to complete the desensitization protocol. This study confirms that oxaliplatin desensitization protocols are safe and effective and allow patients to continue with the treatment that initially caused an HSR.

  4. Non-equal-time Poisson brackets

    Nikolic, H.

    1998-01-01

    The standard definition of the Poisson brackets is generalized to the non-equal-time Poisson brackets. Their relationship to the equal-time Poisson brackets, as well as to the equal- and non-equal-time commutators, is discussed.

  5. Effects of near infrared laser radiation associated with photoabsorbing cream in preventing white spot lesions around orthodontic brackets: an in vitro study.

    Lacerda, Ângela Sueli Soares Braga; Hanashiro, Fernando Seishim; de Sant'Anna, Giselle Rodrigues; Steagall Júnior, Washington; Barbosa, Patrícia Silva; de Souza-Zaroni, Wanessa Christine

    2014-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effect of a low-power infrared laser on the inhibition of bovine enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets. Near infrared lasers have been suggested as alternative approaches because they may produce an increase in resistance to dental caries. Forty-eight blocks of enamel obtained from bovine incisor teeth were divided into six groups: Group 1 (control), without treatment; Group 2 (C), photoabsorbing cream; Group 3 (CF), photoabsorbing cream with fluoride; Group 4 (L), irradiation with low-level infrared laser (λ=830 nm) at an energy density of 4.47 J/cm2; Group 5 (L+C), photoabsorbing cream followed by low-level infrared laser irradiation; and Group 6 (L+CF), photoabsorbing cream with fluoride followed by low-level infrared laser irradiation. After these procedures, the enamel blocks received an assortment of orthodontic brackets and were then submitted to pH cycling to simulate a highly cariogenic challenge. The enamel surface demineralization around the orthodontic brackets, according to the different treatments, was quantified by fluorescence loss analysis by quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). The fluorescence loss, expressed as ΔF (percentage of loss fluorescence), was statistically examined by analysis of variance and the Tukey test. The control group (-10.48±2.85) was statistically similar to Group C (-14.52±7.80), which presented the lowest values of ΔF when compared with Groups FC (-3.67±3.21), L (-2.79±1.68), CL (-1.05±0:50), and CFL (-0.60±0:43). However, Groups FC, L, CL, and CFL showed no statistically significant differences among them. It can be concluded that both the low-level infrared laser and photoabsorbing cream with fluoride were effective in inhibiting the development of caries in enamel around orthodontic brackets, even in situations of high cariogenic challenge.

  6. Relaxation and Distraction in Experimental Desensitization.

    Weir, R. O.; Marshall, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Compared experimental desensitization with a procedure that replaced relaxation with a distraction task and with an approach that combined both relaxation and distraction. Desensitization generally was more effective than the other two procedures. (Author)

  7. Relaxation as a Factor in Semantic Desensitization

    Bechtel, James E.; McNamara, J. Regis

    1975-01-01

    Relaxation and semantic desensitization were used to alleviate the fear of phobic females. Results showed that semantic desensitization, alone or in combination with relaxation, failed to modify the evaluative meanings evoked by the feared object. (SE)

  8. Formality in Brackets

    Garsten, Christina; Nyqvist, Anette

    Ethnographic work in formal organizations involves learning to recognize the many layers of front stage and back stage of organized life, and to bracket formality. It means to be alert to the fact that what is formal and front stage for one some actors, and in some situations, may in fact be back...... stage and informal for others. Walking the talk, donning the appropriate attire, wearing the proper suit, may be part of what is takes to figure out the code of formal organizational settings – an entrance ticket to the backstage, as it were. Oftentimes, it involves a degree of mimicry, of ‘following...... suits’ (Nyqvist 2013), and of doing ‘ethnography by failure’ (Garsten 2013). In this paper, we explore the layers of informality and formality in our fieldwork experiences among financial investors and policy experts, and discuss how to ethnographically represent embodied fieldwork practices. How do we...

  9. Evaluation of mechanical properties of esthetic brackets.

    Matsui, Shigeyuki; Umezaki, Eisaku; Komazawa, Daigo; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Suda, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    Plastic brackets, as well as ceramic brackets, are used in various cases since they have excellent esthetics. However, their mechanical properties remain uncertain. The purpose of this study was to determine how deformation and stress distribution in esthetic brackets differ among materials under the same wire load. Using the digital image correlation method, we discovered the following: (1) the strain of the wings of plastic brackets is within 0.2% and that of ceramic and metal brackets is negligible, (2) polycarbonate brackets having a stainless steel slot show significantly smaller displacement than other plastic brackets, and (3) there is a significant difference between plastic brackets and ceramic and stainless steel brackets in terms of the displacement of the bracket wing.

  10. Evaluation of mechanical properties of esthetic brackets

    Matsui, Shigeyuki; Umezaki, Eisaku; Komazawa, Daigo; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Suda, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    Plastic brackets, as well as ceramic brackets, are used in various cases since they have excellent esthetics. However, their mechanical properties remain uncertain. The purpose of this study was to determine how deformation and stress distribution in esthetic brackets differ among materials under the same wire load. Using the digital image correlation method, we discovered the following: (1) the strain of the wings of plastic brackets is within 0.2% and that of ceramic and metal brackets is n...

  11. Adhesives for orthodontic bracket bonding

    Déborah Daniella Diniz Fonseca

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The advent of acid etching, introduced by Buonocore in 1955, brought the possibility of bonding between the bracket base and enamel, contributing to more esthetic and conservative orthodontics. This direct bracket bonding technique has brought benefits such as reduced cost and time in performing the treatment, as well as making it easier to perform oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of published studies on orthodontic bracket bonding to dental enamel. It was verified that resin composites and glass ionomer are the most studied and researched materials for this purpose. Resin-modified glass ionomer, with its biocompatibility, capacity of releasing fluoride and no need for acid etching on the tooth structure, has become increasingly popular among dentists. However, due to the esthetic and mechanical properties of light polymerizable resin composite, it continues to be one of the adhesives of choice in the bracket bonding technique and its use is widely disseminated.

  12. Adenosine receptor desensitization and trafficking.

    Mundell, Stuart; Kelly, Eamonn

    2011-05-01

    As with the majority of G-protein-coupled receptors, all four of the adenosine receptor subtypes are known to undergo agonist-induced regulation in the form of desensitization and trafficking. These processes can limit the ability of adenosine receptors to couple to intracellular signalling pathways and thus reduce the ability of adenosine receptor agonists as well as endogenous adenosine to produce cellular responses. In addition, since adenosine receptors couple to multiple signalling pathways, these pathways may desensitize differentially, while the desensitization of one pathway could even trigger signalling via another. Thus, the overall picture of adenosine receptor regulation can be complex. For all adenosine receptor subtypes, there is evidence to implicate arrestins in agonist-induced desensitization and trafficking, but there is also evidence for other possible forms of regulation, including second messenger-dependent kinase regulation, heterologous effects involving G proteins, and the involvement of non-clathrin trafficking pathways such as caveolae. In this review, the evidence implicating these mechanisms is summarized for each adenosine receptor subtype, and we also discuss those issues of adenosine receptor regulation that remain to be resolved as well as likely directions for future research in this field. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Desensitization of Fire Bell Phobia

    O'Reilly, Patricia P.

    1971-01-01

    This case study presents an example of how one school psychologist helped a child and an entire class solve a problem. Although the techniques used are not unique to school psychological practice, the problems presented by their use are. The procedure consisted of a desensitization process lasting ten weeks. (Author)

  14. Desensitization of metastable intermolecular composites

    Busse, James R [South Fork, CO; Dye, Robert C [Los Alamos, NM; Foley, Timothy J [Los Alamos, NM; Higa, Kelvin T [Ridgecrest, CA; Jorgensen, Betty S [Jemez Springs, NM; Sanders, Victor E [White Rock, NM; Son, Steven F [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-04-26

    A method to substantially desensitize a metastable intermolecular composite material to electrostatic discharge and friction comprising mixing the composite material with an organic diluent and removing enough organic diluent from the mixture to form a mixture with a substantially putty-like consistency, as well as a concomitant method of recovering the metastable intermolecular composite material.

  15. Desensitization protocols and their outcome.

    Marfo, Kwaku; Lu, Amy; Ling, Min; Akalin, Enver

    2011-04-01

    In the last decade, transplantation across previously incompatible barriers has increasingly become popular because of organ donor shortage, availability of better methods of detecting and characterizing anti-HLA antibodies, ease of diagnosis, better understanding of antibody-mediated rejection, and the availability of effective regimens. This review summarizes all manuscripts published since the first publication in 2000 on desensitized patients and discusses clinical outcomes including acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection rate, the new agents available, kidney paired exchange programs, and the future directions in sensitized patients. There were 21 studies published between 2000 and 2010, involving 725 patients with donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSAs) who underwent kidney transplantation with different desensitization protocols. All studies were single center and retrospective. The patient and graft survival were 95% and 86%, respectively, at a 2-year median follow-up. Despite acceptable short-term patient and graft survivals, acute rejection rate was 36% and acute antibody-mediated rejection rate was 28%, which is significantly higher than in nonsensitized patients. Recent studies with longer follow-up of those patients raised concerns about long-term success of desensitization protocols. The studies utilizing protocol biopsies in desensitized patients also reported higher subclinical and chronic antibody-mediated rejection. An association between the strength of DSAs determined by median fluorescence intensity values of Luminex single-antigen beads and risk of rejection was observed. Two new agents, bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, and eculizumab, an anti-complement C5 antibody, were recently introduced to desensitization protocols. An alternative intervention is kidney paired exchange, which should be considered first for sensitized patients. © 2011 by the American Society of Nephrology

  16. A new 2 D bracket positioning gauge

    Bhuwan Saklecha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bracket positioning is the basic premise of pre-adjusted system, which allows the teeth to be placed with a straight wire into an occlusal contact with an excellent mesiodistal inclination (tip and excellent faciolingual inclination (torque. Improper bracket placement may lead to poorly placed teeth and necessitate bracket repositioning and archwire adjustments. This can lead to an increased treatment time or poor occlusion. Therefore, a bracket positioning gauge has been designed using both the planes and evaluated for its accuracy in bonding of brackets. It was found that the gauge not only helped in the placement of brackets accurately, but also reduced chairside time.

  17. Desensitization to rituximab in a multidisciplinary setting.

    Amorós-Reboredo, Patrícia; Sánchez-López, Jaime; Bastida-Fernández, Carla; do Pazo-Oubiña, Fernando; Borràs-Maixenchs, Núria; Giné, Eva; Valero, Antonio; Creus-Baró, Natàlia

    2015-10-01

    The need to offer first-line therapy to the increasing number of patients who have suffered an hypersensitivity reaction has stimulated the use of rapid desensitization protocols. To present our experience working as a multidisciplinary team using a rituximab rapid desensitization scheme. Patient demographics, allergic reaction, skin tests to rituximab, number of desensitizations, reactions during the desensitization protocol and actions taken, number of administered and completed cycles, were retrospectively collected in patients who received at least one desensitization to rituximab. Number of desensitizations successfully managed. Between 2012 and June 2013 five patients received a total of 19 desensitizations to rituximab using a 12 step rapid desensitization protocol. All patients received the scheduled chemotherapeutic cycles as inpatients, with no delay in administration dates. Three patients presented a hypersensitivity reaction during the first desensitization and in one patient the event occurred again during the second treatment cycle. All reactions occurred in the last step, when the infusion rate reached the maximum speed. The developed protocol for rapid desensitization was successful in five patients receiving rituximab. Patients could receive the full intended dose.

  18. Motivational Goal Bracketing: An Experiment

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    We study in an online, real-effort experiment how the bracketing of non-binding goals affects performance in a work-leisure self-control problem. We externally induce the goal bracket - daily goals or a weekly goal - and within that bracket let subjects set goals for how much they want to work over...... a one-week period. Our theoretical model predicts (i) that weekly goals create incentives to compensate for a lower than desired performance today with the promise to work harder tomorrow, whereas daily goals exclude such excuses; (ii) that subjects with daily goals set higher goals in aggregate...... and work harder than those with weekly goals. Our data support these predictions. Surprisingly, however, when goals are combined with an externally enforced commitment that requires subjects to spend less than a minute each day on the task to get started working, performance deteriorates because of high...

  19. Further validation of bracket pillar design methodology

    Vieira, F

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Design charts for bracket pillar design were developed under a previous SIMRAC project GAP 223 to provide rock mechanics engineers with an initial estimate of bracket pillar sizes for clearly identified geological discontinuities, based on mining...

  20. Higher Toda brackets and Massey products

    Baues, Hans-Joachim; Blanc, David; Gondhali, Shilpa

    2015-01-01

    We provide a uniform definition of higher order Toda brackets in a general setting, covering the known cases of long Toda brackets for topological spaces and chain complexes and Massey products for differential graded algebras, among others.

  1. Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets

    Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W; Carey, Jason P

    2013-01-01

    Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire?bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are c...

  2. Quadratic brackets from symplectic forms

    Alekseev, Anton Yu.; Todorov, Ivan T.

    1994-01-01

    We give a physicist oriented survey of Poisson-Lie symmetries of classical systems. We consider finite-dimensional geometric actions and the chiral WZNW model as examples for the general construction. An essential point is the appearance of quadratic Poisson brackets for group-like variables. It is believed that upon quantization they lead to quadratic exchange algebras. ((orig.))

  3. A-KAM, bracket positioning device

    Anand Ambekar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bracket positioning is the heart of preadjusted edgewise appliance. Accuracy of bracket positioning directly affects the treatment outcome. A number of hand-held instruments are available for bracket positioning accuracy including Boon's gauge, MBT gauges, and various other modifications. However, the most commonly used MBT gauges come in a set of two or four jigs with gauges on each end of the instrument making it difficult to carry in the instrument tray for the orthodontists. Our new bracket positioning instrument, A-KAM, bracket positioning device surpasses these difficulties and can be used for reproducible bracket placement from 2.5 mm to 5.5 mm from the base of bracket.

  4. Adhesive performance of precoated brackets after expiration.

    Cloud, Cayce C; Trojan, Terry M; Suliman, Sam N; Tantbirojn, Daranee; Versluis, Antheunis

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate adhesive performance in terms of debonding forces of precoated metal and ceramic brackets 4 years after expiration. Buccal and lingual surfaces of embedded extracted maxillary premolars were etched with 34% Tooth Conditioner Gel (Dentsply Caulk, Milford, Del), rinsed, and dried. Transbond MIP (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) was applied prior to placing adhesive precoated brackets (APC II Victory stainless steel and APC Plus Clarity ceramic brackets, 3M Unitek). The preexpiration brackets had 29-35 months before, and the postexpiration brackets were 45-52 months past, their expiration dates. Sample size was 17-21 per group. Debonding forces were determined by subjecting the bonded brackets to a shear force in a universal testing machine. Debonding forces were compared using two-way ANOVA. Debonded surfaces were examined under a stereomicroscope to determine failure modes, which were compared using the chi-square test. No statistically significant difference was found in debonding forces (P  =  .8581) or failure modes (P  =  .4538) between expired and unexpired brackets. Metal brackets required statistically significantly higher debonding forces than did ceramic brackets (P  =  .0001). For both expired and unexpired brackets, failure modes were mostly cohesive in the adhesive layer for ceramic brackets, and mixed between adhesive and cohesive failure in the adhesive layer for metal brackets. Adhesive precoated brackets did not have any reduction in enamel-adhesion properties up to 4 years after their expiration date. Extended shelf life testing for precoated dental brackets may be worth considering.

  5. Relationship Factors in Desensitization: A Persistent Trend

    Nawas, M. Mike; Pucel, John C.

    1971-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relevance to the outcome of desensitization of same-sex and opposite-sex pairings of subjects and experimenters. It was concluded that desensitization is independent of the sex pairing of subject and experimenter. (Author)

  6. Group Vicarious Desensitization of Test Anxiety.

    Altmaier, Elizabeth Mitchell; Woodward, Margaret

    1981-01-01

    Studied test-anxious college students (N=43) who received either vicarious desensitization, study skills training, or both treatments; there was also a no-treatment control condition. Self-report measures indicated that vicarious desensitization resulted in lower test and trait anxiety than study skills training alone or no treatment. (Author)

  7. Endogenous Opiate System and Systematic Desensitization.

    Egan, Kelly J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Administered intravenous infusions to phobic patients prior to systematic desensitization. Saline-infused subjects significantly demonstrated the predicted symptom decrease in response to systematic desensitization, whereas naloxone-infused subjects showed no change. Subject reports and psychophysiological measures of arousal indicated no…

  8. Guided Mastery and Performance Desensitization Treatments.

    Williams, S. Lloyd; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Compared desensitization and self-efficacy models of phobia treatment in height phobics. Self-efficacy treatment proved to be significantly more effective than desensitization treatment in restoring subjects' behavioral functioning, in raising their perceptions of self-efficacy, and in reducing their anticipated anxiety and thoughts of danger.…

  9. Comment on the Status of Systematic Desensitization

    McGlynn, F. Dudley; Smitherman, Todd A.; Gothard, Kelly D.

    2004-01-01

    Articles about systematic desensitization that appeared in mainstream behavior therapy journals between the years 1970 and 2002 were counted. Graphic displays of the data point to a sudden and lasting decline of interest in systematic desensitization among academics and researchers. A questionnaire concerning clinical use of orthodox systematic…

  10. Effect of delayed polymerization time and bracket manipulation on orthodontic bracket bonding

    Ponikvar, Michael J.

    This study examined the effect of bracket manipulation in combination with delayed polymerization times on orthodontic bracket shear bond strength and degree of resin composite conversion. Orthodontics brackets were bonded to extracted third molars in a simulated oral environment after a set period of delayed polymerization time and bracket manipulation. After curing the bracket adhesive, each bracket underwent shear bond strength testing followed by micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis to measure the degree of conversion of the resin composite. Results demonstrated the shear bond strength and the degree of conversion of ceramic brackets did not vary over time. However, with stainless steel brackets there was a significant effect (p ≤ 0.05) of delay time on shear bond strength between the 0.5 min and 10 min bracket groups. In addition, stainless steel brackets showed significant differences related to degree of conversion over time between the 0.5 min and 5 min groups, in addition to the 0.5 min and 10 min groups. This investigation suggests that delaying bracket adhesive polymerization up to a period of 10 min then adjusting the orthodontic bracket may increase both shear bond strength and degree of conversion of stainless steel brackets while having no effect on ceramic brackets.

  11. Aspirin Allergy Desensitization in Cerebrovascular Disease

    Zuckerman, Scott L; Seder, David B; Tsujiura, Crystiana; Cushing, Deborah; Gallup, Holly; Mocco, J; Hanel, Richard A; Ecker, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aspirin (ASA) is the mainstay of treatment in cerebrovascular and systemic vascular disease. ASA hypersensitivity can pose a challenge to achieving optimum medical management prior to and after neurointerventional treatment. Desensitization to ASA is well described in the allergy and cardiovascular literature, but there are no similar discussions specific to neurointervention. The purpose of our study was to describe our experience with ASA hypersensitivity management and review the relevant literature. Two cases of patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular disease requiring neurointervention who were successfully desensitized to their ASA hypersensitivity prior to treatment are described. The subsequent literature is reviewed. Several ASA desensitization protocols exist and have been proven to successfully treat ASA hypersensitivity and allow for ASA therapy to be safely initiated. We describe several previously published protocols. ASA desensitization is a safe and simple way to manage ASA hypersensitivity. We provide comprehensive management guidelines for the neurointerventionalist engaging in ASA desensitization. PMID:24556294

  12. Exterior differentials in superspace and Poisson brackets

    Soroka, Dmitrij V.; Soroka, Vyacheslav A.

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that two definitions for an exterior differential in superspace, giving the same exterior calculus, yet lead to different results when applied to the Poisson bracket. A prescription for the transition with the help of these exterior differentials from the given Poisson bracket of definite Grassmann parity to another bracket is introduced. It is also indicated that the resulting bracket leads to generalization of the Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket for the cases of superspace and brackets of diverse Grassmann parities. It is shown that in the case of the Grassmann-odd exterior differential the resulting bracket is the bracket given on exterior forms. The above-mentioned transition with the use of the odd exterior differential applied to the linear even/odd Poisson brackets, that correspond to semi-simple Lie groups, results, respectively, in also linear odd/even brackets which are naturally connected with the Lie superalgebra. The latter contains the BRST and anti-BRST charges and can be used for calculation of the BRST operator cogomology. (author)

  13. Adhesives for fixed orthodontic brackets.

    Mandall, N A; Millett, D T; Mattick, C R; Hickman, J; Macfarlane, T V; Worthington, H V

    2003-01-01

    Bonding of orthodontic brackets to teeth is important to enable effective and efficient treatment with fixed appliances. The problem is bracket failure during treatment which increases operator chairside time and lengthens treatment time. A prolonged treatment is likely to increase the oral health risks of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances one of which is irreversible enamel decalcification. To evaluate the effectiveness of different orthodontic adhesives for bonding. Electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE. Date of most recent searches: August 2002 (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2002). Trials were selected if they met the following criteria: randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing two different adhesive groups. Participants were patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. The interventions were adhesives that bonded stainless steel brackets to all teeth except the molars. The primary outcome was debond or bracket failure. Data were recorded on decalcification as a secondary outcome, if present. Information regarding methods, participants, interventions, outcome measures and results were extracted in duplicate by pairs of reviewers (Nicky Mandall (NM) and Rye Mattick (CRM); Declan Millett (DTM) and Joy Hickman (JH2)). Since the data were not presented in a form that was amenable to meta-analysis, the results of the review are presented in narrative form only. Three trials satisfied the inclusion criteria. A chemical cured composite was compared with a light cure composite (one trial), a conventional glass ionomer cement (one trial) and a polyacid-modified resin composite (compomer) (one trial). The quality of the trial reports was generally poor. It is difficult to draw any conclusions from this review, however, suggestions are made for methods of improving future research involving

  14. Quadratic Poisson brackets compatible with an algebra structure

    Balinsky, A. A.; Burman, Yu.

    1994-01-01

    Quadratic Poisson brackets on a vector space equipped with a bilinear multiplication are studied. A notion of a bracket compatible with the multiplication is introduced and an effective criterion of such compatibility is given. Among compatible brackets, a subclass of coboundary brackets is described, and such brackets are enumerated in a number of examples.

  15. [Self-ligating edgewise brackets. An overview].

    Katsaros, C; Dijkman, J F

    2003-01-01

    During the last years both the manufactures and the orthodontists seem to show an increased interest in self-ligating brackets. This paper aims to present the history of self-ligating systems, to describe the three mostly used bracketsystems and to review the relevant literature. It seems from the existing data that self-ligating brackets have certain advantages over conventionally ligated brackets. However, the data are still thin and a high need for well designed clinical trials exist.

  16. Material testing of reconditioned orthodontic brackets.

    Reimann, S; Rewari, A; Keilig, L; Widu, F; Jäger, A; Bourauel, C

    2012-12-01

    While all manufacturers of orthodontic brackets label these products for single use, there are commercial providers offering bracket reconditioning (or "recycling"). We conducted this study to investigate the effects of different recycling techniques on material-related parameters in orthodontic brackets, aiming to derive indications for clinical use and conclusions about the biocompatibility, longevity, and application of recycled brackets. New metal brackets (equilibrium(®); Dentaurum, Ispringen, Germany) were compared to brackets recycled by different techniques, including direct flaming with a Bunsen burner, chemical reconditioning in an acid bath, a commercial unit (Big Jane; Esmadent, IL, USA), and outsourcing to a company (Ortho Clean, Dellstedt, Germany). Material-related examinations included the following: (1) corrosion behavior by static immersion testing and use of a mass spectrometer to determine nickel-ion concentrations in the corrosive medium, (2) surface features in scanning electron micrographs before and after corrosion testing, (3) Vickers hardness using a hardness testing machine, (4) shear bond strength as defined in DIN 13990-1, (5) dimensional stability of the bracket slots by light microscopy, and (6) frictional loss as assessed by an orthodontic measurement and simulation system (OMSS). Each examination was performed on ten brackets. Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis. Compared to the new brackets, those recycled in an acid bath or by a commercial provider revealed significant dimensional changes (pbrackets varied according to the recycling techniques employed. The group of brackets recycled by one company revealed hardness values that differed from those of all the other groups. No significant differences were observed in nickel-ion release, frictional loss, and shear bond strength. Recycling was found to significantly reduce the corrosion resistance and dimensional stability of orthodontic brackets. As the savings

  17. Degenerate odd Poisson bracket on Grassmann variables

    Soroka, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    A linear degenerate odd Poisson bracket (antibracket) realized solely on Grassmann variables is proposed. It is revealed that this bracket has at once three Grassmann-odd nilpotent Δ-like differential operators of the first, second and third orders with respect to the Grassmann derivatives. It is shown that these Δ-like operators, together with the Grassmann-odd nilpotent Casimir function of this bracket, form a finite-dimensional Lie superalgebra

  18. Antibiotic Desensitization Therapy in Secondary Syphilis and Listeria Infection: Case Reports and Review of Desensitization Therapy

    Magpantay, Gil; Madar, Cristian S; Hsue, Gunther; Belnap, Conrad

    2011-01-01

    Two adult cases, one of secondary syphilis and one of Listeria monocytogenes bacteremia, in which antibiotic desensitization therapy was utilized to assist treatment of active infection in the face of severe penicillin allergy. Clinical considerations are discussed that led to the decision to employ a formal desensitization procedure. Antibiotic desensitization protocols can facilitate optimal and safe antibiotic therapy in the appropriate clinical setting. PMID:22187514

  19. Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets

    Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire–bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are collected using a stereo microscope and two charge-coupled device cameras, and deformation of orthodontic brackets is measured using a three-dimensional digital image correlation technique. The three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets will be evaluated. The repeatability of the three-dimensional digital image correlation measurement method was evaluated by performing 30 archwire rotation tests using the same bracket and archwire. Finally, five Damon 3MX and five In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets will be compared using this technique to demonstrate the effect of archwire rotation on bracket design. PMID:23762201

  20. Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets.

    Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W; Carey, Jason P

    2013-01-01

    Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire-bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are collected using a stereo microscope and two charge-coupled device cameras, and deformation of orthodontic brackets is measured using a three-dimensional digital image correlation technique. The three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets will be evaluated. The repeatability of the three-dimensional digital image correlation measurement method was evaluated by performing 30 archwire rotation tests using the same bracket and archwire. Finally, five Damon 3MX and five In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets will be compared using this technique to demonstrate the effect of archwire rotation on bracket design.

  1. Delayed bracket placement in orthodontic treatment

    Chandra Wigati

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Beside bracket position, the timing of bracket placement is one of the most essential in orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. Even it seems simple the timing of bracket placement can be crucial and significantly influence the result of orthodontic treatment. However it is often found brackets are placed without complete understanding of its purpose and effects, which could be useless and even detrimental for the case. Purpose: The aim of this case report is to show that the timing of bracket placement could be different depending on the cases. Case: Five different cases are presented here with different timing of bracket placement. Case management: On these cases, brackets were placed on the upper arch first, on the lower arch first, or even only on some teeth first. Good and efficient orthodontic treatment results were achieved. Conclusion: For every orthodontic case, from the very beginning of treatment, bracket should be placed with the end result in mind. If brackets are correctly placed at a correct time, better treatment result could be achieved without unnecessary round tripping tooth movement.

  2. Torque expression in self-ligating orthodontic brackets and conventionally ligated brackets: A systematic review.

    Al-Thomali, Yousef; Mohamed, Roshan-Noor; Basha, Sakeenabi

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the torque expression of self ligating (SL) orthodontic brackets and conventionally ligated brackets and the torque expression in active and passive SL brackets. Our systematic search included MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Scopus, and key journals and review articles; the date of the last search was April 4th 2016. We graded the methodological quality of the studies by means of the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies, developed for the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP). In total, 87 studies were identified for screening, and 9 studies were eligible. The quality assessment rated one of the study as being of strong quality, 7 (77.78%) of these studies as being of moderate quality. Three out of 7 studies which compared SL and conventionally ligated brackets showed, conventionally ligated brackets with highest torque expression compared to SL brackets. Badawi showed active SL brackets with highest torque expression compared to passive SL brackets. Major and Brauchli showed no significant differences in torque expression of active and passive SL brackets. Conventionally ligated brackets presented with highest torque expression compared to SL brackets. Minor difference was recorded in a torque expression of active and passive SL brackets. Key words: Systematic review, self ligation, torque expression, conventional ligation.

  3. A scanning electron microscopic investigation of ceramic orthodontic brackets

    McDonald, F.; Toms, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    Ceramic brackets were introduced to overcome the esthetic disadvantages of stainless steel brackets. The clinical impression of these brackets is very favorable. However, the sliding mechanics used in the Straightwire (A Company, San Diego, CA, USA) system appear to produce slower tooth movements with ceramic compared to stainless steel brackets. To determine whether this was due to any obvious mechanical problem in the bracket slot, Transcend (Unitek Corporation/3M, Monrovia, CA, USA) ceramic brackets were examined by a scanning electron microscope and compared to stainless steel brackets.Consistently, large surface defects were found in the ceramic bracket slots that were not present in the metal bracket slots. These irregularities could obviously hinder the sliding mechanics of the bracket slot-archwire system and create a greater demand on anchorage. Conversely, the fitting surface of the Transcend ceramic bracket showed extremely smooth surface characteristics, and it would seem advisable for the manufacturers to incorporate this surface within the bracket slot. (author)

  4. the use of systematic desensitization in psychotherapy

    relaxation inhibits anxiety-their concurrent expression is physiologically impossible. ..... fifth-floor balcony without discomfort. Four months after her return ... specific rather than 'free-floating' anxiety is present, systematic ,. 6. desensitization is ...

  5. Desensitization of Children to Television Violence

    Cline, Victor B.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    To find if children do become desensitized to violence, a test for a measurable physiological difference in emotional response to filmed violence was administered to children who are high exposure and low exposure television viewers. (Author/KM)

  6. Hyperventilation in a motion sickness desensitization program

    Mert, A.; Bles, W.; Nooij, S.A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: In motion sickness desensitization programs, the motion sickness provocative stimulus is often a forward bending of the trunk on a rotating chair, inducing Coriolis effects. Since respiratory relaxation techniques are applied successfully in these courses, we investigated whether these

  7. Behavior Modification Through Covert Semantic Desensitization

    Hekmat, Hamid; Vanian, Daniel

    1971-01-01

    Results support the hypothesized relationship between meaning and phobia. Semantic desensitization techniques based on counter conditioning of meaning were significantly effective in altering the semantic value of the word from unpleasantness to neutrality. (Author)

  8. Adhesives for fixed orthodontic brackets.

    Mandall, Nicky A; Hickman, Joy; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Mattick, Rye Cr; Millett, Declan T; Worthington, Helen V

    2018-04-09

    Bonding of orthodontic brackets to teeth is important to enable effective and efficient treatment with fixed appliances. The problem is bracket failure during treatment which increases operator chairside time and lengthens treatment time. A prolonged treatment is likely to increase the oral health risks of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances one of which is irreversible enamel decalcification. This is an update of the Cochrane Review first published in 2003. A new full search was conducted on 26 September 2017 but no new studies were identified. We have only updated the search methods section in this new version. The conclusions of this Cochrane Review remain the same. To evaluate the effects of different orthodontic adhesives for bonding. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 26 September 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 8) in the Cochrane Library (searched 26 September 2017), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 26 September 2017), and Embase Ovid (1980 to 26 September 2017). The US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Trials were selected if they met the following criteria: randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing two different adhesive groups. Participants were patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. The interventions were adhesives that bonded stainless steel brackets to all teeth except the molars. The primary outcome was debond or bracket failure. Data were recorded on decalcification as a secondary outcome, if present. Information regarding methods, participants, interventions, outcome measures and results were extracted in

  9. A comparative study of frictional force in self-ligating brackets according to the bracket-archwire angulation, bracket material, and wire type

    Lee, Souk Min

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to compare the frictional force (FR) in self-ligating brackets among different bracket-archwire angles, bracket materials, and archwire types. Methods Passive and active metal self-ligating brackets and active ceramic self-ligating brackets were included as experimental groups, while conventional twin metal brackets served as a control group. All brackets were maxillary premolar brackets with 0.022 inch [in] slots and a -7° torque. The orthodontic wires used included 0.018 round and 0.019 × 0.025 in rectangular stainless steel wires. The FR was measured at 0°, 5°, and 10° angulations as the wire was drawn through the bracket slots after attaching brackets from each group to the universal testing machine. Static and kinetic FRs were also measured. Results The passive self-ligating brackets generated a lower FR than all the other brackets. Static and kinetic FRs generally increased with an increase in the bracket-archwire angulation, and the rectangular wire caused significantly higher static and kinetic FRs than the round wire (p brackets exhibited the lowest static FR at the 0° angulation and a lower increase in static and kinetic FRs with an increase in bracket-archwire angulation than the other brackets, while the conventional twin brackets showed a greater increase than all three experimental brackets. Conclusions The passive self-ligating brackets showed the lowest FR in this study. Self-ligating brackets can generate varying FRs in vitro according to the wire size, surface characteristics, and bracket-archwire angulation. PMID:25667913

  10. Systematic Desensitization Of Test Anxiety: A Comparison Of Group And Individual Treatment

    Scissons, Edward H.; Njaa, Lloyd J.

    1973-01-01

    The results indicate the effectiveness of both individual desensitization and group desensitization in the treatment of high test anxiety. More research is needed in comparing the effectiveness of group desensitization and individual desensitization with intratreatment variables. (Author)

  11. Clinical Survival of Rebonded Brackets with Different ARI Scores

    Mohammad Hossein Ahangar Atashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bracket debonding is one of the most common events in orthodontics. The aim of the present study was to quantitatively compare clinical survival of rebonded brackets with different ARI scores with new brackets rebonding. Materials and Methods: The subjects in the present study consisted of 74 patients with 76 debonded brackets on maxillary first and second premolars. After refreshing the bracket base of the debonded brackets, they were assigned in two groups: group A with 27 brackets of ARI≥4 and group B with 28 brackets of ARI≤2. In 21 cases, new brackets were used (group C. The frequency of the debonding in each rebonded group during treatment was calculated in intervals of 6,12,18 mounths after onset of bracket rebonding . Chi-squared test was used to compare the frequency of debonded brackets. Results: The frequency of debonded brackets was significantly higher in group B (ARI≤2 than those of groups A (ARI≥4 and C (new brackets. The number of debonded brackets were not significantly different between groups A (ARI≥4 and C (new brackets. Conclusion: Rebonding strength of debonded brackets in those that the failure is presented between adhesive and enamel (ARI≥4 could be clinically acceptable with no need to use new brackets.    Key words: dental bonding; orthodontic brackets; prevalence

  12. Carboplatin hypersensitivity: evaluation and successful desensitization protocol.

    Bruchim, Ilan; Goldberg, Arnon; Fishman, Ami; Confino-Cohen, Ronit

    2014-01-01

    Carboplatin-induced immediate hypersensitivity reactions are relatively common among patients with gynecological malignancies. Once this occurs, the patient might be at risk for future carboplatin-induced reactions. This study evaluated the efficacy of allergic consultation, carboplatin skin testing and desensitization as a single intervention strategy in this population. Patients with a well-documented immediate reaction to carboplatin were offered allergy consultation, carboplatin skin testing and a desensitization plan in a single visit between scheduled chemotherapy sessions. Fifty-five patients with an immediate reaction were evaluated. After allergist assessment, 44 (89%) of 49 patients skin tested had a positive result. A total of 207 carboplatin desensitization cycles were administered to 49 women. Among them, 10 patients had a mild immediate hypersensitivity reaction during desensitization. Five patients subsequently tolerated carboplatin administered in the prolonged desensitization protocol. In the data presented, we propose a strategy that is both cost effective and very convenient for the patient. The diagnostic procedure, including allergist consultation and skin test, can be completed in less than 2 h. In most cases where carboplatin is indispensable, desensitization can be administered without overnight hospitalization.

  13. Tool Releases Optical Elements From Spring Brackets

    Gum, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Threaded hooks retract bracket arms holding element. Tool uses three hooks with threaded shanks mounted in ring-shaped holder to pull on tabs to release optical element. One person can easily insert or remove optical element (such as prism or lens) from spring holder or bracket with minimal risk of damage.

  14. Frictional resistance of self-ligating versus conventional brackets in different bracket-archwire-angle combinations

    MONTEIRO, Maria Regina Guerra; da SILVA, Licinio Esmeraldo; ELIAS, Carlos Nelson; VILELLA, Oswaldo de Vasconcellos

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the influence of archwire material (NiTi, beta-Ti and stainless steel) and brackets design (self-ligating and conventional) on the frictional force resistance. Material and Methods Two types of brackets (self-ligating brackets - Smartclip, 3M/Unitek - and conventional brackets - Gemini, 3M/Unitek) with three (0, 5, and 10 degrees) slot angulation attached with elastomeric ligatures (TP Orthodontics) were tested. All brackets were tested with archwire 0.019"x0.025" nickel-titanium, beta-titanium, and stainless steel (Unitek/3M). The mechanical testing was performed with a universal testing machine eMIC DL 10000 (eMIC Co, Brazil). The wires were pulled from the bracket slots at a cross-head speed of 3 mm/min until 2 mm displacement. Results Self-ligating brackets produced significantly lower friction values compared with those of conventional brackets. Frictional force resistance values were directly proportional to the increase in the bracket/ wire angulation. With regard to conventional brackets, stainless steel wires had the lowest friction force values, followed by nickel-titanium and beta-titanium ones. With regard to self-ligating brackets, the nickel-titanium wires had the lowest friction values, significantly lower than those of other materials. Conclusion even at different angulations, the self-ligating brackets showed significantly lower friction force values than the conventional brackets. Combined with nickel-titanium wires, the self-ligating brackets exhibit much lower friction, possibly due to the contact between nickel-titanium clips and wires of the same material. PMID:25025564

  15. Frictional resistance of self-ligating versus conventional brackets in different bracket-archwire-angle combinations

    Maria Regina Guerra MONTEIRO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the influence of archwire material (NiTi, beta-Ti and stainless steel and brackets design (self-ligating and conventional on the frictional force resistance. Material and Methods: Two types of brackets (self-ligating brackets - Smartclip, 3M/Unitek - and conventional brackets - Gemini, 3M/Unitek with three (0, 5, and 10 degrees slot angulation attached with elastomeric ligatures (TP Orthodontics were tested. All brackets were tested with archwire 0.019"x0.025" nickel-titanium, beta-titanium, and stainless steel (Unitek/3M. The mechanical testing was performed with a universal testing machine eMIC DL 10000 (eMIC Co, Brazil. The wires were pulled from the bracket slots at a cross-head speed of 3 mm/min until 2 mm displacement. Results: Self-ligating brackets produced significantly lower friction values compared with those of conventional brackets. Frictional force resistance values were directly proportional to the increase in the bracket/ wire angulation. With regard to conventional brackets, stainless steel wires had the lowest friction force values, followed by nickel-titanium and beta-titanium ones. With regard to self-ligating brackets, the nickel-titanium wires had the lowest friction values, significantly lower than those of other materials. Conclusion: even at different angulations, the self-ligating brackets showed significantly lower friction force values than the conventional brackets. Combined with nickel-titanium wires, the self-ligating brackets exhibit much lower friction, possibly due to the contact between nickel-titanium clips and wires of the same material.

  16. In Vivo Desensitization: An Alternative to Systematic Desensitization with College Students

    Atkinson, Donald R.

    1973-01-01

    It is the thesis of this article that college counselors would make more economical and efficacious use of their time and would greatly reduce the risk of turning off'' students if they employed in vivo desensitization rather than systematic desensitization when dealing with anxious clients. (Author)

  17. Systematic Desensitization as Training in Self-Control

    Goldfried, Marvin R.

    1971-01-01

    A description of a mediational model to explain the effectiveness of desensitization and a discussion of the available corroborative research findings for this alternative explanation are given. Also, specific procedural modifications for systematic desensitization are suggested. (Author)

  18. Are torque values of preadjusted brackets precise?

    Alessandra Motta Streva

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to verify the torque precision of metallic brackets with MBT prescription using the canine brackets as the representative sample of six commercial brands. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty maxillary and 20 mandibular canine brackets of one of the following commercial brands were selected: 3M Unitek, Abzil, American Orthodontics, TP Orthodontics, Morelli and Ortho Organizers. The torque angle, established by reference points and lines, was measured by an operator using an optical microscope coupled to a computer. The values were compared to those established by the MBT prescription. RESULTS: The results showed that for the maxillary canine brackets, only the Morelli torque (-3.33º presented statistically significant difference from the proposed values (-7º. For the mandibular canines, American Orthodontics (-6.34º and Ortho Organizers (-6.25º presented statistically significant differences from the standards (-6º. Comparing the brands, Morelli presented statistically significant differences in comparison with all the other brands for maxillary canine brackets. For the mandibular canine brackets, there was no statistically significant difference between the brands. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant variations in torque values of some of the brackets assessed, which would clinically compromise the buccolingual positioning of the tooth at the end of orthodontic treatment.

  19. Longitudinal tibial epiphyseal bracket in Nievergelt syndrome

    Burnstein, M.I.; De Smet, A.A.; Breed, A.L.; Thomas, J.R.; Hafez, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    A patient is described with lower extremity mesomelic dwarfism associated with bilateral congenital elbow, hip, and knee dislocations. Rhomboid-shaped tibiae and delayed ossification of the primary fibular ossification centers were demonstrated at birth. Plain films and magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the tibial deformities were due to the presence of longitudinal epiphyseal brackets. These brackets were observed at surgery and confirmed histologically. Recognition of the longitudinal epiphyseal bracket and its relationship to the tibial deformities seen in this patient with Nievergelt syndrome is important for planning surgical treatment. (orig.)

  20. Longitudinal tibial epiphyseal bracket in Nievergelt syndrome

    Burnstein, M.I.; De Smet, A.A.; Breed, A.L.; Thomas, J.R.; Hafez, G.R.

    1989-04-01

    A patient is described with lower extremity mesomelic dwarfism associated with bilateral congenital elbow, hip, and knee dislocations. Rhomboid-shaped tibiae and delayed ossification of the primary fibular ossification centers were demonstrated at birth. Plain films and magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the tibial deformities were due to the presence of longitudinal epiphyseal brackets. These brackets were observed at surgery and confirmed histologically. Recognition of the longitudinal epiphyseal bracket and its relationship to the tibial deformities seen in this patient with Nievergelt syndrome is important for planning surgical treatment. (orig.).

  1. Heat Exchanger Support Bracket Design Calculations

    Rucinski, Russ

    1995-01-01

    This engineering note documents the design of the heat exchanger support brackets. The heat exchanger is roughly 40 feet long, 22 inches in diameter and weighs 6750 pounds. It will be mounted on two identical support brackets that are anchored to a concrete wall. The design calculations were done for one bracket supporting the full weight of the heat exchanger, rounded up to 6800 pounds. The design follows the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of steel construction, Eighth edition. All calculated stresses and loads on welds were below allowables.

  2. Playing violent video games and desensitization to violence.

    Brockmyer, Jeanne Funk

    2015-01-01

    This article examines current research linking exposure to violent video games and desensitization to violence. Data from questionnaire, behavioral, and psychophysiologic research are reviewed to determine if exposure to violent video games is a risk factor for desensitization to violence. Real-world implications of desensitization are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Torque expression in self-ligating orthodontic brackets and conventionally ligated brackets: A systematic review

    Al-Thomali, Yousef; Mohamed, Roshan-Noor; Basha, Sakeenabi

    2017-01-01

    Background To evaluate the torque expression of self ligating (SL) orthodontic brackets and conventionally ligated brackets and the torque expression in active and passive SL brackets. Material and Methods Our systematic search included MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Scopus, and key journals and review articles; the date of the last search was April 4th 2016. We graded the methodological quality of the studies by means of the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies, developed fo...

  4. Profilin desensitization: A case series

    Nucera, Eleonora; Aruanno, Arianna; Rizzi, Angela; Pecora, Valentina; Patriarca, Giampiero; Buonomo, Alessandro; Mezzacappa, Simona; Schiavino, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    The role of profilin as an allergen has long been questioned. The capacity of profilin to induce respiratory symptoms has recently been demonstrated; moreover, over 50% of patients sensitized to profilin experienced symptoms after the ingestion of plant-derived foods, suggesting that profilin should be considered as a clinically relevant food allergen. We describe the cases of seven allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome and other adverse reactions after eating plant-derived food, that have been undergone to profilin desensitization treatment. The protocol started with a drop of profilin solution (50 µg/mL) diluted 1:1018 in water until the highest dose of 10 drops of undiluted solution three times a week. At the end of the treatment we observed a decreased mean diameter of profilin wheal in skin prick test (SPT) in five of the seven participants and in profilin specific IgE values in six patients that repeated the test. Regarding basophil activation test (BAT) and the detection of IgG4, we do not have significant results because the tests have to be repeated in some patients. Regarding the double-blind placebo-controlled challenges, after about 10 months of induction phase all the patients showed tolerance to several foods that they previously did not tolerate. Moreover, the immunotherapy with profilin has proved to be safe because no serious adverse events have been reported in our patients. In summary, the results of this exploratory study of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for profilin allergy show that it can be a promising therapeutic option that could modify the clinical reactivity of the patients to the intake of plant-derived food. PMID:26684620

  5. Bihamiltonian Cohomology of KdV Brackets

    Carlet, G.; Posthuma, H.; Shadrin, S.

    2016-01-01

    Using spectral sequences techniques we compute the bihamiltonian cohomology groups of the pencil of Poisson brackets of dispersionless KdV hierarchy. In particular, this proves a conjecture of Liu and Zhang about the vanishing of such cohomology groups.

  6. Linear odd Poisson bracket on Grassmann variables

    Soroka, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    A linear odd Poisson bracket (antibracket) realized solely in terms of Grassmann variables is suggested. It is revealed that the bracket, which corresponds to a semi-simple Lie group, has at once three Grassmann-odd nilpotent Δ-like differential operators of the first, the second and the third orders with respect to Grassmann derivatives, in contrast with the canonical odd Poisson bracket having the only Grassmann-odd nilpotent differential Δ-operator of the second order. It is shown that these Δ-like operators together with a Grassmann-odd nilpotent Casimir function of this bracket form a finite-dimensional Lie superalgebra. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Desensitizing nano powders to electrostatic discharge ignition

    Steelman, Ryan; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is a main cause for ignition in powder media ranging from grain silos to fireworks. Nanoscale particles are orders of magnitude more ESD ignition sensitive than their micron scale counterparts. This study shows that at least 13 vol. % carbon nanotubes (CNT) added to nano-aluminum and nano-copper oxide particles (nAl + CuO) eliminates ESD ignition sensitivity. The CNT act as a conduit for electric energy and directs electric charge through the powder to desensitize the reactive mixture to ignition. For nanoparticles, the required CNT concentration for desensitizing ESD ignition acts as a diluent to quench energy propagation.

  8. Wronski Brackets and the Ferris Wheel

    Martin, Keye

    2005-11-01

    We connect the Bayesian order on classical states to a certain Lie algebra on C^infty[0,1]. This special Lie algebra structure, made precise by an idea we introduce called a Wronski bracket, suggests new phenomena the Bayesian order naturally models. We then study Wronski brackets on associative algebras, and in the commutative case, discover the beautiful result that they are equivalent to derivations.

  9. Analysis of mesiodistal angulations of preadjusted brackets

    Marcos Rogério de MENDONÇA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturers offer various prescriptions of preadjusted brackets for use in the “straight-wire” orthodontic technique. However, the need to incorporate bends in the rectangular wires during orthodontic finishing has led to concerns regarding the type of prescription chosen and the credibility of information provided by the manufacturer. The aim of this study was to compare the slot angulations of Roth prescription preadjusted metallic brackets for the maxillary left central incisor and maxillary left canine. For each tooth type, 10 brackets of three commercial brands (GAC, Forestadent and Morelli were selected. Two individual metal matrices for brackets and tooth positioning were made for each group of teeth. Captured images were obtained by standardized ortho-radial photography with a digital camera. Images were exported and analyzed with the Image J software package. One-way ANOVA and Tukey statistical analyses were performed at the 5% significance level. For brackets of the maxillary left central incisor, differences in mean angulation were observed between the Morelli and GAC groups (p < 0.01 and between the Forestadent and GAC groups (p < 0.01. For brackets of the maxillary left canine, differences in mean angulation were found between the Morelli and GAC groups (p < 0.01 and between the Morelli and Forestadent groups (p < 0.05. In conclusion, despite their same prescription name, the different brands exhibited significantly different angulation measurements.

  10. Effect of desensitizing agents on dentin permeability.

    Ishihata, Hiroshi; Kanehira, Masafumi; Nagai, Tomoko; Finger, Werner J; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi; Komatsu, Masashi

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the in vitro efficacy of two dentin desensitizing products at reducing liquid permeability through human dentin discs. The tested hypothesis was that the products, in spite of different chemical mechanisms were not different at reducing or eliminating flow through dentin discs. Dentin slices (1 mm thick) were prepared from 16 extracted human third molars and their permeability was indirectly recorded in a split chamber model, using a chemiluminescence technique, after EDTA treatment (control), after soaking with albumin, and after desensitizer application. Two products were studied: MS Coat, a self-curing resin-containing oxalate product, and Gluma Desensitizer, a glutaraldehyde/HEMA-based agent without initiator. The dentin slices were mounted between an upper chamber, filled with an aqueous solution of 1% potassium ferricyanide and 0.3% hydrogen peroxide, and a lower chamber filled with 1% sodium hydroxide solution and 0.02% luminol. The upper solution was pressurized, and upon contact with the luminol solution a photochemical signal was generated and recorded as a measure of permeability throughout two consecutive pressurizing cycles at 2.5 and 13 kPa (26 and 133 cm H2O), respectively. The permeability of the control and albumin-soaked samples was similarly high. After application of the desensitizing agents, dentin permeability was reduced to virtually zero at both pressure levels (P < 0.001).

  11. Clinical practice - Drug desensitization in children

    de Groot, H.; Mulder, W.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Immediate type allergic reactions to medication are potentially life threatening and can hamper drug therapy of several medical conditions. Exact incidence and prevalence data for these reactions in children are lacking. If no alternative drug treatment is available, a desensitization procedure may

  12. An Aversion-Desensitization Treatment for Alcoholism

    Primo, Richard V.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    A six-to nine-month interview follow-up showed that five of the seven traceable Ss given the interpersonal aversion-systematic desensitization treatment had been abstinent, compared with only one of seven treated by the interpersonal aversion-control procedure. (Author)

  13. Endemic Images and the Desensitization Process.

    Saigh, Philip A.; Antoun, Fouad T.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the effects of endemic images on levels of anxiety and achievement of 48 high school students. Results suggested that a combination of endemic images and study skills training was as effective as desensitization plus study skills training. Includes the endemic image questionnaire. (JAC)

  14. Role Of Expectancy Manipulation In Systematic Desensitization

    Brown, H. Alan

    1973-01-01

    Expectancy, relaxation, and hierarchy content were manipulated. Findings did not support the hypothesis that expectancy was the only factor in desensitization, but did clarify the role of expectancy vis-a-vis the counterconditioning elements typically discussed in the literature. (Author)

  15. Desensitization and recovery of metastable intermolecular composites

    Busse, James R [South Fork, CO; Dye, Robert C [Los Alamos, NM; Foley, Timothy J [Los Alamos, NM; Higa, Kelvin T [Ridgecrest, CA; Jorgensen, Betty S [Jemez Springs, NM; Sanders, Victor E [White Rock, NM; Son, Steven F [Los Alamos, NM

    2010-09-07

    A method to substantially desensitize a metastable intermolecular composite material to electrostatic discharge and friction comprising mixing the composite material with an organic diluent and removing enough organic diluent from the mixture to form a mixture with a substantially putty-like consistency, as well as a concomitant method of recovering the metastable intermolecular composite material.

  16. Comparative study on direct and indirect bracket bonding techniques regarding time length and bracket detachment

    Jefferson Vinicius Bozelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the time spent for direct (DBB - direct bracket bonding and indirect (IBB - indirect bracket bonding bracket bonding techniques. The time length of laboratorial (IBB and clinical steps (DBB and IBB as well as the prevalence of loose bracket after a 24-week follow-up were evaluated. METHODS: Seventeen patients (7 men and 10 women with a mean age of 21 years, requiring orthodontic treatment were selected for this study. A total of 304 brackets were used (151 DBB and 153 IBB. The same bracket type and bonding material were used in both groups. Data were submitted to statistical analysis by Wilcoxon non-parametric test at 5% level of significance. RESULTS: Considering the total time length, the IBB technique was more time-consuming than the DBB (p < 0.001. However, considering only the clinical phase, the IBB took less time than the DBB (p < 0.001. There was no significant difference (p = 0.910 for the time spent during laboratorial positioning of the brackets and clinical session for IBB in comparison to the clinical procedure for DBB. Additionally, no difference was found as for the prevalence of loose bracket between both groups. CONCLUSION: the IBB can be suggested as a valid clinical procedure since the clinical session was faster and the total time spent for laboratorial positioning of the brackets and clinical procedure was similar to that of DBB. In addition, both approaches resulted in similar frequency of loose bracket.

  17. Bracketing as a skill in conducting unstructured qualitative interviews.

    Sorsa, Minna Anneli; Kiikkala, Irma; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2015-03-01

    To provide an overview of bracketing as a skill in unstructured qualitative research interviews. Researchers affect the qualitative research process. Bracketing in descriptive phenomenology entails researchers setting aside their pre-understanding and acting non-judgementally. In interpretative phenomenology, previous knowledge is used intentionally to create new understanding. A literature search of bracketing in phenomenology and qualitative research. This is a methodology paper examining the researchers' impact in creating data in creating data in qualitative research. Self-knowledge, sensitivity and reflexivity of the researcher enable bracketing. Skilled and experienced researchers are needed to use bracketing in unstructured qualitative research interviews. Bracketing adds scientific rigour and validity to any qualitative study.

  18. Medication Desensitization: Characterization of Outcomes and Risk Factors for Reactions.

    Murray, Taryn S; Rice, Todd W; Wheeler, Arthur P; Phillips, Elizabeth J; Dworski, Ryszard T; Stollings, Joanna L

    2016-03-01

    Although its mechanisms are poorly understood, desensitization has been used to induce a temporary state of immune unresponsiveness in patients who have IgE-, non-IgE-, or pharmacologically mediated reactions when a drug has no alternatives. The purpose of this study was to characterize the outcomes and identify risk factors for reactions during drug desensitization. A retrospective review of electronic medical records of adult patients undergoing drug desensitization from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2013, was conducted in 2 intensive care units at a tertiary medical center. We used multivariate analysis to determine if specified risk factors were associated with reacting during the desensitization. Reactions were classified according to the pretest probability prior to desensitization, and then, reactions during desensitization were classified based on the occurrence of cutaneous reactions as follows: successful with no reaction, mild reaction, moderate reaction, or failed. Failure could result from any systemic allergic or cutaneous reaction resulting in procedure termination. The desensitizations were also assessed to determine if the patient required de-escalation secondary to a reaction. A total of 88 desensitizations were performed in 69 patients. Desensitization was completed with no cutaneous reaction in 85% of patients. No baseline characteristic, medication class (P = 0.46), or indication for desensitization (P = 0.59) was associated with having a reaction. Reported histories of urticaria (P desensitization. However, neither history of urticaria nor labored breathing was independently associated with having a reaction in multivariate analysis (OR = 0.979, 95% CI = 0.325-2.952, P = 0.970, and OR = 1.626, 95% CI = 0.536-4.931, P = 0.739, respectively). Drug desensitization is safe for patients who have no alternative for therapy. Reported allergy histories of urticaria and labored breathing are both associated with having a reaction during the

  19. Frictional Resistance of Three Types of Ceramic Brackets

    Claire L Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the static frictional resistance at the bracket/archwire interface in two recently introduced bracket systems and compare them to conventional ceramic and conventional metal bracket systems. Three variables were considered including the bracket system, archwire type and archwire angulation. Material and Methods: Four bracket systems were tested in vitro: Self ligating ceramic, ceramic with metal slot and module, conventional ceramic with module and conventional metal with module. A specially constructed jig and an Instron testing machine were used to measure the static frictional resistance for 0.014 inches round and 0.018 x 0.025 inches rectangular stainless steel wires at 0° and 7° angulations. Main outcome measures: static frictional force at the bracket/archwire interface; recorded and measured in units of force (Newtons. Results: Self ligating ceramic and metal slot ceramic bracket systems generated significantly less static frictional resistance than conventional ceramic bracket systems with the wire at both angulations (P < 0.05. Changing the wire from 0.014 round to 0.018 x 0.025 rectangular wire significantly increased frictional forces for metal slot ceramic and conventional metal bracket systems (P < 0.01. Increasing wire angulation significantly increased frictional resistance at the bracket/archwire interface for all four types of bracket systems tested (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Compared to conventional ceramic, self ligating ceramic and metal slot ceramic bracket systems should give improved clinical performance, matching that of conventional metal brackets.

  20. Nonlinear poisson brackets geometry and quantization

    Karasev, M V

    2012-01-01

    This book deals with two old mathematical problems. The first is the problem of constructing an analog of a Lie group for general nonlinear Poisson brackets. The second is the quantization problem for such brackets in the semiclassical approximation (which is the problem of exact quantization for the simplest classes of brackets). These problems are progressively coming to the fore in the modern theory of differential equations and quantum theory, since the approach based on constructions of algebras and Lie groups seems, in a certain sense, to be exhausted. The authors' main goal is to describe in detail the new objects that appear in the solution of these problems. Many ideas of algebra, modern differential geometry, algebraic topology, and operator theory are synthesized here. The authors prove all statements in detail, thus making the book accessible to graduate students.

  1. Laser debonding of ceramic orthodontic brackets: a theoretical approach

    Kearney, Kristine L.; Marangoni, Roy D.; Rickabaugh, Jeff L.

    1992-06-01

    Ceramic brackets are an esthetic substitute for conventional stainless steel brackets in orthodontic patients. However, ceramic brackets are more brittle and have higher bond strengths which can lead to bracket breakage and enamel damage during debonding. It has been demonstrated that various lasers can facilitate ceramic bracket removal. One mechanism with the laser is through the softening of the bracket adhesive. The high energy density from the laser on the bracket and adhesive can have a resultant deleterious thermal effect on the pulp of the tooth which may lead to pulpal death. A theoretical computer model of bracket, adhesive, enamel and dentin has been generated for predicting heat flow through this system. Heat fluxes at varying intensities and modes have been input into the program and the resultant temperatures at various points or nodes were determined. Further pursuit should lead to optimum parameters for laser debonding which would have minimal effects on the pulp.

  2. Using humor in systematic desensitization to reduce fear.

    Ventis, W L; Higbee, G; Murdock, S A

    2001-04-01

    Effectiveness of systematic desensitization for fear reduction, using humorous hierarchy scenes without relaxation, was tested. Participants were 40 students highly fearful of spiders. Using a 24-item behavioral approach test with an American tarantula, participants were matched on fear level and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: (a) systematic desensitization, (b) humor desensitization, and (c) untreated controls. Each participant was seen for 6 sessions, including pretest and posttest. Analyses of covariance of posttest scores revealed that the 2 treatment groups showed greater reduction in fear than the controls on 3 measures but did not differ from each other. Therefore, humor in systematic desensitization reduced fear as effectively as more traditional desensitization. This finding may have therapeutic applications; however, it may also be applicable in advertising to desensitize fear of a dangerous product, such as cigarettes.

  3. GABAB receptor phosphorylation regulates KCTD12-induced K+ current desensitization

    Adelfinger, L; Turecek, R; Ivankova, K

    2014-01-01

    released from the G-protein. Receptor-activated K+ currents desensitize in the sustained presence of agonist to avoid excessive effects on neuronal activity. Desensitization of K+ currents integrates distinct mechanistic underpinnings. GABAB receptor activity reduces protein kinase-A activity, which...... reduces phosphorylation of serine-892 in GABAB2 and promotes receptor degradation. This form of desensitization operates on the time scale of several minutes to hours. A faster form of desensitization is induced by the auxiliary subunit KCTD12, which interferes with channel activation by binding to the G......-protein βγ subunits. Here we show that the two mechanisms of desensitization influence each other. Serine-892 phosphorylation in heterologous cells rearranges KCTD12 at the receptor and slows KCTD12-induced desensitization. Likewise, protein kinase-A activation in hippocampal neurons slows fast...

  4. Useless brackets in arithmetic expressions with mixed operations

    Gunnarsson, Robert; Hernell, Bernt; Sönnerhed, Wang Wei

    2012-01-01

    There can be different intentions with brackets in mathematical expressions. It has previously been suggested that mathematically useless brackets can be educationally useful when learning the order of operations in expressions with mixed operations. This paper reports how students (12-13 years) deal with the implicit mental conflict between brackets as a necessary part of the order of operations and brackets to emphasize precedence. The students taking part in this quasi-experimental study w...

  5. Desensitization: Overcoming the Immunologic Barriers to Transplantation

    Choi, Jua; Vo, Ashley; Peng, Alice; Jordan, Stanley C.

    2017-01-01

    HLA (Human Leucocyte Antigen) sensitization is a significant barrier to successful kidney transplantation. It often translates into difficult crossmatch before transplant and increased risk of acute and chronic antibody mediated rejection after transplant. Over the last decade, several immunomodulatory therapies have emerged allowing for increased access to kidney transplantation for the immunologically disadvantaged group of HLA sensitized end stage kidney disease patients. These include IgG inactivating agents, anti-cytokine antibodies, costimulatory molecule blockers, complement inhibitors, and agents targeting plasma cells. In this review, we discuss currently available agents for desensitization and provide a brief analysis of data on novel biologics, which will likely improve desensitization outcomes, and have potential implications in treatment of antibody mediated rejection. PMID:28127571

  6. Desensitization of parathyroid hormone receptors on cultured bone cells

    Pun, K.K.; Ho, P.W.; Nissenson, R.A.; Arnaud, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    Administration of excessive amounts of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the treatment of osteoporosis can reverse the beneficial effects of a low-dose, intermittent regime. To investigate the direct actions and the possible cellular mechanisms of PTH in inducing desensitization of PTH receptors, we studied the effects of desensitization on rat osteoblastic UMR-106 cells. When the osteoblasts were preincubated with bPTH-(1-34), complete refractoriness to a subsequent challenge with the hormone developed within 1 h and at hormone concentrations as low as 5 nM. When osteoblasts thus desensitized were incubated in hormone-free medium, recovery of the cAMP responses began within 2 h and reached maximum after 16 h. Cycloheximide did not affect the process of desensitization. [Nle8,Nle18,Tyr34]bPTH-(3-34)amide significantly impaired the desensitization process by PTH-(1-34) but did not have stimulatory effect on cAMP responses. No significant heterologous desensitization was obvious after preincubation with isoprenaline (50 microM), prostaglandin E1 (50 microM), or prostaglandin E2 (50 microM) for 2 h. Binding experiments with [125I]PLP-(1-36)amide after desensitization revealed that there was an approximate twofold decrease in receptor affinities as analyzed by Scatchard analysis, showing that the decrease in affinity was prominent in the process of desensitization. When the cells were treated with monensin during desensitization, PTH challenge after desensitization produced significantly lower cyclic AMP responses. Recovery after desensitization occurred over a period of 16 h. Inclusion of monensin, but not cycloheximide, impaired the recovery. The results show that homologous desensitization of rat osteoblasts to PTH is brought about by the occupancy of receptors by PTH-(1-34) but not by cAMP generation itself

  7. Nursing Care of Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy Desensitization: Part II.

    Jakel, Patricia; Carsten, Cynthia; Carino, Arvie; Braskett, Melinda

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapy desensitization protocols are safe, but labor-intensive, processes that allow patients with cancer to receive medications even if they initially experienced severe hypersensitivity reactions. Part I of this column discussed the pathophysiology of hypersensitivity reactions and described the development of desensitization protocols in oncology settings. Part II incorporates the experiences of an academic medical center and provides a practical guide for the nursing care of patients undergoing chemotherapy desensitization.
.

  8. 21 CFR 872.5470 - Orthodontic plastic bracket.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orthodontic plastic bracket. 872.5470 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5470 Orthodontic plastic bracket. (a) Identification. An orthodontic plastic bracket is a plastic device intended to be bonded to a tooth to apply...

  9. Using a Bracketed Analysis as a Learning Tool.

    Main, Keith

    1995-01-01

    Bracketed analysis is an examination of experiences within a defined time frame or "bracket." It assumes the ability to learn from any source: behaviors, emotions, rational and irrational thought, insights, reflections, and reactions. A bracketed analysis to determine what went wrong with a grant proposal that missed deadlines…

  10. Desensitization and recovery of phototropic responsiveness in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Janoudi, A. K.; Poff, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    Phototropism is induced by blue light, which also induces desensitization, a partial or total loss of phototropic responsiveness. The fluence and fluence-rate dependence of desensitization and recovery from desensitization have been measured for etiolated and red light (669-nm) preirradiated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. The extent of desensitization increased as the fluence of the desensitizing 450-nm light was increased from 0.3 to 60 micromoles m-2 s-1. At equal fluences, blue light caused more desensitization when given at a fluence rate of 1.0 micromole m-2 s-1 than at 0.3 micromole m-2 s-1. In addition, seedlings irradiated with blue light at the higher fluence rate required a longer recovery time than seedlings irradiated at the lower fluence rate. A red light preirradiation, probably mediated via phytochrome, decreased the time required for recovery from desensitization. The minimum time for detectable recovery was about 65 s, and the maximum time observed was about 10 min. It is proposed that the descending arm of the fluence-response relationship for first positive phototropism is a consequence of desensitization, and that the time threshold for second positive phototropism establishes a period during which recovery from desensitization occurs.

  11. Poisson brackets for fluids and plasmas

    Morrison, P.J.

    1982-01-01

    Noncanonical yet Hamiltonian descriptions are presented of many of the non-dissipative field equations that govern fluids and plasmas. The dynamical variables are the usually encountered physical variables. These descriptions have the advantage that gauge conditions are absent, but at the expense of introducing peculiar Poisson brackets. Clebsch-like potential descriptions that reverse this situations are also introduced

  12. Aspirin desensitization in aspirin-sensitive asthma: failure to maintain a desensitized state during prolonged therapy.

    Dankner, R E; Wedner, H J

    1983-11-01

    A patient with a history of asthma induced by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was found to be ASA sensitive when orally challenged with ASA. She was successfully desensitized using incremental doses of ASA given orally and maintained on ASA or other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory (NSAI) agents for the treatment of arthritis. After 6 months of uninterrupted therapy the patient developed asthmatic symptoms that were related to ASA and NSAI drug therapy. Although desensitization may be achieved in patients with ASA-sensitive asthma, sensitivity may recur despite continuous therapy.

  13. [Precision of three-dimensional printed brackets].

    Zhang, D; Wang, L C; Zhou, Y H; Liu, X M; Li, J

    2017-08-18

    This study was based on digital orthodontic diagnosis work flow for indirect bonding transfer tray model design and three-dimensional (3D) printing, and the aim of this paper was to inspect the dimensional accuracyof 3D printed brackets, which is the foundation of the follow up work and hoped that will illuminate the clinical application of the digital orthodontics work flow. The samples which consisted of 14 cases of patients with malocclusion from Department of Orthodontics Peking University were selected, including 8 cases with tooth extraction and 6 cases without tooth extraction. All the 14 patients were taken intra-oral scan (Trios 3Shape, Denmark) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT, NewTom 3G volumetric scanner, Aperio Service,Italy)shooting after periodontal treatment. STL data and DICOM data were obtained from intraoral scans and CBCT images.Data segmentation, registration, fusion, automatic tooth arrangement, virtual positioning of orthodontic appliance and conversion the coordinates of malocclusion model were all done with self-programming software. The data of 3D printing model with brackets on it were output finally and printed out with EDEN260V (Objet Geometries, Israel) to make indirect bonding transfer tray. Digital vernier caliper was used to measure the length and width of upper and lower left brackets and buccal tubes on those 3D models after removal of surrounding supporting material by ultrasonic vibration and water-spray. Intra-examiner reliability was assessed by using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), and one-sample T test was used to compare the measurements with the standard dimensional data of the brackets. There were significant differences which range in 0.04-0.17 mm between the 13 items out of the 19 measurement items. Except for the length of the lower left premolars'brackets, mean values of the other items were greater than the test value. Although the measurement results in the width of brackets and the width and

  14. Desensitization to Oxcarbazepine: Long-Term Efficacy and Tolerability

    Lee, Jiwon; Park, Eu Gene; Lee, Munhyang

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Antiepileptic drug (AED)-associated cutaneous adverse drug reactions can lead to the discontinuation of medications. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term efficacy and safety of performing desensitization to oxcarbazepine. Methods This study involved 20 patients who exhibited cutaneous adverse drug reactions associated with oxcarbazepine use between July 2009 and March 2016 at Samsung Medical Center. All of the participants had to discontinue oxcarbazepine despite presenting initially positive responses. Human leukocyte antigen genotyping was performed to detect the genetic predisposition to Stevens-Johnson syndrome. The desensitization to oxcarbazepine was performed with a starting dosage of 0.1 mg/day. Efficacy was evaluated by comparing the frequency of seizures before and at 1 and 3 years after desensitization. Adverse events occurring during desensitization and the retention rate after desensitization were also investigated. Results Nineteen patients (95%) safely completed the desensitization protocol. One withdrew owing to emotional problems that appeared to be associated with oxcarbazepine. The follow-up period was 4.6±1.2 years (mean±SD), and oxcarbazepine was maintained for more than 3 years after desensitization in 15 patients (83.3%). The response rates were 84.2% and 77.8% at 1 and 3 years after desensitization, respectively. Eight patients remained seizure-free for 3 years, and two discontinued all AEDs. Transient adverse reactions such as mild rash and itching were reported by five patients during desensitization. Conclusions This study has demonstrated the long-term efficacy and safety of desensitization to oxcarbazepine in patients exhibiting cutaneous adverse drug reactions. This favorable outcome should encourage the implementation of desensitization in patients presenting with hypersensitivity to oxcarbazepine as an alternative strategy in clinical practice. PMID:27730770

  15. A study in vitro on radiation effects by Er:YAG laser combined with the fluorine therapy in the acid resistance of the dental enamel submitted to orthodontical brackets

    Yoshiyasu, Roseli Y.A.

    2001-01-01

    Several researches have been demonstrating an increase in the resistance acid of the enamel surface when irradiated by some lasers types as Nd:YAG, C0 2 , Er:YAG, and others, mainly when combined with the fluoride therapy after the irradiation of the laser. This study in vitro used the laser of Er:YAG which density of energy of 8.1 J/cm 2 on the enamel about of orthodontical brackets of teeth extracted pre-molars. These teeth were then submitted to a rich way in S. mutans for twenty one days. The cases were analyzed: (1) enamel surface without any treatment, (2) enamel surface without any irradiation laser, but with therapy with acidulated phosphate fluoride, (3) enamel surface irradiated with laser of Er:YAG and (4) enamel surface irradiated by laser of Er:YAG and with application of acidulated phosphate fluoride. The results were analyzed through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The morphologic changes observed to the scanning electron microscopy suggest increase in the acid resistance of the enamel surface. However, to the optical microscopy, it was still possible to visualize undesirable white stains in the surface of the enamel. (author)

  16. Desensitization and recovery of phototropic responsiveness in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Janoudi, A.K.; Poff, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    Phototropism is induced by blue light, which also induces desensitization, a partial or total loss of phototropic responsiveness. The fluence and fluence-rate dependence of densensitization and recovery from desensitization have been measured for etiolated and red light (669-nm) preirradiated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. The extent of desensitization increased as the fluence of the desensitizing 450-nm light was increased from 0.3 to 60 μmol m -2 s -1 . At equal fluences, blue light caused more desensitization when given at a fluence rate of 1.0 μmol m -2 s -1 than at 0.3 μmol m -2 s -1 . In addition, seedlings irradiated with blue light at the higher fluence rate required a longer recovery time than seedlings irradiated at the lower fluence rate. A red light preirradiation, probably mediated via phytochrome, decreased the time required for recovery from desensitization. The minimum time for detectable recovery was about 65 s, and the maximum time observed was about 10 min. It is proposed that the descending arm of the fluence-response relationship for first positive phototropism is a consequence of desensitization, and that the time threshold for second positive phototropism establishes a period during which recovery from desensitization occurs. 11 refs., 6 figs

  17. EMG Biofeedback Training Versus Systematic Desensitization for Test Anxiety Reduction

    Romano, John L.; Cabianca, William A.

    1978-01-01

    Biofeedback training to reduce test anxiety among university students was investigated. Biofeedback training with systematic desensitization was compared to an automated systematic desensitization program not using EMG feedback. Biofeedback training is a useful technique for reducing test anxiety, but not necessarily more effective than systematic…

  18. Transfer, Behavioral Improvement, and Anxiety Reduction in Systematic Desensitization

    Kennedy, Thomas D.; Kimura, Harry K.

    1974-01-01

    Degree of transfer and fear change associated with four levels of desensitization, pseudodesensitization, and no treatment were assessed in snakephobic students. Desensitization subjects reported significantly less anxiety than no-treatment controls when repeating their highest pretreatment responses, but were no different from either control…

  19. Hypnosis Versus Systematic Desensitization in the Treatment of Test Anxiety

    Melnick, Joseph; Russell, Ronald W.

    1976-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of systematic desensitization and the directed experience hypnotic technique in reducing self-reported test anxiety and increasing the academic performance of test-anxious undergraduates (N=36). The results are discussed as evidence for systematic desensitization as the more effective treatment in reducing…

  20. Galvanic Skin Response and Reported Anxiety During Systematic Desensitization

    Hyman, Edward T.; Gale, Elliot N.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the GSR during systematic desensitization. Three groups of females each were preselected for high snake fear. Outcome measures indicated that the desensitization group reduced phobic behavior most, followed by the relaxation group, and then the exposure groups. (Author)

  1. Therapist Warmth: Necessary or Sufficient Condition in Behavioral Desensitization?

    Wolowitz, Howard Martin

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the Morris and Suckerman report on experimental studies testing the Rogerian hypothesis that phobic desensitization occurs as a function of therapist warmth versus the behavioral explanation that desensitization is a function of reciprocal inhibition. Morris and Suckerman respond to the critique. (Author/EJT)

  2. Effects of Modeling and Desensitation in Reducing Dentist Phobia

    Shaw, David W.; Thoresen, Carl E.

    1974-01-01

    Many persons avoid dentists and dental work. The present study explored the effects of systematic desensitization and social-modeling treatments with placebo and assessment control groups. Modeling was more effective than desensitization as shown by the number of subjects who went to a dentist. (Author)

  3. Semantics Desensitization: A Paradigmatic Intervention Approach to Anxiety Disorders.

    Hekmat, Hamid; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Assigned speech-anxious clients (N=30) to one of the following treatment conditions: (1) semantic desensitization; (2) attention placebo and (3) waiting list control. Results indicated that semantic desensitization therapy reduced both the affective and behavioral components of anxiety as compared to the two controls. (LLL)

  4. Desensitization to Mycofenolate Mofetil: a novel 12 step protocol.

    Smith, M; Gonzalez-Estrada, A; Fernandez, J; Subramanian, A

    2016-07-01

    The use of MMF has become standard practice in many solid organ transplant recipients due its efficacy and favorable risk profile compared to other immunosuppressants. There has been a single case report of successful MMF desensitization. However, this protocol did not follow current Drug practice parameters. We report a successful desensitization to MMF in a double heart-kidney transplant recipient.

  5. In Vitro Desensitization of Human Skin Mast Cells

    Zhao, Wei; Gomez, Gregorio; Macey, Matthew; Kepley, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    Desensitization is a clinical procedure whereby incremental doses of a drug are administered over several hours to a sensitive patient until a therapeutic dose and clinical tolerance are achieved. Clinical tolerance may occur in part by attenuating the mast cell response. In the present study, primary human skin mast cells were used to establish and characterize an in vitro model of desensitization. Mast cells in culture were armed with allergen-specific (4-hydroxy-3-nitro-phenylacety and Der p2) and non-specific IgE antibodies, and then desensitized by incremental exposures to 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacety-BSA. This desensitization procedure abrogated the subsequent degranulation response to the desensitizing allergen, to an unrelated allergen, and to IgG anti-FcεRI, but not to C5a, substance P, compound 48/80, and calcium ionophore. Desensitized cells regained their FcεRI-dependent degranulation capability by 24–48 h after free allergen had been removed. Therefore, sensitized human skin mast cells are reversibly desensitized in vitro by exposure to incremental doses of that allergen, which also cross-desensitizes them to an unrelated allergen. PMID:22009002

  6. Desensitization in patients with beta-lactam drug allergy.

    Yusin, J S; Klaustermeyer, W; Simmons, C W; Baum, M

    2013-01-01

    Patients with a history of beta-lactam antibiotic allergy are often admitted to the hospital with severe or life-threatening infections requiring beta-lactam antibiotics. Strict avoidance of beta lactams to such patients may prevent them from getting adequate coverage and can lead to an increase in the use of alternative antibiotics, which can predispose to antibiotic resistance. Past studies revealed a lower incidence of pen allergy then patients' histories suggest. Fortunately today, there are three options for patients presenting with a history of beta-lactam allergy. Penicillin skin testing, beta-lactam challenge or beta-lactam desensitization. Recently Pre Pen has been FDA re-approved and when combined with Pen G is a valid way to determine if patients are able to tolerate beta-lactam antibiotic. When these agents are not available one must decide about desensitization or challenge. When a patient has a positive penicillin skin test, desensitization or beta-lactam avoidance are the only options. This paper reviews the safety of beta-lactam desensitization. To perform a chart review on patients desensitised with beta lactam to determine if desensitizations can be performed safely without minimal complications. A retrospective chart review was performed on allergy and immunology inpatient consultations for beta-lactam desensitization between September 2003 and August 2006 at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Centre in Los Angeles. Patient data and outcomes of desensitization were analysed. A total of 13 intravenous desensitizations were performed on 12 patients. The patients consisted of eight females and four males with an average age of 65 years. Age range was 36-92 years old. All 13 intravenous desensitizations were completed without complications. No patient required a slower rate of desensitization or discontinuance of the desensitization. Patients were able to tolerate the initial therapeutic dose of their beta-lactam antibiotic and were then able to complete full

  7. Enzyme-potentiated desensitization in otolaryngic allergy.

    Pulec, Jack L

    2002-03-01

    This is a preliminary report of a new method of treating otolaryngic allergy with enzyme-potentiated desensitization (EPD). The nature of EPD and its use in otolaryngology are described. Thirty-six patients have been treated and followed in a private medical practice since February 1997. This article reviews the clinical features of EPD and provides six cases as examples; the clinical features described include allergic rhinitis, serous otitis media, asthma, dermatitis, fixed food allergy, and Ménière's disease. EPD is an effective technique for the treatment of otolaryngic allergy and offers advantages over conventional techniques.

  8. Microbial profile on metallic and ceramic bracket materials.

    Anhoury, Patrick; Nathanson, Dan; Hughes, Christopher V; Socransky, Sigmund; Feres, Magda; Chou, Laisheng Lee

    2002-08-01

    The placement of orthodontic appliances creates a favorable environment for the accumulation of a microbiota and food residues, which, in time, may cause caries or exacerbate any pre-existing periodontal disease. The purpose of the present study was to compare the total bacterial counts present on metallic and ceramic orthodontic brackets in order to clarify which bracket type has a higher plaque retaining capacity and to determine the levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp on both types of brackets. Thirty-two metallic brackets and 24 ceramic brackets were collected from orthodontic patients at the day of debonding. Two brackets were collected from each patient; one from a maxillary central incisor and another from a maxillary second premolar. Sixteen patients who used metallic brackets and 12 patients who used ceramic brackets were sampled. Bacterial populations were studied using "checkerboard" DNA-DNA hybridization, which uses DNA probes to identify species in complex microbial samples. The significance of differences between groups was determined using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Results showed no significant differences between metallic and ceramic brackets with respect to the caries-inducing S mutans and L acidophilus spp counts. Mean counts of 8 of 35 additional species differed significantly between metallic and ceramic brackets with no obvious pattern favoring one bracket type over the other. This study showed higher mean counts of Treponema denticola, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum ss vincentii, Streptococcus anginosus, and Eubacterium nodatum on metallic brackets while higher counts of Eikenella corrodens, Campylobacter showae, and Selenomonas noxia were found on ceramic brackets.

  9. Orthodontic Bracket Manufacturing Tolerances and Dimensional Differences between Select Self-Ligating Brackets

    Major, Thomas W.; Carey, Jason P.; Nobes, David S.; Major, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    In all manufacturing processes there are tolerances; however, orthodontic bracket manufacturers seldom state the slot dimensional tolerances. This experiment develops a novel method of analyzing slot profile dimensions using photographs of the slot. Five points are selected along each wall, and lines are fitted to define a trapezoidal slot shape. This investigation measures slot height at the slot's top and bottom, angles between walls, slot taper, and the linearity of each wall. Slot dimensions for 30 upper right central incisor self-ligating stainless steel brackets from three manufacturers were evaluated. Speed brackets have a slot height 2% smaller than the nominal 0.559 mm size and have a slightly convergent taper. In-Ovation brackets have a divergent taper at an average angle of 1.47 degrees. In-Ovation is closest to the nominal value of slot height at the slot base and has the smallest manufacturing tolerances. Damon Q brackets are the most rectangular in shape, with nearly 90-degree corners between the slot bottom and walls. Damon slot height is on average 3% oversized. PMID:20981299

  10. Conceptual design for PSP mounting bracket

    Ransom, G.; Stein, R. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Protective structural packages (PSP`s or overpacks) used to ship 2 1/2-ton UF{sub 6} product cylinders are bolted to truck trailers. All bolts penetrate two longitudinal rows of wooden planks. Removal and replacement is required at various intervals for maintenance and routine testing. A conceptual design is presented for mounting brackets which would securely attach PSP`s to trailer frames, reduce removal and replacement time, and minimize risk of personnel injury.

  11. Nambu brackets in fluid mechanics and magnetohydrodynamics

    Salazar, Roberto; Kurgansky, Michael V

    2010-01-01

    Concrete examples of the construction of Nambu brackets for equations of motion (both 3D and 2D) of Boussinesq stratified fluids and also for magnetohydrodynamical equations are given. It serves a generalization of Hamiltonian formulation for the considered equations of motion. Two alternative Nambu formulations are proposed, first by using fluid dynamical (kinetic) helicity and/or enstrophy as constitutive elements and second, by using the existing conservation laws of the governing equation.

  12. Assessment of bracket surface morphology and dimensional change

    Pillai Devu Radhakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the surface morphology and dimensional stability of the bracket slot at the onset of treatment and after 12 months of intraoral exposure. The study also compared the amount of calcium at the bracket base which indicates enamel loss among the three orthodontic brackets following debonding after 12 months of intraoral exposure. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 60 (0.022” MBT canine brackets. They were divided into three groups: self-ligating, ceramic bracket with metal slot, and stainless steel (SS brackets. The slot dimensions, micromorphologic characteristics of as-received and retrieved brackets were measured with a stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM, respectively. The amount of calcium at the bracket base which indicates enamel damage was quantified using energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX. Results: The results showed statistically significant alterations (P < 0.05 in the right vertical dimension, internal tie wing width (cervical, right and left depth of the slot (Kruskal–Wallis test. Multiple comparison using Mann–Whitney test showed that ceramic brackets underwent (P < 0.05 minimal alterations in the right vertical dimension, internal tie wing width (cervical, right and left depth of the slot (0.01 mm, −0.003 mm, 0.006 mm, −0.002 mm, respectively when compared with the changes seen in SS and self-ligating brackets. SEM analysis revealed an increase in the surface roughness of ceramic with metal slot brackets and self-ligating bracket showed the least irregularity. The presence of calcium was noted on all evaluated brackets under EDX, but ceramic with metal slot brackets showed a significantly greater amount of enamel loss (P = 0.001. Conclusion: Ceramic brackets were found to be dimensionally stable when compared to SS and self-ligating. Self-ligating bracket showed minimal surface irregularity. Ceramic with metal slot brackets showed a

  13. Effect of desensitizing toothpastes on dentin

    Shelon Cristina Souza Pinto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of toothbrushing with desensitizing toothpastes on dentin permeability and dentinal tubule occlusion. Fifty rats provided two hundred incisor teeth divided into five groups: DW, brushed with distilled water (control; FT, brushed with fluoride toothpaste; SCT, brushed with strontium chloride toothpaste; PCT, brushed with potassium citrate toothpaste; and PNT, brushed with potassium nitrate toothpaste. Cavities were prepared to expose the dentinal tubules, and the incisor teeth were brushed using the experimental agents. After each treatment, Evans blue dye solution was applied to the teeth. Dentin permeability was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-rays (EDX. There were significant differences (p < 0.0001, ANOVA among the groups regarding dentin permeability, number of dentinal tubules, diameter of dentinal tubules, and opened tubular area. In the SCT, PCT and PNT groups, opened and partially occluded tubules, deposits, and a few smear layers were observed. In the DW and FT groups, most of the dentinal tubules were open, with no deposits or smear layers on the dentin. EDX revealed peaks of calcium and phosphorus in all of the groups, as well as traces of strontium in the SCT group and of potassium in the PCT and PNT groups. Desensitizing toothpaste decreased dentin permeability, although it produced only partial dentin tubule occlusion.

  14. A comparative assessment of torque generated by lingual and conventional brackets

    Sifakakis, I.; Pandis, N.; Makou, M.; Eliades, T.; Katsaros, C.; Bourauel, C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of bracket type on the labiopalatal moments generated by lingual and conventional brackets. Incognito lingual brackets (3M Unitek), STb lingual brackets (Light Lingual System; ORMCO), In-Ovation L lingual brackets (DENTSPLY GAC), and conventional 0.018

  15. Aspirin challenge and desensitization: how, when and why.

    Cortellini, Gabriele; Caruso, Cristiano; Romano, Antonino

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the current approach to aspirin challenge (drug provocation) and/or desensitization in patients with histories of hypersensitivity reactions to it, particularly in those with cardiovascular diseases. The literature indicates that patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), including those with an acute coronary syndrome, may safely undergo low-dose aspirin challenge and/or desensitization. Recently, flowcharts regarding challenge/desensitization procedures with aspirin in patients with CAD and histories of aspirin hypersensitivity reactions have become available. Aspirin desensitization and continuous aspirin therapy constitute an effective option in patients with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-exacerbated respiratory diseases (NERD) who have suboptimally controlled asthma or rhinosinusitis, or require multiple revision polypectomies. The use of aspirin has proven to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with CAD. There is a general consensus on aspirin's effectiveness in secondary prevention of CAD. Therefore, aspirin desensitization is necessary in patients with CAD and histories of hypersensitivity reactions to it. The effectiveness of aspirin desensitization and continuous therapy in patients with NERD has been shown in numerous studies. However, shared selection criteria of candidates for aspirin challenge/desensitization procedures, and simple and homogeneous protocols are necessary. Moreover, preventive safety measures are still needed in order to reduce the potential risks of these procedures.

  16. Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Bonded to Zirconium Crowns.

    Mehmeti, Blerim; Azizi, Bleron; Kelmendi, Jeta; Iljazi-Shahiqi, Donika; Alar, Željko; Anić-Milošević, Sandra

    2017-06-01

    An increasing demand for esthetic restorations has resulted in an increased use of all-ceramic restorations, such as zirconium. However, one of the challenges the orthodontist must be willing to face is how to increase bond strength between the brackets and various ceramic restorations.Bond strength can beaffected bybracket type, by the material that bracketsaremade of, and their base surface design or retention mode. ​: A im: of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the shear bond strength (SBS) of metallic and ceramic orthodontic brackets bonded to all-zirconium ceramic surfaces used for prosthetic restorations, and also to evaluate the fracture mode of these two types of orthodontic brackets. Twenty samples/semi-crowns of all-zirconium ceramic, on which orthodontic brackets were bonded, 10 metallic and 10 ceramic polycrystalline brackets, were prepared for this research. SBS has been testedby Universal Testing Machine, with a load applied using a knife edged rod moving at a fixed rate of 1 mm/min, until failure occurred. The force required to debond the brackets was recorded in Newton, then SBS was calculated to MPa. In addition, the samples were analyzed using a digital camera magnifier to determine Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). Statistical data were processed using t-test, and the level of significance was set at α = 0.05. Higher shear bond strength values were observed in metallic brackets bonded to zirconium crowns compared tothoseof ceramic brackets, with a significant difference. During the test, two of the ceramic brackets were partially or totally damaged. Metallic brackets, compared to ceramic polycrystalline brackets, seemed tocreate stronger adhesion with all-zirconium surfaces due to their better retention mode. Also, ceramic brackets showed higher fragility during debonding.

  17. Quantitative analysis of enamel on debonded orthodontic brackets.

    Cochrane, Nathan J; Lo, Thomas W G; Adams, Geoffrey G; Schneider, Paul M

    2017-09-01

    Iatrogenic damage to the tooth surface in the form of enamel tearouts can occur during removal of fixed orthodontic appliances. The aim of this study was to assess debonded metal and ceramic brackets attached with a variety of bonding materials to determine how frequently this type of damage occurs. Eighty-one patients close to finishing fixed orthodontic treatment were recruited. They had metal brackets bonded with composite resin and a 2-step etch-and-bond technique or ceramic brackets bonded with composite resin and a 2-step etch-and- bond technique, and composite resin with a self-etching primer or resin-modified glass ionomer cement. Debonded brackets were examined by backscattered scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy to determine the presence and area of enamel on the base pad. Of the 486 brackets collected, 26.1% exhibited enamel on the bonding material on the bracket base pad. The incidences of enamel tearouts for each group were metal brackets, 13.3%; ceramic brackets, 30.2%; composite resin with self-etching primer, 38.2%; and resin-modified glass ionomer cement, 21.2%. The percentage of the bracket base pad covered in enamel was highly variable, ranging from 0% to 46.1%. Enamel damage regularly occurred during the debonding process with the degree of damage being highly variable. Damage occurred more frequently when ceramic brackets were used (31.9%) compared with metal brackets (13.3%). Removal of ceramic brackets bonded with resin-modified glass ionomer cement resulted in less damage compared with the resin bonding systems. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Antibacterial and antiadherent properties of silver dioxide-coated brackets

    Rizwan A Gilani; S M Laxmikanth; C S Ramachandra; Sangeeta L Prasad; Sushruth Shetty; S D Vasudevan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Enamel demineralization after fixed orthodontic treatment can occur in 50% of patients. Brackets play a significant role in enamel demineralization. Silver has already been prooved to have antibacterial properties. Hence the present study is conducted to assess the antiadherent and antibacterial properties of photocatalytic silver dioxide (AgO2) surface modified stainless steel orthodontic brackets against S. mutans. Materials and Methods: 80 stainless steel brackets of maxillar...

  19. Rituximab desensitization in three patients with severe rituximab allergy.

    Öztürk, Erman; Özyiğit, Leyla Pur; Öztürk, Ayşe Bilge; Akay, Meltem Olga; Çetiner, Mustafa; Ferhanoğlu, Burhan

    Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets CD20 positive B cells and has a positive effect on both overall and progression-free survival in B-cell lymphoid malignancies. Combination rituximab with chemotherapy treatment provide survival improvement. Although rituximab is an important treatment option in hematological malignancies, the risk of allergic reactions is high. These reactions are usually IgE-mediated and can be varied in regard of severity from urticaria to anaphylaxis. It is an option to interrupt the treatment and ommit rituximab therapy who had allergic reactions. Drug desensitization is another option and successful results have been reported by applying desensitization to such reactions. Drug desensitization alters the immune response to induce a state of temporary clinical tolerance to the allergic drug by giving gradual increasing of doses of drug at fixed time intervals. Herein, we present 3 cases successfully treated with rituximab desensitization. The cases were using rituximab with the diagnosis of Burkitt lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and marginal zone lymphoma, respectively. Two cases had grade 2 and 1 case had grade 3 systemic allergic reaction with rituximab. There was no known allergy history in all 3 cases. All patients tolerated the desensitization protocol. The subsequent treatments of the patients were also given by desensitization protocol. A total of 12 desensitizations were administered to 3 cases. No severe or life-threating reactions were observed in subsequent applications. To date applying desensitization protocols ensure rituximab treatment safely. Rituximab desensitization can be performed at trained allergy centers, and it may be an appropriate option for rituximab allergic patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental study of some mounting brackets to support fuel elements

    Aubert, M.; Poglia, S.; Roche, R.

    1958-09-01

    In an atomic pile with vertical channels, fuel elements are stacked on one another. According to a possible assembly, fuel element can be contained by a graphite sleeve and be supported by a mounting bracket in this sleeve. Sleeves are then stacked on one another. The authors report the investigation of different designs for these mounting brackets. They describe their mechanical role and their mechanical, aerodynamic, neutronic and test conditions. They report tests performed on brackets made in graphite and on brackets made in stainless steel and graphite, and discuss the obtained results

  1. Biodegradation of orthodontic metallic brackets and associated implications for friction.

    Regis, Saulo; Soares, Paulo; Camargo, Elisa S; Guariza Filho, Odilon; Tanaka, Orlando; Maruo, Hiroshi

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of clinical exposure on the surface morphology, dimensions, and frictional behavior of metallic orthodontic brackets. Ninety-five brackets, of 3 commercial brands, were retrieved from patients who had finished orthodontic treatment. As-received brackets, matched by type and brand, were used for comparisons. Surface morphology and precipitated material were analyzed by optical and scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis. Bracket dimensions were measured with a measuring microscope. Resistance to sliding on a stainless steel wire was assessed. Retrieved brackets showed surface alterations from corrosion, wear, and plastic deformation, especially in the external slot edges. Film deposition over the alloy surface was observed to a variable extent. The main elements in the film were carbon, oxygen, calcium, and phosphorus. The as-received brackets showed differences (P brackets' slots. The frictional behavior differed among brands. Retrieved brackets of 2 brands showed 10% to 20% increases in resistance to sliding. Metallic brackets undergo significant degradation during orthodontic treatment, possibly with increased friction. At present, it is difficult to predict the impact of these changes on the clinical performance of orthodontic components. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Outpatient desensitization in selected patients with platinum hypersensitivity reactions.

    O'Malley, David M; Vetter, Monica Hagan; Cohn, David E; Khan, Ambar; Hays, John L

    2017-06-01

    Platinum-based chemotherapies are a standard treatment for both initial and recurrent gynecologic cancers. Given this widespread use, it is important to be aware of the features of platinum hypersensitivity reactions and the subsequent treatment of these reactions. There is also increasing interest in the development of desensitization protocols to allow patients with a history of platinum hypersensitivity to receive further platinum based therapy. In this review, we describe the management of platinum hypersensitivity reactions and the desensitization protocols utilized at our institution. We also describe the clinical categorizations utilized to triage patients to appropriate desensitization protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Performing Aspirin Desensitization in Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease.

    Waldram, Jeremy D; Simon, Ronald A

    2016-11-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is characterized by chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, asthma, and reactions to cyclooxygenase-1-inhibiting drugs. This condition is often refractory to standard medical treatments and results in aggressive nasal polyposis that often requires multiple sinus surgeries. Aspirin desensitization followed by daily aspirin therapy is an important treatment option, and its efficacy has been validated in multiple research studies. Aspirin desensitization is not without risk, but specific protocols and recommendations exist to mitigate the risk. Most patients with AERD can undergo aspirin desensitization in an outpatient setting under the supervision of an allergist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of frictional forces of polycarbonate self-ligating brackets.

    Fernandes, Daniel J; Miguel, José Augusto M; Quintão, Catia C A; Elias, Carlos N

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the frictional forces generated by ceramic- (Opal, Ultradent) and glass-fiber-reinforced polycarbonate self-ligating brackets (Oyster, Gestenco) and compare the effectiveness of these ligatureless systems with glass-fiber-reinforced polycarbonate conventional brackets (Blonde, Gestenco). The hypothesis is that there is no difference between frictional forces generated by ceramic- and glass-fiber-reinforced polycarbonate self-ligating and glass-fiber-reinforced polycarbonate conventional brackets. Twelve preadjusted 0.022 3 0.028-inch maxillary canine brackets were tested, divided into three groups: Opal, Oyster, and Blonde. Frictional tests were conducted with the Emic DL 10000 testing machine with a 20 N loadcell for 40 seconds at a 0.5 cm/min speed. Each bracket-wire combination was tested five times. The data generated were analyzed by parametric analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) and Bonferroni tests. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences for the three groups (Pfrictional forces of the Oyster glass-fiber-reinforced polycarbonate self-ligating brackets were significantly lower (37.0 ± 8.9 cN) than those of the Opal ceramic-reinforced polycarbonate self-ligating brackets (49.5 ± 10.1 cN), while the Blonde glass-fiber-reinforced conventional bracket frictional forces were 105.8 ± 6.4 cN. Oyster glass-fiber-reinforced polycarbonate brackets produced less friction than Opal ceramic-reinforced polycarbonate brackets. The polycarbonate ligatureless system showed significantly lower frictional forces compared to Blonde conventional polycarbonate brackets tied with elastomeric ligatures. The study rejected the initial hypothesis because there are significant differences of frictional forces among the tested systems. © 2010 BY QUINTESSENCE PUBLISHING CO, INC.

  5. Microbial complexes levels in conventional and self-ligating brackets.

    Bergamo, Ana Zilda Nazar; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Andrucioli, Marcela Cristina Damião; do Nascimento, Cássio; Pedrazzi, Vinícius; Matsumoto, Mírian Aiko Nakane

    2017-05-01

    The aims were to evaluate the levels of bacterial species in saliva and in situ and to assess whether the design of brackets influences the risk of developing periodontal disease. Twenty patients (13.3 mean age) were bonded with self-ligating brackets and a conventional bracket. Saliva was collected before bonding and 30 and 60 days after bonding. One sample of each bracket was removed 30 and 60 days after bonding. The analysis was determined by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. The data was evaluated by the non-parametric test. A significant increase in the levels of bacterial species in the saliva occurred in 15 of the 22 analyzed species. The self-ligating brackets presented the highest incidence percentages for the orange and red complexes 60 days after bonding. In situ analyses showed different patterns according to the bracket design. The levels of Campylobacter rectus showed significant differences (p = 0.011) 60 days after bonding among the three brackets; the highest values were observed in the In-Ovation®R bracket. The bracket design seems to influence the levels of bacterial species involved in periodontal disease. Considering the wide variety of bacterial species, additional studies are needed to aid in the establishment of effective protocols to prevent the development of periodontal disease during orthodontic treatment. A dynamic alteration in the oral microbiota may lead to inflammatory reactions in the supporting soft and hard tissues. The different types of brackets interfere with bacterial adherence. Bracket design should be considered in orthodontic treatment.

  6. Desensitization to darunavir in a pediatric patient

    Julio César Cambray-Gutiérrez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of HIV infection requires the combination of multiple antiretroviral drugs, known as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART; however, up to 84% of patients experience adverse drug effects that lead to discontinuation within first months of treatment. Skin manifestations are reported to 22% of patients. The severity of these is variable, such as erythema multiforme, rash, hives and severe skin reactions at less than 2%. Mild rashes, usually transient and self-limiting, while severe reactions require immediately remove the drug involved to prevent progression of the reaction. Only in those cases where the offending drug does not have another alternative and documented the reaction is mediated type I hypersensitivity mechanisms, can be performed desensitization protocol.

  7. Effects of recycling and bonding agent application on bond strength of stainless steel orthodontic brackets

    Bahnasi, Faisal I.; Abd-Rahman, Aida NA.; Abu-Hassan, Mohame I.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: 1) to assess different methods of recycling orthodontic brackets, 2) to evaluate Shear Bond Strength (SBS) of (a) new, (b) recycled and (c) repeated recycled stainless steel brackets (i) with and (ii) without bracket base primer. Study Design: A total of 180 extracted human premolar teeth and 180 premolar stainless steel brackets were used. One hundred teeth and 100 brackets were divided into five groups of 20-teeth each. Four methods of recycling orthodontic brackets were used in...

  8. A Comparison of Traditional and Self-Control Desensitization.

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Parks, Donald H.

    1979-01-01

    Compared effectiveness of counterconditioning and self-control models of systematic desensitization in reducing targeted and nontargeted anxieties. Treatments were equally effective in reducing and maintaining reduction of targeted anxiety, debilitating test anxiety. (Author)

  9. Systematic Versus Semantic Desensitization and Implosive Therapy: A Comparative Study

    Hekmat, Hamid

    1973-01-01

    In this study, both the semantic and systematic desensitization methods were found to be significantly more effective than the implosive therapy and the control treatments in the modification of phobic behavior among the college student population. (Author)

  10. Comparison of Anxiety Management Training and Self-Control Desensitization.

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Anxiety management training and self-control desensitization effectively reduced debilitating test anxiety and increased facilitating test anxiety. Follow-up demonstrated maintenance of debilitating test anxiety reduction. Subjects receiving treatment had significantly higher psychology grades. (Author)

  11. Contribution of Pretesting to Several Measures of Semantic Desensitization Effectiveness

    Israel, Allen C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Snake- or spider-phobic subjects (N=32) were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Subjects receiving semantic desensitization therapy showed less posttest anxiety on the semantic differential than control subjects regardless of testing condition. (Author)

  12. [Adaptive desensitization for acetylsalicylic acid hypersensitivity: A success story?].

    Mühlmeier, G; Hausch, R; Maier, H

    2015-10-01

    Adaptive desensitization still remains the only causative therapy for acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) hypersensitivity and is carried out nearly worldwide. To date there are hardly any data available on disease development under current desensitization therapy and longitudinal data in particular are missing. Out of a large collective of patients with proven hypersensitivity to ASA, 194 patients with initiated desensitization treatment were observed for periods up to 5 years (average 32 months). Patients with immediate reactions to systemic challenge tests revealed a response rate of 77% after 12 months of therapy. In this period 12% reached complete remission, 38% showed a clear reduction in symptoms, 32% reached partial remission, 13% remained unchanged and 5% suffered from disease progression. Adaptive desensitization therapy for hypersensitivity to ASA has been shown to be an effective causative therapy and chronic hyperplastic sinusitis as well as bronchial asthma could be improved. For the determination of maintenance dosages and required time periods more data are needed.

  13. Nursing Care of Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy Desensitization: Part I.

    Jakel, Patricia; Carsten, Cynthia; Braskett, Melinda; Carino, Arvie

    2016-02-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to chemotherapeutic agents can cause the discontinuation of first-line therapies. Chemotherapy desensitization is a safe, but labor-intensive, process to administer these important medications. A desensitization protocol can enable a patient to receive the entire target dose of a medication, even if the patient has a history of severe infusion reactions. In this article, the authors explain the pathophysiology of hypersensitivity reactions and describe the recent development of desensitization protocols in oncology. In part II of this article, which will appear in the April 2016 issue of the Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, the authors will give a detailed account of how a desensitization protocol is performed at an academic medical center.
.

  14. [Castleman's disease: Rapid desensitization for hypersensitivity reaction to rituximab].

    Boin, C; Lambert, S; Thomann, P; Aujoulat, O; Kieffer, P

    2016-06-01

    Rapid desensitization allows secure administration of a drug and is indicated when there is no therapeutic alternative. We report a 49-year-old patient who presented with a hypersensitivity reaction following an infusion of rituximab (375mg/m(2)) in the context of a Castleman's syndrome. After a clinical flare (splenomegaly, adenopathies) despite treatment with tocilizumab, anakinra and valganciclovir, the reintroduction of rituximab was decided, according to the rapid desensitization protocol. Four full dose desensitizations were successfully performed allowing immediate clinical improvement (apyrexia, loss of sweating and lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly partial regression) and biological (negativation of HHV8 viral load, and disappearance of neutropenia, anemia and thrombocytopenia). Rapid desensitization is a promising method for the pursuit of rituximab therapy after a hypersensitivity reaction and should be considered in patients with no acceptable therapeutic alternative. Copyright © 2015 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Crotalphine desensitizes TRPA1 ion channels to alleviate inflammatory hyperalgesia

    Bressan, E.; Touška, Filip; Vetter, I.; Kistner, K.; Kichko, T. I.; Teixeira, N. B.; Picolo, G.; Cury, Y.; Lewis, R. J.; Fischer, M. J. M.; Zimmermann, K.; Reeh, P. W.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 11 (2016), s. 2504-2516 ISSN 0304-3959 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Crotalphine * desensitization * TRPA1 * CGRP * Ciguatoxin * Bradykinin * Zymosan Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 5.445, year: 2016

  16. Formulation of Hamiltonian mechanics with even and odd Poisson brackets

    Khudaverdyan, O.M.; Nersesyan, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    A possibility is studied as to constrict the odd Poisson bracket and odd Hamiltonian by the given dynamics in phase superspace - the even Poisson bracket and even Hamiltonian so the transition to the new structure does not change the equations of motion. 9 refs

  17. Laser guided automated calibrating system for accurate bracket ...

    It is widely recognized that accurate bracket placement is of critical importance in the efficient application of biomechanics and in realizing the full potential of a preadjusted edgewise appliance. Aim: The purpose of ... placement. Keywords: Hough transforms, Indirect bonding technique, Laser, Orthodontic bracket placement ...

  18. Mandibular Dental Arch Changes with Active Self‑ligating Brackets ...

    ... with different forms of archwires with a control group in nonextraction cases. ... into three groups: Group I was treated with active self‑ligating brackets (Nexus, ... (SS) wires; Group II was treated with interactive self‑ligating bracket system ...

  19. Laser Guided Automated Calibrating System for Accurate Bracket ...

    Background: The basic premise of preadjusted bracket system is accurate bracket positioning. ... using MATLAB ver. 7 software (The MathWorks Inc.). These images are in the form of matrices of size 640 × 480. 650 nm (red light) type III diode laser is used as ... motion control and Pitch, Yaw, Roll degrees of freedom (DOF).

  20. 3D-printed orthodontic brackets - proof of concept.

    Krey, Karl-Friedrich; Darkazanly, Nawras; Kühnert, Rolf; Ruge, Sebastian

    Today, orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances is usually carried out using preprogrammed straight-wire brackets made of metal or ceramics. The goal of this study was to determine the possibility of clinically implementing a fully digital workflow with individually designed and three-dimensionally printed (3D-printed) brackets. Edgewise brackets were designed using computer-aided design (CAD) software for demonstration purposes. After segmentation of the malocclusion model generated based on intraoral scan data, the brackets were digitally positioned on the teeth and a target occlusion model created. The thus-defined tooth position was used to generate a template for an individualized arch form in the horizontal plane. The base contours of the brackets were modified to match the shape of the tooth surfaces, and a positioning guide (fabricated beforehand) was used to ensure that the brackets were bonded at the correct angle and position. The brackets, positioning guide, and retainer splint, digitally designed on the target occlusion model, were 3D printed using a Digital Light Processing (DLP) 3D printer. The archwires were individually pre-bent using the template. In the treatment sequence, it was shown for the first time that, in principle, it is possible to perform treatment with an individualized 3D-printed brackets system by using the proposed fully digital workflow. Technical aspects of the system, problems encountered in treatment, and possible future developments are discussed in this article.

  1. Linezolid desensitization for a patient with multiple medication hypersensitivity reactions.

    Bagwell, Autumn D; Stollings, Joanna L; White, Katie D; Fadugba, Olajumoke O; Choi, Jane J

    2013-01-01

    To describe a case in which a linezolid desensitization protocol was successfully used for a polymicrobial surgical wound infection in a patient with multiple drug hypersensitivity reactions. A 24-year-old woman with vocal cord dysfunction requiring tracheostomy was admitted for a surgical wound infection following a tracheostomy fistula closure procedure. The patient reported multiple antibiotic allergies including penicillins (rash), sulfonamides (rash), vancomycin (anaphylaxis), azithromycin (rash), cephalosporins (anaphylaxis), levofloxacin (unspecified), clindamycin (unspecified), and carbapenems (unspecified). Gram stain of the purulent wound drainage demonstrated mixed gram-negative and gram-positive flora, and bacterial cultures were overgrown with Proteus mirabilis, which precluded identification of other pathogens. Following failed test doses of linezolid, tigecycline, and daptomycin, all of which resulted in hypersensitivity reactions, a 16-step linezolid desensitization protocol was developed and successfully implemented without adverse reactions. The patient completed a 2-week course of antibiotic therapy that included linezolid upon finishing the desensitization protocol. Linezolid is useful in treating complicated and uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infections caused by gram-positive bacteria. With precautions, including premedication, a monitored nursing unit, and immediate availability of an emergency anaphylaxis kit, drug desensitization allows patients the ability to safely use medications to which they may have an immediate hypersensitivity reaction. Minimal data exist on linezolid desensitization protocols. Linezolid desensitization can be a viable option in patients requiring antimicrobial therapy for complicated gram-positive skin infections.

  2. Desensitization for solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Zachary, Andrea A; Leffell, Mary S

    2014-03-01

    Desensitization protocols are being used worldwide to enable kidney transplantation across immunologic barriers, i.e. antibody to donor HLA or ABO antigens, which were once thought to be absolute contraindications to transplantation. Desensitization protocols are also being applied to permit transplantation of HLA mismatched hematopoietic stem cells to patients with antibody to donor HLA, to enhance the opportunity for transplantation of non-renal organs, and to treat antibody-mediated rejection. Although desensitization for organ transplantation carries an increased risk of antibody-mediated rejection, ultimately these transplants extend and enhance the quality of life for solid organ recipients, and desensitization that permits transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells is life saving for patients with limited donor options. Complex patient factors and variability in treatment protocols have made it difficult to identify, precisely, the mechanisms underlying the downregulation of donor-specific antibodies. The mechanisms underlying desensitization may differ among the various protocols in use, although there are likely to be some common features. However, it is likely that desensitization achieves a sort of immune detente by first reducing the immunologic barrier and then by creating an environment in which an autoregulatory process restricts the immune response to the allograft. © 2014 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Physical and adhesive properties of dental enamel after radiotherapy and bonding of metal and ceramic brackets.

    Santin, Gabriela Cristina; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka; Romano, Fábio Lourenço; de Oliveira, Harley Francisco; Nelson Filho, Paulo; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino

    2015-08-01

    The increasing success rates for cancer patients treated with radiotherapy and the frequent occurrence of tooth loss during treatment have led to an increased demand for orthodontic treatment after radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate tooth enamel of irradiated teeth after the bonding and debonding of metal and ceramic brackets. Ten permanent molars were cut into enamel fragments measuring 1 mm(2) and divided into an irradiated group (total dose of 60 Gy) and a nonirradiated group. The fragments were subjected to microshear testing to evaluate whether radiotherapy altered the strength of the enamel. Furthermore, 90 prepared premolars were divided into 6 groups and subgroups (n = 15): group 1, nonirradiated and nonaged; group 2, nonirradiated and aged (thermal cycled); group 3, irradiated and aged; each group was divided into 2 subgroups: metallic and ceramic brackets. After thermal cycling and radiotherapy, the brackets were bonded onto the specimens with Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif). After 24 hours, the specimens were subjected to the shear tests. Images of the enamel surfaces were classified using the adhesive remnant index. The composite resin-enamel interface was also evaluated. Enamel fragments subjected to radiation had lower strength than did the nonirradiated samples (P enamel interface, resin tags were more extensive on irradiated tooth enamel. Radiation decreased tooth enamel strength, and the specimens treated with radiotherapy had higher frequencies of adhesive failure between the bracket and the composite resin as well as more extensive tags. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bonding brackets to porcelain: in vitro study

    Sant'Anna Eduardo Franzotti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to verify, in vitro, the effect of various porcelain surface treatments on the shear strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to porcelain and the mode of fracture after debonding. Eighty-eight samples of metallic supported feldspathic porcelain were randomly divided into four groups according to their surface preparation as follows: the porcelain was maintained intact (GI, roughened with a diamond bur (GII, etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid (GIII, or sandblasted with aluminum oxide (GIV. The specimens were treated with silane (Scothprime and brackets were bonded with Concise. Each sample was subjected to a shear load at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min and a recording was made at the point of failure. Bond strengths, adequate to withstand the application of orthodontic forces, were achieved in all groups. The Kruskal-Wallis statistical test showed no significant differences in bond strength between the groups (p>0.05. However, many more porcelain fractures occurred on deglazed porcelain. This study indicates that with the appropriate material selection, the silane/composite procedure alone may be adequate for bonding.

  5. Comparison of galvanic corrosion potential of metal injection molded brackets to that of conventional metal brackets with nickel-titanium and copper nickel-titanium archwire combinations.

    Varma, D Praveen Kumar; Chidambaram, S; Reddy, K Baburam; Vijay, M; Ravindranath, D; Prasad, M Rajendra

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the galvanic corrosion potential of metal injection molding (MIM) brackets to that of conventional brackets under similar in vitro conditions with nickel-titanium and copper nickel-titanium archwires. Twenty-five maxillary premolar MIM stainless steel brackets and 25 conventional stainless steel brackets and archwires, 0.16 inch, each 10 mm length, 25 nickeltitanium wires, 25 copper nickel-titanium wires were used. They were divided into four groups which had five samples each. Combination of MIM bracket with copper nickel-titanium wire, MIM bracket with nickel-titanium wire and conventional stainless steel brackets with copper nickel-titanium wire and conventional stainless steel brackets with nickel-titanium wires which later were suspended in 350 ml of 1 M lactic acid solution media. Galvanic corrosion potential of four groups were analyzed under similar in vitro conditions. Precorrosion and postcorrosion elemental composition of MIM and conventional stainless steel bracket by scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS) was done. MIM bracket showed decreased corrosion susceptibility than conventional bracket with copper nickeltitanium wire. Both MIM and conventional bracket showed similar corrosion resistance potential in association with nickel-titanium archwires. It seems that both brackets are more compatible with copper nickel-titanium archwires regarding the decrease in the consequences of galvanic reaction. The EDS analysis showed that the MIM brackets with copper nickel-titanium wires released less metal ions than conventional bracket with copper nickeltitanium wires. MIM brackets showed decreased corrosion susceptibility, copper nickel-titanium archwires are compatible with both the brackets than nickel-titanium archwires. Clinically MIM and conventional brackets behaved more or less similarly in terms of corrosion resistance. In order to decrease the corrosion potential of MIM

  6. Color stability of ceramic brackets immersed in potentially staining solutions.

    Guignone, Bruna Coser; Silva, Ludimila Karsbergen; Soares, Rodrigo Villamarim; Akaki, Emilio; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Pithon, Matheus Melo; Oliveira, Dauro Douglas

    2015-01-01

    To assess the color stability of five types of ceramic brackets after immersion in potentially staining solutions. Ninety brackets were divided into 5 groups (n = 18) according to brackets commercial brands and the solutions in which they were immersed (coffee, red wine, coke and artificial saliva). The brackets assessed were Transcend (3M/Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA), Radiance (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, WI, USA), Mystique (GAC International Inc., Bohemia, NY, USA) and Luxi II (Rocky Mountain Orthodontics, Denver, CO, USA). Chromatic changes were analyzed with the aid of a reflectance spectrophotometer and by visual inspection at five specific time intervals. Assessment periods were as received from the manufacturer (T0), 24 hours (T1), 72 hours (T2), as well as 7 days (T3) and 14 days (T4) of immersion in the aforementioned solutions. Results were submitted to statistical analysis with ANOVA and Bonferroni correction, as well as to a multivariate profile analysis for independent and paired samples with significance level set at 5%. The duration of the immersion period influenced color alteration of all tested brackets, even though these changes could not always be visually observed. Different behaviors were observed for each immersion solution; however, brackets immersed in one solution progressed similarly despite minor variations. Staining became more intense over time and all brackets underwent color alterations when immersed in the aforementioned solutions.

  7. Optimal design of an extrusion process for a hinge bracket

    Na, Geum Ju; Jang, Myung Geun; Kim, Jong Bong

    2016-01-01

    This study considers process design in forming a hinge bracket. A thin hinge bracket is typically produced by bending a sheet panel or welding a hollow bar into a sheet panel. However, the hinge bracket made by bending or welding does not have sufficient durability in severe operating conditions because of the stress concentration in the bended region or the low corrosion resistance of the welded region. Therefore, this study uses forming to produce the hinge bracket part of a foldable container and to ensure durability in difficult operating conditions. An extrusion process for a T-shaped hinge bracket is studied using finite element analysis. Preliminary analysis shows that a very high forging load is required to form the bracket by forging. Therefore, extrusion is considered as a candidate process. Producing the part through the extrusion process enables many brackets to be made in a single extrusion and through successive cutting of the extruded part, thereby reducing the manufacturing cost. The design focuses on reducing the extrusion load and on ensuring shape accuracy. An initial billet is designed to reduce the extrusion load and to obtain a geometrically accurate part. The extruded part is bent frequently because of uneven material flow. Thus, extrusion die geometries are designed to obtain straight parts.

  8. Optimal design of an extrusion process for a hinge bracket

    Na, Geum Ju; Jang, Myung Geun; Kim, Jong Bong [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This study considers process design in forming a hinge bracket. A thin hinge bracket is typically produced by bending a sheet panel or welding a hollow bar into a sheet panel. However, the hinge bracket made by bending or welding does not have sufficient durability in severe operating conditions because of the stress concentration in the bended region or the low corrosion resistance of the welded region. Therefore, this study uses forming to produce the hinge bracket part of a foldable container and to ensure durability in difficult operating conditions. An extrusion process for a T-shaped hinge bracket is studied using finite element analysis. Preliminary analysis shows that a very high forging load is required to form the bracket by forging. Therefore, extrusion is considered as a candidate process. Producing the part through the extrusion process enables many brackets to be made in a single extrusion and through successive cutting of the extruded part, thereby reducing the manufacturing cost. The design focuses on reducing the extrusion load and on ensuring shape accuracy. An initial billet is designed to reduce the extrusion load and to obtain a geometrically accurate part. The extruded part is bent frequently because of uneven material flow. Thus, extrusion die geometries are designed to obtain straight parts.

  9. Color stability of ceramic brackets immersed in potentially staining solutions

    Bruna Coser Guignone

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the color stability of five types of ceramic brackets after immersion in potentially staining solutions.METHODS: Ninety brackets were divided into 5 groups (n = 18 according to brackets commercial brands and the solutions in which they were immersed (coffee, red wine, coke and artificial saliva. The brackets assessed were Transcend (3M/Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA, Radiance (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, WI, USA, Mystique (GAC International Inc., Bohemia, NY, USA and Luxi II (Rocky Mountain Orthodontics, Denver, CO, USA. Chromatic changes were analyzed with the aid of a reflectance spectrophotometer and by visual inspection at five specific time intervals. Assessment periods were as received from the manufacturer (T0, 24 hours (T1, 72 hours (T2, as well as 7 days (T3 and 14 days (T4 of immersion in the aforementioned solutions. Results were submitted to statistical analysis with ANOVA and Bonferroni correction, as well as to a multivariate profile analysis for independent and paired samples with significance level set at 5%.RESULTS: The duration of the immersion period influenced color alteration of all tested brackets, even though these changes could not always be visually observed. Different behaviors were observed for each immersion solution; however, brackets immersed in one solution progressed similarly despite minor variations.CONCLUSIONS: Staining became more intense over time and all brackets underwent color alterations when immersed in the aforementioned solutions.

  10. Emerging Approaches to Food Desensitization in Children.

    Hamad, Ahmad; Burks, Wesley A

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight the recent advances in food desensitization in children with food allergy. Recent advancements in epicutaneous, sublingual, and oral immunotherapy for food allergy in the future may offer children with food allergy and their families a viable option to reduce risk or severity of anaphylaxis with phase III trials ongoing for two of these treatment modalities. Food allergy prevalence in children is estimated to be up to 8%. These children are at risk of significant allergic reactions and anaphylaxis. Food avoidance and use of antihistamines or epinephrine has been the standard of care for these patients. This approach also has a significant socioeconomic effects on patients and their families. Recent advancements in understanding food allergy have allowed for exploring new methods of treatment. There is an increasing interest in oral immunotherapy, epicutaneous immunotherapy, or sublingual immunotherapy for food allergy. There have been also innovative approaches to immunotherapy by modification of food allergens (to make them less allergenic while maintain their immunogenicity) or adding adjunctive treatments (probiotics, anti-IgE, etc.) to increase efficacy or safety.

  11. A comparative assessment of forces and moments generated by lingual and conventional brackets

    Sifakakis, I.; Pandis, N.; Makou, M.; Katsaros, C.; Eliades, T.; Bourauel, C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of bracket type on the labiopalatal forces and moments generated in the sagittal plane. Incognito lingual brackets (3M Unitek), STb lingual brackets (Light Lingual System; ORMCO), and conventional 0.018 inch slot brackets (Gemini; 3M Unitek) were bonded

  12. Desensitization to clopidogrel: a tailor-made protocol.

    Barreira, P; Cadinha, S; Malheiro, D; Moreira da Silva, J P

    2014-01-01

    Clopidogrel is an antiplatelet drug widely used for treatment and prevention of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. We report a successful desensitization to clopidogrel in a 70-year-old Caucasian man with delayed hypersensitivity (HS) reaction. He developed lip, hand and foot swelling, erythematous papular non-pruritic lesions and arthralgias 2 weeks after starting treatment with clopidogrel 75 mg/d. A 3-hour desensitization protocol was started, achieving a cumulative dose of 154 mg without any reaction, and a daily dose of 75 mg was recommended. On the 4th day, the patient developed skin lesions similar to the previously described. He was treated with topical steroids and oral antihistamines, and the daily dose of clopidogrel was reduced to 20 mg. A new desensitization protocol was established, with a slow dose increment, according to the patient's response. It was only possible to achieve the dose of 75 mg/d after 2 months. Although well tolerated by most patients, HS reactions with clopidogrel may occur and desensitization is rising as a safe alternative in those patients. In delayed reactions with cutaneous lesions, a slower desensitization protocol may be necessary, as in this case.

  13. Progress in Desensitization of the Highly HLA Sensitized Patient.

    Jordan, S C; Choi, J; Kahwaji, J; Vo, A

    2016-04-01

    The presence of HLA antibodies remains a significant and often impenetrable barrier to kidney transplantation, leading to increased morbidity and mortality for patients remaining on long-term dialysis. In recent years, a number of new approaches have been developed to overcome these barriers. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) remains the lynchpin of HLA desensitization therapy and has been shown in a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to improve transplantation rates. In addition, IVIG used in low doses with plasma exchange is a reliable protocol for desensitization. Another significant advancement was the addition of rituximab (anti-B-cell therapy) to IVIG and plasma exchange-based desensitization. This approach has significantly improved rates of transplantation and outcomes. There is limited experience with bortezomib (anti-plasma cell therapy) and eculizumab (complement inhibition) for desensitization. However, recent data from a completed trial of eculizumab failed to show a significant benefit for prevention of antibody-mediated rejection compared with standard therapy plus placebo, and bortezomib produced inconsistent results. There is a growing interest in developing new therapeutic agents for desensitization. Newer approaches that address antibody reduction with B-cell depletion are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Controlled Study to Assess the Clinical Efficacy of Totally Self-Administered Systematic Desensitization

    Rosen, Gerald M.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Highly anxious self-referred snake phobics received either (a) therapist-administered desensitization, (b) self-administered desensitization with weekly therapist phone calls, (c) totally self-administered desensitization, (d) self-administered double-blind placebo control, or (e) no treatment. Pretreatment to posttreatment measures revealed…

  15. Children's exposure to violent video games and desensitization to violence.

    Funk, Jeanne B

    2005-07-01

    Desensitization to violence is cited frequently as being an outcome of exposure to media violence and a condition that contributes to increased aggression. This article initiates the development of a conceptual model for describing possible relationships among violent video games, brain function, and desensitization by using empathy and attitudes toward violence as proxy measures of desensitization. More work is needed to understand how specific game content may affect brain activity, how brain development may be affected by heavy play at young ages, and how personality and lifestyle variables may moderate game influence. Given the current state of knowledge, recommendations are made for clinicians to help parents monitor and limit exposure to violent video games and encourage critical thinking about media violence.

  16. Desensitization of delayed-type hypersensitivity in mice: suppressive environment

    Takashi Katsura

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The systemic injection of high doses of antigen into a preimmunized animal results in transient unresponsiveness of cell-mediated immune responses. This phenomenon is known as desensitization. Serum interleukin 2 (IL-2 activity was found transiently in desensitized mice at 3 h after the antigen challenge. These mice could not reveal antigen nonspecific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH 1 d after the challenge. Specific suppression of DTH was observed at later stages. Sera from 3 h desensitized mice showed suppressive effects on DTH in preo immunized mice. Administration of recombinant IL-2 into preimmunized mice led to the failure of development of DTH to antigens. These observations suggest that IL-2 plays an important role in the suppressive environment.

  17. Comparison of Frictional Forces Generated by a New Ceramic Bracket with the Conventional Brackets using Unconventional and Conventional Ligation System and the Self-ligating Brackets: An In Vitro Study.

    Pasha, Azam; Vishwakarma, Swati; Narayan, Anjali; Vinay, K; Shetty, Smitha V; Roy, Partha Pratim

    2015-09-01

    Fixed orthodontic mechanotherapy is associated with friction between the bracket - wire - ligature interfaces during the sliding mechanics. A sound knowledge of the various factors affecting the magnitude of friction is of paramount importance. The present study was done to analyze and compare the frictional forces generated by a new ceramic (Clarity Advanced) bracket with the conventional, (metal and ceramic) brackets using unconventional and conventional ligation system, and the self-ligating (metal and ceramic) brackets in the dry condition. The various bracket wire ligation combinations were tested in dry condition. The brackets used were of 0.022″ × 0.028″ nominal slot dimension of MBT prescription: Stainless steel (SS) self-ligating bracket (SLB) of (SmartClip), SS Conventional bracket (CB) (Victory series), Ceramic SLB (Clarity SL), Conventional Ceramic bracket with metal slot (Clarity Bracket), Clarity Advanced Ceramic Brackets (Clarity(™) ADVANCED, 3M Unitek). These brackets were used with two types of elastomeric ligatures: Conventional Elastomeric Ligatures (CEL) (Clear medium mini modules) and Unconventional Elastomeric Ligatures (UEL) (Clear medium slide ligatures, Leone orthodontic products). The aligning and the retraction wires were used, i.e., 0.014″ nickel titanium (NiTi) wires and 0.019″ × 0.025″ SS wires, respectively. A universal strength testing machine was used to measure the friction produced between the different bracket, archwires, and ligation combination. This was done with the use of a custom-made jig being in position. Mean, standard deviation, and range were computed for the frictional values obtained. Results were subjected to statistical analysis through ANOVA. The frictional resistance observed in the new Clarity Advanced bracket with a conventional elastomeric ligature was almost similar with the Clarity metal slot bracket with a conventional elastomeric ligature. When using the UEL, the Clarity Advanced bracket

  18. Quantization with maximally degenerate Poisson brackets: the harmonic oscillator!

    Nutku, Yavuz

    2003-01-01

    Nambu's construction of multi-linear brackets for super-integrable systems can be thought of as degenerate Poisson brackets with a maximal set of Casimirs in their kernel. By introducing privileged coordinates in phase space these degenerate Poisson brackets are brought to the form of Heisenberg's equations. We propose a definition for constructing quantum operators for classical functions, which enables us to turn the maximally degenerate Poisson brackets into operators. They pose a set of eigenvalue problems for a new state vector. The requirement of the single-valuedness of this eigenfunction leads to quantization. The example of the harmonic oscillator is used to illustrate this general procedure for quantizing a class of maximally super-integrable systems

  19. The Kauffman bracket and the Jones polynomial in quantum gravity

    Griego, J.

    1996-01-01

    In the loop representation the quantum states of gravity are given by knot invariants. From general arguments concerning the loop transform of the exponential of the Chern-Simons form, a certain expansion of the Kauffman bracket knot polynomial can be formally viewed as a solution of the Hamiltonian constraint with a cosmological constant in the loop representation. The Kauffman bracket is closely related to the Jones polynomial. In this paper the operation of the Hamiltonian on the power expansions of the Kauffman bracket and Jones polynomials is analyzed. It is explicitly shown that the Kauffman bracket is a formal solution of the Hamiltonian constraint to third order in the cosmological constant. We make use of the extended loop representation of quantum gravity where the analytic calculation can be thoroughly accomplished. Some peculiarities of the extended loop calculus are considered and the significance of the results to the case of the conventional loop representation is discussed. (orig.)

  20. Analysis of Bracket Assembly for Portable Leak Detector Station

    ZIADA, H.H.

    1999-01-01

    This Supporting Document Presents Structural and Stress Analysis of a Portable Leak Detector Station for Tank Farms. The results show that the bracket assembly meets the requirements for dead load and natural phenomena hazards loads (seismic and wind)

  1. Null canonical formalism 1, Maxwell field. [Poisson brackets, boundary conditions

    Wodkiewicz, K [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. Fizyki Teoretycznej

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to formulate the canonical formalism on null hypersurfaces for the Maxwell electrodynamics. The set of the Poisson brackets relations for null variables of the Maxwell field is obtained. The asymptotic properties of the theory are investigated. The Poisson bracket relations for the news-functions of the Maxwell field are computed. The Hamiltonian form of the asymptotic Maxwell equations in terms of these news-functions is obtained.

  2. Clinical evaluation of the failure rates of metallic brackets

    Fábio Lourenço Romano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo the bonding of metallic orthodontic brackets with different adhesive systems. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty patients (10.5-15.1 years old who had sought corrective orthodontic treatment at a University Orthodontic Clinic were evaluated. Brackets were bonded from the right second premolar to the left second premolar in the upper and lower arches using: Orthodontic Concise, conventional Transbond XT, Transbond XT without primer, and Transbond XT associated with Transbond Plus Self-etching Primer (TPSEP. The 4 adhesive systems were used in all patients using a split-mouth design; each adhesive system was used in one quadrant of each dental arch, so that each group of 5 patients received the same bonding sequence. Initial archwires were inserted 1 week after bracket bonding. The number of bracket failures for each adhesive system was quantified over a 6-month period. RESULTS: The number of debonded brackets was: 8- Orthodontic Concise, 2- conventional Transbond XT, 9- Transbond XT without primer, and 1- Transbond XT + TPSEP. By using the Kaplan-Meier methods, statistically significant differences were found between the materials (p=0.0198, and the Logrank test identified these differences. Conventional Transbond XT and Transbond XT + TPSEP adhesive systems were statistically superior to Orthodontic Concise and Transbond XT without primer (p<0.05. There was no statistically significant difference between the dental arches (upper and lower, between the dental arch sides (right and left, and among the quadrants. CONCLUSIONS: The largest number of bracket failures occurred with Orthodontic Concise and Transbond XT without primer systems and few bracket failures occurred with conventional Transbond XT and Transbond XT+TPSEP. More bracket failures were observed in the posterior region compared with the anterior region.

  3. Corrosion behavior of self-ligating and conventional metal brackets

    Lúcio Henrique Esmeraldo Gurgel Maia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the null hypothesis that the aging process in self-ligating brackets is not higher than in conventional brackets. Methods: Twenty-five conventional (GN-3M/Unitek; GE-GAC; VE-Aditek and 25 self-ligating (SCs-3M/Unitek; INs-GAC; ECs-Aditek metal brackets from three manufacturers (n = 150 were submitted to aging process in 0.9% NaCl solution at a constant temperature of 37 ± 1ºC for 21 days. The content of nickel, chromium and iron ions in the solution collected at intervals of 7, 14 and 21 days was quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. After the aging process, the brackets were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM under 22X and 1,000X magnifications. Results: Comparison of metal release in self-ligating and conventional brackets from the same manufacturer proved that the SCs group released more nickel (p < 0.05 than the GN group after 7 and 14 days, but less chromium (p < 0.05 after 14 days and less iron (p < 0.05 at the three experimental time intervals. The INs group released less iron (p < 0.05 than the GE group after 7 days and less nickel, chromium and iron (p < 0.05 after 14 and 21 days. The ECs group released more nickel, chromium and iron (p < 0.05 than the VE group after 14 days, but released less nickel and chromium (p < 0.05 after 7 days and less chromium and iron (p < 0.05 after 21 days. The SEM analysis revealed alterations on surface topography of conventional and self-ligating brackets. Conclusions: The aging process in self-ligating brackets was not greater than in conventional brackets from the same manufacturer. The null hypothesis was accepted.

  4. Comparison between two methods for resin removing after bracket debonding

    Marchi, Rodrigo De; Marchi, Luciana Manzotti De; Terada, Raquel Sano Suga; Terada, Hélio Hissashi

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess - using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) - the effectiveness of two abrasive discs, one made from silicon and one from aluminum oxide, in removing adhesive remnants (AR) after debonding orthodontic brackets. METHODS: Ten randomly selected bovine teeth were used, i.e., 2 in the control group, and the other 8 divided into two groups, which had orthodontic brackets bonded to their surface with Concise Orthodontic Adhesive (3M). The following metho...

  5. Recovery from desensitization of IgE-dependent responses in human lung mast cells.

    Lewis, A; MacGlashan, D W; Suvarna, S K; Peachell, P T

    2017-08-01

    Clinical desensitization and oral food immunotherapy are therapeutic interventions that allow individuals who react adversely to an allergen (drug or food) to be made tolerant to the allergen. However, tolerance is brief, and allergen hypersensitivity can recur within days following allergen withdrawal. We hypothesize that the reason these treatments are temporary reflects rapid recovery of mast cells from a desensitized state. We sought to test this. Desensitization of IgE-mediated histamine release from human lung mast cells was explored by methods that partially replicate the pattern of treatment during clinical desensitization. Specific and non-specific desensitization and changes in surface IgE were examined following desensitization. Recovery from desensitization was also studied. Desensitization of mast cell responses was readily induced with concentrations of antigen or anti-IgE that were suboptimal for secretion. There was little or no non-specific desensitization when lung mast cells were exposed to antigens. There was no loss of cell surface IgE following desensitization. Removing the desensitizing stimulus from the media following desensitization allowed the cells to recover with half-point of recovery of ~1.5 days and complete recovery after 5 days. Both the functional response and histamine content recovered within this time frame. The recovery appeared possible because both antigens and anti-IgE dissociated rapidly from cells after washing to remove excess stimulus. Human lung mast cells readily recover from a desensitized state following removal of desensitizing antigen. This finding provides a potential explanation for the ephemeral nature of clinical desensitization. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Opioid receptor desensitization: mechanisms and its link to tolerance

    Stéphane eAllouche

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Opioid receptors are part of the class A of G-protein coupled receptors and the target of the opiates, the most powerful analgesic molecules used in clinic. During a protracted use, a tolerance to analgesic effect develops resulting in a reduction of the effectiveness. So understanding mechanisms of tolerance is a great challenge and may help to find new strategies to tackle this side effect. This review will summarize receptor-related mechanisms that could underlie tolerance especially receptor desensitization. We will focus on the latest data obtained on molecular mechanisms involved in opioid receptor desensitization: phosphorylation, receptor uncoupling, internalization and post-endocytic fate of the receptor.

  7. [Comparison of root resorption between self-ligating and conventional brackets using cone-beam CT].

    Liu, Yun; Guo, Hong-ming

    2016-04-01

    To analyze the differences of root resorption between passive self-ligating and conventional brackets, and to determine the relationship between passive self-ligating brackets and root resorption. Fifty patients were randomly divided into 2 groups using passive self-ligating brackets or conventional straight wire brackets (0.022 system), respectively. Cone-beam CT was taken before and after treatment. The amount of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors was measured on CBCT images. Student's t test was performed to analyze the differences of root apical resorption between the 2 groups with SPSS17.0 software package. No significant difference(P> 0.05) in root resorption of maxillary incisors was found between passive self-ligating brackets and conventional brackets. Passive self-ligating brackets and conventional brackets can cause root resorption, but the difference was not significant. Passive self-ligating brackets do not induce more root resorption.

  8. Evaluation of XHVRB for Capturing Explosive Shock Desensitization

    Tuttle, Leah; Schmitt, Robert; Kittell, Dave; Harstad, Eric

    2017-06-01

    Explosive shock desensitization phenomena have been recognized for some time. It has been demonstrated that pressure-based reactive flow models do not adequately capture the basic nature of the explosive behavior. Historically, replacing the local pressure with a shock captured pressure has dramatically improved the numerical modeling approaches. Models based upon shock pressure or functions of entropy have recently been developed. A pseudo-entropy based formulation using the History Variable Reactive Burn model, as proposed by Starkenberg, was implemented into the Eulerian shock physics code CTH. Improvements in the shock capturing algorithm were made. The model is demonstrated to reproduce single shock behavior consistent with published pop plot data. It is also demonstrated to capture a desensitization effect based on available literature data, and to qualitatively capture dead zones from desensitization in 2D corner turning experiments. This models shows promise for use in modeling and simulation problems that are relevant to the desensitization phenomena. Issues are identified with the current implementation and future work is proposed for improving and expanding model capabilities. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. Parental desensitization to violence and sex in movies

    Romer, D.; Jamieson, P.E.; Bushman, B.J.; Bleakley, A.; Wang, A.; Langleben, D.; Jamieson, K.H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess desensitization in parents' repeated exposure to violence and sex in movies. METHODS: A national US sample of 1000 parents living with at least 1 target child in 1 of 3 age groups (6 to 17 years old) viewed a random sequence of 3 pairs of short scenes with either violent or

  10. The effect of calcium phosphate-containing desensitizing agent on ...

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of calcium phosphate containing desensitizing pretreatments on the microtensile bond strength (MTBS) and microleakage of the multimode adhesive agent to dentin. Materials and Methods: In this study, twelve noncarious, freshly extracted human third molar teeth ...

  11. Exposure to Violence and Children's Desensitization Attitudes in Lebanon.

    Tarabah, Asma; Badr, Lina Kurdahi; Usta, Jinan; Doyle, John

    2016-11-01

    Children exposed to multiple sources of violence may become desensitized, increasing the possibility of them imitating the aggressive behaviors they watch and considering such behavior as normal. The purpose of this article is to assess the association between exposure to various types of violence (including war) and desensitization in Lebanese children. A cross-sectional design with 207 school-aged children assessed exposure to violence using three surveys: (a) violence in the media (the Media Preference survey), (b) exposure to violence (the KID-SAVE survey), and (c) desensitization attitudes (the Attitude Toward Violence-Child Version). Children were between 8 and 12 years old, 56% were males, and 70%were from middle socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Seventy-six percent of children reported being exposed to violence, with more exposure in males and in the lower SES group. Impact, however, was greater on girls. The predictors of attitude toward violence were "Frequency" of exposure, "Impact" of exposure, and the amount of violence viewed on television. Children are massively exposed to violence in Lebanon resulting in desensitization, which may habituate them to accept violence as normal and put them at risk for imitating violent behaviors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Desensitizing Children's Emotional Reactions to the Mass Media.

    Wilson, Barbara J.

    1989-01-01

    Assesses effectiveness of two desensitization strategies for reducing children's emotional reactions to mass media. Examines children having passive exposure, modeled exposure, or no exposure to lizards before watching a horror movie involving lizards. Finds that modeled exposure decreases emotional reactions and negative interpretations, whereas…

  13. Effects of a traditional chinese medicine based desensitizing gel on ...

    Background and Objective: Bamboo salt, Calcined oyster, Drynaria fortunei, Indigo naturalis and Rehmannia glutinosa have been the main ingredients of many formulations in Chinese medicine for the treatment of toothache. This study evaluated the effect of a new desensitizing gel on dentin hypersensitivity (DH). Materials ...

  14. Desensitization of stainless steels by laser surface heat-treatment

    Nakao, Yoshikuni; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi

    1987-11-01

    Laser heating was applied for the desensitization heat-treatment of the surface layer in the sensitized HAZ of Type 304 stainless steel. The degree of sensitization was examined by EPR technique and the 10 % oxalic acid electrolytic etch test. The CO/sub 2/ laser with maximum power of 1.5 kW was used for heat-treatment. Time-Temperature-Desensitization diagram (TTDS diagram) for sensitized Type 304 stainless steels were developed by calculation assuming the chromium diffusion control for desensitization which might occur when the chromium depleted zone was healed up due to dissolution of chromium carbide and chromium diffusion from the matrix being heated at the solution annealing temperatures. TTDS diagrams calculated agree fairly well with ones determined by corrosion tests. Laser irradiation conditions (e.g., Laser power, beam diameter and traveling velocity) required for desensitization of sensitized Type 304 stainless steels were calculated using additivity rule from the TTDS diagram calculated and theoretical thermal curve of laser heating derived from the heat conduction theory. After laser beam irradiated under an optimum condition predicted by calculation, the sensitized HAZ of Type 304 stainless steel restored complete resistance to intergranular corrosion.

  15. Counselor-Subject Sex Variables in Systematic Desensitization

    Geer, Carol A.; Hurst, James C.

    1976-01-01

    A Sex of Subject x Sex of Counselor interaction in the desensitization of test anxiety among 44 college students suggested consideration of the sex variable. Results showed significant treatment effects by both male and female counselors and a significant interaction effect by the male counselor with female subjects. (Author)

  16. Treatment of Nightmares via Relaxation and Desensitization: A Controlled Evaluation.

    Miller, William R.; DiPilato, Marina

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the role of relaxation training as a component of desensitization to nightmares in adults (N=32). Results showed an 80 percent reduction in nightmares reported by 20 clients, of whom 12 reported total elimination of symptoms at 25-week follow-up, suggesting the effectiveness of a behavioral approach in treating nightmares. (LLL)

  17. The Process of Fear Reduction Through Systematic Desensitization

    Schroeder, Harold E.; Rich, Alex R.

    1976-01-01

    This study investigated the process of fear change during a course of systematic desensitization therapy. Behavioral, subjective, and physiological measures of fear were taken following each of eight therapy sessions. Changes in one fear system did not appear to be primary in initiating changes in the other fear systems. (Author)

  18. Group Insight Versus Group Desensitization in Treating Speech Anxiety

    Meichenbaum, Donald H.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Results of this study indicated that the insight group was as effective as the desensitization group in significantly reducing speech anxiety over control group levels as assessed by behavioral, cognitive, and self-report measures given immediately after posttreatment and later at a three-month follow-up. (Author)

  19. Effect of Systematic Desensitization on the Training of Counselors

    Monke, Robert H.

    1971-01-01

    In determining whether the technique of desensitization would reduce the initial anxiety experienced by the beginning counselor trainee, analyses of the data revealed significantly less self-reported anxiety in the experimental group. No differences were found in heart rate, skin resistance, and tape-evaluation measures. (Author/CG(

  20. Emotionally Numb: Desensitization to Community Violence Exposure among Urban Youth

    Kennedy, Traci M.; Ceballo, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Community violence exposure (CVE) is associated with numerous psychosocial outcomes among youth. Although linear, cumulative effects models have typically been used to describe these relations, emerging evidence suggests the presence of curvilinear associations that may represent a pattern of emotional desensitization among youth exposed to…

  1. Emotional Desensitization to Violence Contributes to Adolescents’ Violent Behavior

    Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Many adolescents are exposed to violence in their schools, communities and homes. Exposure to violence at high levels or across multiple contexts has been linked with emotional desensitization, indicated by low levels of internalizing symptoms. However, the long-term consequences of such desensitization are unknown. This study examined emotional desensitization to violence, together with externalizing problems, as mediators of the relationship between exposure to violence in pre-adolescence and violent behavior in late adolescence. A community sample of youth (N=704; 48% female; 76% African American, 22% Caucasian) reported on their exposure to violence in multiple settings at ages 11, 13 and 18. Internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed at ages 11 and 13; violent behavior was measured at age 18. Structural Equation Modeling showed that exposure to high levels of violence at age 11 was associated with lower levels of internalizing problems (quadratic effect) at age 13, as was exposure to violence across multiple contexts (linear effect). In turn, fewer internalizing problems and more externalizing problems at age 13 predicted more violent behavior at age 18. The results suggest that emotional desensitization to violence in early adolescence contributes to serious violence in late adolescence. PMID:25684447

  2. Emotional Desensitization to Violence Contributes to Adolescents' Violent Behavior.

    Mrug, Sylvie; Madan, Anjana; Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Many adolescents are exposed to violence in their schools, communities and homes. Exposure to violence at high levels or across multiple contexts has been linked with emotional desensitization, indicated by low levels of internalizing symptoms. However, the long-term consequences of such desensitization are unknown. This study examined emotional desensitization to violence, together with externalizing problems, as mediators of the relationship between exposure to violence in pre-adolescence and violent behavior in late adolescence. A community sample of youth (N = 704; 48% female; 76% African American, 22% Caucasian) reported on their exposure to violence in multiple settings at ages 11, 13 and 18. Internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed at ages 11 and 13; violent behavior was measured at age 18. Structural Equation Modeling showed that exposure to high levels of violence at age 11 was associated with lower levels of internalizing problems (quadratic effect) at age 13, as was exposure to violence across multiple contexts (linear effect). In turn, fewer internalizing problems and more externalizing problems at age 13 predicted more violent behavior at age 18. The results suggest that emotional desensitization to violence in early adolescence contributes to serious violence in late adolescence.

  3. Effects Of Desensitization Treatment On Core-Condition Training

    Fry, P. S.

    1973-01-01

    Pre- and posttest ratings on measures of helping skills such as empathy, respect, concreteness, and genuineness were obtained in the preliminary and advanced training. A significant training effect was obtained for both groups. Desensitization treatment was a significant source of variance for the experimental subjects in training. (Author/LA)

  4. Delayed Cutaneous Hypersensitivity Reactions to Antibiotics: Management with Desensitization.

    McNulty, Caitlin M G; Park, Miguel A

    2017-11-01

    Successful desensitization to mild to moderate delayed cutaneous adverse reaction to antibiotics has been described in a limited number of antibiotics and found to be safe. However, there are ample opportunities to standardize protocols for delayed cutaneous adverse reactions to antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Agonist mediated fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor desensitization

    The exposure of a developing embryo or fetus to teratogenic alkaloids from plants has the potential to cause developmental defects in livestock due to the inhibition of fetal movement by alkaloids. The mechanism behind the inhibition of fetal movement is the desensitization of fetal muscle-type nico...

  6. Oral desensitization to milk: how to choose the starting dose!

    Mori, Francesca; Pucci, Neri; Rossi, Maria Elisabetta; de Martino, Maurizio; Azzari, Chiara; Novembre, Elio

    2010-01-01

    Mori F, Pucci N, Rossi ME, de Martino M, Azzari C, Novembre E. Oral desensitization to milk: how to choose the starting dose! Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2010: 21: e450–e453. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S A renewed interest in oral desensitization as treatment for food allergy has been observed in the last few years. We studied a novel method based on the end point skin prick test procedure to establish the starting dose for oral desensitization in a group of 30 children higly allergic to milk. The results (in terms of reactions to the first dose administered) were compared with a group of 20 children allergic to milk as well. Such control group started to swallow the same dose of 0.015 mg/ml of milk. None reacted to the first dose when administered according to the end point skin prick test. On the other side, ten out of 20 children (50%) from the control group showed mild allergic reactions to the first dose of milk. In conclusion the end point skin prick test procedure results safe and easy to be performed in each single child in order to find out the starting dose for oral desensitization to milk, also by taking into account the individual variability. PMID:19624618

  7. Effects of recycling and bonding agent application on bond strength of stainless steel orthodontic brackets.

    Bahnasi, Faisal I; Abd-Rahman, Aida Na; Abu-Hassan, Mohame I

    2013-10-01

    1) to assess different methods of recycling orthodontic brackets, 2) to evaluate Shear Bond Strength (SBS) of (a) new, (b) recycled and (c) repeated recycled stainless steel brackets (i) with and (ii) without bracket base primer. A total of 180 extracted human premolar teeth and 180 premolar stainless steel brackets were used. One hundred teeth and 100 brackets were divided into five groups of 20-teeth each. Four methods of recycling orthodontic brackets were used in each of the first four groups while the last one (group V) was used as the control. Groups (I-V) were subjected to shear force within half an hour until the brackets debond. SBS was measured and the method showing the highest SBS was selected. A New group (VI) was recycled twice with the selected method. Six subgroups (1-6) were established; the primer was applied for three sub-groups, and the composite was applied for all brackets. Brackets were subjected to the same shear force, and SBS was measured for all sub-groups. There was a significant difference between the mean SBS of the sandblasting method and the means of SBS of each of the other three methods. There was however, no significant difference between the mean SBS of the new bracket and the mean SBS of recycled bracket using sandblasting. The mean SBS of all sub-groups were more than that recommended by Reynolds (17) in 1975. Brackets with primer showed slightly higher SBS compared to those of brackets without bonding agent. To decrease cost, sandblasted recycled orthodontic brackets can be used as an alternative to new brackets. It is recommended to apply a bonding agent on the bracket base to provide greater bond strength. Key words:Recycled bracket, shear bond strength, sandblasting, stainless steel orthodontic bracket.

  8. Effects of recycling and bonding agent application on bond strength of stainless steel orthodontic brackets

    Bahnasi, Faisal I.; Abu-Hassan, Mohame I.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: 1) to assess different methods of recycling orthodontic brackets, 2) to evaluate Shear Bond Strength (SBS) of (a) new, (b) recycled and (c) repeated recycled stainless steel brackets (i) with and (ii) without bracket base primer. Study Design: A total of 180 extracted human premolar teeth and 180 premolar stainless steel brackets were used. One hundred teeth and 100 brackets were divided into five groups of 20-teeth each. Four methods of recycling orthodontic brackets were used in each of the first four groups while the last one (group V) was used as the control. Groups (I-V) were subjected to shear force within half an hour until the brackets debond. SBS was measured and the method showing the highest SBS was selected. A New group (VI) was recycled twice with the selected method. Six subgroups (1-6) were established; the primer was applied for three sub-groups, and the composite was applied for all brackets. Brackets were subjected to the same shear force, and SBS was measured for all sub-groups. Results: There was a significant difference between the mean SBS of the sandblasting method and the means of SBS of each of the other three methods. There was however, no significant difference between the mean SBS of the new bracket and the mean SBS of recycled bracket using sandblasting. The mean SBS of all sub-groups were more than that recommended by Reynolds (17) in 1975. Brackets with primer showed slightly higher SBS compared to those of brackets without bonding agent. Conclusion: To decrease cost, sandblasted recycled orthodontic brackets can be used as an alternative to new brackets. It is recommended to apply a bonding agent on the bracket base to provide greater bond strength. Key words:Recycled bracket, shear bond strength, sandblasting, stainless steel orthodontic bracket. PMID:24455081

  9. Friction behavior of ceramic injection-molded (CIM) brackets.

    Reimann, Susanne; Bourauel, Christoph; Weber, Anna; Dirk, Cornelius; Lietz, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Bracket material, bracket design, archwire material, and ligature type are critical modifiers of friction behavior during archwire-guided movement of teeth. We designed this in vitro study to compare the friction losses of ceramic injection-molded (CIM) versus pressed-ceramic (PC) and metal injection-molded (MIM) brackets-used with different ligatures and archwires-during archwire-guided retraction of a canine. Nine bracket systems were compared, including five CIM (Clarity™ and Clarity™ ADVANCED, both by 3M Unitek; discovery(®) pearl by Dentaurum; Glam by Forestadent; InVu by TP Orthodontics), two PC (Inspire Ice by Ormco; Mystique by DENTSPLY GAC), and two MIM (discovery(®) and discovery(®) smart, both by Dentaurum) systems. All of these were combined with archwires made of either stainless steel or fiberglass-reinforced resin (remanium(®) ideal arch or Translucent pearl ideal arch, both by Dentaurum) and with elastic ligatures or uncoated or coated stainless steel (all by Dentaurum). Archwire-guided retraction of a canine was simulated with a force of 0.5 N in the orthodontic measurement and simulation system (OMSS). Friction loss was determined by subtracting the effective orthodontic forces from the applied forces. Based on five repeated measurements performed on five brackets each, weighted means were calculated and evaluated by analysis of variance and a Bonferroni post hoc test with a significance level of 0.05. Friction losses were significantly (p brackets used with a stainless-steel ligature and the resin archwire. No critical difference to friction behavior was apparent between the various manufacturing technologies behind the bracket systems.

  10. Acute activation, desensitization and smoldering activation of human acetylcholine receptors.

    Barbara G Campling

    Full Text Available The behavioral effects of nicotine and other nicotinic agonists are mediated by AChRs in the brain. The relative contribution of acute activation versus chronic desensitization of AChRs is unknown. Sustained "smoldering activation" occurs over a range of agonist concentrations at which activated and desensitized AChRs are present in equilibrium. We used a fluorescent dye sensitive to changes in membrane potential to examine the effects of acute activation and chronic desensitization by nicotinic AChR agonists on cell lines expressing human α4β2, α3β4 and α7 AChRs. We examined the effects of acute and prolonged application of nicotine and the partial agonists varenicline, cytisine and sazetidine-A on these AChRs. The range of concentrations over which nicotine causes smoldering activation of α4β2 AChRs was centered at 0.13 µM, a level found in smokers. However, nicotine produced smoldering activation of α3β4 and α7 AChRs at concentrations well above levels found in smokers. The α4β2 expressing cell line contains a mixture of two stoichiometries, namely (α4β22β2 and (α4β22α4. The (α4β22β2 stoichiometry is more sensitive to activation by nicotine. Sazetidine-A activates and desensitizes only this stoichiometry. Varenicline, cytisine and sazetidine-A were partial agonists on this mixture of α4β2 AChRs, but full agonists on α3β4 and α7 AChRs. It has been reported that cytisine and varenicline are most efficacious on the (α4β22α4 stoichiometry. In this study, we distinguish the dual effects of activation and desensitization of AChRs by these nicotinic agonists and define the range of concentrations over which smoldering activation can be sustained.

  11. Prototype to measure bracket debonding force in vivo

    Jéssika Lagni Tonus

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Material biodegradation that occurs in the mouth may interfere in the bonding strength between the bracket and the enamel, causing lower bond strength values in vivo, in comparison with in vitro studies. Objective: To develop a prototype to measure bracket debonding force in vivo and to evaluate, in vitro, the bond strength obtained with the prototype. Methods: A original plier (3M Unitek was modified by adding one strain gauge directly connected to its claw. An electronic circuit performed the reading of the strain gauge, and the software installed in a computer recorded the values of the bracket debonding force, in kgf. Orthodontic brackets were bonded to the facial surface of 30 bovine incisors with adhesive materials. In Group 1 (n = 15, debonding was carried out with the prototype, while tensile bond strength testing was performed in Group 2 (n = 15. A universal testing machine was used for the second group. The adhesive remnant index (ARI was recorded. Results: According to Student’s t test (α = 0.05, Group 1 (2.96 MPa and Group 2 (3.08 MPa were not significantly different. ARI score of 3 was predominant in the two groups. Conclusion: The prototype proved to be reliable for obtaining in vivo bond strength values for orthodontic brackets.

  12. Therapeutic efficacy of self-ligating brackets: A systematic review.

    Dehbi, Hasnaa; Azaroual, Mohamed Faouzi; Zaoui, Fatima; Halimi, Abdelali; Benyahia, Hicham

    2017-09-01

    Over the last few years, the use of self-ligating brackets in orthodontics has progressed considerably. These systems have been the subject of numerous studies with good levels of evidence making it possible to evaluate their efficacy and efficiency compared to conventional brackets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of self-ligating brackets by means of a systematic review of the scientific literature. A systematic study was undertaken in the form of a recent search of the electronic Pubmed database, oriented by the use of several keywords combined by Boolean operators relating to the therapeutic efficacy of self-ligating brackets through the study of tooth alignment, space closure, expansion, treatment duration and degree of discomfort. The search was limited to randomized controlled studies, and two independent readers identified studies corresponding to the selection criteria. The chosen articles comprised 20 randomized controlled trials. The studies analyzed revealed the absence of significant differences between the two types of system on the basis of the clinical criteria adopted, thereby refuting the hypothesis of the superiority of self-ligating brackets over conventional systems. Copyright © 2017 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Prototype to measure bracket debonding force in vivo

    Tonus, Jéssika Lagni; Manfroi, Fernanda Borguetti; Borges, Gilberto Antonio; Grigolo, Eduardo Correa; Helegda, Sérgio; Spohr, Ana Maria

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Material biodegradation that occurs in the mouth may interfere in the bonding strength between the bracket and the enamel, causing lower bond strength values in vivo, in comparison with in vitro studies. Objective: To develop a prototype to measure bracket debonding force in vivo and to evaluate, in vitro, the bond strength obtained with the prototype. Methods: A original plier (3M Unitek) was modified by adding one strain gauge directly connected to its claw. An electronic circuit performed the reading of the strain gauge, and the software installed in a computer recorded the values of the bracket debonding force, in kgf. Orthodontic brackets were bonded to the facial surface of 30 bovine incisors with adhesive materials. In Group 1 (n = 15), debonding was carried out with the prototype, while tensile bond strength testing was performed in Group 2 (n = 15). A universal testing machine was used for the second group. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was recorded. Results: According to Student’s t test (α = 0.05), Group 1 (2.96 MPa) and Group 2 (3.08 MPa) were not significantly different. ARI score of 3 was predominant in the two groups. Conclusion: The prototype proved to be reliable for obtaining in vivo bond strength values for orthodontic brackets. PMID:28444011

  14. Perbedaan Penggunaan Bahan Desensitizing dan Tanpa Desensitizing Pasca Bleaching Ekstra-Koronal terhadap Kekerasan Email

    Wignyo Hadriyanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang. Pada bleaching ekstrakoronal diketahui terjadi proses demineralisasi sehingga terjadi hiersensitivitas dentin. UltraEZ salah satu bahan desensitizing yang dapat mengurangi hipersensitivitas akibat demineralisasi email pasca bleaching ekstrakoronal terkini. Tujuan penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan kekerasan email pasca pemutihan gigi ekstra-koronal dengan aplikasi bahan desensitizing dan tanpa aplikasi bahan desensitizing. Metode penelitian ini menggunakan 20 gigi premolar permanen pasca pencabutanyang masih utuh dan direndam dalam saliva buatan, kemudian dilakukan pemolesan pada bagian bukal dengan menggunakan pasta profilaksis kemudian gigi dicuci dan dikeringkan. Bahan pemutih Opalescence Xtra Boost diaplikasikan pada semua permukaan bukal gigi premolar kemudian dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok yaitu kelompok I, II, masing-masing kelompok sebanyak 10 gigi. Kelompok I sebagai kelompok control setelah dilakukan pemutihan, tidak dilakukan aplikasi Ultra-EZ, dimasukkan dalam wadah botol dan direndam dalam saliva buatan kemudian disimpan dalam incubator. Mahkota dan akar gigi,kemudian ditanam dalam resin akrilik sesuai kelompok sebelumnya dengan permukaan bukal menghadap ke atas. Semua sampel diuji kekerasannya dengan uji kekerasan Vickers menggunakan beban 100 g selama 15 detik. Permukaan bukal menghadap ke atas, kemudian dijepit dengan alat penjepit pada meja alat Micro Vickers Hardness Tester. Sampel diatur sedemikian rupa sehingga akan terlihat gambar yang dapat diukur panjang diagonalnya langsung dengan micrometer yang ada pada lensa okuler. Nilai kekerasan email dalam Vickers hardness number (VHN juga dapat diperoleh dari table setelah mengetahui rata-rata panjang diagonal, berat badan yang digunakan dan waktu yang digunakan untuk uji kekerasan. Pengujian ini dilakukan pada setiap kelompok. Selanjutnya diuji dengan uji-t. hasil penelitian menunjukkan ada perbedaan yang bermakna antara aplikasi ultraEZ lima menit

  15. Study of force loss due to friction comparing two ceramic brackets during sliding tooth movement.

    AlSubaie, Mai; Talic, Nabeel; Khawatmi, Said; Alobeid, Ahmad; Bourauel, Christoph; El-Bialy, Tarek

    2016-09-01

    To compare the percentage of force loss generated during canine sliding movements in newly introduced ceramic brackets with metal brackets. Two types of ceramic brackets, namely polycrystalline alumina (PCA) ceramic brackets (Clarity Advanced) and monocrystalline alumina (MCA) ceramic brackets (Inspire Ice) were compared with stainless steel (SS) brackets (Victory Series). All bracket groups (n = 5 each) were for the maxillary canines and had a 0.018-inch slot size. The brackets were mounted on an Orthodontic Measurement and Simulation System (OMSS) to simulate the canine retraction movement into the first premolar extraction space. Using elastic ligatures, 0.016 × 0.022″ (0.40 × 0.56 mm) stainless steel archwires were ligated onto the brackets. Retraction force was applied via a nickel-titanium coil spring with a nearly constant force of approximately 1 N. The OMSS measured the percentage of force loss over the retraction path by referring to the difference between the applied retraction force and actual force acting on each bracket. Between group comparisons were done with one-way analysis of variance. The metal brackets revealed the lowest percentage of force loss due to friction, followed by the PCA and MCA ceramic bracket groups (67 ± 4, 68 ± 7, and 76 ± 3 %, respectively). There was no significant difference between SS and PCA brackets (p = 0.97), but we did observe significant differences between metal and MCA brackets (p = 0.03) and between PCA and MCA ceramic brackets (p = 0.04). PCA ceramic brackets, whose slot surface is covered with an yttria-stabilized zirconia-based coating exhibited frictional properties similar to those of metal brackets. Frictional resistance resulted in an over 60 % loss of the applied force due to the use of elastic ligatures.

  16. Air-powder polishing on self-ligating brackets after clinical use: effects on debris levels.

    Aragón, Mônica L S Castro; Lima, Leandro Santiago; Normando, David

    2016-01-01

    Debris buildup on brackets and arch surfaces is one of the main factors that can influence the intensity of friction between bracket and orthodontic wire. This study sought to evaluate the effect of air-powder polishing cleaning on debris levels of self-ligating ceramic brackets at the end of orthodontic treatment, compared to the behavior of conventional brackets. Debris levels were evaluated in metal conventional orthodontic brackets (n = 42) and ceramic self-ligating brackets (n = 42) on canines and premolars, arranged in pairs. There were brackets with and without air-powder polishing. At the end of orthodontic treatment, a hemiarch served as control and the contralateral hemiarch underwent prophylaxis with air-powder polishing. Debris buildup in bracket slots was assessed through images, and Wilcoxon test was used to analyze the results. The median debris levels were statistically lower in the conventional metal brackets compared to self-ligating ones (p = 0.02), regarding brackets not submitted to air-powder polishing. Polishing significantly reduced debris buildup to zero in both systems, without differences between groups. Ceramic self-ligating brackets have a higher debris buildup in comparison to conventional metal brackets in vivo, but prophylaxis with sodium bicarbonate jet was effective in reducing debris levels in self-ligating and also in conventional brackets.

  17. Design of an Orthodontic Torque Simulator for Measurement of Bracket Deformation

    Melenka, G. W.; Nobes, D. S.; Major, P. W.; Carey, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    The design and testing of an orthodontic torque simulator that reproduces the effect of archwire rotation on orthodontic brackets is described. This unique device is capable of simultaneously measuring the deformation and loads applied to an orthodontic bracket due to archwire rotation. Archwire rotation is used by orthodontists to correct the inclination of teeth within the mouth. This orthodontic torque simulator will provide knowledge of the deformation and loads applied to orthodontic bracket that will aide clinicians by describing the effect of archwire rotation on brackets. This will also impact that design on new archwirebracket systems by providing an assessment of performance. Deformation of the orthodontic bracket tie wings is measured using a digital image correlation process to measure elastic and plastic deformation. The magnitude of force and moments applied to the bracket though the archwire is also measured using a six-axis load cell. Initial tests have been performed on two orthodontic brackets of varying geometry to demonstrate the measurement capability of the orthodontic torque simulator. The demonstration experiment shows that a Damon Q bracket had a final plastic deformation after a single loading of 0.022 mm while the Speed bracket deformed 0.071 mm. This indicates that the Speed bracket plastically deforms 3.2 times more than the Damon Q bracket for similar magnitude of applied moment. The demonstration experiment demonstrates that bracket geometry affect the deformation of orthodontic brackets and this difference can be detected using the orthodontic torque simulator.

  18. The use of easily debondable orthodontic adhesives with ceramic brackets.

    Ryu, Chiyako; Namura, Yasuhiro; Tsuruoka, Takashi; Hama, Tomohiko; Kaji, Kaori; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally produced an easily debondable orthodontic adhesive (EDA) containing heat-expandable microcapsules. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the best debondable condition when EDA was used for ceramic brackets. Shear bond strengths were measured before and after heating and were compared statistically. Temperatures of the bracket base and pulp wall were also examined during heating. Bond strengths of EDA containing 30 wt% and 40 wt% heat-expandable microcapsules were 13.4 and 12.9 MPa, respectively and decreased significantly to 3.8 and 3.7 MPa, respectively, after heating. The temperature of the pulp wall increased 1.8-3.6°C after heating, less than that required to induce pulp damage. Based on the results, we conclude that heating for 8 s during debonding of ceramic brackets bonded using EDA containing 40 wt% heat-expandable microcapsules is the most effective and safest method for the enamel and pulp.

  19. Optimization of Compressor Mounting Bracket of a Passenger Car

    Kalsi, Sachin; Singh, Daljeet; Saini, J. S.

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, the CAE tools are used for the optimization of the compressor mounting bracket used in an automobile. Both static and dynamic analysis is done for the bracket. With the objective to minimize the mass and increase the stiffness of the bracket, the new design is optimized using shape and topology optimization techniques. The optimized design given by CAE tool is then validated experimentally. The new design results in lower level of vibrations, contribute to lower mass along with lesser cost which is effective in air conditioning system as well as the efficiency of a vehicle. The results given by CAE tool had a very good correlation with the experimental results.

  20. Bracketed morality revisited: how do athletes behave in two contexts?

    Kavussanu, Maria; Boardley, Ian D; Sagar, Sam S; Ring, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The concept of bracketed morality has received empirical support in several sport studies (e.g., Bredemeier & Shields, 1986a, 1986b). However, these studies have focused on moral reasoning. In this research, we examined bracketed morality with respect to moral behavior in sport and university contexts, in two studies. Male and female participants (Study 1: N = 331; Study 2: N = 372) completed questionnaires assessing prosocial and antisocial behavior toward teammates and opponents in sport and toward other students at university. Study 2 participants also completed measures of moral disengagement and goal orientation in both contexts. In most cases, behavior in sport was highly correlated with behavior at university. In addition, participants reported higher prosocial behavior toward teammates and higher antisocial behavior toward opponents in sport than toward other students at university. The effects of context on antisocial behavior were partially mediated by moral disengagement and ego orientation. Our findings extend the bracketed morality concept to prosocial and antisocial behavior.

  1. Correlative roentgenography and morphology of the longitudinal epiphyseal bracket

    Ogden, J.A.; Light, T.R.; Conlogue, G.J.; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT

    1981-01-01

    Detailed examination of a complete chondro-osseous specimen from a patient with duplication of the first ray of the foot revealed the involved metatarsal had a trapezoid-shaped, diaphyseal-metaphyseal osseous unit that was longitudinally bracketed along the lateral side by a functioning physis, epiphysis, and secondary (epiphyseal) ossification center. The physis extended as an arc from the medial proximal side toward and along the lateral side and then back to the medial side distally. The medial side of the diaphysis had a normal periosteum. The longitudinal epiphyseal ossification bracket was a composite of initially separate proximal and distal secondary ossification centers that had progressively extended toward each other and finally coalesced along the laterally placed epiphyseal cartilage. We have termed this deformity the 'longitudinal epiphyseal bracket' (LEB). The macroscopic and microscopic anatomy relevant to initial diagnosis and evaluation of sequential roentgenographic changes will be considered. (orig.)

  2. Monoidal categories and the Gerstenhaber bracket in Hochschild cohomology

    Hermann, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    In this monograph, the author extends S. Schwede's exact sequence interpretation of the Gerstenhaber bracket in Hochschild cohomology to certain exact and monoidal categories. Therefore the author establishes an explicit description of an isomorphism by A. Neeman and V. Retakh, which links \\mathrm{Ext}-groups with fundamental groups of categories of extensions and relies on expressing the fundamental group of a (small) category by means of the associated Quillen groupoid. As a main result, the author shows that his construction behaves well with respect to structure preserving functors between exact monoidal categories. The author uses his main result to conclude, that the graded Lie bracket in Hochschild cohomology is an invariant under Morita equivalence. For quasi-triangular bialgebras, he further determines a significant part of the Lie bracket's kernel, and thereby proves a conjecture by L. Menichi. Along the way, the author introduces n-extension closed and entirely extension closed subcategories of abe...

  3. Shear Bond Strength of Bracket Bases to Adhesives Based on Bracket Base Design

    2016-04-13

    shear bond value when compared to the traditional mesh based orthodontic bracket. Methods: The experimental design included 4 test groups, each... Experimental Design……………………………………………………..…………8 B. Statistical Management of Data………………………………………………….26 IV. RESULTS………………………………………………………………………………28...tooth through which forces may be applied. Through diligent research efforts, clinical experience, and trial and error, this attachment apparatus to

  4. Enhancement of acetylcholine-induced desensitization of guinea-pig ileal longitudinal muscle in Ca2+-free conditions.

    Horio, S; Nagare, T; Moritoki, H

    1999-10-01

    1. To determine the role of cellular Ca2+ in desensitization, acetylcholine(ACh)-induced desensitization was studied under Ca2+-free condition in guinea-pig ileal longitudinal muscle. 2. Pretreatment of the tissue with 10(-4) M ACh (desensitizing treatment) in normal Tyrode solution caused desensitization of the responses both to ACh and histamine. The desensitizing treatment performed in Ca2+-free solution enhanced desensitization of the responses to ACh and histamine significantly. 3. The desensitizing treatment with ACh caused suppression of the responses to high K+ (tonic component) and Bay K 8644. The desensitizing treatment performed in Ca2+-free solution potentiated the suppression of the responses to high K+ and Bay K 8644 significantly. 4. ACh-induced desensitization was enhanced significantly in the presence of a protein kinase C inhibitor, 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine(H-7, 10(-4) M) to a similar extent as desensitization obtained under Ca2+-free condition, but not in the presence of a non-specific and less potent kinase inhibitor, N-(2-guanidinoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide hydrochloride (HA1004, 10(-4) M). 5. These results suggested that voltage-gated Ca2+ channels were involved in ACh-induced desensitization and that intracellular Ca2+, which was increased during the stimulation with ACh, inhibited desensitization through the activation of protein kinase C. This kinase could have activated or protected Ca2+ channels during the desensitization process to reduce desensitization.

  5. Omalizumab facilitates rapid oral desensitization for peanut allergy.

    MacGinnitie, Andrew J; Rachid, Rima; Gragg, Hana; Little, Sara V; Lakin, Paul; Cianferoni, Antonella; Heimall, Jennifer; Makhija, Melanie; Robison, Rachel; Chinthrajah, R Sharon; Lee, John; Lebovidge, Jennifer; Dominguez, Tina; Rooney, Courtney; Lewis, Megan Ott; Koss, Jennifer; Burke-Roberts, Elizabeth; Chin, Kimberly; Logvinenko, Tanya; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Umetsu, Dale T; Spergel, Jonathan; Nadeau, Kari C; Schneider, Lynda C

    2017-03-01

    Peanut oral immunotherapy is a promising approach to peanut allergy, but reactions are frequent, and some patients cannot be desensitized. The anti-IgE medication omalizumab (Xolair; Genentech, South San Francisco, Calif) might allow more rapid peanut updosing and decrease reactions. We sought to evaluate whether omalizumab facilitated rapid peanut desensitization in highly allergic patients. Thirty-seven subjects were randomized to omalizumab (n = 29) or placebo (n = 8). After 12 weeks of treatment, subjects underwent a rapid 1-day desensitization of up to 250 mg of peanut protein, followed by weekly increases up to 2000 mg. Omalizumab was then discontinued, and subjects continued on 2000 mg of peanut protein. Subjects underwent an open challenge to 4000 mg of peanut protein 12 weeks after stopping study drug. If tolerated, subjects continued on 4000 mg of peanut protein daily. The median peanut dose tolerated on the initial desensitization day was 250 mg for omalizumab-treated subjects versus 22.5 mg for placebo-treated subject. Subsequently, 23 (79%) of 29 subjects randomized to omalizumab tolerated 2000 mg of peanut protein 6 weeks after stopping omalizumab versus 1 (12%) of 8 receiving placebo (P omalizumab versus 1 subject receiving placebo passed the 4000-mg food challenge. Overall reaction rates were not significantly lower in omalizumab-treated versus placebo-treated subjects (odds ratio, 0.57; P = .15), although omalizumab-treated subjects were exposed to much higher peanut doses. Omalizumab allows subjects with peanut allergy to be rapidly desensitized over as little as 8 weeks of peanut oral immunotherapy. In the majority of subjects, this desensitization is sustained after omalizumab is discontinued. Additional studies will help clarify which patients would benefit most from this approach. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of the precrack preparation with an ultrasonic instrument on the ceramic bracket removal

    Yen-Liang Chen

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: The ultrasonic precrack preparation can significantly decrease the debonding force and may guide the bracket debonding through a favorable fracture plane without damage to either the bracket or the enamel.

  7. Gyrokinetic energy conservation and Poisson-bracket formulation

    Brizard, A.

    1989-01-01

    An integral expression for the gyrokinetic total energy of a magnetized plasma, with general magnetic field configuration perturbed by fully electromagnetic fields, was recently derived through the use of a gyrocenter Lie transformation. It is shown that the gyrokinetic energy is conserved by the gyrokinetic Hamiltonian flow to all orders in perturbed fields. An explicit demonstration that a gyrokinetic Hamiltonian containing quadratic nonlinearities preserves the gyrokinetic energy up to third order is given. The Poisson-bracket formulation greatly facilitates this demonstration with the help of the Jacobi identity and other properties of the Poisson brackets

  8. Shear bond strength of precoated orthodontic brackets: an in vivo study

    Hassan, Ali H

    2010-01-01

    Ali H HassanDepartment of Preventive Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To evaluate the shear bond strength of precoated orthodontic brackets bonded with self-etching primer relative to that of noncoated conventionally-bonded brackets at two different time intervals.Methods: Twenty-one subjects were selected for randomized split-mouth bonding of two types of brackets to the maxillary arch. Half of the teeth had precoated brackets b...

  9. The clinical dilemma of "silent desensitization" in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.

    White, Andrew A; Bosso, John V; Stevenson, Donald D

    2013-01-01

    Aspirin desensitization is a treatment option for patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). Some patients with an excellent history of aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) reactions have negative aspirin challenges/desensitization. This study discusses the clinical entity of silent desensitization in AERD and the dilemma that this presents to the practicing allergist/immunologist. We discuss a series of patients with a strong history of NSAID reactions who initially underwent a negative challenge/silent desensitization. These patients were subsequently proven to have AERD after a second positive aspirin challenge. Silent desensitization is an uncommon but important outcome to recognize in AERD. Clinicians performing aspirin desensitization should understand that this can occur and consider a second confirmatory aspirin challenge in some patients.

  10. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3750 Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a device...

  11. The influence of different bracket base surfaces on tensile and shear bond strength

    Algera, T.J.; Kleverlaan, C.J.; Prahl-Andersen, B.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Fracture of the bracket-cement-enamel system usually takes place between the bracket and the cement. Especially for glass ionomer-based materials, it is helpful if this part of the system can be improved. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the influence of different bracket base

  12. Torque expression of 0.018 and 0.022 inch conventional brackets

    Sifakakis, I.; Pandis, N.; Makou, M.; Eliades, T.; Katsaros, C.; Bourauel, C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the moments generated with low- and high-torque brackets. Four different bracket prescription-slot combinations of the same bracket type (Mini Diamond(R) Twin) were evaluated: high-torque 0.018 and 0.022 inch and low-torque 0.018 and 0.022 inch.

  13. Origin, development, and evolution of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing

    Carolina Marín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR has led to a great number of studies since its appearance in 1989. The aim of this article is to describe EMDR development and evolution to the present day. With this purpose a search was carried out on MEDLINE and PsycINFO with the entry "eye movement desensitization". After revising the resulting 797 articles, those that because of their relevance explained best the development and evolution of the technique were chosen and shaped into a lifeline graphically representing the history of EMDR. Despite the fact that during the first years the focus of research was on the validation of the technique for post-traumatic disorder (PTSD, it was soon applied to other areas. Only 14% of the articles found account for controlled studies. Up to date, in spite of the effectiveness of EMDR for the treatment of PTSD that has been proven, many different explanatory hypotheses are still up for discussion.

  14. Psychodynamic Emotional Regulation in View of Wolpe's Desensitization Model.

    Rabinovich, Merav

    2016-01-01

    The current research belongs to the stream of theoretical integration and establishes a theoretical platform for integrative psychotherapy in anxiety disorders. Qualitative metasynthesis procedures were applied to 40 peer-reviewed psychoanalytic articles involving emotional regulation. The concept of psychodynamic emotional regulation was found to be connected with the categories of desensitization, gradual exposure, containment, and transference. This article presents a model according to which psychoanalytic psychotherapy allows anxiety to be tolerated while following the core principles of systematic desensitization. It is shown that despite the antiresearch image of psychoanalytic psychotherapy, its foundations obey evidence-based principles. The findings imply that anxiety tolerance might be a key goal in which the cumulative wisdom of the different therapies can be used to optimize psychotherapy outcomes.

  15. Parental desensitization to violence and sex in movies.

    Romer, Daniel; Jamieson, Patrick E; Bushman, Brad J; Bleakley, Amy; Wang, Anli; Langleben, Daniel; Jamieson, Kathleen Hall

    2014-11-01

    To assess desensitization in parents' repeated exposure to violence and sex in movies. A national US sample of 1000 parents living with at least 1 target child in 1 of 3 age groups (6 to 17 years old) viewed a random sequence of 3 pairs of short scenes with either violent or sexual content from popular movies that were unrestricted to youth audiences (rated PG-13 or unrated) or restricted to those under age 17 years without adult supervision (rated R). Parents indicated the minimum age they would consider appropriate to view each film. Predictors included order of presentation, parent and child characteristics, and parent movie viewing history. As exposure to successive clips progressed, parents supported younger ages of appropriate exposure, starting at age 16.9 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.8 to 17.0) for violence and age 17.2 years (95% CI, 17.0 to 17.4) for sex, and declining to age 13.9 years (95% CI, 13.7 to 14.1) for violence and 14.0 years (95% CI, 13.7 to 14.3) for sex. Parents also reported increasing willingness to allow their target child to view the movies as exposures progressed. Desensitization was observed across parent and child characteristics, violence toward both human and non-human victims, and movie rating. Those who frequently watched movies were more readily desensitized to violence. Parents become desensitized to both violence and sex in movies, which may contribute to the increasing acceptance of both types of content by both parents and the raters employed by the film industry. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing for Adolescent Depression

    Bae, Hwallip; Kim, Daeho; Park, Yong Chon

    2008-01-01

    While cognitive behavior therapy is considered to be the first-line therapy for adolescent depression, there are limited data on whether other psychotherapeutic techniques are also effective in treating adolescents with depression. This report suggests the potential application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for treatment of depressive disorder related, not to trauma, but to stressful life events. At present, EMDR has only been empirically validated for only trauma-re...

  17. Comparison of the efficacy of tooth alignment among lingual and labial brackets: an in vitro study.

    Alobeid, Ahmad; El-Bialy, Tarek; Reimann, Susanne; Keilig, Ludger; Cornelius, Dirk; Jäger, Andreas; Bourauel, Christoph

    2018-03-13

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tooth alignment with conventional and self-ligating labial and lingual orthodontic bracket systems. We tested labial brackets (0.022″ slot size) and lingual brackets (0.018″ slot size). The labial brackets were: (i) regular twin brackets (GAC-Twin [Dentsply]), (ii) passive self-ligating brackets including (Damon-Q® [ORMCO]; Ortho classic H4™ [Orthoclassic]; FLI®SL [RMO]), and (iii) active self-ligating brackets (GAC In-Ovation®C [DENTSPLY] and SPEED™[Strite]). The lingual brackets included (i) twin bracket systems (Incognito [3M] and Joy™ [Adenta]), (ii) passive self-ligating bracket system (GAC In-Ovation®LM™ [Dentsply]), and (iii) active self-ligating bracket system (Evolution SLT [Adenta]). The tested wires were Thermalloy-NiTi 0.013″ and 0.014″ (RMO). The archwires were tied to the regular twin brackets with stainless steel ligatures 0.010″ (RMO). The malocclusion simulated a displaced maxillary central incisor in the x-axis (2 mm gingivally) and in the z-axis (2 mm labially). The results showed that lingual brackets are less efficient in aligning teeth when compared with labial brackets in general. The vertical correction achieved by labial bracket systems ranged from 72 to 95 per cent with 13″ Thermalloy wires and from 70 to 87 per cent with 14″ Thermalloy wires. In contrast, the achieved corrections by lingual brackets with 13″ Thermalloy wires ranged between 25-44 per cent and 29-52 per cent for the 14" Thermalloy wires. The anteroposterior correction achieved by labial brackets ranged between 83 and 138 per cent for the 13″ Thermalloy and between 82 and 129 per cent for the 14″ Thermalloy wires. On the other hand, lingual brackets corrections ranged between 12 and 40 per cent for the 13″ Thermalloy wires and between 30 and 45 per cent for the 14″ Thermalloy wires. This is a lab-based study with different labial and lingual bracket slot sizes (however they are the

  18. Aplikasi eye moving desensitization dan reprocessing dalam konseling post-traumatic stress disorder

    Hengki Satrianta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Akhir-akhir ini banyak peristiwa yang berpotensi memunculkan efek traumatik yang jika tidak ditangani akan menimbulkan gangguan stres pascatrauma. Olehnya itu, dibutuhkan upaya-upaya untu menangani masalah ini. Salah satu upaya yang dimaksud adalah penggunaan eye moving desensitization and reprocessing. Artikel ini ditulis dengan fokus pada penanganan gangguan stres pascatrauma melalui eye moving desensitization and reprocessing. Tujuan penulisan artikel ini adalah untuk mengetahui gambaran umum pelaksanaan eye moving desensitization and reprocessing. Eye moving desensitization and reprocessing mampu menjadi salah satu teknik dalam penanganan gangguan stres pascatrauma. Oleh karena itu disarankan bagi praktisi konseling di Indonesia mampu menjadikan “terapi unik” ini sebagai teknik penanganan gangguan stres pascatrauma.

  19. Agonist-induced desensitization of adenylyl cyclase in Y1 adrenocortical tumor cells

    Olson, M.F.; Tsao, J.; Pon, D.J.; Schimmer, B.P.

    1991-01-01

    Y1 adrenocortical tumor cells (Y1DS) and Y1 mutants resistant to ACTH-induced desensitization of adenylyl cyclase (Y1DR) were transfected with a gene encoding the mouse beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2-AR). Transfectants expressed beta 2-ARs that were able to stimulate adenylyl cyclase activity and steroid biosynthesis. These transfectants were used to explore the basis for the DR mutation in Y1 cells. The authors demonstrate that beta-adrenergic agonists desensitize the adenylyl cyclase system in transfected Y1DS cells whereas transfected Y1DR cells are resistant to desensitization by beta-adrenergic agonists. The fate of the beta 2-ARs during desensitization was evaluated by photoaffinity labelling with [125I]iodocyanopindolol diazerine. Desensitization of Y1DS transfectants was accompanied by a modest loss in receptor density that was insufficient to account for the complete loss of responsiveness to beta-adrenergic agonists. The extent of receptor loss induced by beta-adrenergic agonists in Y1DR transfectants exceeded that in the Y1DS transfectants indicating that the mutation which protects Y1DR cells from agonist-induced desensitization is prior to receptor down-regulation in the desensitization pathway. From these results we infer that ACTH and isoproterenol desensitize adenylyl cyclase by a common pathway and that receptor loss is not a major component of the desensitization process in these cells

  20. Successful drug desensitization in patients with delayed-type allergic reactions to anti-tuberculosis drugs

    Krittaecho Siripassorn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the outcomes of anti-tuberculosis drug desensitization. Methods: This was a retrospective study. Inclusion criteria were as follows: age >18 years, documented tuberculosis infection, a previous cutaneous allergic reaction to anti-tuberculosis drugs, and having undergone drug desensitization between January 2003 and March 2014. The definition of allergic reaction to anti-tuberculosis drugs included (1 a temporal relationship between drug use and the allergic reaction; (2 improvement in the allergic reaction after drug withdrawal; (3 recurrence of the allergic reaction after reintroduction of only the offending drug; and (4 absence of other causes. Results: A total of 19 desensitization procedures were performed. The drugs used for these procedures were isoniazid (n = 7, rifampicin (n = 6, or ethambutol (n = 6. Of note, severe allergic reactions (Stevens–Johnson syndrome (n = 4, erythema multiforme (n = 3, and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic syndrome (n = 1 were included. All patients underwent resolution of the previous allergic reactions before desensitization. The median duration of desensitization was 18 days. The success rate was 78.9%. The allergic reactions following failed desensitization were not severe; most were maculopapular rashes. Conclusions: The desensitization protocol for anti-tuberculosis drugs was associated with a high success rate, and the individuals who failed desensitization experienced mild allergic reactions. Keywords: Desensitization, Antituberculosis, Steven-Johnson syndrome, Allergic drug reaction, Tolerance induction, Drug allergy

  1. Antibody Desensitization Therapy in Highly Sensitized Lung Transplant Candidates

    Snyder, L. D.; Gray, A. L.; Reynolds, J. M.; Arepally, G. M.; Bedoya, A.; Hartwig, M. G.; Davis, R. D.; Lopes, K. E.; Wegner, W. E.; Chen, D. F.; Palmer, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    As HLAs antibody detection technology has evolved, there is now detailed HLA antibody information available on prospective transplant recipients. Determining single antigen antibody specificity allows for a calculated panel reactive antibodies (cPRA) value, providing an estimate of the effective donor pool. For broadly sensitized lung transplant candidates (cPRA ≥ 80%), our center adopted a pretransplant multimodal desensitization protocol in an effort to decrease the cPRA and expand the donor pool. This desensitization protocol included plasmapheresis, solumedrol, bortezomib and rituximab given in combination over 19 days followed by intravenous immunoglobulin. Eight of 18 candidates completed therapy with the primary reasons for early discontinuation being transplant (by avoiding unacceptable antigens) or thrombocytopenia. In a mixed-model analysis, there were no significant changes in PRA or cPRA changes over time with the protocol. A sub-analysis of the median fluorescence intensity (MFI) change indicated a small decline that was significant in antibodies with MFI 5000–10 000. Nine of 18 candidates subsequently had a transplant. Posttransplant survival in these nine recipients was comparable to other pretransplant-sensitized recipients who did not receive therapy. In summary, an aggressive multi-modal desensitization protocol does not significantly reduce pretransplant HLA antibodies in a broadly sensitized lung transplant candidate cohort. PMID:24666831

  2. U matrix construction for Quantum Chromodynamics through Dirac brackets

    Santos, M.A. dos.

    1987-09-01

    A procedure for obtaining the U matrix using Dirac brackets, recently developed by Kiefer and Rothe, is applied for Quantum Chromodynamics. The correspondent interaction Lagrangian is the same obtained by Schwinger, Christ and Lee, using independent methods. (L.C.J.A.)

  3. Genotoxicity of corrosion eluates obtained from orthodontic brackets in vitro.

    Angelieri, Fernanda; Marcondes, Joao Paulo C; de Almeida, Danielle Cristina; Salvadori, Daisy M F; Ribeiro, Daniel A

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether corrosion eluates obtained from commercially available orthodontic brackets are able to induce genetic damage in vitro. Genotoxicity was assessed by the single cell gel (comet) assay using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The following orthodontic metallic brackets were used: Morelli (Sorocaba, Brazil); Abzil (São José do Rio Preto, Brazil); Dentaurum (Pforzheim, Germany); and 3M Unitek (Puchheim, Germany). Each dental bracket was submitted to a corrosion process in a solution containing equal amounts of acetic acid and sodium chloride at 0.1 M concentration for 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 35, and 70 days. CHO cells were exposed to eluates for 30 minutes at 37°C. The negative control was treated with the same solution used for corrosion process for 30 minutes at 37°C. Independent positive control was performed with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, Mo) at 1 ug/mL for 1 hour. None of the eluates was found to exhibit genotoxicity, regardless of the different commercial brands of orthodontic appliance used. In summary, our results indicate corrosion eluates obtained from orthodontic brackets do not induce genetic damage as assessed by single cell gel (comet) assay. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Seismic response Analyses of Hanaro in-chimney bracket structures

    Lee, Jae Han; Ryu, J.S.; Cho, Y.G.; Lee, H.Y.; Kim, J.B.

    1999-05-01

    The in-chimney bracket will be installed in the upper part of chimney, which holds the capsule extension pipes in upper one-third of length. For evaluating the effects on the capsules and related reactor structures, ANSYS finite element analysis model is developed and the dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The seismic response anlayses of in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures of HANARO under the design earthquake response spectrum loads of OBE (0.1 g) and SSE (0.2 g) are performed. The maximum horizontal displacements of the flow tubes are within the minimum half gaps between close flow tubes, it is expected that these displacement will not produce any contact between neighbor flow tubes. The stress values in main points of reactor structures and in-chimney bracket for the seismic loads are also within the ASME Code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is much less than 1.0. So, any damage on structural integrity is not expected when an in-chimney bracket is installed to upper part of the reactor chimney. (author). 12 refs., 24 tabs., 37 figs

  5. 26 CFR 31.3402(c)-1 - Wage bracket withholding.

    2010-04-01

    ... percentage method with respect to any employee. The tax computed under the wage bracket method shall be in... tax is required to be withheld from a wage payment of $48 when two withholding exemptions are claimed... tax to be withheld from a wage payment of $36 when one withholding exemption is claimed. (c) Periods...

  6. On covariant Poisson brackets in classical field theory

    Forger, Michael; Salles, Mário O.

    2015-01-01

    How to give a natural geometric definition of a covariant Poisson bracket in classical field theory has for a long time been an open problem—as testified by the extensive literature on “multisymplectic Poisson brackets,” together with the fact that all these proposals suffer from serious defects. On the other hand, the functional approach does provide a good candidate which has come to be known as the Peierls–De Witt bracket and whose construction in a geometrical setting is now well understood. Here, we show how the basic “multisymplectic Poisson bracket” already proposed in the 1970s can be derived from the Peierls–De Witt bracket, applied to a special class of functionals. This relation allows to trace back most (if not all) of the problems encountered in the past to ambiguities (the relation between differential forms on multiphase space and the functionals they define is not one-to-one) and also to the fact that this class of functionals does not form a Poisson subalgebra

  7. On covariant Poisson brackets in classical field theory

    Forger, Michael [Instituto de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade de São Paulo, Caixa Postal 66281, BR–05315-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Salles, Mário O. [Instituto de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade de São Paulo, Caixa Postal 66281, BR–05315-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Centro de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitário – Lagoa Nova, BR–59078-970 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    How to give a natural geometric definition of a covariant Poisson bracket in classical field theory has for a long time been an open problem—as testified by the extensive literature on “multisymplectic Poisson brackets,” together with the fact that all these proposals suffer from serious defects. On the other hand, the functional approach does provide a good candidate which has come to be known as the Peierls–De Witt bracket and whose construction in a geometrical setting is now well understood. Here, we show how the basic “multisymplectic Poisson bracket” already proposed in the 1970s can be derived from the Peierls–De Witt bracket, applied to a special class of functionals. This relation allows to trace back most (if not all) of the problems encountered in the past to ambiguities (the relation between differential forms on multiphase space and the functionals they define is not one-to-one) and also to the fact that this class of functionals does not form a Poisson subalgebra.

  8. Structure Sense in High School Algebra: The Effect of Brackets

    Hoch, Maureen; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an initial attempt to define structure sense for high school algebra and to test part of this definition. A questionnaire was distributed to 92 eleventh grade students in order to identify those who use structure sense. Presence and absence of brackets was examined to see how they affect use of structure sense. The overall use…

  9. Surface modification for bonding between amalgam and orthodontic brackets.

    Wongsamut, Wittawat; Satrawaha, Sirichom; Wayakanon, Kornchanok

    2017-01-01

    Testing of methods to enhance the shear bond strength (SBS) between orthodontic metal brackets and amalgam by sandblasting and different primers. Three hundred samples of amalgam restorations (KerrAlloy ® ) were prepared in self-cured acrylic blocks, polished, and divided into two groups: nonsandblasted and sandblasted. Each group was divided into five subgroups with different primers used in surface treatment methods, with a control group of bonded brackets on human mandibular incisors. Following the surface treatments, mandibular incisor brackets (Unitek ® ) were bonded on the amalgam with adhesive resin (Transbond XT ® ). The SBS of the samples was tested. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) and failure modes were then determined under a stereo-microscope. Two-way analysis of variance, Chi-square, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed to calculate the correlations between and among the SBS and ARI values, the failure modes, and surface roughness results. There were statistically significant differences of SBS among the different adhesive primers and sandblasting methods ( P 0.05). Using adhesive primers with sandblasting together effectively enhances the SBS between orthodontic metal brackets and amalgam. The two primers with the ingredient methacryloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP) monomer, Alloy Primer ® and Assure Plus ® , were the most effective. Including sandblasting in the treatment is essential to achieve the bonding strength required.

  10. Poisson cohomology of scalar multidimensional Dubrovin-Novikov brackets

    Carlet, Guido; Casati, Matteo; Shadrin, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    We compute the Poisson cohomology of a scalar Poisson bracket of Dubrovin-Novikov type with D independent variables. We find that the second and third cohomology groups are generically non-vanishing in D > 1. Hence, in contrast with the D = 1 case, the deformation theory in the multivariable case is non-trivial.

  11. Hierarchy of Poisson brackets for elements of a scattering matrix

    Konopelchenko, B.G.; Dubrovsky, V.G.

    1984-01-01

    The infinite family of Poisson brackets [Ssub(i1k1) (lambda 1 ), Ssub(i2k2) (lambda 2 )]sub(n) (n=0, 1, 2, ...) between the elements of a scattering matrix is calculated for the linear matrix spectral problem. (orig.)

  12. Integrals of Frullani type and the method of brackets

    Bravo Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of brackets is a collection of heuristic rules, some of which have being made rigorous, that provide a flexible, direct method for the evaluation of definite integrals. The present work uses this method to establish classical formulas due to Frullani which provide values of a specific family of integrals. Some generalizations are established.

  13. DEBONDING OF CERAMIC BRACKETS BY ER:YAG LASER

    Fidan ALAKUŞ-SABUNCUOĞLU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effects of Er:YAG laser debonding of ceramic brackets on the bond strength and the amount of adhesive resin remnant. Materials and Methods: Twenty human mandibular incisors were randomly divided into two groups of 10 and polycrystalline ceramic brackets (Transcend series 6000, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA were bonded on enamel surfaces. Group 1 was the control group in which no laser application was performed prior to the shear bond strength (SBS testing. In Group 2, Er:YAG was applied in 3W power for 6 seconds using the scanning method. The brackets were tested for SBS with an Instron universal testing machine and results were expressed in megapascals (MPa. The amount of adhesive remnant was evaluated with Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s post-hoc tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean ± standard deviation of SBS values in the control group was 13.42 ±1.23 MPa and 8.47 ±0.71 MPa in the Er:YAG group and this difference was statistically significant (p<0.05. The evaluation of ARI scores demonstrated more adhesive was left on the enamel surface with Er:YAG group. Conclusion: 3W power Er:YAG laser application with the scanning method to polycrystalline ceramic brackets demonstrated lower bond strengths and higher ARI scores during the debonding procedure.

  14. In vitro evaluation of frictional forces of two ceramic orthodontic brackets versus a stainless steel bracket in combination with two types of archwires.

    Arash, Valiollah; Rabiee, Mahmoud; Rakhshan, Vahid; Khorasani, Sara; Sobouti, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare frictional forces between monocrystalline alumina (MA), polycrystalline alumina (PA), and stainless steel (SS) brackets with two SS wires: Rectangular and round. In this in vitro study, 60 0.022 brackets [20 PA (0° torque, Forestadent, Germany) and 20 MA (0° torque, Ormco, California, USA)] brackets plus 20 SS brackets (0° torque, Foretadent, Germany) and 60 SS archwires (30 rectangular 0.019 ×0.025 archwires and 30 round 0.018 archwires, Ortho Technology, USA) were used in subgroups of 10 from the combination of all brackets and all archwires. A universal testing machine (Instron, Model STM 250, Germany) was used to investigate the static frictional resistance. The angulation between the bracket and wire was 0°, and the wires were pulled through the slots at a crosshead speed of 10 mm/min. Two-way and one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey tests were used to analyze the data. Mean (SD) static frictional force for each group was as follows: MA + round: 3.47 (0.38); MA + rectangular: 4.05 (0.47); PA + round: 4.14 (0.37); PA + rectangular: 4.45 (0.65); SS + round: 3.28 (0.22); and SS + rectangular: 4.22 (0.61). Significant effects of bracket types (P = 0.001) and archwire types (P = 0.000) on the friction force were detected using ANOVA. Tukey test indicated significant differences between PA brackets with both SS and MA brackets (P brackets. The two archwires as well had significantly different effects (Tukey P = 0.000). Based on the present in-vitro study, the PA brackets might create higher frictional forces compared to both SS and MA brackets. The rectangular 0.019 ×0.025 archwire might create greater forces than round 0.018 archwire.

  15. In vitro evaluation of frictional forces of two ceramic orthodontic brackets versus a stainless steel bracket in combination with two types of archwires

    Arash, Valiollah; Rabiee, Mahmoud; Rakhshan, Vahid; Khorasani, Sara; Sobouti, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare frictional forces between monocrystalline alumina (MA), polycrystalline alumina (PA), and stainless steel (SS) brackets with two SS wires: Rectangular and round. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 60 0.022 brackets [20 PA (0° torque, Forestadent, Germany) and 20 MA (0° torque, Ormco, California, USA)] brackets plus 20 SS brackets (0° torque, Foretadent, Germany) and 60 SS archwires (30 rectangular 0.019 ×0.025 archwires and 30 round 0.018 archwires, Ortho Technology, USA) were used in subgroups of 10 from the combination of all brackets and all archwires. A universal testing machine (Instron, Model STM 250, Germany) was used to investigate the static frictional resistance. The angulation between the bracket and wire was 0°, and the wires were pulled through the slots at a crosshead speed of 10 mm/min. Two-way and one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey tests were used to analyze the data. Results: Mean (SD) static frictional force for each group was as follows: MA + round: 3.47 (0.38); MA + rectangular: 4.05 (0.47); PA + round: 4.14 (0.37); PA + rectangular: 4.45 (0.65); SS + round: 3.28 (0.22); and SS + rectangular: 4.22 (0.61). Significant effects of bracket types (P = 0.001) and archwire types (P = 0.000) on the friction force were detected using ANOVA. Tukey test indicated significant differences between PA brackets with both SS and MA brackets (P brackets. The two archwires as well had significantly different effects (Tukey P = 0.000). Conclusions: Based on the present in-vitro study, the PA brackets might create higher frictional forces compared to both SS and MA brackets. The rectangular 0.019 ×0.025 archwire might create greater forces than round 0.018 archwire. PMID:26020037

  16. The effect of pre-cure bracket movement on shear bond strength during placement of orthodontic brackets, an in vitro study.

    Tam, Byron; Bollu, Prashanti; Chaudhry, Kishore; Subramani, Karthikeyan

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of linear and rotational pre-cure bracket displacement during the bonding procedure on shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets. Stainless steel orthodontic premolar brackets were bonded to the buccal surfaces of 50 human pre-molars with a conventional two-step bonding protocol. Extracted human pre-molars were divided into 5 groups (n=10/group). In the Control Group, the brackets were bonded with no pre-cure bracket displacement or rotation. The Rotation Group was bonded with 45 degrees of pre-cure rotation. The Displacement Group was bonded with 2mm pre-cure linear displacement. The Rotation-Displacement Group was bonded with pre-cure movements of 45º counter-clockwise rotation and 2mm displacement. The Slippage Group was bonded with 2mm each of mesial and distal pre-cure linear displacement. Photo-activation was carried out on the lateral sides of the bracket. Shear debonding force was measured, 24 hours after initial bonding, with an Instron universal testing machine using a knife-edged chisel. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA test. Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) was scored under 15x magnification. The ARI data was analyzed using the Chi-square test ( p -value bracket displacements do not appear to effect the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. Key words: Shear bond strength, orthodontic bracket, displacement, rotation, adhesive remnant index, pre-cure movement.

  17. The Influence of No-Primer Adhesives and Anchor Pylons Bracket Bases on Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets

    Andrea Scribante

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS and adhesive remnant index (ARI scores of no-primer adhesives tested with two different bracket bases. Materials and Methods. 120 bovine permanent mandibular incisors were divided into 6 groups of 20 specimens. Two brackets (ODP with different bracket bases (anchor pylons and 80-gauge mesh were bonded to the teeth using a conventional adhesive (Transbond XT and two different no-primer adhesive (Ortho Cem; Heliosit systems. Groups were tested using an instron universal testing machine. SBS values were recorded. ARI scores were measured. SEM microphotographs were taken to evaluate the pattern of bracket bases. Statistical analysis was performed. ANOVA and Tukey tests were carried out for SBS values, whereas a chi-squared test was applied for ARI scores. Results. Highest bond strength values were reported with Transbond XT (with both pad designs, Ortho Cem bonded on anchor pylons and Heliosit on 80-gauge mesh. A higher frequency of ARI score of “3” was reported for Transbond XT groups. Other groups showed a higher frequency of ARI score “2” and “1.” Conclusion. Transbond XT showed the highest shear bond strength values with both pad designs.

  18. Evaluation of failure characteristics and bond strength after ceramic and polycarbonate bracket debonding : effect of bracket base silanization

    Ozcan, M.; Finnema, K.; Ybema, A.

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of silanization on the failure type and shear-peel bond strength (SBS) of ceramic and polycarbonate brackets, and to determine the type of failure when debonded with either a universal testing machine or orthodontic pliers. Silanized and

  19. The Effect of Bracket Base Pylon Orientation on the Shear Bond Strength of the ODP ANCHOR-LOCK Bracket Pad

    2013-06-06

    in the dark) ( Bourke et al., 1992; McClean et al., 1994). Resin-modified glass ionomer cements that possess photochemical settling reactions also...primer/adhesive on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2001; 119(6):621-624. 61 Bourke AM, Walls AW

  20. Influence of optical properties of esthetic brackets (color, translucence, and fluorescence) on visual perception.

    Lopes Filho, Hibernon; Maia, Lúcio E G; Araújo, Marcus Vinicius A; Ruellas, Antônio Carlos O

    2012-04-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the optical properties of esthetic brackets and determine their influence on visual perception. Eighty esthetic brackets of 16 commercial brands were tested. The color and translucency of the brackets, as well as the color of the maxillary central incisors of 40 subjects, were measured with a spectrophotometer. The fluorescence of the brackets was determined by duly calibrated appraisers. The color differences between the brands of brackets and the teeth were calculated. Data were analyzed by using 1-way analysis of variance; the Scheffé multiple comparison test was used to establish the difference between brands of brackets, (α = 0.05). The color parameters L ∗ a ∗ b ∗ of nontranslucent brackets ranged from 49.4 to 86.0, -1.6 to 3.0, and 1.9 to 14.6, respectively. The direct transmission of light ranged from 0.0% to 38.8% transmittance. No bracket showed fluorescence. The color and translucency, as well as the color difference, of the brackets were influenced by brand (P perception; translucent brackets and the nontranslucent InVu (TP Orthodontics, LaPorte, Ind) brackets were less visually perceptible. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Can 10% hydrofluoric acid be used for reconditioning of orthodontic brackets?

    Pompeo, Daniela D; Rosário, Henrique D; Lopes, Beatriz Mv; Cesar, Paulo F; Paranhos, Luiz Renato

    2016-01-01

    Bracket debonding is a common problem during orthodontic treatment. This type of failure is associated to masticatory forces, poor adhesion, and the need for repositioning the piece. The objective of this work was to compare the shear bond strength of debonded brackets that were reconditioned using different protocols (alumina blasting versus hydrofluoric etching). This was an in vitro experimental study with 45 stainless steel orthodontic brackets. They were randomly divided into three groups: (1) New brackets (n = 15), (2) brackets reconditioned using 10% hydrofluoric acid for 60 s (n = 15), and (3) brackets reconditioned by aluminum oxide blasting until complete removal of the remaining resin (n = 15). In Groups 2 and 3, the insertion of composite resin proceeded in two stages to simulate a type of bracket failure in which the bonding resin was left at the bracket base. For the shear test, the assembly composed by the metallic support, and specimen was taken to the Instron universal testing machine in which the specimens were loaded using a semicircle-shaped active tip in the region of the bonding interface parallel to the surface of the bracket at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. The data were subjected to D'Agostino's normality test to have their distribution checked. Analysis of variance and Tukey's test (P brackets) showed higher bond strength than that obtained for the group treated with hydrofluoric acid (Group 2, P brackets. Nevertheless, the reconditioning technique using 10% fluoridric acid for 60 s was not efficient for clinical use.

  2. Self-ligating vs conventional twin brackets during en-masse space closure with sliding mechanics.

    Miles, Peter G

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the rate of en-masse space closure with sliding mechanics between passive self-ligating SmartClip brackets (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) and conventional twin brackets ligated with stainless steel ligatures. Nineteen patients including 20 arches participated in this prospective trial with 0.018-in slot brackets. All patients had first premolar extractions in at least 1 arch, with the second premolar and the first molar distal to the extraction site bonded with SmartClip brackets on 1 side and conventional twin brackets on the other. The sides were alternated with each consecutive patient. Space closure was achieved on 0.016 x 0.022-in stainless steel wires with nickel-titanium coil springs activated 6 to 9 mm. The patients were recalled every 5 weeks until 1 side had closed. The distances from the mesial aspect of the canine bracket to the distal aspect of the first molar bracket were recorded before and after space closure, and an average rate of space closure per month was calculated. Thirteen patients completed the trial (14 arches); the median rates of tooth movement for the SmartClip bracket side (1.1 mm per month) and the conventional twin bracket side (1.2 mm per month) were not significantly different (P = .86). There was no significant difference in the rate of en-masse space closure between passive SmartClip brackets and conventional twin brackets tied with stainless steel ligatures.

  3. Desensitizing Addiction : Using Eye Movements to Reduce the Intensity of Substance-Related Mental Imagery and Craving

    Littel, M.; van den Hout, M.A.; Engelhard, I.M.

    2016-01-01

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. During this treatment, patients recall traumatic memories while making horizontal eye movements (EM). Studies have shown that EM not only desensitize negative memories but also positive

  4. Uncoupling of the beta-adrenergic receptor as a mechanism of in vitro neutrophil desensitization

    Galant, S.P.; Britt, S.

    1984-01-01

    Human leukocytes have been useful in studying desensitization phenomena to beta-adrenergic agonists in a number of clinical conditions. In the present in vitro study the authors have explored the mechanism for beta-adrenergic desensitization and have compared conditions for homologous and heterologous desensitization, using the intact PMN model. PMN preincubated with isoproterenol (10 -4 M), washed thoroughly, then restimulated, desensitized rapidly so that within 10 min 80% of control isoproterenol-induced cyclic AMP stimulation is lost. Cells washed free of isoproterenol recover full responsiveness in 1 to 2 hr. The estimated isoproterenol desensitization EC 50 in cells washed and then restimulated is 1 x 10 -5 M, and EC 50 in unwashed cells that are restimulated is 9 x 10 -8 M. Rank-order potency studies of catecholamine desensitization show isoproterenol > epinephrine > norepinephrine, a beta-2 pattern. Isoproterenol-induced desensitization results in a small reduction in [ 3 H]DHA binding sites, which becomes statistically significant (p 50 of 6.6 +/- 2.6 x 10 - (M, which is significantly different (p 50 of 38.1 +/- 9.1 x 10 -1 M found when cells are previously desensitized with isoproterenol for 10 min. GTP does not affect the EC 50 of desensitized cells. Finally, prolonged (3 hr) isoproterenol preincubation results in a small but significant (p 1 (59.3% +/- 7.4), suggesting heterologous desensitization. These studies suggest that the human PMN is a suitable model to study both homologous and heterologous desensitization in vitro. 22 references. 6 figures. 3 tables

  5. Cytokine expression before and after aspirin desensitization therapy in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.

    Aktas, Ayse; Kurt, Emel; Gulbas, Zafer

    2013-12-01

    Aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is induced by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and/or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Effects of desensitization on many mediators have been examined previously, but few studies addressed the influence of desensitization on T lymphocytes and T lymphocyte-derived cytokines. This study was performed to examine peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) cytokine expression in aspirin-sensitive patients who have asthma before and after aspirin desensitization. In this study, the release of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) by CD4+ T lymphocytes prior to aspirin desensitization were also measured at intracellular levels, and expression of these cytokines after 1 month aspirin desensitization was evaluated. Twelve patients with AERD were included in the study. Two different control groups were formed, one consisted of 15 healthy people and second 12 aspirin tolerant asthmatic (ATA) patients using aspirin. A blood sample was collected prior to desensitization, and the tests were repeated by taking a second blood sample 1 month after the 4-day desensitization treatment. The proportion of lymphocytes secreting IFN-γ in the study group was 15.61 ± 4.40 % before desensitization and 15.08 ± 5.89 % after desensitization. The rate of IFN-γ secreting CD4+ T lymphocytes was 20.51 ± 4.41 % in the normal control group and 16.07 ± 5.7 % in the ATA group (p = 0.021). The ratio of CD4+ T lymphocyte secreting IFN-γ was reduced in patients with AERD before desensitization compared to normal control group (p = 0.040). The levels of IL-2, IL-4, and the subsets of lymphocyte were not different before and after desensitization compared to control groups.

  6. Desensitization to inhaled aztreonam lysine in an allergic patient with cystic fibrosis using a novel approach.

    Guglani, Lokesh; Abdulhamid, Ibrahim; Ditouras, Joanna; Montejo, Jenny

    2012-10-01

    To report the successful desensitization of a highly allergic patient with cystic fibrosis (CF) to inhaled aztreonam lysine using the novel approach of intravenous desensitization followed by full-dose inhaled therapy without any adverse reactions. A 19-year-old woman with CF had persistent Pseudomonas aeruginosa-positive cultures and a history of type I hypersensitivity reactions to multiple medications, including aztreonam and tobramycin (intravenous and inhaled). To start therapy with an inhaled antipseudomonal antibiotic on a chronic basis, she underwent rapid desensitization to intravenous aztreonam followed by initiation of inhaled aztreonam lysine. Following intravenous desensitization with aztreonam, there was no adverse reaction or decline in lung function noted with inhaled aztreonam lysine and the chronic therapy was continued at home, with a modified regimen to maintain desensitization. Aztreonam lysine has been used for treatment of patients with CF with chronic P. aeruginosa colonization. Previous allergic reaction to intravenous aztreonam is considered a contraindication for use of aztreonam lysine. Our patient had a history of hives and facial swelling following administration of intravenous aztreonam (type I hypersensitivity reaction) as well as hypersensitivity to tobramycin. Rapid desensitization can be done for drugs that mediate a type I hypersensitivity reaction, with mast cells and basophils being the cellular targets. There are a few case reports of desensitization to inhaled antibiotics such as tobramycin and colistin, but desensitization to aztreonam lysine has not previously been reported. Desensitization of a patient with CF who is allergic to intravenous aztreonam was successfully accomplished with the novel approach of rapid intravenous desensitization followed by inhaled therapy. As inhaled antibiotics are being increasingly used for patients with CF, this novel strategy can be used for desensitizing allergic patients with CF to

  7. [Effects of different resin removal methods on shear bond strength of rebonded orthodontic brackets].

    Wu, Hai-miao; Zhao, Bin-jiao; Chen, Dong

    2015-06-01

    To compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of rebonded orthodontic metal brackets with different resin removal methods. Forty extracted premolars were chosen as samples and divided into 4 experimental groups. The teeth were bonded with brackets. The brackets from 3 groups were debonded while adhesive remnants were removed from bracket bases by methods of grinding, sandblasting, and direct flaming, respectively and then rebonded. The SBS values of all rebonded brackets were determined after pH cycling experiment for 30 days. Some rebonded bracket bases were selected and observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA test using SPSS 13.0 software package. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference of SBS values among the 4 experimental groups (Pbrackets after resin removal by grinding and sandblasting have a similar SBS compared to the initial brackets adhesive.

  8. Finite Element Analysis Design of a Split Rotor Bracket for a Bulb Turbine Generator

    Yongyao Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rotor bracket is a key component of the generator rotor with cracks in the rotor bracket leading to rubbing between the rotor and stator, which threatens safe operation of the unit. The rotor rim is so complicated that the equivalent radial stiffness of rim was determined by numerical simulation other than engineering experience. A comprehensive numerical method including finite element analyses and the contact method for multibody dynamics has been used to design the split rotor bracket. The com-putational results showed that cracks would occur in the initial design of the bracket when the turbine operated at the runaway speed, and the bracket design should be improved. The improved design of the bracket was strong enough to avoid cracks and rub between the rotor and stator. This design experience will help improve the design of split rotor brackets for bulb turbine generators.

  9. Radiation

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  10. Adhesion of periodontal pathogens to self-ligating orthodontic brackets: An in-vivo prospective study.

    Jung, Woo-Sun; Kim, Kyungsun; Cho, Soha; Ahn, Sug-Joon

    2016-09-01

    Our aims were to analyze adhesion of periodontopathogens to self-ligating brackets (Clarity-SL [CSL], Clippy-C [CC] and Damon Q [DQ]) and to identify the relationships between bacterial adhesion and oral hygiene indexes. Central incisor brackets from the maxilla and mandible were collected from 60 patients at debonding after the plaque and gingival indexes were measured. Adhesions of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Prevotella intermedia (Pi), Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), and Tannerella forsythia (Tf) were quantitatively determined using real-time polymerase chain reactions. Factorial analysis of variance was used to analyze bacterial adhesion in relation to bracket type and jaw position. Correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the relationships between bacterial adhesion and the oral hygiene indexes. Total bacteria showed greater adhesion to CSL than to DQ brackets, whereas Aa, Pg, and Pi adhered more to DQ than to CSL brackets. CC brackets showed an intermediate adhesion pattern between CSL and DQ brackets, but it did not differ significantly from either bracket type. Adhesion of Fn and Tf did not differ significantly among the 3 brackets. Most bacteria were detected in greater quantities in the mandibular than in the maxillary brackets. The plaque and gingival indexes were not strongly correlated with bacterial adhesion to the brackets. Because Aa, Pg, and Pi adhered more to the DQ brackets in the mandibular area, orthodontic patients with periodontal problems should be carefully monitored in the mandibular incisors where the distance between the bracket and the gingiva is small, especially when DQ brackets are used. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Frictional and mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon-coated orthodontic brackets.

    Muguruma, Takeshi; Iijima, Masahiro; Brantley, William A; Nakagaki, Susumu; Endo, Kazuhiko; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of a diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on frictional and mechanical properties of orthodontic brackets. DLC films were deposited on stainless steel brackets using the plasma-based ion implantation/deposition (PBIID) method under two different atmospheric conditions. As-received metal brackets served as the control. Two sizes of stainless steel archwires, 0.018 inch diameter and 0.017 × 0.025 inch cross-section dimensions, were used for measuring static and kinetic friction by drawing the archwires through the bracket slots, using a mechanical testing machine (n = 10). The DLC-coated brackets were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Values of hardness and elastic modulus were obtained by nanoindentation testing (n = 10). Friction forces were compared by one-way analysis of variance and the Scheffé test. The hardness and elastic modulus of the brackets were compared using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. SEM photomicrographs showed DLC layers on the bracket surfaces with thickness of approximately 5-7 μm. DLC-coated brackets deposited under condition 2 showed significantly less static frictional force for the stainless steel wire with 0.017 × 0.025 inch cross-section dimensions than as-received brackets and DLC-coated brackets deposited under condition 1, although both DLC-coated brackets showed significantly less kinetic frictional force than as-received brackets. The hardness of the DLC layers was much higher than that of the as-received bracket surfaces. In conclusion, the surfaces of metal brackets can be successfully modified by the PBIID method to create a DLC layer, and the DLC-coating process significantly reduces frictional forces.

  12. Evaluation of friction produced by self-ligating, conventional and Barbosa Versatile brackets

    Jurandir Antonio BARBOSA

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The Barbosa Versatile bracket design may provide lower frictional force and greater sliding. However, no in vitro studies have shown its sliding mechanisms and frictional resistance, particularly in comparison with other self-ligating or conventional brackets. Objective To compare the frictional resistance among self-ligating brackets (EasyClip/ Aditek, Damon MX/ Ormco and In Ovation R/ GAC; conventional brackets (Balance Roth/ GAC, and Roth Monobloc/ Morelli; and Barbosa Versatile bracket (Barbosa Versatile/ GAC with different angles and arch wires. Material and method Brackets were tested with the 0.014", 0.018", 0.019"×0.025" and 0.021"×0.025" stainless steel wires, with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 degree angulations. Tying was performed with elastomeric ligature for conventional and Barbosa Versatile brackets, or with a built-in clip system of the self-ligating brackets. A universal testing machine was used to obtain sliding strength and friction value readouts between brackets and wires. Result Three-way factorial ANOVA 4×5×6 (brackets × angulation × wire and Tukey tests showed statistically significant differences for all factors and all interactions (p<0.0001. Static frictional resistance showed a lower rate for Barbosa Versatile bracket and higher rates for Roth Monobloc and Balance brackets. Conclusion The lowest frictional resistance was obtained with the Barbosa Versatile bracket and self-ligating brackets in comparison with the conventional type. Increasing the diameter of the wires increased the frictional resistance. Smaller angles produced less frictional resistance.

  13. Detrimental Effects of a Self-reward Contracting Program on Subjects' Involvement in Self-administered Desensitization

    Barrera, Manuel Jr.; Rosen, Gerald M.

    1977-01-01

    Assesses a self-reward contracting procedure intended to facilitate completion of self-administered desensitization. Self-referred snake phobics received either (a) self-administered desensitization; (b) self-administered desensitization with self-reward contracting; or (c) a self-administered placebo with self-reward contracting. Results show the…

  14. Effectiveness of Structured Psychodrama and Systematic Desensitization in Reducing Test Anxiety.

    Kipper, David A.; Giladi, Daniel

    1978-01-01

    Students with examination anxiety took part in study of effectiveness of two kinds of treatment, structured psychodrama and systematic desensitization, in reducing test anxiety. Results showed that subjects in both treatment groups significantly reduced test-anxiety scores. Structured psychodrama is as effective as systematic desensitization in…

  15. Substance P receptor desensitization requires receptor activation but not phospholipase C

    Sugiya, Hiroshi; Putney, J.W. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposure of parotid acinar cells to substance P at 37 degree C results in activation of phospholipase C, formation of [ 3 H]inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ), and persistent desensitization of the substance P response. In cells treated with antimycin in medium containing glucose, ATP was decreased to ∼20% of control values, IP 3 formation was completely inhibited, but desensitization was unaffected. When cells were treated with antimycin in the absence of glucose, cellular ATP was decreased to ∼5% of control values, and both IP 3 formation and desensitization were blocked. A series of substance P-related peptides increased the formation of [ 3 H]IP 3 and induced desensitization of the substance P response with a similar rank order of potencies. The substance P antagonist, [D-Pro 2 , D-Try 7,9 ]-substance P, inhibited substance P-induced IP 3 formation and desensitization but did not induce desensitization. These results suggest that the desensitization of substance P-induced IP 3 formation requires agonist activation of a P-type substance P receptor, and that one or more cellular ATP-dependent processes are required for this reaction. However, activation of phospholipase C and the generation of inositol phosphates does not seem to be a prerequisite for desensitization

  16. Agonist-induced desensitization of human β3-adrenoceptors expressed in human embryonic kidney cells

    Michel-Reher, Martina B.; Michel, Martin C.

    2013-01-01

    β3-Adrenoceptors are resistant to agonist-induced desensitization in some cell types but susceptible in others including transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. Therefore, we have studied cellular and molecular changes involved in agonist-induced β3-adrenoceptor desensitization in HEK cells.

  17. Characterization of phosphorylated beta-adrenergic receptors from desensitized turkey erythrocytes

    Rebar, R.; Crooke, S.T.; Stadel, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Catecholamine-induced desensitization of turkey erythrocyte (TE) adenylate cyclase results in a 40-50 percent decrease in agonist stimulated cyclase activity. Desensitization is accompanied by decreased mobility on SDS-PAGE of beta-adrenergic receptor (BAR) proteins photoaffinity labeled with [ 125 I]-p-azidobenzylcarazolol compared to control. Using a low crosslinked gel, the M/sub r/ = 42,000 band of BAR from desensitized TE was further resolved into a doublet compared to a single M/sub r/ = 38,000 band for control. The formation of the doublet appears to correlate with the amount of adenylate cyclase desensitization. Preincubating TE for 20 hr at 37 0 C with 32 P-/sub i/ labels BAR. 32 P-BAR was partially purified by affinity chromatography over alprenolol-Sepharose. Limited digest peptide maps of 32 P-BAR using papain identified a unique peptide (M/sub r/ = 2800) from BAR of desensitized TE which was absent in control. This unique 32 P-peptide was found only in the upper band of the doublet of BAR from desensitized TE. These data indicate that BAR is not uniformly phosphorylated following agonist-induced desensitization of TE and identify a peptide of BAR which is a site of phosphorylation correlating with desensitization of TE adenylate cyclase

  18. Effects of Two Short-Term Desensitization Methods in the Treatment of Test Anxiety

    Richardson, Frank C.; Suinn, Richard M.

    1974-01-01

    Accelerated massed desensitization and anxiety management training were compared with standard systematic desensitization in terms of reducing self-reported test anxiety in high test-anxious college students. All three treatments significantly reduced test anxiety as compared with a waiting list control group. (Author)

  19. The Role of Attention-Placebo Influences in the Efficacy of Systematic Desensitization

    McReynolds, William T.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Systematic desensitization was compared with two attention-placebo control treatments--one taken from Paul and one currently devised as an elaborate, highly impressive therapeutic'' experience--and no treatment. It was hypothesized that (a) fear reductions following desensitization would be no greater than those associated with an equally…

  20. A Comparison of Implosive Therapy and Systematic Desensitization in the Treatment of Test Anxiety

    Smith, Ronald E.; Nye, S. Lee

    1973-01-01

    Both Desensitization and implosive therapy resulted in significant decreases in scores on Sarason's Test Anxiety Scale. However, the desensitization group also demonstrated a significant reduction in state anxiety assessed during simulated testing sessions and a significant increase in grade point average, while the implosive therapy group showed…

  1. Desensitization And Study-Skills Training As Treatment For Two Types of Test-Anxious Students

    Osterhouse, Robert A.

    1972-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of systematic desensitization and training in efficient study methods for reducing test anxiety among subjects selected on the basis of two types of self reported anxiety. Desensitization offered more promise as a treatment method for test anxiety than did training in study skills. (Author)

  2. Flooding and Systematic Desensitization: Efficacy in Subclinical Phobics as a Function of Arousal

    Suarez, Yolanda; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Flooding and systematic desensitization procedures were investigated for possible interactions with subject arousal level on reduction in phobic reactions. No such interaction was found. Behaviorally and on GSR response, both flooding and systematic desensitization were effective, but only the latter was effective on subjective reports. (NG)

  3. Comparison of Anxiety Management Training and Desensitization in Reducing Test and Other Anxieties.

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Shelton, John L.

    1978-01-01

    Effects of systematic desensitization and anxiety management training in reducing test anxiety and generalizing to other anxieties were compared. Both desensitization and anxiety management training produced significant reduction of text anxiety, but by follow-up, anxiety management training produced significantly more test-anxiety reduction on…

  4. Systematic Desensitization as a Method of Teaching a General Anxiety-Reducing Skill

    Zemore, Robert

    1975-01-01

    College students were treated with either a standard or modified version of systematic desensitization. Relative to a no-treatment control group, both treatment methods produced significant reductions in both the treated and untreated fears. The implications these findings have for two alternative conceptions of systematic desensitization are…

  5. Anxiety Management Training and Self-Control Desensitization: 15 Months Later.

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Michaels, Ann C.

    1981-01-01

    A 15-month follow-up study found that anxiety management training and self-control desensitization groups continued to report significantly less debilitating test anxiety than the control group. Anxiety management training and self-control desensitization groups also reported significantly less nontargeted anxiety than controls on both measures of…

  6. Cognitive Modification and Systematic Desensitization with Test Anxious High School Students.

    Leal, Lois L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Compares the relative effectiveness of cognitive modification and systematic desensitization with test anxious high school students (N=30). The systematic desensitization treatment appeared to be significantly more effective on the performance measure while cognitive modification was more effective on one of the self-report measures. (Author/JAC)

  7. Comparison of Three Methods of Reducing Test Anxiety: Systematic Desensitization, Implosive Therapy, and Study Counseling

    Cornish, Richard D.; Dilley, Josiah S.

    1973-01-01

    Systematic desensitization, implosive therapy, and study counseling have all been effective in reducing test anxiety. In addition, systematic desensitization has been compared to study counseling for effectiveness. This study compares all three methods and suggests that systematic desentization is more effective than the others, and that implosive…

  8. Comparison of Relaxation as Self-control and Systematic Desensitization in the Treatment of Test Anxiety

    Snyder, Arden L.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.

    1977-01-01

    Relaxation as self-control and desensitization were compared to a wait-list control in reduction of rest and other anxieties. Active treatments differed significantly from the control treatment. Subjects in both treatments reported less debilitating test anxiety, whereas desensitization subjects showed greater facilitating test anxiety. (Author)

  9. Group Systematic Desensitization Versus Covert Positive Reinforcement in the Reduction of Test Anxiety

    Kostka, Marion P.; Galassi, John P.

    1974-01-01

    The study compared modified versions of systematic desensitization and covert positive reinforcement to a no-treatment control condition in the reduction of test anxiety. On an anagrams performance test, the covert reinforcement and control groups were superior to the desensitization group. (Author)

  10. Self-Desensitization and Meditation in the Reduction of Public Speaking Anxiety.

    Kirsch, Irving; Henry, David

    1979-01-01

    Speech-anxious students were assigned to self-administered treatment conditions: (1) systematic desensitization, (2) desensitization with meditation replacing progressive relaxation, and (3) meditation only. Treatment manuals included coping-skill instructions. Treatments were equally effective in reducing anxiety and produced a greater reduction…

  11. Aspirin desensitization in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a survey of current practice.

    Chapman, Andrew R; Rushworth, Gordon F; Leslie, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Aspirin remains the mainstay of anti-platelet therapy in cardiac patients. However, if a patient is allergic to aspirin and dual anti-platelet therapy is indicated - such as with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), then there is no clear guidance. One possibility is aspirin desensitization. A variety of protocols exist for the rapid desensitization of patients with aspirin allergy. The aim of this survey was to assess current knowledge and practice regarding aspirin desensitization in the UK. We conducted a UK wide survey of all UK 116 PCI centers and obtained complete responses from 40 (35.4%) centers. Of these, just 7 (17.5%) centers had previously desensitised patients; 29 (87.9%) centers suggested a lack of a local protocol prevented them from desensitizing, with 10 (30.3%) unsure of how to conduct desensitization. Only 5 (12.5%) centers had a local policy for aspirin desensitization although 25 (64.1%) units had a clinical strategy for dealing with aspirin allergy; the majority (72%) giving higher doses of thienopyridine class drugs. In the UK, there appears to be no consistent approach to patients with aspirin allergy. Patients undergoing PCI benefit from dual anti-platelet therapy (including aspirin), and aspirin desensitization in those with known allergy may facilitate this. Sustained effort should be placed on encouraging UK centers to use desensitization as a treatment modality prior to PCI rather than avoiding aspirin altogether.

  12. A practical and successful desensitization protocol for immediate hypersensitivity reactions to iron salts.

    Demir, Semra; Olgac, Muge; Unal, Derya; Gelincik, Asli; Colakoglu, Bahauddin; Buyukozturk, Suna

    2014-01-01

    Orally administered iron salts (OAS) are widely used in the management of iron deficiency anemia and hypersensitivity reactions to OAS are not common. If an offending drug is the sole option or is significantly more effective than its alternatives, it can be readministered by desensitization. The oral desensitization protocols for iron published so far concern either desensitization that was completed only over a long period or did not attain the recommended therapeutic dose. We aimed to develop a more effective protocol. We report here on 2 patients who experienced hypersensitivity reactions to OAS. After confirming the diagnosis, both patients were desensitized to oral ferrous (II) glycine sulfate complex according to a 2-day desensitization protocol. A commercial suspension of oral ferrous glycine sulfate, which contains 4 mg of elemental iron in 1 ml, was preferred. We started with a dose as low as 0.1 ml from a 1/100 dilution (0.004 mg elemental iron) of the original suspension and reached the maximum effective dose in 2 days. Both patients were successfully desensitized and they went on to complete the 6-month iron treatment without any adverse effects. Although hypersensitvity reactions to iron are not common, there is no alternative for iron administration. Therefore, desensitization has to be the choice. This easy desensitization protocol seems to be a promising option. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The Effect of Self and In Vivo Desensitization on Counselor Trainee Anxiety and Performance.

    Miller, Thomas V.

    The rationale, planning and implementing of this research is discussed in terms of its three hypotheses: (1) that both self desensitization and in vivo desensitization would result in lower Fear Index and Anxiety Differential scores of counselor trainees just prior to communicating with a role playing client in a counseling room where they are…

  14. Rapid desensitization of adrenaline- and neuropeptide Y-stimulated Ca2+ mobilization in HEL-cells

    Michel, M. C.

    1994-01-01

    1. Desensitization of Gs-coupled receptors, the beta 2-adrenoceptor for example, involves rapid and slower components but little is known regarding the existence of rapid desensitization of Gi-coupled receptors and its possible mechanisms. In HEL-cells stimulation of alpha 2A-adrenoceptors by

  15. Prospective iterative trial of proteasome inhibitor-based desensitization.

    Woodle, E S; Shields, A R; Ejaz, N S; Sadaka, B; Girnita, A; Walsh, R C; Alloway, R R; Brailey, P; Cardi, M A; Abu Jawdeh, B G; Roy-Chaudhury, P; Govil, A; Mogilishetty, G

    2015-01-01

    A prospective iterative trial of proteasome inhibitor (PI)-based therapy for reducing HLA antibody (Ab) levels was conducted in five phases differing in bortezomib dosing density and plasmapheresis timing. Phases included 1 or 2 bortezomib cycles (1.3 mg/m(2) × 6-8 doses), one rituximab dose and plasmapheresis. HLA Abs were measured by solid phase and flow cytometry (FCM) assays. Immunodominant Ab (iAb) was defined as highest HLA Ab level. Forty-four patients received 52 desensitization courses (7 patients enrolled in multiple phases): Phase 1 (n = 20), Phase 2 (n = 12), Phase 3 (n = 10), Phase 4 (n = 5), Phase 5 (n = 5). iAb reductions were observed in 38 of 44 (86%) patients and persisted up to 10 months. In Phase 1, a 51.5% iAb reduction was observed at 28 days with bortezomib alone. iAb reductions increased with higher bortezomib dosing densities and included class I, II, and public antigens (HLA DRβ3, HLA DRβ4 and HLA DRβ5). FCM median channel shifts decreased in 11/11 (100%) patients by a mean of 103 ± 54 mean channel shifts (log scale). Nineteen out of 44 patients (43.2%) were transplanted with low acute rejection rates (18.8%) and de novo DSA formation (12.5%). In conclusion, PI-based desensitization consistently and durably reduces HLA Ab levels providing an alternative to intravenous immune globulin-based desensitization. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  16. Assessment of Ions released from Three Types of Orthodontic Brackets immersed in Different Mouthwashes: An in vitro Study.

    Nahidh, Mohammed; Garma, Noor Mh; Jasim, Esraa S

    2018-01-01

    Herbs are used widely in medicine. The purpose of the present study was to assess the ion release from gold-plated orthodontic bracket compared with other stainless steel brackets, and based on the findings of the study, the orthodontists can choose the most biocompatible brackets and mouthwashes useful in the clinical practice. A total of 150 orthodontic brackets from Orthotechnology™ Company, USA (50 stainless steel one-piece brackets, 50 stainless steel two-piece brackets, and 50 gold brackets) were immersed in four mouthwashes in addition to distilled water. Ten of each type of brackets in every media were immersed under 37°C for 45 days. Ions released in these mouthwashes were measured, and comparisons among different bracket types and among various mouthwashes were done by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and then with Games-Howell tests. Increased amounts of ions released in herbal mouth-washes were recorded in gold and two-piece brackets in comparison with one-piece stainless steel brackets. Herbal mouthwashes must be used with caution as they showed an increased amount of ions released in comparison with chlorhexidine. One-piece stainless steel bracket system is the most compatible bracket type, as they released the least amount of ions. One-piece stainless steel brackets are better than two-piece brackets in terms of ions released.

  17. Safety of aspirin desensitization in patients with reported aspirin allergy and cardiovascular disease.

    McMullan, Kathryn L; Wedner, H James

    2013-01-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is the drug of choice in patients with coronary artery disease for primary and secondary prevention. This poses a problem for those patients reporting hypersensitivity to this drug or class of drugs. Desensitization to ASA may be carried out safely and effectively in patients with reported ASA or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) hypersensitivity needing ASA for cardiac indications. Our 7-step protocol is one choice for a rapid desensitization protocol. A retrospective chart review was conducted evaluating ASA desensitization in patients with reported ASA or NSAID hypersensitivity and a cardiac indication for ASA. In 160 evaluations over 15 years, 89 desensitizations were performed in both the inpatient and outpatient setting with only 16 reactions (18%). Eleven of these 16 patients (68.7%) were able to take daily ASA. Twenty-six desensitization procedures were performed with our 7-step rapid desensitization protocol in 10 inpatients and 16 outpatients with 3 reactions (18.75% of reactions). Initial reaction to ASA involving angioedema and reacting to ASA within the past year increased the risk of having a reaction to desensitization. Desensitization may be safely performed in patients with reported ASA or NSAID hypersensitivity and a cardiac indication for ASA. Our 7-step rapid protocol may be used in both the inpatient and outpatient setting to desensitize these patients. Patients who had angioedema with ASA ingestion or a reaction to ASA within the past year are at higher risk for reaction during the desensitization protocol. The authors have no funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Long-term sinonasal outcomes of aspirin desensitization in aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease.

    Cho, Kyu-Sup; Soudry, Ethan; Psaltis, Alkis J; Nadeau, Kari C; McGhee, Sean A; Nayak, Jayakar V; Hwang, Peter H

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to assess sinonasal outcomes in patients with aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) undergoing aspirin desensitization following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Case series with chart review. University hospital. A retrospective review of sinonasal outcomes was conducted for 30 AERD patients undergoing aspirin desensitization and maintenance therapy following ESS. Sinonasal outcomes were prospectively assessed by the Sinonasal Outcomes Test-22 (SNOT-22) and endoscopic polyp grading system. Data were collected preoperatively, 1 and 4 weeks postsurgery (before desensitization), and 1, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months after aspirin desensitization. Twenty-eight of 30 patients (93.3%) successfully completed aspirin desensitization, whereas 2 of 30 (6.7%) were unable to complete desensitization due to respiratory intolerance. Of the 21 patients who successfully completed a minimum of 24 weeks of follow-up, 20 (95.2%) patients demonstrated sustained endoscopic and symptomatic improvement for a median follow-up period of 33 months. After surgical treatment but before desensitization, patients experienced significant reductions in SNOT-22 and polyp grade scores. In the first 6 months after aspirin desensitization, patients experienced further significant reductions in SNOT-22 scores, whereas polyp grade remained stable. The improvements in symptom endoscopic scores were preserved throughout the follow-up period after desensitization. No patients required additional sinus surgery. One patient had to discontinue aspirin therapy due to gastrointestinal side effects. No other adverse reactions to aspirin were noted. Aspirin desensitization following ESS appears to be a well-tolerated and effective adjunctive therapy for long-term control of nasal polyposis in patients with AERD. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  19. Efficacy, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of desensitization using IVIG and rituximab.

    Vo, Ashley A; Petrozzino, Jeffrey; Yeung, Kai; Sinha, Aditi; Kahwaji, Joseph; Peng, Alice; Villicana, Rafael; Mackowiak, John; Jordan, Stanley C

    2013-03-27

    Transplantation rates are very low for the broadly sensitized patient (panel reactive antibody [PRA]>80%; HS). Here, we examine the efficacy, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of desensitization using high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and rituximab to improve transplantation rates in HS patients. From July 2006 to December 2011, 207 HS (56 living donors/151 deceased donors) patients (donor-specific antibody positive, PRA>80%) were desensitized using IVIG and rituximab. After desensitization, responsive patients proceeded to transplantation with an acceptable crossmatch. Cost and outcomes of desensitization were compared with dialysis. Of the 207 treated patients, 146 (71%) were transplanted. At 48 months, patient and graft survival by Kaplan-Meier were 95% and 87.5%, respectively. The total 3-year cost for patients treated in the desensitization arm was $219,914 per patient compared with $238,667 per patient treated in the dialysis arm. Thus, each patient treated with desensitization is estimated to save the U.S. healthcare system $18,753 in 2011 USD. Overall, estimated patient survival at the end of 3 years was 96.6% for patients in the desensitization arm of the model (based on Cedars-Sinai survival rate) compared with 79.0% for an age, end-stage renal disease etiology, and PRA matched group of patients remaining on dialysis during the study period. We conclude that desensitization with IVIG+rituximab is clinically and cost-effective, with both financial savings and an estimated 17.6% greater probability of 3-year survival associated with desensitization versus dialysis alone. However, the benefits of desensitization and transplantation are limited by organ availability and allocation policies.

  20. Influence of Preadjusted Bracket Shape and Positioning Reference on Angulation of Upper Central Incisor.

    Topolski, Francielle; de O Accorsi, Mauricio A; Trevisi, Hugo J; Cuoghi, Osmar A; Moresca, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    To verify the influence of different bracket shapes and placement references according to Andrews and MBT systems on the expression of angulation in upper central incisors (UCI). Bracket positioning and mesiodistal dental movement simulations were performed and the angulations produced in the dental crown were evaluated, based on computed tomography scan images of 30 UCI and AutoCAD software analysis. Rectangular (Andrews) and rhomboid (MBT) brackets were placed according to the references recommended by Andrews and MBT systems - long axis of the clinical crown (LACC) and incisal edge (IE) respectively. Data showed that the use of LACC as reference for bracket positioning produced 5° and 4° UCI angulations in Andrews and MBT brackets respectively. The use of IE produced a 1.2° mean angulation in UCI for both brackets. When the LACC was used as reference for bracket positioning, the UCI crown angulation corresponded to the angulation built into the brackets, regardless of shape, while the use of IE resulted in natural crown angulation, regardless of bracket shape. This research contributes to guide the orthodontist in relation to the different treatment techniques based on the use of preadjusted brackets.

  1. Topographic and chemical surface modifications to metal brackets after a period in the mouth.

    Houb-Dine, Afaf; Bahije, Loubna; Oualalou, Youssef; Benyahia, Hicham; Zaoui, Fatima

    2017-09-01

    In the current state of our knowledge, the effects of corrosion on the performance of orthodontic appliances and on patient health are far from clear. Awareness of these problems has led to a growing demand for nickel-free products. Titanium brackets were recently launched on the market as an alternative to stainless-steel brackets. However, the use of fluorides for caries prevention creates a risk of corrosion of these titanium appliances. The aim of this study is to examine the corrosion of stainless-steel and titanium brackets in clinical orthodontic use, focusing on the impact of fluorine. After approval by the ethics committee and the informed consent of the patients, 30 candidates for multi-bracket treatment were selected on the basis of certain exclusion criteria. The patients were divided into 4 groups: group 1: titanium brackets and fluorine protection; group 2: titanium brackets without fluorine protection; group 3: stainless-steel brackets and fluorine protection; group 4: stainless-steel brackets without fluorine protection. Analysis of the brackets removed after 4months in the mouth, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with phase contrast, revealed a difference in the surface topography of the metal brackets and the presence of chromium coating on the surface of the titanium appliances. Copyright © 2017 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Debris and friction of self-ligating and conventional orthodontic brackets after clinical use.

    Araújo, Raíssa Costa; Bichara, Lívia Monteiro; Araujo, Adriana Monteiro de; Normando, David

    2015-07-01

    To compare the degree of debris and friction of conventional and self-ligating orthodontic brackets before and after clinical use. Two sets of three conventional and self-ligating brackets were bonded from the first molar to the first premolar in eight individuals, for a total of 16 sets per type of brackets. A passive segment of 0.019 × 0.025-inch stainless steel archwire was inserted into each group of brackets. Frictional force and debris level were evaluated as received and after 8 weeks of intraoral exposure. Two-way analysis of variance and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were applied at P brackets (P brackets showed a higher amount of debris compared with the conventional brackets. The frictional force in conventional brackets was significantly higher when compared with self-ligating brackets before clinical use (P brackets, when exposed to the intraoral environment, showed a significant increase in frictional force during the sliding mechanics. Debris accumulation was higher for the self-ligating system.

  3. Topological optimization of opening fence brackets on ring-stiffened cylindrical shell

    SONG Xiaofei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] Stress concentration is prone to take place at connections between the opening fence and ring ribs of a ring-stiffened cylindrical shell under external pressure. [Methods] In this paper, a topological optimization method for the brackets that connect the fence to the ring ribs is proposed in order to effectively reduce the local high stress in the brackets. The sub-model technique is used to analyze the stress of the connecting brackets. In the design, the connection brackets are used as design variables and the stress of the shell, fence and ribs are used as constraints. The maximum stress of the bracket is minimized as the objective function. The topology optimization results are engineered to obtain the final form of the brackets. [Results] The calculation results show that brackets of which the panel is partially widened can effectively reduce the stress concentration position of the opening fence transverse offset if the side of the bracket away from the longitudinal section is longer; the opening fence is offset relative to the brackets, and the symmetrical design of the brackets is feasible. [Conclusions] This research provides a reference for similar structural design.

  4. [Bond strengths of customized titanium brackets manufactured by selective laser melting].

    Zou, Dao-xing; Wang, Ze-min; Guo, Hong-ming; Li, Song; Bai, Yu-xing

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the bond strengths of customized titanium bracket manufactured by selective laser melting. Eighty human premolars which had been extracted for orthodontic purpose were collected and divided randomly (by random table) into two groups (customized bracket group and 3M bracket group, 40 molars in each group). The 35% phosphoric acid was used for etching and the brackets were bonded with 3M Unitek bonding adhesive. All bonded specimens were placed in saline for 24 hours at room temperature and were tested on DWD3050 electronic testing machine to determine the shear bond strength and tensile bond strength. After debonding, the adhesive remnant indexes (ARI) were recorded. The shear bond strengths of customized brackets was 6.80 (6.20, 8.32) MPa, which was significantly lower than that of the 3M brackets [10.46 (9.72, 11.48) MPa] (Z = -3.463, P < 0.05). And the tensile bond strengths of customized brackets was (6.93 ± 1.21) MPa, which was significantly higher than that of the 3M brackets [(5.88 ± 1.23) MPa] (t = 2.81, P < 0.05). No significant difference was found in the ARI between two different kinds of the brackets. The shear bond strength and tensile bond strength of both kinds of brackets were enough for clinic application.

  5. Sexual Violence: Psychiatric Healing With Eye Movement Reprocessing and Desensitization

    POSMONTIER, BOBBIE; DOVYDAITIS, TIFFANY; LIPMAN, KENNETH

    2011-01-01

    Sexual violence, which affects one in three women worldwide, can result in significant psychiatric morbidity and suicide. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) offers health care providers the option of a brief psychiatric intervention that can result in psychiatric healing in as few as four sessions. Because health care providers often hear stories of sexual violence from their patients, they are in an ideal position to make recommendations for treatment. The purpose of this article is to introduce health care providers to the technique of EMDR, review safety and appropriateness, and discuss clinical and research implications. PMID:20623397

  6. On postirradiation desensitization of the organism to adrenaline

    Vasin, M.V.; Petrova, T.V.

    1988-01-01

    In experiments with albino mongrel rats weighing 220-260 g a study was made of the affect of adrenaline on the cyclic nucleotide content of blood plasma at early times following 60 Co gamma-irradiation (75 Gy). The absence of the organism response to adrenaline is perhaps due to the development of post irradiation desensitization of β-adrenergic system and inability to induce cAMP formation in a cell. The data are submitted confirming the affect of levamisole on the cyclic nucleitide level. The level of cGMP decreased in thymocytes and increased in blood plasma after the administration of the drug to irradiated animals

  7. A quantum Goldman bracket in (2 + 1) quantum gravity

    Nelson, J E; Picken, R F

    2008-01-01

    In the context of quantum gravity for spacetimes of dimension (2 + 1), we describe progress in the construction of a quantum Goldman bracket for intersecting loops on surfaces. Using piecewise linear paths in R 2 (representing loops on the spatial manifold, i.e. the torus) and a quantum connection with noncommuting components, we review how holonomies and Wilson loops for two homotopic paths are related by phases in terms of the signed area between them. Paths rerouted at intersection points with other paths occur on the rhs of the Goldman bracket. To better understand their nature we introduce the concept of integer points inside the parallelogram spanned by two intersecting paths, and show that the rerouted paths must necessarily pass through these integer points

  8. Derivation of the Hall and extended magnetohydrodynamics brackets

    D' Avignon, Eric C., E-mail: cavell@physics.utexas.edu; Morrison, Philip J., E-mail: morrison@physics.utexas.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Lingam, Manasvi, E-mail: mlingam@princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    There are several plasma models intermediate in complexity between ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and two-fluid theory, with Hall and Extended MHD being two important examples. In this paper, we investigate several aspects of these theories, with the ultimate goal of deriving the noncanonical Poisson brackets used in their Hamiltonian formulations. We present fully Lagrangian actions for each, as opposed to the fully Eulerian, or mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian, actions that have appeared previously. As an important step in this process, we exhibit each theory's two advected fluxes (in analogy to ideal MHD's advected magnetic flux), discovering also that with the correct choice of gauge they have corresponding Lie-dragged potentials resembling the electromagnetic vector potential, and associated conserved helicities. Finally, using the Euler-Lagrange map, we show how to derive the noncanonical Eulerian brackets from canonical Lagrangian ones.

  9. Algebric generalization of symmetry Dirac bracket. Application to field theory

    Rocha Filho, T.M. da.

    1987-01-01

    The A set of observable of a physical system with finite e infinite number of degrees of freedom and submitted to certain constraint conditions, is considered. Using jordan algebra structure on A in relation to bymmetric Poisson bracket obtained by Droz-Vincent, a jordan product is obtained on the A/I quocient set with regard to I ideal generated by constraints of second class. It is shown that this product on A/I corresponds to symmetric Dirac bracket. The developed formulation is applied to a system corresponding to harmonic oscillators, non relativistic field, Rarita-Schwinger field and the possibility of its utilization in fermionic string theories is discussed. (M.C.K.)

  10. Femtosecond laser etching of dental enamel for bracket bonding.

    Kabas, Ayse Sena; Ersoy, Tansu; Gülsoy, Murat; Akturk, Selcuk

    2013-09-01

    The aim is to investigate femtosecond laser ablation as an alternative method for enamel etching used before bonding orthodontic brackets. A focused laser beam is scanned over enamel within the area of bonding in a saw tooth pattern with a varying number of lines. After patterning, ceramic brackets are bonded and bonding quality of the proposed technique is measured by a universal testing machine. The results are compared to the conventional acid etching method. Results show that bonding strength is a function of laser average power and the density of the ablated lines. Intrapulpal temperature changes are also recorded and observed minimal effects are observed. Enamel surface of the samples is investigated microscopically and no signs of damage or cracking are observed. In conclusion, femtosecond laser exposure on enamel surface yields controllable patterns that provide efficient bonding strength with less removal of dental tissue than conventional acid-etching technique.

  11. Comparison of the frictional characteristics of aesthetic orthodontic brackets measured using a modified in vitro technique

    Arici, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    Objective The coefficients of friction (COFs) of aesthetic ceramic and stainless steel brackets used in conjunction with stainless steel archwires were investigated using a modified linear tribometer and special computer software, and the effects of the bracket slot size (0.018 inches [in] or 0.022 in) and materials (ceramic or metal) on the COF were determined. Methods Four types of ceramic (one with a stainless steel slot) and one conventional stainless steel bracket were tested with two types of archwire sizes: a 0.017 × 0.025-in wire in the 0.018-in slots and a 0.019 × 0.025-in wire in the 0.022-in slot brackets. For pairwise comparisons between the 0.018-in and 0.022-in slot sizes in the same bracket, an independent sample t-test was used. One-way and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post-hoc test at the 95% confidence level (α = 0.05) were also used for statistical analyses. Results There were significant differences between the 0.022-in and 0.018-in slot sizes for the same brand of bracket. ANOVA also showed that both slot size and bracket slot material had significant effects on COF values (p bracket with a 0.022-in stainless steel slot showed the lowest mean COF (µ = 0.18), followed by the conventional stainless steel bracket with a 0.022-in slot (µ = 0.21). The monocrystalline alumina ceramic bracket with a 0.018-in slot had the highest COF (µ = 0.85). Conclusions Brackets with stainless steel slots exhibit lower COFs than ceramic slot brackets. All brackets show lower COFs as the slot size increases. PMID:25667915

  12. A quantitative AFM analysis of nano-scale surface roughness in various orthodontic brackets.

    Lee, Gi-Ja; Park, Ki-Ho; Park, Young-Guk; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2010-10-01

    In orthodontics, the surface roughnesses of orthodontic archwire and brackets affect the effectiveness of arch-guided tooth movement, corrosion behavior, and the aesthetics of orthodontic components. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements were used to provide quantitative information on the surface roughness of the orthodontic material. In this study, the changes in surface roughness of various orthodontic bracket slots before and after sliding movement of archwire in vitro and in vivo were observed through the utilization of AFM. Firstly, we characterized the surface of four types of brackets slots as follows: conventional stainless steel (Succes), conventional ceramic (Perfect), self-ligating stainless steel (Damon) and self-ligating ceramic (Clippy-C) brackets. Succes) and Damon brackets showed relatively smooth surfaces, while Perfect had the roughest surface among the four types of brackets used. Secondly, after in vitro sliding test with beta titanium wire in two conventional brackets (Succes and Perfect), there were significant increases in only stainless steel bracket, Succes. Thirdly, after clinical orthodontic treatment for a maximum of 2 years, the self-ligating stainless steel bracket, Damon, showed a significant increase in surface roughness. But self-ligating ceramic brackets, Clippy-C, represented less significant changes in roughness parameters than self-ligating stainless steel ones. Based on the results of the AFM measurements, it is suggested that the self-ligating ceramic bracket has great possibility to exhibit less friction and better biocompatibility than the other tested brackets. This implies that these bracket slots will aid in the effectiveness of arch-guided tooth movement.

  13. Orthodontic bracket bonding to glazed full-contour zirconia

    Ji-Young Kwak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study evaluated the effects of different surface conditioning methods on the bond strength of orthodontic brackets to glazed full-zirconia surfaces. Materials and Methods Glazed zirconia (except for the control, Zirkonzahn Prettau disc surfaces were pre-treated: PO (control, polishing; BR, bur roughening; PP, cleaning with a prophy cup and pumice; HF, hydrofluoric acid etching; AA, air abrasion with aluminum oxide; CJ, CoJet-Sand. The surfaces were examined using profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, and electron dispersive spectroscopy. A zirconia primer (Z-Prime Plus, Z or a silane primer (Monobond-S, S was then applied to the surfaces, yielding 7 groups (PO-Z, BR-Z, PP-S, HF-S, AA-S, AA-Z, and CJ-S. Metal bracket-bonded specimens were stored in water for 24 hr at 37℃, and thermocycled for 1,000 cycles. Their bond strengths were measured using the wire loop method (n = 10. Results Except for BR, the surface pre-treatments failed to expose the zirconia substructure. A significant difference in bond strengths was found between AA-Z (4.60 ± 1.08 MPa and all other groups (13.38 ± 2.57 - 15.78 ± 2.39 MPa, p < 0.05. For AA-Z, most of the adhesive remained on the bracket. Conclusions For bracket bonding to glazed zirconia, a simple application of silane to the cleaned surface is recommended. A zirconia primer should be used only when the zirconia substructure is definitely exposed.

  14. Corrosion of orthodontic brackets in different spices: in vitro study.

    Chaturvedi, T P

    2014-01-01

    Moist environment in the mouth varies and causes variable amounts of corrosion of dental materials. This is of concern particularly when metallic implants, metallic fillings, orthodontic appliances are placed in the hostile electrolytic environment in the human mouth. Components of diet rich in salt and spices are important factors influencing the corrosion of metallic appliances placed in the oral cavity. To study in vitro corrosion of orthodontic metallic brackets immersed in solutions of salt and spices in artificial saliva. Orthodontic brackets were used for corrosion studies in artificial saliva, salt, and spices using electrochemical technique and surface analysis. Electrochemical studies using different parameters were done in solutions of artificial saliva containing salt and spices. Photomicrographs from the optical microscope were also obtained. RESULTS of corrosion studies have clearly demonstrated that certain spices such as turmeric and coriander are effective in reducing corrosion, whereas salt and red chili have been found to enhance it. Surface analysis of small pits present on the surface of the as-received bracket will initiate corrosion which leads to more pitting.

  15. Design assessment of triangular support bracket for manufacturability

    Kim, Yu-Gyeong; Jung, Yung-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Ahn, Hee-Jae

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Various designs for ITER triangular support bracket are proposed in terms of efficient manufacturability. • An optimized design for structural safety is determined in accordance with RCC-MR. • This result is reconfirmed by cross-checking in comparison with the IO baseline of integrity. - Abstract: The triangular support is connected structurally and hydraulically with the inner shell of the vacuum vessel and its main role is to keep plasma vertical stability during operational disruptions. Korea is responsible for the procurement of sectors 1 and 6 of the main vessel including triangular support. At present, design review for its fabrication by ITER Korea and Hyundai Heavy Industries, Co., Ltd. is in progress. This paper presents the results on various designs for triangular support bracket in terms of manufacturability considering both easiness of non-destructive evaluation and fabrication efficiency. The several designs are proposed and evaluated under the most critical loading condition using elastic and limit analysis with fatigue evaluation. Consequently, an optimized design for structural safety is determined in accordance with RCC-MR. This result is reconfirmed by cross-checking in comparison with the baseline of integrity that already had been determined by ITER Organization. The design deviation requests of triangular support bracket have been submitted to ITER Organization and Agreed Notified Body for approval, and their verification is currently under discussion.

  16. Immunological mechanisms for desensitization and tolerance in food allergy1

    Rachid, Rima; Umetsu, Dale T.

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy is a major public health concern in westernized countries, estimated to affect 5% of children and 3-4 % of adults. Allergen specific immunotherapy for food allergy is currently being actively evaluated, but is still experimental. The optimal protocol, in terms of the route of administration of the food, target maintenance dose, duration of maintenance therapy and the optimal patient for these procedures are still being worked out. The mechanisms underlying successful food desensitization are also unclear, in part because there is no standard immunotherapy protocol. The mechanisms involved however, may include mast cell and basophil suppression, development of food-specific IgG4 antibodies, reduction in the food specific IgE/IgG4 ratio, up-regulation and expansion of natural or inducible regulatory T cells, a skewing from a Th2 to a Th1 profile and the development of anergy and/or deletion in antigen specific cells. Additional studies are required to elucidate and understand these mechanisms by which desensitization and tolerance are achieved, and which may reveal valuable biomarkers for evaluating and following food allergic patients on immunotherapy. PMID:22821087

  17. Desensitization for Drug Hypersensitivity to Chemotherapy and Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Bonamichi-Santos, Rafael; Castells, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapies drugs and monoclonal antibodies are key components of the treatment of cancer patients and patients with chronic inflammatory conditions to provide increase in life expectancy and quality of life. Their increased use has lead to an increase in drugs hypersensitivity reactions (DHR) worldwide. DHR to those agents prevented their use and promoted the use of second line therapies to protect patients' hypersensitive reactions and anaphylaxis. Second line medications may not fully address the patients' medical condition and it is desirable to keep patients on first line therapy. Drug hypersensitivity symptoms can range from mild cutaneous reactions to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Rapid drug desensitization (RDD) is a novel approach to the management of drug hypersensitivity reactions which are IgE and non-IgE mediated. Through the diferent desensitization protocols patients can receive the full dose of the medications that they have presented a hypersensitive reaction and been protected against anaphylaxis. This review looks at the current literature on hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) to chemotherapy drugs and monoclonal antibodies and the potential use of RDD for their management. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Immune Desensitization Allows Pediatric Blood Group Incompatible Kidney Transplantation.

    Stojanovic, Jelena; Adamusiak, Anna; Kessaris, Nicos; Chandak, Pankaj; Ahmed, Zubir; Sebire, Neil J; Walsh, Grainne; Jones, Helen E; Marks, Stephen D; Mamode, Nizam

    2017-06-01

    Blood group incompatible transplantation (ABOi) in children is rare as pretransplant conditioning remains challenging and concerns persist about the potential increased risk of rejection. We describe the results of 11 ABOi pediatric renal transplant recipients in the 2 largest centers in the United Kingdom, sharing the same tailored desensitization protocol. Patients with pretransplant titers of 1 or more in 8 received rituximab 1 month before transplant; tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil were started 1 week before surgery. Antibody removal was performed to reduce titers to 1 or less in 8 on the day of the operation. No routine postoperative antibody removal was performed. Death-censored graft survival at last follow-up was 100% in the ABOi and 98% in 50 compatible pediatric transplants. One patient developed grade 2A rejection successfully treated with antithymocyte globulin. Another patient had a titer rise of 2 dilutions treated with 1 immunoadsorption session. There was no histological evidence of rejection in the other 9 patients. One patient developed cytomegalovirus and BK and 2 others EBV and BK viremia. Tailored desensitization in pediatric blood group incompatible kidney transplantation results in excellent outcomes with graft survival and rejection rates comparable with compatible transplants.

  19. Aspirin Desensitization in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: Results of the Multicenter ADAPTED Registry (Aspirin Desensitization in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease).

    Rossini, Roberta; Iorio, Annamaria; Pozzi, Roberto; Bianco, Matteo; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Leonardi, Sergio; Lettieri, Corrado; Bossi, Irene; Colombo, Paola; Rigattieri, Stefano; Dossena, Cinzia; Anzuini, Angelo; Capodanno, Davide; Senni, Michele; Angiolillo, Dominick J

    2017-02-01

    There are limited data on aspirin (ASA) desensitization for patients with coronary artery disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and efficacy of a standard rapid desensitization protocol in patients with ASA sensitivity undergoing coronary angiography. This is a prospective, multicenter, observational study including 7 Italian centers including patients with a history of ASA sensitivity undergoing coronary angiography with intent to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention. A total of 330 patients with history of ASA sensitivity with known/suspected stable coronary artery disease or presenting with an acute coronary syndrome, including ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction were enrolled. Adverse effects to aspirin included urticaria (n=177, 53.6%), angioedema (n=69, 20.9%), asthma (n=65, 19.7%), and anaphylactic reaction (n=19, 5.8%). Among patients with urticaria/angioedema, 13 patients (3.9%) had a history of idiopathic chronic urticaria. All patients underwent a rapid ASA (5.5 hours) desensitization procedure. The desensitization procedure was performed before cardiac catheterization in all patients, except for those (n=78, 23.6%) presenting with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction who underwent the desensitization after primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Percutaneous coronary intervention was performed in 235 patients (71%) of the overall study population. The desensitization procedure was successful in 315 patients (95.4%) and in all patients with a history of anaphylactic reaction. Among the 15 patients (4.6%) who did not successfully respond to the desensitization protocol, adverse reactions were minor and responded to treatment with corticosteroids and antihistamines. Among patients with successful in-hospital ASA desensitization, 253 patients (80.3%) continued ASA for at least 12 months. Discontinuation of ASA in the 62 patients (19.7%) who had responded to the desensitization protocol was because of medical

  20. Concurrent engineering solution for the design of ship and offshore bracket parts and fabrication process

    Tae-Won Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Brackets in ships and offshore structures are added structures that can endure stress concentrations. In this study, a concurrent engineering solution was proposed, and a high strength low carbon cast steel alloy applicable to offshore structures was designed and developed. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the designed steel were 480 and 600 MPa, respectively. The carbon equivalent of the steel was 0.446 with a weld crack susceptibility index of 0.219. The optimal structural design of the brackets for offshore structures was evaluated using ANSYS commercial software. The possibility of replacing an assembly of conventional built-up brackets with a single casting bulb bracket was verified. The casting process was simulated using MAGMAsoft commercial software, and a casting fabrication process was designed. For the proposed bulb bracket, it was possible to reduce the size and weight by approximately 30% and 50%, respectively, compared to the conventional type of bracket.

  1. Evaluation of the friction force generated by monocristalyne and policristalyne ceramic brackets in sliding mechanics.

    Pimentel, Roberta Ferreira; de Oliveira, Roberto Sotto Maior Fortes; Chaves, Maria das Graças Afonso Miranda; Elias, Carlos Nelson; Gravina, Marco Abdo

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate and compare "in vitro" the maximum friction force generated by three types of esthetic brackets, two types of polycrystalline conventional ceramic brackets (20/40 and InVu) and one type of sapphire monocrystalline bracket (Radiance) in dry and artificial saliva wet settings. Also, to evaluate the influence exerted by artificial saliva on the friction forces of those brackets. Tests were performed in dry and artificial saliva wet setting (Oral Balance) by using an EMIC DL 10000 testing machine, simulating a 2 mm slide of 0.019 x 0.025-in rectangular stainless steel wires over the pre-angulated and pre-torqued (right superior canine, Roth prescription, slot 0.022 x 0.030-in) brackets (n = 18 for each bracket). In order to compare groups in dry and wet settings, the ANOVA was used. For comparisons related to the dry versus wet setting, the student t test was used for each group. The results showed that in the absence of saliva the Radiance monocrystalline brackets showed the highest friction coefficients, followed by the 20/40 and the InVu polycrystalline brackets. In tests with artificial saliva, the Radiance and the 20/40 brackets had statistically similar friction coefficients and both were greater than that presented by the InVu brackets. The artificial saliva did not change the maximum friction force of the Radiance brackets, but, for the others (20/40 and InVu), an increase of friction was observed in its presence. The InVu brackets showed, in the absence and in the presence of saliva, the lowest friction coefficient.

  2. In vitro study of color stability of polycrystalline and monocrystalline ceramic brackets

    de Oliveira, Cibele Braga; Maia, Luiz Guilherme Martins; Santos-Pinto, Ary; Gandini J?nior, Luiz Gonzaga

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this in vitro study was to analyze color stability of monocrystalline and polycrystalline ceramic brackets after immersion in dye solutions. METHODS: Seven ceramic brackets of four commercial brands were tested: Two monocrystalline and two polycrystalline. The brackets were immersed in four dye solutions (coffee, red wine, Coke and black tea) and in artificial saliva for the following times: 24 hours, 7, 14 and 21 days, respectively. Color changes were measured by a...

  3. Effect of Er:YAG Laser and Sandblasting in Recycling of Ceramic Brackets.

    Yassaei, Soghra; Aghili, Hossein; Hosseinzadeh Firouzabadi, Azadeh; Meshkani, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study was performed to determine the shear bond strength of rebonded mechanically retentive ceramic brackets after recycling with Erbium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Er:YAG) laser or sandblasting. Methods: Twenty-eight debonded ceramic brackets plus 14 intact new ceramic brackets were used in this study. Debonded brackets were randomly divided into 2 groups of 14. One group was treated by Er:YAG laser and the other with sandblasting. All the specimens were randomly bonded to 42 intact human upper premolars. The shear bond strength of all specimens was determined with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until bond failure occurred. The recycled bracket base surfaces were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey tests were used to compare the shear bond strength of the 3 groups. Fisher exact test was used to evaluate the differences in adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores. Results: The highest bond strength belonged to brackets recycled by Sandblasting (16.83 MPa). There was no significant difference between the shear bond strength of laser and control groups. SEM photographs showed differences in 2 recycling methods. The laser recycled bracket appeared to have as well-cleaned base as the new bracket. Although the sandblasted bracket photographs showed no remnant adhesives, remarkable micro-roughening of the base of the bracket was apparent. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, both Er:YAG laser and sandblasting were efficient to mechanically recondition retentive ceramic brackets. Also, Er:YAG laser did not change the design of bracket base while removing the remnant adhesives which might encourage its application in clinical practice.

  4. Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets and Disinclusion Buttons: Effect of Water and Saliva Contamination

    Sfondrini, Maria Francesca; Fraticelli, Danilo; Gandini, Paola; Scribante, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of water and saliva contamination on the shear bond strength and failure site of orthodontic brackets and lingual buttons. Materials and Methods. 120 bovine permanent mandibular incisors were randomly divided into 6 groups of 20 specimens each. Both orthodontic brackets and disinclusion buttons were tested under three different enamel surface conditions: (a) dry, (b) water contamination, and (c) saliva contamination. Brackets and buttons...

  5. Shear Bond Strength of DentStat(trademark) for Bracket Bonding to Gold, Ceramic, and Enamel

    2012-12-21

    they make a good choice for orthodontic bracket retention. According to a Cochrane review by Mandall (Mandall et al, 2002) all of their review...was developed as a temporary material for use in military field environments, can be used to effectively bond orthodontic brackets to type III gold... orthodontic composite resin adhesive, Transbond XTTM (3M Unitek Monrovia, California), as they are used to bond orthodontic brackets to gold

  6. Rapid drug desensitization for hypersensitivity reactions to chemotherapy and monoclonal antibodies in the 21st century.

    Castells Guitart, M C

    2014-01-01

    The frequency of hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) to drugs has risen in the last 10 years owing to increased exposure to better and more allergenic medications including monoclonal antibodies. HSRs prevent patients from using their first-line therapy, leading to decreased quality of life and life expectancy. Although premedication with antihistamines, leukotriene blockers, and corticosteroids can protect against mild-to-moderate HSR, none of these medications has provided protection against anaphylaxis. Rapid drug desensitization is a treatment option for patients with HSR to their first-line medication that protects against anaphylaxis.Although the mechanisms of drug desensitization are not completely understood, in vitro mast cell models of IgE antigen desensitization have led to the design of safe and effective in vivo protocols aimed at protecting highly sensitized patients from hypersensitivity reactions and anaphylaxis. This review provides an insight into the mechanisms of IgE/mast cell desensitization, the principles and practice of drug desensitization, and an overview of the different desensitization protocols and their safety and efficacy profiles. Drug desensitization should only be performed by allergists, trained nurses, and experienced pharmacists, since this high-risk procedure involves reintroducing allergenic medication to highly sensitized patients, with the consequent potential for severe or fatal HSRs.

  7. The role of aspirin desensitization in patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD).

    Spies, Jonas Willian; Valera, Fabiana Cardoso Pereira; Cordeiro, Daniel Loiola; de Mendonça, Taís Nociti; Leite, Marcelo Gonçalves Junqueira; Tamashiro, Edwin; Arruda, Luiza Karla; Anselmo-Lima, Wilma Terezinha

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) consists of a classic tetrad: moderate/severe asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps, and intolerance to aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Clinical control with drugs, surgery, and desensitization are treatment options. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of aspirin desensitization in patients with AERD. Periodic symptom assessment and endoscopy in patients with AERD undergoing surgery who were desensitized. Seventeen patients were desensitized. Eight patients completed the desensitization and were followed for a minimum of a one-year period (mean 3.1 years). These patients showed improvement in all symptoms. Moreover, surgical reassessment was not indicated in any of these patients and there was a decrease in costs with medication and procedures. Eight patients did not complete desensitization, mainly due to procedure intolerance and uncontrolled asthma, whereas another patient was lost to follow-up. Aspirin desensitization, when tolerated, was effective in patients with AERD and with poor clinical/surgical response. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. DESENSITIZATION PROPERTIES OF P2X3 RECEPTORS SHAPING PAIN SIGNALLING

    Rashid eGiniatullin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ATP-gated P2X3 receptors are mostly expressed by nociceptive sensory neurons and participate in transduction of pain signals. P2X3 receptors show a combination of fast desensitization onset and slow recovery. Moreover, even low nanomolar agonist concentrations unable to evoke a response, can induce desensitization via a phenomenon called ‘high affinity desensitization’. We have also observed that recovery from desensitization is agonist-specific and can range from seconds to minutes. The recovery process displays unusually high temperature dependence. Likewise, recycling of P2X3 receptors in peri-membrane regions shows unexpectedly large temperature sensitivity. By applying kinetic modeling, we have previously shown that desensitization characteristics of P2X3 receptor are best explained with a cyclic model of receptor operation involving three agonist molecules binding a single receptor and that desensitization is primarily developing from the open receptor state. Mutagenesis experiments suggested that desensitization depends on a certain conformation of the ATP binding pocket and on the structure of the transmembrane domains forming the ion pore. Further molecular determinants of desensitization have been identified by mutating the intracellular N- and C-termini of P2X3 receptor. Unlike other P2X receptors, the P2X3 subtype is facilitated by extracellular calcium that acts via specific sites in the ectodomain neighboring the ATP binding pocket. Thus, substitution of serine275 in this region (called ‘left flipper’ converts the natural facilitation induced by extracellular calcium to receptor inhibition. Given such their strategic location in nociceptive neurons and unique desensitization properties, P2X3 receptors represent an attractive target for development of new analgesic drugs via promotion of desensitization aimed at suppressing chronic pain.

  9. A successful desensitization protocol for horse-derived antithymocyte globulin in severe aplastic anemia.

    Demir, Esen; Cigerci Günaydın, Nurşen; Karadaş, Nihal; Gülen, Figen; Tanac, Remziye; Yılmaz, Deniz

    2015-03-01

    Horse antithymocyte globulin (h-ATG) (ATGAM(®) ) is the first choice of treatment in very severe patients with aplastic anemia who do not have any HLA matched sibling donor. h-ATG is a heterologous serum that may cause anaphylaxis. Alternative treatment strategies must be planned in case of hypersensitivity. Desensitization must be considered in patients without an alternative treatment of choice. We aimed to present the h-ATG desensitization protocol and consider its effectiveness in patients with aplastic anemia who are hypersensitized with h-ATG and do not have an alternative treatment of choice. Skin prick tests were performed with non-diluted solution in eight very severe patients with aplastic anemia who are followed up in Ege University Children's Hospital. Although skin prick test was found negative in these eight patients, different dilution h-ATG intradermal tests were performed and found positive in all patients. h-ATG desensitization program was started to these hypersensitized patients. Desensitization program was started to six male and two female very severe patients with aplastic anemia whose ages were between seven and 19 yr (median: 12.9 yr). All of the patients completed the desensitization program. While local reaction was seen in two patients, systemic reaction was seen in one patient and late reaction was seen in one patient during and after desensitization program. A successful desensitization program with h-ATG in children with aplastic anemia is presented. Even though there is not an exposure before to such high allergy potential heterologous serum, skin tests should be performed and desensitization must be started to patients who are hypersensitized to h-ATG. As the expected effectiveness of the treatment is so much, the desensitization protocol can be carried out safely and effectively with trained stuff although allergic reactions can be seen. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Drug desensitization in the management of hypersensitivity reactions to monoclonal antibodies and chemotherapy.

    Mezzano, Veronica; Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro; Picard, Matthieu; Caiado, Joana; Castells, Mariana

    2014-04-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to monoclonal antibodies and chemotherapy, which may vary in severity from mild to life-threatening, can lead to their discontinuation and replacement by alternative agents that are often less effective, more toxic, and/or more expensive. Drug desensitization has emerged as the best treatment modality capable of allowing re-introduction of the hypersensitivity reaction-inducing medication in highly sensitized patients in need of first line therapies. In recent years, the availability of new anti-neoplastic drugs and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies has increased, as has the potential for hypersensitivity reactions. Development of desensitization protocols for these new medications requires a careful assessment of the potential risks and benefits. The purposes of this review are to provide an overview of the presentation of hypersensitivity reactions amenable to desensitization and to increase awareness of the indications for and outcomes of desensitization protocols. Rapid drug desensitization has proven to be a safe and effective way of administering first line therapy to patients with hypersensitivity reactions, providing an extremely powerful treatment modality for patients for whom alternative drugs are deemed unacceptable. Rapid drug desensitization protocols should be administered only by highly trained allergists and nurses who have experience in determining which reactions are amenable to desensitization, and can identify high risk patients and provide them with appropriate care. Efforts should be made to increase awareness of the remarkable safety and efficacy of rapid drug desensitization among non-allergists, especially in the fields of oncology and rheumatology, so as to favor its universal application. Development of desensitization units to provide state-of-the-art care is possible only through coordinated teamwork.

  11. Evaluation of friction in orthodontics using various brackets and archwire combinations-an in vitro study.

    Kumar, Sujeet; Singh, Shamsher; Hamsa P R, Rani; Ahmed, Sameer; Prasanthma; Bhatnagar, Apoorva; Sidhu, Manreet; Shetty, Pramod

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare frictional resistance which was produced between conventional brackets (0.022 slot Otho-Organiser) and self ligating brackets (active Forestadent and passive Damon III) by using various arch wire combinations (0.016 Niti, 0.018 Niti, 0.017 x 0.025 SS and 0.019 x 0.025 SS). An experimental model which consisted of 5 aligned stainless steel 0.022-in brackets was used to assess frictional forces which were produced by SLBs (self ligating brackets) and CELs (conventional elastomeric ligatures) with use of 0.016 nickel titanium, 0.018 nickel titanium, 0.017 X 0.025"stainless steel and 0.019 X 0.025"stainless steel wires. One way ANOVA test was used to study the effect of the bracket type, wire alloy and section on frictional resistance test . Conventional brackets produced highest levels of friction for all bracket/archwire combinations. Both Damon III and Forestadent brackets were found to produce significantly lower levels of friction when they were compared with elastomerically tied conventional brackets. SLBs are valid alternatives for low friction during sliding mechanics.

  12. Torsional strength of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-fabricated esthetic orthodontic brackets.

    Alrejaye, Najla; Pober, Richard; Giordano Ii, Russell

    2017-01-01

    To fabricate orthodontic brackets from esthetic materials and determine their fracture resistance during archwire torsion. Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology (Cerec inLab, Sirona) was used to mill brackets with a 0.018 × 0.025-inch slot. Materials used were Paradigm MZ100 and Lava Ultimate resin composite (3M ESPE), Mark II feldspathic porcelain (Vita Zahnfabrik), and In-Ceram YZ zirconia (Vita Zahnfabrik). Ten brackets of each material were subjected to torque by a 0.018 × 0.025-inch stainless steel archwire (G&H) using a specially designed apparatus. The average moments and degrees of torsion necessary to fracture the brackets were determined and compared with those of commercially available alumina brackets, Mystique MB (Dentsply GAC). The YZ brackets were statistically significantly stronger than any other tested material in their resistance to torsion (P brackets. Resistance of MZ100 and Lava Ultimate composite resin brackets to archwire torsion was comparable to commercially available alumina ceramic brackets.

  13. Accuracy of four different digital intraoral scanners: effects of the presence of orthodontic brackets and wire.

    Jung, Yoo-Ran; Park, Ji-Man; Chun, Youn-Sic; Lee, Kkot-Nim; Kim, Minji

    The objective of this study was to compare the accuracy of four different digital intraoral scanners and the effects of buccal brackets and orthodontic wire. For this study, three sets of models (Control model, BKT model with buccal bracket, and WBKT model with buccal bracket and orthodontic wire) were scanned using four different types of intraoral scanners: E4D dentist, iTero, Trios, and Zfx IntraScan. The mesiodistal width of the teeth, intercanine width, and intermolar width measured by four scanners were compared. Three-dimensional (3D) images of the brackets were taken using the four scanners. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA, independent t test, and post-hoc Tukey test at a significance level of P brackets and orthodontic wire. Comparison of 3D bracket images scanned by the four scanners showed differences in image distortion among the scanners. Bracket characteristics did not affect the 3D bracket images. The four intraoral scanners used in this study differed in accuracy. However, the results acquired by iTero and Trios were more reliable. Effects of buccal brackets and orthodontic wire on the 3D images taken by intraoral scanners were not clinically significant.

  14. Intraoral corrosion of self-ligating metallic brackets and archwires and the effect on friction

    Tima, Lori Lynn

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the frictional coefficient was affected due to intraoral use. A secondary aim of this study was to determine whether or not there was a relationship between corrosion of orthodontic alloys and friction via scanning electron microscopic qualitative analysis. Orthodontic brackets and 0.019 x 0.025 inch stainless steel archwires were collected and divided into three groups of n=10: used bracket and used wires (UBUW), used brackets and new wires (UBNW), and new brackets and new wires (NBNW). New materials were as-received from the manufacturer, and used materials were clinically used bracket and wires collected from patients following orthodontic treatment. Archwires were pulled through bracket slots at a rate of 0.5mm/min while friction forces were measured. Following a cleaning process, the surface topography of the bracket slots was examined under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Based on a 1-factor MANOVA, there was no significant group effect (all p>0.05) on frictional forces. Partial eta squared values indicated that intraoral exposure had only a small effect on frictional forces (≤ 3%). Qualitative analysis of SEM images did not show an association between surface characteristics of the bracket slots and magnitude of frictional force. Results suggest that surface corrosion from intraoral use does not significantly affect friction at the bracket wire interface.

  15. Cleansing orthodontic brackets with air-powder polishing: effects on frictional force and degree of debris.

    Leite, Brisa Dos Santos; Fagundes, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes; Aragón, Mônica Lídia Castro; Dias, Carmen Gilda Barroso Tavares; Normando, David

    2016-01-01

    Debris buildup on the bracket-wire interface can influence friction. Cleansing brackets with air-powder polishing can affect this process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frictional force and amount of debris remaining on orthodontic brackets subjected to prophylaxis with air-powder polishing. Frictional force and debris buildup on the surface of 28 premolar brackets were evaluated after orthodontic treatment. In one hemiarch, each bracket was subjected to air-powder polishing (n = 14) for five seconds, while the contralateral hemiarch (n = 14) served as control. Mechanical friction tests were performed and images of the polished bracket surfaces and control surfaces were examined. Wilcoxon test was applied for comparative analysis between hemiarches at p Brackets that had been cleaned with air-powder polishing showed lower friction (median = 1.27 N) when compared to the control surfaces (median = 4.52 N) (p orthodontic brackets with air-powder polishing significantly reduces debris buildup on the bracket surface while decreasing friction levels observed during sliding mechanics.

  16. Forces in the presence of ceramic versus stainless steel brackets with unconventional vs conventional ligatures.

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; Camporesi, Matteo

    2008-01-01

    To compare the forces resulting from four types of bracket/ligature combinations: ceramic brackets and stainless steel brackets combined with unconventional elastomeric ligatures (UEL) and conventional elastomeric ligatures (CEL) during the leveling and aligning phases of orthodontic therapy. The testing model consisted of five 0.022-inch preadjusted brackets (second premolar, first premolar, canine, lateral incisor, and central incisor) for each of the two bracket types. The canine bracket was welded to a sliding bar that allowed for different amounts of offset in the gingival direction. The forces generated by a 0.014-inch superelastic nickel titanium wire in the presence of either the UEL or CEL bracket/ligature systems at different amounts of upward canine misalignment (1.5 mm, 3 mm, 4.5 mm, and 6 mm) were recorded. Significant differences were found between UEL and CEL systems for all tested variables (P < .01) with the exception of the canine misalignment of 1.5 mm. The average amount of recorded force in the presence of CEL was negligible with 3.0 mm or greater of canine misalignment. On the contrary, during alignment, a force available for tooth movement was recorded in the presence of both ceramic and stainless steel brackets when associated with UEL. The type of ligature used influenced the actual amount of force released by the orthodontic system significantly more than the type of bracket used (stainless steel vs ceramic).

  17. Excessive users of violent video games do not show emotional desensitization: an fMRI study.

    Szycik, Gregor R; Mohammadi, Bahram; Hake, Maria; Kneer, Jonas; Samii, Amir; Münte, Thomas F; Te Wildt, Bert T

    2017-06-01

    Playing violent video games have been linked to long-term emotional desensitization. We hypothesized that desensitization effects in excessive users of violent video games should lead to decreased brain activations to highly salient emotional pictures in emotional sensitivity brain regions. Twenty-eight male adult subjects showing excessive long-term use of violent video games and age and education matched control participants were examined in two experiments using standardized emotional pictures of positive, negative and neutral valence. No group differences were revealed even at reduced statistical thresholds which speaks against desensitization of emotion sensitive brain regions as a result of excessive use of violent video games.

  18. AMPA receptor mediated excitotoxicity in neocortical neurons is developmentally regulated and dependent upon receptor desensitization

    Jensen, J B; Schousboe, A; Pickering, D S

    1998-01-01

    with a fast and rapidly desensitizing response, this could explain the relatively low toxicity produced by 500 microM AMPA. This was investigated by blocking AMPA receptor desensitization with cyclothiazide. Using a lower concentration (25 microM) of AMPA, addition of 50 microM cyclothiazide increased...... the AMPA induced excitotoxicity in cultured cortical neurons at all DIV except for DIV 2. This combination of AMPA + cyclothiazide yielded 77% cell death for DIV 12 cultures. In contrast to the results observed with 500 microM AMPA, the neurotoxicity mediated directly by AMPA receptors when desensitization...

  19. [Acetylsalicylic acid desensitization in the new era of percutaneous coronary intervention].

    Fuertes Ferre, Georgina; Ferrer Gracia, Maria Cruz; Calvo Cebollero, Isabel

    2015-09-21

    Dual antiplatelet therapy is essential in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation. Hypersensitivity to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) limits treatment options. Desensitization to ASA has classically been studied in patients with respiratory tract disease. Over the last years, many protocols have been described about ASA desensitization in patients with ischemic heart disease, including acute coronary syndrome and the need for coronary stent implantation. It is important to know the efficacy and safety of ASA desensitization in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effects of In-Office Reconditioning on the Slot Dimensions and Static Frictional Resistance of Stainless Steel Brackets.

    Iluru, Rohini; Nellore, Chaitanya; Karnati, Praveen Kumar Reddy; Thalapaneni, Ashok Kumar; Myla, Vijay Bhaskar; Ramyasree, Konda; Prasad, Mandava

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontists are commonly faced with the decision of what to do with loose brackets, and with inaccurately located brackets that need repositioning during treatment. One solution is to recycle the brackets. The potential effects of reconditioning a bracket are dependent upon many factors which may result in physical changes like alteration in slot tolerance, which may influence sliding mechanics by affecting frictional resistance. To study and compare the dimensional changes in the bracket slot width and depth in reconditioned brackets from unused brackets under scanning electronic microscope and to study and compare any consequent effects on the static frictional resistance of stainless steel brackets after reconditioning and in unused brackets. Dentarum manufactured 90 stainless steel central incisors edgewise brackets of size 0.22 X 0.030″ inch and 0° tip and 0°angulation were taken. 60 samples for measuring frictional resistance and 30 samples for measuring slot dimensions. Ortho organizers manufactured stainless steel arch wires 0.019 X 0.025″ straight lengths 60 in number were considered for measuring static frictional resistance. The mean slot width and depth of new brackets were 0.0251″ and 0.0471″, which exceeded the manufacturers reported nominal size of 0.022″ X 0.030″, by 0.003″ and 0.017″. The reconditioned brackets demonstrated a further increase in mean slot width and depth to 0.028″ and 0.0518″ that is by 0.0035″ and 0.0047″ which is statistically significant (p=0.001, 0.002). The mean static frictional forces of the reconditioned brackets was nearly similar to that of new brackets that is 0.3167N for reconditioned brackets and 0.2613 N for new brackets. Although the reconditioning process results in physical changes to bracket structure this does not appear to result in significant effect on ex-vivo static frictional resistance.

  1. A Comparative Evaluation of Adherence of Microorganism to Different Types of Brackets: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study.

    Shashidhar, E P; Sahitya, M; Sunil, T; Murthy, Anup R; Rani, M S

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the adherence of microorganism to different types of brackets using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). A double-blinded study was undertaken to evaluate and adherence of microorganisms to different types of brackets using SEM. At random, 12 patients reporting for treatment to the department of Orthodontics VS Dental College and Hospital were selected. Four types of brackets were included in the present study stainless steel, titanium, composite, and ceramic. Brackets were bonded to teeth of the patient on all the four quadrants. The teeth included for bonding were lateral incisor, canine, first premolar, and second premolar. The brackets were left for 72 h. After 72 h brackets were debonded, and they were evaluated by SEM for adherence of microorganism in the slot and tie wings surface. The SEM images were graded, and the adherence of microorganism to the brackets in the surfaces and the four different quadrants were recorded. There is a significant difference in adherence of microorganisms to the various types of brackets (P 0.05) included in the study. The interaction of bracket/surface, bracket/quadrant, surface/quadrants was analyzed, there was no significance of comparison of bracket/surfaces/quadrant but the interaction of bracket/quadrant was found to be significant (bracket/surfaces/quadrant was also found to be significant (bracket material and the least adherence of microorganisms was observed with the titanium bracket material. The adherence of microorganisms is relatively more in the slot area, when compare to the tie wings surface maximum adherence of microorganism is observed in the upper left quadrant and least adherence of microorganism is observed in the lower right quadrant. There is a significant difference in adherence of microorganisms to various types of brackets and the surfaces included in the study. There is no significant difference in the adherence of microorganism to the bracket

  2. Plaque Index in Multi-Bracket Fixed Appliances

    Rahim, Z.H.; Shaikh, S.; Razak, F.A.

    2014-01-01

    To compare the plaque index in patients receiving multi-bracket fixed orthodontic treatment for various factors like age, gender, socio-economic status, brushing practices, meal habits, types of brackets, types of ligations, use of mouthwash and duration of treatment. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Orthodontics Clinic, The Aga Khan University Hospital, from September to November 2011. Methodology: Socio-demographic and clinical modalities were defined and recorded for 131 patients having multi-bracket fixed appliances. The plaque index of subjects were recorded according to the Silness and Loe plaque index method. Independent sample t-test was used to see difference in plaque index in factors having two variables. One way ANOVA and Post-Hoc Tukey tests were used to see difference in plaque index in factors having three variables. Kappa statistics was used to assess inter examiner reliability. P-value 0.05 was taken to be significant. Results: The sample comprised of 37% males (n = 48) and 63% females (n = 83). The plaque index had statistically significant association with practice of brushing i.e., timing of brushing (p=0.001), method of brushing (p=0.08), type of ligatures (p=0.05) and frequency of visits (p=0.01). Conclusion: The plaque accumulation is significantly decreased in subjects who brush the teeth twice or more than twice a day and those who brush their teeth after breakfast. The use of interdental brush and stainless steel ligatures had significantly low plaque. Subjects presenting with more frequent appointments of short-period had significantly less plaque. (author)

  3. Evaluation of the Friction of Self-Ligating and Conventional Bracket Systems

    Tecco, Simona; Di Iorio, Donato; Nucera, Riccardo; Di Bisceglie, Beatrice; Cordasco, Giancarlo; Festa, Felice

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This in vitro study evaluated the friction (F) generated by aligned stainless steel (SS) conventional brackets, self-ligating Damon MX© brackets (SDS Ormco, Glendora, California, USA), Time3© brackets (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, Wisconsin, USA), Vision LP© brackets (American Orthodontics), and low-friction Slide© ligatures (Leone, Firenze, Italy) coupled with various SS, nickel-titanium (NiTi), and beta-titanium (TMA) archwires. Methods: All brackets had a 0.022-inch slot, and the orthodontic archwires were 0.014-inch, 0.016-inch, 0.014×0.025-inch, 0.018×0.025-inch, and 0.019×0.025-inch NiTi; 0.017×0.025-inch TMA; and 0.019×0.025-inch SS. Each bracket-archwire combination was tested 10 times. In the test, 10 brackets of the same group were mounted in alignment on a metal bar. The archwires moved through all the 10 brackets at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min (each run lasted approximately 5 min). The differences among 5 groups of brackets were analyzed through the Kruskal-Wallis test, and a Mann-Whitney test was calculated as post hoc analysis. The P value was set at 0.05. Results: Coupled with 0.014-inch NiTi and 0.016-inch NiTi, Victory Series© brackets generated the greatest F, while Damon MX© and Vision LP© brackets generated the lowest (Pbrackets and Slide© ligatures. Coupled with all the rectangular archwires, Victory Series© brackets, Slide© ligatures, and Vision LP© self-ligating brackets generated significantly lower F than did Time3© and Damon MX© self-ligating brackets (Pbrackets are a family of brackets that, in vitro, can generate different levels of F when coupled with thin or thick, rectangular, or round archwires. Clinical conclusions based on our results are not possible due to the limitations of the experimental conditions. PMID:21769273

  4. Friction between various self-ligating brackets and archwire couples during sliding mechanics.

    Stefanos, Sennay; Secchi, Antonino G; Coby, Guy; Tanna, Nipul; Mante, Francis K

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frictional resistance between active and passive self-ligating brackets and 0.019 × 0.025-in stainless steel archwire during sliding mechanics by using an orthodontic sliding simulation device. Maxillary right first premolar active self-ligating brackets In-Ovation R, In-Ovation C (both, GAC International, Bohemia, NY), and SPEED (Strite Industries, Cambridge, Ontario, Canada), and passive self-ligating brackets SmartClip (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif), Synergy R (Rocky Mountain Orthodontics, Denver, Colo), and Damon 3mx (Ormco, Orange, Calif) with 0.022-in slots were used. Frictional force was measured by using an orthodontic sliding simulation device attached to a universal testing machine. Each bracket-archwire combination was tested 30 times at 0° angulation relative to the sliding direction. Statistical comparisons were performed with 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunn multiple comparisons. The level of statistical significance was set at P <0.05. The Damon 3mx brackets had significantly the lowest mean static frictional force (8.6 g). The highest mean static frictional force was shown by the SPEED brackets (83.1 g). The other brackets were ranked as follows, from highest to lowest, In-Ovation R, In-Ovation C, SmartClip, and Synergy R. The mean static frictional forces were all statistically different. The ranking of the kinetic frictional forces of bracket-archwire combinations was the same as that for static frictional forces. All bracket-archwire combinations showed significantly different kinetic frictional forces except SmartClip and In-Ovation C, which were not significantly different from each other. Passive self-ligating brackets have lower static and kinetic frictional resistance than do active self-ligating brackets with 0.019 × 0.025-in stainless steel wire. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Spectrophotometric evaluation of dental bleaching under orthodontic bracket in enamel and dentin

    Correr, Americo-Bortolazzo; Rastelli, Alessandra-Nara-Souza; Lima, Débora-Alves-Nunes-Leite; Consani, Rafael-Leonardo-Xediek

    2014-01-01

    Aware of the diffusion capacity of bleaching in the dental tissues, many orthodontists are subjecting their patients to dental bleaching during orthodontic treatment for esthetic purposes or to anticipate the exchange of esthetic restorations after the orthodontic treatment. For this purpose specific products have been developed in pre-loaded whitening trays designed to fit over and around brackets and wires, with clinical efficacy proven. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate, through spectrophotometric reflectance, the effectiveness of dental bleaching under orthodontic bracket. Material and Methods: Thirty-two bovine incisors crown blocks of 8 mm x 8 mm height lengths were used. Staining of tooth blocks with black tea was performed for six days. They were distributed randomly into 4 groups (1-home bleaching with bracket, 2- home bleaching without bracket, 3- office bleaching with bracket, 4 office bleaching without bracket). The color evaluation was performed (CIE L * a * b *) using color reflectance spectrophotometer. Metal brackets were bonded in groups 1 and 3. The groups 1 and 2 samples were subjected to the carbamide peroxide at 15%, 4 hours daily for 21 days. Groups 3 and 4 were subjected to 3 in-office bleaching treatment sessions, hydrogen peroxide 38%. After removal of the brackets, the second color evaluation was performed in tooth block, difference between the area under the bracket and around it, and after 7 days to verified color stability. Data analysis was performed using the paired t-test and two-way variance analysis and Tukey’s. Results: The home bleaching technique proved to be more effective compared to the office bleaching. There was a significant difference between the margin and center color values of the specimens that were subjected to bracket bonding. Conclusions: The bracket bond presence affected the effectiveness of both the home and office bleaching treatments. Key words:Tooth bleaching, spectrophotometry

  6. The effects of silver coating on friction coefficient and shear bond strength of steel orthodontic brackets.

    Arash, Valiollah; Anoush, Keivan; Rabiee, Sayed Mahmood; Rahmatei, Manuchehr; Tavanafar, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Aims of the present study was to measure frictional resistance between silver coated brackets and different types of arch wires, and shear bond strength of these brackets to the tooth. In an experimental clinical research 28 orthodontic brackets (standard, 22 slots) were coated with silver ions using electroplate method. Six brackets (coated: 3, uncoated: 3) were evaluated with Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy. The amount of friction in 15 coated brackets was measured with three different kinds of arch wires (0.019 × 0.025-in stainless steel [SS], 0.018-in stainless steel [SS], 0.018-in Nickel-Titanium [Ni-Ti]) and compared with 15 uncoated steel brackets. In addition, shear bond strength values were compared between 10 brackets with silver coating and 10 regular brackets. Universal testing machine was used to measure shear bond strength and the amount of friction between the wires and brackets. SPSS 18 was used for data analysis with t-test. SEM and AFM results showed deposition of a uniform layer of silver, measuring 8-10 μm in thickness on bracket surfaces. Silver coating led to higher frictional forces in all the three types of arch wires, which was statistically significant in 0.019 × 0.025-in SS and 0.018-in Ni-Ti, but it did not change the shear bond strength significantly. Silver coating with electroplating method did not affect the bond strength of the bracket to enamel; in addition, it was not an effective method for decreasing friction in sliding mechanics. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Ion Release and Galvanic Corrosion of Different Orthodontic Brackets and Wires in Artificial Saliva.

    Tahmasbi, Soodeh; Sheikh, Tahereh; Hemmati, Yasamin B

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the galvanic corrosion of brackets manufactured by four different companies coupled with stainless steel (SS) or nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires in an artificial saliva solution. A total of 24 mandibular central incisor Roth brackets of four different manufacturers (American Orthodontics, Dentaurum, Shinye, ORJ) were used in this experimental study. These brackets were immersed in artificial saliva along with SS or NiTi orthodontic wires (0.016'', round) for 28 days. The electric potential difference of each bracket/ wire coupled with a saturated calomel reference electrode was measured via a voltmeter and recorded constantly. Corrosion rate (CR) was calculated, and release of ions was measured with an atomic absorption spectrometer. Stereomicroscope was used to evaluate all samples. Then, samples with corrosion were further assessed by scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Two-way analysis of variance was used to analyze data. Among ions evaluated, release of nickel ions from Shinye brackets was significantly higher than that of other brackets. The mean potential difference was significantly lower in specimens containing a couple of Shinye brackets and SS wire compared with other specimens. No significant difference was observed in the mean CR of various groups (p > 0.05). Microscopic evaluation showed corrosion in two samples only: Shinye bracket coupled with SS wire and American Orthodontics bracket coupled with NiTi wire. Shinye brackets coupled with SS wire showed more susceptibility to galvanic corrosion. There were no significant differences among specimens in terms of the CR or released ions except the release of Ni ions, which was higher in Shinye brackets.

  8. Dimensional accuracy of ceramic self-ligating brackets and estimates of theoretical torsional play.

    Lee, Youngran; Lee, Dong-Yul; Kim, Yoon-Ji R

    2016-09-01

    To ascertain the dimensional accuracies of some commonly used ceramic self-ligation brackets and the amount of torsional play in various bracket-archwire combinations. Four types of 0.022-inch slot ceramic self-ligating brackets (upper right central incisor), three types of 0.018-inch ceramic self-ligating brackets (upper right central incisor), and three types of rectangular archwires (0.016 × 0.022-inch beta-titanium [TMA] (Ormco, Orange, Calif), 0.016 × 0.022-inch stainless steel [SS] (Ortho Technology, Tampa, Fla), and 0.019 × 0.025-inch SS (Ortho Technology)) were measured using a stereomicroscope to determine slot widths and wire cross-sectional dimensions. The mean acquired dimensions of the brackets and wires were applied to an equation devised by Meling to estimate torsional play angle (γ). In all bracket systems, the slot tops were significantly wider than the slot bases (P brackets, and Clippy-Cs (Tomy, Futaba, Fukushima, Japan) among the 0.018-inch brackets. The Damon Clear (Ormco) bracket had the smallest dimensional error (0.542%), whereas the 0.022-inch Empower Clear (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, Wis) bracket had the largest (3.585%). The largest amount of theoretical play is observed using the Empower Clear (American Orthodontics) 0.022-inch bracket combined with the 0.016 × 0.022-inch TMA wire (Ormco), whereas the least amount occurs using the 0.018 Clippy-C (Tomy) combined with 0.016 × 0.022-inch SS wire (Ortho Technology).

  9. An extension of the method of brackets. Part 1

    Gonzalez Ivan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The method of brackets is an efficient method for the evaluation of alarge class of definite integrals on the half-line. It is based on a small collection of rules, some of which are heuristic. The extension discussed here is based on the concepts of null and divergent series. These are formal representations of functions, whose coefficients an have meromorphic representations for n ∈ ℂ, but might vanish or blow up when n ∈ ℕ. These ideas are illustrated with the evaluation of a variety of entries from the classical table of integrals by Gradshteyn and Ryzhik.

  10. Maslov indices, Poisson brackets, and singular differential forms

    Esterlis, I.; Haggard, H. M.; Hedeman, A.; Littlejohn, R. G.

    2014-06-01

    Maslov indices are integers that appear in semiclassical wave functions and quantization conditions. They are often notoriously difficult to compute. We present methods of computing the Maslov index that rely only on typically elementary Poisson brackets and simple linear algebra. We also present a singular differential form, whose integral along a curve gives the Maslov index of that curve. The form is closed but not exact, and transforms by an exact differential under canonical transformations. We illustrate the method with the 6j-symbol, which is important in angular-momentum theory and in quantum gravity.

  11. Hypersensitivity and desensitization to antineoplastic agents: outcomes of 189 procedures with a new short protocol and novel diagnostic tools assessment.

    Madrigal-Burgaleta, R; Berges-Gimeno, M P; Angel-Pereira, D; Ferreiro-Monteagudo, R; Guillen-Ponce, C; Pueyo, C; Gomez de Salazar, E; Alvarez-Cuesta, E

    2013-07-01

    Desensitization to antineoplastic agents is becoming a standard of care. Efforts to establish and improve these techniques are being made at many institutions. Our aims are to evaluate a new rapid desensitization protocol designed to be shorter (approximately 4 h) and safer (reducing hazardous drugs exposure risks) and to assess the oxaliplatin-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) as a novel diagnostic tool. Prospective, observational, longitudinal study with patients who, for a 1-year period, suffered reactions to antineoplastic agents and were referred to the Desensitization Program at Ramon y Cajal University Hospital (RCUH). Patients were included or excluded as desensitization candidates after anamnesis, skin testing, risk assessment, and graded challenge. Specific IgE was determined in oxaliplatin-reactive patients. Candidate patients were desensitized using the new RCUH rapid desensitization protocol. Of 189 intravenous rapid desensitizations, 188 were successfully accomplished in the 23 patients who met inclusion criteria for desensitization (of 58 referred patients). No breakthrough reactions occurred in 94% of desensitizations, and most breakthrough reactions were mild. In 10 oxaliplatin-reactive patients, 38 desensitizations were successfully accomplished. Sensitivity for oxaliplatin-specific IgE was 38% (0.35UI/l cutoff point) and 54% (0.10UI/l cutoff point); specificity was 100% for both cutoff points. In the hands of a Desensitization Program, managed by drug desensitization experts, this new protocol has proven an effective therapeutic tool for hypersensitivity to several antineoplastic agents (oxaliplatin, carboplatin, paclitaxel, docetaxel, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab); moreover, it improves safety handling of hazardous drugs. We report the first large series of oxaliplatin desensitizations. Oxaliplatin-specific IgE determination could be helpful. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effects of different black mediators on the shear strength of orthodontic bracket to the enamel treated with Nd-Yag laser

    Huang, Shun-Te; Lin, I.-Shueng; Tsai, Chi-Cheng

    1995-04-01

    The Nd:YAG laser has ablation, crack, and crater effects on the dental enamel through black mediators which are very similar to the acid etching effects of phosphoric acid. This study was designed for searching how the different black mediators influence the shear strengths of the brackets bound to the enamel surfaces which were treated with the Nd:YAG laser. 90 bovine enamels divided into 5 groups were painted with 5 kinds of black mediators including Chinese ink, oil ink, black ball pen, water ink and black transfer paper. The enamel surfaces painted with black mediators were then radiated by Nd:YAG laser (ADL; American Dental Laser 300dl, power: 20 pps, 87.5 mj). Orthodontic brackets were bonded to the radiated surfaces. Then the shear strengths of the brackets to the enamels were measured by Instron. The results showed that the Chinese ink group and oil ink group has the strongest shear strength, ball pen group and water ink group showed the second strength, and the transfer paper group has the lowest shear strength. In addition, scanning electronic microscope also was used to observe the topographic changes of the enamel surfaces induced by the laser ablation.

  13. The effect of video game violence on psychological desensitization to real life violence

    Carnagey, N.L.; Anderson, C.A.; Bushman, B.J.

    2007-01-01

    Past research shows that violent video game exposure increases aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiological arousal, aggressive behaviors, and decreases helpful behaviors. However, no research has experimentally examined violent video game effects on physiological desensitization, defined as

  14. Lymphocyte-mediated regulation of platelet activation during desensitization in patients with hymenoptera venom hypersensitivity.

    Ledru, E; Pestel, J; Tsicopoulos, A; Joseph, M; Wallaert, B; Tonnel, A B; Capron, A

    1988-01-01

    T cells from peripheral blood of hymenoptera sensitive patients were studied before and after venom desensitization. Before treatment, T cells showed a variable but higher proliferative response to allergen than T cells of treated patients or controls. While before desensitization, T cell products, specifically released after in vitro allergen stimulation, were able to amplify the IgE-dependent platelet activity, we showed that after treatment of the same patients, T cell products strongly reduced platelet activation. Considering the modifications in platelet activation previously observed in patients treated by specific immunotherapy, the present results suggest that, through a modification of T cell reactivity to allergen, T cell functions are modulated by desensitization, and emphasize the involvement of T cell products in the desensitization mechanisms. PMID:3263227

  15. Inducing Assertive Behavior in Chronic Schizophrenics: A Comparison of Socioenvironmental Desensitization, and Relaxation Therapies

    Weinman, Bernard; And Others

    1972-01-01

    It is concluded that systematic desensitization or relaxation therapy is not effective in inducing assertive behavior in the male chronic schizophrenic. The treatment of choice for the older chronic male schizophrenic remains socioenvironmental therapy. (Author)

  16. Rational-Emotive Therapy versus Systematic Desensitization: A Comment on Moleski and Tosi.

    Atkinson, Leslie

    1983-01-01

    Questioned the statistical analyses of the Moleski and Tosi investigation of rational-emotive therapy versus systematic desensitization. Suggested means for lowering the error rate through a more efficient experimental design. Recommended a reanalysis of the original data. (LLL)

  17. A Further Assessment of Attention-Placebo Effects and Demand Characteristics in Studies of Systematic Desensitization

    McReynolds, William T.; Tori, Christopher

    1972-01-01

    It was predicted that phobic Ss receiving systematic desensitization would show greater reductions on both fear-related behavior measures and simulated fear measures than Ss receiving relaxation treatment or no treatment at all. The prediction was confirmed. (Author)

  18. Applications of Desensitization Procedures for School-Related Problems; A Review.

    Prout, H. Thompson; Harvey, John R.

    1978-01-01

    A variety of desensitization and counterconditioning procedures have been utilized to deal with school-related problems. These procedures are reviewed with respect to applications for treating school phobia, test anxiety, and other academic anxieties. (Author)

  19. Anaphylactic reaction to polyethylene-glycol conjugated-asparaginase: premedication and desensitization may not be sufficient.

    Sahiner, Umit M; Yavuz, S Tolga; Gökce, Muge; Buyuktiryaki, Betul; Altan, Ilhan; Aytac, Selin; Tuncer, Murat; Tuncer, Ayfer; Sackesen, Cansin

    2013-08-01

    In hypersensitive reactions to native L-asparaginase, either premedication and desensitization or substitution with polyethylene glycol conjugated asparaginase (PEG-ASP) is preferred. Anaphylaxis with PEG-ASP is rare. An 8-year-old girl and a 2.5-year-old boy, both diagnosed as having acute lymphoblastic leukemia, presented with native L-asparaginase hypersensitivity and substitution with PEG-ASP was preferred. They received a premedication (methylprednisolone, hydroxyzine and ranitidine) followed by desensitization with PEG-ASP infusion. Both patients developed anaphylaxis with peg-asparaginase. These are the first reported cases of anaphylactic reaction to PEG-ASP, despite the application of both premedication and desensitization. Anaphylaxis with PEG-ASP is very rare and premedication and desensitization protocols may not prevent these hypersensitive reactions. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  20. A study in vitro on radiation effects by Er:YAG laser combined with the fluorine therapy in the acid resistance of the dental enamel submitted to orthodontical brackets; Um estudo in vitro sobre os efeitos da irradiacao pelo laser de Er:YAG combinado com a terapia com fluor na resistencia acida do esmalte de dentes submetidos a aparelho ortodontico fixo

    Yoshiyasu, Roseli Y A

    2001-07-01

    Several researches have been demonstrating an increase in the resistance acid of the enamel surface when irradiated by some lasers types as Nd:YAG, C0{sub 2}, Er:YAG, and others, mainly when combined with the fluoride therapy after the irradiation of the laser. This study in vitro used the laser of Er:YAG which density of energy of 8.1 J/cm{sup 2} on the enamel about of orthodontical brackets of teeth extracted pre-molars. These teeth were then submitted to a rich way in S. mutans for twenty one days. The cases were analyzed: (1) enamel surface without any treatment, (2) enamel surface without any irradiation laser, but with therapy with acidulated phosphate fluoride, (3) enamel surface irradiated with laser of Er:YAG and (4) enamel surface irradiated by laser of Er:YAG and with application of acidulated phosphate fluoride. The results were analyzed through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The morphologic changes observed to the scanning electron microscopy suggest increase in the acid resistance of the enamel surface. However, to the optical microscopy, it was still possible to visualize undesirable white stains in the surface of the enamel. (author)

  1. Static and kinetic frictional forces of silica-insert ceramic brackets with coated archwires in artificial saliva

    Mostafa Shahabi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: From the standpoint of friction, SIC brackets may serve well, even better than SS brackets, in sliding mechanics. The coating layer of the archwires may delaminate and lost, causing an impediment to tooth movement.

  2. Effects of green tea on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets after in-office vital bleaching.

    Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil; Lopes, Murilo Baena; Oltramari-Navarro, Paula Vanessa; Fernandes, Thais Maria; Schwertner, Renata de Castro Alves; Ursi, Wagner José Silva

    2016-01-01

    The application of bleaching agents before placement of resin-bonded fixed appliances significantly, but temporarily, reduces bond strength to tooth structure. Antioxidants have been studied as a means to remove residual oxygen that compromises bonding to bleached enamel. This in vitro study evaluated whether green tea (GT) could restore the shear bond strength between bonded orthodontic brackets and bleached enamel. Six experimental groups were compared: group 1, no bleaching plus bracket bonding (positive control); group 2, bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) plus bracket bonding (negative control); group 3, 35% HP plus 10% sodium ascorbate (SA) plus bracket bonding; group 4, 35% HP plus 10% GT plus bracket bonding; group 5, no bleaching plus 10% SA plus bracket bonding; group 6, no bleaching plus 10% GT plus bracket bonding. Results suggested that GT, like SA, may be beneficial for bracket bonding immediately after bleaching.

  3. Nd:YAG Laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding: Effects on shear bond strength and enamel surface

    Han, Xianglong; Liu, Xiaolin; Bai, Ding; Meng, Yao; Huang, Lan

    2008-11-01

    In order to evaluate the efficiency of Nd:YAG laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding technique, both ceramic brackets and metallic brackets were bonded with orthodontic adhesive to 30 freshly extracted premolars. The specimens were divided into three groups, 10 in each, according to the brackets employed and the debonding techniques used: (1) metallic brackets with shear debonding force, (2) ceramic brackets with shear debonding force, and (3) ceramic brackets with Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The result showed that laser irradiation could diminish shear bond strength (SBS) significantly and produce the most desired ARI scores. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy investigation displayed that laser-aided technique induced little enamel scratch or loss. It was concluded that Nd:YAG laser could facilitate the debonding of ceramic brackets and diminish the amount of remnant adhesive without damaging enamel structure.

  4. Nd:YAG Laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding: Effects on shear bond strength and enamel surface

    Han Xianglong; Liu Xiaolin; Bai Ding; Meng Yao; Huang Lan

    2008-01-01

    In order to evaluate the efficiency of Nd:YAG laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding technique, both ceramic brackets and metallic brackets were bonded with orthodontic adhesive to 30 freshly extracted premolars. The specimens were divided into three groups, 10 in each, according to the brackets employed and the debonding techniques used: (1) metallic brackets with shear debonding force, (2) ceramic brackets with shear debonding force, and (3) ceramic brackets with Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The result showed that laser irradiation could diminish shear bond strength (SBS) significantly and produce the most desired ARI scores. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy investigation displayed that laser-aided technique induced little enamel scratch or loss. It was concluded that Nd:YAG laser could facilitate the debonding of ceramic brackets and diminish the amount of remnant adhesive without damaging enamel structure

  5. Nd:YAG Laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding: Effects on shear bond strength and enamel surface

    Han Xianglong [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Orthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu Xiaolin [Department of Orthodontics, Stomatology Hospital, Dalian University, Dalian 116021 (China); Bai Ding [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Orthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)], E-mail: baiding88@hotmail.com; Meng Yao; Huang Lan [Department of Orthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2008-11-15

    In order to evaluate the efficiency of Nd:YAG laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding technique, both ceramic brackets and metallic brackets were bonded with orthodontic adhesive to 30 freshly extracted premolars. The specimens were divided into three groups, 10 in each, according to the brackets employed and the debonding techniques used: (1) metallic brackets with shear debonding force, (2) ceramic brackets with shear debonding force, and (3) ceramic brackets with Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The result showed that laser irradiation could diminish shear bond strength (SBS) significantly and produce the most desired ARI scores. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy investigation displayed that laser-aided technique induced little enamel scratch or loss. It was concluded that Nd:YAG laser could facilitate the debonding of ceramic brackets and diminish the amount of remnant adhesive without damaging enamel structure.

  6. Aplikasi eye moving desensitization dan reprocessing dalam konseling post-traumatic stress disorder

    Hengki Satrianta

    2017-01-01

    Akhir-akhir ini banyak peristiwa yang berpotensi memunculkan efek traumatik yang jika tidak ditangani akan menimbulkan gangguan stres pascatrauma. Olehnya itu, dibutuhkan upaya-upaya untu menangani masalah ini. Salah satu upaya yang dimaksud adalah penggunaan eye moving desensitization and reprocessing. Artikel ini ditulis dengan fokus pada penanganan gangguan stres pascatrauma melalui eye moving desensitization and reprocessing. Tujuan penulisan artikel ini adalah untuk mengetahui gambaran u...

  7. Pitocin and autism: An analysis of oxytocin receptor desensitization in the fetus.

    Gottlieb, Mark M

    2016-02-01

    The risk of Pitocin as a cause of autism attributable to oxytocin receptor desensitization in the brain of the fetus is evaluated in terms of a mathematical model. A composite unit, D, for oxytocin receptor desensitization levels is established with the form ((IU-h)/ml)E-3, where IU is the international unit for oxytocin. The desensitization values for oxytocin receptor desensitization at a concentration of 10 nmol of oxytocin per liter for 3, 4.2 and 6h corresponding to 0%, 50% and 100% desensitization are calculated to be 15 D, 21 D, and 30 D, respectively. The permeability of the blood-brain barrier in the fetus to oxytocin is discussed, and the upper limit of the concentration of Pitocin in the placenta, and its possible diffusion into the blood and brain of the fetus, is calculated for a routine dose of 6 milli U per minute of Pitocin over a 12h labor. This dose of Pitocin is shown to result in a desensitization value in units of D that is more than a factor of 10 below the 0% desensitization value of 15 D. This indicates that routine doses of Pitocin are not a significant cause of autism attributable to oxytocin receptor desensitization. This is consistent with the findings of a major epidemiological study of the association of Pitocin with autism in Denmark entitled, "Oxytocin-augmented labor and risk for males", Behavioral Brain Research, May 1, 2015; 284:207-212, which found no association between the use of Pitocin during labor and the incidence of autism for females, and a modest association for males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Immune Profiles to Predict Response to Desensitization Therapy in Highly HLA-Sensitized Kidney Transplant Candidates.

    Yabu, Julie M; Siebert, Janet C; Maecker, Holden T

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the most effective treatment for end-stage kidney disease. Sensitization, the formation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies, remains a major barrier to successful kidney transplantation. Despite the implementation of desensitization strategies, many candidates fail to respond. Current progress is hindered by the lack of biomarkers to predict response and to guide therapy. Our objective was to determine whether differences in immune and gene profiles may help identify which candidates will respond to desensitization therapy. Single-cell mass cytometry by time-of-flight (CyTOF) phenotyping, gene arrays, and phosphoepitope flow cytometry were performed in a study of 20 highly sensitized kidney transplant candidates undergoing desensitization therapy. Responders to desensitization therapy were defined as 5% or greater decrease in cumulative calculated panel reactive antibody (cPRA) levels, and non-responders had 0% decrease in cPRA. Using a decision tree analysis, we found that a combination of transitional B cell and regulatory T cell (Treg) frequencies at baseline before initiation of desensitization therapy could distinguish responders from non-responders. Using a support vector machine (SVM) and longitudinal data, TRAF3IP3 transcripts and HLA-DR-CD38+CD4+ T cells could also distinguish responders from non-responders. Combining all assays in a multivariate analysis and elastic net regression model with 72 analytes, we identified seven that were highly interrelated and eleven that predicted response to desensitization therapy. Measuring baseline and longitudinal immune and gene profiles could provide a useful strategy to distinguish responders from non-responders to desensitization therapy. This study presents the integration of novel translational studies including CyTOF immunophenotyping in a multivariate analysis model that has potential applications to predict response to desensitization, select candidates, and personalize

  9. Changes in the surface roughness and friction coefficient of orthodontic bracket slots before and after treatment.

    Liu, Xiaomo; Lin, Jiuxiang; Ding, Peng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we tested the surface roughness of bracket slots and the friction coefficient between the bracket and the stainless steel archwire before and after orthodontic treatment. There were four experimental groups: groups 1 and 2 were 3M new and retrieved brackets, respectively, and groups 3 and 4 were BioQuick new and retrieved brackets, respectively. All retrieved brackets were taken from patients with the first premolar extraction and using sliding mechanics to close the extraction space. The surface roughness of specimens was evaluated using an optical interferometry profilometer, which is faster and nondestructive compared with a stylus profilometer, and provided a larger field, needing no sample preparation, compared with atomic force microscopy. Orthodontic treatment resulted in significant increases in surface roughness and coefficient of friction for both brands of brackets. However, there was no significant difference by brand for new or retrieved brackets. These retrieval analysis results highlight the necessity of reevaluating the properties and clinical behavior of brackets during treatment to make appropriate treatment decisions. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Adhesion of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Biofilm Formation on Different Types of Orthodontic Brackets

    William Papaioannou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine the interaction between Porphyromonas gingivalis and 3 different orthodontic brackets in vitro, focusing on the effect of an early salivary pellicle and other bacteria on the formation of biofilms. Material and Methods. Mono- and multi-species P. gingivalis biofilms were allowed to form in vitro, on 3 different bracket types (stainless steel, ceramic and plastic with and without an early salivary pellicle. The brackets were anaerobically incubated for 3 days in Brain Heart Infusion Broth to form biofilms. Bacteria were quantified by trypsin treatment and enumeration of the total viable counts of bacteria recovered. Results. Saliva was found to significantly affect (<0.001 adhesion and biofilm formation of P. gingivalis, with higher numbers for the coated brackets. No significant effect was detected for the impact of the type of biofilm, although on stainless steel and plastic brackets there was a tendency for higher numbers of the pathogen in multi-species biofilms. Bracket material alone was not found to affect the number of bacteria. Conclusions. The salivary pellicle seems to facilitate the adhesion of P. gingivalis and biofilm formation on orthodontic brackets, while the material comprising the brackets does not significantly impact on the number of bacteria.

  11. Friction Forces during Sliding of Various Brackets for Malaligned Teeth: An In Vitro Study

    Crincoli, Vito; Di Bisceglie, Maria Beatrice; Balsamo, Antonio; Serpico, Vitaliano; Chiatante, Francesco; Pappalettere, Carmine; Boccaccio, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Aims. To measure the friction force generated during sliding mechanics with conventional, self-ligating (Damon 3 mx, Smart Clip, and Time 3) and low-friction (Synergy) brackets using different archwire diameters and ligating systems in the presence of apical and buccal malalignments of the canine. Methods. An experimental setup reproducing the right buccal segment of the maxillary arch was designed to measure the friction force generated at the bracket/wire and wire/ligature interfaces of different brackets. A complete factorial plan was drawn up and a three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out to investigate whether the following factors affect the values of friction force: (i) degree of malalignment, (ii) diameter of the orthodontic wire, and (iii) bracket/ligature combination. Tukey post hoc test was also conducted to evaluate any statistically significant differences between the bracket/ligature combinations analyzed. Results. ANOVA showed that all the above factors affect the friction force values. The friction force released during sliding mechanics with conventional brackets is about 5-6times higher than that released with the other investigated brackets. A quasilinear increase of the frictional forces was observed for increasing amounts of apical and buccal malalignments. Conclusion. The Synergy bracket with silicone ligature placed around the inner tie-wings appears to yield the best performance. PMID:23533364

  12. Er,Cr:YSGG Laser as a Novel Method for Rebonding Failed Ceramic Brackets.

    Sohrabi, Aydin; Jafari, Sanaz; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Rikhtehgaran, Sahand

    2016-10-01

    Since there is no standard method for rebonding loose ceramic brackets, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using Er,Cr:YSGG laser to eliminate the remaining composite materials from the base of ceramic brackets and to compare the bond strength of rebonded brackets with the new ones. Sixty-two extracted human premolars were mounted in acrylic cylinders. Thirty-one ceramic brackets were bonded, and shear bond strength was tested using Hounsfield testing machine. The remnants of the bonding material were removed from the bases of brackets using Er,Cr:YSGG laser. These brackets were rebonded to 31 fresh teeth and again shear bond strength was measured. Pattern of debonding was assessed in both cases under a stereomicroscope and graded according to ARI index. Data were analyzed with independent t-test and Fisher's exact test. Mean shear bond strength of the bond and rebond groups was 12.29 ± 5.46 and 10.58 ± 5.16 MPa, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups (p = 0.21). Pattern of bond failure was not statistically different between the two groups. Er,Cr:YSGG laser was effective in removing the remnants of bonding material from the base of ceramic brackets without any interference with the ceramic base itself, demonstrating that it might be a suitable method for rebonding ceramic brackets.

  13. Caries outcomes after orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances: do lingual brackets make a difference?

    van der Veen, M.H.; Attin, R.; Schwestka-Polly, R.; Wiechmann, D.

    2010-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances is considered a risk factor for the development of white spot caries lesions (WSL). Traditionally, brackets are bonded to the buccal surfaces. Lingual brackets are developing rapidly and have become more readily available. Buccal surfaces are considered to

  14. Comparative evaluation of nickel discharge from brackets in artificial saliva at different time intervals.

    Jithesh, C; Venkataramana, V; Penumatsa, Narendravarma; Reddy, S N; Poornima, K Y; Rajasigamani, K

    2015-08-01

    To determine and compare the potential difference of nickel release from three different orthodontic brackets, in different artificial pH, in different time intervals. Twenty-seven samples of three different orthodontic brackets were selected and grouped as 1, 2, and 3. Each group was divided into three subgroups depending on the type of orthodontic brackets, salivary pH and the time interval. The Nickel release from each subgroup were analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer, Optima 2100 DV, USA) model. Quantitative analysis of nickel was performed three times, and the mean value was used as result. ANOVA (F-test) was used to test the significant difference among the groups at 0.05 level of significance (P brackets have the highest at all 4.2 pH except in 120 h. The study result shows that the nickel release from the recycled stainless steel brackets is highest. Metal slot ceramic bracket release significantly less nickel. So, recycled stainless steel brackets should not be used for nickel allergic patients. Metal slot ceramic brackets are advisable.

  15. Gingival response in orthodontic patients: Comparative study between self-ligating and conventional brackets.

    Folco, Alejandra A; Benítez-Rogé, Sandra C; Iglesias, Marina; Calabrese, Diana; Pelizardi, Cristina; Rosa, Alcira; Brusca, Marisa I; Hecht, Pedro; Mateu, María E

    2014-01-01

    Orthodontic brackets contribute to the accumulation of bacterial plaque on tooth surfaces because they hinder oral hygiene. In contrast to conventional brackets, self-ligating brackets do not require additional parts to support the arches, thus improving dental hygiene. The aim of this study was to compare the gingival response in orthodontic patients wearing self-ligating or conventional brackets. A sample of 22 patients aged 16 to 30 years was divided into two groups: Group A, treated with selfligating brackets (Damon system) and Group B, treated with conventional brackets (Roth technique). The following were assessed during the treatment: Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI) and Probing Depth (PD), and sub-gingival samples were taken from teeth 14/24 for microbiological observation. No statistically significant difference was found between Groups A and B; p>0.05 (sign-ranked) or between PI, GI and PD at the different times (Friedman's Analysis of Variance), even though the indices were found to increase at 14 days, particularly for self-ligating brackets. The quantity and quality of microorganisms present were compatible with health on days 0, 28 and 56. As from day 14 there is a predominance of microbiota compatible with gingivitis in both groups. In the samples studied, orthodontic treatment increases bacterial plaque and inflammatory gingival response, but gingival-periodontal health can be maintained with adequate basic therapy. Self-ligating and conventional brackets produced similar gingival response.

  16. In vitro physical, chemical, and biological evaluation of commercially available metal orthodontic brackets.

    Kim, Joo Hyoung; Cha, Jung Yul; Hwang, Chung Ju

    2012-12-01

    This in vitro study was undertaken to evaluate the physical, chemical, and biological properties of commercially available metal orthodontic brackets in South Korea, because national standards for these products are lacking. FOUR BRACKET BRANDS WERE TESTED FOR DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY, (MANUFACTURING ERRORS IN ANGULATION AND TORQUE), CYTOTOXICITY, COMPOSITION, ELUTION, AND CORROSION: Archist (Daeseung Medical), Victory (3M Unitek), Kosaka (Tomy), and Confidence (Shinye Odontology Materials). The tested rackets showed no significant differences in manufacturing errors in angulation, but Confidence brackets showed a significant difference in manufacturing errors in torque. None of the brackets were cytotoxic to mouse fibroblasts. The metal ion components did not show a regular increasing or decreasing trend of elution over time, but the volume of the total eluted metal ions increased: Archist brackets had the maximal Cr elution and Confidence brackets appeared to have the largest volume of total eluted metal ions because of excessive Ni elution. Confidence brackets showed the lowest corrosion resistance during potentiodynamic polarization. The results of this study could potentially be applied in establishing national standards for metal orthodontic brackets and in evaluating commercially available products.

  17. Cytotoxic effects of polycarbonate-based orthodontic brackets by activation of mitochondrial apoptotic mechanisms

    Kloukos, D.; Taoufik, E.; Eliades, T.; Katsaros, C.; Eliades, G.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the biological effects of water eluents from polycarbonate based esthetic orthodontic brackets. METHODS: The composite polycarbonate brackets tested were Silkon Plus (SL, fiber-glass-reinforced), Elan ME (EL, ceramic particle-reinforced) and Elegance

  18. Comparison of static friction with self-ligating, modified slot design and conventional brackets

    Raquel Morais Castro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the static frictional forces generated at the bracket/wire interface of stainless steel brackets with different geometries and angulations, combined with orthodontic wires of different diameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The frictional forces were evaluated with three different types of metal brackets: a passive self-ligating (SmartClipTM, 3M/Unitek, Monrovia, USA, with a modified slot design (Mini Uni TwinTM, 3M/Unitek, Monrovia, USA and conventional (Kirium, Abzil, São José do Rio Preto, Brazil. The samples were mounted in a testing device with three different angulations and tested with 0.014" and 0.018" stainless steel wires (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, USA. The static frictional force was measured using a universal testing machine (DL 500, EMIC®, São José dos Pinhais, Brazil with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Statistical analysis was performed by two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's post hoc test. RESULTS: There was a significant difference (p<0.05 in static friction when the three types of brackets were tested with the same wire size. The wire diameter influenced friction only when the brackets had a 10º angulation (p<0.05. The angulation influenced friction (p<0.05 when the brackets were associated with a 0.018" wire. CONCLUSION: Brackets with a modified slot design showed intermediate static frictional force values between the conventional and self-ligating brackets tested.

  19. Forces produced by different nonconventional bracket or ligature systems during alignment of apically displaced teeth.

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; Camporesi, Matteo; Defraia, Efisio; Barbato, Ersilia

    2009-05-01

    To analyze the forces released by four types of passive stainless steel self-ligating brackets (SLBs), and by two nonconventional elastomeric ligature-bracket systems when compared with conventional elastomeric ligatures on conventional stainless steel brackets during the alignment of apically displaced teeth at the maxillary arch. An experimental model consisting of five brackets was used to assess the forces released by the seven different ligature-bracket systems with 0.012'' or 0.014'' superelastic nickel titanium wire in the presence of different amounts of apical displacement of the canine (ranging from 1.5 mm to 6 mm). Comparisons between the different types of bracket/wire/ ligature systems were carried out by means of ANOVA on ranks with Dunnett's post hoc test (P < .05). When correction of a misalignment greater than 3 mm is attempted, a noticeable amount of force for alignment is generated by passive SLBs and nonconventional elastomeric ligature-bracket systems, and a null amount of force is released in the presence of conventional elastomeric ligatures on conventional brackets. When minimal apical displacement is needed (1.5 mm), the differences in performance between low-friction and conventional systems are minimal. These differences become significant when correction of a misalignment of greater than 3.0 mm is attempted.

  20. Loss of surface enamel after bracket debonding : An in-vivo and ex-vivo evaluation

    Pont, Huib Berghauser; Özcan, Mutlu; Bagis, Bora; Ren, Yijin

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate the surface enamel after bracket debonding and residual resin removal. METHODS: Thirty patients (female, 20; male, 10; mean age, 18.4 years) who completed orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances (Twin Brackets, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif)

  1. Coordinating bracket torque and incisor inclination : Part 3: Validity of bracket torque values in achieving norm inclinations.

    Zimmer, Bernd; Sino, Hiba

    2018-03-19

    To analyze common values of bracket torque (Andrews, Roth, MBT, Ricketts) for their validity in achieving incisor inclinations that are considered normal by different cephalometric standards. Using the equations developed in part 1 (eU1 (BOP) = 90° - BT (U1) - TCA (U1) + α 1 - α 2 and eL1 (BOP) = 90° - BT (L1) - TCA (L1) + β 1 - β 2 ) (abbreviations see part 1) and the mean values (± SD) obtained as statistical measures in parts 1 and 2 of the study (α 1 and β 1 [1.7° ± 0.7°], α 2 [3.6° ± 0.3°], β 2 [3.2° ± 0.4°], TCA (U1) [24.6° ± 3.6°] and TCA (L1) [22.9° ± 4.3°]) expected (= theoretically anticipated) values were calculated for upper and lower incisors (U1 and L1) and compared to targeted (= cephalometric norm) values. For U1, there was no overlapping between the ranges of expected and targeted values, as the lowest targeted value of (58.3°; Ricketts) was higher than the highest expected value (56.5°; Andrews) relative to the bisected occlusal plane (BOP). Thus all of these torque systems will aim for flatter inclinations than prescribed by any of the norm values. Depending on target values, the various bracket systems fell short by 1.8-5.5° (Andrews), 6.8-10.5° (Roth), 11.8-15.5° (MBT), or 16.8-20.5° (Ricketts). For L1, there was good agreement of the MBT system with the Ricketts and Björk target values (Δ0.1° and Δ-0.8°, respectively), and both the Roth and Ricketts systems came close to the Bergen target value (both Δ2.3°). Depending on target values, the ranges of deviation for L1 were 6.3-13.2° for Andrews (Class II prescription), 2.3°-9.2° for Roth, -3.7 to -3.2° for MBT, and 2.3-9.2° for Ricketts. Common values of upper incisor bracket torque do not have acceptable validity in achieving normal incisor inclinations. A careful selection of lower bracket torque may provide satisfactory matching with some of the targeted norm values.

  2. Comparison of the force levels among labial and lingual self-ligating and conventional brackets in simulated misaligned teeth.

    Alobeid, Ahmad; El-Bialy, Tarek; Khawatmi, Said; Dirk, Cornelius; Jäger, Andreas; Bourauel, Christoph

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate force levels exerted by levelling arch wires with labial and lingual conventional and self-ligating brackets. The tested orthodontic brackets were of the 0.022-in slot size for labial and 0.018-in for lingual brackets and were as follows: 1. Labial brackets: (i) conventional bracket (GAC-Twin, Dentsply), (ii) passive self-ligating (SL) brackets (Damon-Q®, ORMCO; Ortho classic H4™, Orthoclassic; FLI®SL, Rocky Mountain Orthodontics) and (iii) active SL brackets (GAC In-Ovation®C, DENTSPLY and SPEED™, Strite). 2. Lingual brackets: (i) conventional brackets (Incognito, 3M and Joy™, Adenta); (ii) passive SL bracket (GAC In-Ovation®LM™, Dentsply and (iii) active SL bracket (Evolution SLT, Adenta). Thermalloy-NiTi 0.013-in and 0.014-in arch wires (Rocky Mountain Orthodontics) were used with all brackets. The simulated malocclusion represented a maxillary central incisor displaced 2 mm gingivally (x-axis) and 2 mm labially (z-axis). Lingual bracket systems showed higher force levels (2.4 ± 0.2 to 3.8 ± 0.2 N) compared to labial bracket systems (from 1.1 ± 0.1 to 2.2 ± 0.4 N). However, the differences between SL and conventional bracket systems were minor and not consistent (labial brackets: 1.2 ± 0.1 N for the GAC Twin and 1.1 ± 0.1 to 1.6 ± 0.1 N for the SL brackets with 0.013-in thermalloy; lingual brackets: 2.5 ± 0.2 to 3.5 ± 0.1 N for the conventional and 2.7 ± 0.3 to 3.4 ± 0.1 N for the SL brackets with 0.013-in Thermalloy). This is an in vitro study with different slot sizes in the labial and lingual bracket systems, results should be interpreted with caution. Lingual bracket systems showed higher forces compared to labial bracket systems that might be of clinical concern. We recommend highly flexible nickel titanium arch wires lower than 0.013-in for the initial levelling and alignment especially with lingual appliances. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European

  3. Ulcerative colitis patients with an inflammatory response upon mesalazine cannot be desensitized: a randomized study.

    Buurman, Dorien J; De Monchy, Jan G R; Schellekens, Reinout C A; van der Waaij, Laurens A; Kleibeuker, Jan H; Dijkstra, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    Mesalazine is a key drug in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Intolerance to mesalazine has been described, including fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Several case reports reported successful desensitization of patients with mesalazine intolerance. The aim was to assess the number of UC patients who are persistently intolerant to mesalazine after single-blinded rechallenge and to test the effectiveness of a rapid desensitization protocol in UC patients demonstrated mesalazine intolerance. This is a prospective, single-blind randomized study in UC patients who discontinued mesalazine because of intolerance. Patients with severe reactions were excluded. Eligible patients underwent a skin patch test with mesalazine followed by a single-blinded randomized crossover rechallenge with 500 mg mesalazine or placebo. Patients with symptoms upon rechallenge were admitted to the hospital for 3 days oral desensitization. Nine of the 37 identified UC patients who discontinued mesalazine because of intolerance were included. All nine patients had negative patch tests, seven patients had symptoms (fever, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea) within 2 h upon rechallenge. Four of these seven patients participated in the desensitization protocol and in none a successful desensitization could be performed. All four had an inflammatory intolerance reaction with rise in C-reactive protein. There were no elevations in serum tryptase or urinary-methylhistamine levels observed and no signs of immediate type allergic reactions, like urticaria, bronchial obstruction or anaphylaxis. We recommend not to rechallenge UC patients with an inflammatory response upon mesalazine and these patients will not benefit from a rapid desensitization protocol.

  4. Perioperative Desensitization Improves Outcomes Among Crossmatch Positive Recipients of Deceased Donor Renal Transplants.

    Sharma, Amit; King, Anne; Kumar, Dhiren; Behnke, Martha; McDougan, Felecia; Kimball, Pamela M

    2016-06-01

    Graft failure due to chronic rejection is greater among renal transplant patients with donor-specific antibody (DSA) than among DSA-free patients. For patients dependent on deceased donor transplantation, preoperative desensitization to eliminate DSAs may be impractical. We speculated that perioperative desensitization might eliminate preexisting DSAs and prevent de novo DSAs and improve graft outcomes. We report that brief perioperative desensitization using either intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) or plasmapheresis/IVIG (PP/IVIG) treatment improves clinical outcomes among patients with positive crossmatches. Immediately following deceased donor transplantation, 235 renal recipients were assigned points for PRA and flow crossmatches (FCXM): delayed graft function (DGF) ≤ 1 point received standard therapy; 2 points received high-dose IVIG; and ≥3 points received PP/IVIG. The DSAs were serially monitored by single antigen bead luminex for 1 year. Five-year clinical outcomes were determined from the chart review. All desensitized patients had preoperatively positive FCXM with DSA. Rejection was more common (P desensitized than nonsensitized groups. However, overall graft survivals were similar between the groups (P = not significant) and superior to historic untreated patients (P 90% in all desensitizated patients with DSA elimination as well as PP/IVIG patients with residual DSA. In contrast, IVIG patients with persistent DSA had poorer graft survival (45%, P desensitization improved overall graft survival of sensitized patients compared to historic untreated patients. Plasmapheresis/IVIG had greater impact on DSA eradication and graft survival than IVIG alone. © 2016, NATCO.

  5. An Hourly Dose-Escalation Desensitization Protocol for Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease.

    Chen, Justin R; Buchmiller, Brett L; Khan, David A

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin desensitization followed by maintenance therapy effectively improves symptom control in patients with aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). The majority of current desensitization protocols use 3-hour dosing intervals and often require 2 to 3 days to complete. We evaluated hourly dose escalations in a subset of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps, and asthma who historically reacted to aspirin within 1 hour or were avoiding aspirin with the goal of developing a safe and efficient desensitization protocol. Fifty-seven aspirin desensitizations were performed under the hourly protocol. All patients had refractory nasal polyposis as an indication for aspirin desensitization. The clinical characteristics of each subject were analyzed in relation to aspects of his or her reactions during the procedure. Ninety-eight percent of study patients were successfully treated under the hourly protocol, including those with a history of severe reactions and intubation. None required further medication than is available in an outpatient allergy clinic. A total of 96% of reactors recorded a bronchial or naso-ocular reaction within 1 hour of the preceding dose. Of the total patients on this protocol, 40% were able to complete the procedure in a single day, and 60% within 2 days. Patients with AERD who have a history of symptoms less than 1 hour after aspirin exposure can be safely desensitized with a 1-hour dose-escalation protocol that can often be completed in a single day. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A SAFE PROTOCOL FOR RAPID DESENSITIZATION IN PATIENTS WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS AND ANTIBIOTIC HYPERSENSITIVITY

    Legere, Henry J.; Palis, Ross I.; Bouza, Tito Rodriguez; Uluer, Ahmet Z.; Castells, Mariana C.

    2009-01-01

    Background CF patients often demonstrate hypersensitivity to one or multiple antibiotics due to frequent and repeated exposures. Attempts at antibiotic desensitization in this population are historically complicated by higher reaction rates, failure to complete the procedure and consequent withholding of first-line therapy. This study evaluates the outcomes of a rapid desensitization protocol developed at our institution. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 15 patients undergoing 52 rapid antibiotic desensitizations at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Children’s Hospital Boston utilizing our protocol. Results Mean FEV1 % predicted was 44.1 (SD 16.5), with two patients at desensitized during bilateral lung transplantation. Adverse reactions during desensitization occurred in 13.4%, and most were mild. 100% of patients completed the protocol and ultimately tolerated subsequent full-strength antibiotic courses. Conclusions CF patients with antibiotic hypersensitivity can safely receive first-line antibiotics via our rapid desensitization protocol, including those with severe obstructive lung disease. PMID:19740711

  7. Nuclear techniques to identify allergenic metals in orthodontic brackets

    Zenobio, E.G.; Zenobio, M.A.F.; Menezes, M.A.B.C.

    2009-01-01

    The present study determines the elementary alloy composition of ten commercial brands of brackets, especially related to Ni, Cr, and Co metals, confirmed allergenic elements. The nuclear techniques applied in the analyses were X-ray fluorescence (XRF) - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France (National Center of Scientific Research), and X-ray energy spectrometry (XRES), and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) - CDTN/CNEN, Brazil. The XRES and XRF techniques identified Cr in the 10 samples analyzed and Ni in eight samples. The INAA technique identified the presence of Cr (14% to 19%) and Co (42% to 2400 ppm) in all samples. The semi-quantitative analysis performed by XRF also identified Co in two samples. The techniques were effective in the identification of metals in orthodontic brackets. The elements identified in this study can be considered one of the main reason for the allergic processes among the patients studied. This finding suggests that the patients should be tested for allergy and allergenic sensibility to metals prior to the prescription of orthodontic device. (author)

  8. Electrical servo actuator bracket. [fuel control valves on jet engines

    Sawyer, R. V. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An electrical servo actuator is mounted on a support arm which is allowed to pivot on a bolt through a fixed mounting bracket. The actuator is pivotally connected to the end of the support arm by a bolt which has an extension allowed to pass through a slot in the fixed mounting bracket. An actuator rod extends from the servo actuator to a crank arm which turns a control shaft. A short linear thrust of the rod pivots the crank arm through about 90 for full-on control with the rod contracted into the servo actuator, and full-off control when the rod is extended from the actuator. A spring moves the servo actuator and actuator rod toward the control crank arm once the actuator rod is fully extended in the full-off position. This assures the turning of the control shaft to a full-off position. A stop bolt and slot are provided to limit pivot motion. Once fully extended, the spring pivots the motion.

  9. Investigation of bracket bonding for orthodontic treatments using en-face optical coherence tomography

    Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda L.; Hughes, Michael; Bradu, Adrian; Todea, Carmen; Rominu, Roxana; Dodenciu, Dorin; Laissue, Philippe L.; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2008-04-01

    Despite good diagnosis and treatment planning, orthodontic treatment can fail if bonding fails. It is now common practice to address the aesthetic appearance of patients using aesthetic brackets instead of metal ones. Therefore, bonding aesthetic brackets has become an issue for orthodontists today. Orthodontic bonding is mainly achieved using composite resin but can also be performed with glass ionomer or resin cements. For improving the quality of bonding, the enamel is acid etched for 30 seconds with 38% phosphoric acid and then a bonding agent is applied. In our study we investigated and compared the quality of bonding between ceramic brackets, polymeric brackets and enamel, respectively using a new investigation method-OCT. The aim of our study was to evaluate the resin layer at the bracket base-tooth interface.

  10. Effect of saliva contamination on cementation of orthodontic brackets using different adhesive systems.

    Robaski, Aliden-Willian; Pamato, Saulo; Tomás-de Oliveira, Marcelo; Pereira, Jefferson-Ricardo

    2017-07-01

    The enamel condition and the quality of surface are points that need to be considered for achieving optimal efficiency in the treatment with orthodontic brackets. The aim of this study was to assess the immediate bond strength of metallic brackets cemented to dental. Forty human premolars were double-sectioned, placed in PVC matrices and randomly divided into 10 groups (n=8). They received artificial saliva contamination before or after the application of adhesive systems, except for the control groups. The metallic brackets were cemented using two orthodontic cements (Transbond™ Plus Color Change, 3M Unitek e Transbond™ XT Light, 3M Unitek). The specimens were subjected to mechanical shear bond strength testing and classified according to the fracture pattern. The results were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test for multiple comparisons ( p brackets cemented on the dental enamel. Key words: Bonding, orthodontic brackets, shear bond strength, saliva, adhesive systems.

  11. Physical and chemical properties of orthodontic brackets after 12 and 24 months: in situ study

    Bernardo de Azevedo Bahia MENDES

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this article was to assess how intraoral biodegradation influenced the surface characteristics and friction levels of metallic brackets used during 12 and 24 months of orthodontic treatment and also to compare the static friction generated in these brackets with four different methods of the ligation of orthodontic wires. Material and Methods: Seventy premolar brackets as received from the manufacturer and 224 brackets that were used in previous orthodontic treatments were evaluated in this experiment. The surface morphology and the composition of the deposits found in the brackets were evaluated with rugosimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Friction was analyzed by applying tensile tests simulating sliding mechanics with a 0.019x0.025" steel wire. The static friction levels produced by the following ligation methods were evaluated: loosely attached steel ligature around all four bracket wings, steel ligature attached to only two wings, conventional elastomeric ligation around all 4 bracket wings, and non-conventional Slide® elastomeric ligature. Results: The results demonstrated the presence of biodegradation effects such as corrosion pits, plastic deformation, cracks, and material deposits. The main chemical elements found on these deposits were Carbon and Oxygen. The maximum friction produced by each ligation method changed according to the time of intraoral use. The steel ligature loosely attached to all four bracket wings produced the lowest friction levels in the new brackets. The conventional elastic ligatures generated the highest friction levels. The metallic brackets underwent significant degradation during orthodontic treatment, showing an increase in surface roughness and the deposit of chemical elements on the surface. Conclusion: The levels of static friction decreased with use. The non-conventional elastic ligatures were the best alternative to reduce friction.

  12. Physical and chemical properties of orthodontic brackets after 12 and 24 months: in situ study

    MENDES, Bernardo de Azevedo Bahia; FERREIRA, Ricardo Alberto Neto; PITHON, Matheus Melo; HORTA, Martinho Campolina Rebello; OLIVEIRA, Dauro Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this article was to assess how intraoral biodegradation influenced the surface characteristics and friction levels of metallic brackets used during 12 and 24 months of orthodontic treatment and also to compare the static friction generated in these brackets with four different methods of the ligation of orthodontic wires. Material and Methods Seventy premolar brackets as received from the manufacturer and 224 brackets that were used in previous orthodontic treatments were evaluated in this experiment. The surface morphology and the composition of the deposits found in the brackets were evaluated with rugosimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Friction was analyzed by applying tensile tests simulating sliding mechanics with a 0.019x0.025" steel wire. The static friction levels produced by the following ligation methods were evaluated: loosely attached steel ligature around all four bracket wings, steel ligature attached to only two wings, conventional elastomeric ligation around all 4 bracket wings, and non-conventional Slide® elastomeric ligature. Results The results demonstrated the presence of biodegradation effects such as corrosion pits, plastic deformation, cracks, and material deposits. The main chemical elements found on these deposits were Carbon and Oxygen. The maximum friction produced by each ligation method changed according to the time of intraoral use. The steel ligature loosely attached to all four bracket wings produced the lowest friction levels in the new brackets. The conventional elastic ligatures generated the highest friction levels. The metallic brackets underwent significant degradation during orthodontic treatment, showing an increase in surface roughness and the deposit of chemical elements on the surface. Conclusion The levels of static friction decreased with use. The non-conventional elastic ligatures were the best alternative to reduce friction. PMID:25025560

  13. Physical and chemical properties of orthodontic brackets after 12 and 24 months: in situ study.

    Mendes, Bernardo de Azevedo Bahia; Neto Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto; Pithon, Matheus Melo; Horta, Martinho Campolina Rebello; Oliveira, Dauro Douglas

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this article was to assess how intraoral biodegradation influenced the surface characteristics and friction levels of metallic brackets used during 12 and 24 months of orthodontic treatment and also to compare the static friction generated in these brackets with four different methods of the ligation of orthodontic wires. Seventy premolar brackets as received from the manufacturer and 224 brackets that were used in previous orthodontic treatments were evaluated in this experiment. The surface morphology and the composition of the deposits found in the brackets were evaluated with rugosimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Friction was analyzed by applying tensile tests simulating sliding mechanics with a 0.019x0.025" steel wire. The static friction levels produced by the following ligation methods were evaluated: loosely attached steel ligature around all four bracket wings, steel ligature attached to only two wings, conventional elastomeric ligation around all 4 bracket wings, and non-conventional Slide® elastomeric ligature. The results demonstrated the presence of biodegradation effects such as corrosion pits, plastic deformation, cracks, and material deposits. The main chemical elements found on these deposits were Carbon and Oxygen. The maximum friction produced by each ligation method changed according to the time of intraoral use. The steel ligature loosely attached to all four bracket wings produced the lowest friction levels in the new brackets. The conventional elastic ligatures generated the highest friction levels. The metallic brackets underwent significant degradation during orthodontic treatment, showing an increase in surface roughness and the deposit of chemical elements on the surface. The levels of static friction decreased with use. The non-conventional elastic ligatures were the best alternative to reduce friction.

  14. Factors affecting the shear bond strength of metal and ceramic brackets bonded to different ceramic surfaces.

    Abu Alhaija, Elham S J; Abu AlReesh, Issam A; AlWahadni, Ahed M S

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of metal and ceramic brackets bonded to two different all-ceramic crowns, IPS Empress 2 and In-Ceram Alumina, to compare the SBS between hydrofluoric acid (HFA), phosphoric acid etched, and sandblasted, non-etched all-ceramic surfaces. Ninety-six all-ceramic crowns were fabricated resembling a maxillary left first premolar. The crowns were divided into eight groups: (1) metal brackets bonded to sandblasted 9.6 per cent HFA-etched IPS Empress 2 crowns; (2) metal brackets bonded to sandblasted 9.6 per cent HFA-etched In-Ceram crowns; (3) ceramic brackets bonded to sandblasted 9.6 per cent HFA-etched IPS Empress 2 crowns; (4) ceramic brackets bonded to sandblasted 9.6 per cent HFA-etched In-Ceram crowns; (5) metal brackets bonded to sandblasted 37 per cent phosphoric acid-etched IPS Empress 2 crowns; (6) metal brackets bonded to sandblasted 37 per cent phosphoric acid-etched In-Ceram crowns; (7) metal brackets bonded to sandblasted, non-etched IPS Empress 2 crowns; and (8) metal brackets bonded to sandblasted, non-etched In-Ceram crowns. Metal and ceramic orthodontic brackets were bonded using a conventional light polymerizing adhesive resin. An Instron universal testing machine was used to determine the SBS at a crosshead speed of 0.1 mm/minute. Comparison between groups was performed using a univariate general linear model and chi-squared tests. The highest mean SBS was found in group 3 (120.15 +/- 45.05 N) and the lowest in group 8 (57.86 +/- 26.20 N). Of all the variables studied, surface treatment was the only factor that significantly affected SBS (P Empress 2 and In-Ceram groups.

  15. Effects of silane application on the shear bond strength of ceramic orthodontic brackets to enamel surface

    Pinandi Sri Pudyani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fixed orthodontic appliances with ceramic brackets are used frequently to fulfill the aesthetic demand of patient through orthodontic treatment. Ceramic brackets have some weaknesses such as bond strength and enamel surface damage. In high bond strength the risk of damage in enamel surfaces increases after debonding. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effect of silane on base of bracket and adhesive to shear bond strength and enamel structure of ceramic bracket. Method: Sixteen extracted upper premolars were randomly divided into four groups based on silane or no silane on the bracket base and on the adhesive surface. Design of the base on ceramic bracket in this research was microcrystalline to manage the influence of mechanical interlocking. Samples were tested in shear mode on a universal testing machine after attachment. Following it, adhesive remnant index (ARI scores were used to assess bond failure site. Statistical analysis was performed using a two-way Anova and the Mann-Whitney test. A scanning electron microscope (SEM with a magnification of 2000x was used to observe enamel structure after debonding. Result: Shear bond strength was increased between group without silane and group with silane on the base of bracket (p<0,05. There was no significance different between group without silane and group with silane on adhesive (p<0,05. Conclusion: Application of silane on base of bracket increases shear bond strength, however, application of silane on adhesive site does not increase shear bond strength of ceramic bracket. Most bonding failure occurred at the enamel adhesive interface and damage occurred on enamel structure in group contains silane of ceramic bracket.

  16. Evaluating the Type of Light Transmittance in Mono Crystalline, Poly Crystalline and Sapphire Brackets- An Invitro Spectrofluorometer Study.

    Mohamed, Jauhar P; Kommi, Pradeep Babu; Kumar, M Senthil; Hanumanth; Venkatesan; Aniruddh; Arvinth; Kumar, Arani Nanda

    2016-08-01

    Most of the patients seek orthodontic treatment to improve the smile, which improves the facial profile by means of fixed appliances i.e., brackets and wires. The brackets are of different types like stainless steel and ceramic. Ceramic brackets were considered as aesthetic appliance which was divided into mono-crystalline, polycrystalline and sapphire brackets. The light transmittance might influence the degree of curing adhesive material in mono crystalline, polycrystalline and sapphire brackets. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the translucency and intensity of three different aesthetic brackets (mono crystalline, poly crystalline and sapphire ceramic brackets) and to determine their influence on shear bond strength of the brackets. The adhesive remnant index was also measured after debonding of the brackets from the tooth surface. Twenty six samples each of monocrystalline, polycrystalline and sapphire brackets (total 78 ceramic brackets) were used for the study. The bracket samples were subjected to optical fluorescence test using spectrofluorometer to measure the intensity of the brackets. Seventy eight extracted premolar teeth were procured and divided into 3 groups. The brackets were then bonded to the tooth using Transbond XT (3M Unitek) light cure composite material and cured with new light cure unit (Light Emitting Diode) of wood pecker company (400-450nm) for 30 seconds, and these samples were subjected to shear bond strength test with Instron Universal Testing Machine (UNITEK-94100) with a load range between 0 to 100 KN with a maximum cross head speed of 0.5mm/min. ARI (Adhesive Remnant Index) scores were evaluated according to Artun and Bergland scoring system using stereomicroscope at 20x magnification. The light absorption values obtained from spectrofluorometeric study were 3300000-3500000 cps for group 1 (monocrystalline ceramic brackets), 6000000-6500000 cps for Group 2 (polycrystalline ceramic brackets) and 2700000 -3000000 cps for

  17. Rapid polyclonal desensitization with antibodies to IgE and FcεRIα.

    Khodoun, Marat V; Kucuk, Zeynep Yesim; Strait, Richard T; Krishnamurthy, Durga; Janek, Kevin; Lewkowich, Ian; Morris, Suzanne C; Finkelman, Fred D

    2013-06-01

    Rapid desensitization, a procedure in which persons allergic to an antigen are treated at short intervals with increasing doses of that antigen until they tolerate a large dose, is an effective, but risky, way to induce temporary tolerance. We wanted to determine whether this approach can be adapted to suppress all IgE-mediated allergies in mice by injecting serially increasing doses of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to IgE or FcεRIα. Active and passive models of antigen- and anti-IgE mAb-induced IgE-mediated anaphylaxis were used. Mice were desensitized with serially increasing doses of anti-IgE mAb, anti-FcεRIα mAb, or antigen. Development of shock (hypothermia), histamine and mast cell protease release, cytokine secretion, calcium flux, and changes in cell number and FcεRI and IgE expression were evaluated. Rapid desensitization with anti-IgE mAb suppressed IgE-mediated immediate hypersensitivity; however, some mice developed mild anaphylaxis during desensitization. Rapid desensitization with anti-FcεRIα mAb that only binds FcεRI that is not occupied by IgE suppressed both active and passive IgE-mediated anaphylaxis without inducing disease. It quickly, but temporarily, suppressed IgE-mediated anaphylaxis by decreasing mast cell signaling through FcεRI, then slowly induced longer lasting mast cell unresponsiveness by removing membrane FcεRI. Rapid desensitization with anti-FcεRIα mAb was safer and longer lasting than rapid desensitization with antigen. A rapid desensitization approach with anti-FcεRIα mAb safely desensitizes mice to IgE-mediated anaphylaxis by inducing mast cell anergy and later removing all mast cell IgE. Rapid desensitization with an anti-human FcεRIα mAb may be able to prevent human IgE-mediated anaphylaxis. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Renal transplantation across the donor-specific antibody barrier: Graft outcome and cancer risk after desensitization therapy

    Ching-Yao Yang

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: When compared to renal transplantation without DSA, desensitization therapy for DSA resulted in equivalent renal transplant outcome but potentially increased risk of urothelial carcinoma after transplantation.

  19. Comparison of frictional resistance of esthetic and semi-esthetic self-ligating brackets

    M S Kannan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The frictional resistance encountered during sliding mechanics has been well established in the orthodontic literature, and it consists of complex interactions between the bracket, archwire, and method of ligation the claim of reduced friction with self-ligating brackets is often cited as a primary advantage over conventional brackets. This study was done to compare and evaluate the frictional forces generated between fully esthetic brackets and semi-aesthetic self-ligating brackets, which are of passive form and SEM (scanning electron microscope study of the Brackets after Frictional evaluation. Materials and Methods: Two types of self-ligating esthetic brackets, Damon clear (Ormco made of fully ceramic and Opal (Ultradent Products, USA and, Two types of self-ligating semi-esthetic brackets, Clarity SL (3M Unitek and Damon 3 (Ormco both of which are made of ceramic with metal slot. Arch wires with different dimensions and quality 17 × 25, 19 × 25 Titanium Molybdenum Alloy (TMA and 17 × 25, 19 × 25 stainless steel that came from plain strands of wire were used for frictional comparison test. The brackets used in this study had 0.022 × 0.028 inch slot. Results: The statistical tests showed significantly smaller amount of kinetic frictional forces is generated by Damon 3 (semi-esthetic self-ligating brackets. For each wire used, Damon 3 displayed significantly lower frictional forces (P ≤ 0.05 than any of the self-ligating system, followed by Opal (fully esthetic self-ligating brackets which generated smaller amount of frictional forces but relatively on the higher side when compared with Damon 3. Damon clear (fully esthetic self-ligating brackets generated the maximum amount of kinetic forces with all types of wire dimensions and properties when compared to the other three types of self-ligating system. Clarity SL (semi-esthetic self-ligating brackets generated smaller amount of frictional forces when compared with Damon clear and

  20. Comparison of frictional resistance of esthetic and semi-esthetic self-ligating brackets.

    Kannan, M S; Murali, R V; Kishorekumar, S; Gnanashanmugam, K; Jayanth, V

    2015-04-01

    The frictional resistance encountered during sliding mechanics has been well established in the orthodontic literature, and it consists of complex interactions between the bracket, archwire, and method of ligation the claim of reduced friction with self-ligating brackets is often cited as a primary advantage over conventional brackets. This study was done to compare and evaluate the frictional forces generated between fully esthetic brackets and semi-aesthetic self-ligating brackets, which are of passive form and SEM (scanning electron microscope) study of the Brackets after Frictional evaluation. Two types of self-ligating esthetic brackets, Damon clear (Ormco) made of fully ceramic and Opal (Ultradent Products, USA) and, Two types of self-ligating semi-esthetic brackets, Clarity SL (3M Unitek) and Damon 3 (Ormco) both of which are made of ceramic with metal slot. Arch wires with different dimensions and quality 17 × 25, 19 × 25 Titanium Molybdenum Alloy (TMA) and 17 × 25, 19 × 25 stainless steel that came from plain strands of wire were used for frictional comparison test. The brackets used in this study had 0.022 × 0.028 inch slot. The statistical tests showed significantly smaller amount of kinetic frictional forces is generated by Damon 3 (semi-esthetic self-ligating brackets). For each wire used, Damon 3 displayed significantly lower frictional forces (P ≤ 0.05) than any of the self-ligating system, followed by Opal (fully esthetic self-ligating brackets) which generated smaller amount of frictional forces but relatively on the higher side when compared with Damon 3. Damon clear (fully esthetic self-ligating brackets) generated the maximum amount of kinetic forces with all types of wire dimensions and properties when compared to the other three types of self-ligating system. Clarity SL (semi-esthetic self-ligating brackets) generated smaller amount of frictional forces when compared with Damon clear and relatively higher amount of frictional forces

  1. Fractional Dirac bracket on Riemman-Liouville context

    Godinho, Cresus F.L.; Abreu, Everton M.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: So far, it is not well known how to deal with dissipative systems. There are many ways explored in the literature and none of them present a systematic and general procedure to tackle the problem. On the other hand, it is well known that the fractional formalism is a powerful alternative when treating dissipative problems. In this paper we propose a detailed way of attacking the issue using the fractional calculus to construct an extension for the Dirac brackets in order to furnish the quantization of nonconservative theories through the standard canonical way. We believe that it can be the first step to construct gauge theories from second-class systems using these extended Dirac brackets. Very popular in the nineties, where an industrial production of papers concerning methods treating constrained systems, the Dirac brackets (DB) were an unmodified common point between all papers in the subject. The main objective of many works were to convert second-class systems in a first-class one, which is considered a gauge theory, i. e., the holy grail for the Standard Model. Although not so popular as before, the analysis of constrained systems deserves some recent attentions in the literature. On the other hand, there are various problems when considering classical systems besides the ones involving the quantization of second-class systems as we saw just above. These problems constitutes the so-called nonconservative systems. The curiosity about them is that the great majority of classical systems is nonconservative and nevertheless, the most advanced formalisms of classical mechanics deals only with conservative systems. One way to attack nonconservative systems is through the Fractional Calculus (FC) since it can be shown that, for example, a friction force has its form resulting from a Lagrangian containing a term proportional to the fractional derivative which is a derivative of any non-integer order. Fractional calculus is one of the generalizations of

  2. REM Desensitization as a New Therapeutic Method for Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Khodabakhsh Ahmadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to evaluate potential efficacy of a new therapeutic approach in posttraumatic stress disorder in comparison with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR, a standard treatment approach and controls. Methods: the study was designed using a randomized controlled trial methodology. Participants were recruited from military servicemen aged between 25 to 50 years who were admitting hospitals of Bushehr, Iran, with the final diagnosis of PTSD. Finally 33 male patients were devided into three subgroups: G1: EMDR; G2: REM Desensitization; and group 3: controls who received no therapy. Mississippi Scale for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and a 37 item death anxiety questionnaire were used for measures. Results: multiple comparisons showed that intrusive thoughts were significantly more likely to improve with REM Desensitization versus EMDR (P=0.03, while depression was more responsive to EMDR (p=0.03. Among the Pittsburgh scale for the quality of sleep items, sleep quality (p=0.02, sleep duration (p=0.001, and total sleep quality score (p=0.002 were significantly more likely to improve in the REM Desensitization group. Change in the absolute death anxiety scores was not different between subgroups excepting EMDR versus control group (p=0.05. Conclusion: REM, desensitization, the new therapeutic approach to PTSD is a highly effective strategy, even more than EMDR, the standard treatment, in most of the evaluated subjects, with special emphasis on sleep symptoms, and also in the management of intrusive thoughts. Depression is the only factor in which, REM Desensitization was significantly less likely to represent a superior therapeutic effect than EMDR. Key words: post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, new treatment.

  3. Infectious complications in living-donor kidney transplant recipients undergoing multi-modal desensitization.

    Turza, Kristin C; Shafique, Michael; Lobo, Peter I; Sawyer, Robert G; Keith, Douglas S; Brayman, Kenneth L; Agarwal, Avinash

    2014-06-01

    Pre-existing humoral barriers challenge the transplantation of living donor kidneys (LDK) into highly sensitized ABO- and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-incompatible recipients. Conditioning these LDK recipients' immune systems is required before they undergo transplantation. We hypothesized that medical desensitization would yield higher post-transplantation rates of infection. We conducted a study in which matched controls consisting of non-desensitized (NDS) LDK recipients were compared with desensitized (DS) receipients. Pre-transplantation desensitization included treatment with rituximab and mycophenolate mofetil followed by intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and plasmapheresis. All participants in the study underwent induction therapy and maintenance immunosuppression. Primary outcomes included infection (opportunistic, local, systemic) within 12 mo after transplantation. Twenty-five patients underwent desensitization and LDK transplantation. Graft survival in the DS and NDS groups of patients was 96% and 98%, respectively. The mean 3- and 12-mo serum creatinine concentrations in the DS and NDS groups were 1.1±0.2 mg/dL and 1.2±0.3 mg/dL and 0.95±0.4 mg/dL and 0.73±0.8 mg/dL (p=0.3 and p=0.01), respectively. Thirty-six percent of the patients in the DS group had one or more infections, vs. 28% of those in the NDS group (p=0.1). No difference was observed in the frequency of opportunistic or systemic infections in the two groups. Local infections were statistically significantly more frequent in the DS group (60% vs. 30%, respectively; p=0.02). Pre-operative desensitization in highly sensitized LDK recipients is followed by a similar incidence of opportunistic and systemic infections as in NDS patients. Local infections were significantly more frequent in the DS than in the NDS patients in the study. With careful monitoring of infectious complications, pre-transplant desensitization permits LDK transplantation into highly sensitized patients.

  4. Role of lubricants on friction between self-ligating brackets and archwires.

    Leal, Renata C; Amaral, Flávia L B; França, Fabiana M G; Basting, Roberta T; Turssi, Cecilia P

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of different lubricants on friction between orthodontic brackets and archwires. Active (Quick, Forestadent) and passive (Damon 3MX, Ormco) self-ligating brackets underwent friction tests in the presence of mucin- and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)-based artificial saliva, distilled water, and whole human saliva (positive control). Dry friction (no lubricant) was used as the negative control. Bracket/wire samples (0.014 × 0.025 inch, CuNiTi, SDS Ormco) underwent friction tests eight times in a universal testing machine. Two-way analysis of variance showed no significant interaction between bracket type and lubricant (P  =  .324). Friction force obtained with passive self-ligating brackets was lower than that for active brackets (P Friction observed in the presence of artificial saliva did not differ from that generated under lubrication with natural human saliva, as shown by Tukey test. Higher friction forces were found with the use of distilled water or when the test was performed under dry condition (ie, with no lubricant). Lubrication plays a role in friction forces between self-ligating brackets and CuNiTi wires, with mucin- and CMC-based artificial saliva providing a reliable alternative to human natural saliva.

  5. An in vitro comparison of nickel and chromium release from brackets

    Ana Cristina Soares Santos Haddad

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at comparing amounts of nickel (Ni and chromium (Cr released from brackets from different manufacturers in simulated oral environments. 280 brackets were equally divided into 7 groups according to manufacturer. 6 groups of brackets were stainless steel, and 1 group of brackets was made of a cobalt-chromium alloy with low Ni content (0.5%. International standard ISO 10271/2001 was applied to provide test methods. Each bracket was immersed in 0.5 ml of synthetic saliva (SS or artificial plaque fluid (PF over a period of 28 days at 37ºC. Solutions were replaced every 7 days, and were analyzed by spectrometry. The Kruskal-Wallis test was applied. Amounts of Ni release in SS (µg L-1 per week varied between groups from "bellow detection limits" to 694, and from 49 to 5,948.5 in PF. The group of brackets made of cobalt-chromium alloy, with the least nickel content, did not release the least amounts of Ni. Amounts of Cr detected in SS and in PF (µg L-1 per week were from 1 to 10.4 and from 50.5 to 8,225, respectively. It was therefore concluded that brackets from different manufacturers present different corrosion behavior. Further studies are necessary to determine clinical implications of the findings.

  6. Galvanic Corrosion among Different Combination of Orthodontic Archwires and Stainless Steel Brackets

    Farzin Heravi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the galvanic behavior of different bracket and archwire combinations that are commonly used in orthodontic treatments. Methods: Three types of orthodontic archwires with a diameter of 0.016×0.022 inch and 80 standard edgewise maxillary central incisor brackets were selected. Three groups consisted of different wire-bracket couples and one group was just brackets as a control group. Each group had five samples. Four brackets were then connected to each wire by elastic bands made from electrochemically neutral material. The samples were immersed into capped containers of Fusayama-Meyer artificial saliva. After six weeks, the released nickel ions were quantified via ion absorption technique. The mean and the standard deviation of all four groups were calculated and the data were compared together with Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric statistical test. Results: The highest concentration of released nickel ions was for bracket+ steel archwire and the least for the bracket without archwire. Conclusion: There were not significant differences among experimental groups, so it could be concluded that galvanic corrosion would not be a serious consideration through orthodontic treatment.  

  7. Self-ligating versus conventional metallic brackets on Streptococcus mutans retention: A systematic review.

    Longoni, Juliano N; Lopes, Beatriz M; Freires, Irlan A; Dutra, Kamile L; Franco, Ademir; Paranhos, Luiz R

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to review the literature systematically and assess comparatively whether self-ligating metallic brackets accumulate less Streptococcus mutans biofilm than conventional metallic brackets. The systematic search was performed following PRISMA guidelines and registration in PROSPERO. Seven electronic databases (Google Scholar, LILACS, Open Grey, PubMed, SciELO, ScienceDirect, and Scopus) were consulted until April 2016, with no restriction of language and time of publication. Only randomized clinical studies verifying S. mutans colonization in metallic brackets (self-ligating and conventional) were included. All steps were performed independently by two operators. The search resulted in 546 records obtained from the electronic databases. Additionally, 216 references obtained from the manual search of eligible articles were assessed. Finally, a total of 5 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. In 1 study, the total bacterial count was not different among self-ligating and conventional brackets, whereas in 2 studies the amount was lower for self-ligating brackets. Regarding the specific count of S. mutans , 2 studies showed less accumulation in self-ligating than in conventional brackets. Based on the limited evidence, self-ligating metallic brackets accumulate less S. mutans than conventional ones. However, these findings must be interpreted in conjunction with particularities individual for each patient - such as hygiene and dietary habits, which are components of the multifactorial environment that enables S. Mutans to proliferate and keep retained in the oral cavity.

  8. In vitro study of color stability of polycrystalline and monocrystalline ceramic brackets.

    de Oliveira, Cibele Braga; Maia, Luiz Guilherme Martins; Santos-Pinto, Ary; Gandini Junior, Luiz Gonzaga

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to analyze color stability of monocrystalline and polycrystalline ceramic brackets after immersion in dye solutions. Seven ceramic brackets of four commercial brands were tested: Two monocrystalline and two polycrystalline. The brackets were immersed in four dye solutions (coffee, red wine, Coke and black tea) and in artificial saliva for the following times: 24 hours, 7, 14 and 21 days, respectively. Color changes were measured by a spectrophotometer. Data were assessed by Multivariate Profile Analysis, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Multiple Comparison Tests of means. There was a perceptible change of color in all ceramic brackets immersed in coffee (ΔE* Allure = 7.61, Inspire Ice = 6.09, Radiance = 6.69, Transcend = 7.44), black tea (ΔE* Allure = 6.24, Inspire Ice = 5.21, Radiance = 6.51, Transcend = 6.14) and red wine (ΔE* Allure = 6.49, Inspire Ice = 4.76, Radiance = 5.19, Transcend = 5.64), but no change was noticed in Coke and artificial saliva (ΔE brackets undergo color change when exposed to solutions of coffee, black tea and red wine. However, the same crystalline structure, either monocrystalline or polycrystalline, do not follow the same or a similar pattern in color change, varying according to the bracket fabrication, which shows a lack of standardization in the manufacturing process. Coffee dye produced the most marked color changes after 21 days of immersion for most ceramic brackets evaluated.

  9. Bond efficacy of recycled orthodontic brackets: A comparative in vitro evaluation of two methods.

    Shetty, Vikram; Shekatkar, Yash; Kumbhat, Neesu; Gautam, G; Karbelkar, Shalan; Vandekar, Meghna

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of orthodontic brackets in developing orthodontic economies is an extremely common procedure. Bonding protocols and reliability of these brackets is, however, questionable, and still the subject of research. The aim was to evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of brackets recycled with sandblasting and silicoating. Ninety extracted human premolars were bonded with 0.022" SS brackets (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan USA) and then debonded. The debonded brackets were divided into three groups of 30 each. Group I: Sandblasting with 50-μm aluminum oxide (control group) Group II: Sandblasting with 50-μm aluminum oxide followed by metal primer application Group III: Silicoating with 30-μm Cojet sand followed by silane application and rebonded with Transbond XT. The sandblasted brackets and silicoated brackets were viewed under the scanning electron microscope, immediately after surface conditioning before rebonding. The shear bond strength with each group was tested. One-way analysis of variance, post-hoc Scheffe multiple comparison tests. The results showed that sandblasting created more irregularities and deeper erosions while silica coating created superficial irregularities and shallow erosions.

  10. Galvanic coupling of steel and gold alloy lingual brackets with orthodontic wires.

    Polychronis, Georgios; Al Jabbari, Youssef S; Eliades, Theodore; Zinelis, Spiros

    2018-03-06

    The aim of this research was to assess galvanic behavior of lingual orthodontic brackets coupled with representative types of orthodontic wires. Three types of lingual brackets: Incognito (INC), In-Ovation L (IOV), and STb (STB) were combined with a stainless steel (SS) and a nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic archwire. All materials were initially investigated by scanning electron microscopy / x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) while wires were also tested by x-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD). All bracket-wire combinations were immersed in acidic 0.1M NaCl 0.1M lactic acid and neutral NaF 0.3% (wt) electrolyte, and the potential differences were continuously recorded for 48 hours. The SEM/EDX analysis revealed that INC is a single-unit bracket made of a high gold (Au) alloy while IOV and STB are two-piece appliances in which the base and wing are made of SS alloys. The SS wire demonstrated austenite and martensite iron phase, while NiTi wire illustrated an intense austenite crystallographic structure with limited martensite. All bracket wire combinations showed potential differences below the threshold of galvanic corrosion (200 mV) except for INC and STB coupled with NiTi wire in NaF media. The electrochemical results indicate that all brackets tested demonstrated galvanic compatibility with SS wire, but fluoride treatment should be used cautiously with NiTi wires coupled with Au and SS brackets.

  11. Effect of blood contamination on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets and disinclusion buttons.

    Sfondrini, Maria Francesca; Gatti, Sara; Scribante, Andrea

    2011-07-01

    Our aim was to assess the effect of blood contamination on the shear bonding strength and sites of failure of orthodontic brackets and bondable buttons. We randomly divided 160 bovine permanent mandibular incisors into 8 groups of 20 specimens each. Both orthodontic brackets (Step brackets, Leone, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy) and bondable buttons (Flat orthodontic buttons, Leone, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy) were tested on four different enamel surfaces: dry; contamination with blood before priming; after priming; and before and after priming. Brackets and buttons were bonded to the teeth and subsequently tested using a Instron universal testing machine. Shear bonding strength and the rate of adhesive failures were recorded. Data were analysed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA), Scheffè tests, and the chi-square test. Uncontaminated enamel surfaces showed the highest bonding strengths for both brackets and buttons. When they were contaminated with blood, orthodontic brackets had significantly lower shear strengths than bondable buttons (P=0.0001). There were significant differences in sites of failure among the groups for the various enamel surfaces (P=0.001). Contamination of enamel by blood during bonding lowers the strength of the bond, more so with orthodontic brackets than with bondable buttons. Copyright © 2010 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Light energy attenuation through orthodontic ceramic brackets at different irradiation times.

    Santini, Ario; Tiu, Szu Hui; McGuinness, Niall J P; Aldossary, Mohammed Saeed

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the total light energy (TLE) transmission through three types of ceramic brackets with, bracket alone and with the addition of orthodontic adhesive, at different exposure durations, and to compare the microhardness of the cured adhesive. Three different makes of ceramic brackets, Pure Sapphire(M), Clarity™ ADVANCED(P) and Dual Ceramic(P) were used. Eighteen specimens of each make were prepared and allocated to three groups (n = 6). MARC(®)-resin calibrator was used to determine the light curing unit (LCU) tip irradiance (mW/cm(2)) and TLE (J/cm(2)) transmitted through the ceramic brackets, and through ceramic bracket plus Transbond™ XT Light Cure Adhesive, for 5, 10 and 20 s. Vickers-hardness values at the bottom of the cured adhesive were determined. Statistical analysis used one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA); P = 0.05. TLE transmission rose significantly among all samples with increasing exposure durations. TLE reaching the adhesive- enamel interface was less than 10 J/cm(2), and through monocrystalline and polycrystalline ceramic brackets was significantly different (P brackets. Clinicians are advised to measure the tip irradiance of their LCUs and increase curing time beyond 5 s. Orthodontic clinicians should understand the type of light curing device and the orthodontic adhesive used in their practice.

  13. Ion release from orthodontic brackets in 3 mouthwashes: an in-vitro study.

    Danaei, Shahla Momeni; Safavi, Afsaneh; Roeinpeikar, S M Mehdi; Oshagh, Morteza; Iranpour, Shiva; Omidkhoda, Maryam; Omidekhoda, Maryam

    2011-06-01

    Stainless steel orthodontic brackets can release metal ions into the saliva. Fluoridated mouthwashes are often recommended to orthodontic patients to reduce the risk of white-spot lesions around their brackets. However, little information is available regarding the effect of different mouthwashes in ion release of orthodontic brackets. The purpose of this study was to measure the amount of metal ion release from orthodontic brackets when kept in different mouthwashes. One hundred sixty stainless steel brackets (0.022-in, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) were divided randomly into 4 equal groups and immersed in Oral B (Procter & Gamble, Weybridge, United Kingdom), chlorhexidine (Shahdaru Labratories, Tehran, Iran), and Persica (Poursina Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Tehran, Iran) mouthwashes and distilled deionized water and incubated at 37°C for 45 days. Nickel, chromium, iron, copper, and manganese released from the orthodontic brackets were measured with an inductively coupled plasma spectrometer. For statistical analysis, 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Duncan multiple-range tests were used. The results showed that ion release in deionized water was significantly (P 0.05) in nickel, chromium, iron, and copper ion release in the Oral B and Persica mouthwashes. The level of manganese release was significantly different in all 4 groups. If ion release is a concern, Oral B and Persica mouthwashes might be better options than chlorhexidine for orthodontic patients with stainless steel brackets. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. On the compatible weakly nonlocal Poisson brackets of hydrodynamic type

    Andrei Ya. Maltsev

    2002-01-01

    of hydrodynamic type (Ferapontov brackets and the corresponding integrable hierarchies. We show that, under the requirement of the nondegeneracy of the corresponding “first” pseudo-Riemannian metric g(0 νμ and also some nondegeneracy requirement for the nonlocal part, it is possible to introduce a “canonical” set of “integrable hierarchies” based on the Casimirs, momentum functional and some “canonical Hamiltonian functions.” We prove also that all the “higher” “positive” Hamiltonian operators and the “negative” symplectic forms have the weakly nonlocal form in this case. The same result is also true for “negative” Hamiltonian operators and “positive” symplectic structures in the case when both pseudo-Riemannian metrics g(0 νμ and g(1 νμ are nondegenerate.

  15. Beatification: Flattening Poisson brackets for plasma theory and computation

    Morrison, P. J.; Viscondi, T. F.; Caldas, I.

    2017-10-01

    A perturbative method called beatification is presented for producing nonlinear Hamiltonian fluid and plasma theories. Plasma Hamiltonian theories, fluid and kinetic, are naturally described in terms of noncanonical variables. The beatification procedure amounts to finding a transformation that removes the explicit variable dependence from a noncanonical Poisson bracket and replaces it with a fixed dependence on a chosen state in the phase space. As such, beatification is a major step toward casting the Hamiltonian system in its canonical form, thus enabling or facilitating the use of analytical and numerical techniques that require or favor a representation in terms of canonical, or beatified, Hamiltonian variables. Examples will be given. U.S. D.O.E No. #DE-FG02-04ER-54742.

  16. Introduction to geometric nonlinear control; Controllability and lie bracket

    Jakubczyk, B [Institute of Mathematics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)

    2002-07-15

    We present an introduction to the qualitative theory of nonlinear control systems, with the main emphasis on controllability properties of such systems. We introduce the differential geometric language of vector fields, Lie bracket, distributions, foliations etc. One of the basic tools is the orbit theorem of Stefan and Sussmann. We analyse the basic controllability problems and give criteria for complete controllability, accessibility and related properties, using certain Lie algebras of ve fields defined by the system. A problem of path approximation is considered as an application of the developed theory. We illustrate our considerations with examples of simple systems or systems appearing in applications. The notes start from an elementary level and are self-contained. (author)

  17. Rebonding of unused brackets with different orthodontic adhesives

    Emigdio Enrique Orellana Jimenez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare in vitro shear bond strength (SBS of different orthodontic adhesives in bonding and repeatedly rebonding metal brackets, and to evaluate the bond failure site with the adhesive remnant index (ARI. METHODS: Specimens consisted of 90 extracted human first premolars, randomly divided into three groups (n=30. The adhesives Alpha Plast (AP, ConciseTM (CO and TransbondTM XT (TB were used in each group. Three SBS tests were performed, i.e., one at T0 (initial and the other two at T1 and T2 (first and second rebondings, respectively, observing a 24-hour interval. The tests were performed in a Shimadzu AG-I (10kN SBS testing machine, at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. RESULTS: SBS data were subjected to ANOVA, Tukey's test and Bonferroni test (p<0.05. For the ARI, the Kruskal Wallis test was performed, followed by the Dunn test. The results revealed that at T0 groups AP and CO showed SBS values that were near, but above TB values; and at T1 and T2, the highest SBS values were observed for the AP group, followed by the CO and TB groups. CONCLUSION: Statistically significant differences were found in SBS between groups AP, CO and TB during bonding and repeated rebondings of unused metal brackets, with group AP achieving the highest SBS value. Regarding ARI, adhesive AP exhibited bond failure at the enamel-adhesive interface, with a higher enamel fracture frequency.

  18. Shear bond strength of metallic brackets: influence of saliva contamination

    Luciana Borges Retamoso

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of saliva contamination on shear bond strength and the bond failure pattern of 3 adhesive systems (Transbond XT, AdheSE and Xeno III on orthodontic metallic brackets bonded to human enamel. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-two permanent human molars were cut longitudinally in a mesiodistal direction, producing seventy-two specimens randomly divided into six groups. Each system was tested under 2 different enamel conditions: no contamination and contaminated with saliva. In T, A and X groups, the adhesive systems were applied to the enamel surface in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. In TS, AS and XS groups, saliva was applied to enamel surface followed by adhesive system application. The samples were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 h, and then tested for shear bond strength in a universal testing machine (Emic, DL 2000 running at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. After bond failure, the enamel surfaces were observed under an optical microscope at 40x magnification. RESULTS: The control and contaminated groups showed no significant difference in shear bond strength for the same adhesive system. However, shear bond strength of T group (17.03±4.91 was significantly higher than that of AS (8.58±1.73 and XS (10.39±4.06 groups (p<0.05. Regarding the bond failure pattern, TS group had significantly higher scores of no adhesive remaining on the tooth in the bonding area than other groups considering the adhesive remnant index (ARI used to evaluate the amount of adhesive left on the enamel. CONCLUSIONS: Saliva contamination showed little influence on the 24-h shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

  19. A comparative study of metal artifacts from common metal orthodontic brackets in magnetic resonance imaging

    Kajan, Zahra Dalili; Alizadeh, Ahmad; Hemmaty, Yasmin Babael; Roushan, Zahra Atrkar; Khademi, Jalil

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the metal artifacts from common metal orthodontic brackets in magnetic resonance imaging. A dry mandible with 12 intact premolars was prepared, and was scanned ten times with various types of brackets: American, 3M, Dentaurum, and Masel orthodontic brackets were used, together with either stainless steel (SS) or nickel titanium (NiTi) wires. Subsequently, three different sequences of coronal and axial images were obtained: spin-echo T1-weighted images, fast spin-echo T2-weighted images, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. In each sequence, the two sequential axial and coronal images with the largest signal-void area were selected. The largest diameters of the signal voids in the direction of the X-, Y-, and Z-axes were then measured twice. Finally, the mean linear values associated with different orthodontic brackets were analyzed using one-way analysis of variation, and the results were compared using the independent t-test to assess whether the use of SS or NiTi wires had a significant effect on the images. Statistically significant differences were only observed along the Z-axis among the four different brands of orthodontic brackets with SS wires. A statistically significant difference was observed along all axes among the brackets with NiTi wires. A statistically significant difference was found only along the Z-axis between nickel-free and nickel-containing brackets. With respect to all axes, the 3M bracket was associated with smaller signal-void areas. Overall, the 3M and Dentaurum brackets with NiTi wires induced smaller artifacts along all axes than those with SS wires

  20. A comparative study of metal artifacts from common metal orthodontic brackets in magnetic resonance imaging

    Kajan, Zahra Dalili; Alizadeh, Ahmad; Hemmaty, Yasmin Babael; Roushan, Zahra Atrkar; Khademi, Jalil [Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    This study was performed to compare the metal artifacts from common metal orthodontic brackets in magnetic resonance imaging. A dry mandible with 12 intact premolars was prepared, and was scanned ten times with various types of brackets: American, 3M, Dentaurum, and Masel orthodontic brackets were used, together with either stainless steel (SS) or nickel titanium (NiTi) wires. Subsequently, three different sequences of coronal and axial images were obtained: spin-echo T1-weighted images, fast spin-echo T2-weighted images, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. In each sequence, the two sequential axial and coronal images with the largest signal-void area were selected. The largest diameters of the signal voids in the direction of the X-, Y-, and Z-axes were then measured twice. Finally, the mean linear values associated with different orthodontic brackets were analyzed using one-way analysis of variation, and the results were compared using the independent t-test to assess whether the use of SS or NiTi wires had a significant effect on the images. Statistically significant differences were only observed along the Z-axis among the four different brands of orthodontic brackets with SS wires. A statistically significant difference was observed along all axes among the brackets with NiTi wires. A statistically significant difference was found only along the Z-axis between nickel-free and nickel-containing brackets. With respect to all axes, the 3M bracket was associated with smaller signal-void areas. Overall, the 3M and Dentaurum brackets with NiTi wires induced smaller artifacts along all axes than those with SS wires.

  1. In vitro assessment of competency for different lingual brackets in sliding mechanics.

    Lalithapriya, S; Kumaran, N Kurunji; Rajasigamani, K

    2015-01-01

    To determine the static frictional resistance of different lingual brackets at different second order angulations when coupled with stainless steel (SS) archwire in dry and wet conditions. Using a modified jig, frictional resistance was evaluated under different conditions for a total of 270 upper premolar lingual brackets (0.018″ × 0.025″ - conventional - 7(th) generation and STb, self-ligating - evolution) with no in-built tip or torque together with 0.016″ × 0.022″ straight length SS archwires. For conventional brackets, the archwire was secured with 0.008″ preformed SS short ligature ties. One way analysis of variance with Tukey HSD as post-hoc test was applied for degree wise and bracket wise comparison within dry condition and wet condition. For pair wise comparison Student's t-test was used. Under both conditions the static frictional resistance is significantly higher for self-ligating brackets at 0°, while at 5° and 10° it is higher for 7(th) generation brackets. Statistically, significant difference does not exist at 0° between conventional brackets and the same was found at 5° and 10° between STb and self-ligating brackets. With an increase in second order angulations, all the evaluated samples exhibited an increased frictional value. Wet condition samples obtained a higher value than their corresponding dry condition. The self-ligating bracket evaluated in this in vitro study is not beneficial in reducing friction during en-mass retraction due to its interactive clip type.

  2. Is laser conditioning a valid alternative to conventional etching for aesthetic brackets?

    Sfondrini, M F; Calderoni, G; Vitale, M C; Gandini, P; Scribante, A

    2018-03-01

    ER:Yag lasers have been described as a more conservative alternative to conventional acid-etching enamel conditioning technique, when bonding conventional metallic orthodontic brackets. Since the use of aesthetic orthodontic brackets is constantly increasing, the purpose of the present report has been to test laser conditioning with different aesthetic brackets. Study Design: Five different aesthetic brackets (microfilled copolymer, glass fiber, sapphire, polyoxymethylene and sintered ceramic) were tested for shear bond strength and Adhesive Remnant Index scores using two different enamel conditioning techniques (acid etching and ER:Yag laser application). Two hundred bovine incisors were extracted, cleaned and embedded in resin. Specimens were then divided into 10 groups with random tables. Half of the specimens were conditioned with conventional orthophosphoric acid gel, the other half with ER:Yag laser. Different aesthetic brackets (microfilled copolymer, glass fiber, sapphire, polyoxymethylene and sintered ceramic) were then bonded to the teeth. Subsequently all groups were tested in shear mode with a Universal Testing Machine. Shear bond strength values and adhesive remnant index scores were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed. When considering conventional acid etching technique, sapphire, polyoxymethylene and sintered ceramic brackets exhibited the highest SBS values. Lowest values were reported for microfilled copolymer and glass fiber appliances. A significant decrease in SBS values after laser conditioning was reported for sapphire, polyoxymethylene and sintered ceramic brackets, whereas no significant difference was reported for microfilled copolymer and glass fiber brackets. Significant differences in ARI scores were also reported. Laser etching can significantly reduce bonding efficacy of sapphire, polyoxymethylene and sintered ceramic brackets.

  3. A comparative study of metal artifacts from common metal orthodontic brackets in magnetic resonance imaging.

    Dalili Kajan, Zahra; Khademi, Jalil; Alizadeh, Ahmad; Babaei Hemmaty, Yasamin; Atrkar Roushan, Zahra

    2015-09-01

    This study was performed to compare the metal artifacts from common metal orthodontic brackets in magnetic resonance imaging. A dry mandible with 12 intact premolars was prepared, and was scanned ten times with various types of brackets: American, 3M, Dentaurum, and Masel orthodontic brackets were used, together with either stainless steel (SS) or nickel titanium (NiTi) wires. Subsequently, three different sequences of coronal and axial images were obtained: spin-echo T1 -weighted images, fast spin-echo T2 -weighted images, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. In each sequence, the two sequential axial and coronal images with the largest signal-void area were selected. The largest diameters of the signal voids in the direction of the X-, Y-, and Z-axes were then measured twice. Finally, the mean linear values associated with different orthodontic brackets were analyzed using one-way analysis of variation, and the results were compared using the independent t-test to assess whether the use of SS or NiTi wires had a significant effect on the images. Statistically significant differences were only observed along the Z-axis among the four different brands of orthodontic brackets with SS wires. A statistically significant difference was observed along all axes among the brackets with NiTi wires. A statistically significant difference was found only along the Z-axis between nickel-free and nickel-containing brackets. With respect to all axes, the 3M bracket was associated with smaller signal-void areas. Overall, the 3M and Dentaurum brackets with NiTi wires induced smaller artifacts along all axes than those with SS wires.

  4. Analysis of Shear Bond Strength and Morphology of Er:YAG Laser-Recycled Ceramic Orthodontic Brackets.

    Han, Ruo-qiao; Yang, Kai; Ji, Ling-fei; Ling, Chen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the recycling of deboned ceramic brackets via an Er:YAG laser or via the traditional chairside processing methods of flaming and sandblasting; shear bond strength and morphological changes were evaluated in recycled brackets versus new brackets. 3M Clarity Self-Ligating Ceramic Brackets with a microcrystalline base were divided into groups subjected to flaming, sandblasting, or exposure to an Er:YAG laser. New ceramic brackets served as a control group. Shear bond strengths were determined with an Electroforce test machine and tested for statistical significance through analysis of variance. Morphological examinations of the recycled ceramic bracket bases were conducted with scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Residue on the bracket base was analyzed with Raman spectroscopy. Faded, dark adhesive was left on recycled bracket bases processed via flaming. Adhesive was thoroughly removed by both sandblasting and exposure to an Er:YAG laser. Compared with new brackets, shear bond strength was lower after sandblasting (p bracket. Er:YAG lasers effectively remove adhesive from the bases of ceramic brackets without damaging them; thus, this method may be preferred over other recycling methods.

  5. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR as a Neurorehabilitation Method

    Afsaneh Zarghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available   A variety of nervous system components such as medulla, pons, midbrain, cerebellum, basal ganglia, parietal, frontal and occipital lobes have role in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR processes. The eye movement is done simultaneously for attracting client's attention to an external stimulus while concentrating on a certain internal subject. Eye movement guided by therapist is the most common attention stimulus. The role of eye movement has been documented previously in relation with cognitive processing mechanisms. A series of systemic experiments have shown that the eyes’ spontaneous movement is associated with emotional and cognitive changes and results in decreased excitement, flexibility in attention, memory processing, and enhanced semantic recalling. Eye movement also decreases the memory's image clarity and the accompanying excitement. By using EMDR, we can reach some parts of memory which were inaccessible before and also emotionally intolerable. Various researches emphasize on the effectiveness of EMDR in treating and curing phobias, pains, and dependent personality disorders. Consequently, due to the involvement of multiple neural system components, this palliative method of treatment can also help to rehabilitate the neuro-cognitive system.

  6. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for adolescent depression.

    Bae, Hwallip; Kim, Daeho; Park, Yong Chon

    2008-03-01

    While cognitive behavior therapy is considered to be the first-line therapy for adolescent depression, there are limited data on whether other psychotherapeutic techniques are also effective in treating adolescents with depression. This report suggests the potential application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for treatment of depressive disorder related, not to trauma, but to stressful life events. At present, EMDR has only been empirically validated for only trauma-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder. Two teenagers with major depressive disorder (MDD) underwent three and seven sessions of EMDR aimed at memories of stressful life events. After treatment, their depressive symptoms decreased to the level of full remission, and the therapeutic gains were maintained after two and three months of follow up. The effectiveness of EMDR for depression is explained by the model of adaptive information processing. Given the powerful effects observed within a brief period of time, the authors suggest that further investigation of EMDR for depressive disorders is warranted.

  7. Influence of the bracket on bonding and physical behavior of orthodontic resin cements.

    Bolaños-Carmona, Victoria; Zein, Bilal; Menéndez-Núñez, Mario; Sánchez-Sánchez, Purificación; Ceballos-García, Laura; González-López, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the influence of the type of bracket, on bond strength, microhardness and conversion degree (CD) of four resin orthodontic cements. Micro-tensile bond strength (µTBS) test between the bracket base and the cement was carried out on glass-hour-shaped specimens (n=20). Vickers Hardness Number (VHN) and micro-Raman spectra were recorded in situ under the bracket base. Weibull distribution, ANOVA and non-parametric test were applied for data analysis (pcement showing the worst performance. The CD was from 80% to 62.5%.

  8. Strength Analysis and Process Simulation of Subway Contact Rail Support Bracket of Composite Materials

    Fedulov, Boris N.; Safonov, Alexander A.; Sergeichev, Ivan V.; Ushakov, Andrey E.; Klenin, Yuri G.; Makarenko, Irina V.

    2016-10-01

    An application of composites for construction of subway brackets is a very effective approach to extend their lifetime. However, this approach involves the necessity to prevent process-induced distortions of the bracket due to thermal deformation and chemical shrinkage. At present study, a process simulation has been carried out to support the design of the production tooling. The simulation was based on the application of viscoelastic model for the resin. Simulation results were verified by comparison with results of manufacturing experiments. To optimize the bracket structure the strength analysis was carried out as well.

  9. Desensitization Using Bortezomib and High-dose Immunoglobulin Increases Rate of Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation.

    Jeong, Jong Cheol; Jambaldorj, Enkthuya; Kwon, Hyuk Yong; Kim, Myung-Gyu; Im, Hye Jin; Jeon, Hee Jung; In, Ji Won; Han, Miyeun; Koo, Tai Yeon; Chung, Junho; Song, Eun Young; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2016-02-01

    Combination therapy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and rituximab showed a good transplant rate in highly sensitized wait-listed patients for deceased donor kidney transplantation (DDKT), but carried the risk of antibody-mediated rejection. The authors investigated the impact of a new combination therapy of bortezomib, IVIG, and rituximab on transplantation rate.This study was a prospective, open-labeled clinical trial. The desensitization regimen consisted of 2 doses of IVIG (2  g/kg), a single dose of rituximab (375  mg/m), and 4 doses of bortezomib (1.3  mg/m). The transplant rate was analyzed. Anti-Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DRB antibodies were determined by a Luminex solid-phase bead assay at baseline and after 2, 3, and 6 months in the desensitized patients.There were 19 highly sensitized patients who received desensitization and 17 patients in the control group. Baseline values of class I and II panel reactive antibody (%, peak mean fluorescence intensity) were 83  ±  16.0 (14952  ±  5820) and 63  ±  36.0 (10321  ±  7421), respectively. Deceased donor kidney transplantation was successfully performed in 8 patients (42.1%) in the desensitization group versus 4 (23.5%) in the control group. Multivariate time-varying covariate Cox regression analysis showed that desensitization increased the probability of DDKT (hazard ratio, 46.895; 95% confidence interval, 3.468-634.132; P = 0.004). Desensitization decreased mean fluorescence intensity values of class I panel reactive antibody by 15.5% (20.8%) at 2 months. In addition, a liberal mismatch strategy in post hoc analysis increased the benefit of desensitization in donor-specific antibody reduction. Desensitization was well tolerated, and acute rejection occurred only in the control group.In conclusion, a desensitization protocol using bortezomib, high-dose IVIG, and rituximab increased the DDKT rate in highly sensitized, wait-listed patients.

  10. Resistance to Sliding in Clear and Metallic Damon 3 and Conventional Edgewise Brackets: an In vitro Study

    Karim Soltani, Mohammad; Golfeshan, Farzaneh; Alizadeh, Yoones; Mehrzad, Jabraiel

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Frictional forces are considered as important counterforce to orthodontic tooth movement. It is claimed that self-ligating brackets reduce the frictional forces. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the resistance to sliding in metallic and clear Damon brackets with the conventional brackets in a wet condition. Materials and Method The samples included 4 types of brackets; metallic and clear Damon brackets and metallic and clear conventional brackets (10 brackets in each group). In this study, stainless steel wires sized 0.019×0.025 were employed and the operator’s saliva was used to simulate the conditions of oral cavity. The tidy-modified design was used for simulation of sliding movement. The resistance to sliding and static frictional forces was measured by employing Testometric machine and load cell. Results The mean (±SD) of resistance to sliding was 194.88 (±26.65) and 226.62 (±39.9) g in the esthetic and metallic Damon brackets, while these values were 187.81(±27.84) and 191.17(±66.68) g for the clear and metallic conventional brackets, respectively. Static frictional forces were 206.4(±42.45) and 210.38(±15.89) g in the esthetic and metallic Damon brackets and 220.63(±49.29) and 215.13(±62.38) g in the clear and metallic conventional brackets. According to two-way ANOVA, no significant difference was observed between the two bracket materials (clear and metal) and the two types of bracket (self-ligating versus conventional) regarding resistance to sliding (p= 0.17 and p= 0.23, respectively) and static frictional forces (p= 0.55 and p= 0.96, respectively). Conclusion Neither the type of bracket materials nor their type of ligation made difference in resistance to sliding and static friction. PMID:26106630

  11. An in vitro study into the efficacy of complex tooth alignment with conventional and self-ligating brackets.

    Montasser, M A; Keilig, L; Bourauel, C

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of tooth alignment achieved by various small cross-section archwire/bracket combinations using the orthodontic measurement and simulation system. The study comprised three types of orthodontic brackets 1) conventional ligating (Victory Series and Mini-Taurus), 2) self-ligating (SmartClip a passive self-ligating bracket and Time3 an active self-ligating bracket), and 3) a conventional low-friction bracket (Synergy). All brackets had a nominal 0.022″ slot size. Brackets were combined with 1) 0.012″ stainless steel, 2) 0.012″ Orthonol, 3) 0.012″ Thermalloy, and 4) 0.0155″ coaxial archwires. Archwires were tied to the conventional brackets with stainless steel ligatures and elastomeric rings. The malocclusion simulated represented a central upper incisor displaced 2 mm gingivally (x-axis) and 2 mm labially (z-axis). The inciso-gingival correction achieved by the different archwire/bracket combinations ranged from 15 to 95%, while the labio-lingual correction ranged from 10 to 95%. The smallest correction was achieved by coaxial, Orthonol, and thermally archwires when ligated with the elastomeric rings to conventional brackets. Stainless steel archwires achieved from 65 to 90% of inciso-gingival correction and from 60 to 90% of labio-lingual correction. The resultant tooth alignment was the product of interaction between the archwire type, bracket type, and bracket design including ligature type. Small cross-sectional archwires might produce up to 95% correction if combined properly with the bracket system. Elastomeric rings when used with conventional brackets limit the efficacy of malalignment correction. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Resistance to Sliding in Clear and Metallic Damon 3 and Conventional Edgewise Brackets: an In vitro Study.

    Karim Soltani, Mohammad; Golfeshan, Farzaneh; Alizadeh, Yoones; Mehrzad, Jabraiel

    2015-03-01

    Frictional forces are considered as important counterforce to orthodontic tooth movement. It is claimed that self-ligating brackets reduce the frictional forces. The aim of this study was to compare the resistance to sliding in metallic and clear Damon brackets with the conventional brackets in a wet condition. The samples included 4 types of brackets; metallic and clear Damon brackets and metallic and clear conventional brackets (10 brackets in each group). In this study, stainless steel wires sized 0.019×0.025 were employed and the operator's saliva was used to simulate the conditions of oral cavity. The tidy-modified design was used for simulation of sliding movement. The resistance to sliding and static frictional forces was measured by employing Testometric machine and load cell. The mean (±SD) of resistance to sliding was 194.88 (±26.65) and 226.62 (±39.9) g in the esthetic and metallic Damon brackets, while these values were 187.81(±27.84) and 191.17(±66.68) g for the clear and metallic conventional brackets, respectively. Static frictional forces were 206.4(±42.45) and 210.38(±15.89) g in the esthetic and metallic Damon brackets and 220.63(±49.29) and 215.13(±62.38) g in the clear and metallic conventional brackets. According to two-way ANOVA, no significant difference was observed between the two bracket materials (clear and metal) and the two types of bracket (self-ligating versus conventional) regarding resistance to sliding (p= 0.17 and p= 0.23, respectively) and static frictional forces (p= 0.55 and p= 0.96, respectively). Neither the type of bracket materials nor their type of ligation made difference in resistance to sliding and static friction.

  13. [Prolonged desensitization pretreatment for in vitro fertilization in women with polycystic ovary].

    Kuczyński, W; Czech, R; Redźko, S; Wasilewski, T; Mrugacz, G; Wołczyński, S; Pietrewicz, P; Grochowski, D; Szamatowicz, M

    2000-09-01

    To analyse the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in women with severe polycystic ovary disease (PCD), stimulated after prolonged pituitary desensitization in comparison with regular long protocol therapy. The results of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH), fertilization rate, early embryo development parameters and clinical pregnancy rates were compared depending on the duration of pituitary desensitization before gonadotropin administration. A total of 60 patients with severe PCOD were desensitized with GnRH agonist up to 30 days before COH. The results were compared with the group of 213 patients with mild PCOD treated with regular long protocol (control). We observed a slightly higher rate of mature oocytes MII as well as the number of embryos obtained in the control group, however the pregnancy rate in the group with prolonged desensitization was significantly higher (50%) in comparison to the control group (33.8%). The prolonged pituitary desensitization before controlled ovarian hyperstimulation gives better chance for obtaining pregnancy in patients with severe PCOD. It could be recommended facing previous treatment failure.

  14. Rate of Homologous Desensitization and Internalization of the GLP-1 Receptor.

    Shaaban, Ghina; Oriowo, Mabayoje; Al-Sabah, Suleiman

    2016-12-26

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is an important target in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to compare the rate of agonist stimulated desensitization and internalization of GLP-1R. To this end, an N-terminally myc-tagged GLP-1R was stably expressed in HEK-293 cells. Homologous desensitization was assessed by measuring the cAMP response to agonist stimulation following pre-incubation with agonist for up to 120 min. Receptor internalization was monitored using an indirect ELISA-based method and confocal microscopy. Pre-incubation with GLP-1 resulted in a time-dependent loss of response to a second stimulation. Washing cells following pre-incubation failed to bring cAMP levels back to basal. Taking this into account, two desensitization rates were calculated: "apparent" (t 1/2 = 19.27 min) and "net" (t 1/2 = 2.99 min). Incubation of cells with GLP-1 also resulted in a time-dependent loss of receptor cell surface expression (t 1/2 = 2.05 min). Rapid agonist-stimulated internalization of GLP-1R was confirmed using confocal microscopy. Stimulation of GLP-1R with GLP-1 results in rapid desensitization and internalization of the receptor. Interestingly, the rate of "net" desensitization closely matches the rate of internalization. Our results suggest that agonist-bound GLP-1R continues to generate cAMP after it has been internalized.

  15. [Experience of rapid drug desensitization therapy in the treatment of mycobacterial disease].

    Sasaki, Yuka; Kurashima, Atsuyuki; Morimoto, Kozo; Okumura, Masao; Watanabe, Masato; Yoshiyama, Takashi; Ogata, Hideo; Gotoh, Hajime; Kudoh, Shoji; Suzuki, Hiroaki

    2014-11-01

    Drugs for tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis mycobacterial diseases are limited. In particular, no new drugs for non-tuberculosis mycobacterial disease have been developed in recent years. Antimycobacterial drugs have many adverse reactions, for which drug desensitization therapy has been used. Rapid drug desensitization (RDD) therapy, including antituberculosis drugs and clarithromycin, has been implemented in many regions in Europe and the United States. We investigated the validity of RDD therapy in Japan. We report our experience with RDD therapy in 13 patients who developed severe drug allergy to antimycobacterial treatment. The desensitization protocol reported by Holland and Cernandas was adapted. The underlying diseases were 7 cases of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease and 6 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. Isoniazid was readministered in 2 (100%) of 2 patients; rifampicin, in 8 (67.7%) of 12 patients; ethambutol, in 4 (67.7%) of 6 patients; and clarithromycin, in 2 (100%) of 2 patients. In Japan, the desensitization therapy recommended by the Treatment Committee of the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis have been implemented generally. We think RDD therapy is effective and safe as the other desensitization therapy. We will continue to investigate the efficiency of RDD therapy in patients who had discontinued antimycobacterial treatment because of the drug allergic reaction.

  16. Outcome after Desensitization in HLA or ABO-Incompatible Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Single Center Experience.

    Kauke, Teresa; Klimaschewski, Sandra; Schoenermarck, Ulf; Fischereder, Michael; Dick, Andrea; Guba, Markus; Stangl, Manfred; Werner, Jens; Meiser, Bruno; Habicht, Antje

    2016-01-01

    The shortage of deceased donors led to an increase of living donor kidney (LDK) transplantations performed in the presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) or ABO incompatibility (ABOi) using various desensitization protocols. We herein analyzed 26 ABOi and 8 Luminex positive DSA patients who were successfully desensitized by anti-CD20, antigen-specific immunoadsorption and/or plasmapheresis to receive an LDK transplant. Twenty LDK recipients with non-donor-specific HLA-antibodies (low risk) and 32 without anti-HLA antibodies (no risk) served as control groups. 1-year graft survival rate and renal function was similar in all 4 groups (creatinine: 1.63 ± 0.5 vs 1.78 ± 0.6 vs 1.64 ± 0.5 vs 1.6 ± 0.3 mg/dl in ABOi, DSA, low risk and no risk group). The incidence of acute T-cell mediated rejections did not differ between the 4 groups (15% vs 12, 5% vs 15% vs 22% in ABOi, DSA, low risk and no risk), while antibody-mediated rejections were only found in the DSA (25%) and ABOi (7.5%) groups. Incidence of BK nephropathy (BKVN) was significantly more frequent after desensitization as compared to controls (5/34 vs 0/52, p = 0.03). We demonstrate favorable short-term allograft outcome in LDK transplant recipients after desensitization. However, the desensitization was associated with an increased risk of BKVN.

  17. Desensitization strategies in adult heart transplantation-Will persistence pay off?

    Chih, Sharon; Patel, Jignesh

    2016-08-01

    Strategies are needed to enable successful heart transplantation in highly sensitized patients. Immunologic challenges from sensitization to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) reduce access to compatible donors, extend waiting times to transplant, and increase the risks of antibody-mediated rejection and cardiac allograft vasculopathy after transplant. The prime goal of desensitization is to increase access to transplantation through expansion of the donor organ pool. Existing therapies are directed at key components of the humoral immune response with newer biologically based regimens able to target plasma cells as the source of antibody production, as well as complement activation that has a central role in antibody-mediated injury. Despite the emergence of early promising results for these agents, a significant knowledge gap remains with the current data for desensitization, extrapolated mostly from non-heart solid-organ transplants and small observational studies. Notably, no approach has demonstrated significant and sustainable reductions in HLA antibody pre-transplant, and the ideal desensitization strategy remains elusive. In addition, clinical tools to evaluate the humoral response and efficacy of therapy are limited, focusing almost exclusively on HLA antibody detection. Importantly, desensitization is associated with significant costs and potential risks, and overall long-term outcomes and cost-effectiveness have not been sufficiently evaluated. Investigation is ongoing into the development of a clinically effective desensitization strategy in heart transplantation. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiations

    Pujol Mora, J.

    1999-01-01

    The exposition to ionizing radiations is a constant fact in the life of the human being and its utilization as diagnostic and therapeutic method is generalized. However, it is notorious how as years go on, the fear to the ionizing radiation seems to persist too, and this fact is not limited to the common individual, but to the technical personnel and professional personnel that labors with them same. (S. Grainger) [es

  19. Radiation

    Davidson, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The basic facts about radiation are explained, along with some simple and natural ways of combating its ill-effects, based on ancient healing wisdom as well as the latest biochemical and technological research. Details are also given of the diet that saved thousands of lives in Nagasaki after the Atomic bomb attack. Special comment is made on the use of radiation for food processing. (U.K.)

  20. Radiation

    Winther, J.F.; Ulbak, K.; Dreyer, L.; Pukkala, E.; Oesterlind, A.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic countries occurs at an average effective dose per capita per year of about 3 mSv (Iceland, 1.1 mSv) from natural sources, and about 1 mSv from man-made sources. While the natural sources are primarily radon in indoor air, natural radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation and gamma radiation from soil and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180 cases of lung cancer (1% of all lung cancer cases) per year could be avoided in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 if indoor exposure to radon were eliminated, and that an additional 720 cases (6%) could be avoided annually if either radon or tobacco smoking were eliminated. Similarly, it was estimated that the exposure of the Nordic populations to natural sources of ionizing radiation other than radon and to medical sources will each give rise to an annual total of 2120

  1. An evaluation of in vivo desensitization and video modeling to increase compliance with dental procedures in persons with mental retardation.

    Conyers, Carole; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Peterson, Blake; Gubin, Amber; Jurgens, Mandy; Selders, Andrew; Dickinson, Jessica; Barenz, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Fear of dental procedures deters many individuals with mental retardation from accepting dental treatment. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of two procedures, in vivo desensitization and video modeling, for increasing compliance with dental procedures in participants with severe or profound mental retardation. Desensitization increased compliance for all 5 participants, whereas video modeling increased compliance for only 1 of 3 participants.

  2. Comparison of Cue-Controlled Desensitization, Rational Restructuring, and a Credible Placebo in the Treatment of Speech Anxiety.

    Lent, Robert W.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The efficacy of cue-controlled desensitization and systematic rational restructuring was compared with a placebo method and a waiting-list control in reducing public speaking and nontargeted anxieties. Cue-controlled desensitization was generally more effective than the other groups in reducing subjective speech anxiety. (Author)

  3. Influence of Contextual Cues on the Efficacy of Desensitization and a Credible Placebo in Alleviating Public Speaking Anxiety

    Slutsky, Jeffrey M.; Allen, George J.

    1978-01-01

    After participating in a public speaking situation that allowed collection of self-report, physiological, and behavioral manifestations of anxiety, 67 subjects were randomly assigned to either desensitization, "T scope" therapy, or no treatment. Desensitization reduced public speaking anxiety in both contexts, whereas the placebo was effective…

  4. Comment on the Morris and Suckerman Study of Therapist Warmth as a Factor in Automated Systematic Desensitization

    McGlynn, F. Dudley; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Criticism of the study relating effects of therapist warmth to desensitization include: the use of surrogate, student subjects; nonstandard desensitization procedures; and no control group. Morris and Suckerman respond that the first two criticisms rely on selective reading of the literature and the third is irrelevant. (NG)

  5. Sensory Desensitization Training for Successful Net Application and EEG/ERP Acquisition in Difficult to Test Children

    Roesler, Cynthia P.; Flax, Judy; MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Fermano, Zena; Morgan-Byrne, Julie; Benasich, April A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of sensory desensitization training for 12 nonverbal children with autism to facilitate participation in an electrophysiological study assessing linguistic processing. Sensory desensitization was achieved for 10 of the 12 children and thus allowed collection of usable data in a passive linguistic paradigm.…

  6. A single-aliquot OSL protocol using bracketing regenerative doses to accurately determine equivalent doses in quartz

    Folz, Elise; Mercier, Norbert

    1999-01-01

    In most cases, sediments show inherent heterogeneity in their luminescence behaviours and bleaching histories, and identical aliquots are not available: single-aliquot determination of the equivalent dose (ED) is then the approach of choice and the advantages of using regenerative protocols are outlined. Experiments on five laboratory bleached and dosed quartz samples, following the protocol described by Murray and Roberts (1998. Measurement of the equivalent dose in quartz using a regenerative-dose single aliquot protocol. Radiation Measurements 27, 171-184), showed the hazards of using a single regeneration dose: a 10% variation in the regenerative dose yielded some equivalent dose estimates that differed from the expected value by more than 5%. A protocol is proposed that allows the use of different regenerative doses to bracket the estimated equivalent dose. The measured ED is found to be in excellent agreement with the known value when the main regeneration dose is within 10% of the true equivalent dose

  7. A single-aliquot OSL protocol using bracketing regenerative doses to accurately determine equivalent doses in quartz

    Folz, E

    1999-01-01

    In most cases, sediments show inherent heterogeneity in their luminescence behaviours and bleaching histories, and identical aliquots are not available: single-aliquot determination of the equivalent dose (ED) is then the approach of choice and the advantages of using regenerative protocols are outlined. Experiments on five laboratory bleached and dosed quartz samples, following the protocol described by Murray and Roberts (1998. Measurement of the equivalent dose in quartz using a regenerative-dose single aliquot protocol. Radiation Measurements 27, 171-184), showed the hazards of using a single regeneration dose: a 10% variation in the regenerative dose yielded some equivalent dose estimates that differed from the expected value by more than 5%. A protocol is proposed that allows the use of different regenerative doses to bracket the estimated equivalent dose. The measured ED is found to be in excellent agreement with the known value when the main regeneration dose is within 10% of the true equivalent dose.

  8. Research and analysis on response characteristics of bracket-line coupling system under wind load

    Jiayu, Zhao; Qing, Sun

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional finite element model of bracket-line coupling system is established based on ANSYS software. Using the wind velocity time series which is generated by MATLAB as a power input, by comparing and analyzing the influence of different wind speeds and different wind attack angles, it is found that when 0 degree wind acts on the structure, wires have a certain damping effect in the bracket-line coupling system and at the same wind speed, the 90 degree direction is the most unfavorable wind direction for the whole structure according to the three kinds of angle wind calculated at present. In the bracket-line coupling system, the bracket structure is more sensitive to the increase of wind speed while the conductors are more sensitive to the change of wind attack angle.

  9. Bracket formulations and energy- and helicity-preserving numerical methods for incompressible two-phase flows

    Suzuki, Yukihito

    2018-03-01

    A diffuse interface model for three-dimensional viscous incompressible two-phase flows is formulated within a bracket formalism using a skew-symmetric Poisson bracket together with a symmetric negative semi-definite dissipative bracket. The budgets of kinetic energy, helicity, and enstrophy derived from the bracket formulations are properly inherited by the finite difference equations obtained by invoking the discrete variational derivative method combined with the mimetic finite difference method. The Cahn-Hilliard and Allen-Cahn equations are employed as diffuse interface models, in which the equalities of densities and viscosities of two different phases are assumed. Numerical experiments on the motion of periodic arrays of tubes and those of droplets have been conducted to examine the properties and usefulness of the proposed method.

  10. Design and simulation experimental study of bracket plates in steam generator for AC600 PWR

    Zhang Fuyuan; Zhang Wenqi; Ji Quankai; Zeng Xi; Xie Yongyao

    1998-01-01

    Seven-holes type bracket plate at the inlet nozzle and three-holes taper bracket plate at outlet nozzle are designed. According to 'local form and structure change' simulation theory, hydraulic models and simulators for the simulative experiments are designed. Taking water as the medium, the simulative experiments have been completed at the room temperature. The ζ-Re curves (here, ζ is the local pressure loss coefficient at the nozzles after the bracket plates are installed and Re is Reynolds number) have been got. Based on the experimental results, the computation and the analysis have been shown that. If the bracket plates are used in the steam generator (SG) of AC600 PWR, the pressure drop of primary side in the SG is about 14 percent higher than that of the 55/19 B style SG

  11. Can 10% hydrofluoric acid be used for reconditioning of orthodontic brackets?

    Daniela D Pompeo

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The aluminum oxide blasting technique was effective for the reconditioning of orthodontic brackets. Nevertheless, the reconditioning technique using 10% fluoridric acid for 60 s was not efficient for clinical use.

  12. Equal-Time and Equal-Space Poisson Brackets of the N -Component Coupled NLS Equation

    Zhou Ru-Guang; Li Pei-Yao; Gao Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Two Poisson brackets for the N-component coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation are derived by using the variantional principle. The first one is called the equal-time Poisson bracket which does not depend on time but only on the space variable. Actually it is just the usual one describing the time evolution of system in the traditional theory of integrable Hamiltonian systems. The second one is equal-space and new. It is shown that the spatial part of Lax pair with respect to the equal-time Poisson bracket and temporal part of Lax pair with respect to the equal-space Poisson bracket share the same r-matrix formulation. These properties are similar to that of the NLS equation. (paper)

  13. Clinical assessment of demineralization and remineralization surrounding orthodontic brackets with FluoreCam

    Bora Korkut

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: This study demonstrated that demineralization is measurable around orthodontic brackets and the demineralization can be completely inhibited and/or reversed by the use of commercially available remineralization products.

  14. A Comparison of Shear Bond Strength of Two Different Techniques with that of Initially Bonded Brackets

    Abdolhamid Zafarmand

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: However, there was no significant difference in the shear strength responses of three groups. The results of the study showed that both techniques of rebonding of failed brackets can provide effective bonding strengths similar to the primary strength.

  15. Muscarinic supersensitivity and impaired receptor desensitization in G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5-deficient mice.

    Gainetdinov, R R; Bohn, L M; Walker, J K; Laporte, S A; Macrae, A D; Caron, M G; Lefkowitz, R J; Premont, R T

    1999-12-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 (GRK5) is a member of a family of enzymes that phosphorylate activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). To address the physiological importance of GRK5-mediated regulation of GPCRs, mice bearing targeted deletion of the GRK5 gene (GRK5-KO) were generated. GRK5-KO mice exhibited mild spontaneous hypothermia as well as pronounced behavioral supersensitivity upon challenge with the nonselective muscarinic agonist oxotremorine. Classical cholinergic responses such as hypothermia, hypoactivity, tremor, and salivation were enhanced in GRK5-KO animals. The antinociceptive effect of oxotremorine was also potentiated and prolonged. Muscarinic receptors in brains from GRK5-KO mice resisted oxotremorine-induced desensitization, as assessed by oxotremorine-stimulated [5S]GTPgammaS binding. These data demonstrate that elimination of GRK5 results in cholinergic supersensitivity and impaired muscarinic receptor desensitization and suggest that a deficit of GPCR desensitization may be an underlying cause of behavioral supersensitivity.

  16. Voltage quality: solutions of desensitization; Qualite de la tension: les solutions de desensibilisation

    Anon.

    1999-10-01

    The occurrence of voltage drops and cuts can lead to major malfunctions in electrical installations with sometimes important economical impacts. Thus, the use of solutions of desensitization are needed to avoid such disturbances. This technical paper gives a summary of the basic solutions elaborated by Electricite de France (EdF) with the participation of electrical engineering associations in order to solve the problems encountered in existing installations and to provide specifications for the newly designed installations: the desensitization process (origin of voltage drops, solutions, costs), the diagnosis of industrial installations (identification, quantitative analysis and recording of disturbances, complementary informations, causes, economical impact, solutions, costs, remedial action), the general and specific solutions of desensitization (instrumentation and control systems, switches, relays, motors, speed regulators and variators), specific solutions for computerized and electronic systems, and the role of batteries. (J.S.)

  17. Aspirin allergy desensitization in cerebrovascular disease. A report of two cases, literature review and management guide for the neurointerventionalist.

    Zuckerman, Scott L; Seder, David B; Tsujiura, Crystiana; Cushing, Deborah; Gallup, Holly; Mocco, J; Hanel, Richard A; Ecker, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is the mainstay of treatment in cerebrovascular and systemic vascular disease. ASA hypersensitivity can pose a challenge to achieving optimum medical management prior to and after neurointerventional treatment. Desensitization to ASA is well described in the allergy and cardiovascular literature, but there are no similar discussions specific to neurointervention. The purpose of our study was to describe our experience with ASA hypersensitivity management and review the relevant literature. Two cases of patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular disease requiring neurointervention who were successfully desensitized to their ASA hypersensitivity prior to treatment are described. The subsequent literature is reviewed. Several ASA desensitization protocols exist and have been proven to successfully treat ASA hypersensitivity and allow for ASA therapy to be safely initiated. We describe several previously published protocols. ASA desensitization is a safe and simple way to manage ASA hypersensitivity. We provide comprehensive management guidelines for the neurointerventionalist engaging in ASA desensitization.

  18. Evaluation of shear bond strength of metal bracket to enamel after application of primers over bracket base-an in vitro study

    Firuzbakht MM

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of application of two types of primers over bracket bases on the shear bond strength (SBS and mode of bond failure."nMaterials and Methods: In this study, 75 human premolar teeth were divided into three equal groups. In group 1 (control, after surface preparation of enamel by conventional method (acid etching+primer brackets were bonded with Transbond XT composite. In group 2 (TX, brackets were bonded to enamel same as the first group but Transbond XT primer were used on bracket bases before placement of composite. In group 3 (PL, Transbond plus primer was applied on bracket bases before placement of composite. After 24 h, the SBS test was performed by universal testing machine at crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Then, adhesive remnant index (ARI scores and percentage of cohesive fracture were determined using stereomicroscopy. SBS data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Duncan tests. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to analyze ARI and cohesive fracture results."nResults: There was significant difference in SBS values among the groups (P<0.001. The highest SBS was shown in TX group and the lowest was seen in PL group. There was no significant difference between control and TX groups in ARI scores (P=0.199. No significant difference was found in cohesive fracture values between the groups (P=0.093. Both the control and TX groups showed significant difference in ARI scores and cohesive fracture compared with the PL group in all of the comparisons (P<0.001."nConclusion: Application of Transbond XT primer over bracket base affects the bond strength and failure mode. Transbond XT primer increased the bond strength but Transbond plus primer decreased it.

  19. A multi-center randomized controlled trial to compare a self-ligating bracket with a conventional bracket in a UK population: Part 1: Treatment efficiency.

    O'Dywer, Lian; Littlewood, Simon J; Rahman, Shahla; Spencer, R James; Barber, Sophy K; Russell, Joanne S

    2016-01-01

    To use a two-arm parallel trial to compare treatment efficiency between a self-ligating and a conventional preadjusted edgewise appliance system. A prospective multi-center randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in three hospital orthodontic departments. Subjects were randomly allocated to receive treatment with either a self-ligating (3M SmartClip) or conventional (3M Victory) preadjusted edgewise appliance bracket system using a computer-generated random sequence concealed in opaque envelopes, with stratification for operator and center. Two operators followed a standardized protocol regarding bracket bonding procedure and archwire sequence. Efficiency of each ligation system was assessed by comparing the duration of treatment (months), total number of appointments (scheduled and emergency visits), and number of bracket bond failures. One hundred thirty-eight subjects (mean age 14 years 11 months) were enrolled in the study, of which 135 subjects (97.8%) completed treatment. The mean treatment time and number of visits were 25.12 months and 19.97 visits in the SmartClip group and 25.80 months and 20.37 visits in the Victory group. The overall bond failure rate was 6.6% for the SmartClip and 7.2% for Victory, with a similar debond distribution between the two appliances. No significant differences were found between the bracket systems in any of the outcome measures. No serious harm was observed from either bracket system. There was no clinically significant difference in treatment efficiency between treatment with a self-ligating bracket system and a conventional ligation system.

  20. Investigation into the effects of stainless steel ligature ties on the mechanical characteristics of conventional and self-ligated brackets subjected to torque.

    Al Fakir, Hussam; Carey, Jason P; Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Heo, Giseon; Major, Paul W

    2014-09-01

    Torque is applied to orthodontic brackets in order to alter the buccal-lingual angulation of a tooth. One factor that can affect torque is the ligation mode used to retain the archwire in the bracket slot. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of stainless steel ligation on torque expression and bracket deformation. This study utilized 60 upper right central incisor Damon Q brackets and 60 Ormco Orthos Twin brackets. The brackets used in this study were subdivided into four groups: (1) Damon Q ligated with SS ligature; (2) Damon Q with the sliding bracket door; (3) Orthos Twin bracket ligated with SS wire; and (4) Orthos Twin ligated with elastic ties. All brackets were tested using an orthodontic torque simulating device that applied archwire rotation from 0° to 45°. All brackets ligated with stainless steel ties exhibited greater torque expression and less deformation than brackets without stainless steel ties. As well, Damon Q brackets exhibit less bracket deformation than Orthos Twin brackets. Stainless steel ties can reduce the amount of plastic deformation for both types of brackets used in this study. © 2014 British Orthodontic Society.

  1. An orthodontic bracket embedded in the medial pterygoid surface: a case report.

    Wilmott, Sheryl E; Ikeagwuani, Okechukwu; McLeod, Niall M H

    2016-03-01

    There is a potential risk that orthodontic brackets can become dislodged into the aerodigestive tract. This case illustrates the management of an orthodontic bracket, which became embedded in the deep tissues of the oropharynx. We aim to highlight the potential risk misplaced dental instruments and materials pose, including that they may become embedded in the soft tissues of the throat and suggest that that this possibility should be considered when they cannot be localized.

  2. Biocompatibility of nanosilver-coated orthodontic brackets: an in vivo study.

    Metin-Gürsoy, Gamze; Taner, Lale; Barış, Emre

    2016-12-01

    Nanosilver particles of which antibacterial and antifungal properties have been shown in various in vitro and in vivo studies are used in many medical and dental fields for the prevention of infection. In this study, it is intended to evaluate the biocompatibility of nanosilver-coated brackets. Nanosilver coating process was applied to the standard orthodontic brackets by a physical vapor deposition system. Brackets were coated with nanosilver particles of 1 μ thickness. A total of 12 Wistar Albino rats were included in the study (six) and control (six) groups. For the study and control groups, four nanosilver-coated and four standard brackets were aseptically implanted subcutaneously in the dorsal region of each rat. The brackets were removed with the surrounding tissues on days 7, 14, 30, and 60. The specimens were evaluated for inflammatory response. No significant difference was found in terms of tissue reaction between the study and control groups. On day 7, randomly distributed brown-black granules were seen in the granulation tissue adjacent to the bracket in the study group. These foreign particles continued along the bracket cavity in a few samples, but the inflammatory response was insignificant between the groups. Mast cell count was found to be significantly smaller only on day 7 in the study group than in the control group. Nanosilver-coated orthodontic brackets were found to be similar with the standard type concerning inflammation. Further researches are needed with regard to the assessment of the brown-black granules, especially on the deposition of the vessel walls.

  3. Intrapulpal Temperature Increase During Er:YAG Laser-Aided Debonding of Ceramic Brackets.

    Yilanci, Hilal; Yildirim, Zeynep Beyza; Ramoglu, Sabri Ilhan

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature changes in the pulp chamber while using a newly introduced application of Er:YAG laser to debond ceramic brackets in a study model with a pulpal circulation with and without thermocycled samples. An esthetic alternative to stainless steel brackets, ceramic brackets have been proposed. However, because of their low fracture resistance and high bond strengths, ceramic brackets can cause a problem when they are being removed using conventional techniques. Experimental Groups A and B were established for samples with or without thermocycling. The same 20 maxillary central incisor and 20 premolar teeth were used in both groups. Pulpal blood microcirculation was simulated using an apparatus described in a previous study. Monocrystalline brackets were bonded by using Transbond XT. In Group A, brackets were debonded using the Er:YAG laser (600 mJ, 2 Hz, long pulse, and no air or water spray) after being stored in distilled water for 24 h. In Group B, brackets were debonded using the same laser system as that used in Group A after being stored in distilled water for 24 h and then thermocycled for a total of 5000 cycles between 5°C and 55°C. The laser irradiation duration and intrapulpal temperature changes were measured. In Group B, the intrapulpal temperature increase of the central incisors was significantly higher than that of the premolar teeth. In the central incisor and premolar teeth groups, there were no statistically significant difference between Groups A and B (p > 0.05). A positive correlation was found between laser irradiation duration and temperature increase (p brackets. This method can be used safely under the consideration of intrapulpal temperature changes.

  4. Normal forms of dispersive scalar Poisson brackets with two independent variables

    Carlet, Guido; Casati, Matteo; Shadrin, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    We classify the dispersive Poisson brackets with one dependent variable and two independent variables, with leading order of hydrodynamic type, up to Miura transformations. We show that, in contrast to the case of a single independent variable for which a well-known triviality result exists, the Miura equivalence classes are parametrised by an infinite number of constants, which we call numerical invariants of the brackets. We obtain explicit formulas for the first few numerical invariants.

  5. Fluoride releasing and enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets by fluoride-releasing composite containing nanoparticles.

    Melo, Mary A S; Morais, Weslanny A; Passos, Vanara F; Lima, Juliana P M; Rodrigues, Lidiany K A

    2014-05-01

    Fluoride-containing materials have been suggested to control enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets during the treatment with fixed appliances. The improvement of their properties has been made through innovations, such as the application of nanotechnology by incorporation of nanofillers. This in vitro study evaluated the capacity of fluoride releasing and enamel demineralization inhibition of fluoride-releasing nanofilled cement around orthodontic brackets using an artificial caries biofilm model. Forty bovine enamel discs were selected by evaluating surface microhardness and randomized into four groups (n = 10): non-fluoride-releasing microfilled composite, fluoride-releasing microfilled composite, resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGI), and fluoride-releasing nanofilled composite (FN). After brackets bonding in each disc, the specimens were subjected to a cariogenic challenge through a Streptococcus mutans biofilm model. After the experimental period, the biofilm formed around the brackets was collected for fluoride analysis and the mineral loss around the brackets was determined by integrated demineralization via cross-sectional microhardness measurement at 20 and 70 μm from the bracket margin. Additionally, samples of each group were subjected to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis examined under a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). ANOVA followed by Tukey test were applied for fluoride concentration and mineral loss data, respectively. At both distances, only RMGI statistically differed from the other groups presenting the lowest demineralization, although there was a trend to a lower demineralization of enamel around brackets in FN group. Similar condition was found to fluoride concentration and EDX/SEM analysis. Under the cariogenic exposure condition of this study, the fluoride-releasing nanofilled material had similar performance to fluoride-releasing microfilled materials. The presence of nanofillers in the fluoride

  6. Clinical effects of pre-adjusted edgewise orthodontic brackets: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Konstantinidis, Ioannis; Papadopoulou, Konstantina; Jäger, Andreas; Bourauel, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    Fixed-appliance treatment is a major part of orthodontic treatment, but clinical evidence remains scarce. Objective of this systematic review was to investigate how the therapeutic effects and side-effects of brackets used during the fixed-appliance orthodontic treatment are affected by their characteristics. SEARCH METHODS AND SELECTION CRITERIA: We searched MEDLINE and 18 other databases through April 2012 without restrictions for randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized controlled trials investigating any bracket characteristic. After duplicate selection and extraction procedures, risk of bias was assessed also in duplicate according to Cochrane guidelines and quality of evidence according to the Grades of Recommendation. Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Random-effects meta-analyses, subgroup analyses, and sensitivity analyses were performed with the corresponding 95 per cent confidence intervals (CI) and 95 per cent prediction intervals (PI). We included 25 trials on 1321 patients, with most comparing self-ligated (SL) and conventional brackets. Based on the meta-analyses, the duration of orthodontic treatment was on average 2.01 months longer among patients with SL brackets (95 per cent CI: 0.45 to 3.57). The 95 per cent PIs for a future trial indicated that the difference could be considerable (-1.46 to 5.47 months). Treatment characteristics, outcomes, and side-effects were clinically similar between SL and conventional brackets. For most bracket characteristics, evidence is insufficient. Some meta-analyses included trials with high risk of bias, but sensitivity analyses indicated robustness. Based on existing evidence, no clinical recommendation can be made regarding the bracket material or different ligation modules. For SL brackets, no conclusive benefits could be proven, while their use was associated with longer treatment durations.

  7. Biocompatibility of nanosilver-coated orthodontic brackets: an in vivo study

    Gamze Metin-Gürsoy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanosilver particles of which antibacterial and antifungal properties have been shown in various in vitro and in vivo studies are used in many medical and dental fields for the prevention of infection. In this study, it is intended to evaluate the biocompatibility of nanosilver-coated brackets. Methods Nanosilver coating process was applied to the standard orthodontic brackets by a physical vapor deposition system. Brackets were coated with nanosilver particles of 1 μ thickness. A total of 12 Wistar Albino rats were included in the study (six and control (six groups. For the study and control groups, four nanosilver-coated and four standard brackets were aseptically implanted subcutaneously in the dorsal region of each rat. The brackets were removed with the surrounding tissues on days 7, 14, 30, and 60. The specimens were evaluated for inflammatory response. Results No significant difference was found in terms of tissue reaction between the study and control groups. On day 7, randomly distributed brown-black granules were seen in the granulation tissue adjacent to the bracket in the study group. These foreign particles continued along the bracket cavity in a few samples, but the inflammatory response was insignificant between the groups. Mast cell count was found to be significantly smaller only on day 7 in the study group than in the control group. Conclusions Nanosilver-coated orthodontic brackets were found to be similar with the standard type concerning inflammation. Further researches are needed with regard to the assessment of the brown-black granules, especially on the deposition of the vessel walls.

  8. Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Bonded with Nano-Filled Composites

    Chalipa, Javad; Akhondi, Mohammad Sadegh Ahmad; Arab, Sepideh; Kharrazifard, Mohammad Javad; Ahmadyar, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets bonded with two types of nano-composites in comparison to a conventional orthodontic composite. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human first premolars were randomly divided into 3 groups each containing 20 teeth. In group I, a conventional orthodontic composite (Transbond XT) was used to bond the brackets, while two nano-composites (Filtek TM Supreme XT and AELITE Aesthetic Enamel...

  9. Effect of Adhesive Type on the Shear Bond Strength of Metal Brackets to Two Ceramic Substrates

    Mohammad Sadegh Ahmad Akhoundi; Farzaneh Aghajani; Javad Chalipa; Amir Hooman Sadrhaghighi

    2014-01-01

    Increased number of adult patients requesting orthodontic treatment result in bonding bracket to ceramic restorations more than before. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to two types of ceramic bases with conventional orthodontic bonding resin and a new nano-filled composite resin.Twenty four feldespathic porcelain and 24 lithium disilicate ceramic disks were fabricated. All of the samples were conditioned by sandblasting,...

  10. Comparison between two methods for resin removing after bracket debonding

    Rodrigo De Marchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess - using scanning electron microscopy (SEM - the effectiveness of two abrasive discs, one made from silicon and one from aluminum oxide, in removing adhesive remnants (AR after debonding orthodontic brackets. METHODS: Ten randomly selected bovine teeth were used, i.e., 2 in the control group, and the other 8 divided into two groups, which had orthodontic brackets bonded to their surface with Concise Orthodontic Adhesive (3M. The following methods were employed - in one single step - to remove AR after debracketing: Group A, Optimize discs (TDV and Group B, Onegloss discs (Shofu, used at low speed. After removing the AR with the aforementioned methods, the teeth were prepared to undergo SEM analysis, and photographs were taken of the enamel surface with 50x magnification. Six examiners evaluated the photographs applying the Zachrisson and Årtun enamel surface index (ESI system (1979. RESULTS: Group A exhibited minor scratches on the enamel surface as well as some AR in some of the photographs, while Group B showed a smoother surface, little or no AR and some abrasion marks in the photographs. No statistically significant differences were found between the two methods and the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The two abrasive discs were effective in removing the AR after bracket debonding in one single step.OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por microscopia eletrônica de varredura, a eficácia de dois discos abrasivos de silicone e óxido de alumínio para a remoção da resina remanescente após a descolagem de braquetes ortodônticos. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 10 dentes bovinos selecionados aleatoriamente, sendo 2 para o grupo controle e os demais divididos em dois grupos, os quais receberam colagem de braquetes ortodônticos com resina ortodôntica Concise (3M. Os métodos de remoção da resina após a descolagem dos acessórios ortodônticos em apenas uma etapa foram: Grupo A - disco

  11. Receptor downregulation and desensitization enhance the information processing ability of signalling receptors

    Resat Haluk

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to initiating signaling events, the activation of cell surface receptors also triggers regulatory processes that restrict the duration of signaling. Acute attenuation of signaling can be accomplished either via ligand-induced internalization of receptors (endocytic downregulation or via ligand-induced receptor desensitization. These phenomena have traditionally been viewed in the context of adaptation wherein the receptor system enters a refractory state in the presence of sustained ligand stimuli and thereby prevents the cell from over-responding to the ligand. Here we use the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR as model systems to respectively examine the effects of downregulation and desensitization on the ability of signaling receptors to decode time-varying ligand stimuli. Results Using a mathematical model, we show that downregulation and desensitization mechanisms can lead to tight and efficient input-output coupling thereby ensuring synchronous processing of ligand inputs. Frequency response analysis indicates that upstream elements of the EGFR and GPCR networks behave like low-pass filters with the system being able to faithfully transduce inputs below a critical frequency. Receptor downregulation and desensitization increase the filter bandwidth thereby enabling the receptor systems to decode inputs in a wider frequency range. Further, system-theoretic analysis reveals that the receptor systems are analogous to classical mechanical over-damped systems. This analogy enables us to metaphorically describe downregulation and desensitization as phenomena that make the systems more resilient in responding to ligand perturbations thereby improving the stability of the system resting state. Conclusion Our findings suggest that in addition to serving as mechanisms for adaptation, receptor downregulation and desensitization can play a critical role in temporal information

  12. Desensitization Protocol in Recipients of Deceased Kidney Donor With Donor-Specific Antibody-Low Titers.

    Kanter Berga, J; Sancho Calabuig, A; Gavela Martinez, E; Puig Alcaraz, N; Avila Bernabeu, A; Crespo Albiach, J; Molina Vila, P; Beltrán Catalan, S; Pallardó Mateu, L

    2016-11-01

    Kidney transplantation is the better option for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but for patients with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) sensitization, the wait times are significantly longer than for patients without antibodies. Many desensitization protocols have been described involving strong immunosuppression, the use of apheresis, and B-cell-modulating therapies. We have designed a desensitization protocol from day 0 for deceased donor kidney transplantation. Our aim was to present our initial experience with five kidney transplant patients. All patients had a negative complement-dependent cytotoxicity cross-match. The desensitization protocol included five to seven doses of thymoglobulin (1.25 mg/kg) and three sessions of plasmapheresis (PP) within the first week after transplantation, with intravenous immunoglobulin (500 mg/kg) after each PP session and one dose of rituximab on day 8. The presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) was analyzed by use of Luminex technology; levels between 1000 and 3000 mean fluorescence intensity were considered for desensitization. The median age was 44 years and median renal replacement therapy time was 9 years. All recipients presented 1 to 3 DSA specificities. There were no severe side effects related to PP, infusion of intravenous immunoglobulin, or rituximab. The median follow-up period was 19.3 months. Median serum creatinine level at last follow-up was 1.7 mg/dL. A kidney biopsy was performed in all patients. Graft and patient survival was 100%. Until now, few data are available concerning whether HLA-incompatible kidney transplantation after desensitization would benefit patients with ERSD. The desensitization strategy using the combination of PP, low doses of intravenous immunoglobulin, and rituximab at our center resulted in a satisfactory clinical outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Desensitization to ceftaroline in a patient with multiple medication hypersensitivity reactions.

    Jones, Justin M; Richter, Lisa M; Alonto, Augusto; Leedahl, David D

    2015-02-01

    The case of a patient with multiple medication hypersensitivity reactions and a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection who underwent desensitization to ceftaroline is reported. A 32-year-old Caucasian woman with asthma, gastroesophageal reflux disease, heart murmur, and major depression was admitted for MRSA cellulitis with a subcutaneous abscess along the left sternomanubrial joint and clavicular osteomyelitis secondary to port placement after gastric bypass surgery. The patient had an extensive history of hypersensitivity reactions. Pertinent documented allergies were as follows: penicillin (anaphylaxis), daptomycin (anaphylaxis), vancomycin (hives), linezolid (hives), ertapenem (rash), ciprofloxacin (rash), and tigecycline (rash). The patient also reported previous reactions to aztreonam (unknown) and gentamicin (hives). The pharmacy was consulted to develop a desensitization protocol for ceftaroline. The desensitization protocol used three serial dilutions of ceftaroline to make 14 sequential infusions with escalating doses. Intramuscular epinephrine, i.v. diphenhydramine, and i.v. methylprednisolone were ordered as needed for the development of immediate hypersensitivity reactions during or after administration of ceftaroline. The cumulative dose (574.94 mg) was administered intravenously over 225 minutes with no breakthrough symptoms reported during or after the desensitization protocol. Ceftaroline fosamil 600 mg i.v. every 12 hours was continued for six weeks. Desensitization to ceftaroline was conducted for a patient with extensive history of hypersensitivity reactions to other drugs, including penicillin-induced anaphylaxis. Desensitization and subsequent treatment with full doses of ceftaroline were accomplished without apparent adverse effects. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Kidney transplantation after desensitization in sensitized patients: a Korean National Audit.

    Huh, Kyu Ha; Kim, Beom Seok; Yang, Jaeseok; Ahn, Jeongmyung; Kim, Myung-Gyu; Park, Jae Berm; Kim, Jong Man; Chung, Byung-Ha; Kim, Joong Kyung; Kong, Jin Min

    2012-10-01

    The number of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with preformed antibodies waiting for a kidney transplant has been increasing lately. We conducted a nationwide study on the outcomes of kidney transplantation after desensitization in Korea. Six transplant centers have run desensitization programs. The patients who underwent living donor kidney transplantation after desensitization from 2002 to 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 86 cases were enrolled. Thirty-five of these were cases of re-transplantation (40.7 %). Indications of desensitization were positive complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) cross-match responses (CDC(+), 36.0 %), positive flow-cytometric cross-match responses (FCX(+), 54.7 %), and positive donor-specific antibodies (DSA(+), 8.1 %). The desensitization protocols used pre-transplant plasmapheresis (95.3 %), intravenous immunoglobulin (62.8 %), and rituximab (67.4 %). Acute rejection occurred in 18 patients (20.9 %), graft failure occurred in 4 patients, and the 3-year graft survival rate was 93.8 %. The presence of DSA increased the acute rejection rate (P = 0.015) and decreased the 1-year post-transplant estimated glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.006). Although rejection-free survival rates did not differ significantly between the CDC(+) and FCX(+) groups, the 1-year estimated glomerular filtration rate was lower in the CDC(+) group (P = 0.010). Infectious and significant bleeding complications occurred in 15.5 % and 4.7 % of cases, respectively. Kidney transplantation after desensitization had good graft outcomes and tolerable complications in Korea, and therefore, this therapy can be recommended for sensitized ESRD patients.

  15. Evaluation of Static Friction of Polycrystalline Ceramic Brackets after Conditioning with Different Powers of Er:YAG Laser.

    Arash, Valiollah; Javanmard, Saeed; Eftekhari, Zeinab; Rahmati-Kamel, Manouchehr; Bahadoram, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to reduce the friction between the wire and brackets by Er:YAG laser. To measure the friction between the wires and brackets in 0° and 10° of wire angulations, 40 polycrystalline ceramic brackets (Hubit, South Korea) were divided into 8 study groups and irradiated by 100, 200, and 300 mj/s of Er:YAG laser power. Two groups of brackets were not irradiated. The friction between the wires and brackets was measured with universal testing machine (SANTAM) with a segment of .019 × .025 SS wire pulled out of the slot of bracket. ANOVA and t-test were used for analyzing the results. To evaluate the effect of the laser on surface morphology of the bracket, SEM evaluations were carried out. The mean frictional resistances between the brackets and wires with 0° of angulation by increasing the laser power decreased compared with control group, but, in 10° of angulation, the friction increased regardless of the laser power and was comparable to the friction of nonirradiated brackets. Furthermore, with each laser power, frictional resistance of brackets in 10° of angulation was significantly higher than 0° of angulation. These results were explained by SEM images too.

  16. Translucency and color match with a shade guide of esthetic brackets with the aid of a spectroradiometer.

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Bin, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Since the color of esthetic brackets should match that of teeth, the aims of this study were to determine the color and translucency of esthetic brackets by means of the clinically relevant use of a spectroradiometer, and to compare the color of brackets with that of a commercial shade guide. The color of central and tie-wing regions of four plastic and four ceramic brackets was measured according to the CIE L*a*b* color scale over white and black backgrounds. Brackets were classified into five groups based on their composition. The color of Vitapan Classical Shade Guide tabs was also measured. Translucency parameter (TP) and contrast ratio (CR) were calculated to determine translucency. Color differences between brackets and the shade guide tabs were 10.4 - 34.5 ∆E*ab units. TP and CR values for the central region were 16.4 - 27.7 and 0.38 - 0.58, whereas for the tie-wings they were 24.0 - 39.9 and 0.25 - 0.45, respectively. The color coordinates, TP and CR values were significantly influenced by bracket composition and brand (p brackets investigated herein showed unacceptable color differences (∆E*ab > 5.5) compared with the shade guide tabs. Differences in the translucency of brackets by brand were within the visually perceptible range (∆CR > 0.07). Therefore, brackets showing the best matching performance for each case should be selected considering esthetic and functional demands.

  17. Effects of different desensitizing treatments on root dentin permeability

    Raydsa Raíssa Moura ROSA

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of diode laser and a desensitizing dentifrice on dentin permeability. Fifty-two root dentin fragments were obtained (5 × 5mm and treated with 24% EDTA gel. The samples were divided into 4 groups (n = 13: G1, control (no treatment; G2, diode laser (λ = 908 nm, 1.5 W, continuous mode, 20s; G3, application of abrasive dentifrice for 1 minute (Elmex Sensitive Professional (International Gaba; and G4, application of abrasive dentifrice for 1 minute followed by irradiation with diode laser. Ten samples per group were immersed in 2% methylene blue solution for 4h. The specimens were washed, longitudinally sectioned, observed under optical microscopy, photographed and assessed based on the degree of dye leakage. The remaining samples were observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The leakage data were subjected to ANOVA test, followed by Tukey’s t-test (α = 5%. Groups 2, 3 and 4 showed less dye penetration than the control group (p < 0.05, but were similar among each other. SEM images showed that dentinal tubules were open in G1, and fused and occluded in G2. Group 3 showed dentinal tubules that were occluded by the metal ions from the toothpaste. G4 presented similar characteristics to G3, and the presence of fused dentin. The diode laser and the dentifrice were effective in reducing dentinal permeability, and the combination of the two treatments did not show better results than either one used alone.

  18. The oral food desensitization in the Italian allergy centres.

    Meglio, P; Caminiti, L; Pajno, G B; Dello Iacono, I; Tripodi, S; Verga, M C; Martelli, A

    2015-05-01

    Attempts aimed at inducing food tolerance through oral food desensitization (OFD) for the treatment of IgE-mediated food allergies are increasing. In Italy, a number of allergy centres offer this procedure. To collect information on how these centres are organized, how patients are selected, the methods used to administer OFD and how adverse reactions are managed. A questionnaire was e-mailed to all the Italian allergy centres offering OFD. The survey shows a high degree of variability between centres. A correct diagnosis of food allergy is crucial for selecting patients for OFD. In the Italian allergy centres, oral food challenges are mostly open label (84%), but in 16% of cases they are single-blind (8%) or double-blind (8%). A high proportion of allergy centres (83%) offer OFD to children presenting forms of anaphylaxis triggered by traces--or very low doses--of food allergen. The majority of allergy centres (76%) enroll patients over 3 years of age, with 44% enrolling patients above the age of 5. Not-controlled asthma, unreliability of parents in the management of OFD and/or risk of adverse events, are the main reasons for exclusion from the procedure. Although OFD may sometimes be successful and may be considered a valid alternative to an elimination diet, further randomized controlled trials are needed, in order to clarify some controversial points, such as the characteristics of the child undergoing OFD, and the methods of food preparation and administration. Moreover, further studies should further investigate OFD safety, efficacy and costs.

  19. Pomalidomide desensitization in a patient hypersensitive to immunomodulating agents

    Seki, J.T.; Sakurai, N.; Lam, W.; Reece, D.E.

    2017-01-01

    Despite progressive treatments with tandem stem-cell transplantation, patients with incurable myeloma eventually succumb to relapsed or refractory disease if left untreated. Promising agents such as proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulating imide drugs (imids), including the newer-generation agent pomalidomide, in combination with lower-dose dexamethasone, have been shown to be effective and to significantly improve and prolong survival in pretreated patients. Although the incidence of pomalidomide hypersensitivity reaction (hsr) in this class of drugs is not as well known, we have documented cutaneous toxicity (grade 3 by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4) in 2 separate cases (not yet published). Because the imids are chemically, structurally, and pharmacologically similar, it is not unreasonable to consider possible cross-reactivity in pomalidomide recipients who developed hsr when receiving previous lines of imids. As a patient’s advocate, it is only prudent to provide a responsible, and yet practical, means to better address cross-sensitivity for patients. Intervention with the use of a rapid desensitization program (rdp) as a preventive measure should be introduced before initiating pomalidomide. Such a proactive measure for the patient’s safety will ensure a smooth transition into pomalidomide treatment. A hsr can be either related or non-related to immunoglobulin E. As imids become an essential treatment backbone for myeloma and other plasma-cell diseases, an increasing number of patients could experience skin and other life-threatening toxicities, resulting in unnecessary discontinuation of these life-prolonging agents. An extemporaneously prepared pomalidomide suspension developed at our centre enables patients to undergo rdp safely. Patients enjoy a good quality of life and clinical response after the rdp procedure. PMID:28874903

  20. Influence of ligation method on friction resistance of lingual brackets with different second-order angulations: an in vitro study.

    Pereira, Graziane Olímpio; Gimenez, Carla Maria Melleiro; Prieto, Lucas; Prieto, Marcos Gabriel do Lago; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate stainless steel archwire static friction in active and passive self-ligating lingual and conventional brackets with second-order angulations. Two conventional lingual brackets for canines (STb light/Ormco; PSWb/Tecnident), and two self-ligating brackets, one active (In-Ovation L/GAC) and the other passive (3D/ Forestadent), were evaluated. A stainless steel archwire was used at 0°, 3° and 5° angulations. Metal ligatures, conventional elastic ligatures, and low friction elastic ligatures were also tested. A universal testing machine applied friction between brackets and wires, simulating sliding mechanics, to produce 2-mm sliding at 3 mm/minute speed. Two-way analysis of variance demonstrated a significant effect of the interaction between brackets and angulations (p frictional resistance values were observed at 5° angulation for In-Ovation L, PSWb bracket with non conventional ligature, and STb bracket with metal ligature. As for 3D, PSWb with conventional or metal ligatures, and STb brackets with non conventional ligature, showed significantly lower static frictional resistance with 0° angulation. At 0° angulation, STb brackets with metal ties, In-Ovation L brackets and 3D brackets had the lowest frictional resistance. As the angulation increased from 0° to 3°, static friction resistance increased. When angulation increased from 3° to 5°, static friction resistance increased or remained the same. Self-ligating 3D and In-Ovation L brackets, as well as conventional STb brackets, seem to be the best option when sliding mechanics is used to perform lingual orthodontic treatment.

  1. Comparison of static friction with self-ligating, modified slot design and conventional brackets.

    Castro, Raquel Morais; Neto, Perrin Smith; Horta, Martinho Campolina Rebello; Pithon, Matheus Melo; Oliveira, Dauro Douglas

    2013-01-01

    To compare the static frictional forces generated at the bracket/wire interface of stainless steel brackets with different geometries and angulations, combined with orthodontic wires of different diameters. The frictional forces were evaluated with three different types of metal brackets: a passive self-ligating (SmartClipTM, 3M/Unitek, Monrovia, USA), with a modified slot design (Mini Uni TwinTM, 3M/Unitek, Monrovia, USA) and conventional (Kirium, Abzil, São José do Rio Preto, Brazil). The samples were mounted in a testing device with three different angulations and tested with 0.014" and 0.018" stainless steel wires (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, USA). The static frictional force was measured using a universal testing machine (DL 500, EMIC®, São José dos Pinhais, Brazil) with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Statistical analysis was performed by two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's post hoc test. There was a significant difference (pstatic friction when the three types of brackets were tested with the same wire size. The wire diameter influenced friction only when the brackets had a 10º angulation (pfriction (pstatic frictional force values between the conventional and self-ligating brackets tested.

  2. Elemental, microstructural, and mechanical characterization of high gold orthodontic brackets after intraoral aging.

    Hersche, Sepp; Sifakakis, Iosif; Zinelis, Spiros; Eliades, Theodore

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the elemental composition, the microstructure, and the selected mechanical properties of high gold orthodontic brackets after intraoral aging. Thirty Incognito™ (3M Unitek, Bad Essen, Germany) lingual brackets were studied, 15 brackets as received (control group) and 15 brackets retrieved from different patients after orthodontic treatment. The surface of the wing area was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Backscattered electron imaging (BEI) was performed, and the elemental composition was determined by X-ray EDS analysis (EDX). After appropriate metallographic preparation, the mechanical properties tested were Martens hardness (HM), indentation modulus (EIT), elastic index (ηIT), and Vickers hardness (HV). These properties were determined employing instrumented indentation testing (IIT) with a Vickers indenter. The results were statistically analyzed by unpaired t-test (α=0.05). There were no statistically significant differences evidenced in surface morphology and elemental content between the control and the experimental group. These two groups of brackets showed no statistically significant difference in surface morphology. Moreover, the mean values of HM, EIT, ηIT, and HV did not reach statistical significance between the groups (p>0.05). Under the limitations of this study, it may be concluded that the surface elemental content and microstructure as well as the evaluated mechanical properties of the Incognito™ lingual brackets remain unaffected by intraoral aging.

  3. Effects of chlorhexidine (gel) application on bacterial levels and orthodontic brackets during orthodontic treatment.

    Al-Bazi, Samar M; Abbassy, Mona A; Bakry, Ahmed S; Merdad, Leena A; Hassan, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of applying 0.50% chlorhexidine (CHX) gel using the dental drug delivery system (3DS) on salivary Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and on the surface topography of metal and ceramic orthodontic brackets. The study involved 20 orthodontic patients with high levels of salivary S. mutans. The patients were treated with professional mechanical tooth cleaning followed by application of 0.50% CHX using individual trays (3DS). Salivary S. mutans levels were repeatedly measured 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-treatment. In vitro study utilized forty ceramic and metallic brackets that were immersed in 0.50% CHX gel for 10 min, whereas another untreated forty brackets served as controls. The frictional resistances of stainless steel wires to the brackets before and after CHX treatment were recorded using a universal testing machine. Scanning electron microscopy was used to compare changes in the surface topography of brackets. Statistical analyses were used to determine the effect of CHX on bacterial count and to evaluate the effect of CHX on frictional resistance. According to the results of this study, S. mutans levels were reduced significantly (P brackets before or after application of CHX. (J Oral Sci 58, 35-42, 2016).

  4. Comparison of Shear Bond Strength of RMGI and Composite Resin for Orthodontic Bracket Bonding

    Yassaei, Soghra; Davari, Abdolrahim; Goldani Moghadam, Mahjobeh; Kamaei, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of resin modified glass ionomer (RMGI) and composite resin for bonding metal and ceramic brackets. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight human premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes were divided into 4 groups (n=22). In groups 1 and 2, 22 metal and ceramic brackets were bonded using composite resin (Transbond XT), respectively. Twenty-two metal and ceramic brackets in groups 3 and 4, respectively were bonded using RMGI (Fuji Ortho LC, Japan). After photo polymerization, the teeth were stored in water and thermocycled (500 cycles between 5° and 55°). The SBS value of each sample was determined using a Universal Testing Machine. The amount of residual adhesive remaining on each tooth was evaluated under a stereomicroscope. Statistical analyses were done using two-way ANOVA. Results: RMGI bonded brackets had significantly lower SBS value compared to composite resin bonded groups. No statistically significant difference was observed between metal and ceramic brackets bonded with either the RMGI or composite resin. The comparison of the adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores between the groups indicated that the bracket failure mode was significantly different among groups (Porthodontic bonding purposes; however the provided SBS is still within the clinically acceptable range. PMID:25628663

  5. Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets and disinclusion buttons: effect of water and saliva contamination.

    Sfondrini, Maria Francesca; Fraticelli, Danilo; Gandini, Paola; Scribante, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of water and saliva contamination on the shear bond strength and failure site of orthodontic brackets and lingual buttons. 120 bovine permanent mandibular incisors were randomly divided into 6 groups of 20 specimens each. Both orthodontic brackets and disinclusion buttons were tested under three different enamel surface conditions: (a) dry, (b) water contamination, and (c) saliva contamination. Brackets and buttons were bonded to the teeth and subsequently tested using a Instron universal testing machine. Shear bond strength values and adhesive failure rate were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey tests (strength values) and Chi squared test (ARI Scores). Noncontaminated enamel surfaces showed the highest bond strengths for both brackets and buttons. Under water and saliva contamination orthodontic brackets groups showed significantly lower shear strengths than disinclusion buttons groups. Significant differences in debond locations were found among the groups under the various enamel surface conditions. Water and saliva contamination of enamel during the bonding procedure lowers bond strength values, more with orthodontic brackets than with disinclusion buttons.

  6. In vitro evaluation of microleakage under orthodontic brackets bonded with different adhesive systems.

    Atash, Ramin; Fneiche, Ali; Cetik, Sibel; Bahrami, Babak; Balon-Perin, Alain; Orellana, Maria; Glineur, Régine

    2017-01-01

    Adhesives systems have a drawback when utilized for bonding orthodontic brackets: they shrink during photopolymerization creating microleakage. The aim of this study was to assess the stability of different orthodontic adhesives around brackets and enamel. Sixty noncarious mandibular premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons were randomly divided into six groups of adhesives used for bonding brackets to dental enamel: NeoBond ® Light Cure Adhesive Kit, Transbond™ Plus Self-Etching, Victory V-Slot APC PLUS ® + Transbond™ MIP, Rely-A-Bond ® Kit, Light Cure Orthodontic Adhesive Kit (OptiBond ® ), and Transbond™ MIP. Following bonding, all teeth underwent 2500 cycles of thermal cycling in baths ranging from 5°C to 55°C before being immersed in 2% methylene blue for 24 h. All samples were examined under a binocular microscope to assess the degree of microleakage at the "bracket-adhesive" and "adhesive-enamel" interfaces in the gingival and occlusal regions of the bracket. A significant difference was found at the "occlusal bracket-adhesive" interface. The highest microleakage values were found in the occlusal region, although no significant. Microleakage was observed in all groups. Group 2 had the highest microleakage values whereas Group 6 had the lowest values.

  7. Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets to Tooth Enamel After Treatment With Different Tooth Bleaching Methods.

    Vahid Dastjerdi, Elahe; Khaloo, Negar; Mojahedi, Seyed Masoud; Azarsina, Mohadese

    2015-11-01

    Bleaching treatments decrease shear bond strength between orthodontic brackets and teeth; although definite results have not been reported in this regard. This study determined the effects of different bleaching protocols on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to teeth. This experimental study was performed in Iran. Forty-eight extracted human premolars were randomly assigned into four groups. In the control group, no bleaching treatment was performed. In groups 2 - 4, the bleaching procedures were performed using carbamide peroxide 45%, carbamide peroxide 20% and diode laser, respectively. Two weeks later, brackets were bonded to teeth and thermocycled. The shear bond strengths of the brackets to the teeth were measured. Data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Dunnett post-hoc test. Shear bond strength of the brackets to the teeth were 10.54 ± 1.51, 6.37 ± 0.92, 7.67 ± 1.01 and 7.49 ± 1.19 MPa, in groups 1 - 4, respectively. Significant differences were found between control group and all other groups (P brackets to the teeth. 45% carbamide peroxide had a more significant effect on bond strength compared to 20% carbamide peroxide. The difference in bond strength was not significant between laser group and either carbamide peroxide groups.

  8. Nanosilver coated orthodontic brackets: in vivo antibacterial properties and ion release.

    Metin-Gürsoy, Gamze; Taner, Lale; Akca, Gülçin

    2017-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles are currently utilized in the fields of dentistry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties and ion release of nanosilver coated orthodontic brackets compared to conventional brackets. Nanosilver coating process was applied to standard orthodontic brackets placed on the mandibular incisors of Wistar Albino rats in the study group and conventional brackets in the control group. Dental plaque, mucosal vestibular smears, saliva, and blood samples were collected from rats at various days. The amounts of nanosilver ions in blood and saliva were measured and microbiological evaluation was made for Streptococcus mutans. For testing cariogenicity, all rats were sacrificed at the end of 75 days under anaesthesia. Teeth were stained using a caries indicator, then the caries ratio was assessed. Nanosilver coated orthodontic bracket favoured the inhibition of S.mutans on Day 30 and reduction of caries on the smooth surfaces. The nanosilver amounts in the saliva and serum samples were significantly higher in the study group on Day 7. It is suggested that nanosilver coated orthodontic brackets, as an antibacterial agent without patient compliance, could be helpful for the prevention of white spot lesions during fixed orthodontic treatment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Assessing the effects of hydrogen peroxide bleaching agent on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

    Andrighetto, Augusto Ricardo; de Leão Withers, Eduardo Henrique; Grando, Karlos Giovani; Ambrosio, Aldrieli Regina; Shimizu, Roberto Hideo; Melo, Ana Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    Tooth bleaching is, today, one of the most widespread cosmetic treatments in dental practice,  so it is important to determine whether it can interfere with orthodontic bonding or not. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro effects of 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agent on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. Forty-five upper bicuspids were divided into three groups (n = 15). In the control Group (C), the brackets were bonded without previous bleaching treatment. Group 1 (G1) was treated with 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agent 24 h before bracket bonding. Group 2 was also bleached, and the brackets were bonded after 30 days. The shear bond strength of the brackets was measured using an EMIC machine, and the results were analyzed by ANOVA. There were no statistically significant differences between the three groups (P > 0.05), with Group C showing a mean bond strength of 9.72 ± 2.63 MPa, G1 of 8.09 ± 2.63 MPa, and G2 of 11.15 ± 4.42 MPa. It was possible to conclude that 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agent does not affect the shear strength of orthodontic brackets bonded 24 h and 30 days after bleaching.

  10. Evaluation of force released by deflection of orthodontic wires in conventional and self-ligating brackets.

    Higa, Rodrigo Hitoshi; Semenara, Nayara Thiago; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Janson, Guilherme; Sathler, Renata; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate deflection forces of rectangular orthodontic wires in conventional (MorelliTM), active (In-Ovation RTM) and passive (Damon 3MXTM) self-ligating brackets. Two brands of stainless steel and nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires (MorelliTM and GACTM), in addition to OrmcoTM copper-nickel-titanium wires were used. Specimens were assembled in a clinical simulation device especially designed for this study and tested in an Instron universal testing machine. For the testing procedures, an acrylic structure representative of the maxillary right central incisor was lingually moved in activations of 0 to 1 mm, with readings of the force released by deflection in unloading of 0.5, 0.8 and 1 mm at a constant speed of 2 mm/min. Inter-bracket forces with stainless steel, NiTi and CuNiTi were individually compared by two-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's tests. Results showed that there were lower forces in conventional brackets, followed by active and passive self-ligating brackets. Within the brands, only for NiTi wires, the MorelliTM brand presented higher forces than GACTM wires. Bracket systems provide different degrees of deflection force, with self-ligating brackets showing the highest forces.

  11. Comparative assessment of different recycling methods of orthodontic brackets for clinical use.

    de Oliveira Correia, Ayla M; de Souza Matos, Felipe; Pilli Jóias, Renata; de Mello Rode, Sigmar; Cesar, Paulo F; Paranhos, Luiz R

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to assess bond strength of the resin/bracket interface, under in-vitro shear stress, of metal brackets recycled by different clinical protocols. Sixty stainless steel orthodontic brackets were bonded on acrylic resin. The Transbond XT™ resin was applied at the base of the bracket aided by a matrix, obtaining 1 mm of thickness, and photoactivated with a LED device (40 s; 500 mW/cm2). Samples were randomly divided into four groups (N.=15) according to the reconditioning/recycling protocol: aluminum oxide (AO) 90 µm; hydrofluoric acid 60 s (HA60); hydrofluoric acid 120 s (HA120); hydrofluoric acid 60 s + silane (HA60S). After recycling, the resin was applied at the base of the bracket for shear testing in a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min). After reconditioning/recycling, the surfaces were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Data obtained after the shear test were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's test (Porthodontic brackets when compared to the other protocols. The reconditioning technique with 10% hydrofluoric acid followed by the application of silane bonding agent may be used as an alternative protocol.

  12. Process qualification and testing of LENS deposited AY1E0125 D-bottle brackets

    Atwood, Clinton J.; Smugeresky, John E.; Jew, Michael; Gill, David Dennis; Scheffel, Simon

    2006-01-01

    The LENS Qualification team had the goal of performing a process qualification for the Laser Engineered Net Shaping(trademark)(LENS(reg s ign)) process. Process Qualification requires that a part be selected for process demonstration. The AY1E0125 D-Bottle Bracket from the W80-3 was selected for this work. The repeatability of the LENS process was baselined to determine process parameters. Six D-Bottle brackets were deposited using LENS, machined to final dimensions, and tested in comparison to conventionally processed brackets. The tests, taken from ES1E0003, included a mass analysis and structural dynamic testing including free-free and assembly-level modal tests, and Haversine shock tests. The LENS brackets performed with very similar characteristics to the conventionally processed brackets. Based on the results of the testing, it was concluded that the performance of the brackets made them eligible for parallel path testing in subsystem level tests. The testing results and process rigor qualified the LENS process as detailed in EER200638525A

  13. Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets and Disinclusion Buttons: Effect of Water and Saliva Contamination

    Sfondrini, Maria Francesca; Fraticelli, Danilo; Gandini, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of water and saliva contamination on the shear bond strength and failure site of orthodontic brackets and lingual buttons. Materials and Methods. 120 bovine permanent mandibular incisors were randomly divided into 6 groups of 20 specimens each. Both orthodontic brackets and disinclusion buttons were tested under three different enamel surface conditions: (a) dry, (b) water contamination, and (c) saliva contamination. Brackets and buttons were bonded to the teeth and subsequently tested using a Instron universal testing machine. Shear bond strength values and adhesive failure rate were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey tests (strength values) and Chi squared test (ARI Scores). Results. Noncontaminated enamel surfaces showed the highest bond strengths for both brackets and buttons. Under water and saliva contamination orthodontic brackets groups showed significantly lower shear strengths than disinclusion buttons groups. Significant differences in debond locations were found among the groups under the various enamel surface conditions. Conclusions. Water and saliva contamination of enamel during the bonding procedure lowers bond strength values, more with orthodontic brackets than with disinclusion buttons. PMID:23762825

  14. Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets and Disinclusion Buttons: Effect of Water and Saliva Contamination

    Maria Francesca Sfondrini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of water and saliva contamination on the shear bond strength and failure site of orthodontic brackets and lingual buttons. Materials and Methods. 120 bovine permanent mandibular incisors were randomly divided into 6 groups of 20 specimens each. Both orthodontic brackets and disinclusion buttons were tested under three different enamel surface conditions: (a dry, (b water contamination, and (c saliva contamination. Brackets and buttons were bonded to the teeth and subsequently tested using a Instron universal testing machine. Shear bond strength values and adhesive failure rate were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey tests (strength values and Chi squared test (ARI Scores. Results. Noncontaminated enamel surfaces showed the highest bond strengths for both brackets and buttons. Under water and saliva contamination orthodontic brackets groups showed significantly lower shear strengths than disinclusion buttons groups. Significant differences in debond locations were found among the groups under the various enamel surface conditions. Conclusions. Water and saliva contamination of enamel during the bonding procedure lowers bond strength values, more with orthodontic brackets than with disinclusion buttons.

  15. Mechanical and topographic evaluation of esthetic brackets and its relation to frictional resistance

    Vikram Pai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the frictional characteristics of conventional ceramic versus metal insert ceramic brackets in combination with stainless steel and Teflon-coated stainless steel archwires. Materials and Methods: Twenty brackets each, of ceramic and metal insert ceramic Maxillary canine preadjusted edgewise brackets 0.022 × 0.028 in slot and 20 archwires, each of stainless steel and Teflon-coated stainless steel (0.019 × 0.025 in were tested for frictional resistance. Friction was evaluated in a simulated Tidy′s design apparatus on universal testing machine. The kinetic friction data were analyzed using Student′s ′t′ test. The effects of surface characteristics on frictional resistance were qualitatively assessed using scanning electron microscope. Results: Metal insert ceramic brackets generated significantly lower kinetic frictional resistance than the conventional ceramic brackets with Teflon-coated stainless steel archwires (P < 0.001 as well as stainless steel archwires (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Metal insert ceramic bracket with stainless steel archwire is the best possible combination among the materials studied because it generated the least frictional resistance during simulated tooth movement.

  16. Doxycycline desensitization in chronic Q fever—A critical tool for the clinician

    Aila Luise Caplunik-Pratsch

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 45 year old woman with acute Q fever pneumonia who progressed to the chronic phase of the disease despite azithromycin therapy. A trial of doxycycline was halted because of severe allergy and she was put on clarithromycin and later moxifloxacin. Failure of both drugs required desensitization to doxycycline with escalating doses. After two-year treatment with doxycycline-hydroxychloroquine combination, complete recovery was declared. Our case highlights the option of doxycycline desensitization when an acute allergic reaction poses an obstacle to optimal treatment.

  17. Role of desensitization and subunit expression for kainate receptor-mediated neurotoxicity in murine neocortical cultures

    Jensen, J B; Schousboe, A; Pickering, D S

    1999-01-01

    ) toxicity mediated by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptors, and (3) toxicity that can be mediated by kainate receptors when desensitization of the receptors is blocked. The indirect action at NMDA receptors was discovered because (5R, 10S)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H...... nedioxy-5H-2,3-benzodiazepine (GYKI 53655), a selective AMPA receptor antagonist, abolished the remaining toxicity. These results indicated that kainate- and domoate-mediated toxicity involves both the NMDA and the AMPA receptors. Pretreatment of the cultures with concanavalin A to prevent desensitization...

  18. Sequential allergen desensitization of basophils is non-specific and may involve p38 MAPK.

    Witting Christensen, S K; Kortekaas Krohn, I; Thuraiaiyah, J; Skjold, T; Schmid, J M; Hoffmann, H J H

    2014-10-01

    Sequential allergen desensitization provides temporary tolerance for allergic patients. We adapted a clinical protocol to desensitize human blood basophils ex vivo and investigated the mechanism and allergen specificity. We included 28 adult, grass allergic subjects. The optimal, activating allergen concentration was determined by measuring activated CD63(+) CD193(+) SS(Low) basophils in a basophil activation test with 8 log-dilutions of grass allergen. Basophils in whole blood were desensitized by incubation with twofold to 2.5-fold increasing allergen doses in 10 steps starting at 1 : 1000 of the optimal dose. Involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was assessed after 3 min of allergen stimulation (n = 7). Allergen specificity was investigated by desensitizing cells from multi-allergic subjects with grass allergen and challenging with optimal doses of grass, birch, recombinant house dust mite (rDer p2) allergen or anti-IgE (n = 10). Desensitization reduced the fraction of blood basophils responding to challenge with an optimal allergen dose from a median (IQR) 81.0% (66.3-88.8) to 35.4% (19.8-47.1, P desensitized with grass allergen. Challenge with grass allergen resulted in 39.6% activation (15.8-58.3). An unrelated challenge (birch, rDer p2 or anti-IgE) resulted in 53.4% activation (30.8-66.8, P = 0.16 compared with grass). Desensitization reduced p38 MAPK phosphorylation from a median 48.1% (15.6-92.8) to 26.1% (7.4-71.2, P = 0.047) and correlated with decrease in CD63 upregulation (n = 7, r > 0.79, P Desensitization attenuated basophil response rapidly and non-specifically at a stage before p38 MAPK phosphorylation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Structural Integrity Evaluation of an New In-Chimney Bracket Structures for HANARO

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Cho, Yeong Garp; Lee, Jung Hee; Jung, Hoan Sung; Seo, Choon Gyo; Shin, Jin Won

    2007-12-15

    In HANARO are there provided three hexagonal irradiation holes (CT, IR1 and IR2) in the central region of the core while four circular irradiation holes (OR3 {approx} OR6) in the outer core. There exist two types of irradiation facilities: uninstrumented or instrumented. The uninstrumented irradiation facility is little influenced by the coolant flow. But the dynamic behavior by the flow-induced vibration (FIV) and seismic loads is expected to largely occur in case of the instrumented test facility due to the long guide tube to protect the instrumentation cables. To suppress this dynamic behavior of the facility, the in-chimney bracket was designed. As a supplementary supporting structure for irradiation facility, this bracket will hold guide tubes whose holding position of the instrumented facility in CT or IR is the middle part of the instrumented facility between the hole spider and the robot arm already provided in the reactor pool liner. On the while, the bracket will grip the upper part of the guide tube when it is applied to hold the instrumented facility loaded in OR sites. Therefore it is believed that the irradiation test can be successfully conducted since this bracket can reduce the FIV and dynamic response to seismic load as well. In new in-chimney bracket, IR1 is reserved for IPS(In-Pile Section) so only CT/IR2 guide tubes are supported by CT/IR clamp units and the shape of In-chimney bracket is redesigned. For evaluating the structural integrity on the new in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures, ANSYS finite element analysis model is developed and the dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The seismic response analyses of new in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures of HANARO under the design earthquake response spectrum loads of OBE(0.1g) and SSE(0.2g) are performed. The response shows that the stress values for main points on the reactor structures and the new in-chimney bracket for seismic loads are within the ASME Code limits

  20. Evaluation of the force generated by gradual deflection of orthodontic wires in conventional metallic, esthetic, and self-ligating brackets.

    Francisconi, Manoela Fávaro; Janson, Guilherme; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore de

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the deflection forces of Nitinol orthodontic wires placed in different types of brackets: metallic, reinforced polycarbonate with metallic slots, sapphire, passive and active self-ligating, by assessing strength values variation according to gradual increase in wire diameter and deflection and comparing different combinations in the different deflections. Specimens were set in a clinical simulation model and evaluated in a Universal Testing Machine (INSTRON 3342), using the ISO 15841 protocol. Data were subjected to One-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey tests (pbrackets presented the most similar behavior to each other. For conventional brackets there was no consistent behavior for any of the deflections studied. Self-ligating brackets presented the most consistent and predictable results while conventional brackets, as esthetic brackets, showed very different patterns of forces. Self-ligating brackets showed higher strength in all deflections when compared with the others, in 0.020-inch wires.