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Sample records for radiation cataract its clinical

  1. Radiation and cataract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehani, M. M.; Vano, E.; Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Kleiman, N. J.

    2011-01-01

    When this paper was about to go to press, the International Commission on Radiological Protection released a statement recommending a change in the threshold dose for the eye lens and dose limits for eye for occupationally exposed persons. It is clear that the earlier published threshold for radiation cataract is no longer valid. Epidemiological studies among Chernobyl clean-up workers, A bomb survivors, astronauts, residents of contaminated buildings, radiological technicians and recent surveys of staff in interventional rooms indicate that there is an increased incidence of lens opacities at doses below 1 Gy. Nevertheless, eye lens dosimetry is at a primitive stage and needs to be developed further. Despite uncertainties concerning dose threshold and dosimetry, it is possible to significantly reduce the risk of radiation cataract through the use of appropriate eye protection. By increasing awareness among those at risk and better adoption and increased usage of protective measures, radiation cataract can become preventable despite lowering of dose limits. (authors)

  2. Solar ultraviolet radiation cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    Despite being a treatable disease, cataract is still the leading cause for blindness in the world. Solar ultraviolet radiation is epidemiologically linked to cataract development, while animal and in vitro studies prove a causal relationship. However, the pathogenetic pathways for the disease are not fully understood and there is still no perfect model for human age related cataract. This non-comprehensive overview focus on recent developments regarding effects of solar UV radiation wavebands on the lens. A smaller number of fundamental papers are also included to provide a backdrop for the overview. Future studies are expected to further clarify the cellular and subcellular mechanisms for UV radiation-induced cataract and especially the isolated or combined temporal and spatial effects of UVA and UVB in the pathogenesis of human cataract. Regardless of the cause for cataract, there is a need for advances in pharmaceutical or other treatment modalities that do not require surgical replacement of the lens. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Radiation-induced cataract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martignoni, K.

    1986-01-01

    Dose assessments for cataract threshold doses are available based on epidemiological studies of radiotherapy patients, survivors of the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and of persons with occupational exposure to radiation. According to these, short-term application of low-level LET radiation of a dose ranging between 0.5 and 2.0 Gy may suffice to cause a cataract in the course of a few months or years which results in inpairment of vision (UNSCEAR, 1982). In fractionated irradiation, cataractogenic threshold dose increases to 4 Sv at treatment times between 3 weeks and 3 months, and to more than 5 Sv at more than 3 months (ICRP 41). Densely ionizing radiation must be assumed to have threshold doses between 2 and 20 Sv. An ICRP assessment (ICRP Publ. No. 41, 1984) gives a threshold dose of more than 8 Sv for a vision-impairing cataract if these was protracted irradiation at a low-level dose rate. Concerning radiation protection, a maximum lens dose of 150 mSv per annum was recommended which should not be exceeded. This indicates a maximum of 7.5 Sv of exposure throughout a period of 50 years of working life. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Three cases of extracapsular cataract extraction for radiation cataract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirokane, Kenji; Kosaka, Toshiya; Nii, Hiroki; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Nakano, Kensuke; Choshi, Kanji

    1996-01-01

    Extracapsular cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation was performed on 4 eyes of 3 patients with radiation cataract. Case 1 was a 60-year-old man who was exposed to the ionizing radiation of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima 730 meters from the center of the explosion. He developed atomic bomb radiation senile cataracts in both eyes. Despite cataract surgery, a central plaque remained on the posterior capsule in the region corresponding to the central dense opacity in both eyes. Case 2 was an 81-year-old man who was in a streetcar 1,000 meters from the center of the explosion at the time of the atomic bombing. Senile and radiation-induced cataract decreased the visual acuity in both eyes. After extracapsular cataract extraction in his right eye, central opacification and a fibrous white membrane remained on the posterior capsule. These were removed by Nd-YAG laser capsulotomy six days after surgery. Case 3 was a 56-year-old man who developed radiation cataract after radiation therapy to a malignant lymphoma in the right orbit. Phacoemulsification and aspiration could not remove the fibrous white membrane from the posterior capsule in this case. Central opacities and fibrous white membranes on the posterior capsule after cataract surgery appears to be a characteristic of radiation cataract. (author)

  5. Cataracts induced by microwave and ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipman, R.M.; Tripathi, B.J.; Tripathi, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Microwaves most commonly cause anterior and/or posterior subcapsular lenticular opacities in experimental animals and, as shown in epidemiologic studies and case reports, in human subjects. The formation of cataracts seems to be related directly to the power of the microwave and the duration of exposure. The mechanism of cataractogenesis includes deformation of heat-labile enzymes, such as glutathione peroxide, that ordinarily protect lens cell proteins and membrane lipids from oxidative damage. Oxidation of protein sulfhydryl groups and the formation of high-molecular-weight aggregates cause local variations in the orderly structure of the lens cells. An alternative mechanism is thermoelastic expansion through which pressure waves in the aqueous humor cause direct physical damage to the lens cells. Cataracts induced by ionizing radiation (e.g., X-rays and gamma rays) usually are observed in the posterior region of the lens, often in the form of a posterior subcapsular cataract. Increasing the dose of ionizing radiation causes increasing opacification of the lens, which appears after a decreasing latency period. Like cataract formation by microwaves, cataractogenesis induced by ionizing radiation is associated with damage to the lens cell membrane. Another possible mechanism is damage to lens cell DNA, with decreases in the production of protective enzymes and in sulfur-sulfur bond formation, and with altered protein concentrations. Until further definitive conclusions about the mechanisms of microwaves and ionizing radiation induced cataracts are reached, and alternative protective measures are found, one can only recommend mechanical shielding from these radiations to minimize the possibility of development of radiation-induced cataracts. 74 references

  6. A clinical study of radiation cataract formation in adult life following γ irradiation of the lens in early childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, Gunilla; Sjoestrand, Johan

    1997-01-01

    The aim was to analyse long term effects on the lens of radium irradiation during infancy. Methods - An infant cohort (n 20, median age 6 months) treated for skin haemangioma with one or two radium-226 needles located at or within the orbital rim was examined 30 - 45 years after γ radiation. Detailed information about the treatment procedure was available for all cases. Subcapsular opacities were graded semiquantitatively according to a scale based on extent and density of the opacities. The results show a high prevalence of light to moderate posterior, subcapsular, and cortical cataract formation was found in the lenses on the treated side irradiated with a mean dose ranging from approximately 1 to 8 Gy. The cataract formation increased as a function of dose. The presence of subcapsular punctate opacities and vacuoles in the lenses on the untreated side receiving irradiation of an estimated dose varying around 0.1 Gy indicates a higher sensitivity than expected. The growing lens during infancy is sensitive to radium irradiation at doses lower than those previously stated. The eye lens seems suitable for studies of effects of low dose radiation since damaged cells are retained in the lens for a lifetime. (Author)

  7. Low-Dose Radiation Cataract and Genetic Determinants of Radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleiman, Norman Jay [Columbia University

    2013-11-30

    The lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the body. Ocular ionizing radiation exposure results in characteristic, dose related, progressive lens changes leading to cataract formation. While initial, early stages of lens opacification may not cause visual disability, the severity of such changes progressively increases with dose until vision is impaired and cataract extraction surgery may be required. Because of the transparency of the eye, radiation induced lens changes can easily be followed non-invasively over time. Thus, the lens provides a unique model system in which to study the effects of low dose ionizing radiation exposure in a complex, highly organized tissue. Despite this observation, considerable uncertainties remain surrounding the relationship between dose and risk of developing radiation cataract. For example, a growing number of human epidemiological findings suggest significant risk among various groups of occupationally and accidentally exposed individuals and confidence intervals that include zero dose. Nevertheless, questions remain concerning the relationship between lens opacities, visual disability, clinical cataract, threshold dose and/or the role of genetics in determining radiosensitivity. Experimentally, the response of the rodent eye to radiation is quite similar to that in humans and thus animal studies are well suited to examine the relationship between radiation exposure, genetic determinants of radiosensitivity and cataractogenesis. The current work has expanded our knowledge of the low-dose effects of X-irradiation or high-LET heavy ion exposure on timing and progression of radiation cataract and has provided new information on the genetic, molecular, biochemical and cell biological features which contribute to this pathology. Furthermore, findings have indicated that single and/or multiple haploinsufficiency for various genes involved in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control, such as Atm, Brca1 or Rad9

  8. Fitness costs of increased cataract frequency and cumulative radiation dose in natural mammalian populations from Chernobyl

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Philipp; Boraty?ski, Zbyszek; Mappes, Tapio; Mousseau, Timothy A.; M?ller, Anders P.

    2016-01-01

    A cataract is a clouding of the lens that reduces light transmission to the retina, and it decreases the visual acuity of the bearer. The prevalence of cataracts in natural populations of mammals, and their potential ecological significance, is poorly known. Cataracts have been reported to arise from high levels of oxidative stress and a major cause of oxidative stress is ionizing radiation. We investigated whether elevated frequencies of cataracts are found in eyes of bank voles Myodes glare...

  9. clinical characteristics of cataract patients with pseudoexfoliation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    the clinical characteristics of pseudoexfoliation syndrome among cataract patients examined at ... CONCLUSION: A significant number of patients with PEX had poor zonular integrity and high IOP ... Poor zonular integrity may give rise to.

  10. Cataract and its surgery in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Garry; Ramke, Jacqueline; Szetu, John; Qoqonokana, Mundi Qalo

    2011-07-01

    To characterize cataract and its surgery among adults aged ≥40 years in Fiji. Population-based cross-sectional survey using multistage cluster random sampling. 1381 (= 73.0% participation); eight provinces on Viti Levu. Interview-based questionnaire; visual acuity measured; autorefraction; dilated ocular examination. Prevalence; predictors; surgical outcomes. Being Indian (P = 0.001), elderly (P Fiji population aged ≥40 years, prevalence of cataract-induced low vision and blindness were each 1.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-2.4%). At least one eye of 4.6% and both of 1.8% participants had surgery (86.4% extracapsular). Gender (P = 0.213), age (P = 0.472) and rural/urban domicile (P = 0.895) were not predictors of surgery among those who required it in at least one eye. After intraocular lens surgery: 50.7% had pupillary posterior capsular opacification; mean spherical equivalent was -1.37 ± 1.95D (range, -6.38 to +2.25D); mean cylindrical error was 2.31 ± 1.75D (range, 0.0 to 8.75D); ≥N8 for 39.5%; ≥6/18 for 56.6%; Fiji population aged ≥40 years, Cataract Surgical Coverage (Person) was 47.5% (95%CI 29.2-65.8%) at Fiji cataract services and outcomes compare favourably with those of neighbouring Papua New Guinea and Timor Leste. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2011 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  11. [The occupational radiation-induced cataract in five industrial radiographers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzarti Mezni, A; Loukil, I; Hriz, N; Kallel, K; Mlaiki, N; Ben Jemaâ, A

    2012-04-01

    The industrial uses of ionizing radiation in Tunisia are expanding, especially in industry and most particularly in the nondestructive testing of welds. Thus workers operating in the non-destructive testing of welds may develop a radiation-induced cataract varying in time to onset depending on the dose. To describe the characteristics of the radiation-induced cataract in patients exposed to ionizing radiation, determine the risk factors of radiation-induced cataracts. This was an anamnestic, clinical, and environmental study of five cases of radiation-induced cataract in workers employed in non-destructive testing of welds. This series of five cases had a mean age of 30.2 years and 5.53 years of work experience, ranging from 14 months to 15 years. All the patients were male and industrial radiographers specialized in nondestructive testing of welds. The average duration of exposure to ionizing radiation was 5.53 years. None of the patients had worn protective gear such as eye goggles. The ophthalmic check-up for the five special industrial radiographers showed punctuate opacities in three cases, punctiform opacities in one eye in one case, and phacosclerosis with bilateral lens multiple crystalline stromal opacities in a case of micro-lens opacities in both eyes with opalescence of both eyes in one case. These cataracts had been declared as occupational diseases. The value of a specialized ophthalmologic surveillance among these workers and the early diagnosis of lens opacities must be emphasized. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Cataracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology ... Are Cataracts? Pediatric Cataracts Cataract Diagnosis and Treatment Cataract Surgery IOL Implants: Lens Replacement After Cataracts ...

  13. Applications in Bioastronautics and Bioinformatics: Early Radiation Cataracts Detected by Noninvasive, Quantitative, and Remote Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; King, James F.; Giblin, Frank J.

    2000-01-01

    Human exploration of Mars is a key goal in NASA's exploration planning in the next 20 years. Maintaining crew health and good vision is certainly an important aspect of achieving a successful mission. Continuous radiation exposure is a risk factor for radiation-induced cataracts in astronauts because radiation exposure in space travel has the potential of accelerating the aging process (ref. 1). A patented compact device (ref. 2) based on the technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS) was designed for monitoring an astronaut's ocular health during long-duration space travel. This capability of early diagnosis, unmatched by any other clinical technique in use today, may enable prompt initiation of preventive/curative therapy. An Internet web-based system integrating photon correlation data and controlling the hardware to monitor cataract development in vivo at a remote site in real time (teleophthalmology) is currently being developed. The new technology detects cataracts very early (at the molecular level). Cataract studies onboard the International Space Station will be helpful in quantifying any adverse effect of radiation to ocular health. The normal lens in a human eye, situated behind the cornea, is a transparent tissue. It contains 35 wt % protein and 65 wt % water. Aging, disease (e.g., diabetes), smoking, dehydration, malnutrition, and exposure to ultraviolet light and ionizing radiation can cause agglomeration of the lens proteins. Protein aggregation can take place anywhere in the lens, causing lens opacity. The aggregation and opacification could produce nuclear (central portion of the lens) or cortical (peripheral) cataracts. Nuclear and posterior subcapsular (the membrane's capsule surrounds the whole lens) cataracts, being on the visual optical axis of the eye, cause visual impairment that can finally lead to blindness. The lens proteins, in their native state, are small in size. As a cataract develops, this size grows from a few nanometers

  14. Unilateral Congenital Cataract: Clinical Profile and Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Sudarshan; Jose, Cijin P; Sihota, Ramanjit; Midha, Neha

    2018-03-01

    To study the clinical profile and presentation of children with unilateral cataract. In this hospital-based, observational, cross-sectional study, patients 15 years of age or younger who presented with unilateral cataract were recruited. Cases of cataract secondary to causes such as trauma or uveitis were excluded. Age at detection and presentation, distance from the treatment center, presenting complaints, cataract morphology, and biometry were noted for each case. A total of 76 patients were recruited. Most patients presented with complaints of leukocoria. Persistent fetal vasculature accounted for 27.6% of cases and was the most common identifiable cause of cataract in this study. Subsequently, patients were divided into two groups: no persistent fetal vasculature (control) and persistent fetal vasculature. A male predominance was noted in both groups. The mean age at detection was 27.58 ± 37.02 and 6.17 ± 8.42 months and the mean age at presentation was 55.613 ± 45.21 and 14.83 ± 17.75 months in the control and persistent fetal vasculature groups, respectively. In the persistent fetal vasculature group, a significant difference was noted in the axial length, keratometry, and corneal diameter between the affected and normal eyes (P = .027, .00176, and .0114, respectively). In the control group, this difference was observed only in keratometry readings (P = .0464). The mean distance traveled by patients to reach the treatment center was 211 km. Persistent fetal vasculature is an important and less identified cause of unilateral cataract. A significant delay is noted in the detection and presentation of unilateral cataract. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2018;55(2):107-112.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: clinical treatment can complicate cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Facio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonists for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH regarding potential risks of complications in the setting of cataract surgery. AIM: To address recommendations, optimal control therapy, voiding symptoms and safety within the setting of cataract surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was performed using MEDLINE with MeSH terms and keywords "benign prostatic hyperplasia", "intraoperative floppy iris syndrome", "adrenergic alpha-antagonist" and "cataract surgery". In addition, reference lists from identified publications were reviewed to identify reports and studies of interest from 2001 to 2009. RESULTS: The first report of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS was observed during cataract surgery in patients taking systemic alpha-1 AR antagonists in 2005. It has been most commonly seen related to use of tamsulosin. Changes of medication and washout periods of up to 2 weeks have been attempted to reduce the risk of complications in the setting of cataract surgery. CONCLUSION: Patients under clinical treatment for BPH should be informed about potential risks of this drug class so that it can be discuss with their healthcare providers, in particular urologist and ophthalmologist, prior to cataract surgery.

  16. Radioprotective effects of melatonin on radiation-induced cataract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karslioglu, Ie.; Ertekin, M.V.; Taysi, S.; Kocer, Ie.; Sezen, O.; Koc, M.; Bakan, N.; Gepdiremen, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of the mechanisms proposed to explain lens opacification is the oxidation of crystallins, either by radiation or reactive oxygen species (ROS). It has been shown that melatonin has both an anti-peroxidative effect on several tissues and a scavenger effect on ROS. The purpose of this study was to determine the antioxidant role of melatonin (5 mg/kg/day) against radiation-induced cataract in the lens after total-cranium irradiation of rats with a single dose of 5 Gy. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Control group received neither melatonin nor irradiation. Irradiated rats (IR) and melatonin+irradiated rats (IR+Mel) groups were exposed to total cranium irradiation of 5 Gy in a single dose by using a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit. IR+Mel and melatonin (Mel) groups were administered 5 mg/kg melatonin daily by intraperitoneal injections during ten days. Chylack's cataract classification was used in this study. At the end of the 10 th day, the rats were killed and their eyes were enucleated to measure the antioxidant enzymes i.e. the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and lipid peroxidation level (malondialdehyde (MDA)). Irradiation significantly increased the MDA level, as an end product of lipid peroxidation, and also significantly decreased SOD and GSH-Px activity, emphasizing the generation of increased oxidative stress. Rats injected with melatonin only did not cause cataract formation. Melatonin supplementation with irradiation significantly increased the activity of SOD and GSH-Px enzymes and significantly decreased the MDA level. Total cranium irradiation of 5 Gy in a single dose enhanced cataract formation, and melatonin supplementation protected the lenses from radiation-induced cataract formation. Our results suggest that supplementing cancer patients with adjuvant therapy of melatonin may reduce patients suffering from toxic therapeutic regimens such as chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy and may provide

  17. Fitness costs of increased cataract frequency and cumulative radiation dose in natural mammalian populations from Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Philipp; Boratyński, Zbyszek; Mappes, Tapio; Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

    2016-01-27

    A cataract is a clouding of the lens that reduces light transmission to the retina, and it decreases the visual acuity of the bearer. The prevalence of cataracts in natural populations of mammals, and their potential ecological significance, is poorly known. Cataracts have been reported to arise from high levels of oxidative stress and a major cause of oxidative stress is ionizing radiation. We investigated whether elevated frequencies of cataracts are found in eyes of bank voles Myodes glareolus collected from natural populations in areas with varying levels of background radiation in Chernobyl. We found high frequencies of cataracts in voles collected from different areas in Chernobyl. The frequency of cataracts was positively correlated with age, and in females also with the accumulated radiation dose. Furthermore, the number of offspring in female voles was negatively correlated with cataract severity. The results suggest that cataracts primarily develop as a function of ionizing background radiation, most likely as a plastic response to high levels of oxidative stress. It is therefore possible that the elevated levels of background radiation in Chernobyl affect the ecology and fitness of local mammals both directly through, for instance, reduced fertility and indirectly, through increased cataractogenesis.

  18. Risk of occupational radiation-induced cataract in medical workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snezana, Milacic

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was determination of criteria for recognition of a pre senile cataract as a professional disease in health care personnel exposed to small doses of ionizing radiation. Method: The study included 3240 health workers in medical centers of Serbia in the period 1992-2002. A total of 1560 workers were employed in the zone (group A) and 1680 out of ionizing radiation zone (group B). Among group A, two groups had been selected: 1. Group A-1: Health workers in the ionizing radiation zone who contracted lens cataract during their years of service while dosimetry could not reveal higher absorbed dose (A-1=115); 2. Group A-2: Health workers in the ionizing radiation zone with higher incidence of chromosomal aberrations and without cataract (A-2=100). Results: More significant incidence of cataract was found in group A, χ 2 =65.92; p<0.01. Radiation risk was higher in health workers in radiation zone than in others, relative risk is 4, 6. Elevated blood sugar level was found in higher percentage with health workers working in radiation zone who developed cataract. Conclusion: Low doses of radiation are not the cause of occupational cataract as individual occupational disease. X-ray radiation may be a significant cofactor of cataract in radiological technicians. (author)

  19. Solar cataract: A clinical report | Ahuama | Journal of Health and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solar Ultraviolet radiation is caractogenic, as there is increasing evidence implicating ultraviolet radiation as a risk factor in the aetiology of cataracts. Through absorption from sunlight exposure especially into the violet and of the visible range of the solar spectrum, cataract formation may occur due to physiochemical ...

  20. Azelastine. Its clinical application for radiation dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusawa, Mitsuhiro; Baba, Yuji; Murakami, Ryuji

    1996-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed to investigate the radioprotective effects of azelastine against radiation dermatitis for patients with head and neck cancers. The effects of azelastine were studied in 19 patients with laryngeal cancers treated by irradiation. As controls, 29 patients with laryngeal cancers treated by irradiation without the administration of azelastine were studied. All patients were irradiated using 3 MV linac X-rays. Azelastine was administered orally twice a day. Moist desquamation was observed in four of 29 control patients whereas no such moist desquamation developed after the administration of azelastine. Two cases of moist desquamation that developed before the administration of azelastine regressed during irradiation in patients placed on azelastine. Radiotherapy was completed without interruption in all patients treated with azelastine. No severe side effects were observed. Azelastine, administered orally, was a safe drug and has the potential of improving skin tolerance in irradiation therapy. (author)

  1. Cataract frequency and subtypes involved in workers assessed for their solar radiation exposure: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modenese, Alberto; Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    2018-04-16

    Cataract is currently the primary cause of blindness worldwide, and one of its main risk factors is solar ultraviolet radiation exposure. According to the localization of lens opacities, three main subtypes of cataract are recognized: nuclear, cortical and posterior subcapsular cataract. One of the main determinants of individual long-term solar radiation exposure is outdoor work. We systematically reviewed scientific literature from the last 20 years to update the recent development of research on the risk of cataract in outdoor workers and on the specific subtypes involved, also investigating the methods applied to evaluate the occupational risk. A total of 15 studies were included in the review, of which 12 showed a positive association. The studies confirm the relationship of long-term occupational solar radiation exposure with cortical cataract and give new support for nuclear cataract, although no substantial new data were available to support a relation with the posterior subcapsular subtype. In most of the studies, the exposure assessment was not adequate to support a representative evaluation of the ocular risk; however, outdoor work is clearly a relevant risk factor for cataract. Further research providing a better evaluation of the relation between solar radiation exposure levels and lens damage in workers is needed and aimed to establish adequate occupational exposure limits and better preventive measures, studying also their effectiveness. © 2018 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A CLINICAL STUDY AND MANAGEMENT OF PAEDIATRIC CATARACT, OUR EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish D. Shet

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Control of childhood blindness is one of the priorities identified for achieving the goals of Vision-2020 by WHO. This is considered a priority because blind-years (number of years that a blind person lives after going blind due to childhood blindness are second only to cataract and half of childhood blindness is avoidable (treatable/preventable. Paediatric cataract accounts for 12% of the 1.4 million blind children globally. The prevalence of childhood cataract has been reported as 1 to 15 cases in 10,000 children in developing countries. Compared to industrialised countries, this figure is 10 times higher. Early detection and timely treatment of various childhood disorders such as congenital cataract are the most crucial factors for successful outcome. A suitable measure to address amblyopia and posterior capsule opacification post operatively is imperative for successful visual rehabilitation of such children. The objectives of this study were- 1 To study the clinical profile of paediatric cataract. 2 To evaluate the visual outcome after cataract surgery in these patients. 3 To evaluate different causes of visual impairment following management. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective study conducted at Karnataka institute of medical sciences department of ophthalmology from October 2015 to September 2016. All children below 14 years of age presenting with cataract will undergo thorough ophthalmologic examination and cataract surgery. RESULTS The results of the present study with 25 paediatric patients (36 eyes indicates that excellent vision can be expected after cataract surgery and posterior chamber IOL implantation coupled with appropriate amblyopia therapy. CONCLUSION The paediatric cataract patients are referred from primary health centers, and district hospital from north Karnataka to KIMS Hubli. All paediatric patients are from lower socio economic status. Early detection of cataracts and referrals to the ophthalmologist can

  3. Aspiration of radiation cataract in children of retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Hidetoshi; Minoda, Kensei.

    1985-01-01

    We operated on the radiation cataracts of 12 retinoblastoma patients who had been treated by conservative therapeutic means including radiation, cryoapplication, photocoagulation, and cytostatic agents. Before the surgery, we checked that the tumor had disappeared or scarred by means of CT-scan, Ultrasonography, X-ray, and so on. Visual acuity of 1.0 or more was retained in two eyes (17 %). Four eyes (33 %) retained visual acuity of 0.6-0.4, one eye (8 %) retained 0.1 and the remaining five eyes (42 %) had visual acuity of less than 0.1. We experienced no serious complications during or after the surgeries. The reason for poorer visual acuity was either macular involvement of the tumor or radiation retinopathy due to larger dosis of radiation. Therefore, we conclude that aspiration of radiation cataract is an effective treatment of retinoblastoma patients after the tumor has disappeared or scarred. (author)

  4. Acute cataract in the rat after exposure to radiation in the 300 nm wavelength region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederberg, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental and epidemiological data indicate a correlation between exposure to UV radiation and cataract morbidity. UV radiation induced cataract is thought to be evoked by photochemical mechanisms. The present investigation resolves the macroscopical events in the rat lens after a one dose exposure to spectrally and radiometrically well defined UV radiation, as revealed in light- and dark-field illumination. The macroscopic sequence of events is related to the morphology as revealed by light- and electron microscopy. The radiation was found to alter the chromation pattern and to induce morphological changes indicating a disturbance of the cellular water balance. The latter is assumed to cause the acute UV radiation induced opacification of the lens. It is suggested that future investigations of the toxic effects of UV radiation in the lens should focus on how UV radiation effects the chromatin and the cellular water balance. (author)

  5. The clinical utility of new combination phenylephrine/ketorolac injection in cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawuyi LE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lola Elizabeth Lawuyi, Avinash Gurbaxani Moorfields Eye Hospital Dubai, Dubai, UAE Abstract: The maintenance of mydriasis throughout cataract extraction surgery and the control of ocular inflammation are crucial for successful surgical outcomes. The development of miosis during cataract surgery compromises the visualization of the surgical field and working space for surgeons. This may lead to complications that include posterior capsular tear and associated vitreous loss, longer surgical time, and postoperative inflammation. Postoperative inflammation is often uncomfortable and frustrating for patients. It causes pain, redness, and photophobia. This compromises the best-uncorrected vision following surgery and often leads to multiple clinic visits. This article examines the literature published on the current treatments used to manage mydriasis, pain, and inflammation in cataract extraction surgery. Combination phenylephrine/ketorolac injection offers an exciting new class of medication for use in cataract surgery. With the recent approval of Omidria™ (combination of phenylephrine 1% and ketorolac 0.3% by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA for intraocular use, we review the clinical utility of this new combination injection in cataract surgery. PubMed, MEDLINE, and conference proceedings were searched for the relevant literature using a combination of the following search terms: cataract extraction surgery, pupil dilation (mydriasis, miosis, phenylephrine, ketorolac, Omidria™, intracameral mydriatic. Relevant articles were reviewed and their references checked for further relevant literature. All abstracts were reviewed and full texts retrieved where available. Keywords: cataract extraction surgery, ketorolac, mydriasis, miosis, Omidria™, phenylephrine

  6. Femtosecond laser cataract surgery: technology and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Timothy V; Lawless, Michael; Chan, Colin Ck; Jacobs, Mark; Ng, David; Bali, Shveta J; Hodge, Chris; Sutton, Gerard

    2013-03-01

    The recent introduction of femtosecond lasers to cataract surgery has generated much interest among ophthalmologists around the world. Laser cataract surgery integrates high-resolution anterior segment imaging systems with a femtosecond laser, allowing key steps of the procedure, including the primary and side-port corneal incisions, the anterior capsulotomy and fragmentation of the lens nucleus, to be performed with computer-guided laser precision. There is emerging evidence of reduced phacoemulsification time, better wound architecture and a more stable refractive result with femtosecond cataract surgery, as well as reports documenting an initial learning curve. This article will review the current state of technology and discuss our clinical experience. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  7. [Cataract surgery and its impact on balance and autonomy in elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, M; Aupy, B; Jahidi, A; Ettien, D; Le Page, P; Briche, T; Kossowski, M; Pailllaud, E

    2009-01-01

    Cataract is a major cause of visual impairment among elderly. Cataract surgery improves visual afferencies and can have an impact on balance. The present study assessed the impact of cataract surgery upon balance and autonomy in elderly. We realized clinical examinations and objective tests the day before surgery and 2-months later. The initial cohort consisted of 66 patients that had to undergo a cataract surgery. Their mean age was 79 +/- 0.5. For logistic reasons, only 33 patients have been completely evaluated before and after surgery. Each patient underwent a history and examination that have assessed autonomy, walking, visual and then cochleo-vestibular functions including bone vibratory test and dynamic computerized posturography (Equitest). After 2 months, cataract surgery had no incidence on balance. The fear of falling has stayed the same whereas the number of falls has been noticeably reduced by surgery. The overall score of Equitest has shown an increase in visual dependence after surgery. Although cataract surgery has no incidence on autonomy, it may improve the quality of life among older people by leisure activities recovery. An early physical rehabilitation facilitated by visual improvement after surgery can also prevent visual dependence and autonomy loss. We recommend vestibular rehabilitation in elderly with major visual dependence.

  8. Risk of cataract among medical staff in neurosurgical department occupationally exposed to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankova-Mileva, I.; Vassileva, J.; Djounova, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we present the risk of cataract among medical staff in neurosurgical department occupationally exposed to radiation compared to those of non-radiation workers. Cataract is the most common degenerative opacity of the crystalline lens developing with aging. Other risk factors for cataract are: infrared and ultraviolet radiation, systemic diseases (diabetes, hypertonic disease), eye diseases (glaucoma, high myopia), drugs (steroids), etc. High risk of developing cataract we find among staff occupationally exposed to radiation during operations - interventional cardiologists and neurosurgeons. This study includes 30 people between 33 and 60 years of age working in neurosurgical department and control group (the same amount and age of people not exposed to radiation in their work). After visual acuity measurement, the lens was examined by retroillumination method (red reflex) and using a bio microscope. The patients were asked for presence of ocular and systemic diseases, eye trauma, drug, alcohol and tobacco abuse and for how many years they work in this department. There was one case with cataract among neurosurgeons. The doctor doesn't have eye or systemic diseases, doesn't take any drugs and is not alcohol or tobacco abuser. In the control group there were two persons with subcapsular cataract but they have diabetes. Radiation is one of the risk factors for cataract. Continuing of this epidemiological survey will provide further knowledge on the potential risk of occupational radiation-induced cataract among neurosurgical staff and will contribute for optimization of radiation protection. (authors)

  9. Atomic bomb cataracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraeda, Kanji

    1992-01-01

    Eye disturbance caused by atomic bomb radiation can be divided into three groups: direct injury immediately after exposure, eye lesions associated with radiation syndrome, and delayed disturbance. The crystalline lens of the eye is the most radiosensitive. Atomic bomb cataract has been investigated in a number of studies. The first section of this chapter discusses radiation cataract in terms of the incidence and characteristics. The second section deals with atomic bomb cataract, which can be diagnosed based on the four criteria: (1) opacity of the crystalline lens, (2) a history of proximal exposure, (3) lack of eye disease complicating cataract, and (4) non-exposure to radiation other than atomic bombing. The prevalence of cataract and severity of opacity are found to correlate with exposure doses and age at the time of exposure. Furthermore, it is found to correlate with distance from the hypocenter, the condition of shielding, epilation, and the presence or absence or degree of radiation syndrome. (N.K.)

  10. Risk Factors for Cataract After Palladium-103 Ophthalmic Plaque Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finger, Paul T.; Chin, Kimberly J.; Yu Guopei; Patel, Neil S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine how tumor characteristics and dose affect cataract development after plaque radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Three hundred and eighty-four patients were diagnosed with uveal melanoma and treated with palladium-103 ( 103 Pd) plaque radiation therapy. Of these, 282 (74%) inclusion met exclusion criteria for follow-up time, tumor location, and phakic status. Then patient-, ophthalmic-, and radiation-specific factors (patient age, diabetes, hypertension, tumor location, tumor dimensions, and lens dose) were examined (by a Cox proportional regression model) as predictors for the development of radiation-related cataract. Results: Radiation cataract developed in 76 (24%) of patients at a mean follow-up of 39.8 months (range, 1-192). Patients with anteriorly located tumors were noted to have a higher incidence of cataract at 43.0% (43 of 100 patients) vs. 18.1% (33 cataracts per 182 patients) for posteriorly located tumors (p <0.0001). However, multivariate Cox proportional modeling showed that increasing patient age at time of treatment (p for trend = 0.0003) and higher lens dose (p for trend = 0.001) were the best predictors (biomarkers) for radiation cataract. Conclusions: Although anterior tumor location, greater tumor height, and increased patient age (at treatment) were associated with significantly greater risk for radiation cataract, dose to lens was the most significant factor.

  11. The lens and cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Andrew G

    2004-08-01

    It is conservatively estimated that some form of lens opacity is present in 5% to 7% of horses with otherwise clinically normal eyes.These opacities can range from small epicapsular remnants of the fetal vasculature to dense and extensive cataract. A cataract is defined technically as any opacity or alteration in the optical homogeneity of the lens involving one or more of the following: anterior epithelium, capsule, cortex, or nucleus. In the horse, cataracts rarely involve the entire lens structure (ie, complete cataracts) and are more usually localized to one anatomic landmark or sector of the lens. Complete cataracts are invariably associated with overt and significant visual disability. Focal or incomplete cataracts alone seldom cause any apparent visual dysfunction in affected horses,however.

  12. Ophthalmologic survey of atomic bomb survivors in Japan, 1949. Atomic bomb radiation cataract case report with histopathologic study. Medical examination of Hiroshima patients with radiation cataracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogan, D.G.; Martin, S.F.; Kimura, S.J.; Ikui, Hiroshi; Fillmore, P.G.

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 3 reports dealing with the delayed effects of radiation on the eyes of survivors of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the first study, 1000 persons who were listed as having been in the open and within two kilometers of the hypocenter at the time of the explosion were selected at random from the census files of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission for study. In addition, 231 others, comprising the total available number of surviving persons listed at present in the census files as having been within one kilometer of the hypocenter, were examined, as were several hundred others who were contacted through newspaper publicity, referrals from local ophthalmologists, or through hearsay. The survey resulted in bringing in persons having, or having had, a variety of ocular conditions. Those connected with the atomic bomb included the following diagnoses; multiple injuries of eyes and eyelids; keratoconjunctivitis from ultraviolet and ionizing radiations; thermal burn of the cornea and of the retina; retinitis proliferans; and radiation cataracts. The cataracts were the only delayed manifestations of ocular injury from the atomic bomb. The second paper is a case report of a histopathologic study of atomic bomb radiation cataract. The third paper presents the results of medical examinations of survivors having radiation induced cataracts. 32 references, 8 figures. (DMC)

  13. [Analysis of cataract surgical rate and its influencing factors in Shanghai, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming-ming; Zhu, Jian-feng; Zou, Hai-dong; He, Xian-gui; Zhao, Rong; Lu, Li-na

    2013-12-17

    To explore the cataract surgical rate (CSR) of Shanghai from 2006 to 2012 and examine its influencing factors. As of 2003, a cataract surgery registration form had been filled by physicians after every cataract surgery in Shanghai. The local eye disease prevention team then entered the relevant information into the Shanghai Cataract Operations Database. Based upon this database, CSR of Shanghai was calculated. And the number of cataract surgeries was compared between Shanghai urban and suburban districts as well as among different medical institutions. The overall CSR in Shanghai increased from 1741 in 2006 to 2313 in 2012. In 2012, CSR in urban districts reached 6013 while it stood at 460 and 584 in inner and outer suburb districts respectively. The number of hospitals performing cataract surgery in urban districts was much more than that in suburbs. And the average number of cataract surgeries per hospital per year in suburbs was only one third of that (748 cases) in urban areas. The number of cataract surgeries at in private hospitals increased rapidly during the past 7 years. The number of 1921 cases was nearly twice as many as that at tertiary hospitals in 2012. Phacoemulsification surgery was the most popular surgical choice for cataract removal, accounting for 98.40% of total cataract surgeries in 2012. Until 2012, CSR in Shanghai dropped below the target of World Health Organization (WHO). A low level of CSR in suburbs is a major influencing factor for the overall level of CSR in Shanghai.

  14. Ionizing radiation induced cataracts: Recent biological and mechanistic developments and perspectives for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Barnard, Stephen; Bright, Scott; Dalke, Claudia; Jarrin, Miguel; Kunze, Sarah; Tanner, Rick; Dynlacht, Joseph R; Quinlan, Roy A; Graw, Jochen; Kadhim, Munira; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    The lens of the eye has long been considered as a radiosensitive tissue, but recent research has suggested that the radiosensitivity is even greater than previously thought. The 2012 recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to substantially reduce the annual occupational equivalent dose limit for the ocular lens has now been adopted in the European Union and is under consideration around the rest of the world. However, ICRP clearly states that the recommendations are chiefly based on epidemiological evidence because there are a very small number of studies that provide explicit biological, mechanistic evidence at doses <2Gy. This paper aims to present a review of recently published information on the biological and mechanistic aspects of cataracts induced by exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). The data were compiled by assessing the pertinent literature in several distinct areas which contribute to the understanding of IR induced cataracts, information regarding lens biology and general processes of cataractogenesis. Results from cellular and tissue level studies and animal models, and relevant human studies, were examined. The main focus was the biological effects of low linear energy transfer IR, but dosimetry issues and a number of other confounding factors were also considered. The results of this review clearly highlight a number of gaps in current knowledge. Overall, while there have been a number of recent advances in understanding, it remains unknown exactly how IR exposure contributes to opacification. A fuller understanding of how exposure to relatively low doses of IR promotes induction and/or progression of IR-induced cataracts will have important implications for prevention and treatment of this disease, as well as for the field of radiation protection. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical evaluation on the coaxial microincision cataract surgery in hard nuclear cataracts

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    Qing-Cheng Shi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess and compare the results of 2.2mm microincision coaxial cataract surgery(MCCSphacoemulsification with the conventional 3.0mm MCCS in hard nuclear cataracts. METHODS: Totally 132 eyes with hard cataract(Ⅳ level and abovewere randomized to two groups: 2.2mm MCCS(group 1:60 eyesand 3.0mm MCCS(group 2:72 eyes. All patients underwent standard phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation surgery by one experienced surgeon. The average ultrasound power(AVEwas recorded during the operation. The incidences of capsule rupture and postoperative corneal edema were compared.Visual acuity, surgically induced astigmatism(SIAand the descent rate of endothelial cell density were compared at intervals of 1 day, 1 month and 3 months after surgery. Statistic analysis was taken by Student's t test and Chi square test. RESULTS: There was no significant difference on the incidences of capsule rupture, postoperative corneal edema and AVE(P> 0.05between the two groups(3.3%, 10.0%, 65.09±20.15and(4.2%, 11.1%, 69.13±15.44. One day after the surgery, the 2.2mm MCCS group showed better uncorrected visual acuity as compared to the 3.0mm MCCS group(P < 0.05. There were no significant differences on best-corrected visual acuity on 1 month and 3 months after the surgery. There was no significant difference on the descent rate of endothelial cell density(16.54%±10.20%, 17.69%±10.65%3 months after the surgery. One day, 1 month and 3 months after the surgery, SIA was 0.77±0.31,0.66±0.29, 0.52±0.25D in the 2.2mm MCCS group, and 1.41±0.73,0.98±0.61D,0.82±0.35D in the 3.0mm MCCS group, respectively. The differences were statistically significant. CONCLUSION: The operative safety of the 2.2mm MCCS group were the same as 3.0mm MCCS group with the hard nuclear cataracts. The 2.2mm MCCS phacoemulsification could significantly reduce SIA and get better earlier visual rehabilitation.

  16. Non-Invasive, Quantitative, and Remote Detection of Early Radiation Cataracts for Applications in Bio-Astronautics and Bio-Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Giblin, Frank J.; King, James F.; Singh, B. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Human exploration of Mars may be a possibility in the next twenty years. Maintaining good vision is an essential aspect of achieving a successful mission. Continuous radiation exposure is a risk factor for radiation-induced cataracts in astronauts. A compact device based on the technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS) is designed for monitoring an astronaut's ocular health during long-duration space travel. Preliminary data on the simulated effects of ionizing radiation exposure to the ocular tissues of nonhuman animals and results on the sensitivity of DLS over established clinical procedures in investigating cataracts are presented. This capability of early diagnosis, unmatched by any other clinical technique in use today, may enable prompt initiation of preventive/curative therapy. An internet web based system integrating photon correlation data and controlling the hardware to monitor cataract development in vivo at a remote site in real time (teleophthalmology) is currently being developed. Cataract studies on-board the International Space Station (ISS) will be helpful in designing better protective radiation shields for future space vehicles and space suits.

  17. Occupational exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation and cataract development: a systematic literature review and perspectives on future studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Gael P. [University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Institute for Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics (IMBEI), Mainz (Germany); Registre Morphologique des Tumeurs, Laboratoire National de Sante, Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Scheidemann-Wesp, Ulrike; Wicke, Henryk; Blettner, Maria [University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Institute for Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics (IMBEI), Mainz (Germany); Samkange-Zeeb, Florence [University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Institute for Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics (IMBEI), Mainz (Germany); Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology - BIPS GmbH, Department of Prevention and Evaluation, Bremen (Germany); Neriishi, Kazuo [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Ionizing radiation is a well-known but little understood risk factor for lens opacities. Until recently, cataract development was considered to be a deterministic effect occurring at lens doses exceeding a threshold of 5-8 Gy. Substantial uncertainty about the level and the existence of a threshold subsists. The International Commission on Radiation Protection recently revised it to 0.5 Gy. Based on a systematic literature review of epidemiological studies on exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation and the occurrence of lens opacities, a list of criteria for new epidemiological studies was compiled, and a list of potential study populations was reviewed. Among 24 publications finally identified, six report analyses of acute exposures in atomic bomb survivors and Chernobyl liquidators, and the others report analyses of protracted exposures in occupationally, medically or accidentally exposed populations. Three studies investigated a dose threshold: in atomic bomb survivors, the best estimates were 1 Sv (95 % CI <0-0.8 Sv) regarding lensectomies; in survivors exposed as children, 0.6 Sv (90 % CI <0.0-1.2 Sv) for cortical cataract prevalence and 0.7 Sv (90 % CI 0.0-2.8 Sv) for posterior subcapsular cataract; and in Chernobyl liquidators, 0.34 Sv (95 % CI 0.19-0.68 Sv) for stage 1 cataract. Current studies are heterogeneous and inconclusive regarding the dose-response relationship. Protracted exposures and high lens doses occur in several occupational groups, for instance, in physicians performing fluoroscopy-guided interventional procedures, and in accidentally exposed populations. New studies with a good retrospective exposure assessment are feasible and should be initiated. (orig.)

  18. NIKE: a new clinical tool for establishing levels of indications for cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Mats; Albrecht, Susanne; Håkansson, Ingemar; Lorefors, Ragnhild; Ohlsson, Sven; Polland, Werner; Schmid, Andrea; Svensson, Göran; Wendel, Eva

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct a new clinical tool for establishing levels of indications for cataract surgery, and to validate this tool. Teams from nine eye clinics reached an agreement about the need to develop a clinical tool for setting levels of indications for cataract surgery and about the items that should be included in the tool. The tool was to be called 'NIKE' (Nationell Indikationsmodell för Kataraktextraktion). The Canadian Cataract Priority Criteria Tool served as a model for the NIKE tool, which was modified for Swedish conditions. Items included in the tool were visual acuity of both eyes, patients' perceived difficulties in day-to-day life, cataract symptoms, the ability to live independently, and medical/ophthalmic reasons for surgery. The tool was validated and tested in 343 cataract surgery patients. Validity, stability and reliability were tested and the outcome of surgery was studied in relation to the indication setting. Four indication groups (IGs) were suggested. The group with the greatest indications for surgery was named group 1 and that with the lowest, group 4. Validity was proved to be good. Surgery had the greatest impact on the group with the highest indications for surgery. Test-retest reliability test and interexaminer tests of indication settings showed statistically significant intraclass correlations (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs] 0.526 and 0.923, respectively). A new clinical tool for indication setting in cataract surgery is presented. This tool, the NIKE, takes into account both visual acuity and the patient's perceived problems in day-to-day life because of cataract. The tool seems to be stable and reliable and neutral towards different examiners.

  19. The relationship between disability-adjusted life years of cataracts and ambient erythemal ultraviolet radiation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Yu, Jiaming; Gao, Qian; Wang, Yang; Hu, Liwen; Zheng, Yang; Wang, Fang; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Cataracts are one of the major public health problems worldwide. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is one of the risk factors for cataract development. We analyzed the relationship between disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rates of cataracts and UVR exposure in China. DALY rates of cataracts and UVR exposure in 31 regions of China were calculated based on data from the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability and the United States' National Aeronautics and Space Administration database. The relationship between the DALY rates of cataracts and UVR was estimated by Spearman rank correlation analysis and linear regression analysis. The elderly (≥ 65 years) had higher DALY rates of cataracts than the whole population. The DALY rate of cataracts in the agricultural population was higher than that observed in the non-agricultural population. The DALY rates of cataracts were positively associated with UVR The DALY rates of cataracts in regions with higher UVR were higher than those in regions with lower UVR. An increase in the daily ambient erythemal UVR of 1000 J/m(2) was associated with an increase in the DALY rates of cataracts by 92 DALYs/100 000 (R(2) = 0.676) among the whole population, 34 DALYs/100 000 among the population population aged 65-74 years (R(2) = 0.617), and by 1342 DALYs/100 000 among the population ≥ 75 years old (R(2) = 0.758). DALY rates of cataracts increased with increases in UVR exposure in 31 regions of China. Greater exposure to UVR increases the disease burden of cataracts in the whole population, especially in the elderly and among the agricultural population.

  20. Clinical observation of small-incision extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation for the treatment of cataract in the sight restoration project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jian Cheng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the clinical effects of small-incision extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation for the treatment of cataract.METHODS:Totally 642 cases 676 eyes of cataract were treated by small-incision extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation. Complication during and after operations and postoperative visual acuity was observed.RESULTS:Visual acuity of 670 eyes was ≥0.05 and off-blindness rate was 99.11%, and there was 627 eyes ≥0.3 and the off-disability rate was 92.75% after 1mo. Rupture of posterior capsule during surgery occurred in 24 eyes. Fifty-four eyes were corneal edema, and anterior chamber exudation were 26 eyes, and 23 eyes were hypertension after operation. CONCLUSION: There are a little complications during and after operation for cataract treated by small-incision extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation. Patients have good recovery after operation. This operation does not need high-standard equipments and is suitable in the sight restoration project.

  1. Intraocular lenses and clinical treatment in paediatric cataract

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    Camila Ribeiro Koch Pena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric cataract is the most common treatable cause of blindness in children. Prevalence, etiology and morphology vary with the socioeconomic development. The treatment goal is to reduce amblyopia, being difficult management especially in unilateral cases. The decision on aphakia or primary intraocular lens should be individualized as well as correction with contact lens or spectacles. The intraocular lens single-piece hydrophobic acrylic are the most implanted in children and the preferably is in the capsular bag. The Sanders-Retzlaff-Kraff theoretic (SRK/T stressing that is described as more predictable, following Holladay I and SRK II and the recommendation is to under correction +6.0 or +8.0 dioptrias expecting the growth of the eye. The posterior capsule opacity is the most frequent complication and varies with the material choice of the lens. Glaucoma is the most serious postoperative complication and depends on the timing of the surgery, primary lens implantation and time of post surgical follow-up. The adherence to occlusion therapy with patching is critical to the visual prognosis and is determined by the child’s age and laterality of the cataract. There was significant improvement in the surgery and in IOLs, however the final visual prognosis is still not desirable.

  2. The analysis of clinical effect of phacoemulsification on primary angle-closure glaucoma with cataract

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    Ling Zhao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the clinical outcomes and affected factors of prognosis of cataract extraction by phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation in eyes with primary angle-closure glaucoma(PACGand co-existing cataract.METHODS: Totally 60 cases(70 eyesof PACG with cataract, including 43 eyes with acute primary angle-closure glaucoma(APACG, 27 eyes of chronic primary angle-closure glaucoma(CPACG. The main outcome measures included: visual acuity, intraocular pressure, gonioscopy, depth of anterior chamber(ACD. Patients were examined 6 months after surgery.RESULTS: After phacoemulsification, visual acuity was improved(PPPPCONCLUSION:Phacoemulsification is more effective for acute APACG than for CPACG.

  3. Cataract Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology ... Are Cataracts? Pediatric Cataracts Cataract Diagnosis and Treatment Cataract Surgery IOL Implants: Lens Replacement After Cataracts ...

  4. Clinical analysis of 34 cases with glaucoma secondary to hypermature cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jing

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To analyze the clinical symptoms, treatments and prognosis of the glaucoma secondary to hypermature cataract to offer some references for the diagnosis and the treatment.METHODS:Thirty four eyes with glaucoma secondary to hypermature cataract in 34 patients were collected from August 2011 to August 2014 in the West China Hospital, Sichuan University. Analyze different treatment methods selected according to different clinical symptoms, and corresponding prognosis.RESULTS:Thirty four patients were hospitalized in emergency, all the eyes had visual acuity of finger counting or worse, intraocular pressure(IOPwas 35~75mmHg. All patients received comprehensive IOP-lowering therapy before the surgery. Twenty-eight patients underwent phacoemulsification, 6 patients underwent extra-capsular cataract extraction(ECCEand 19 patients underwent primary or secondary IOL implantation. All the patients experienced pain relief after surgery, 30 of them had well-controlled postoperative IOP. One case underwent Ahmed glaucoma valve implant surgery, 3 cases gave up the treatment. Seventeen cases who had IOL implanted got great visual acuity improvement, the best postoperative visual acuity was 0.7.CONCLUSION:As long as we have proper and prompt diagnosis and positive control of IOP and inflammation before surgery, precise surgery skills, close observation after surgery and positive anti-inflammation therapy, most of the glaucoma secondary to hypermature cataract get satisfactory outcomes.

  5. Radiation dose to the lens and cataract formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henk, J.M.; Whitelocke, R.A.F.; Warrington, A.P.; Bessell, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the radiation tolerance of the lens of the eye and the incidence of radiation-induced lens changes in patients treated by fractionated supervoltage radiation therapy for orbital tumors. Forty patients treated for orbital lymphoma and pseudotumor with tumor doses of 20--40 Gy were studied. The lens was partly shielded using lead cylinders in most cases. The dose to the germinative zone of the lens was estimated by measurements in a tissue equivalent phantom using both film densitometry and thermoluminescent dosimetry. Opthalmological examination was performed at 6 monthly intervals after treatment. The lead shield was found to reduce the dose to the germinative zone of the lens to between 36--50% of the tumor dose for Cobalt beam therapy, and to between 11--18% for 5 MeV x-rays. Consequently, the lens doses were in the range 4.5--30 Gy in 10--20 fractions. Lens opacities first appeared from between 3 and 9 years after irradiation. Impairment of visual acuity ensued in 74% of the patients who developed lens opacities. The incidence of lens changes was strongly dose-related. None was seen after doses of 5 Gy or lower, whereas doses of 16.5 Gy or higher were all followed by lens opacities which impaired visual acuity. The largest number of patients received a maximum lens dose of 15 Gy; in this group the actuarial incidence of lens opacities at 8 years was 57% with visual impairment in 38%. The adult lens can tolerate a total dose of 5 Gy during a fractionated course of supervoltage radiation therapy without showing any changes. Doses of 16.5 Gy or higher will almost invariably lead to visual impairment. The dose which causes a 50% probability of visual impairment is approximately 15 Gy. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. Cataract removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... placed into the eye to restore the focusing power of the old lens (cataract). It helps improve ... tests by the ophthalmologist. The doctor will use ultrasound or a laser scanning device to measure your ...

  7. Long-term outcome of cataract surgery in patients with idiopathic hypoparathyroidism and its relationship with their calcemic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Soma; Gantyala, Shiva Prasad; Aggarwal, Sameer; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Tandon, Radhika; Goswami, Ravinder

    2017-07-01

    Cataract is a cardinal manifestation of hypoparathyroidism. Although patients with hypoparathyroidism require cataract surgery at a younger age than individuals without hypoparathyroidism, there is limited information on the outcome of this surgery. We assessed long-term complications of cataract surgery in patients with idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (IH) and its relationship with their clinical and biochemical parameters. Twenty-seven patients with IH and 25 nonhypoparathyroid controls with a minimum follow-up of 2 years after cataract surgery were assessed for visual acuity, intraocular pressure, lens centricity, Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy, and the severity of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) and anterior capsular opacification. High-resolution optical slit-lamp images were analyzed by an ophthalmologist. Patients with IH had cataract surgery at a younger age than controls (34.0 ± 16.4 years vs 58.0 ± 11.2 years, P < 0.001). A higher proportion of IH patients had dense white PCO (75.0 % vs 39.4 %, P = 0.004), Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy (44.2 % vs 10.0 %, P = 0.001), anterior capsular opacification (97.7 % vs 84.2 %, P = 0.03), and a decentric lens (28.3% vs 2.6 %, P = 0.001) at a comparable time after surgery (8.6 ± 6.1 years vs 8.7 ± 6.8 years, P = 0.85). On regression analysis, the severity of PCO in IH correlated only with male sex and not with other factors, including serum total calcium and inorganic phosphorus levels at the baseline and during follow-up. To conclude, patients with IH are likelier than individuals without IH to develop PCO and to require Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy after cataract surgery. Proper precautions should be taken during surgery to minimize this complication in IH.

  8. Atm heterozygous mice are more sensitive to radiation-induced cataracts than are their wild-type counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worgul, Basil V.; Smilenov, Lubomir; Brenner, David J.; Junk, Anna; Zhou, Wei; Hall, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    It is important to know whether the human population includes genetically predisposed radiosensitive subsets. In vitro studies have shown that cells from individuals homozygous for ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) are much more radiosensitive than cells from unaffected individuals. Although cells heterozygous for the ATM gene (ATM(+/-)) may be slightly more radiosensitive in vitro, it remained to be determined whether the greater susceptibility of ATM(+/-) cells translates into an increased sensitivity for late effects in vivo, though there is a suggestion that radiotherapy patients that are heterozygous for the ATM gene may be more at risk of developing late normal tissue damage. We chose cataractogenesis in the lens as a means to assay for the effects of ATM deficiency in a late-responding tissue. One eye of wild-type, Atm heterozygous and homozygous knockout mice was exposed to 0.5-, 1.0-, 2.0-, or 4.0-Gy x rays. The animals were followed weekly for cataract development by conventional slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Cataract development in the animals of all three groups was strongly dependent on dose. The lenses of homozygous mice were the first to opacify at any given dose. Most important in the present context is that cataracts appeared earlier in the heterozygous versus wild-type animals. The data suggest that ATM heterozygotes in the human population may also be radiosensitive. This may influence the choice of individuals destined to be exposed to higher than normal doses of radiation, such as astronauts, and may also suggest that radiotherapy patients who are ATM heterozygotes could be predisposed to increased late normal tissue damage.

  9. Effects of UV-B radiation on a hereditary suture cataract in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forker, Carina; Wegener, Alfred

    1997-01-01

    UV-B (290-320 nm, λ max = 305 nm) radiation and the Cat2 ns (suture cataract) mutation in mice affect both the anterior lens epithelium and the formation of the suture. A low dose of UV-B radiation (2.2 Jcm -2 ) induces similar anterior subcapsular and cortical lens opacities in wild type as in heterozygous mutant mice. The UV-B treatment of the mutant lenses, however, leads to an increase in the number of epithelial cell layers in the anterior central part as compared to the wild type indicating a more severe form of the cataract formation in mutants. In addition, mutants demonstrate a predisposition for a rupture of the posterior lens capsule, because from 2.9 Jcm -2 and higher, this phenomenon could always be observed in the UV-B treated mutants, but never in the treated wild type mice. The protein biochemical analyses were performed by gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing of extracts of total lenses or from defined areas of the lens (lens slice technique). These covered the patterns of those proteins already synthesized before irradiation, which in irradiated lenses in no case evidenced a difference to the untreated control, neither in the wild type nor in the mutants. In contrast, by analysing specifically those proteins, which are synthesized after irradiation, in both treated groups a protein with a molecular mass of about 31 kDa becomes discernable in both treated groups. In addition, the cataractous lenses demonstrate a significantly enhanced overall synthesis of water-soluble proteins after irradiation, which might promote the rupture of the posterior capsule at the posterior pole. The present study offers for the first time the possibility to discriminate between endogeneous (genetic) effects and exogeneous (environmental) effects in cataractogenesis and to study their interactive effects. The first set of experiments demonstrated a clear intensification of the hereditary cataract by the UV-B treatment. The study supports the hypothesis that

  10. Ocular distribution of antioxidant enzyme paraoxonase & its alteration in cataractous lens & diabetic retina

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    Subramaniam Rajesh Bharathidevi

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Distribution of PON enzyme and its activity in ocular tissues is reported here. The study revealed maximal PON activity in lens and retina, which are prone to higher oxidative stress. Differential activities of PON were observed in the lens and retinal tissues from cataractous and diabetic patients, respectively.

  11. Characterization of Cat-2t, a radiation-induced dominant cataract mutation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graw, J.; Bors, W.; Gopinath, P.M.; Merkle, S.; Michel, C.; Reitmeir, P.; Schaeffer, E.S.; Summer, K.H.; Wulff, A.

    1990-01-01

    A dominant cataract mutation was detected recently among the offspring of x-ray-irradiated male mice. The mutation, which causes total lens opacity, has provisionally been designated by the gene symbol Cat-2t. In the lenses of heterozygous and homozygous Cat-2t mutants, the epithelial and fiber cells were swollen and the lens capsule was ruptured. The histologic analysis demonstrated a complete destruction of the cellular organization of the lens, which might be caused by its altered developmental processes. The data derived from biochemical investigations indicate that biochemistry of the cataractous Cat-2t lenses is affected: the osmotic state as indicated by the increased water content and increased Na(+)-K(+)-adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) activity; the energy state as indicated by the decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration; and the redox state as indicated by the enhanced content of oxidized glutathione. Additionally, the lenticular protein composition is altered because of the presence of vimentin in the water-soluble fraction. This cannot be explained by the enhanced crosslinking activity of transglutaminase. The changes of the osmotic, energy, and redox states are considered to be secondary in relation to the altered lenticular development. In contrast, the variations concerning vimentin and transglutaminase might be a biochemical indication of the changed development. Possible similarities to other dominantly expressed murine cataract mutants are discussed

  12. Epidemiology of 411 140 cataract operations performed in public hospitals and private hospitals/clinics in Denmark between 2004 and 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solborg Bjerrum, Søren; Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby; la Cour, Morten

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the epidemiology and mortality in patients who had cataract surgery in public hospitals and private hospitals/clinics in Denmark between 2004 and 2012 and to assess the validity of the Danish cataract registries. METHODS: Register- and chart-based study. RESULTS: A total of 411...... 140 cataract operations were performed in 243 856 patients. Patients who had cataract surgery in public hospitals had an overall statistically significantly 62% higher mortality compared to patients who had cataract surgery in private hospitals/clinics. The decrease in mean age at first eye cataract...... surgery in private hospitals/clinics was statistically significantly greater compared to the decrease in mean age at first eye cataract surgery in public hospitals (p

  13. Clinical experience of phacoemulsification for cataract patients with angle-closure glaucoma in 29 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hui Gu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical effect of phacoemulsification with foldable intraocular lens implantation on cataract with angle-closure glaucoma. METHODS: Twenty-nine cases(29 eyesof angle-closure glaucoma with cataract underwent phacoemulsification with foldable intraocular lens implantation, and the data of visual acuity, intraocular pressure, gonioscopy and complications after operation were statistically analyzed.RESULTS:Postoperatively, 28 eyes(96.5%visual acuity were improved. Intraocular pressure of 25 eyes(86.2%were maintained at a normal level without any IOP lowering drug, intraocular pressure of 3 eyes(10.3%were controlled by IOP lowering eye drops, intraocular pressure of 1 eye(3.5%returned to normal by trabeculectomy. The chamber depth of 29 eyes was increased. 8 eyes were suffered from mild corneal edema, and returned to normal after treatment. CONCLUSION: Characterized by decreasing intraocular pressure, opening anterior chamber, and raising visual acuity, phacoemulsification with foldable intraocular lens implantation is a good operative therapy for primary angle-closure glaucoma complicated with cataract with preoperative goniosynechia closed ≤270°.

  14. Emerging issues in radiogenic cataracts and cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Nomura, Takaharu; Fujii, Noriko; Furuhashi, Masato; Kubo, Eri; Minamino, Tohru; Sato, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection issued a statement on tissue reactions (formerly termed non-stochastic or deterministic effects) to recommend lowering the threshold for cataracts and the occupational equivalent dose limit for the crystalline lens of the eye. Furthermore, this statement was the first to list circulatory disease (cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease) as a health hazard of radiation exposure and to assign its threshold for the heart and brain. These changes have stimulated various discussions and may have impacts on some radiation workers, such as those in the medical sector. This paper considers emerging issues associated with cataracts and cardiovascular disease. For cataracts, topics dealt with herein include (1) the progressive nature, stochastic nature, target cells and trigger events of lens opacification, (2) roles of lens protein denaturation, oxidative stress, calcium ions, tumor suppressors and DNA repair factors in cataractogenesis, (3) dose rate effect, radiation weighting factor, and classification systems for cataracts, and (4) estimation of the lens dose in clinical settings. Topics for cardiovascular disease include experimental animal models, relevant surrogate markers, latency period, target tissues, and roles of inflammation and cellular senescence. Future research needs are also discussed. (author)

  15. Clinical Outcomes after Uncomplicated Cataract Surgery with Implantation of the Tecnis Toric Intraocular Lens

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    Wojciech Lubiński

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the clinical outcomes after uncomplicated cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric toric intraocular lens (IOL during a 6-month follow-up. Methods. Prospective study including 27 consecutive eyes of 18 patients (mean age: 66.1±11.4 years with a visually significant cataract and corneal astigmatism ≥ 0.75 D and undergoing uncomplicated cataract surgery with implantation of the Tecnis ZCT toric IOL (Abbott Medical Optics. Visual, refractive, and keratometric outcomes as well as IOL rotation were evaluated during a 6-month follow-up. At the end of the follow-up, patient satisfaction and perception of optical/visual disturbances were also evaluated using a subjective questionnaire. Results. At 6 months after surgery, mean LogMAR uncorrected (UDVA and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA were 0.19±0.12 and 0.14±0.10, respectively. Postoperative UDVA of 20/40 or better was achieved in 92.6% of eyes. Mean refractive cylinder decreased significantly from −3.73±1.96 to −1.42±0.88 D (p<0.001, while keratometric cylinder did not change significantly (p=0.44. Mean absolute IOL rotation was 1.1±2.4°, with values of more than 5° in only 2 eyes (6.9%. Mean patient satisfaction score was 9.70±0.46, using a scale from 0 (not at all satisfied to 10 (very satisfied. No postoperative optical/visual disturbances were reported. Conclusion. Cataract surgery with implantation of the Tecnis toric IOL is an effective method of refractive correction in eyes with corneal astigmatism due to the good IOL positional stability, providing high levels of patient’s satisfaction.

  16. Identification of cataract and post-cataract surgery optical images using artificial intelligence techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Rajendra Udyavara; Yu, Wenwei; Zhu, Kuanyi; Nayak, Jagadish; Lim, Teik-Cheng; Chan, Joey Yiptong

    2010-08-01

    Human eyes are most sophisticated organ, with perfect and interrelated subsystems such as retina, pupil, iris, cornea, lens and optic nerve. The eye disorder such as cataract is a major health problem in the old age. Cataract is formed by clouding of lens, which is painless and developed slowly over a long period. Cataract will slowly diminish the vision leading to the blindness. At an average age of 65, it is most common and one third of the people of this age in world have cataract in one or both the eyes. A system for detection of the cataract and to test for the efficacy of the post-cataract surgery using optical images is proposed using artificial intelligence techniques. Images processing and Fuzzy K-means clustering algorithm is applied on the raw optical images to detect the features specific to three classes to be classified. Then the backpropagation algorithm (BPA) was used for the classification. In this work, we have used 140 optical image belonging to the three classes. The ANN classifier showed an average rate of 93.3% in detecting normal, cataract and post cataract optical images. The system proposed exhibited 98% sensitivity and 100% specificity, which indicates that the results are clinically significant. This system can also be used to test the efficacy of the cataract operation by testing the post-cataract surgery optical images.

  17. Ultrasonographic findings of cataract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Seob; Kim, Yang Soo; Lee, Kwan Seh; Kim, Kun Sang

    1985-01-01

    Examining the eye with high resolution ultrasonography, authors encountered 34 cases (41 eyeballs) of cataract and found out its characteristic ultrasonographic findings, though cataract is easily recognized by physician on inspection. Ultrasonographic findings of cataract were as follows; 1. Thickening of lens due to edema. 2. Demonstration of lens echo in whole circumference. 3. Multiple internal lens echo

  18. Biometry and clinical characteristics of congenital cataracts and microphthalmia in the Miniature Schnauzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelatt, K N; Samuelson, D A; Barrie, K P; Das, N D; Wolf, E D; Bauer, J E; Andresen, T L

    1983-07-01

    Forty-two Miniature Schnauzer pups and adults with congenital cataracts and microphthalmia were evaluated by serial ophthalmic examinations, slit lamp biomicroscopic photography, and A-scan ultrasonography. The cataracts were evident when the eyelids opened at 2 weeks, affecting predominantly the lens nucleus and posterior cortex. Lenticonus was evident in 19% of the cataractous lenses. Progression of the cataracts was variable and related to involvement of the equatorial and posterior cortices. Lens-induced uveitis developed in some adult dogs with advanced hypermature cataracts. The globe and lens were smaller than normal in the cataractous eyes, as ascertained by A-scan ultrasonography. Age-matched comparisons of clear lens carrier Miniature Schnauzers and normal Beagles with the cataractous Miniature Schnauzers indicated affected globes and cataractous lenses were reduced 10% to 20% in their anteroposterior lengths. The microphthalmia appeared related to the congenital microphakic cataract.

  19. Effect of Geranylgeranylacetone on Ultraviolet Radiation Type B-Induced Cataract in Heat-Shock Transcription Factor 1 Heterozygous Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Hashizume, Kouhei; Okuno, Takashi; Imaizumi, Toshiyasu; Inomata, Yui; Tezuka, Yu; Sanbe, Atushi; Kurosaka, Daijiro

    2017-05-01

    We investigated whether heat-shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) was involved in ultraviolet radiation type B (UVR-B)-induced lens opacity (cataract) using HSF1 heterozygous mice. We also examined the effects of geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), an inducer of heat-shock proteins via activation of HSF, on the UVR-B-induced cataract. Male HSF1 +/- and WT mice were unilaterally exposed to UVR-B (total: 1200mJ) at 16 weeks of age. At 48 h after the last UVR-B irradiation, the lens was isolated and the induction of the cataract was quantified as the cataract area ratio (opacity area/anterior capsule). GGA was orally administered at a dosage of 500 mg/kg once a day for two days before the first UVR-B exposure until the end of the experiment (21days in total). The HSF1 expression was more greatly decreased in the lens from HSF1 +/- mice than in that from WT mice (p B exposure could mainly induce cataracts in the anterior capsule in both HSF1 +/- and WT mice, while the opacity of the lens was markedly enhanced in HSF 1+/- mice compared to that in WT mice(p (0.01). GGA treatment could prevent the induction of lens opacity by UVR-B exposure in both WT and HSF1 +/- mice as compared with the non-administration group (p B radiation was seen in lens protein levels of αA-crystallin, αB-crystallin, or γ-crystallin with or without GGA administration among all groups of mice. In contrast to the crystallins, the lens protein level of HSP25 was decreased by UVR-B exposure in both HSF1 +/- and WT mice, and was significantly recovered in WT mice by the GGA treatment (p B-induced cataracts, possibly via regulation of HSPs such as HSP25.

  20. Low dose radiation induced protein and its experimental and ophthalmic clinical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Wei; Su Liaoyuan; Liu Fenju; Ding Jie; Li Longbiao; Pan Chengsi

    2001-01-01

    The protective effects of low dose radiation (LDR) induced protein on cellular impairments caused by some harmful chemical and physical factors were studied. Male Kunming mice were irradiated with LDR, then the spleen cells of the mice were broken with ultrasonic energy and then ultracentrifugalized. The supernatant solution contained with LDR induced protein. The newly emerging protein was detected by gel filtration and its molecular weight was determined by gel electrophoresis. The content of newly emerging protein (LDR induced protein) was determined by Lowry's method. The method of isotope incorporation was used to observe the biological activity and its influence factors, the protective effects of LDR induced protein on the cells impaired by irradiating with ultraviolet (UV), high doses of 60 Co γ-rays and exposed to heat respectively, and the stimulative effects of LDR induced protein on human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Newly emerging protein has been observed in the experiment. The molecular weight of the protein is in the region 76.9 KD+- - 110.0 KD+-, the yield of the protein was 613.33 +- 213.42 μg per 3 x 10 7 spleen cells. DPM values (isotope were incorporated) of normal and injured mice spleen cells increased significantly after stimulating with the solution contained LDR induced protein. It is concluded that LDR induced protein could be obtained from mice spleen cells exposed to 5 - 15 cGy radiation for 2 - 16 h. The protein had biological activity and was able to stimulate the transformation of the spleen cells in vitro. It had obvious protective effects on some impaired cells caused by high dose radiation, UV radiation, heat and so on. It also had stimulative effects on the transformation of peripheral blood T and B lymphocytes of healthy individual and patients with eye diseases. It indicates that LDR induced protein increased immune function of human

  1. Clinical application of capsular tension ring on cataract surgery in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome after trabeculectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the safety and efficacy of capsular tension ring(CTRinsertion combined with phacoemulsification and intraocular lens(IOLimplantation in patient with pseudoexfoliation syndrome after anti-glaucoma surgery.METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted of 10 eyes from 10 cataract patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome following trabeculectomy surgery, and who underwent CTR insertion combined with phacoemulsification and IOL implantation between January, 2012 and June, 2013. All cases had nuclear cataracts(nuclear hardness Ⅱ 1 eye, nuclear hardness Ⅲ 4 eyes, nuclear hardness Ⅳ 5 eyes. One case with Ⅳ nuclear hardness cataract had iridodonesis and lens subluxation. Postoperative visual acuity, intra- and post-operative complications, anterior capsular opening, IOL position, and postoperative intraocular pressure(IOPwere assessed. Follow-ups ranged from 3 to 14mo. The t test was used to analyze the variables studied.RESULTS: All patients had a successful CTR insertion combined with phacoemulsification and IOL implantation. A modified CTR insertion was performed in one case, the others underwent a standard CTR insertion. The best corrected visual acuity(BCVAwas ≥0.5 in 3 eyes and 0.3-t=1.9955, P>0.05. The most common intrao- and post-operative complications were corneal edema, small pupil, residual cortex, spontaneous zonular dialysis.CONCLUSION: Suitable CTR insertion in appropriate occasion may be beneficial to patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome after trabeculectomy during cataract surgery. It prevents the IOL decentration and decrease the surgical complication. Less complication occurs at the early stage.

  2. Cataract: A major secondary complication of diabetes, its epidemiology and an overview on major medicinal plants screened for anticataract activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel DK

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cataract is a visual impairment caused due to opacification or optical dysfunction of crystallin lens affecting more than 17 million people around the world. Even though the incidences of cataract are increasing day by day among the elderly persons but, still except surgery no other ways of treatment have been successfully developed so far. Thus, the aim of writing the present review is to provide an insight over the pathophysiological and etiological aspects of cataract along with discussing the remedies available for the disorder. The review also describes different experimental models with their relevant mechanism and significance such as galactose-induced, naphthalene-induced and selenite-induced cataract models which are mainly used for evaluating the anticataract activity of a particular drug (mainly of natural origin. The review includes list of plants and their phytoconstituents which have been so far evaluated pharmacologicaly for the treatment of cataract. From the survey, it was confirmed that the antioxidant property of plants phytoconstituents are basically responsible for their effective anticataract activity. Thus, the valuable information provided in the present review will help researches in developing an alternative method rather than surgery for the treatment of cataract which will minimize the rate of blindness due to cataract thus, benefiting and extending protective aspects of eyes, an integral part of human body.

  3. Clinical evaluation of low vision and central foveal thickness in highly myopic cataract eyes after phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Li Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To retrospectively evaluate central foveal thickness in highly myopic eyes with best correct visual acuity(BCVAMETHODS: In this retrospective clinical study, we consecutively recruited 70 low highly myopic cataract subjects(70 eyesunderwent Phaco. Postoperative visits were performed at 1wk, 1 and 3mo. Postoperative BCVA were recorded and further divided into 2 groups with BCVARESULTS: The ratio of BCVAPr=-0.716, PCONCLUSION: In this study, BCVA is improved after 3mo follow up. There has significant correlation between postoperative BCVA and central foveal thickness.

  4. Visual function of cataract with high myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Tao Ren

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cataract with high myopia is research priority associated with the large amount of high myopia patients. The unaided visual acuity and the best-corrected visual acuity are partial for the visual acuity of the patients with cataract. The mechanism and clinical significance of modern visual function measurements associated with cataract and high myopia, including accommodation and convergence, stereoscopic vision, contrast sensitivity, have been introduced. These measurements could be of great value in early diagnosis of cataract, assessment of surgical indication, customized intraocular lens(IOLselection and evaluation of visual performance after IOL implantation. They could also be helpful to the analysis of postoperative impaired visual function and its management. Having an adequate understanding of the contents and significance of visual function was helpful to the improvement of cataract surgery techniques and postoperative visual acuity.

  5. Clinical and theoretical results of intraocular lens power calculation for cataract surgery after photorefractive keratectomy for myopia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odenthal, M.T.; Eggink, C.A.; Melles, G.R.J.; Pameyer, J.H.; Geerards, A.J.; Beekhuis, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the refractive results of cataract surgery after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for patients with myopia, and to find a more accurate method to predict intraocular lens (IOL) power in these cases. DESIGN: Nonrandomized, retrospective clinical study. PATIENTS AND METHODS:

  6. [Cataract surgery rate and its impacting factors in Jiangsu Province in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Huai-jin; Zhang, Xiao-jun; Zhu, Rong-rong; Yang, Mei

    2013-12-17

    To survey the cataract surgery rate (CSR) according to the report data and its influencing factors of Jiangsu Province in 2012 so as to further improve CSR in China. Through government websites in 2012, gross domestic product (GDP) and GDP per capital of 13 cities in Jiangsu Province and 7 counties of Nantong City reported to the Ministry of Health in China were collected to calculate CSR. The relationship between GDP and CSR of Jiangsu Province and Nantong City were analyzed with Spearman's rank correlation, and the differences in the proportion of cataract surgery between government and private hospitals were analyzed by Chi-square test. CSR in Jiangsu Province in 2012 was 939 cases per million population per year. Nantong City had the highest CSR (1362 cases per million population per year) and Suqian City the lowest (129 cases per million population per year). The GDP of 13 cities in Jiangsu Province had a positive correlation with CSR (spearman r = 0.59, P = 0.03), but there was no significant correlation with GDP per capital (spearman r = 0.50, P = 0.08). No significant correlation existed between GDP, GDP per capital and CSR of 7 counties of Nantong City (spearman r = -0.04, P = 0.94; spearman r = -0.29, P = 0.53). The proportion of private hospitals of Nantong was 33.3% and surgery cases were 4557 (45.9%). The CSR of Rugao County in 2012 was 3317 cases per million population per year. Socioeconomic level may be related with CSR. Providing village cataract screening services and lowering surgical costs help to boost CSR in China.

  7. Clinical observation of radiation urinary bladder disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yuke; Liu Libo; Zhang Haiying; Liang Shuo; Chen Dawei; Wu Zhenfeng; Dong Lihua; Lu Xuejun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Clinical characteristic, diagnosis and treatment of radiation urinary bladder disease induced by radiation therapy for cancers in the pelvis were inquired into for providing diagnostic basis. Methods: Statistical analysis for the clinical cases was carried out. Results: The incidence of radiation bladder diseases induced by radiation therapy of cervix cancer are about 0.8%-2.96%, with an average of 2.14%. Radiation bladder disease is divided into acute radiation cystitis, chronic radiation cystitis and radiation vesical fistula. Chronic radiation cystitis is seen most often in the clinic and its main clinical symptom is painless macroscopic hematuria, which is again subdivided into slight and severe degrees. Diagnosis should include history of exposure to radiation, which dose exceed the dose threshold, and typical clinical characteristics. Conclusion: The characteristics, types and diagnostic basis of radiation urinary bladder disease analyzed in this study can provide the reference for drawing up diagnostic standard

  8. Selenite cataract and its attenuation by vitamin E in wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Joe

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the role of vitamin E in preventing cataract formation in experimental animals. Methods: An experimental model (selenite cataract was selected for this study. Selenite cataract was produced in rats by subcutaneous administration of sodium selenite. Biochemical and histological changes following induction of selenite cataract in weanling wistar rats were studied vis-à-vis the role of vitamin E in attenuating or preventing cataractogenesis. Results: Vitamin E was capable of preventing selenite cataractogenesis. Selenite cataract did not develop in 91.6% (11 of 12 and 76.7% (8 of 12 vitamin E treated rats, when administered on the 12th and 10th post partum day respectively. Conclusion: The study confirmed that selenite induced cataract in wistar rats is attenuated by vitamin E.

  9. Temporary Piggyback Intraocular Lens Implantation Versus Single Intraocular Lens Implantation in Congenital Cataracts: Long-Term Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sungsoon; Lim, Dong Hui; Lee, Soomin; Choi, Daye Diana; Chung, Eui-Sang; Chung, Tae-Young

    2018-04-01

    To report the long-term results of temporary piggyback IOL implantation in congenital cataract and to compare the clinical outcomes of temporary piggyback IOL with those of single IOL implantation. This is a retrospective, comparative, interventional study. The medical records of all consecutive patients who underwent cataract extraction and single or temporary piggyback IOL implantation within the first 3 years of life from 1999 to 2013 at Samsung Medical Center were reviewed. Twenty-eight eyes from 18 patients underwent single IOL implantation (monopseudophakia group), and 32 eyes of 20 patients underwent temporary piggyback IOL implantation in congenital cataract surgery (polypseudophakia group). The mean age at initial cataract surgery was 15.8 months in the monopseudophakia group and 11.1 months in the polypseudophakia group (P = 0.144). The average follow-up duration was 133 months in the monopseudophakia group and 120 months in the polypseudophakia group (P = 0.391). The best-corrected visual acuity at the last visit was 0.36 logMAR in the monopseudophakia group and 0.55 logMAR in the polypseudophakia group (P = 0.044). Four (14%) and 14 (44%) reoperations for complications within the anterior segment were performed in the monopseudophakia group and polypseudophakia group, respectively (P = 0.042). Four cases (14.3%) in the monopseudophakia group and 13 cases (40.6%) in the polypseudophakia group had a glaucoma-related adverse event (P = 0.086). Compared with primary single IOL implantation in congenital cataract, temporary piggyback IOL implantation produced worse visual acuity, higher reoperation rate, and higher risk of secondary glaucoma. Temporary piggyback IOL implantation does not have benefit in congenital cataract.

  10. Potential pre-cataractous markers induced by low-dose radiation effects in cultured human lens cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, E.; McNamara, M.; Bjornstad, K.; Chang, P.

    The human lens is one of the most radiosensitive organs of the body. Cataract, the opacification of the lens, is a late-appearing response to radiation damage. Recent evidence indicates that exposure to relatively low doses of space radiation are associated with an increased incidence and early appearance of human cataracts (Cucinotta et al., Radiat. Res. 156:460-466, 2001). Basic research in this area is needed to integrate the early responses of various late-responding tissues into our understanding and estimation of radiation risk for space travel. In addition, these studies may contribute to the development of countermeasures for the early lenticular changes, in order to prevent the late sequelae. Radiation damage to the lens is not life threatening but, if severe, can affect vision unless surgically corrected with synthetic lens replacement. The lens, however, may be a sensitive detector of radiation effects for other cells of ectodermal origin in the body for which there are not currently clear endpoints of low-dose radiation effects. We have investigated the dose-dependent expression of several radiation-responsive endpoints using our in vitro model of differentiating human lens epithelial cells (Blakely et al., Investigative Ophthalmology &Visual Sciences, 41(12):3898-3907, 2000). We have investigated radiation effects on several gene families that include, or relate to, DNA damage, cytokines, cell-cycle regulators, cell adhesion molecules, cell cytoskeletal function and apoptotic cell death. In this paper we will summarize some of our dose-dependent data from several radiation types, and describe the model of molecular and cellular events that we believe may be associated with precataractous events in the human lens after radiation exposure. This work was supported by NASA Grant #T-965W.

  11. 1090 nm infrared radiation at close to threshold dose induces cataract with a time delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhaohua; Schulmeister, Karl; Talebizadeh, Nooshin; Kronschläger, Martin; Söderberg, Per G

    2015-03-01

    To investigate whether infrared radiation (IRR)-induced cataract is instant or is associated with a time delay between the exposure and the onset of lens light scattering after an exposure to just above threshold dose. Six-weeks-old albino Sprague-Dawley female rats were unilaterally exposed to 197 W/cm2 IRR at 1090 nm within the dilated pupil. In the first experiment, the animals were exposed with four exposure times of 5, 8, 13 and 20 second, respectively. At 24 hr after exposure, the light scattering in both exposed and contralateral not exposed lenses was measured. Based on the first experiment, four postexposure time groups were exposed unilaterally to 1090 nm IRR of 197 W/cm2 for 8 second. At 6, 18, 55 and 168 hr after exposure, the light scattering in both lenses was measured. A 197 W/cm2 IRR-induced light scattering in the lens with exposures of at least 8 second. Further, after exposure to IRR of 197 W/cm2 for 8 second, the light-scattering increase in the lens was delayed approximately 16 hr after the exposure. There is a time delay between the exposure and the onset of cataract after exposure to close to threshold dose implicating that either near IRR cataract is photochemical or there is a time delay in the biological expression of thermally induced damage. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Improvements in clinical and functional vision and perceived visual disability after first and second eye cataract surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, D.; Patla, A.; Bullimore, M.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—To determine the improvements in clinical and functional vision and perceived visual disability after first and second eye cataract surgery.
METHODS—Clinical vision (monocular and binocular high and low contrast visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and disability glare), functional vision (face identity and expression recognition, reading speed, word acuity, and mobility orientation), and perceived visual disability (Activities of Daily Vision Scale) were measured in 25 subjects before a...

  13. Phacoemulsification in subluxated cataract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of phacoemulsification in eyes with subluxated cataract. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study comprised 22 eyes of 20 consecutive patients with subluxated cataracts of varying aetiology operated between March 1998 and March 2001. Detailed preoperative assessment included visual acuity (VA, slitlamp examination, presence of vitreous in anterior chamber, extent of subluxation, intraocular pressure (IOP and detailed fundus examination. Phacoemulsification was done to retain the natural bag support and all patients had acrylic foldable Acrysof IOL implantation either in-the-bag or by scleral fixation. Postoperative observations included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, IOP, pupillary reaction and the IOL position. Results: The aetiology of the subluxation was traumatic in 11 patients and non-traumatic in 9 patients. Fifteen were males and 5 were females. Mean follow-up was 11.7 ± 9.71 months (range 4-39. The average age was 39.15 ± 16.33 (range 5 - 74. A 2-port anterior chamber vitrectomy was performed in 6 eyes (27.2%. Capsule tension ring (CTR was implanted in 15 eyes (68.18%. Twelve eyes (54.5% had in-the-bag implants, while 5 (22.72% had scleral fixation. The remaining 5 eyes (22.72% had one haptic in-the-bag and another sutured to sclera. No major intraoperative complications were noted. Twelve eyes (54.5% had clinically and geometrically well centered IOLs while 9 eyes (40.9% had geometrically decentered IOLs. One patient was lost to follow-up. Fifteen eyes (55.55% had postoperative BCVA of 6/12 - 6/6 while 2 eyes (7.40% had BCVA of 6/18. The remaining 4 eyes (14.81% had less than 6/24 BCVA due to pre-existing posterior segment pathology. Postoperative complications included rise in IOP in 1 eye (4.54%, pupillary capture of the IOL optic in 2 eyes (9.09%; the same 2 eyes (9.09% required redialing of IOL. One eye (4.54% had to undergo refixation (one haptic was fixed to sclera year after cataract

  14. Recognizing Cataracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... age-related cataract. They recommend eating plenty of green leafy vegetables, fruits, nuts and other healthy foods. Also, don’t smoke, because smoking may speed cataract development. To screen for early signs of eye disease, Bishop recommends ...

  15. NASA study of cataract in astronauts (NASCA). Report 1: Cross-sectional study of the relationship of exposure to space radiation and risk of lens opacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chylack, Leo T; Peterson, Leif E; Feiveson, Alan H; Wear, Mary L; Manuel, F Keith; Tung, William H; Hardy, Dale S; Marak, Lisa J; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2009-07-01

    The NASA Study of Cataract in Astronauts (NASCA) is a 5-year longitudinal study of the effect of space radiation exposure on the severity/progression of nuclear, cortical and posterior subcapsular (PSC) lens opacities. Here we report on baseline data that will be used over the course of the longitudinal study. Participants include 171 consenting astronauts who flew at least one mission in space and a comparison group made up of three components: (a) 53 astronauts who had not flown in space, (b) 95 military aircrew personnel, and (c) 99 non-aircrew ground-based comparison subjects. Continuous measures of nuclear, cortical and PSC lens opacities were derived from Nidek EAS 1000 digitized images. Age, demographics, general health, nutritional intake and solar ocular exposure were measured at baseline. Astronauts who flew at least one mission were matched to comparison subjects using propensity scores based on demographic characteristics and medical history stratified by gender and smoking (ever/never). The cross-sectional data for matched subjects were analyzed by fitting customized non-normal regression models to examine the effect of space radiation on each measure of opacity. The variability and median of cortical cataracts were significantly higher for exposed astronauts than for nonexposed astronauts and comparison subjects with similar ages (P=0.015). Galactic cosmic space radiation (GCR) may be linked to increased PSC area (P=0.056) and the number of PSC centers (P=0.095). Within the astronaut group, PSC size was greater in subjects with higher space radiation doses (P=0.016). No association was found between space radiation and nuclear cataracts. Cross-sectional data analysis revealed a small deleterious effect of space radiation for cortical cataracts and possibly for PSC cataracts. These results suggest increased cataract risks at smaller radiation doses than have been reported previously.

  16. Relationship of cumulative low-level dose of ionizing radiation on human eye lens and occurrence of cataract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deolalikar, Raghavendra

    2015-01-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), issued a statement on Tissue Reaction, lowering the equivalent dose limit for eye lens for occupational exposure to 20 mSv per year. With a view to determine presence of any relationship between the cumulative low-level occupational radiation dose to the eye lens and occurrence of cataract, departmental records of the annual medical examination of employees of Narora Atomic Power Plant were examined along with the NAPS eye camps and surgical records of the employees. Analysis of the data showed no demonstrable definite relationship between the two. The analysis of the data and the observations are discussed in this paper. (author)

  17. Waiting time for cataract surgery and its influence on patient attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Frank Wan-kin; Fan, Alex Hoi; Wong, Fiona Yan-yan; Lam, Philip Tsze-ho; Yeoh, Eng-kiong; Yam, Carrie Ho-kwan; Griffiths, Sian; Lam, Dennis Shun-chiu; Congdon, Nathan

    2009-08-01

    To characterize willingness to pay for private operations and preferred waiting time among patients awaiting cataract surgery in Hong Kong. This was a cross-sectional survey. Subjects randomly selected from cataract surgical waiting lists in Hong Kong (n = 467) underwent a telephone interview based on a structured, validated questionnaire. Data were collected on private insurance coverage, preferred waiting time, amount willing to pay for surgery, and self-reported visual function and health status. Among 300 subjects completing the interview, 144 (48.2%) were 76 years of age or older, 177 (59%) were women, and mean time waiting for surgery was 17 +/- 15 months. Among 220 subjects (73.3%) willing to pay anything for surgery, the mean amount was US$552 +/- 443. With adjustment for age, education, and monthly household income, subjects willing to pay anything were less willing to wait 12 months for surgery (OR = 4.34; P = 0.002), more likely to know someone having had cataract surgery (OR = 2.20; P = 0.03), and more likely to use their own savings to pay for the surgery (OR = 2.21; P = 0.04). Subjects considering private cataract surgery, knowing people who have had cataract surgery, using nongovernment sources to pay for surgery, and having lower visual function were willing to pay more. Many patients wait significant periods for cataract surgery in Hong Kong, and are willing to pay substantial amounts for private operations. These results may have implications for other countries with cataract waiting lists.

  18. Screening of Glaucoma or Cataract Prevalence in Vitiligo Patients and Its Relationship With Periorbital Steroid Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurrum, Huma; AlGhamdi, Khalid M; Osman, Essam

    2016-01-01

    There is scarce literature connecting vitiligo and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Most literature reports that secondary complications are a direct consequence of corticosteroid treatment of vitiligo. In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of ocular problems in patients with vitiligo and to determine its association with periorbital topical corticosteroid use. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 90 patients with vitiligo. The Vitiligo European Task Force questionnaire was completed for each patient. A control group comprising 90 healthy individuals who did not have vitiligo and who were matched on age and gender was used for comparison. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed. A family history of glaucoma and the use of topical steroids were recorded. Two (2/90, 2.2%) of the patients with vitiligo had glaucoma compared with none of the individuals in the control group (P = .25). Nineteen of the 90 patients with vitiligo used periorbital steroids, and of these patients, 10.5% (2/19) developed glaucoma. The duration of periorbital corticosteroid use was 4.50 ± 2.1 years. Eighty-nine percent (17/19) of the vitiligo patients who applied the potent topical corticosteroid (class I) clobetasol propionate to the periorbital area did not develop glaucoma. In contrast, glaucoma was not observed in 79% (71/90) of the vitiligo patients who did not use steroids. Cataract, uveitis, or fundus problems were not observed in either group. The study suggests that patients who have vitiligo and use topical steroids periorbitally do not have an increased risk of glaucoma or cataracts. Future studies that have a larger sample size and use a detailed steroid use protocol are needed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Clinical oncology based upon radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    This paper discussed the biological effects of radiation as physical energy, especially those of X-ray as electromagnetic radiation, by associating the position of clinical oncology with classical radiation cell biology as well as recent molecular biology. First, it described the physical and biological effects of radiation, cell death due to radiation and recovery, radiation effects at tissue level, and location information and dosage information in the radiotherapy of cancer. It also described the territories unresolved through radiation biology, such as low-dose high-sensitivity, bystander effects, etc. (A.O.)

  20. Planned posterior assisted levitation in severe subluxated cataract: Surgical technique and clinical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tova Lifshitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the surgical technique and outcome of planned posterior assisted levitation (P-PAL in four cases of subluxated cataract. P-PAL was planned as the preferred approach in all cases. A spatula was inserted via the pars plana, the whole lens was lifted to the anterior chamber and then removed through a scleral tunnel incision. Anterior chamber intraocular lenses were implanted in all cases. All four eyes had severe subluxation of the crystalline lenses with marked phacodonesis. Two eyes had history of blunt trauma, and the other two eyes had severe pseudoexfoliation with spontaneous lens subluxation. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 2 years in three cases. The postoperative visual acuity was 20/80 or better. No intraoperative complications were observed. In conclusion, the P-PAL technique was successfully performed during cataract surgery in four eyes with severe subluxated cataracts. There were no complications over the long-term follow-up.

  1. Clinical investigation on angle-closure glaucoma patients with cataract treated by phacoemulsification combined with trabeculectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Sheng Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effectiveness of phacoemulsification with intraocular lens(IOLimplantation combined with trabeculectomy in patients with cataract and angle-closure glaucoma.METHODS: In 36 cases(46 eyesof angle-closure glaucoma with cataract, phacoemulsification with foldable IOL implantation combined with trabeculectomy was performed. Data of pre- and post-operation, including visual acuity, intraocular pressure, filtering bleb, anterior chamber depth, chamber angle, and funds were all recorded and analyzed in detail.RESULTS: During the follow-up of 3 months to 2 years,visual acuity of 43 eyes(93.5%got improved, and intraocular pressure in 44 eyes(95.7%were controlled in normal range(CONCLUSION: Phacoemulsification with IOL implantation combined with trabeculectomy is an effective and safe surgical technique for patients with angle-closure glaucoma and cataract, with satisfied control of intraocular pressure, deepening of anterior chamber, opening of anterior chamber angle, and improving visual function.

  2. The Auckland Cataract Study: co-morbidity, surgical techniques, and clinical outcomes in a public hospital service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Andrew F; Malik, Tahira Y; Grupcheva, Christina N; Fisk, Michael J; Craig, Jennifer P; McGhee, Charles N

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To prospectively assess cataract surgery in a major New Zealand public hospital by defining presenting clinical parameters and surgical and clinical outcomes in a cohort of subjects just below threshold for treatment, based upon a points based prioritisation system. Methods: The prospective observational study comprised 488 eyes of 480 subjects undergoing consecutive cataract operations at Auckland Hospital. All subjects underwent extensive ophthalmic examination before and after surgery. Details of the surgical procedure, including any intraoperative difficulties or complications, were documented. Postoperative review was performed at 1 day and 4 weeks after surgery. Demographic data, clinical outcomes, and adverse events were correlated by an independent assessor. Results: The mean age at surgery was 74.9 (SD 9.6) years with a female predominance (62%). Significant systemic disease affected 80% of subjects, with 20% of the overall cohort exhibiting diabetes mellitus. 26% of eyes exhibited coexisting ocular disease and in 7.6% this affected best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA). A mean spherical equivalent of −0.49 (1.03) D and mean BSCVA of 0.9 (0.6) log MAR units (Snellen equivalent approximately 6/48) was noted preoperatively. Local anaesthesia was employed in 99.8% of subjects (94.9% sub-Tenon's). The majority of procedures (97.3%) were small incision phacoemulsification with foldable lens implant. Complications included: 4.9% posterior capsule tears, 3.8% cystoid macular oedema, and one case (0.2%) of endophthalmitis. Mean BSCVA after surgery was 0.1 (0.2) log MAR units (6/7.5 Snellen equivalent), with a mean spherical equivalent of −0.46 (0.89) D, and was 6/12 or better in 88% of all eyes. A drop in BSCVA, thought to be directly attributable to the surgical intervention, was recorded in a small percentage of eyes (1.5%) after surgery. Conclusion: This study provides a representative assessment of the management of cataract in the New

  3. Cataract Vision Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology ... Are Cataracts? Pediatric Cataracts Cataract Diagnosis and Treatment Cataract Surgery IOL Implants: Lens Replacement After Cataracts ...

  4. The clinical characteristics of the radiation pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fuzheng; Wang Mingzhi; Chen Jianjiang; Wang Zhongxiang; Mao Yongjie

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the clinical characteristics of the radiation pneumonia, sum the experience and the basis of the radiation pneumonia for its prevention and treatment. Method: Twenty three cases with radiation pneumonia from 1991 to 1998 were retrospectively analysed. Its clinical manifestation, chest X-ray, thoracic CT and blood routine were evaluated. Result: The acute manifestation was fever, cough, dyspnea, and the chronic manifestation was cough and insufficiency of pulmonary function. Conclusion: The prevention of radiation pneumonia is more important, high dose cortical steroids and antibiotics were prescribed during the acute stage and the chronic radiation pneumonia is irreversible

  5. The ''Clinton-Cataract'' potential of Norfolk County--how significant is it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDougal, T A

    1973-01-01

    The greatest impact upon the natural gas industry in Norfolk County by future urbanization, is the increase of potentially new markets for distributing utility. In 1958 Norfolk County was a net exporter of natural gas as it produced 1.479 billion cu ft and only consumed .316 billion for a net export of 1.163 billion cu ft. Thirteen years later in 1971, Norfolk produced 1.797 billion cu ft, 43% of which was supplied from Lake Erie, and consumed 2,900 billion cu ft for a net import of 1.103 billion cu ft. With the increased stress on clean air within the heavy industrial sector, the demand for natural gas as a non-pollutant fuel should increase substantially in the Nanticoke industrial region. Some of the increased demand for natural gas in the 3 market sectors could be met through the development of the 766,712 acres which have not been tested. As an economic spin-off, the improved storage potential of the ''Clinton-Cataract'' reservoirs through high energy fracturing could be utilized as local gas storage reservoirs to meet peak load market demands.

  6. TU-CD-303-04: Radiation-Induced Long Distance Tumor Cell Migration Into and Out of the Radiation Field and Its Clinical Implication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, E. [Stanford University (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Recent advances in cancer research have shed new light on the complex processes of how therapeutic radiation initiates changes at cellular, tissue, and system levels that may lead to clinical effects. These new advances may transform the way we use radiation to combat certain types of cancers. For the past two decades many technological advancements in radiation therapy have been largely based on the hypothesis that direct radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks cause cell death and thus tumor control and normal tissue damage. However, new insights have elucidated that in addition to causing cellular DNA damage, localized therapeutic radiation also initiates cascades of complex downstream biological responses in tissue that extend far beyond where therapeutic radiation dose is directly deposited. For instance, studies show that irradiated dying tumor cells release tumor antigens that can lead the immune system to a systemic anti-cancer attack throughout the body of cancer patient; targeted irradiation to solid tumor also increases the migration of tumor cells already in bloodstream, the seeds of potential metastasis. Some of the new insights may explain the long ago discovered but still unexplained non-localized radiation effects (bystander effect and abscopal effect) and the efficacy of spatially fractionated radiation therapy (microbeam radiation therapy and GRID therapy) where many “hot” and “cold” spots are intentionally created throughout the treatment volume. Better understanding of the mechanisms behind the non-localized radiation effects creates tremendous opportunities to develop new and integrated cancer treatment strategies that are based on radiotherapy, immunology, and chemotherapy. However, in the multidisciplinary effort to advance new radiobiology, there are also tremendous challenges including a lack of multidisciplinary researchers and imaging technologies for the microscopic radiation-induced responses. A better grasp of the essence of

  7. TU-CD-303-04: Radiation-Induced Long Distance Tumor Cell Migration Into and Out of the Radiation Field and Its Clinical Implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in cancer research have shed new light on the complex processes of how therapeutic radiation initiates changes at cellular, tissue, and system levels that may lead to clinical effects. These new advances may transform the way we use radiation to combat certain types of cancers. For the past two decades many technological advancements in radiation therapy have been largely based on the hypothesis that direct radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks cause cell death and thus tumor control and normal tissue damage. However, new insights have elucidated that in addition to causing cellular DNA damage, localized therapeutic radiation also initiates cascades of complex downstream biological responses in tissue that extend far beyond where therapeutic radiation dose is directly deposited. For instance, studies show that irradiated dying tumor cells release tumor antigens that can lead the immune system to a systemic anti-cancer attack throughout the body of cancer patient; targeted irradiation to solid tumor also increases the migration of tumor cells already in bloodstream, the seeds of potential metastasis. Some of the new insights may explain the long ago discovered but still unexplained non-localized radiation effects (bystander effect and abscopal effect) and the efficacy of spatially fractionated radiation therapy (microbeam radiation therapy and GRID therapy) where many “hot” and “cold” spots are intentionally created throughout the treatment volume. Better understanding of the mechanisms behind the non-localized radiation effects creates tremendous opportunities to develop new and integrated cancer treatment strategies that are based on radiotherapy, immunology, and chemotherapy. However, in the multidisciplinary effort to advance new radiobiology, there are also tremendous challenges including a lack of multidisciplinary researchers and imaging technologies for the microscopic radiation-induced responses. A better grasp of the essence of

  8. PROTON RADIATION THERAPY: CLINICAL APPLICATION OPPORTUNITIES AND RESEARCH PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Zabelin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the review of literature concerning use of proton beam therapy in treatment of oncology. The staticized data on comparison of effi ciency of this method at an eye melanoma are lit. Advantages of proton therapy on the level of local control and depression of frequency of development of the radio induced cataract are refl ected in the provided data. In evident material the technology of preparation and carrying out radiation of an eye is shortly covered with a fascicle of protons. The experience of use of proton therapy of tumors of a skull base got for the last several decades, showed good results. Physical properties of a fascicle of protons allow to achieve the maximum dose conformality, having lowered, thereby, a radial load on the next crucial anatomical structures. The presented material on an oncopediatrics shows insuffi cient knowledge of scientists concerning advantage of a fascicle of protons over modern methods of photon radiation. There are only preliminary clinical results concerning generally of treatment of cranyopharyngiomas. At cancer therapy of a mammary gland, proton therapy showed the best local control of postoperative recurrent tumors, and also depression of a dose load on the contralateral party. The available results of the retrospective analysis of clinical data in the University medical center of Lome Linda, testify to advantages of proton therapy of the localized prostate cancer. The lack of a biochemical recurrence and a local tumoral progression within 5 years after radiation was shown. The data obtained from experience of use of proton radiation therapy with passively scattered fascicle for cancer therapy of a prostate at an early stage showed the admixed results in comparison with modern methods of radiation therapy with the modulated intensity. In treatment of non-small cell cancer of mild advantage of proton therapy aren’t absolutely proved yet. There are data on extreme toxicity of a combination

  9. Clinical feature of disturbance in the lower gastrointestinal tract development after radiation to tumor in the pelvis and its countermeasure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Sadahito; Sunagawa, Shigenobu; Matsumura, Shigejiro; Masaoka, Takao; Uegaki, Kazuo

    1975-01-01

    The clinical features and the countermeasure were examined on 40 disturbances in the lower gastrointestinal tract developed after radiotherapy of cancer of the uterus, the ovary and the penis. Two to nine months after the irradiation with 10,000 R of Telecobalt and about 5,000 mch of 60 Co, complications such as melena, stenosis and fistula formation were developed. Seventeen of the 40 patients complained of melena and were treated as outpatient. Of the rest 23 patients, 11 were radiation proctitis with a large amount of melena, 9 were recto-sigmoid stenosis, 2 were rectovaginal fistula and 1 was fecal fistula formation. These patients received internal therapy composed of transfusion, hemostatic agent, steroid, solcoseryl suppository, antiulcerative drug and vitamin. However, the prognosis of them, particularly of the patients who were exposed a large amount of radiation, was very poor and the death rate reached 9 to 43%. (Kanao, N.)

  10. Clinical application of femtosecond laser assisted cataract surgery combined with triple-focus intraocular lens implantation in the treatment of cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Song Gao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the effect of femtosecond laser assisted cataract surgery combined with triple-focus intraocular lens implantation in the treatment of cataract. METHODS: Totally 86 cases(106 eyesof patients with double cataract in our hospital from January 2016 to January 2017 were selected, including 49 cases(59 eyeswere set as the observation group(treated with femtosecond laser assisted phacoemulsification combined with triple-focus intraocular lens implantation, and 37 cases(47 eyeswere set as the control group(received traditional phacoemulsification combined with triple-focus intraocular lens implantation. Corneal endothelial cell density, cumulative dissipated energy(CDE, distant and near visual accommodation before and after operation were compared between the two groups, postoperative complications were observed. RESULTS: The preoperative corneal endothelial cell density of two groups had no significant difference(P>0.05. The corneal endothelial cell density of two groups significantly decreased at postoperative 1wk, with statistic significance within groups(PPPPPP>0.05. The incidence of glare and halo in the observation group was 10.2% and 8.5% in the control group, and are in the patients whose age was above 60 years old, there was no significant difference between the two groups(P>0.05. CONCLUSION: Femtosecond laser assisted cataract surgery combined with triple-focus intraocular lens implantation in the treatment of cataract can not only improve curative effect, but also provide high safety, while the adverse events including glare, halo and other adverse visual circumstances should be considered after triple-focus intraocular lens implantation.

  11. The Auckland Cataract Study: 2 year postoperative assessment of aspects of clinical, visual, corneal topographic and satisfaction outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A M; Sachdev, N; Wong, T; Riley, A F; Grupcheva, C N; McGhee, C N

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To assess clinical, visual, computerised corneal topographic, and subjective satisfaction with visual acuity, in a cohort of subjects 2 years after phacoemulsification surgery in a public hospital in New Zealand. Methods: Prospective study of a representative sample of 97 subjects (20%) randomly selected from 480 subjects in the original Auckland Cataract Study (ACS) cohort. The clinical assessment protocol was identical to the ACS and included an extensive questionnaire to enable direct comparisons to be made between the two groups. Results: The study population was predominantly female (66%) with a mean age of 76.3 (SD 9.9) years. New systemic and ocular disease affected 18.4% and 10.3% of subjects respectively, and 10.3% required referral to either a general practitioner (2.1%) or ophthalmologist (8.2%). Mean best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) was 0.2 (0.2) logMAR units (6/9 Snellen equivalent), with mean spherical equivalent −0.37 (1.01) dioptres (D) and astigmatism −1.07 (0.70) D 2 years postoperatively, compared to mean BSCVA 0.1 (0.2) logMAR units (6/7.5 Snellen equivalent), spherical equivalent −0.59 (1.07) D, and astigmatism −1.14 (0.77) D 4 weeks after surgery. 94.9% of subjects retained a BSCVA of 6/12 or better, irrespective of pre-existing ocular disease. The overall posterior capsule opacification (PCO) rate was 20.4% and this was visually insignificant in all but 3.1% of eyes that had already undergone Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomy. Orbscan II elevation technology demonstrated corneal stability 2 years after uncomplicated phacoemulsification. Although corneal astigmatism was eliminated in approximately half of the subjects 1 month postoperatively, astigmatism showed a tendency to regress towards the preoperative level with local corneal thickening at the site of incision 2 years after cataract surgery. Of fellow eyes, 61.2% had undergone cataract surgery. Overall, 75.3% of subjects were moderately to very satisfied with their

  12. A peer review process as part of the implementation of clinical pathways in radiation oncology: Does it improve compliance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Brian J; Heron, Dwight E; Beriwal, Sushil

    Clinical pathways are patient management plans that standardize evidence-based practices to ensure high-quality and cost-effective medical care. Implementation of a pathway is a collaborative process in our network, requiring the active involvement of physicians. This approach promotes acceptance of pathway recommendations, although a peer review process is necessary to ensure compliance and to capture and approve off-pathway selections. We investigated the peer review process and factors associated with time to completion of peer review. Our cancer center implemented radiation oncology pathways for every disease site throughout a large, integrated network. Recommendations are written based upon national guidelines, published literature, and institutional experience with evidence evaluated hierarchically in order of efficacy, toxicity, and then cost. Physicians enter decisions into an online, menu-driven decision support tool that integrates with medical records. Data were collected from the support tool and included the rate of on- and off-pathway selections, peer review decisions performed by disease site directors, and time to complete peer review. A total of 6965 treatment decisions were entered in 2015, and 605 (8.7%) were made off-pathway and were subject to peer review. The median time to peer review decision was 2 days (interquartile range, 0.2-6.8). Factors associated with time to peer review decision >48 hours on univariate analysis include disease site (P peer review (P 48 hours. Clinical pathways are an integral tool for standardizing evidence-based care throughout our large, integrated network, with 91.3% of all treatment decisions being made as per pathway. The peer review process was feasible, with peer review of treatment decisions encourages compliance with clinical pathway recommendations. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical characteristics of subacute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Benrong; Ye Genyao; Huang Shimin

    1991-01-01

    The clinical characteristics, diagnosis and differential diagnosis of subacute radiation sickness are analysed and discussed in this paper on the basis of clinical data from cases in a 137 Cs source accident in Mudanjiang and of a review of the literature. We consider that the subacute radiation sickness is a whole body disease caused by comparatively large dose of continuous or intermittent external irradiation in several weeks or months. it must be differentiated from acute radiation sickness, chronic radiation sickness, idiopathic aplastic anemia and other hematological diseases, such as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome

  14. Acute traumatic cataracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titelbaum, D.S.; Grossman, R.I.; Lloyd, W.C.; Cohen, E.J.; Atlas, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports orbital CT scans of 15 patients with clinically diagnoses traumatic cataracts retrospectively reviewed to determine the presence of radiographically detectable lens abnormalities. Definite lens swelling was clinically observed in a lease five cases. Eleven patients, scanned 4 hours of 3 days after injury, revealed visible and measured decreased CT density of the cataractous lens compared with the normal contralateral lens (average mean difference, 28 HU), suggesting acute lens swelling. In one patient, lens morphologic changes but not HU differences were found, probably due to superimposed hemorrhage. Three patients, scanned 3-8 hours after injury, revealed no detectable lens abnormality. The findings suggest that CT is potentially capable of identifying traumatic cataracts

  15. Paediatric cataract: challenges and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr P Vijayalakshmi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia should always be anticipated in children with unilateral cataract, asymmetrical bilateral cataracts (or where there is a delay between the first and second eye operation, or a delay of more than a year between diagnosis/ detection and surgery, cataracts with anisometropia or traumatic cataracts with corneal scars. When amblyopia is detected, occlusion therapy (eye patching must be instituted at the earliest opportunity. The patching regimen is the same with any strabismic amblyopia and sometimes needs to be aggressive at the start. It is crucial to explain the need for patching to the parents, since compliance is the greatest obstacle to the success of amblyopia treatment.

  16. Adrenomyeloneuropathy associated with congenital cataract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komori, Tetsuo; Nagashima, Toshiko; Hirose, Kazuhiko; Tanabe, Hitoshi; Tsubaki, Tadao

    1988-01-01

    Two cases of adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) in a family and the results of their MRI study are reported. Case 1, a 24-year-old male proband, was admitted to our hospital because of gait disturbance for three years. Bilateral cataracts were pointed out at birth, which required left side lenticotomy at age four. Neurological examinations on admission revealed a marked spastic paraparesis with pathological reflexes and a mild hypesthesia in the distal part of the left leg. No abnormal findings were detected in X-ray studies on the spine and spinal cord, electromyography and nerve conduction test. Serum very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) levels were apparently elevated, and the serum cortisol response to ACTH was low. Case 2, a 53-year-old woman, is the mother of Case 1 having a complaint of gait disturbance since age 51. She presented a mild spastic paraparesis with localized hypesthesia in the distal part of the both legs. She also had bilateral congenital cataracts. Her serum VLCFAs analysis indicated the intermediate levels between that of AMN and the normal control. Adrenal functions were normal. Cranial MRI (TR 2,000 msec/TE 80 msec) study disclosed high signal intensity areas in bilateral internal capsules in Case 1. These findings, suggesting the pathological change of dysmyelination, seemed to be well compatible with the clinical pictures. With these clinical findings and the laboratory data, these two cases were diagnosed as AMN. In addition, association of congenital cataract with AMN in both cases was characteristic in this family, which hasn't been reported in the literature. On regarding the genetic background of these two disorders, AMN and congenital cataract, it was speculated that each gene could be closely located on the same or very adjacent locus, possibly on Xq. (author)

  17. Human eye cataract microstructure modeling and its effect on simulated retinal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wen-Shuang; Chang, Chung-Hao; Horng, Chi-Ting; Yao, Hsin-Yu; Sun, Han-Ying; Huang, Shu-Fang; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2017-02-01

    We designed a crystalline microstructure during cataract lesions and calculated the aberration value of the eye by using ray trace modeling to identify the corresponding spherical aberration, coma aberration, and trefoil aberration value under different pathological-change degrees. The mutual relationship between microstructure and aberration was then discussed using these values. Calculation results showed that with increased layer number of microstructure, the influence of aberration value on spherical aberration was the greatest. In addition, the influence of a relatively compact microstructure on spherical aberration and coma aberration was small, but that on trefoil aberration was great.

  18. Radiation dose monitoring in the clinical routine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guberina, Nika [UK Essen (Germany). Radiology

    2017-04-15

    Here we describe the first clinical experiences regarding the use of an automated radiation dose management software to monitor the radiation dose of patients during routine examinations. Many software solutions for monitoring radiation dose have emerged in the last decade. The continuous progress in radiological techniques, new scan features, scanner generations and protocols are the primary challenge for radiation dose monitoring software systems. To simulate valid dose calculations, radiation dose monitoring systems have to follow current trends and stay constantly up-to-date. The dose management software is connected to all devices at our institute and conducts automatic data acquisition and radiation dose calculation. The system incorporates 18 virtual phantoms based on the Cristy phantom family, estimating doses in newborns to adults. Dose calculation relies on a Monte Carlo simulation engine. Our first practical experiences demonstrate that the software is capable of dose estimation in the clinical routine. Its implementation and use have some limitations that can be overcome. The software is promising and allows assessment of radiation doses, like organ and effective doses according to ICRP 60 and ICRP 103, patient radiation dose history and cumulative radiation doses. Furthermore, we are able to determine local diagnostic reference doses. The radiation dose monitoring software systems can facilitate networking between hospitals and radiological departments, thus refining radiation doses and implementing reference doses at substantially lower levels.

  19. Interaction of Coenzyme Q10 with Liposomes and its Impact on Suppression of Selenite – Induced Experimental Cataract

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    Medhat Wahba Shafaa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To stress the influence of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 on the structural properties of liposomes as model membranes and to investigate the possible role of CoQ10 or CoQ10 doped in liposomes when topically instilled as eye drops, in preventing cataract. Methods: The molecular interaction between liposomes and Coenzyme Q10 was examined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Rat pups were randomly divided into six groups comprising 15 pups. Group (1, control group. Group (2, untreated model of cataract, received a single subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite. Instillation of pure CoQ10 (Group 3, CoQ10 encapsulated into neutral (Group 4, positive (Group 5 and negative (Group 6 Dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC liposomes on the opacification of lenses in rat pups after sodium selenite injection was topically received. Results: The incorporated CoQ10 is probably associated with lipid bilayers where it interacts to a large extent and perturbs them. This results in strong broadening and shift to lower temperature (94°C of the major characteristic endothermic peak of pure DPPC at 105°C. FTIR showed that the incorporation of CoQ10 into DPPC induces a conformational change in the polar region of DPPC. Ophthalmological and Biochemical studies revealed that CoQ10 alone followed by negatively charged liposomes doped with CoQ10 are more effective in reducing the progress of cataract as well as improving the lens soluble proteins levels and total antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: The interactions of CoQ10 with membrane systems may contribute to a better understanding of CoQ10 physiological properties and the development of therapeutically advanced systems.

  20. Interim report of the JHPS expert committee on radiation protection of the lens of the eye (1). Overview of the lens, radiogenic cataract, and equivalent dose limit for the lens newly recommended by the ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akahane, Keiichi; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Iimoto, Takeshi; Ichiji, Takeshi; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki; Iwai, Satoshi; Ohguchi, Hiroyuki; Ohno, Kazuko; Yamauchi, Chiyo; Tsujimura, Norio; Hotta, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Tadashi; Yokoyama, Sumi

    2014-01-01

    In April 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) issued the statement on tissue reactions. This stimulated interest in many countries. The Expert Committee on Radiation Protection of the Lens of the Eye was established in the Japanese Health Physics Society, and in April 2013, started discussion about the international developments and recent studies related to the dosimetry of the lens of the eye. This committee now publishes the interim report consisting of parts I-VI. Of these, this Part I overviews the structure of the eye and lens, cataract types and the scientific evidence of its new dose threshold and equivalent dose limit newly recommended by the ICRP. (author)

  1. Radiation acoustics and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyamshev, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation acoustics is a new branch of acoustics, developing on the boundary of acoustics, nuclear physics, elementary particles and high-energy physics. Its fundamentals are laying in the research of acoustical effects due to the interaction of penetrating radiation with matter. The study of radiation-acoustical effects leads to the new opportunities in the penetration radiation research (acoustical detection, radiation-acoustical dosimetry), study of the physical parameters of matter, in a solution of some applied problems of nondestructive testing, and also for the radiation-acoustical influence on physical and chemical structure of the matter. Results of theoretical and experimental investigations are given. Different mechanisms of the sound generation by penetrating radiation of liquids and solids are considered. Some applications - the radiation acoustical microscopy and visualisation, the acoustical detection of high energy X-ray particles and possibility of using of high energy neutrino beams in geoacoustics - are discussed

  2. The aqueous humour antioxidative capacity in different types and color of the age-related cataract

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    Žorić Lepša

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Oxidative stress results from increased oxidative processes, decreased antioxidative protection, or both processes simultaneously. Photooxidative stress, as a form of oxidative stress, induced by the energy of solar radiation, today is considered as crucial in the age-related cataractogenesis. Other known and unknown, endogenous and egsogenous factors that contribute to the oxidative stress intensity, can influence the cataract type and brunescence. Thus the oxidative stress intensity and its form might determine the cataract type and brunescence, and also make the efforts in cataract prevention more complex. Hence, the objective of the present paper was to investigate the current amount of antioxidative capacity in aqueous humour during the cataract genesis of different types and pigmentation of cataract. Methods. Transversal review of 80 samples of humour aqueous obtained during extracapsular cataract extraction. Aqueouses were analyzed by tiobarbituric acid (TBA method for the total antioxidant activity estimation, expressed as %iMDA, and by using 0.1 ml of aqueous. Results. The mixed type of cataract showed the statistically significantly lower values of the intensities of antioxidative protection in aqueous humour compared to cortical and nuclear cataracts (p < 0.001, respectively. Between pure nuclear and cortical cataracts we found the small differences of the investigated parameter, but they pointed to the decreased level of antioxidative protection, i.e. the increased intensity of the aqueous humour oxidative stress in the cortical cataract type. A significant correlation between the cortical cataract maturation and the %iMDA (p < 0.05 was found. Conclusions. The role of the oxidative stress, here expressed as the antioxidative capacity of aqueous humour, could not be the same for all the cataract types. The lower level of antioxidative protection of aqueous in brunescent and mixed cataracts may point to the higher

  3. Radiation-induced eye lens changes and risk for cataract in interventional cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciraj-Bjelac, O; Rehani, M; Minamoto, A; Sim, K H; Liew, H B; Vano, E

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have reported a significant increase in eye lens opacities among staff in the cardiac catheterization laboratory but indicated further studies are needed to confirm the findings. To evaluate the prevalence of opacities in eyes of cardiologists, radiographers and nurses working in interventional cardiology. The eyes of 52 staff in interventional cardiology facilities and 34 age- and sex-matched unexposed controls were screened in a cardiology conference held in Kuala Lumpur by dilated slit-lamp examination, and posterior lens changes were graded. Individual cumulative lens X-ray exposures were calculated from responses to a questionnaire in terms of workload and working practice. The prevalence of posterior lens opacities among interventional cardiologists was 53%, while in nurses and radiographers it was 45%. Corresponding relative risks were 2.6 (95% CI: 1.2-5.4) and 2.2 (95% CI: 0.98-4.9), for interventional cardiologists and support staff, respectively. This study confirms a statistically significant increase in radiation-associated posterior lens changes in the eyes of interventional cardiology staff. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Cerebral gigantism (Sotos' syndrome) and cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, H; Price, R L; Lonsdale, D

    1978-01-01

    A five-year-old girl with cerebral gigantism (Sotos' syndrome) and cataracts is described. Sotos' syndrome, characterized by generalized gigantism with normal endocrine studies has rarely been reported with ocular abnormalities and never with cataracts. It is important to study any child with cataracts for systemic disease.

  5. Radiation therapy for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: Dose-volumetric analysis and its clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyeon Won; Kim, Tae Hyun; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Chan Gyoo; Lee, Jong Yeul; Cho, Soo Jeong; Eom, Hyeon Seok; Moon, Sung Ho; Kim, Dae Yong

    2016-01-01

    To assess the clinical outcomes of radiotherapy (RT) using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) for patients with gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma to evaluate the effectiveness of involved field RT with moderate-dose and to evaluate the benefit of 3D-CRT comparing with 2D-RT. Between July 2003 and March 2015, 33 patients with stage IE and IIE gastric MALT lymphoma received RT were analyzed. Of 33 patients, 17 patients (51.5%) were Helicobacter pylori (HP) negative and 16 patients (48.5%) were HP positive but refractory to HP eradication (HPE). The 2D-RT (n = 14) and 3D-CRT (n = 19) were performed and total dose was 30.6 Gy/17 fractions. Of 11 patients who RT planning data were available, dose-volumetric parameters between 2D-RT and 3D-CRT plans was compared. All patients reached complete remission (CR) eventually and median time to CR was 3 months (range, 1 to 15 months). No local relapse occurred and one patient died with second primary malignancy. Tumor response, survival, and toxicity were not significantly different between 2D-RT and 3D-CRT (p > 0.05, each). In analysis for dose-volumetric parameters, Dmax and CI for PTV were significantly lower in 3D-CRT plans than 2D-RT plans (p < 0.05, each) and Dmean and V15 for right kidney and Dmean for left kidney were significantly lower in 3D-CRT than 2D-RT (p < 0.05, each). Our data suggested that involved field RT with moderate-dose for gastric MALT lymphoma could be promising and 3D-CRT could be considered to improve the target coverage and reduce radiation dose to the both kidneys

  6. Radiation therapy for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: Dose-volumetric analysis and its clinical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyeon Won; Kim, Tae Hyun; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Chan Gyoo; Lee, Jong Yeul; Cho, Soo Jeong; Eom, Hyeon Seok; Moon, Sung Ho; Kim, Dae Yong [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To assess the clinical outcomes of radiotherapy (RT) using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) for patients with gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma to evaluate the effectiveness of involved field RT with moderate-dose and to evaluate the benefit of 3D-CRT comparing with 2D-RT. Between July 2003 and March 2015, 33 patients with stage IE and IIE gastric MALT lymphoma received RT were analyzed. Of 33 patients, 17 patients (51.5%) were Helicobacter pylori (HP) negative and 16 patients (48.5%) were HP positive but refractory to HP eradication (HPE). The 2D-RT (n = 14) and 3D-CRT (n = 19) were performed and total dose was 30.6 Gy/17 fractions. Of 11 patients who RT planning data were available, dose-volumetric parameters between 2D-RT and 3D-CRT plans was compared. All patients reached complete remission (CR) eventually and median time to CR was 3 months (range, 1 to 15 months). No local relapse occurred and one patient died with second primary malignancy. Tumor response, survival, and toxicity were not significantly different between 2D-RT and 3D-CRT (p > 0.05, each). In analysis for dose-volumetric parameters, Dmax and CI for PTV were significantly lower in 3D-CRT plans than 2D-RT plans (p < 0.05, each) and Dmean and V15 for right kidney and Dmean for left kidney were significantly lower in 3D-CRT than 2D-RT (p < 0.05, each). Our data suggested that involved field RT with moderate-dose for gastric MALT lymphoma could be promising and 3D-CRT could be considered to improve the target coverage and reduce radiation dose to the both kidneys.

  7. Etiopathogenesis of cataract: An appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun B Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural eye lens is a crystalline substance to produce a clear passage for light. Cataract is opacity within the clear lens of the eye and is the dominant cause of socio-medical problem i.e., blindness worldwide. The only available treatment of cataract is surgery. However, insufficient surgical facilities in poor and developing countries and post-operative complications inspire researchers to find out other modes of treatment for cataract. In this review, an attempt has been made to appraise various etiological factors of cataract to make their perception clear to build up counterpart treatment. Present study is an assortment of various available literatures and electronic information in view of cataract etiopathogenesis. Various risk factors have been identified in development of cataracts. They can be classified in to genetic factors, ageing (systemic diseases, nutritional and trace metals deficiencies, smoking, oxidative stress etc., traumatic, complicated (inflammatory and degenerative diseases of eye, metabolic (diabetes, galactosemia etc., toxic substances including drugs abuses, alcohol etc., radiation (ultraviolet, electromagnetic waves etc. are implicated as significant risk factors in the development of cataract.

  8. Clinical features of radiation retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabuchi, Shoko; Oda, Itsuo; Okawa, Tomohiko

    1977-01-01

    The clinical features of 25 cases with radiation retinopathy are described. Retinopathy was induced following therapeutic irradiation of paraobital malignancies with megavoltage Linac x-ray of 3,000 rads or more. Retinal vessels, particularly the proximal portion of retinal arteries, seemed to be the primary site of damage due to radiation. According to the type of lesion and dosage, fundus features simulated papillitis, retinal angiosclerosis, or hard exudates due to capillary obliteration. Acute obstruction of the central retinal artery and ischemic optic neuropathy could result from heavy irradiation of over 5,000 rads. (Evans, J.)

  9. Influence of taurine on the dynamics of the development of experimental cataracts in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorenko, B.S.; Kabachenko, A.N.; Yartsev, E.I.; Kolesnikov, Yu.A.; Vajnshtejn, E.S.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of taurine on the development of radiation cataracts in white raceless rats and mice of the F1 line, the prophylactic taurine effect on the frequency of radiation cataracts as well as the therapeutical effectiveness of taurine and vita-jodurol were examined under comparative aspects. The development of cataracts was induced by whole-body irradiation with 645 MeV protons and 60 Co gamma radiation in doses of 100, 200 and 300 rad as well as by local irradiation of the head with protons of the same energy and a dose of 1,000 rad. It is shown that prophylactic instillation of a 4% taurine solution in the course of 2 to 4 weeks leads to a significant decrease of cataract frequency, to partial regression of cataracts at the initial stage, and to retardation of ripening. The application of taurine eye-drops during one month after irradiation leads to an attenuated cataractogenic radiation effect. Vita-jorudol has no therapeutic effect on the radiation cataract. (author)

  10. Diabetic Macular Edema at the time of Cataract Surgery trial: a prospective, randomized clinical trial of intravitreous bevacizumab versus triamcinolone in patients with diabetic macular oedema at the time of cataract surgery - preliminary 6 month results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lyndell L; Morrison, Julie L; Constantinou, Marios; Rogers, Sophie; Sandhu, Sukhpal S; Wickremasinghe, Sanjeewa S; Kawasaki, Ryo; Al-Qureshi, Salmaan

    2016-05-01

    To compare visual and anatomical outcomes between intravitreous bevacizumab (BVB, Avastin) and triamcinolone (TA, Triesence) when administered at the time of cataract surgery in patients with diabetic macular oedema (DME). Prospective, single-masked, randomized clinical trial at The Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, Melbourne. Patients with clinically significant cataract and either centre-involving DME or DME treated within the previous 24 months. Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive intravitreous BVB 1.25 mg or TA 4 mg during cataract surgery, and at subsequent review if required over 6 months. Change in central macular thickness (CMT) and best corrected visual acuity at 6 months. Forty-one patients (mean age 66.4 years, 73.2% male) were recruited. Visual acuity and CMT were similar between groups at baseline (P > 0.2).After six months, both groups gained vision (mean +21.4 letters in TA group P < 0.0001, +12.5 letters in BVB, P = 0.002), with no significant difference between groups (P = 0.085). In addition, 60.9% of eyes receiving TA achieved a VA of ≥6/12 compared to 73.3% in the BVB group (P = 0.501). However, only TA was associated with a sustained reduction in CMT (-43.8-µm reduction TA vs. +37.3-µm increase BVB, P = 0.006 over 6 months). Following surgery, additional injections were required in 70.6% of participants in the BVB group, compared to 16.7% in the TA group (P < 0.0001). Three patients in the TA group experienced a rise of IOP over 21 mmHg (12.5%) during the 6-month follow-up; BVB had no cases (P = 0.130). There were no cases of endophthalmitis in either group. When administered at the time of cataract surgery in patients with DME, at 6 months both TA and BVB improve visual acuity; however, only TA results in a sustained reduction in CMT. Further follow-up will determine whether this translates into better long-term visual outcomes in the TA group. © 2016 Royal Australian and New

  11. Efficacy of biodegradable curcumin nanoparticles in delaying cataract in diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grama, Charitra N; Suryanarayana, Palla; Patil, Madhoosudan A; Raghu, Ganugula; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Kumar, M N V Ravi; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin, the active principle present in the yellow spice turmeric, has been shown to exhibit various pharmacological actions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anti-carcinogenic activities. Previously we have reported that dietary curcumin delays diabetes-induced cataract in rats. However, low peroral bioavailability is a major limiting factor for the success of clinical utilization of curcumin. In this study, we have administered curcumin encapsulated nanoparticles in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic cataract model. Oral administration of 2 mg/day nanocurcumin was significantly more effective than curcumin in delaying diabetic cataracts in rats. The significant delay in progression of diabetic cataract by nanocurcumin is attributed to its ability to intervene the biochemical pathways of disease progression such as protein insolubilization, polyol pathway, protein glycation, crystallin distribution and oxidative stress. The enhanced performance of nanocurcumin can be attributed probably to its improved oral bioavailability. Together, the results of the present study demonstrate the potential of nanocurcumin in managing diabetic cataract.

  12. Aging and Health: Cataracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Problems Glaucoma Macular Degeneration Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Cataracts Basic Facts & Information ... Are Cataracts? Cataracts are a common result of aging and occur frequently in older people. About one ...

  13. Clinical data for radiation embryology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeister, K.; Waesser, S.

    1985-01-01

    In 1967 a prospective clinical study was started with the aim of providing optimum counselling for married couples who desire continuation of a pregnancy despite radiation exposure at an early stage as a result of X-ray diagnostics. Recommendations were devised as to whether an interruption of pregnancy should be applied for or not. These results were discussed repeatedly. Within the framework of the prospective study, embryological examinations were made in cases of interruption of pregnancy, and clinical and genetic examinations in cases of children who had been subject to radiation stress in utero. Up to July 1st 1984 nearly 200 cases of consultations have been or are being surveyed. The children were subjected to selected longterm examinations of up to 13 years. The results of cytogenetic, biochemical -genetic, clinical, and other examinations are considered and special charactristics of interesting cases are discussed. The conclusion was drawn that the recommendation to our patients to continue pregnancy in cases of exposure to radiation in utero below 0.1 Sv, was right. Furthermore the question arose of whether this dose limit could be increased. The study will be continued. (orig.)

  14. The communication of the radiation risk from CT in relation to its clinical benefit in the era of personalized medicine. Pt. 1. The radiation risk from CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westra, Sjirk J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    The theory of radiation carcinogenesis has been debated for decades. Most estimates of the radiation risks from CT have been based on extrapolations from the lifespan follow-up study of atomic bomb survivors and on follow-up studies after therapeutic radiation, using the linear no-threshold theory. Based on this, many population-based projections of induction of future cancers by CT have been published that should not be used to estimate the risk to an individual because of their large margin of error. This has changed recently with the publication of three large international cohort follow-up studies, which link observed cancers to CT scans received in childhood. A fourth ongoing multi-country study in Europe is expected to have enough statistical power to address the limitations of the prior studies. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) report released in 2013 specifically addresses variability in response of the pediatric population exposed to ionizing radiation. Most authorities now conclude that there is enough evidence to link future cancers to the radiation exposure from a single CT scan in childhood but that cancer risk estimates for individuals must be based on the specifics of exposure, age at exposure and absorbed dose to certain tissues. Generalizations are not appropriate, and the communication of the CT risk to individuals should be conducted within the framework of personalized medicine. (orig.)

  15. Role of lipid peroxidation in pathogenesis of senile cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisić Bojana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background /Aim. Cataract is a structural, biochemical and optical change in the eye lens, which changes transmission and refraction of light rays reducing keenness and clarity of a figure on the retina. Its occurrence is highest in older people, over the age of 65 (45.9%, thus a certain degree of opacification exists practically in all people over the 70. Our research was directed to measuring of lipid peroxidation products in cataract lenses involved in early stages of cataractogenesis through oxidative stress and in the development of mature cataract. Methods. Clinical and biochemical research was carried out in 101 patients with cataract, 46 women and 55 men. The average age of the group was 72.47 (ґ = 7.98. According to the cataract maturity degree the patients were classified into two groups as follows: cataracta senilis incipiens (n = 41 and cataracta senilis matura (n = 60. Measuring of diene conjugates was carried out by spectrophotometer. Fluorescent lipid peroxidation products were measured by a spectrofluorophotometer, and malondialdehyde (MDA concentration was measured by colorimeter as a product of a reaction with thiobarbituric acid (TBA. Result. Significantly higher diene conjugated concentration in lenses was measured in the patients with the diagnosis cataracta senilis incipiens (p < 0.001 as well as the intensity of fluorescent iminopropens (p < 0.001. Significantly higher MDA concentration in lens (p < 0.001 was measured in the patients with cataracta senilis matura. Conclusion. The lens structure changes caused by lipid peroxidation can, with other risk factors present, influence the occurrence and development of mature cataract. Some cataract types show different lipid peroxidation intensity with the most distinct changes in cataract which started as corticonuclear.

  16. Radiation chemistry and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majima, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    Effects of radiation to human body have been seriously discussed nowadays. These are important issues for the realization of sustainable society. It should be emphasized that various reactive intermediates generated by radiation play important roles in each cases. Radiation chemical studies will provide various reaction-mechanistic aspects on these important issues. Our research group has continuously carried out reaction-mechanistic studies using radiation chemical methods. From these studies, we have obtained a variety of results on basic molecular systems, reactions, materials that are close to practical application, biological systems and so on. Reactive species are generated from the radiation reactions in solution, and can be used as one-electron oxidative and reductive reagent to give selectively radical cation and anion of solute molecules such as various organic and inorganic molecules. Therefore, the radiation chemistry has contributed significantly to chemistry in which one-electron oxidation and reduction play the important role. The kinetics of such redox processes and the following reduction play the important role. The kinetics of such redox processes and the following reactions can be studied in real time with the transition absorption measurement by the pulse radiolysis technique. Even though the target compounds cannot be oxidized and reduced in chemical or electrochemical oxidation and reduction, their one-electron redox can be performed by the electron beam radiation. Therefore, radiation chemistry is very useful technique for basic science. Moreover, application potentials of radiation chemistry are so high for various research subjects. Moreover, application potentials of radiation chemistry are so high for various research subjects

  17. A comparable study of clinical and optical outcomes after 1.8, 2.0 mm microcoaxial and 3.0 mm coaxial cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi-Bo; Zhu, Ya-Nan; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yi-Dong; Yu, Yin-Hui; Yao, Ke

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical and optical outcomes after clear corneal incision cataract surgery (CICS) with three different incision sizes (1.8, 2.0 and 3.0 mm). Eyes of 150 patients with age-related cataract scheduled for coaxial cataract surgery were randomized to three groups: 1.8, 2.0, or 3.0 mm CICS. Intraoperative data and postoperative outcomes including surgically induced astigmatism (SIA), the corneal incision thickness, wavefront aberrations and modulation transfer function (MTF) of cornea were obtained. There were no significant differences among the three groups in demographic characteristics and intraoperative outcome. The 1.8 and 2.0 mm microincisions showed more satisfactory clinical outcomes than the 3.0 mm incision. The 1.8 mm incision showed significantly less SIA than the 2.0 mm incision until postoperative 1mo (P0.05). Converting from 3.0 mm CICS to 1.8 or 2.0 mm CICS result in better clinical and optical outcomes. However, when incision is 1.8 mm, the benefits from further reduction in size compared with 2.0 mm are limited. The necessity to reduce the incision size is to be deliberated.

  18. Connexin mutants and cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C Beyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The lens is a multicellular, but avascular tissue that must stay transparent to allow normal transmission of light and focusing of it on the retina. Damage to lens cells and/or proteins can cause cataracts, opacities that disrupt these processes. The normal survival of the lens is facilitated by an extensive network of gap junctions formed predominantly of connexin46 and connexin50. Mutations of the genes that encode these connexins (GJA3 and GJA8 have been identified and linked to inheritance of cataracts in human families and mouse lines. In vitro expression studies of several of these mutants have shown that they exhibit abnormalities that may lead to disease. Many of the mutants reduce or modify intercellular communication due to channel alterations (including loss of function or altered gating or due to impaired cellular trafficking which reduces the number of gap junction channels within the plasma membrane. However, the abnormalities detected in studies of other mutants suggest that they cause cataracts through other mechanisms including gain of hemichannel function (leading to cell injury and death and formation of cytoplasmic accumulations (that may act as light scattering particles. These observations and the anticipated results of ongoing studies should elucidate the mechanisms of cataract development due to mutations of lens connexins and abnormalities of other lens proteins. They may also contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of disease due to connexin mutations in other tissues.

  19. Combined surgery versus cataract surgery alone for eyes with cataract and glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingjuan Lisa; Hirunyachote, Phenpan; Jampel, Henry

    2015-07-14

    Cataract and glaucoma are leading causes of blindness worldwide, and their co-existence is common in elderly people. Glaucoma surgery can accelerate cataract progression, and performing both surgeries may increase the rate of postoperative complications and compromise the success of either surgery. However, cataract surgery may independently lower intraocular pressure (IOP), which may allow for greater IOP control among patients with co-existing cataract and glaucoma. The decision between undergoing combined glaucoma and cataract surgery versus cataract surgery alone is complex. Therefore, it is important to compare the effectiveness of these two interventions to aid clinicians and patients in choosing the better treatment approach. To assess the relative effectiveness and safety of combined surgery versus cataract surgery (phacoemulsification) alone for co-existing cataract and glaucoma. The secondary objectives include cost analyses for different surgical techniques for co-existing cataract and glaucoma. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014, Issue 10), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to October 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2014), PubMed (January 1948 to October 2014), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to October 2014), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 3 October 2014.We checked the reference lists of the included trials to identify further relevant trials. We used the Science Citation Index to search for references to

  20. Clinical effects of conjunctival sac flushing using different concentration of povidoneiodine on corneal epithelium before cataract surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Lian Gu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To determine the most optimal concentration of the safe usage of povidone-iodine(PVP-Iin the flushing to disinfect the conjunctive sac before cataract surgeries, in order to provide a scientific basis for clinical eye surgery work.METHODS:Sixty-two patients with phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in our hospital from October 2012 to October 2014 were randomly divided into 0.25g/L PVP-I group(Ⅰand 5g/L PVP-I group(Ⅱ. Sterilizing effect and the complications postoperative were analyzed.RESULTS:The sterilizing effects of the two groups after flushing conjunctiva sac using different concentrations of PVP-I were both remarkable, but the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant(P>0.05. No endophthalmitis occurred in the two groups. Observing the corneal condition after rinsing, no severe conjunctival hyperemia, corneal edema and other serious complications occurred. There was slightly punctate corneal epithelial shedding in groupⅡ, and the difference was statistically significant(PPCONCLUSION:Using 0.25g/L PVP-I in the conjunctiva sac rinsing before surgeries can inhibit the growth of bacteria in the conjunctival sac, reduce the impact on the corneal epithelium thereby reducing the incidence of postoperative complications and the positive rate of bacterial culture, increasing the comfort degree of patients, bringing a better area for the surgeries.

  1. Características clínicas y epidemiológicas de la catarata congénita e infantil Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the congenital and infantile cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merixy Charón Milián

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la catarata de cualquier etiología es la una de las causas más importantes de ceguera tratable en los niños. Objetivos: caracterizar, desde los puntos de vista clínico y epidemiológico, la catarata congénita e infantil. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo en el Hospital Pediátrico "William Soler", entre enero de 2004 y junio de 2006. Se analizaron las variables: edad, sexo, procedencia, vía de captación, síntomas, factores de riesgo, localización, etiología probable y lateralidad de la catarata, alteraciones oculares asociadas y visión posquirúrgica. Los resultados se expresaron en media y porcentaje. Resultados: la edad promedio fue de 4,9 años y para menores de 1 año de 6,6 meses. Predominaron los varones (60,32 %, los pacientes de La Habana (25,4 %, la remisión médica como vía de captación (71,43 %, la leucocoria (30,15 %, la presencia de anomalías congénitas múltiples (34,92 %, la localización central de la catarata (44,44 %, la causa idiopática (41,27 % y la bilateralidad (66,67 %. El 34,92 % de los pacientes tenía asociada otra anomalía ocular, y el 59,04 % de los ojos operados alcanzaron visión entre 0,7 y 1,0. Conclusiones: en la serie analizada predominaron los lactantes menores de 2 meses y los varones, los pacientes de La Habana, la remisión médica, la leucocoria y las anomalías congénitas múltiples asociadas, la localización central y la posible etiología; en las bilaterales, el origen hereditario; y en las unilaterales, la causa desconocida. La mejoría visual posquirúrgica fue mayor a medida que disminuyó la edad del paciente al momento de realizar la cirugía.Introduction: cataract of any etiology is one of the most important causes of treatable blindness in children. Objectives: to clinically and epidemiologically characterize the congenital and infantile cataract. Methods: a retrospective, observational and descriptive study was carried

  2. The communication of the radiation risk from CT in relation to its clinical benefit in the era of personalized medicine. Pt. 2. Benefits versus risk of CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westra, Sjirk J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    In order to personalize the communication of the CT risk, we need to describe the risk in the context of the clinical benefit of CT, which will generally be much higher, provided a CT scan has a well-established clinical indication. However as pediatric radiologists we should be careful not to overstate the benefit of CT, being aware that medico-legal pressures and the realities of health care economics have led to overutilization of the technology. And even though we should not use previously accumulated radiation dose to a child as an argument against conducting a clinically indicated scan (the ''sunk-cost'' bias), we should consider patients' radiation history in the diagnostic decision process. As a contribution to future public health, it makes more sense to look for non-radiating alternatives to CT in the much larger group of basically healthy children who are receiving occasional scans for widely prevalent conditions such as appendicitis and trauma than to attempt lowering CT use in the smaller group of patients with chronic conditions with a limited life expectancy. When communicating the CT risk with individual patients and their parents, we should acknowledge and address their concerns within the framework of informed decision-making. When appropriate, we may express the individual radiation risk, based on estimates of summated absorbed organ dose, as an order of magnitude rather than as an absolute number, and compare this with the much larger natural cancer incidence over a child's lifetime, and with other risks in medicine and daily life. We should anticipate that many patients cannot make informed decisions on their own in this complex matter, and we should offer our guidance while maintaining respect for patient autonomy. Proper documentation of the informed decision process is important for future reference. In concert with our referring physicians, pediatric radiologists are well-equipped to tackle the complexities

  3. The communication of the radiation risk from CT in relation to its clinical benefit in the era of personalized medicine. Pt. 2. Benefits versus risk of CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westra, Sjirk J.

    2014-01-01

    In order to personalize the communication of the CT risk, we need to describe the risk in the context of the clinical benefit of CT, which will generally be much higher, provided a CT scan has a well-established clinical indication. However as pediatric radiologists we should be careful not to overstate the benefit of CT, being aware that medico-legal pressures and the realities of health care economics have led to overutilization of the technology. And even though we should not use previously accumulated radiation dose to a child as an argument against conducting a clinically indicated scan (the ''sunk-cost'' bias), we should consider patients' radiation history in the diagnostic decision process. As a contribution to future public health, it makes more sense to look for non-radiating alternatives to CT in the much larger group of basically healthy children who are receiving occasional scans for widely prevalent conditions such as appendicitis and trauma than to attempt lowering CT use in the smaller group of patients with chronic conditions with a limited life expectancy. When communicating the CT risk with individual patients and their parents, we should acknowledge and address their concerns within the framework of informed decision-making. When appropriate, we may express the individual radiation risk, based on estimates of summated absorbed organ dose, as an order of magnitude rather than as an absolute number, and compare this with the much larger natural cancer incidence over a child's lifetime, and with other risks in medicine and daily life. We should anticipate that many patients cannot make informed decisions on their own in this complex matter, and we should offer our guidance while maintaining respect for patient autonomy. Proper documentation of the informed decision process is important for future reference. In concert with our referring physicians, pediatric radiologists are well-equipped to tackle the complexities associated with the communication

  4. Clinical and experimental studies on radiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honke, Yoshifumi

    1988-01-01

    Clinical and experimental studies were performed to clarify the mechanism of developing radiation proctitis. The results were as follows; (1) In the clinical study with 38 uterine cervix cancer patients, who received radiotherapy, diarrhea was observed in 44.7% at the acute stage, while rectal bleeding in 36.7% about 1 year after radiation. However, no clinical correlation was observed between diarrhea and rectal bleeding. (2) Colon fiberscopic examination revealed little change at the acute stage. However, erosion, ulcer and remarkable redness were found at the late stage. By the magnified fiberscope, unit degeneration was found in 72.8% at the acute stage. (3) Concerning the histopathological changes, edema and inflammatory change were observed immediately after irradiation. Fibrosis was observed in 83.3% at the late stage. (4) The number of the immunoglobulin containing cells decreased by radiation. However, its recovered as time passed after radiation. (5) In experimental study with rats by microangiography, there were ramarkable changes of the small vessels, such as bending, tortuosity and capillary hyperplasia at the acute stage. However, these changes returned to normal soon. At the late stage, decreased number of blood vessels were observed. The above results indicated that rectal bleeding after exposure to radiation are developed by secondary circulation abnormality caused by fibrosis of the perivascular tissues. (author) 52 refs

  5. A link between maternal malnutrition and depletion of glutathione in the developing lens: a possible explanation for idiopathic childhood cataract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepa; Lim, Julie C; Donaldson, Paul J

    2013-11-01

    Lens cataract is the leading cause of blindness in developing countries. While cataract is primarily a disease of old age and is relatively rare in children, accounting for only four per cent of global blindness, childhood cataract is responsible for a third of the economic cost of blindness. While many of the causes of cataract in children are known, over half of childhood cataracts are idiopathic with no known cause. The incidence of idiopathic cataract is highest in developing countries and studies have discovered that low birth weight is a risk factor in the development of idiopathic childhood cataract. As low birth weight is a reflection of poor foetal growth, it is possible that maternal malnutrition, which is endemic in some developing countries, results in the altered physiology of the foetal lens. We have conducted a review of the literature that provides evidence for a link between maternal malnutrition, low birth weight and the development of childhood cataract. Using our accumulated knowledge on the pathways that deliver nutrients to the adult lens, we propose a cellular mechanism, by which oxidative stress caused by maternal malnutrition affects the development of antioxidant defence pathways in the embryonic lens, leading to an accelerated onset of nuclear cataract in childhood. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2013 Optometrists Association Australia.

  6. Clinical and Radiation Oncology. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurga, L.; Adam, Z.; Autrata, R.

    2010-01-01

    The work is two-volume set and has 1,658 pages. It is divided into 5 sections: I. Principles Clinical and radiation oncology. II. Hematological Malignant tumors. III. Solid tumors. IV. Treatment options metastatic Disease. V. Clinical practice in oncology. First volume contains following sections a chapters: Section I: Principles of clinical and radiation oncology, it contains following chapters: (1) The history of clinical/experimental and radiation oncology in the Czech Republic; (2) The history of clinical/experimental and radiation oncology in the Slovak Republic - development and development of oncology in Slovakia; (3) Clinical and radiation oncology as part of evidence-based medicine; (4) Molecular biology; (5) Tumor Disease; (6) Epidemiology and prevention of malignant tumors; (7) Diagnosis, staging, stratification and monitoring of patients in oncology; (8) Imaging methods in oncology; (9) Principles of surgical treatment of cancer diseases; (10) Symptomatology and signaling of malignant tumors - systemic, paraneoplastic and paraendocrine manifestations of tumor diseases; (11) Principles of radiation oncology; (12 Modeling radiobiological effects of radiotherapy; (13) Principles of anticancer chemotherapy; (14) Hormonal manipulation in the treatment of tumors; (15) Principles of biological and targeted treatment of solid tumors; (16) Method of multimodal therapy of malignant tumors; (17) Evaluation of treatment response, performance evaluation criteria (RECIST); (18) Adverse effects of cancer chemotherapy and the principles of their prevention and treatment; (19) Biological principles of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; (20) Design, analysis and ethical aspects of clinical studies in oncology; (21) Fundamentals of biostatistics for oncologists; (22) Information infrastructure for clinical and radiological oncology based on evidence; (23) Pharmacoeconomic aspects in oncology; (24) Respecting patient preferences when deciding on the strategy and

  7. Cataract production in mice by heavy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, E.H.; Jose, J.; Yang, V.V.; Barker, M.E.

    1981-03-01

    The cataractogenic effects of heavy charged particles have been evaluated in mice in relation to dose and ionization density (LET/sub infinity/). The study was undertaken due to the high potential for eye exposures to HZE particles among SPS personnel working in outer space. This has made it imperative that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in relation to LET/sub infinity/ for various particles be defined so that appropriate quality factors (Q) could be assigned for estimation of risk. Although mice and men differ in susceptibility to radiation-induced cataracts, the results from this project should assist in defining appropriate quality factors in relation to LET/sub infinity/, particle mass, charge, or velocity. Evaluation of results indicated that : (1) low single doses (5 to 20 rad) of iron ( 56 Fe) or argon ( 40 Ar) particles are cataractogenic at 11 to 18 months after irradiation; (2) onset and density of the opacification are dose related; (3) cataract density (grade) at 9, 11, 13, and 16 months after irradiation shows partial LET/sub infinity/-dependence; and (4) the severity of cataracts is reduced significantly when 417 rad of 60 Co gamma radiation is given in 24 weekly 17 rad fractions compared to giving this radiation as a single dose, but cataract severity is not reduced by fractionation of 12 C doses over 24 weeks

  8. Elevated frequency of cataracts in birds from chernobyl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Alexander Mousseau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Radiation cataracts develop as a consequence of the effects of ionizing radiation on the development of the lens of the eye with an opaque lens reducing or eliminating the ability to see. Therefore, we would expect cataracts to be associated with reduced fitness in free-living animals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the incidence of lens opacities typical of cataracts in more than 1100 free-living birds in the Chernobyl region in relation to background radiation. The incidence of cataracts increased with level of background radiation both in analyses based on a dichotomous score and in analyses of continuous scores of intensity of cataracts. The odds ratio per unit change in the regressor was 0.722 (95% CI 0.648, 0.804, which was less than odds ratios from investigations of radiation cataracts in humans. The relatively small odds ratio may be due to increased mortality in birds with cataracts. We found a stronger negative relationship between bird abundance and background radiation when the frequency of cataracts was higher, but also a direct effect of radiation on abundance, suggesting that radiation indirectly affects abundance negatively through an increase in the frequency of cataracts in bird populations, but also through direct effects of radiation on other diseases, food abundance and interactions with other species. There was no increase in incidence of cataracts with increasing age, suggesting that yearlings and older individuals were similarly affected as is typical of radiation cataract. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that cataracts are an under-estimated cause of morbidity in free-living birds and, by inference, other vertebrates in areas contaminated with radioactive materials.

  9. Elevated Frequency of Cataracts in Birds from Chernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Møller, Anders Pape

    2013-01-01

    Background Radiation cataracts develop as a consequence of the effects of ionizing radiation on the development of the lens of the eye with an opaque lens reducing or eliminating the ability to see. Therefore, we would expect cataracts to be associated with reduced fitness in free-living animals. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the incidence of lens opacities typical of cataracts in more than 1100 free-living birds in the Chernobyl region in relation to background radiation. The incidence of cataracts increased with level of background radiation both in analyses based on a dichotomous score and in analyses of continuous scores of intensity of cataracts. The odds ratio per unit change in the regressor was 0.722 (95% CI 0.648, 0.804), which was less than odds ratios from investigations of radiation cataracts in humans. The relatively small odds ratio may be due to increased mortality in birds with cataracts. We found a stronger negative relationship between bird abundance and background radiation when the frequency of cataracts was higher, but also a direct effect of radiation on abundance, suggesting that radiation indirectly affects abundance negatively through an increase in the frequency of cataracts in bird populations, but also through direct effects of radiation on other diseases, food abundance and interactions with other species. There was no increase in incidence of cataracts with increasing age, suggesting that yearlings and older individuals were similarly affected as is typical of radiation cataract. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that cataracts are an under-estimated cause of morbidity in free-living birds and, by inference, other vertebrates in areas contaminated with radioactive materials. PMID:23935827

  10. Development of clinical application of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seoung Yul; Yoo, Hyung Jun [and others

    2000-04-01

    The aim is to develop the clinical radiation therapy techniques, which increase local control and cure rate of cancer. The contents were 1. technique of stereotactic radiotherapy 2. technique of intraoperative radiation therapy(IORT) 3. technique of fractionated radiotherapy 4. technique of 3D conformal therapy 5. chemoradiotherapy in lung cancer, rectal cancer and biliopancreatic cancer 6. network based information communication system of radiation oncology 7. animal studies for the best application of chemoradiotherapy and for elucidating mechanism of slide effect in radiotherapy. The results were 1. completion of quality assurance protocol, frame and mounting system 2. completion of applicator of IORT 3. clinical protocol of fractionated radiotherapy 4. clinical protocol of 3D conformal therapy for brain, head and neck, breast and lung cancer 5. completion of multimodality treatment protocol for lung, rectal and biliopancreatic cancer 6. completion of database system for patient information and simulation image 7. standardization of estimation for radiation induced pneumonitis in animal model. Future plans are (1) developed fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy system will be commercialized (2) developed applicator of brachytherapy for IORT will be commercialized (3) 3D conformal therapy will increase local control rate for brain tumor and decrease complications such as zerostomia after treatment for nasopharygeal cancer (4) training manpower and skills for randomized clinical trial (5) suggest possibility of clinical usefulness of oral 5-fluorouracil (6) to provide basic technique for electric chart (7) promote developing database system for image information (8) also in view of double edge sword effect of NO, it is possible to modify the NO production from irradiation to increase the tolerance to radiation.

  11. Development of clinical application of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seoung Yul; Yoo, Hyung Jun

    2000-04-01

    The aim is to develop the clinical radiation therapy techniques, which increase local control and cure rate of cancer. The contents were 1. technique of stereotactic radiotherapy 2. technique of intraoperative radiation therapy(IORT) 3. technique of fractionated radiotherapy 4. technique of 3D conformal therapy 5. chemoradiotherapy in lung cancer, rectal cancer and biliopancreatic cancer 6. network based information communication system of radiation oncology 7. animal studies for the best application of chemoradiotherapy and for elucidating mechanism of slide effect in radiotherapy. The results were 1. completion of quality assurance protocol, frame and mounting system 2. completion of applicator of IORT 3. clinical protocol of fractionated radiotherapy 4. clinical protocol of 3D conformal therapy for brain, head and neck, breast and lung cancer 5. completion of multimodality treatment protocol for lung, rectal and biliopancreatic cancer 6. completion of database system for patient information and simulation image 7. standardization of estimation for radiation induced pneumonitis in animal model. Future plans are 1) developed fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy system will be commercialized 2) developed applicator of brachytherapy for IORT will be commercialized 3) 3D conformal therapy will increase local control rate for brain tumor and decrease complications such as zerostomia after treatment for nasopharygeal cancer 4) training manpower and skills for randomized clinical trial 5) suggest possibility of clinical usefulness of oral 5-fluorouracil 6) to provide basic technique for electric chart 7) promote developing database system for image information 8) also in view of double edge sword effect of NO, it is possible to modify the NO production from irradiation to increase the tolerance to radiation

  12. Clinical features of refractory radiation esophageal ulcer after proton beam therapy and its management in a patient with esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisakura, Katsuji; Terashima, Hideo; Nagai, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that proton beam therapy is an effective treatment method for patients with locally confined esophageal cancer. However, there seems to be serious problems related to post-radiotherapy (RT) esophageal ulcers. We treated 7 patients who developed post-RT esophageal ulcers with the earliest symptom of esophageal stenosis, which was observed 7-17 months (median, 10.0) after completion of RT. Five of the patients had unhealed ulcers leading to lethal events such as perforation or penetration. The mean time between the appearance of the earliest symptom and lethal episode was no more than 2 months (mean, 2.1). The first 3 patients who underwent conservative therapies died from severe complications caused by perforation or penetration of post-RT esophageal ulcers. In the case of 2 consecutive patients, we performed surgical treatment as soon as possible since there were indications of penetration in post-RT developed esophageal ulcers. Therefore, they could be cured by a salvage operation which was subtotal esophagectomy using the stomach for esophageal replacement. Through the above-mentioned experience, we discussed surgical management for esophageal ulcers after proton beam therapy. (author)

  13. Visual field changes after cataract extraction: the AGIS experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koucheki, Behrooz; Nouri-Mahdavi, Kouros; Patel, Gitane; Gaasterland, Douglas; Caprioli, Joseph

    2004-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that cataract extraction in glaucomatous eyes improves overall sensitivity of visual function without affecting the size or depth of glaucomatous scotomas. Experimental study with no control group. One hundred fifty-eight eyes (of 140 patients) from the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study with at least two reliable visual fields within a year both before and after cataract surgery were included. Average mean deviation (MD), pattern standard deviation (PSD), and corrected pattern standard deviation (CPSD) were compared before and after cataract extraction. To evaluate changes in scotoma size, the number of abnormal points (P < .05) on the pattern deviation plot was compared before and after surgery. We described an index ("scotoma depth index") to investigate changes of scotoma depth after surgery. Mean values for MD, PSD, and CPSD were -13.2, 6.4, and 5.9 dB before and -11.9, 6.8, and 6.2 dB after cataract surgery (P < or = .001 for all comparisons). Mean (+/- SD) number of abnormal points on pattern deviation plot was 26.7 +/- 9.4 and 27.5 +/- 9.0 before and after cataract surgery, respectively (P = .02). Scotoma depth index did not change after cataract extraction (-19.3 vs -19.2 dB, P = .90). Cataract extraction caused generalized improvement of the visual field, which was most marked in eyes with less advanced glaucomatous damage. Although the enlargement of scotomas was statistically significant, it was not clinically meaningful. No improvement of sensitivity was observed in the deepest part of the scotomas.

  14. The global burden of cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gullapalli N; Khanna, Rohit; Payal, Abhishek

    2011-01-01

    To review the previous year's literature related to prevalence of blindness in general, blindness due to cataract, cataract surgical coverage (CSC) and cataract surgical rates (CSRs). Cataracts are the major cause of blindness and visual impairment in developing countries and contributes to more than 90% of the total disability adjusted life years. This review shows that coverage continues to be a problem in many countries, especially for the female population, those residing in rural areas and those who are illiterate. Although CSR is an indicator of the availability and acceptability of services, for measuring the impact of the program, we should look at combining CSR with CSC. This strategy would also enable us achieve our goal of eliminating avoidable blindness due to cataracts by the year 2020. Cataracts still continue- to be a major cause of blindness globally and with the rapidly aging population, it is a challenge to tackle. We need to plan a comprehensive strategy addressing issues related to availability, affordability, accessibility and acceptability of eye-care services.

  15. Clinical quality assurance in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    A quality assurance program in radiation oncology monitors and evaluates any departmental functions which have an impact on patient outcome. The ultimate purpose of the program is to maximize health benefit to the patient without a corresponding increase in risk. The foundation of the program should be the credo: at least do no harm, usually do some good and ideally realize the greatest good. The steep dose response relationships for tumor control and complications require a high degree of accuracy and precision throughout the entire process of radiation therapy. It has been shown that failure to control local disease with radiation may result in decreased survival and may increase the cost of care by a factor of 3. Therefore, a comprehensive quality assurance program which seeks to optimize dose delivery and which encompasses both clinical and physics components, is needed

  16. Normal flora of conjunctiva and lid margin, as well as its antibiotic sensitivity, in patients undergoing cataract surgery at Phramongkutklao Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnumnoi,Ravee; Keorochana,Narumon; Sonthisombat,Chavalit

    2017-01-01

    Ravee Ratnumnoi, Narumon Keorochana, Chavalit Sontisombat Department of Ophthalmology, Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the normal flora of conjunctiva and lid margin, as well as its antibiotic sensitivity. Design: This was a prospective cross-sectional study. Patients and methods: A prospective study was conducted on 120 patients who underwent cataract surgery at the Phramongkutklao Hospital from September 2014 to October 2014. Conjunctiva...

  17. Inheritance of congenital cataracts and microphthalmia in the Miniature Schnauzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelatt, K N; Samuelson, D A; Bauer, J E; Das, N D; Wolf, E D; Barrie, K P; Andresen, T L

    1983-06-01

    Congenital cataracts and microphthalmia in the Miniature Schnauzer were inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Eighteen matings of affected X affected Miniature Schnauzers resulted in 87 offspring with congenital cataracts and microphthalmia (49 males/38 females). Two matings of congenital cataractous and microphthalmic Miniature Schnauzers (2 females) X a normal Miniature Schnauzer (1 male) yielded 11 clinically normal Miniature Schnauzers (7 males/4 females). Eighteen matings of congenital cataractous and microphthalmic Miniature Schnauzers (6 males) X carrier Miniature Schnauzers (9 females) produced 81 offspring; 39 exhibited congenital cataracts and microphthalmia (20 males/19 females) and 42 had clinically normal eyes (17 males/25 females).

  18. Peculiarity of A-bomb cataract complicated by incipient senile cataract-report of 2 recent cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, S [Sugimoto Ophthalmic Clinic, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1980-03-01

    Two cases of typical cataract caused by atomic bomb radiation were observed. Both patients were male and had been exposed near the hypocenter (950m and 140m from the hypocenter) when they were young (12 years and 5 months, and 15 years and 3 months). Wounds at the exposure were not fatal, but their exposure doses were close to the lethal dose (570 and 609 rad). Their acute symptoms were severe. Nevertheless, their symptoms recovered by rest and good nutrition. Lenticular opacities (delayed ocular damage caused by atomic radiation) occurred in one patient 3 years and 7 months after the exposure and in the other patient 4 years after the exposure. It was 33 years and 10 month after the exposure when both patients aged 45 and 48 had senile cataract. Effects of aging on both patients exposed to large doses of radiation in young ages were suggested.

  19. [Incremental cost effectiveness of multifocal cataract surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, N; Dick, H B; Krummenauer, F

    2007-02-01

    Supplementation of cataract patients with multifocal intraocular lenses involves an additional financial investment when compared to the corresponding monofocal supplementation, which usually is not funded by German health care insurers. In the context of recent resource allocation discussions, however, the cost effectiveness of multifocal cataract surgery could become an important rationale. Therefore an evidence-based estimation of its cost effectiveness was carried out. Three independent meta-analyses were implemented to estimate the gain in uncorrected near visual acuity and best corrected visual acuity (vision lines) as well as the predictability (fraction of patients without need for reading aids) of multifocal supplementation. Study reports published between 1995 and 2004 (English or German language) were screened for appropriate key words. Meta effects in visual gain and predictability were estimated by means and standard deviations of the reported effect measures. Cost data were estimated by German DRG rates and individual lens costs; the cost effectiveness of multifocal cataract surgery was then computed in terms of its marginal cost effectiveness ratio (MCER) for each clinical benefit endpoint; the incremental costs of multifocal versus monofocal cataract surgery were further estimated by means of their respective incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER). An independent meta-analysis estimated the complication profiles to be expected after monofocal and multifocal cataract surgery in order to evaluate expectable complication-associated additional costs of both procedures; the marginal and incremental cost effectiveness estimates were adjusted accordingly. A sensitivity analysis comprised cost variations of +/- 10 % and utility variations alongside the meta effect estimate's 95 % confidence intervals. Total direct costs from the health care insurer's perspective were estimated 3363 euro, associated with a visual meta benefit in best corrected visual

  20. Normal flora of conjunctiva and lid margin, as well as its antibiotic sensitivity, in patients undergoing cataract surgery at Phramongkutklao Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnumnoi, Ravee; Keorochana, Narumon; Sontisombat, Chavalit

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the normal flora of conjunctiva and lid margin, as well as its antibiotic sensitivity. This was a prospective cross-sectional study. A prospective study was conducted on 120 patients who underwent cataract surgery at the Phramongkutklao Hospital from September 2014 to October 2014. Conjunctival and lid margin swabs were obtained from patients before they underwent cataract surgery. These swabs were used to inoculate blood agar and chocolate agar plates for culturing. After growth of the normal flora, the antibiotic sensitivity method using tobramycin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, and cefazolin was applied. Normal flora of conjunctiva and lid margin, along with its antibiotic sensitivity, from patients who underwent cataract surgery was assessed. A total of 120 eyes were included in this study, and bacterial isolation rates were identified. Five bacteria from the lid margin were cultured, namely, coagulase-negative staphylococcus (58.33%), Streptococcus spp. (2.5%), Corynebacterium (1.67%), Micrococcus spp. (1.67%), and Staphylococcus aureus (0.83%). Two bacteria from the conjunctiva were cultured, namely, coagulase-negative staphylococcus (30%) and Streptococcus spp. (0.83%). Results of antibiotic sensitivity test showed that all isolated bacteria are sensitive to cefazolin 100%, tobramycin 98.67%, levofloxacin 100%, and moxifloxacin 100%. Coagulase-negative staphylococci are the most common bacteria isolated from conjunctiva and lid margin.

  1. Prenatal detection of congenital bilateral cataract leading to the diagnosis of Nance-Horan syndrome in the extended family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reches, Adi; Yaron, Yuval; Burdon, Kathryn; Crystal-Shalit, Ornit; Kidron, Dvora; Malcov, Mira; Tepper, Ron

    2007-07-01

    To describe a family in which it was possible to perform prenatal diagnosis of Nance-Horan Syndrome (NHS). The fetus was evaluated by 2nd trimester ultrasound. The family underwent genetic counseling and ophthalmologic evaluation. The NHS gene was sequenced. Ultrasound demonstrated fetal bilateral congenital cataract. Clinical evaluation revealed other family members with cataract, leading to the diagnosis of NHS in the family. Sequencing confirmed a frameshift mutation (3908del11bp) in the NHS gene. Evaluation of prenatally diagnosed congenital cataract should include a multidisciplinary approach, combining experience and input from sonographer, clinical geneticist, ophthalmologist, and molecular geneticist.

  2. Ultraviolet radiation and the eye: an epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H R

    1989-01-01

    Circumstantial evidence from biochemical, animal, and epidemiologic studies suggests an association between exposure to UV-B radiation (290 nm to 320 nm) and cataract. Such an association had not been proven because it had not been possible to quantify ocular UV-B exposure of individuals or to reliably grade the type and severity of cataract in field studies. We undertook an epidemiologic survey of cataract among 838 watermen who work on the Chesapeake Bay. Their individual ocular UV-B exposure was quantified for each year of life over the age of 16, on the basis of a detailed occupational history combined with laboratory and field measurements of ocular UV-B exposure. Cataracts were graded by both type and severity through clinical and photographic means. SMD changes were ascertained by fundal photography. A general medical history was taken to discover potentially confounding factors. This study showed that people with cortical lens opacities had a 21% higher UV-B exposure at each year of life than people without these opacities. A doubling in lifetime UV-B exposure led to a 60% increase in the risk of cortical cataract, and those with a high annual UV-B exposure increased their risk of cortical cataract over threefold. Corneal changes, namely pterygium and CDK, were also strongly associated with high UV-B exposure. No association was found between nuclear lens opacities or macular degeneration and UV-B exposure. This study also indicated several simple, practical measures, such as wearing spectacles or a hat, that effectively protect the eye from UV-B exposure. Thus it is easily within the power of individuals to protect their eyes from excessive UV-B exposure and reduce their risk of cortical cataract. A program of public education in this area could be a cost-effective means of reducing this important disease. PMID:2562534

  3. Cannabis its clinical effects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cannabis saliva ('dagga') affects the central nervous system. (CNS) in a variety of ... to cannabis use. These include delusional thinking, paranoid ideas ... It is thought to consist of diminished drive, volition and ambition, a loss of motivation,.

  4. Three-Dimensional Cataract Crystalline Lens Imaging With Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Alberto; Benito, Antonio; Manzanera, Silvestre; Mompeán, Juan; Cañizares, Belén; Martínez, David; Marín, Jose María; Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Artal, Pablo

    2018-02-01

    To image, describe, and characterize different features visible in the crystalline lens of older adults with and without cataract when imaged three-dimensionally with a swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system. We used a new SS-OCT laboratory prototype designed to enhance the visualization of the crystalline lens and imaged the entire anterior segment of both eyes in two groups of participants: patients scheduled to undergo cataract surgery, n = 17, age range 36 to 91 years old, and volunteers without visual complains, n = 14, age range 20 to 81 years old. Pre-cataract surgery patients were also clinically graded according to the Lens Opacification Classification System III. The three-dimensional location and shape of the visible opacities were compared with the clinical grading. Hypo- and hyperreflective features were visible in the lens of all pre-cataract surgery patients and in some of the older adults in the volunteer group. When the clinical examination revealed cortical or subcapsular cataracts, hyperreflective features were visible either in the cortex parallel to the surfaces of the lens or in the posterior pole. Other type of opacities that appeared as hyporeflective localized features were identified in the cortex of the lens. The OCT signal in the nucleus of the crystalline lens correlated with the nuclear cataract clinical grade. A dedicated OCT is a useful tool to study in vivo the subtle opacities in the cataractous crystalline lens, revealing its position and size three-dimensionally. The use of these images allows obtaining more detailed information on the age-related changes leading to cataract.

  5. Overview of the current attempts toward the medical treatment of cataract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kador, P.F.

    1983-04-01

    A variety of agents are currently available that claim to either prevent, delay, or reverse cataracts associated with aging (senile cataracts), radiation, or diabetes and galactosemia (sugar cataracts). Senile cataract therapy includes formulation containing inorganic salts, nutritional supplements, natural product extracts, sulfhydryl, and sulfonic acid containing compounds and miscellaneous redox and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory compounds. Agents associated with the treatment of radiation cataracts include antioxidants and free radial scavengers. Aldose reductase inhibitors have been effective in the prevention of sugar cataracts. A summary of these agents and their potential ocular effects are presented.

  6. Overview of the current attempts toward the medical treatment of cataract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kador, P.F.

    1983-01-01

    A variety of agents are currently available that claim to either prevent, delay, or reverse cataracts associated with aging (senile cataracts), radiation, or diabetes and galactosemia (sugar cataracts). Senile cataract therapy includes formulation containing inorganic salts, nutritional supplements, natural product extracts, sulfhydryl, and sulfonic acid containing compounds and miscellaneous redox and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory compounds. Agents associated with the treatment of radiation cataracts include antioxidants and free radial scavengers. Aldose reductase inhibitors have been effective in the prevention of sugar cataracts. A summary of these agents and their potential ocular effects are presented

  7. Cisplatin and derivatives with radiation therapy: for what clinical use?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durdux, C.

    2004-01-01

    Since its discovery by Rosenberg in 1965, cisplatin and its derivatives have appeared as the most important chemotherapeutic agents, particularly for their radiosensitizing properties and their clinical use with radiation. In spite of numerous preclinical and clinical studies, optimal schedules of platin and radiotherapy combination have to be defined. The first part of this overview will describe biological mechanisms of interaction between radiation therapy and platinum derivatives. The second part will report the major clinical impact of their association. (author)

  8. Impact of radiation research on clinical trials in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, P.; Van Ess, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present an outline review of the history of the formation of the cooperative group called International Clinical Trials in Radiation Oncology (ICTRO), and the following areas are briefly discussed together with some projections for the direction of clinical trials in radiation oncology into the 1990s:- radiosensitizers, radioprotectors, and their combination, drug-radiation interactions, dose/time/fractionation, hyperthermia, biological response modifiers and radiolabelled antibodies, high LET, particularly neutron therapy, large field irradiation and interoperative irradiation, research studies on specific sites. (U.K.)

  9. Clinical experience with the first 40 cases with femtosecond laser cataract surgery technology: safety of the learning curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Crispim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the introduction of the femtosecond laser (FSL to perform the key steps of the traditional cataract surgery process and the operational difficulties and safety of this new technology during routine use in an operating room in Brazil. Methods A retrospective study was conducted using the first cases operated on at a single center using the laser platform LenSx/Alcon with a soft contact lens patient interface.All patients underwent a detailed preoperative assessment.The anterior capsulotomy, nuclear fragmentation, and corneal incisions were created with the FSL; then, the surgery was completed following the standard phacoemulsification procedure. The main outcome measurements were difficulties and complications related to the learning curve and an analysis of postoperative uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA. Results: Of 31 patients (40 eyes, 9 patients had FSL cataract surgery in both eyes.The mean age was 64 ± 12 years (ranging from 42 to 82, the mean cataract nuclear sclerosis was grading 2 ± 0.6 (ranging from 1 to 4, and the preoperative mean UDVA in logMAR was 0.4 ± 0.2 (ranging from 0.1 to 1.3. Anterior capsulotomy was complete in all patients, and scissors were not needed to cut off any intact portion. The postoperative corneal incisions were not completely linear and showed some irregularities. Laser phaco-fragmentation was effective, with the division of the nucleus into smaller segments easily performed before phacoemulsification.After 1 month, the postoperative mean UDVA in logMAR was 0.1 ± 0.1 (ranging from 0.0 to 0.4 (P < 0.0001. Conclusion: With increasing surgical cases and experience, the phacoemulsification steps are performed precisely and effectively with FSL pretreatment, resulting in a safe learning curve.

  10. Radiation induced liver disease: A clinical update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, R.; Madan, R.; Chander, S.; Kilambi, R.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) or radiation hepatitis is a sub-acute form of liver injury due to radiation. It is one of the most dreaded complications of radiation which prevents radiation dose escalation and re irradiation for hepatobiliary or upper gastrointestinal malignancies. This complication should be kept in mind whenever a patient is planned for irradiation of these malignancies. Although, incidence of RILD is decreasing due to better knowledge of liver tolerance, improved investigation modalities and modern radiation delivery techniques, treatment options are still limited. In this review article, we have focussed on pathophysiology, risk factors, prevention and management of RILD

  11. Significance of lenticular opacity from the view point of the exposure dose of A-bomb radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, S [Sugimoto Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1975-04-01

    Two cases of lenticular opacity were discussed from the view point of exposure dose of A-bomb radiation. Case 1: female, 22 year and 5 months old when she was exposured to A-bomb radiation. The presumed exposure dose was 482.0 rad. Cataract due to A-bomb radiation. Case 2: female, 21 years and 6 months old when she was exposured to A-bomb radiation. The presumed exposure dose was more than 1,000 rad. Cataract due to A-bomb radiation and incipient cataract senilis. It was reported here that there was a marked difference in opacity findings of cataract due to A-bomb radiation in accordance with difference in exposure dose of radiation. It was also presumed from the findings of incipient cataract senilis that with increasing exposure dose, the aging phenomenon was promoted.

  12. Cataract-free interval and severity of cataract after total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation: influence of treatment parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempen-Harteveld, M. Loes van; Struikmans, Henk; Kal, Henk B.; Tweel, Ingeborg van der; Mourits, Maarten; Verdonck, Leo F.; Schipper, Jan; Battermann, Jan J.

    2000-01-01

    have been caused to a significant extent by steroid treatment. The percentage of patients with high-grade cataract was lower in allogeneic transplanted patients without steroid treatment for GVHD than in autologous transplanted patients: 35% versus 48%. An explanation for this could be pretransplant therapy containing high-dose steroids. Conclusions: After high-dose-rate TBI in one or two fractions, steroids for GVHD influence latency time of a cataract and are of great importance for the severity the cataract finally attains. Although a cataract will develop in all patients, a clinically important high-grade cataract is relatively infrequent in patients not treated with steroids. Pretransplant therapy might also influence final severity of cataract

  13. Radiation hormesis and its potential to manage radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bala, Madhu; Mathew, Lazar

    2000-01-01

    The term radiation hormesis explains stimulatory or beneficial effects of low dose radiation exposure, which cannot be predicted by extrapolation of detrimental or lethal effects of high dose radiation exposure. Although beneficial effects of low doses of radiation were observed soon after discovery of x-rays and radioactivity, studies remained inconclusive until recently, due to (i) inadequate statistical planning of experiments conducted in early part of the 20th century; and (ii) poor dose monitoring. Recently (1980s onwards), large scale, systematic epidemiological and experimental studies with a number of diverse systems have demonstrated existence of radiation hormesis beyond doubt. It is pointed out that the hormetic effects of radiation have not been successfully exploited so far for human benefits, primarily because underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. It is argued that with more and more studies, it is becoming evident that radiation hormesis is not merely physiological adaptation, but a genetically regulated phenomenon and involves de novo synthesis of proteins. Role of these proteins in induction of radiation hormesis is the current area of research in a number of world-renowned laboratories. The first part of this review elucidates the shifts in paradigms on radiation effects in the 20th century and the later portion presents a brief on underlying molecular mechanisms of radiation hormesis and their implications towards management of radiation injuries. (author)

  14. Intraoperative validation of CT-based lymph nodal levels, sublevels IIa and IIb: Is it of clinical relevance in selective radiation therapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levendag, Peter; Gregoire, Vincent; Hamoir, Marc; Voet, Peter; Est, Henrie van der; Heijmen, Ben; Kerrebijn, Jeroen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The objectives of this study are to discuss the intraoperative validation of CT-based boundaries of lymph nodal levels in the neck, and in particular the clinical relevance of the delineation of sublevels IIa and IIb in case of selective radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: To validate the radiologically defined level contours, clips were positioned intraoperatively at the level boundaries defined by surgical anatomy. In 10 consecutive patients, clips were placed, at the time of a neck dissection being performed, at the most cranial border of the neck. Anterior-posterior and lateral X-ray films were obtained intraoperatively. Next, in 3 patients, neck levels were contoured on preoperative contrast-enhanced CT scans according to the international consensus guidelines. From each of these 3 patients, an intraoperative CT scan was also obtained, with clips placed at the surgical-anatomy-based level boundaries. The preoperative (CT-based) and intraoperative (surgery-defined) CT scans were matched. Results: Clips placed at the most cranial part of the neck lined up at the caudal part of the transverse process of the cervical vertebra C-I. The posterior border of surgical level IIa (spinal accessory nerve [SAN]) did not match with the posterior border of CT-based level IIa (internal jugular vein [IJV]). Other surgical boundaries and CT-based contours were in good agreement. Conclusions: The cranial border of the neck, i.e., the cranial border of level IIa/IIb, corresponds to the caudal edge of the lateral process of C-I. Except for the posterior border between level IIa and level IIb, a perfect match was observed between the other surgical-clip-identified levels II-V boundaries (surgical-anatomy) and the CT-based delineation contours. It is argued that (1) because of the parotid gland overlapping part of level II, and (2) the frequent infestation of occult metastatic cells in the lymph channels around the IJV, the division of level II into radiologic

  15. Identification of a novel missense mutation of MAF in a Japanese family with congenital cataract by whole exome sequencing: a clinical report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narumi, Yoko; Nishina, Sachiko; Tokimitsu, Motoharu; Aoki, Yoko; Kosaki, Rika; Wakui, Keiko; Azuma, Noriyuki; Murata, Toshinori; Takada, Fumio; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Kosho, Tomoki

    2014-05-01

    Congenital cataracts are the most important cause of severe visual impairment in infants. Genetic factors contribute to the disease development and 29 genes are known to cause congenital cataracts. Identifying the genetic cause of congenital cataracts can be difficult because of genetic heterogeneity. V-maf avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog (MAF) encodes a basic region/leucine zipper transcription factor that plays a key role as a regulator of embryonic lens fiber cell development. MAF mutations have been reported to cause juvenile-onset pulverulent cataract, microcornea, iris coloboma, and other anterior segment dysgenesis. We report on six patients in a family who have congenital cataracts were identified MAF mutation by whole exome sequencing (WES). The heterozygous MAF mutation Q303L detected in the present family occurs in a well conserved glutamine residue at the basic region of the DNA-binding domain. All affected members showed congenital cataracts. Three of the six members showed microcornea and one showed iris coloboma. Congenital cataracts with MAF mutation exhibited phenotypically variable cataracts within the family. Review of the patients with MAF mutations supports the notion that congenital cataracts caused by MAF mutations could be accompanied by microcornea and/or iris coloboma. WES is a useful tool for detecting disease-causing mutations in patients with genetically heterogeneous conditions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Radiation protection in clinical chemical laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, K.

    1980-01-01

    In the clinical-chemical laboratory, the problems of the personal radiation protection can be handled relatively simply. Important conditions are certain requirements as far as the building is concerned and the keeping to protection measures to invoid ingestion, inhalation, and resorption of open radioactive substances. Very intensive attention must be paid to a clean working technique in order to be able to exclude the danger of contamination which is very disturbing during the extremely sensitive measurements. The higgest problem in the handling of open radioactive substances, however, is in our opinion the waste management because it requires which space and personnel this causing high costs. Furthermore, since 1 January 1979, the permission for the final storage of radioactive waste in the shut down mine ASSE was taken back from the county collection places and it cannot be said yet if and when this permission will be given again. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Retinal detachment repair and cataract surgery in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnana Jothi, V; McGimpsey, S; Sharkey, J A; Chan, W C

    2017-09-01

    PurposeThe aim of this study is to report a case series of ocular complications including retinal detachment (RD) and cataract in atopic dermatitis (AD) and surgical management involving a majority of Caucasian patients.Patients and methodsThis study is an observational case series, originally designed as an audit. It involves detailed discussion of history, clinical features, and surgical management of patients presenting with retinal detachment and cataracts secondary to severe AD. Six consecutive patients with diagnosis of severe AD requiring posterior segment and cataract surgery were included in the study.ResultsEight eyes of six patients had retinal detachment. Most of them involved the temporal retina. The retinal breaks were located anteriorly close to the ora serrata in six eyes and Giant tear retinal (GRT) detachment was found in two eyes. Five eyes had proliferative vitreo-retinopathy (PVR) at presentation. All six patients had bilateral cataracts and cataract surgery was performed in eleven eyes. Bilateral simultaneous surgery was essential in two patients. Three eyes had secondary intra-ocular lens (IOL) implantation with pars plana vitrectomy for subluxed lens implant.ConclusionsAnterior retinal breaks and temporal RD are common in retinal detachment secondary to AD. PVR is often present, which makes surgical management difficult. Cataract formation is quite often and late subluxation of IOL may occur.

  18. Childhood cataract: home to hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Muhit, MA

    2004-01-01

    Globally, there are 190,000 children who are blind from cataract.1 Cataract in children may be present at birth (congenital cataract) or may appear anytime during the first few years of life (developmental cataract). Childhood cataract is the most common treatable cause of childhood blindness, being responsible for 10-30% of all childhood blindness. A recent national study in Bangladesh showed that 1 in every 3 blind children is unnecessarily blind from congenital/developmental cataract.

  19. OPTIMIZATION OF LASER SURGERY OF THE SECONDARY CATARACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Baum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This is a theoretical and experimental study of the thermomechanical effects of laser radiation with a wavelength of 1.06 microns on the eye tissues during a laser surgery on the secondary cataract (pupillary membrane. Its relevance is related to the rates of complications after laser surgery of the eye associated with the choice of energy and time parameters of the laser irradiation. These parameters are related to the occurrence of such factors as unstable fields of thermal stress and pressure that are difficult to take into account and indirectly lead to adverse events when removing the secondary cataract. Aim: To minimize side effects and to optimize the existing technology of laser removal of the secondary cataract. Materials and methods: Samples of a  normal lens capsule and of lens capsules with various types of opacities taken during a  cataract surgery, with various optic characteristics and thickness, were treated with an infrared laser (Nd:YAG laser, 1064 nm. We performed morphometric measurements and built up a  theoretical model of the processes in a continuous medium under the effects of impulse laser irradiation. Results: The results of numerical modelling with this newly developed theoretical model are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data on development of deformities obtained with the autopsy materials (posterior capsule of the human lens with various optical characteristics and thickness, from thin transparent membranes to more thick opaque samples. Conclusion: This study would allow for optimization of the technology of laser treatment for secondary cataracts by changing the irradiation parameters during the procedure. 

  20. Etiopathogenesis of presenile cataracts in Central Kerala: A cross-sectional observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Jyothi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Apart from DM and atopy, the place of residence and occupation (and thus possibly exposure to ultraviolet radiations is also associated with the development of presenile cataract. Posterior subcapsular cataract is the most common type of presenile cataract in Central Kerala.

  1. Toxic clinical hypoxic radiation sensitizers plus radiation-induced toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The operational definition espoused twelve years ago that clinical hypoxic radiation sensitizers should be nontoxic interferes with the recognition and research of useful radiation sensitizers. Eight years ago the toxic antitumor drug cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II) was reported to be a hypoxic radiation sensitizer and the selective antitumor action of this drug was stressed as potentially creating tumor-targeted radiation sensitization. This rationale of oxidative antitumor drugs as toxic and targeted clinical sensitizers is useful, and has led to the study reported here. The antitumor drug cis-(1,1-cyclobutane-dicarboxylato)diammineplatinum(II), or JM-8, is being tested in clinical trials. Cells of S. typhimurium in PBS in the presence of 0.2mM JM-8 are found to be sensitized to irradiation under hypoxic, but not oxic, conditions. JM-8 is nontoxic to bacteria at this concentration, but upon irradiation the JM-8 solution becomes highly toxic. This radiation induced toxicity of JM-8 preferentially develops from hypoxic solution, and thus contributes to the rationale of hypoxic tumor cell destruction

  2. Radiation repair models for clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Roger G

    2018-02-28

    A number of newly emerging clinical techniques involve non-conventional patterns of radiation delivery which require an appreciation of the role played by radiation repair phenomena. This review outlines the main models of radiation repair, focussing on those which are of greatest clinical usefulness and which may be incorporated into biologically effective dose assessments. The need to account for the apparent "slowing-down" of repair rates observed in some normal tissues is also examined, along with a comparison of the relative merits of the formulations which can be used to account for such phenomena. Jack Fowler brought valuable insight to the understanding of radiation repair processes and this article includes reference to his important contributions in this area.

  3. Clinical and morphological aspects of radiation pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, D.; Eberhardt, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    Individually different radiation tolerance with relative dose dependence of the radioreaction could be revealed. Various radiation independent diseases of the lungs are predisposing factors of radiogenic pneumonitis. Even severe diffuse pneumonias can be clinically and radiologically asymptomatic. An enhanced toxic effect of combined cytostatic and radiotherapy could be demonstrated once more. Obviously irradiation causes lasting damage of the pulmonary tissue, being a changed but stereotype reaction to different irritations

  4. Radiation chemistry and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    In recent years considerable progress has been made in understanding the fundamental chemical reactions that occur when materials are irradiated. This has followed from the development of new techniques for studying these reactions. The International Atomic Energy Agency held a Panel on Radiation Chemistry in Vienna on 17-21 April 1967, to review the current status of various sources, new techniques in radiation chemistry, and their applications. The main sources mentioned by the Panel were isotope sources, electron accelerators, and chemonuclear reactors. Among the basic techniques discussed were pulsed radiolysis, flash photolysis, fast ESR methods, irradiation at liquid helium temperatures, electric discharge methods and far ultra-violet methods. Interesting industrial applications were discussed, such as the development of wood-plastic combinations, and a paper was given on the curing of paints and thin films Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Radiation abuse and its effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halm, A

    1976-06-01

    This paper delves into overuse practiced in diagnostic radiography. The conventional attitudes to low-dose irradiation are critically examined, as is the MPD related to individual radiosensitivity. Concern is expressed that a sizeable proportion of radiologists ignore important aspects of the Code of Practice and this attitude is readily emulated in the hospital setting. The author advocates education within the medical profession and the community on the risks involved in radiation abuse and the benefits derived from justified exposures to x rays.

  6. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy clinical evidence and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Nishimura, Yasumasa

    2015-01-01

    Successful clinical use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) represents a significant advance in radiation oncology. Because IMRT can deliver high-dose radiation to a target with a reduced dose to the surrounding organs, it can improve the local control rate and reduce toxicities associated with radiation therapy. Since IMRT began being used in the mid-1990s, a large volume of clinical evidence of the advantages of IMRT has been collected. However, treatment planning and quality assurance (QA) of IMRT are complicated and difficult for the clinician and the medical physicist. This book, by authors renowned for their expertise in their fields, provides cumulative clinical evidence and appropriate techniques for IMRT for the clinician and the physicist. Part I deals with the foundations and techniques, history, principles, QA, treatment planning, radiobiology and related aspects of IMRT. Part II covers clinical applications with several case studies, describing contouring and dose distribution with cl...

  7. Childhood Cataract: Magnitude, Management, Economics and Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BR Shamanna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of blindness among children in different regions varies from 0.2/1000 children to over 1.5/1000 children with a global figure estimated at 0.7/1000. This means that there are an estimated 1.4 million blind children worldwide.1 The proportion of blindness in children due to cataract varies considerably between regions from 10%-30% with a global average estimated at 14%, giving 190,000 children blind from cataract. 2 While the magnitude of childhood cataracts varies from place to place, it is a priority within all blindness control programmes for children. Children who are blind have to overcome a lifetime of emotional, social and economic difficulties which affect the child, the family and society.3 Loss of vision in children influences their education, employment and social life. The numbers blind with cataract do not reflect the years of disability and lost quality of life. Childhood blindness is second only to adult cataract as a cause of blind-person years. Approximately 70 million blind-person years are caused by childhood blindness of which about 10 million blind-person years (14% is due to childhood cataract. Timely recognition and intervention can eliminate blind-years due to childhood cataract, as the condition is treatable.

  8. Radiation abuse and its effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halm, A.

    1976-01-01

    This paper delves into overuse practiced in diagnostic radiography. The conventional attitudes to low-dose irradiation are critically examined, as is the MPD related to individual radiosensitivity. Concern is expressed that a sizeable proportion of radiologists ignore important aspects of the Code of Practice and this attitude is readily emulated in the hospital setting. The author advocates education within the medical profession and the community on the risks involved in radiation abuse and the benefits derived from justified exposures to x rays. (author)

  9. Human lens colouration, age and cataract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truscott, R.J.W.; Garner, B.; Hood, B.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The human lens biosynthesises UV filter compounds which effectively remove light in the 300-400nm band. These chemicals are present either as an aid to visual acuity, or to filter out damaging UV radiation. The primate UV filters are 3-hydroxykynurenine analogues derived from the metabolism of tryptophan. We have recently demonstrated that these endogenous UV filters are not innocuous, but are in fact capable of binding to proteins, including the crystalline proteins which make up the bulk of the lens. Thus, over time, the levels of protein - bound UV filters increase and this results in the human lens becoming progressively more yellow as we age. This colouration affects our colour vision and it may also be responsible for the brown colour of lenses which is the hallmark of age-related nuclear cataract. An understanding of the intrinsic instability of the endogenous UV filters, combined with changes in the internal transport of these and other small molecular weight compounds including antioxidants, such as glutathione, is allowing us to gain an insight into the processes responsible for the development of age-related cataract: the major cause of world blindness

  10. Antioxidant vitamin supplementation for preventing and slowing the progression of age-related cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Milan C; Ervin, Ann-Margret; Tao, Jeremiah; Davis, Richard M

    2012-06-13

    Age-related cataract is a major cause of visual impairment in the elderly. Oxidative stress has been implicated in its formation and progression. Antioxidant vitamin supplementation has been investigated in this context. To assess the effectiveness of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in preventing and slowing the progression of age-related cataract. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 2), MEDLINE (January 1950 to March 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to March 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to March 2012), Open Grey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 2 March 2012. We also checked the reference lists of included studies and ongoing trials and contacted investigators to identify eligible randomized trials. We included only randomized controlled trials in which supplementation with one or more antioxidant vitamins (beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E) in any form, dosage or combination for at least one year was compared to another antioxidant vitamin or to placebo. Two authors extracted data and assessed trial quality independently. We pooled results for the primary outcomes, i.e., incidence of cataract and incidence of cataract extraction. We did not pool results of the secondary outcomes - progression of cataract and loss of visual acuity, because of differences in definitions of outcomes and data presentation. We pooled results by type of cataract when data were available. We did not perform a sensitivity analysis. Nine trials involving 117

  11. Acoustic signal generation in excised muscle by pulsed proton beam irradiation and the possibility of its clinical application to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Yoshinori; Tada, Junichiro; Inada, Tetsuo; Kitagawa, Toshio; Wagai, Toshio; Yoshioka, Katsuya.

    1989-01-01

    Acoustic signals generated in liquids and in metals by pulsed proton beam are thought to be thermal shock wave due to localized energy deposition of incident protons. Thus the intensity of generated acoustic signals is almost proportional to the energy deposited at the region. This suggests the possibility for measuring spatial distribution of energy deposition of proton beam using the acoustic method. In proton beam radiation therapy, treatment planning is developed from data of X-ray computer tomography which reflects the information on the electron density distribution in the patient's body. Ensuring the agreement of the dose distribution in the patient with the planned one, however, is difficult. It is expected that the acoustic method can provide a useful tool for this purpose. The pulsed proton beam of 50ns in pulse width is used for cancer therapy at the University of Tsukuba. A hydrophone is used to detect acoustic signals generated by pulsed proton beam. Detected signals are amplified ten thousand times before being averaged and analyzed by digital oscilloscope. Measurements made suggest that the method could be useful for radiation therapy. (N.K.)

  12. Radiation endocrinology as science and its tasks in Republic Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abylaev, Zh.A.

    1997-01-01

    It is known, that radiation endocrinology as science was formed comparatively not long ago and it is developing at the turn of endocrinology, medical radiology, radiobiology and immunology. Tasks of clinic radiation endocrinology for scientists of Kazakhstan are related with following problems: - radiation effects in condition of Semipalatinsk test site (Semipalatinsk, Karaganda, Pavlodar, East-Kazakhstan regions); - with definition of radiation factors (related with nuclear explosions) in ecologic systems for solution of national problems; - with contamination of Kazakhstan territory, associated with industrial radioactive materials handling ; - with goiter enemy in districts with unfavorable radiation situation; - with mass character of injuries of both the radiation exposure and the iodine deficit on territory of Republic. It was emphasised, that there is principle problem of population rehabilitation through systems of mass measures including prevention of endocrine complication in late time

  13. The Effect of Cataract Surgery on Circadian Photoentrainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, Adam Elias; Sander, Birgit; Haargaard, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    of cataract surgery on circadian photoentrainment and to determine any difference between blue-blocking and neutral intraocular lenses (IOLs). DESIGN: The study was a single-center, investigator-driven, double-masked, block-randomized clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: One eye in 76 patients with bilateral age......PURPOSE: Cataract decreases blue light transmission. Because of the selective blue light sensitivity of the retinal ganglion cells governing circadian photoentrainment, cataract may interfere with normal sleep-wake regulation and cause sleep disturbances. The purpose was to investigate the effect......-related cataract eligible for cataract surgery was included. METHODS: Intervention was cataract surgery by phacoemulsification. Patients were randomized to receive a blue-blocking or neutral IOL. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was activation of intrinsic photosensitive ganglion cells using post...

  14. Combination of radiation injuries: pathogenesis, clinic, therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyba, A.F.; Farshatova, M.N.

    1993-01-01

    Modern notions on combined radiation injuries (CRI) are presented. Characteristic of injurious factors of nuclear explosion and common regularities of the CRI origination is given. The data on the CRI clinical peculiarities, diagnostics and treatment, principles of medical assistance for the injured on the stages of medical evacuation and recommendations on rehabilitation are presented

  15. Clinical observations associated with proven and unproven cases in the ESCRS study of prophylaxis of postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, Peter

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To describe cases of postoperative endophthalmitis in the European Society of Cataract & Refractive Surgeons (ESCRS) study of the prophylaxis of endophthalmitis, compare characteristics of unproven cases and cases proven by culture or polymerase chain reaction, and compare the characteristics with those in other reported series. SETTING: Twenty-four ophthalmology units in Austria, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. METHODS: Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyze data for statistical association of signs and symptoms in cases with proven or unproven endophthalmitis. Specific data describing characteristics of the cases were compared between the 2 types of cases. RESULTS: Data from 29 endophthalmitis cases were analyzed. Swollen lids and pain were statistically associated with proven cases of endophthalmitis on univariable regression analysis. Multivariable analysis indicated that swollen lids and an opaque vitreous were associated with proven cases. Five cases of endophthalmitis occurred in the cefuroxime-treated groups. No case of streptococcal infection occurred in the cefuroxime-treated groups. However, cases of infection due to streptococci showed striking differences in visual acuity and were associated with earlier onset. Characteristics in the 29 cases parallel results in previous studies, such as the Endophthalmitis Vitrectomy Study, although the addition of a control group in the ESCRS study elicited additional findings. CONCLUSION: Swollen lids, pain, and an opaque vitreous were statistically associated with proven endophthalmitis cases in the ESCRS study.

  16. Cataract Surgery in Anterior Megalophthalmos: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    GALVIS, Virgilio; TELLO, Alejandro; M. RANGEL, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Anterior megalophthalmos is characterized by megalocornea associated with a very broad anterior chamber and ciliary ring elongation. It is also called X-linked megalocornea. It is accompanied by early development of cataracts, zonular anomalies, and, rarely, vitreoretinal disorders. Subluxation of a cataract can occur in cataract surgery because of zonular weakness. In addition, in most patients, standard intraocular lens (IOL) decentration is a risk because of the enlarged sulcus and capsular bag. These unique circumstances make cataract surgery challenging. To date, several approaches have been developed. Implantation of a retropupillary iris-claw aphakic intraocular lens may be a good option because it is easier than suturing the IOL and can have better and more stable anatomic and visual outcomes, compared to other techniques. PMID:27350950

  17. Patient satisfaction with cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasfi Ehab I

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Measuring the patient satisfaction is a very important issue that will help very much in improving the service provided to patients and improve the level of satisfaction. Aim To evaluate patient satisfaction with the cataract surgery service and identify any areas for improvement, determination of patient satisfaction with referral, out-patient consultation, pre-assessment clinic, surgery and post-operative care, also to report patients' comments relating to improvement in service provision. Methodology A retrospective study was undertaken for 150 patients underwent cataract surgery at Barrow General Hospital, UK, the survey sample was by postal questionnaires. We collected our data from the theatre lists for a period of 4 month. Results This study included 150 patients; the response rate was (72% 108 patients, Most patients were referred from their general practitioner 86.1%, 93 (86.1% patients were happy with the time interval from seeing their GP to eye clinic. In the eye out patient department many factors significantly affected the level of patient satisfaction, in general the more information provided for the patient the more the satisfaction. Conclusion Patient satisfaction is on important health outcome old understanding both the domains of satisfaction as well as their relative importance to patients is necessary to improve the overall quality of patient care. Meeting the doctor, presenting all relevant information and giving printed information are very important factors in improving the patient's satisfaction with cataract surgery.

  18. Congenital cataract screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhale Rajavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual deprivation which can damage the developing visual system of a child; therefore early diagnosis, management and long-term follow-up are essential. It is recommended that all neonates be screened by red reflex examination at birth and suspected cases be referred to ophthalmic centers. Early surgery (1 year is highly recommended. After surgery, amblyopia treatment and periodic follow-up examinations should be started as soon as possible to achieve a satisfactory visual outcome. Practitioners should consider the possibility of posterior capsular opacity, elevated intraocular pressure and amblyopia during follow-up, especially in eyes with microphthalmia and/or associated congenital anomalies. All strabismic children should undergo slit lamp examination prior to strabismus surgery to rule out congenital lens opacities. From a social point of view, equal and fair medical care should be provided to all children regardless of gender.

  19. Risk factors which cause senile cataract evolvement: outline

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    E.V. Bragin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Examination of natural ageing processes including those caused by multiple external factors has been attracting re-searchers' attention over the last years. Senile cataract is a multi-factor disease. Expenditure on cataract surgery remain one of the greatest expenses items in public health care. Age is a basic factor which causes senile cataract. Morbidity with cataract doubles each 10 years of life. This outline considers some literature sources which describe research results on influence exerted on cataract evolvement by such risk factors as age, sex, race, smoking, alcohol intake, pancreatic diabetes, intake of certain medications, a number of environmental factors including ultraviolet and ionizing radiation. mane of these factors are shown to increase or reduce senile cataract risk; there are conflicting data on certain factors. The outline also contains quantitative characteristics of cataract risks which are given via odds relation and evolve due to age parameters impacts, alcohol intake, ionizing radiation, etc. The authors also state that still there is no answer to the question whether dose-effect relationship for cataract evolvement is a threshold or non-threshold.

  20. Cataract Surgery in Uveitis

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    Rupesh Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cataract surgery in uveitic eyes is often challenging and can result in intraoperative and postoperative complications. Most uveitic patients enjoy good vision despite potentially sight-threatening complications, including cataract development. In those patients who develop cataracts, successful surgery stems from educated patient selection, careful surgical technique, and aggressive preoperative and postoperative control of inflammation. With improved understanding of the disease processes, pre- and perioperative control of inflammation, modern surgical techniques, availability of biocompatible intraocular lens material and design, surgical experience in performing complicated cataract surgeries, and efficient management of postoperative complications have led to much better outcome. Preoperative factors include proper patient selection and counseling and preoperative control of inflammation. Meticulous and careful cataract surgery in uveitic cataract is essential in optimizing the postoperative outcome. Management of postoperative complications, especially inflammation and glaucoma, earlier rather than later, has also contributed to improved outcomes. This manuscript is review of the existing literature and highlights the management pearls in tackling complicated cataract based on medline search of literature and experience of the authors.

  1. Imaging and Data Acquisition in Clinical Trials for Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FitzGerald, Thomas J., E-mail: Thomas.Fitzgerald@umassmed.edu [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Rhode Island, University of Massachusetts Memorial Medical Center, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts (United States); Bishop-Jodoin, Maryann [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Rhode Island, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts (United States); Followill, David S. [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Houston, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Galvin, James [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Philadelphia, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Knopp, Michael V. [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Ohio, Wexner Medical Center, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core St. Louis, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Rosen, Mark A. [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Bradley, Jeffrey D. [Washington University School of Medicine–Radiation Oncology, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Shankar, Lalitha K. [National Cancer Institute, Clinical Radiation Oncology Branch, Rockville, Maryland (United States); Laurie, Fran [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Rhode Island, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts (United States); Cicchetti, M. Giulia; Moni, Janaki [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Rhode Island, University of Massachusetts Memorial Medical Center, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts (United States); Coleman, C. Norman; Deye, James A.; Capala, Jacek; Vikram, Bhadrasain [National Cancer Institute, Clinical Radiation Oncology Branch, Rockville, Maryland (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Cancer treatment evolves through oncology clinical trials. Cancer trials are multimodal and complex. Assuring high-quality data are available to answer not only study objectives but also questions not anticipated at study initiation is the role of quality assurance. The National Cancer Institute reorganized its cancer clinical trials program in 2014. The National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) was formed and within it was established a Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Therapy Quality Assurance Organization. This organization is Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core, the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Group, consisting of 6 quality assurance centers that provide imaging and radiation therapy quality assurance for the NCTN. Sophisticated imaging is used for cancer diagnosis, treatment, and management as well as for image-driven technologies to plan and execute radiation treatment. Integration of imaging and radiation oncology data acquisition, review, management, and archive strategies are essential for trial compliance and future research. Lessons learned from previous trials are and provide evidence to support diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy data acquisition in NCTN trials.

  2. Imaging and Data Acquisition in Clinical Trials for Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzGerald, Thomas J.; Bishop-Jodoin, Maryann; Followill, David S.; Galvin, James; Knopp, Michael V.; Michalski, Jeff M.; Rosen, Mark A.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Shankar, Lalitha K.; Laurie, Fran; Cicchetti, M. Giulia; Moni, Janaki; Coleman, C. Norman; Deye, James A.; Capala, Jacek; Vikram, Bhadrasain

    2016-01-01

    Cancer treatment evolves through oncology clinical trials. Cancer trials are multimodal and complex. Assuring high-quality data are available to answer not only study objectives but also questions not anticipated at study initiation is the role of quality assurance. The National Cancer Institute reorganized its cancer clinical trials program in 2014. The National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) was formed and within it was established a Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Therapy Quality Assurance Organization. This organization is Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core, the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Group, consisting of 6 quality assurance centers that provide imaging and radiation therapy quality assurance for the NCTN. Sophisticated imaging is used for cancer diagnosis, treatment, and management as well as for image-driven technologies to plan and execute radiation treatment. Integration of imaging and radiation oncology data acquisition, review, management, and archive strategies are essential for trial compliance and future research. Lessons learned from previous trials are and provide evidence to support diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy data acquisition in NCTN trials.

  3. A meta-analysis of lymph node metastasis rate for patients with thoracic oesophageal cancer and its implication in delineation of clinical target volume for radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, X; Zhang, J; Li, B; Wang, Z; Huang, W; Zhou, T; Wei, Y; Li, H

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to pool the lymph node metastasis rate (LNMR) in patients with thoracic oesophageal cancer (TOC) and to determine which node level should be included when undergoing radiation therapy. Methods Qualified studies were identified on Medline, Embase, CBM and the Cochrane Library through to the end of April 2011. Pooled estimates of LNMR were obtained through a random-effect model. Possible effect modifiers which might lead to the statistical heterogeneity were identified through meta-regression, and further subgroup analyses of factors influencing LNMR were performed. Results 45 observational studies with a total of 18 415 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled estimates of LNMR in upper, middle and lower TOC were 30.7%, 16.8% and 11.0% cervical, 42.0%, 21.1% and 10.5% upper mediastinal, 12.9%, 28.1% and 19.6% middle mediastinal, 2.6%, 7.8% and 23.0% lower mediastinal, and 9%, 21.4% and 39.9% abdominal, respectively. Lymph node metastasis most frequently happened to paratracheal, paraoesophageal, perigastric 106recR and station 7. The most obvious difference (≥15%) of LNMR between two-field and three-field lymphatic dissection occurred in cervical, paratracheal, 106recR and 108. Conclusions Through the meta-analysis, more useful information was obtained about clinical target volume (CTV) delineation of TOC patients treated with radiotherapy. However, our study is predominantly a description of squamous carcinoma and the results may not be valid for adenocarcinoma. PMID:22700258

  4. Visual outcome and impact on quality of life after surgeries differ in children operated for unilateral and bilateral cataract (Pune study 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Paryani

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Vision and VQL improved in children with unilateral and bilateral cataract. However, it was better 6 months following surgery in children with bilateral cataract than in children with unilateral cataract.

  5. Affordability of cataract surgery using the Big Mac prices

    OpenAIRE

    Van C. Lansingh; Marissa J. Carter; Kristen A. Eckert; Kevin L. Winthrop; João M. Furtado; Serge Resnikoff

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: One barrier to cataract surgery is its high price in some countries. This study aims to understand to what extent the price of cataract surgery is over- or undervalued and whether it varies in relation to GDP using The Economist newspaper Big Mac Index (BMcI) methodology, which measures the purchasing power parity between different currencies. Methods: Peer-reviewed articles containing information on cataract surgery prices were searched from 1993 to June 2012 in databases. Ophtha...

  6. Influence factors of visual quality after phacoemulsification for cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Lin Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cataract refers to the degenerative changes in lens quality caused by various causes of reduced transparency or color change. Surgical treatment is the main treatment modality at present. Among them, phacoemulsification has become the main surgical treatment for cataract because of its advantages such as short operation time, small incision and quicker healing. Today, cataract surgery has gradually shift to refractive surgery, and is no longer simply as cataract surgery. But after cataract phacoemulsification, the symptoms and visual quality are different. The main causes include refractive error, postoperative dry eyes and postoperative corneal astigmatism. This article reviews the factors that influence the visual quality of cataract phacoemulsification and its future trends.

  7. Clinical and nutritional implications of radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, W.H.; Fan, A.; Halsted, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The clinical and nutritional significance of radiation enteritis was assessed in eight patients with chronic diarrhea which followed curative doses of radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies. Steatorrhea, found in seven malnourished patients, was ascribed to ileal disease or previous surgery, or to bacterial contamination of the small intestine. Lactose intolerance, assessed by breath hydrogen excretion after oral lactose and by jejunal lactase levels, was found in six patients. In a subgroup of five patients, the administration of two different defined formula liquid diets by nasoduodenal infusion decreased fecal fluid and energy losses by about one-half. Compared to Vivonex-HN, the infusion of Criticare-HN was associated with greater likelihood of intestinal gas production but a three-fold greater utilization of protein. Intestinal malabsorption and malnutrition in radiation enteritis has diverse etiologies. Whereas nutritional support by liquid diet limits fecal fluid and energy losses, these diets differ significantly in clinical tolerance and biologic value

  8. Clinical and nutritional implications of radiation enteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, W.H.; Fan, A.; Halsted, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The clinical and nutritional significance of radiation enteritis was assessed in eight patients with chronic diarrhea which followed curative doses of radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies. Steatorrhea, found in seven malnourished patients, was ascribed to ileal disease or previous surgery, or to bacterial contamination of the small intestine. Lactose intolerance, assessed by breath hydrogen excretion after oral lactose and by jejunal lactase levels, was found in six patients. In a subgroup of five patients, the administration of two different defined formula liquid diets by nasoduodenal infusion decreased fecal fluid and energy losses by about one-half. Compared to Vivonex-HN, the infusion of Criticare-HN was associated with greater likelihood of intestinal gas production but a three-fold greater utilization of protein. Intestinal malabsorption and malnutrition in radiation enteritis has diverse etiologies. Whereas nutritional support by liquid diet limits fecal fluid and energy losses, these diets differ significantly in clinical tolerance and biologic value.

  9. High lenticular tolerance to ultraviolet radiation-B by pigmented guinea-pig; application of a safety limit strategy for UVR-induced cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Vino C; Kakar, Manoj; Söderberg, Per G; Löfgren, Stefan

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine a threshold measure, maximum tolerable dose (MTD), for avoidance of UVR-B-induced cataract in the pigmented guinea-pig. Thirty pupil-dilated anesthetized young female guinea-pigs, divided into five equal groups, received between 0 and 84.9 kJ/m(2) unilateral UVR-B. Lens extraction and in vitro lens photography occurred 24 hr after exposure. Measurement of intensity of lens light scattering served as quantifying tool for the degree of cataract. Data analysis included regression, using a second order polynomial model. The applied MTD concept was based on the UVR-B dose-response curve obtained for the pigmented guinea-pig. A smaller number of pigmented guinea-pigs, pigmented rats and albino rats underwent morphometric analysis of the anterior segment geometry. All eyes exposed to UVR-B developed cataract in the anterior subcapsular region. MTD for avoidance of UVR-B-induced cataract was 69.0 kJ/m(2) in the pigmented guinea-pig. Iris was considerably thicker in the guinea-pig than in the rats. Lens blockage by the dilated iris was lowest in the guinea-pig. Maximum tolerable dose for avoidance of UVR-B-induced cataract in the pigmented guinea-pig was 69.0 kJ/m(2), over 10-fold higher than the threshold 5 kJ/m(2) obtained by Pitts et al. in the pigmented rabbit. Maximum tolerable dose is an appropriate method for estimation of toxicity for UVR-B-induced cataract in the guinea-pig. The pigmented guinea-pig is significantly less sensitive to UVR-B exposure than the pigmented rabbit and pigmented rat. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Acta Ophthalmol.

  10. Viscoless microincision cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Sallet

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Guy SalletDepartment of Opthamology, Aalsters Stedelijk Ziekenhuis, BelgiumAbstract: A cataract surgery technique is described in which incisions, continuous circular capsulorhexis and hydrodissection are made without the use of any viscoelastics. Two small incisions are created through which the different parts of the procedure can take place, maintaining a stable anterior chamber under continuous irrigation. Subsequent bimanual phacoemulsification can be done through these microincisions. At the end of the procedure, an intraocular lens can be inserted through the self-sealing incision under continuous irrigation. 50 consecutive cataract patients were operated on without the use of viscoelastics and then compared with a group of 50 patients who had been helped with viscoelastics. No difference in outcome, endothelial cell count or pachymetry was noted between the two groups. No intraoperative complication was encountered. Viscoless cataract surgery was a safe procedure with potential advantages.Keywords: ophthalmic visco-surgical device, viscoless cataract surgery, microincision

  11. Clinical and Radiation Oncology. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurga, L.; Adam, Z.; Autrata, R.

    2010-01-01

    The work is two-volume set and has 1,658 pages. It is divided into 5 sections: I. Principles Clinical and radiation oncology. II. Hematological Malignant tumors. III. Solid tumors. IV. Treatment options metastatic Disease. V. Clinical practice in oncology. Second volume contains following sections a chapters: Section III: Solid nodes, it contains following chapters: (38) Central nervous system tumors; (39) Tumors of the eye, orbits and adnexas; (40) Head and neck carcinomas; (41) Lung carcinomas and pleural mesothelioma; (42) Mediastinal tumors; (43) Tumors of the esophagus; (44) Gastric carcinomas; (45) Carcinoma of the colon, rectum and anus; (46) Small intestinal cancer; (47) Liver and biliary tract carcinomas; (48) Tumors of the pancreas; (49) Tumors of the kidney and upper urinary tract; (50) Bladder tumors of the bladder, urinary tract and penis; (51) Prostate Carcinoma; (52) Testicular tumors; (53) Malignant neoplasm of the cervix, vulva and vagina; (54) Endometrial carcinoma; (55) Malignant ovarian tumors; (56) Gestational trophoblastic disease; (57) Breast carcinoma - based on a evidence-based approach; (58) Thyroid and parathyroid carcinomas; (59) Dental tumors of endocrine glands; (60) Tumors of the locomotory system; (61) Malignant melanoma; (62) Carcinomas of the skin and skin adnexa; (63) Malignant tumors in immunosuppressed patients; (64) Tumors of unknown primary localization; (65) Children's oncology; (66) Geriatric Oncology; (67) Principles of long-term survival of patients with medically and socially significant types of malignant tumors after treatment. Section IV: Options of metastic disease disease, it contains following chapters: (68) Metastases to the central nervous system; (69) Metastases in the lungs; (70) Metastases in the liver; (71) Metastases into the skeleton. Section V: Clinical practice in oncology, it contains following chapters: (72) Acute conditions in oncology; (73) Prevention and management of radiation and chemical toxicity

  12. Efficacy of biodegradable curcumin nanoparticles in delaying cataract in diabetic rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charitra N Grama

    Full Text Available Curcumin, the active principle present in the yellow spice turmeric, has been shown to exhibit various pharmacological actions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anti-carcinogenic activities. Previously we have reported that dietary curcumin delays diabetes-induced cataract in rats. However, low peroral bioavailability is a major limiting factor for the success of clinical utilization of curcumin. In this study, we have administered curcumin encapsulated nanoparticles in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic cataract model. Oral administration of 2 mg/day nanocurcumin was significantly more effective than curcumin in delaying diabetic cataracts in rats. The significant delay in progression of diabetic cataract by nanocurcumin is attributed to its ability to intervene the biochemical pathways of disease progression such as protein insolubilization, polyol pathway, protein glycation, crystallin distribution and oxidative stress. The enhanced performance of nanocurcumin can be attributed probably to its improved oral bioavailability. Together, the results of the present study demonstrate the potential of nanocurcumin in managing diabetic cataract.

  13. Synchrotron radiation: its characteristics and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blewett, J.P.; Chasman, R.; Green, G.K.

    1977-01-01

    It has been known for a century that charged particles radiate when accelerated and that relativistic electrons in the energy range between 100 MeV and several GeV and constrained to travel in circular orbits emit concentrated, intense beams with broad continuous spectra that can cover the electromagnetic spectrum from infrared through hard X-rays. Recently the possible applications of this radiation have been appreciated and electron synchrotrons and electron storage rings are now being used in many centers for studies of the properties of matter in the solid, liquid and gaseous states. A brief history is presented of ''synchrotron radiation'' as it is now called. The basic properties of this radiation are described and the world-wide distribution is indicated of facilities for its production. Particular attention is given to the proposed facility at Brookhaven which will be the first major installation to be dedicated only to the production and use of synchrotron radiation. Finally, typical examples are given of applications in the areas of radiation absorption studies, techniques based on scattering of radiation, and advances based on X-ray lithography

  14. The Risk of Cataract among Survivors of Childhood and Adolescent Cancer: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodick, Gabriel; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Sklar, Charles A.; Leisenring, Wendy; Mertens, Ann C.; Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita E.; Veiga, Lene H. S.; Robison, Leslie L.; Inskip, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    With therapeutic successes and improved survival after a cancer diagnosis in childhood, increasing numbers of cancer survivors are at risk of subsequent treatment-related morbidities, including cataracts. While it is well known that the lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the human body, the risks associated with radiation doses less than 2 Gy are less understood, as are the long- and short-term cataract risks from exposure to ionizing radiation at a young age. In this study, we followed 13,902 five-year survivors of childhood cancer in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort an average of 21.4 years from the date of first cancer diagnosis. For patients receiving radiotherapy, lens dose (mean: 2.2 Gy; range: 0–66 Gy) was estimated based on radiotherapy records. We used unconditional multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate prevalence of self-reported cataract in relationship to cumulative radiation dose both at five years after the initial cancer diagnosis and at the end of follow-up. We modeled the radiation effect in terms of the excess odds ratio (EOR) per Gy. We also analyzed cataract incidence starting from five years after initial cancer diagnosis to the end of follow-up using Cox regression. A total of 483 (3.5%) cataract cases were identified, including 200 (1.4%) diagnosed during the first five years of follow-up. In a multivariable logistic regression model, cataract prevalence at the end of follow-up was positively associated with lens dose in a manner consistent with a linear dose-response relationship (EOR per Gy = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.65–1.20). The odds ratio for doses between 0.5 and 1.5 Gy was elevated significantly relative to doses <0.5 Gy (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3–3.7). The results from this study indicate a strong association between ocular exposure to ionizing radiation and long-term risk of pre-senile cataract. The risk of cataract increased with increasing exposure, beginning at lens doses as low as 0

  15. Evaluation of mid- and long-term consequences, clinical and social performance in Chernobyl acute radiation syndrome patients in a multi-centre clinical follow-up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.; Fischer, B.; Fliedner, T.M.; Bebeshko, V.G.; Belyi, D.A.; Kovalenko, A.N.; Nadejina, N.M.; Galstian, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    Since the Chernobyl accident in 1986 nearly all survivors (n=199) of 237 patients with suspected acute radiation syndrome (ARS) underwent regular follow-up investigations in the scientific centres in Kiev and in Moscow. In a close collaboration with these centres we investigate the health status of this population in a five step approach. An integral part of this approach to patient evaluation and analysis of the mid- and long-term consequences of the Chernobyl accident is a 'Questionnaire for clinical, laboratory and functional follow-up of radiation-exposed persons', developed with these centres. Beyond this project we report as an interim some results of analyses performed by the scientific centers in Kiev and in Moscow about disorders of the cardiovascular system and the digestive tract, formation of cataract, generalized and local skin injuries and/or disorders as well as for a subpopulation (n=89) the Karnofsky performance score and working ability

  16. Blindness and cataract surgical services in Atsinanana region, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianaivo, Jean-Baptiste; Anholt, R Michele; Tendrisoa, Diarimirindra Lazaharivony; Margiano, Nestor Jean; Courtright, Paul; Lewallen, Susan

    2014-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and causes of avoidable blindness in Atsinanana Region, Madagascar, with the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) survey. We analyzed the hospital records to supplement the findings for public health care planning. Only villages within a two-hour walk from a road, about half of the population of Atsinanana was included. Seventy-two villages were selected by population-proportional-to-size sampling. In each village, compact segment sampling was used to select 50 people over age 50 for eye examination using standard RAAB methods. Records at the two hospitals providing cataract surgery in the region were analyzed for information on patients who underwent cataract surgery in 2010. Cataract incidence rate and target cataract surgery rate (CSR) was modeled from age-specific prevalence of cataract. The participation rate was 87% and the sample prevalence of blindness was 1.96%. Cataract was responsible for 64% and 85.7% of blindness and severe visual impairment, respectively. Visual impairment was due to cataract (69.4%) and refractive error (14.1%). There was a strong positive correlation between cataract surgical rate by district and the proportion of people living within 2 hours of a road. There were marked differences in the profiles of the cataract patients at the two facilities. The estimated incidence of cataract at the 6/18 level was 2.4 eyes per 100 people over age 50 per year. Although the survey included only people with reasonable access, the main cause of visual impairment was still cataract. The incidence of cataract is such that it ought to be possible to eliminate it as a cause of visual impairment, but changes in service delivery at hospitals and strategies to improve access will be necessary for this change.

  17. Radiation protection requirements to dental clinics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenobio, Madelon A.F.; Silva, Teogenes Augusto da

    2002-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology consists of an ionizing radiation source to which the man are more exposed. The importance of radiographic exam in Dentistry made it a diagnostic supplemental resource and a treatment guide used by the dentistry area professionals. After studying all the risks related to X-ray on medical and odontological diagnostics, this study intends to realize a literature review in relation to the radiological protection requirements, among then, the article 453, that aim to promote the reduction of radiation doses to beings involved with diagnostic radiology without damaging or even improving the exam quality and the data on it included. (author)

  18. Clinical scientific research with ionizing radiations in Italy. Jurisprudential aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle, G.; Frusciante, V.; Petrucelli, L.; Podagrosi, V.; Giustini, A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper reviews the laws that regulate the clinical scientific research with ionizing radiations in Italy and the effects of ICRP 62, introduced in Italy by the Minister's Decree 21/11/1997, renders invalid all previous rules and regulations which contrast with them [it

  19. Prevalence of myopic shifts among patients seeking cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Iribarren

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern cataract surgery by phacoemulsification is a widely accepted procedure with a rapid recovery time. The prescription of specific intraocular lens, implanted during surgery, makes it possible to anticipate whether the patient will need reading glasses after the procedure. The present study analyses a sample of cataract surgery patients to show the frequency of myopic shifts related to nuclear opacity, which can result in clear near vision before surgery. A non-selected sample of consecutive patients who underwent elective cataract surgery in a private clinic was studied retrospectively. The myopic shift in refraction was assessed by comparing the old prescription with the spectacle correction at the time of interviewing.The mean age of the 229 subjects studied was 71.5 ± 10.4 years (109, 47.6%, males. A myopic shift in refraction, defined as at least - 0.5 diopters, was present in 37.1% of subjects (95% CI: 30.8%-43.4%. The mean change in refraction in these subjects was -2.52 ± 1.52 diopters. The percentage of subjects who had developed a myopic shift was significantly greater in those who presented greater nuclear opalescence. There were also differences in the mean myopic shift by refractive group, with the emmetropes having the greatest myopic shift. In this study of patients seeking cataract surgery in a clinical setting, more than one third had myopic shifts in refraction. This must be taken into account in order that patients maintain the benefit of clear near vision after surgery.

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation: extracapsular cataract extraction versus phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd R.A. Manaf

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A randomized single blinded clinical trial to compare the cost-effectiveness of cataract surgery between extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE and phacoemulsification (PEA was conducted at Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (HUKM from March 2000 until August 2001. The cost of a cataract surgery incurred by hospital, patients and households were calculated preoperatively, one week, two months (for both techniques and six months (for ECCE only. Effectiveness of cataract surgery was assessed using Visual Function 14 (VF-14, quality of life measurement specifically for vision. The cost analysis results from each 50 subjects of ECCE and PEA group showed that average cost for one ECCE after six months post-operation is USD 458 (± USD 72 and for PEA is USD 528 (± USD 125. VF-14 score showed a significant increased after a week, two months and six months post-operation compared to the score before operation for both techniques (p<0.001. However, there was no significant difference between them (p = 0.225. This study indicated that ECCE is more cost effective compared to PEA with cost per one unit increment of VF-14 score of USD 14 compared to USD 20 for PEA. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:25-31 Keywords: cataract, cost-effectiveness, extracapsular cataract extraction, phacoemulsification, visual function 14

  1. Measuring aniseikonia using scattering filters to simulate cataract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jason

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between anisometropia and aniseikonia (ANK) is not well understood. Ametropic cataract patients provide a unique opportunity to study this relationship after undergoing emmetropizing lens extraction. Because light scatter may affect ANK measurement in cataract patients, its effect should also be evaluated. The Basic Aniseikonia Test (BAT) was evaluated using afocal size lenses to produce specific changes in retinal height. Several light scattering devices were then evaluated to determine which produced effects most similar to cataract. Contrast sensitivity and visual acuity (VA) losses were measured with each device and compared to those reported in cataract. After determining the most appropriate light scattering device, twenty healthy patients with normal visual function were recruited to perform the BAT using the filters to simulate cataract. Cataract patients were recruited from Vision America and the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Optometry. Patients between 20 and 75 years of age with at least 20/80 VA in each eye, ≥ 2D ametropia, and normal binocular function were recruited. Stereopsis and ANK were tested and each patient completed a symptom questionnaire. ANK measurements using afocal size lenses indicated that the BAT underestimates ANK, although the effect was minimal for vertical targets and darkened surroundings, as previously reported. Based on VA and contrast sensitivity loss, Vistech scattering filters produced changes most similar to cataract. Results of the BAT using Vistech filters demonstrated that a moderate cataract but not a mild cataract may affect the ANK measurement. ANK measurements on cataract patients indicated that those with ≥ 2 D ametropia in each eye may suffer from induced ANK after the first cataract extraction. With upcoming healthcare reform, unilateral cataract extraction may be covered, but not necessarily bilateral, depending on patient VA in each eye. However, a questionnaire about symptoms

  2. A clinical intranet model for radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, Ken; Fox, Tim; Davis, Larry

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: A new paradigm in computing is being formulated from advances in client-server technology. This new way of accessing data in a network is referred to variously as Web-based computing, Internet computing, or Intranet computing. The difference between an internet and intranet being that the former is for global access and the later is only for intra-departmental access. Our purpose with this work is to develop a clinically useful radiation oncology intranet for accessing physically disparate data sources. Materials and Methods: We have developed an intranet client-server system using Windows-NT Server 4.0 running Internet Information Server (IIS) on the back-end and client PCs using a typical World Wide Web (WWW) browser. The clients also take advantage of the Microsoft Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) standard for accessing commercial database systems. The various data sources used include: a traditional Radiation Oncology Information (ROIS) System (VARiS 1.3 tm ); a 3-D treatment planning system (CAD Plan tm ); a beam scanning system (Wellhoffer tm ); as well as an electronic portal imaging device (PortalVision tm ) and a CT-Simulator providing digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) (Picker AcQsim tm ). We were able to leverage previously developed Microsoft Visual C++ applications without major re-writing of source code for this. Results: With the data sources and development materials used, we were able to develop a series of WWW-based clinical tool kits. The tool kits were designed to provide profession-specific clinical information. The physician's tool kit provides a treatment schedule for daily patients along with a dose summary from VARiS and the ability to review portal images and prescription images from the EPID and Picker. The physicists tool kit compares dose summaries from VARiS with an independent check against RTP beam data and serves as a quick 'chart-checker'. Finally, an administrator tool kit provides a summary of periodic charging

  3. Cytomegalovirus Congenital Cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridha Wahyutomo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus congenital infection is an infection caused by the the subfamily â Herpesviridae, during pregnancy. The incidence of infections among newborn infants is 1 %. One of the effects of congenitally acquired infection is the congenital cataract. A 6-year-old child complained to have a blurred vision diagnosed with cytomegalovirus congenital cataract. The diagnosis was confirmed by a positive serology testing for Ig M and Ig G CMV. The laboratory test using Giemsa staining to find inclusion bodies and a faster PCR could not be carried out (Sains Medika, 3(1:84-88.

  4. The Relationship of age, attitude, knowladge, cost to cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminatul Fitria

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cataract is the leading cause of 51% blindness case in the world. Cataract can only be cured trough surgery, but most people with cataract in Indonesia is not in undergoing surgery due to several factors. The increasing number of cataract victim whose not undergoing any treatment to cure them will resulting in increasing number of blindness case, so blindness cause by cataracts can be a public health problem. This research was conducted to determine the relationship of age, attitudes, knowledge and the cost of the action to perform cataract surgery. This research was an observational analytic study with cross sectional design. The samples were cataract patients in Undaan Eye Hospital Surabaya who were randomly selected using a simple random sampling based on medical records of 60 people. Data collection was done by taking secondary data and interviews to patients. Those variables was analyzed with chi square or Fisher’s exact with significancy level at 95%. The result showed that there were correlation between knowledge (p = 0.017, operating costs (p = 0.001 and attitude (0.000 while age was not related (p = 1.000, the actions to perform cataract surgery. The conclusion from this research was the attitude, knowledge and operating costs related to the actions to perform cataract surgery, while age was not related to the actions to perform cataract surgery. It is recommended to give through leaflets or other media in the lobby for improving patient education, counseling to the patient family, the doctor’s advice to convince patient for surgery. Keywords: practice, surgery, cataract, attitudes, costs

  5. The consent and counselling of patients for cataract surgery: a prospective audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, D; Sandramouli, S

    2005-09-01

    The aims of ideal preoperative informed consent include educating the patient adequately to enable an autonomous decision to be made without causing undue anxiety. We study how the paternalistic and nonpaternalistic approaches meet this ideal. The influence of the new patient consent forms is also assessed. Two cycles of a prospective clinical audit are presented. An assessment of relevant patient knowledge was performed by patient interview. Visual analogue scales were used to quantify patient anxiety. The first cycle, examining a paternalistic approach, demonstrated: 37% of patients understood what a cataract was and 48% understood what surgery involved. 48% misunderstood that cataract surgery was completely risk free. In total, 80% of patients undergoing second eye surgery believed that it was completely risk-free. Average anxiety visual analogue scores (VAS) for cataract surgery were low (2.89). The second cycle, examining the nonpaternalistic approach combined with the implementation of new consent forms showed that, despite more explicit repeated preoperative consent: 39% of patients understood correctly what a cataract was, 28% understood what surgery involved and 43% misunderstood that surgery was completely risk-free. All patients undergoing second eye surgery thought that it was risk-free. The average anxiety VAS for cataract surgery were moderate (5.00). Both paternalistic and non-paternalistic approaches to informed consent are inadequate in meeting the demands of the ideal informed consent. The new patient consent forms appear to have little effect in influencing patient knowledge about their surgery. Patients undergoing second eye surgery often have an overoptimistic view of cataract surgery.

  6. The value of serial personal photographs in timing the onset of unilateral cataracts in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, Gagan K; Hutchinson, Amy K; Lambert, Scott R

    2009-10-01

    To determine the value of serial personal photographs in timing the onset of unilateral cataracts in children over 6 months of age. Personal photographs from children with unilateral cataracts who underwent cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation when > or =6 months of age were reviewed. Photographs were evaluated for changes in the red reflex, which might indicate the presence of a cataract. Twelve children underwent cataract surgery at a mean age of 37 months. They were followed for a mean of 32 months. Ten children were diagnosed as having an acquired cataract by photographic review documenting a previously normal red reflex. The visual acuity in the affected eye of 4 of these children improved to > or =20/60. Cataracts were visible on photographs prior to clinical diagnosis in 6 patients, from 0.5 to 22 months prior to clinical diagnosis. Visual outcomes did not relate closely to the photographically documented duration of the cataract prior to treatment. Photographs were not helpful in timing the onset of cataract in 2 children due to the poor quality of the images. Serial personal photographs are sometimes helpful in determining whether cataracts are acquired. However, the usefulness of personal photographs alone in predicting the visual outcome after cataract surgery was limited in this small, retrospective study.

  7. Cataract surgery among Medicare beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Oliver D; Cassard, Sandra D; Tielsch, James M; Gower, Emily W

    2012-10-01

    To present descriptive epidemiology of cataract surgery among Medicare recipients in the United States. Cataract surgery performed on Medicare beneficiaries in 2003 and 2004. Medicare claims data were used to identify all cataract surgery claims for procedures performed in the United States in 2003-2004. Standard assumptions were used to limit the claims to actual cataract surgery procedures performed. Summary statistics were created to determine the number of procedures performed for each outcome of interest: cataract surgery rates by age, sex, race and state; surgical volume by facility type and surgeon characteristics; time interval between first- and second-eye cataract surgery. The national cataract surgery rate for 2003-2004 was 61.8 per 1000 Medicare beneficiary person-years. The rate was significantly higher for females and for those aged 75-84 years. After adjustment for age and sex, blacks had approximately a 30% lower rate of surgery than whites. While only 5% of cataract surgeons performed more than 500 cataract surgeries annually, these surgeons performed 26% of the total cataract surgeries. Increasing surgical volume was found to be highly correlated with use of ambulatory surgical centers and reduced time interval between first- and second-eye surgery in the same patient. The epidemiology of cataract surgery in the United States Medicare population documents substantial variation in surgical rates by race, sex, age, and by certain provider characteristics.

  8. Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The application of radiation in human health, for both diagnosis and treatment of disease, is an important component of the work of the IAEA. The responsibility for the increasing technical aspects of this work is undertaken by the medical physicist. To ensure good practice in this vital area structured clinical training programmes are required to complement academic learning. This publication is intended to be a guide to the practical implementation of such a programme for radiation therapy. There is a general and growing awareness that radiation medicine is increasingly dependant on well trained medical physicists that are based in the clinical setting. However an analysis of the availability of medical physicists indicates a large shortfall of qualified and capable professionals. This is particularly evident in developing countries. While strategies to increase academic educational opportunities are critical to such countries, the need for guidance on structured clinical training was recognised by the members of the Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) for research, development and training related to nuclear sciences for Asia and the Pacific. Consequently a technical cooperation regional project (RAS6038) under the RCA programme was formulated to address this need in the Asia Pacific region by developing suitable material and establishing its viability. Development of a clinical training guide for medical physicists specialising in radiation therapy was started in 2005 with the appointment of a core drafting committee of regional and international experts. Since 2005 the IAEA has convened two additional consultant group meetings including additional experts to prepare the present publication. The publication drew heavily, particularly in the initial stages, from the experience and documents of the Clinical Training Programme for Radiation Oncology Medical Physicists as developed by the Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine. Their

  9. Uptake of cataract surgery in Sava Region, Madagascar: role of cataract case finders in acceptance of cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafinimpanana, Narivony; Nkumbe, Henry; Courtright, Paul; Lewallen, Susan

    2012-04-01

    The number of people coming for cataract surgery in Madagascar remains low and most ophthalmologists could do many more surgeries than currently done. Knowing why people identified with cataract do not accept surgery will help to design programs that use existing resources more effectively. The study was carried out in Sava Region of Madagascar. People with blinding (acceptance were proximity to hospital (people from Sambava district were twice as likely to present as people from more distant districts) and perceived price of transport and food (being higher for people not accepting). The actual price of surgery was not the main barrier to acceptance of surgery; instead it appears that distance to the hospital and the willingness to pay are important predictors. Strategies to improve uptake need to be revised in order to ensure that people have access to and use cataract surgical services.

  10. Quality assurance in radiation therapy: clinical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souhami, L.

    1984-01-01

    A survey was conducted in Latin America to evaluate the clinical aspects of quality assurance in radiotherapy. A questionnaire was prepared and sent to 46 institutions. Twenty-seven centers (58.5%), from nine countries, answered the questionnaire. The study was divided into three topics: a) patient-related statistics; b) staffing and education; and c) equipment and facilities. Radiotherapy training programs are available in only 37% of the centers studied. A large number of megavoltage units are old, operating at a shorter than optimum distance with sources of very low activity. The number of high energy linear accelerators is unsatisfactory. Problems in treatment planning facilities were also identified. Regionalization of radiation therapy services is recommended as a possible way to improve quality at a reasonable cost

  11. Carbon footprint and cost-effectiveness of cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Rengaraj; van Landingham, Suzanne W; Khodifad, Ashish M; Haripriya, Aravind; Thiel, Cassandra L; Ramulu, Pradeep; Robin, Alan L

    2016-01-01

    This article raises awareness about the cost-effectiveness and carbon footprint of various cataract surgery techniques, comparing their relative carbon emissions and expenses: manual small-incision cataract surgery (MSICS), phacoemulsification, and femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. As the most commonly performed surgical procedure worldwide, cataract surgery contributes significantly to global climate change. The carbon footprint of a single phacoemulsification cataract surgery is estimated to be comparable to that of a typical person's life for 1 week. Phacoemulsification has been estimated to be between 1.4 and 4.7 times more expensive than MSICS; however, given the lower degree of postoperative astigmatism and other potential complications, phacoemulsification may still be preferable to MSICS in relatively resource-rich settings requiring high levels of visual function. Limited data are currently available regarding the environmental and financial impact of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery; however, in its current form, it appears to be the least cost-effective option. Cataract surgery has a high value to patients. The relative environmental impact and cost of different types of cataract surgery should be considered as this treatment becomes even more broadly available globally and as new technologies are developed and implemented.

  12. cataract surgical services

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin. America (3,4). With an estimated 12,000 bilaterally blind people ... (OMA's). 1 general medical practitioner. Loptometry technician. 1 general nurse and. 3 health assistants. Ocular morbidities cataract and aphakia corneal scarring/phthisis glaucoma refractive errors others. Percent. 52.4.

  13. [Impact of 3 years of contract implementation on the quality of cataract surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begiristain, J; Elizalde, B; Ibarluzea, J; Mendicute, J; Sola, C

    1999-01-01

    To assess the adequacy to clinical practice of cataract procedures contracted in the Gipuzkoa Health Area (in public as well as concerted hospitals) from 1995. A second aim is to identify the achievements obtained three years after its implementation comparing the data with those of 1994, a year before. Before its implementation a multidisciplinar team established the number of surgical procedures to be contracted each year by age and sex, as well as the technical and quality conditions (out-patient surgery, loco-regional anaesthetic, facoemulsification, etc.). Data used for the assessment: Cataracts Registry of the Ophthalmologic Unit, Patient Management Categories and surgical waiting lists. During the period studied, 8,073 cataract operations were performed, 9% higher than expected. The distribution by age and sex was as estimated. Technical and quality standards were fulfilled, except for the surgical waiting list, in at least 75% of the procedures. The surgical technique mainly used was facoenmulsification, increasing from 15% in 1994 to 76.5% in 1997. The contracting of cataract surgery has allowed the assessment, reordering, and establishment of standards of care for all the professionals involved in the process. There were improvements in clinical practice during the period studied. This has given raise to the homogenisation of care in all the units following technical and quality standards, meaning better equity for the patients in need of the procedure.

  14. Evaluation of the macula prior to cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeague, Marta; Sharma, Priya; Ho, Allen C

    2018-01-01

    To describe recent evidence regarding methods of evaluation of retinal structure and function prior to cataract surgery. Studies in patients with cataract but no clinically detectable retinal disease have shown that routine use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) prior to cataract surgery can detect subtle macular disease, which may alter the course of treatment or lead to modification of consent. The routine use of OCT has been especially useful in patients being considered for advanced-technology intraocular lenses (IOLs) as subtle macular disease can be a contraindication to the use of these lenses. The cost-effectiveness of routine use of OCT prior to cataract surgery has not been studied. Other technologies that assess retinal function rather than structure, such as microperimetry and electroretinogram (ERG) need further study to determine whether they can predict retinal potential in cataract patients. There is growing evidence for the importance of more detailed retinal evaluation of cataract patients even with clinically normal exam. OCT has been the most established and studied method for retinal evaluation in cataract patients, but other technologies such as microperimetry and ERG are beginning to be studied.

  15. Ultraviolet radiation and its biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rames, J.; Bencko, V.

    1993-01-01

    In connexion with contamination of the atmosphere with freons, the interest is increasing in geophysical and health aspects of 'ozone holes' - the seasonal incidence of increased intensity of UV radiation. Its biological effects depend on the intensity of the radiation, the exposure time and the wavelength. There is a wide range of various sorts of damage, local as well as general. In addition to skin pigmentation and symptoms produced by an elevated histamine blood level, also changes are found which may have more serious and permanent consequences: changes in the number and structure of Langerhans islets, changes of the peripheral capillary walls, dimerization of pyrimidine and thymine in DNA. These changes demonstrably contribute to the development of skin malignancies. After exposure of the eye, changes in pigmentation are found, and depending on the dose, possibly also development of conjunctivitis or retinal damage. Recently the interaction of UV radiation with arsenic was investigated. On the other side, therapeutic effects of UV radiation combined with chemotherapy are used in dermatology, eg., for inhibition of contact sensitization. (author) 42 refs

  16. Radiation shielding fiber and its manufacturing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Koji; Ono, Hiroshi.

    1988-08-17

    Purpose: To manufacture radiation shielding fibers of excellent shielding effects. Method: Fibers containing more than 1 mmol/g of carboxyl groups are bonded with heavy metals, or they are impregnated with an aqueous solution containing water-soluble heavy metal salts dissolved therein. Fibers as the substrate may be any of forms such as short fibers, long fibers, fiber tows, webs, threads, knitting or woven products, non-woven fabrics, etc. It is however necessary that fibers contain more than 1 mmol/g, preferably, from 2 to 7 mmol/g of carboxylic groups. Since heavy metals having radiation shielding performance are bonded to the outer layer of the fibers and the inherent performance of the fibers per se is possessed, excellent radiation shielding performance can be obtained, as well as they can be applied with spinning, knitting or weaving, stitching, etc. thus can be used for secondary fiber products such as clothings, caps, masks, curtains, carpets, cloths, etc. for use in radiation shieldings. (Kamimura, M.).

  17. Exploiting ensemble learning for automatic cataract detection and grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji-Jiang; Li, Jianqiang; Shen, Ruifang; Zeng, Yang; He, Jian; Bi, Jing; Li, Yong; Zhang, Qinyan; Peng, Lihui; Wang, Qing

    2016-02-01

    Cataract is defined as a lenticular opacity presenting usually with poor visual acuity. It is one of the most common causes of visual impairment worldwide. Early diagnosis demands the expertise of trained healthcare professionals, which may present a barrier to early intervention due to underlying costs. To date, studies reported in the literature utilize a single learning model for retinal image classification in grading cataract severity. We present an ensemble learning based approach as a means to improving diagnostic accuracy. Three independent feature sets, i.e., wavelet-, sketch-, and texture-based features, are extracted from each fundus image. For each feature set, two base learning models, i.e., Support Vector Machine and Back Propagation Neural Network, are built. Then, the ensemble methods, majority voting and stacking, are investigated to combine the multiple base learning models for final fundus image classification. Empirical experiments are conducted for cataract detection (two-class task, i.e., cataract or non-cataractous) and cataract grading (four-class task, i.e., non-cataractous, mild, moderate or severe) tasks. The best performance of the ensemble classifier is 93.2% and 84.5% in terms of the correct classification rates for cataract detection and grading tasks, respectively. The results demonstrate that the ensemble classifier outperforms the single learning model significantly, which also illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Complication rate of posterior capsule rupture with vitreous loss during phacoemulsification at a Hawaiian cataract surgical center: a clinical audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen M

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ming Chen,1 Kara C LaMattina,2 Thomas Patrianakos,2 Surendar Dwarakanathan2 1Department of Surgery, Division of Ophthalmology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA; 2Division of Ophthalmology, John H Stroger, Jr Hospital of Cook County, Chicago, IL, USA Purpose: To compare the complication rate of posterior capsule rupture (PCR with vitreous loss during phacoemulsification at an ambulatory surgical center with published results as a clinical audit for quality control. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 3,339 consecutive patients who underwent routine phacoemulsification by four experienced private practice surgeons from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012 at The Surgical Suites, Honolulu, HI, USA. All cases with PCR and vitreous loss were identified and selected for the study. Risk factors of this complication were further examined. Data were sent to John H Stroger Jr Hospital of Cook County, Division of Ophthalmology, for literature review, analysis, and write-up. Results: Twenty-three of the 3,339 cases incurred PCR and vitreous loss during phacoemulsification, for an incidence rate of 0.68%. Miosis, shallow chamber, restlessness, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, floppy iris syndrome, and zonulopathy were the main causes. In addition, surgeon volume (number of cases was inversely correlated with PCR. Conclusion: The rate of PCR with vitreous loss during phacoemulsification in this study may be lower than other published results done at academic centers. However, there was no compatible study available for comparison, as existing studies performed at academic centers included resident cases. This study identified risk factors for PCR/vitreous loss both preoperatively and postoperatively that may assist in application of preventive measures to decrease rates of PCR/vitreous loss. Keywords: phacoemulsification complications, posterior capsule rupture, vitreous loss, vitrectomy, miosis, pseudoexfoliation, floppy iris syndrome, zonulopathy

  19. Bystander effect induced by ionizing radiation and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Feng; Tu Yu

    2009-01-01

    An indirect effect induced by ionizing radiation called bystander effect is being highly concentrated. Many domestic and foreign researchers have verified the existence of bystander effect and have got more understanding of the mechanism with advanced detection techniques and methods. So far, the research about it has expanded from a single cell to multiple cells, from the in vitro to the whole, and has extended to in vivo from in vitro, which provides powerful evidence to explain how bystander effects happen and the regulation mechanism and especially gives scientific evidence to clinical radiation oncology application in the future. (authors)

  20. Radiation immobilization of catalase and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guanghui; Ha Hongfei; Wang Xia; Wu Jilan

    1988-01-01

    Catalase was immobilized by a chemical method on porous polyacrylamide particles produced by radiation polymerization of acrylamide monomer at low temperature (-78 0 C). Activity of immobilized catalase was enhanced distinctly by joining a chemical arm to the support. The method of recovery of catalase activity on immobilized polymer was found by soaking it in certain buffer. The treatment of H 2 O 2 both in aqueous solution and alcoholic solution by using the immobilized catalase was performed. (author)

  1. [Social marketing to increase the rate of cataract surgery in the Sava region of Madagascar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkumbe, H E; Razafinimpanana, N; Rakotondrajoa, L P

    2013-01-01

    Lack of information is one of the main reasons why people who are visually impaired or blind as a result of cataracts do not visit eye care centers for surgery that can restore their sight. This study was conducted to determine the best ways to inform the main target groups about the possibility of restoring sight to those whose visual impairment and blindness is due to cataracts and about outreach visits by the mobile eye clinic of FLM SALFA, Sambava, in the Sava region of Madagascar from November 2008 through October 2009. Two community eye health workers conducted awareness campaigns and delivered posters to radio stations, religious leaders, and administrative authorities of the 17 most populated municipalities in the region of Sava, two weeks before these visits. All participants who visited the mobile clinic were interviewed, and the ophthalmologist's diagnosis was noted on the questionnaire. Women accounted for 51.5% of the 955 participants. Radio was the most effective means of communication in the region overall, and specifically for reaching men (P=0.044); churches were more successful for reaching women (P = 0.000). Cataract was diagnosed in 16.2% of men and 8.1% of women (p = 0.0001). To significantly increase the number of people, especially women, having cataract surgery in the Sava region, it is essential to work closely with the leaders of all religious groups, as well as with radio stations.

  2. Inadvertent filtering bleb following sutureless cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Sunil

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The case history of a sixty-two-year-old lady, who presented with a bleb in the upper part of her left eye following cataract surgery was studied. The patient had no prior history of any glaucoma surgery. Gonioscopy revealed fishmouthing of the internal aspect of the scleral tunnel incision. The diagnosis of post-cataract filtering bleb was made which was managed by resuturing the wound. This case highlights the use of gonioscopy to visualise and evaluate the internal wound and discusses intraoperative recognition of internal leak and its management with horizontal sutures.

  3. Clinical utility of MR imaging in chronic progressive radiation myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melki, P.S.; Halimi, P.; Wibault, P.; Doyon, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper defines the diagnostic and prognostic value of MR imaging in chronic progressive radiation myelopathy 9CPRM). In this series, MR imaging showed excellent sensitivity (199%) for the demonstration of radiation-induced lesions of the spinal cord. Fifty percent of the cases showed spinal cord hypertrophy (pseudotumoral, 33%; cystic, 17%) occurring within 8 months of the clinical onset of myelopathy. The remaining 50% showed spinal cord atrophy, which occurred more than 8 months following the onset of myelopathy. These medullary lesions were located at least partially in the radiation field but extended beyond its boundaries in 73% of the cases. MR imaging helped to establish disease prognosis: spinal cord hypertrophy was usually associated with neurologic deterioration and fatal outcome within a mean of 11.5 months; in spinal atrophy, neurologic deficit was often static and survival rates were better

  4. UV radiation and its effects. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The National Science Strategy Committee for Climate Change was established in 1991 by the New Zealand Minister of Research, Science and Technology. It advises government through the Minister on research priorities and on levels of expenditure appropriate in various topics relating to climate change. An additional role is to promote coordination between research groups and the user communities to ensure an appropriate range of research strategies. To assist with implementing the latter aspects the NSS Committee will organise workshops on specific aspects of atmosphere and climate change, with a broad spectrum of participants. The first of these was the Workshop on UV Radiation and its Effects held in Christchurch on 20-21 May 1993. The workshop had 40 participants, including representatives from specialist science groups, medicine, veterinary science, farming, forestry and environmental groups. This publication will update the interested reader, whether scientist or lay-person, on the current state of knowledge on changing UV radiation levels and potential problems. As the summaries of papers show, research on ozone levels and on UV radiation and its effects is particularly appropriate for New Zealand scientists with their access to sites covering a wide range of latitudes from Antarctica to the Pacific Islands. New Zealand is part of an important international monitoring network, measuring local stratospheric ozone levels and related surface UV radiation levels. There are concerns about increasing UVB levels and the consequent effects on human health, plant and tree growth, and phytoplankton growth in the oceans. Priorities for further work on these areas are included in the summary of the workshop. (author). 13 figs.; 5 tabs

  5. Technical basis of radiation therapy. Practical clinical applications. 5. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitt, Seymour H. [Karolinska Institutet Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Oncol-Pathol; Perez, Carlos A. [Washington Univ. Medical Center, St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Purdy, James A. [California Univ., Sacramento, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Poortmans, Philip [Institute Verbeeten, Tilburg (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-07-01

    This well-received book, now in its fifth edition, is unique in providing a detailed description of the technological basis of radiation therapy. Another novel feature is the collaborative writing of the chapters by North American and European authors. This considerably broadens the book's perspective and increases its applicability in daily practice throughout the world. The book is divided into two sections. The first covers basic concepts in treatment planning, including essential physics and biological principles related to time-dose-fractionation, and explains the various technological approaches to radiation therapy, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy, tomotherapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, and high and low dose rate brachytherapy. Issues relating to quality assurance, technology assessment, and cost-benefit analysis are also reviewed. The second part of the book discusses in depth the practical clinical applications of the different radiation therapy techniques in a wide range of cancer sites. All of the chapters have been written by leaders in the field. This book will serve to instruct and acquaint teachers, students, and practitioners in the various fields of oncology with the basic technological factors and approaches in radiation therapy. (orig.)

  6. Cataract surgery output and cost of hospitalization for cataract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Si nous devons réussir à éliminer les arrièrs problèmes des cataracts de plus de ½ million cas, nos efforts sur la chirurgie de cataracte devraient porter principalement sur des programmes visant sur des measures preventives contre les incidences de la cécité. 106 cas des chirurgies cataracts avaient été opérées Durant la ...

  7. Gigantol from Dendrobium chrysotoxum Lindl. binds and inhibits aldose reductase gene to exert its anti-cataract activity: An in vitro mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Li, Xue; Wan, Wencheng; Yang, Qiaohong; Ma, Weifeng; Chen, Dan; Hu, Jiangmiao; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Wei, Xiaoyong

    2017-02-23

    Dendrobium. chrysotoxum Lindl is a commonly used species of medicinal Dendrobium which belongs to the family of Orchidaceae, locally known as "Shihu" or "Huangcao". D. chrysotoxum Lindl is widely known for medicinal values in traditional Chinese medicine as it possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic induction, antitumor and antioxidant properties. To characterize the interaction between gigantol extracted from D. chrysotoxum Lindl and the AR gene, and determine gigantol's efficacy against cataractogenesis. Human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) were induced by glucose as the model group. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to assess AR gene expression. Then, the mode of interaction of gigantol with the AR gene was evaluated by UV-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscope (AFM) and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The binding constant was determined by UV-visible. Gigantol depressed AR gene expression in HLECs. UV-visible spectra preliminarily indicated that interaction between the AR gene and gigantol may follow the groove mode, with a binding constant of 1.85×10 3 L/mol. Atomic force microscope (AFM) data indicated that gigantol possibly bound to insert AR gene base pairs of the double helix. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) studies further supported these observations. Gigantol extracted from D. chrysotoxum Lindl not only has inhibitory effects on aldose reductase, but also inhibits AR gene expression. These findings provide a more comprehensive theoretical basis for the use of Dendrobium for the treatment of diabetic cataract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mortality after endophthalmitis following contemporary phacoemulsification cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Niall; Polkinghorne, Philip J; Kim, Bia; McGhee, Charles; Welch, Sarah; Riley, Andrew

    2018-04-24

    To determine if endophthalmitis following cataract surgery is linked to increased mortality. Increased mortality has been linked to patients with cataract and cataract surgery. We tested the hypothesis that post-cataract endophthalmitis has a greater risk of death than pseudophakes who do not develop this complication. Case-control study conducted in a tertiary public hospital. The study group comprised 50 consecutive patients with post-cataract endophthalmitis, and these were matched with selected controls. Patients with endophthalmitis following cataract surgery were identified from a prospective electronic surgical database. Subsequently, it was determined if the patient was deceased at the time of sequestration (September 2015), and the date of death was recorded. A previously described population who had undergone cataract surgery in the same facility was selected as a control group, and the population was case-matched in terms age, gender, presence or absence of diabetes and/or hypertension. The median survival rates were determined for the control group and the patients with post-cataract endophthalmitis. Fifty patients were identified as undergoing endophthalmitis post-cataract surgery, and 48 (n = 48) met inclusion criteria (mean age 72 years ±12 SD with 30:18 F:M); 17% were diabetic, and 50% had systemic hypertension. No statistically significant difference in median survival between the study and control cases was identified (100 months (95% confidence interval 86-114) vs. 106 months (95% confidence interval 66-146), respectively, P = 0.756). Post-cataract endophthalmitis was not associated with an increased rate of mortality in this study. © 2018 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  9. Radiation proctitis and its surgical problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Shiro; Yasuna, Osamu; Yamaura, Yoshinori

    1985-01-01

    Radiation proctitis was investigated in terms of clinico-pathological findings, the method of treatment and therapeutic results in 11 patients (7 with cervical cancer, 1 with ovarian cancer, and 3 with cancer of the bladder). Four of the patients with cervical cancer were treated with 4,136-5,000 rad of WCo combined with brachytherapy of WCo or TXCs, one patient with 6,000 rad of WCo alone, one with 3,000 rad of x-ray alone, and one with 4,900 rad of x-ray combined with brachytherapy of TXCs. A patient with ovarian cancer was treated with 6,000 rad of x-ray and three patients with cancer of the bladder were treated with 4,200-6,330 rad of x-ray. Radiation proctitis developed early (4 months to 1 year after therapy) in 8 patients and late (4 years to 19 years after therapy) in the other 3 patients. Common symptoms were melena, constipation and sensation of gastric fullness. According to the Sherman's classification, proctitis was grade III or IV (showing constriction, ulcer or fistula) in all patients. Although the lesion could be resected in one patient, only colostomy was performed in the other 10 patients. It is recommended that care should be taken in deciding the method of exposure to the pelvic viscera and exposure doses for the prevention of radiation proctitis, and that intestinal lesions should be resected before far-advanced intestinal disturbance developes. (Namekawa, K.).

  10. The Effect of Trabeculectomy on Cataract Formation or Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhale Rajavi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the effect of trabeculectomy on cataract formation or progression in patients with chronic glaucoma. METHODS: This controlled clinical trial was performed on patients over 50 years of age with glaucoma who were referred to Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from 2006 to 2007. Trabeculectomy was indicated only in one eye while the fellow eye had well-controlled intraocular pressure with medication(s. The fellow eyes served as controls. Lens opacity was evaluated using three criteria: visual acuity (VA, and Lens Opacification Classification System III (LOCS III photographs and scores. RESULTS: Overall 82 eyes of 41 patients including 53.7% male and 46.3% female subjects with mean age of 62.5±9.3 (range 50-75 years were evaluated. Cataract progression in operated eyes was statistically significant according to VA (P=0.02, LOCS III photo-graphs (P=0.05 and LOCS III scores (P=0.01. However, compared to fellow control eyes, cataract progression was significant according to VA (P=0.023 and LOCS III scores (P=0.057 but not based on LOCS III photographs. Mean VA reduction was 2 Snellen lines in operated eyes; there were 3 cases of cataract formation or

  11. Clinical Effects and Safety of 3% Diquafosol Ophthalmic Solution for Patients With Dry Eye After Cataract Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae Hyun; Chung, Jin Kwon; Seo, Du Ri; Lee, Sung Jin

    2016-03-01

    To compare the efficacies and safety profiles of 3% diquafosol and 0.1% sodium hyaluronate in patients with dry eye after cataract surgery. Randomized controlled trial. setting: Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea. In all, 130 eyes of 86 dry eye patients who had undergone cataract surgery between January 2014 and January 2015 were enrolled and randomly divided into a diquafosol group and a sodium hyaluronate group. The diquafosol group used diquafosol 6 times a day and the hyaluronate group used sodium hyaluronate 6 times a day after cataract surgery. Evaluations of efficacy were conducted based on an Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, tear breakup time (TBUT), Schirmer I test, corneal fluorescein and conjunctival lissamine green staining scores, serial measurement of ocular higher-order aberrations (HOAs), corneal HOAs, and uncorrected distance visual acuity test. Safety evaluations were based on anterior chamber inflammation and discontinuation of the eye drops. Objective signs and subjective symptoms were aggravated at 1 week postoperatively and began to recover significantly 4 weeks after surgery. The diquafosol group showed significantly superior TBUT (P < .001), corneal fluorescein (P = .045), and conjunctival staining (P = .001) compared to the sodium hyaluronate group throughout the study period. TBUT (P < .001) and the change in HOAs (P = .018) recovered significantly more quickly in the diquafosol group. The safety evaluations showed no intergroup differences. Eye drops of 3% diquafosol may be an effective and safe treatment for the management of cataract surgery-induced dry eye aggravation in patients with preexisting dry eye. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Catarata congênita: aspectos diagnósticos, clínicos e cirúrgicos em pacientes submetidos a lensectomia Congenital cataract: diagnostic, clinic and surgical features in patients submitted to lensectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Lima Santos Oliveira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estabelecer o perfil clínico-terapêutico e resultados cirúrgicos de crianças submetidas a lensectomia. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de 89 olhos operados de 62 crianças do Setor de Catarata Congênita do Departamento de Oftalmologia da UNIFESP-EPM. RESULTADOS: Entre as 62 crianças, 30,64% apresentaram causa infecciosa, 19,36% genética e 50% idiopática. Estrabismo foi encontrado em 54,83% das crianças e 27,42% apresentaram alterações sistêmicas. Quanto às condições gestacionais, 22,58% das mães não realizaram adequadamente o pré-natal. Consangüinidade foi observada em 17,74% dos casais e catarata congênita em 9,68% dos familiares. A suspeita diagnóstica foi realizada pelas mães em 72,58% dos casos, sendo leucocoria o principal sinal. A idade da suspeita diagnóstica variou de imediatamente após o nascimento até 15 meses (média = 1,34 meses, ao passo que a idade de atendimento no serviço variou de 8 dias a 20 meses (média = 5,84 meses. Opacidade secundária de eixo visual foi a principal complicação cirúrgica, ocorrendo em 19,1% dos olhos operados. Com relação à adesão ao tratamento pós-operatório, 45,16% apresentaram dificuldades quanto ao uso de oclusivo, óculos ou colírios. CONCLUSÃO: A rubéola persiste como uma das principais causas de catarata congênita em nosso meio, sendo necessário maior atenção às medidas preventivas A suspeita diagnóstica inicial da catarata é realizada principalmente pelas mães (72,58% e até os 3 meses de idade (93,44% período ideal para a recuperação visual. Há, porém, demora considerável entre a suspeita e o atendimento no serviço especializado. A realização tardia da cirurgia, juntamente com insatisfatória adesão ao tratamento pós-cirúrgico, compromete os resultados visuais finais.PURPOSE: To analyze the clinical and therapeutic profiles of children with congenital cataract submitted to lensectomy. METHODS: Retrospective study of 89 eyes of 62

  13. IOL Implants: Lens Replacement and Cataract Surgery (Intraocular Lenses)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology ... Are Cataracts? Pediatric Cataracts Cataract Diagnosis and Treatment Cataract Surgery IOL Implants: Lens Replacement After Cataracts ...

  14. Mimicking cataract-induced visual dysfunction by means of protein denaturation in egg albumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandracchia, B.; Finizio, A.; Ferraro, P.

    2016-03-01

    As the world's population ages, cataract-induced visual dysfunction and blindness is on the increase. This is a significant global problem. The most common symptoms of cataracts are glared and blurred vision. Usually, people with cataract have trouble seeing and reading at distance or in low light and also their color perception is altered. Furthermore, cataract is a sneaky disease as it is usually a very slow but progressive process, which creates adaptation so that patients find it difficult to recognize. All this can be very difficult to explain, so we built and tested an optical device to help doctors giving comprehensive answers to the patients' symptoms. This device allows visualizing how cataract impairs vision mimicking the optical degradation of the crystalline related cataracts. This can be a valuable optical tool for medical education as well as to provide a method to illustrate the patients how cataract progression process will affect their vision.

  15. Isotopic cisternography. Its clinical value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemort, J.P.; Bizais, Y.; Herzog, B.

    1976-01-01

    A brief study of isotopic cisternography with a new tracer is performed. After describing the physiological circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid the different tracers used are studied and experience with 111 Indium DTPA which is tending to replace the other tracers is given. The indications and the normal and pathological results are discussed. The different forms of hydrocephalus are described; this examination makes it possible in particular to diagnose cases of hydrocephalus with normal pressure, cysts, or localized, subarachnoid pockets. Cerebrospinal fluid fistulas are detected by this technique. Finally, the place of isotopic cisternography in relation to the other neuroradiological examinations and in relation to tomodensitometric investigations is discussed [fr

  16. Role of Mediterranean diet, tropical vegetables rich in antioxidants, and sunlight exposure in blindness, cataract and glaucoma among African type 2 diabetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moïse, Mvitu Muaka; Benjamin, Longo-Mbenza; Doris, Tulomba Mona; Dalida, Kibokela Ndembe; Augustin, Nge Okwe

    2012-01-01

    AIM To assess whether regular Mediterranean diet and regular intake of vegetables may reduce the risk of blindness, cataract, and glaucoma in these type 2 diabetics. METHODS A cross-sectional design was carried out among known black diabetics admitted at the diabetic clinics of Kinshasa, between October 2008 and March 2009. The Mediterranean-style dietary score (MSDPS) was used to characterize a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern in the study population using the Harvard semi quantitative FFQ adapted for Africa. RESULTS Five hundred Type 2 diabetic patients were included in this study (48% of males; 40% aged ≥60 years). There was a significant association between blindness, cataract and aging; between blindness (P<0.05), cataract (P<0.05), glaucoma (P<0.05), and physical inactivity; between blindness (P<0.05), cataract (P<0.0001), glaucoma (P<0.01) and high SES, and a very significant association between blindness (P<0.0001), cataract (P<0.0001), glaucoma (P<0.0001) and exposure to sunlight. There was also a significant association between blindness, glaucoma, and male sex. Regular intake of Mediterranean diet, Brassica Rapa, beans, Abelmoschus, Musa acuminata reduced significantly the risk of blindness, cataract and glaucoma. CONCLUSION Regular intake of Mediterranean diet, Brassica Rapa, beans, Abelmoschus, and Musa acuminata may significantly reduce the risk of blindness or its major causes among type 2 diabetes mellitus in Africa. PMID:22762057

  17. A comparison of field-only electronic portal imaging hard copies with double exposure port films in radiation therapy treatment setup confirmation to determine its clinical application in a radiotherapy center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatherly, Kay; Smylie, Josephine; Rodger, Alan

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To determine in which treatment sites field-only hard copy electronic portal images (EPI) captured during a treatment exposure could replace traditional double exposed port films in a busy radiation oncology department. Methods and Materials: The three linear accelerators in the William Buckland Radiotherapy Centre (WBRC) at the Alfred Hospital in Melbourne are each equipped with an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). These devices can be used daily on all patients where the treatment fields are within the size constraint of the cassette, for example, less than 25 x 25 cm. Port films using radiographic film in hard cassettes were previously considered the standard method of field placement verification. After the radiation therapists were trained in all program aspects of capturing, enhancing, and producing hard copies of EPIs, a study was developed to evaluate the possibility of replacing port films with EPI hard copies within the established departmental procedures. Comparison of EPI hard copy with the simulator film and the port film of the same field was carried out by the radiation oncologist specialists. Seventy-eight comparison sets were generated and grouped into seven anatomical regions for evaluation by the radiation oncologist specialist responsible for each particular region. The outcome decision was the preferred imaging option. Where no preference was stated, EPI became the modality of choice, as it increased the efficiency of work practice. Results: The results indicate that field-only EPI can be considered to be at least as clinically useful for treatment verification in the following sites: breast, chest, hip, spine, and large pelvic fields. Port films using a standard, double exposure technique were considered necessary for partial brain fields, small pelvis fields, extremities, and radical head and neck fields. Conclusion: The quality of field-only images captured using an EPID has been favorably assessed to be equivalent to, or an

  18. Gamma radiation effects on the proteins of 'in vitro' bovine lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, D.M.L.; Mastro, N.L. del

    1988-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of the ocular lens manifested by cataract formation has been of considerable interest in the study on the biological effects of radiations. Cataract can ben produced by different causes and also for the normal process of ageing. The aim of this work was to develop an in vitro system similar to in vivo cataract formation. It was used an aqueous soluton of bovine lenses. The lenses after surgical removal mechanical and ultrasonic disrupted. The suspension was centrifuged and the supernatant was dialyzed and irradiated with different doses of 60 Co radiation. The opacification extent was measured in an spectrophotometer. (author) [pt

  19. Clinical results of radiation therapy for thymoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Ono, Koji; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Sasai, Keisuke; Kitakabu, Yoshizumi; Abe, Mitsuyuki (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Takahashi, Masaji; Tsutsui, Kazushige; Fushiki, Masato

    1992-05-01

    From August 1968 to December 1989, 58 patients with thymoma were treated by radiotherapy using cobalt-60 gamma ray. Eleven cases were treated by radiothrapy alone, 1 by preoperative radiotheapy, 43 by postoperative radiotherapy, and 3 in combination with intraoperative radiotherapy. The following points were clarified: (a) Postoperative and intraoperative radiotherapy were effective; (b) For postoperative radiotherapy, operability was the major factor influencing survival and local control, and Stage I and II tumors resected totally or subtotally as well as Stage III tumors resected totally were good indications for such therapy; (c) The patients with complicating myasthenia gravis had a longer survival time and better local control rate than those without it. Radiation pneumonitis was observed in 17 patients, and none of them died of this complication. In all cases in combination with intraoperative radiotherapy, dry desquamation was observed within the irradiated field. (author).

  20. Clinical results of radiation therapy for thymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Ono, Koji; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Sasai, Keisuke; Kitakabu, Yoshizumi; Abe, Mitsuyuki; Takahashi, Masaji; Tsutsui, Kazushige; Fushiki, Masato.

    1992-01-01

    From August 1968 to December 1989, 58 patients with thymoma were treated by radiotherapy using cobalt-60 gamma ray. Eleven cases were treated by radiothrapy alone, 1 by preoperative radiotheapy, 43 by postoperative radiotherapy, and 3 in combination with intraoperative radiotherapy. The following points were clarified: (a) Postoperative and intraoperative radiotherapy were effective; (b) For postoperative radiotherapy, operability was the major factor influencing survival and local control, and Stage I and II tumors resected totally or subtotally as well as Stage III tumors resected totally were good indications for such therapy; (c) The patients with complicating myasthenia gravis had a longer survival time and better local control rate than those without it. Radiation pneumonitis was observed in 17 patients, and none of them died of this complication. In all cases in combination with intraoperative radiotherapy, dry desquamation was observed within the irradiated field. (author)

  1. Cataract surgical coverage rate among adults aged 40 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusianawaty Tana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cataract is a leading cause of curable blindness. Hence, in its global declaration of ‘Vision 2020 Right to Sight’, the World Health Organization (WHO encouraged its member countries to address the problem of incident cataract. Many factors are related to the cataract surgical coverage rate, such as gender and diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to determine the cataract surgical coverage rate and investigate the determinants factors of cataract surgical coverage rate among adults 40 years old and above with cataract. A cross sectional study was conducted using National Basic Health Research (Riskesdas 2007 data. Cataract surgery was defined as surgery conducted within the last 12 months before the survey was performed. There were 6939 subjects (3105 male, 3834 female who fulfilled the study criteria. The cataract surgical coverage rate was 19.3%. The cataract surgical coverage rate was lower in subjects with low education, in the group of farmers/fishermen/laborers, in the 40-49 years age group, in rural areas, and in subjects of low socioeconomic status (p0.05. Determinants that were related to cataract surgical coverage rate were age, type of area of residence, socioeconomic status, and region of residence (p<0.001. The implementation of educational programs and reforms to local ophthalmic health services may improve the cataract surgical coverage rate.

  2. Influence of different phacoemulsification incision on postoperative corneal astigmatism for cataract patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Rong Zeng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the effect of different phacoemulsification incision on postoperative corneal astigmatism for cataract patients. METHODS: The cataract patients were selected in our hospital. The patients were divided into control group(corneal limbus opposite curved scleral tunnel incision groupand observation group(above the top of cornea or temporal transparent corneal incision grouprandomly. At 1wk; 1 and 3mo after surgery, the change of corneal astigmatism and vision of the patients in two groups were compared and analyzed. RESULTS:Compared with control group, 1wk; 1 and 3mo after surgery, the average corneal astigmatism and surgically induced corneal astigmatism of the patients in observation group were decreased significantly. The visual acuity and corrected visual acuity were increased significantly. There was statistically significant(PPCONCLUSION: Center distance and small incision corneal phacoemulsification can reduce postoperative astigmatism and improve postoperative visual acuity for cataract patients. It provides guarantee for further strengthen the clinical treated effect for cataract patients.

  3. Tenon’s Cyst Presenting as a Long-Term Complication following Incision Cataract Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Srinivasapuram Krishnacharya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Tenon’s cyst or conjunctival cyst formation is not uncommon late complication of traditional extracapsular cataract surgery; however, few reports are available in the literature. Aims. Large cystic swellings were clinically diagnosed as filtering blebs at the cataract incision site in two patients. The purpose of the case presentation is to discuss the factors leading to cyst formation, visual loss and cyst recurrence after its excision. Patients and Methods. Case 1. Sixty-one-year-old male patient presented with a bleb at superior limbal region in the right eye, two years after cataract surgery. Case 2. A giant bleb was found at the same region in the right eye of a 65-year-old male patient, eight years after cataract surgery. Results. Complete excision of the cyst was performed with conjunctival autograft in the first patient and followed up for two years. No recurrence of the cyst was observed. Internal wound gaping was seen on gonioscopy in the second patient. Conclusions. Unstable scleral tunnel could explain bleb formation in both the patients. Complete bleb excision with conjunctival auto-graft resulted in closure of the defect with no bleb recurrence during two-year follow-up. Over-filtration causing hypotonic maculopathy was the reason for decreased vision in the second case.

  4. Use of intraocular lenses in children with traumatic cataract in south India

    OpenAIRE

    Eckstein, M.; Vijayalakshmi, P; Killedar, M.; Gilbert, C.; Foster, A.

    1998-01-01

    AIMS—To assess the long term results of intraocular lens (IOL) implantation for traumatic cataract in young children in a developing country.
METHODS—Prospective hospital based study of 52 children (age 2-10 years) undergoing unilateral cataract extraction and IOL insertion for traumatic cataract performed by a single surgeon in south India. Children were reviewed regularly and followed up initially for 3 years.
RESULTS—There were no serious operative complications. Clinically significant pos...

  5. Ionizing radiation-induced cancers. Experimental and clinical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joveniaux, Alain.

    1978-03-01

    This work attempts to give an idea of radiocarcinogenesis, both experimental and clinical. Experimentally the possibility of radio-induced cancer formation has considerable doctrinal importance since it proves without question the carcinogenetic effect of radiations, and also yields basis information on the essential constants implicated in its occurrence: need for a latency time varying with the animal species and technique used, but quite long in relation to the specific lifetime of each species; importance of a massive irradiation, more conducive to cancerisation as long as it produces no necroses liable to stop the formation of any subsequent neoplasia; finally, rarity of is occurrence. Clinically although the cause and effect relationship between treatment and cancer is sometimes difficult to establish categorically, the fact is that hundreds of particularly disturbing observations remain and from their number often emerges under well-defined circumstances, an undeniable clinical certainty. Most importantly these observation fix the criteria necessary for the possibility of a radioinduced cancer to arise, i.e: the notion of a prior irradiation; the appearance of a cancer in the irradiation area; serious tissue damage in relation with an excessive radiation dose; a long latency period between irradition and appearance of the cancer [fr

  6. The Effect of Cataract on Eye Movement Perimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Thepass

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine how different grades of cataract affect sensitivity threshold and saccadic reaction time (SRT in eye movement perimetry (EMP. Methods. In EMP, the visual field is tested by assessing the saccades that a subject makes towards peripheral stimuli using an eye tracker. Forty-eight cataract patients underwent pre- and postoperative EMP examination in both eyes. The subjects had to fix a central stimulus presented on the eye tracker monitor and to look at any detected peripheral stimulus upon its appearance. A multilevel mixed model was used to determine the factors that affected the sensitivity threshold and the SRT as a function of cataract grade. Results. We found no effect of cataract severity (LOCS III grades I through IV on SRT and the sensitivity thresholds. In cataract of LOCS III grade V, however, we found an increase by 27% and 21% (p<0.001, respectively, compared to the SRT and the sensitivity threshold in LOCS III grade I. Eyes that underwent cataract surgery showed no change in mean SRTs and sensitivity thresholds after surgery in LOCS III grade IV and lower. Conclusion. The present study shows that EMP can be readily used in patients with cataract with LOCS III grade IV and below.

  7. "Ant-egg" cataract revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Kåre; Enghild, Jan J; Ivarsen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    -ray scans and electron microscopy. The purpose of this study was to further characterize "ant-egg" cataract using modern technology and display the history of the "ant-eggs" after cataract extraction. METHODS: "Ant-eggs" were examined using Heidelberg SPECTRALIS Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT...

  8. Teledosimetry and its application in radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, J.

    1975-01-01

    The principle and application is dealt with of teledosimetry, a new method of telemetric transfer of data on the flux density of ionizing radiation. A teledosimetric apparatus is described consisting of a transmitter with a halogen GM tube and a receiver with an evaluation device. Two cases of the application of teledosimetry in radiation hygiene practice are reported. The new method makes possible the monitoring of personnel working with radiation, the testing of the efficiency of radiation protection, and a reduction of doses to personnel in the process studied. (author)

  9. Radiation safety considerations and compliance within equine veterinary clinics: Results of an Australian survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surjan, Y.; Ostwald, P.; Milross, C.; Warren-Forward, H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine current knowledge and the level of compliance of radiation safety principles in equine veterinary clinics within Australia. Method: Surveys were sent to equine veterinary surgeons working in Australia. The survey was delivered both online and in hardcopy format; it comprised 49 questions, 15 of these directly related to radiation safety. The participants were asked about their current and previous use of radiation-producing equipment. Information regarding their level of knowledge and application of radiation safety principles and practice standards was collected and analysed. Results: The use of radiation-producing equipment was evident in 94% of responding clinics (a combination of X-ray, CT and/or Nuclear Medicine Cameras). Of those with radiation-producing equipment, 94% indicated that they hold a radiation licence, 78% had never completed a certified radiation safety course and 19% of participants did not use a personal radiation monitor. In 14% of cases, radiation safety manuals or protocols were not available within clinics. Conclusions: The study has shown that knowledge and application of guidelines as provided by the Code of Practice for Radiation Protection in Veterinary Medicine (2009) is poorly adhered to. The importance of compliance with regulatory requirements is pivotal in minimising occupational exposure to ionising radiation in veterinary medicine, thus there is a need for increased education and training in the area. - Highlights: • Application of the Code of Practice for Veterinary Medicine is poorly adhered to. • Majority of veterinary clinics had not completed certified radiation safety course. • One-fifth of participants did not use personal radiation monitoring. • Increased education and training in area of radiation safety and protection required to generate compliance in clinics

  10. Factors influencing radiation therapy student clinical placement satisfaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridge, Pete; Carmichael, Mary-Ann

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Radiation therapy students at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) attend clinical placements at five different clinical departments with varying resources and support strategies. This study aimed to determine the relative availability and perceived importance of different factors affecting student support while on clinical placement. The purpose of the research was to inform development of future support mechanisms to enhance radiation therapy students’ experience on clinical placement. Methods: This study used anonymous Likert-style surveys to gather data from years 1 and 2 radiation therapy students from QUT and clinical educators from Queensland relating to availability and importance of support mechanisms during clinical placements in a semester. Results: The study findings demonstrated student satisfaction with clinical support and suggested that level of support on placement influenced student employment choices. Staff support was perceived as more important than physical resources; particularly access to a named mentor, a clinical educator and weekly formative feedback. Both students and educators highlighted the impact of time pressures. Conclusions: The support offered to radiation therapy students by clinical staff is more highly valued than physical resources or models of placement support. Protected time and acknowledgement of the importance of clinical education roles are both invaluable. Joint investment in mentor support by both universities and clinical departments is crucial for facilitation of effective clinical learning

  11. Factors influencing radiation therapy student clinical placement satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Pete; Carmichael, Mary-Ann

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Radiation therapy students at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) attend clinical placements at five different clinical departments with varying resources and support strategies. This study aimed to determine the relative availability and perceived importance of different factors affecting student support while on clinical placement. The purpose of the research was to inform development of future support mechanisms to enhance radiation therapy students’ experience on clinical placement. Methods: This study used anonymous Likert-style surveys to gather data from years 1 and 2 radiation therapy students from QUT and clinical educators from Queensland relating to availability and importance of support mechanisms during clinical placements in a semester. Results: The study findings demonstrated student satisfaction with clinical support and suggested that level of support on placement influenced student employment choices. Staff support was perceived as more important than physical resources; particularly access to a named mentor, a clinical educator and weekly formative feedback. Both students and educators highlighted the impact of time pressures. Conclusions: The support offered to radiation therapy students by clinical staff is more highly valued than physical resources or models of placement support. Protected time and acknowledgement of the importance of clinical education roles are both invaluable. Joint investment in mentor support by both universities and clinical departments is crucial for facilitation of effective clinical learning. PMID:26229635

  12. Factors influencing radiation therapy student clinical placement satisfaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridge, Pete; Carmichael, Mary-Ann [School of Clinical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia)

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: Radiation therapy students at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) attend clinical placements at five different clinical departments with varying resources and support strategies. This study aimed to determine the relative availability and perceived importance of different factors affecting student support while on clinical placement. The purpose of the research was to inform development of future support mechanisms to enhance radiation therapy students’ experience on clinical placement. Methods: This study used anonymous Likert-style surveys to gather data from years 1 and 2 radiation therapy students from QUT and clinical educators from Queensland relating to availability and importance of support mechanisms during clinical placements in a semester. Results: The study findings demonstrated student satisfaction with clinical support and suggested that level of support on placement influenced student employment choices. Staff support was perceived as more important than physical resources; particularly access to a named mentor, a clinical educator and weekly formative feedback. Both students and educators highlighted the impact of time pressures. Conclusions: The support offered to radiation therapy students by clinical staff is more highly valued than physical resources or models of placement support. Protected time and acknowledgement of the importance of clinical education roles are both invaluable. Joint investment in mentor support by both universities and clinical departments is crucial for facilitation of effective clinical learning.

  13. The results of ab interno laser thermal sclerostomy combined with cataract surgery versus trabeculectomy combined with cataract surgery 6 to 12 months postoperatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, R; Kollarits, C R; Khan, N

    1996-07-01

    When cataract surgery and glaucoma surgery are combined, the theoretical advantages of pressure control, removal of the visual impairment, and protection against an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) in the immediate postoperative period are gained. The authors' objective was to determine whether ab interno laser thermal sclerostomy (LTS) combined with cataract surgery would be as effective as trabeculectomy combined with cataract surgery. Ab interno LTS was compared with trabeculectomy, retrospectively, for patients who had undergone combined cataract and glaucoma surgery. There was no significant difference in the numbers of patients using no medications or fewer medications at 6 and 12 months. There was a greater reduction in IOP in the LTS group. LTS may be better than trabeculectomy in combined cataract and glaucoma surgery because it reduces the IOP more. Compared with trabeculectomy, LTS is simpler to perform and adds less operating time to cataract surgery. Continued follow-up is recommended.

  14. Synchrotron radiation and prospects of its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulipanov, G; Skrinskii, A

    1981-04-01

    Current and prospective applications are described of synchrotron radiation resulting from the motion of high-energy electrons or positrons in a magnetic field and covering a wide spectral range from the infrared to X-ray. The advantages of the synchrotron radiation include a big source luminance, a small angular divergence, the possibility of calculating the absolute intensity and the spectral distribution of the radiation. Special storage rings are most suitable as a source. Synchrotron radiation is applied in X-ray microscopy, energy diffractometry, atomic and molecular spectroscopy, in the structural analysis of microcrystals, very rapid diffractometry of biological objects and crystals, and in Moessbauer spectroscopy. The prospective applications include uses in metrology, medicine, X-ray lithography, elemental analysis, molecular microsurgery, and in radiation technology.

  15. Radiation information and informed consent for clinical trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caon, Martin [School of Nursing and Midwifery, Flinders University, Adelaide (Australia)], E-mail: martin.caon@flinders.edu.au

    2008-09-01

    Examples of the statements about the radiation from medical imaging in the information for participants provided to the Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) for approval are presented and discussed. There is considerable scope for improvement in the information about radiation that is presented to potential participants in clinical trials. Many radiation statements seem only intended to allay fear and anxiety about radiation rather than providing accurate information. This situation cannot be said to be conducive to allowing the participant to give informed consent to their involvement in a clinical trial in which ionising radiation is used. As many clinical trials are international and conducted at many sites (sometimes over 100), we would expect the same statements to have been seen by members of HRECs in many countries. Few HRECs include a member who is an expert in radiation. Hence, to ensure that the information is sound, those sections of the participant information that refer to radiation should be written or reviewed by a specialist in radiation protection such as a medical physicist, a health physicist or a radiation safety officer. (opinion)

  16. Radiation information and informed consent for clinical trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caon, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Examples of the statements about the radiation from medical imaging in the information for participants provided to the Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) for approval are presented and discussed. There is considerable scope for improvement in the information about radiation that is presented to potential participants in clinical trials. Many radiation statements seem only intended to allay fear and anxiety about radiation rather than providing accurate information. This situation cannot be said to be conducive to allowing the participant to give informed consent to their involvement in a clinical trial in which ionising radiation is used. As many clinical trials are international and conducted at many sites (sometimes over 100), we would expect the same statements to have been seen by members of HRECs in many countries. Few HRECs include a member who is an expert in radiation. Hence, to ensure that the information is sound, those sections of the participant information that refer to radiation should be written or reviewed by a specialist in radiation protection such as a medical physicist, a health physicist or a radiation safety officer. (opinion)

  17. Clinical experience of radiation therapy for Graves` ophthalmopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Takeo; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Nagashima, Hisako; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Murata, Osamu; Ishizeki, Kei; Shimaya, Sanae; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Niibe, Hideo [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-11-01

    The effect of radiation therapy for Graves` ophthalmopathy was evaluated. Ten patients with Graves` ophthalmopathy were treated with radiation therapy between 1992 and 1993 in Gunma University Hospital. All patients had a past history of hyperthyroidism and received 2,000 cGy to the retrobulbar tissues in 20 fractions. Nine of ten patients were treated with radiation therapy after the failure of corticosteroids. Six patients (60%) showed good or excellent responses. The exophthalmos type was more responsive to radiation therapy than the double vision type in this series. Two of five patients with the exophthalmos type demonstrated excellent responses, and their symptoms disappeared almost completely. The improvement of symptoms appeared within 3-6 months, and obvious clinical effects were demonstrated after 6 months of radiotherapy. Radiation therapy was well tolerated, and we have not observed any side effects of radiation therapy. In conclusion, radiation therapy is effective treatment for Graves` ophthalmopathy. (author)

  18. Clinical experience of radiation therapy for Graves' ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Takeo; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Nagashima, Hisako; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Murata, Osamu; Ishizeki, Kei; Shimaya, Sanae; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Niibe, Hideo

    1996-01-01

    The effect of radiation therapy for Graves' ophthalmopathy was evaluated. Ten patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy were treated with radiation therapy between 1992 and 1993 in Gunma University Hospital. All patients had a past history of hyperthyroidism and received 2,000 cGy to the retrobulbar tissues in 20 fractions. Nine of ten patients were treated with radiation therapy after the failure of corticosteroids. Six patients (60%) showed good or excellent responses. The exophthalmos type was more responsive to radiation therapy than the double vision type in this series. Two of five patients with the exophthalmos type demonstrated excellent responses, and their symptoms disappeared almost completely. The improvement of symptoms appeared within 3-6 months, and obvious clinical effects were demonstrated after 6 months of radiotherapy. Radiation therapy was well tolerated, and we have not observed any side effects of radiation therapy. In conclusion, radiation therapy is effective treatment for Graves' ophthalmopathy. (author)

  19. Guidelines for radiation therapy in clinical research on bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipley, W.U.; VanderSchueren, E.; Kitagawa, T.; Gospodarowicz, M.K.; Frommhold, H.; Magno, L.; Mochizuki, S.; VanderBogaert, W.; VanderWerf-Messing, B.

    1986-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease and that there are important tumor characteristics that will predict significant differences in radiation responsiveness. These should in all instances be well documented prospectively in any treatment protocol. However, in this chapter the authors stress a number of factors related to the tumor at presentation as well as the administration of the radiation therapy that can importantly affect the efficacy of the radiation on the patient's tumor, as well as on his or her normal tissues. As Radiation Oncologists, they are most interested in the conducting and reporting of prospective clinical investigations in the use of radiation therapy in the treatment of patients with bladder carcinoma who will be treated with planned preservation of their bladder, but whose radiation therapy may be combined with additional planned bladder-sparing surgery, intraoperative radiation therapy, or chemotherapy

  20. EPHA2 polymorphisms and age-related cataract in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Periasamy Sundaresan

    Full Text Available We investigated whether previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of EPHA2 in European studies are associated with cataract in India.We carried out a population-based genetic association study. We enumerated randomly sampled villages in two areas of north and south India to identify people aged 40 and over. Participants attended a clinical examination including lens photography and provided a blood sample for genotyping. Lens images were graded by the Lens Opacification Classification System (LOCS III. Cataract was defined as a LOCS III grade of nuclear ≥4, cortical ≥3, posterior sub-capsular (PSC ≥2, or dense opacities or aphakia/pseudophakia in either eye. We genotyped SNPs rs3754334, rs7543472 and rs11260867 on genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes using TaqMan assays in an ABI 7900 real-time PCR. We used logistic regression with robust standard errors to examine the association between cataract and the EPHA2 SNPs, adjusting for age, sex and location.7418 participants had data on at least one of the SNPs investigated. Genotype frequencies of controls were in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (p>0.05. There was no association of rs3754334 with cataract or type of cataract. Minor allele homozygous genotypes of rs7543472 and rs11260867 compared to the major homozygote genotype were associated with cortical cataract, Odds ratio (OR = 1.8, 95% Confidence Interval (CI (1.1, 3.1 p = 0.03 and 2.9 (1.2, 7.1 p = 0.01 respectively, and with PSC cataract, OR = 1.5 (1.1, 2.2 p = 0.02 and 1.8 (0.9, 3.6 p = 0.07 respectively. There was no consistent association of SNPs with nuclear cataract or a combined variable of any type of cataract including operated cataract.Our results in the Indian population agree with previous studies of the association of EPHA2 variants with cortical cataracts. We report new findings for the association with PSC which is particularly prevalent in Indians.

  1. Simultaneous bilateral cataract surgery: economic analysis; Helsinki Simultaneous Bilateral Cataract Surgery Study Report 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivo, Tiina; Sarikkola, Anna-Ulrika; Uusitalo, Risto J; Hellstedt, Timo; Ess, Sirje-Linda; Kivelä, Tero

    2011-06-01

    To present an economic-analysis comparison of simultaneous and sequential bilateral cataract surgery. Helsinki University Eye Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. Economic analysis. Effects were estimated from data in a study in which patients were randomized to have bilateral cataract surgery on the same day (study group) or sequentially (control group). The main clinical outcomes were corrected distance visual acuity, refraction, complications, Visual Function Index-7 (VF-7) scores, and patient-rated satisfaction with vision. Health-care costs of surgeries and preoperative and postoperative visits were estimated, including the cost of staff, equipment, material, floor space, overhead, and complications. The data were obtained from staff measurements, questionnaires, internal hospital records, and accountancy. Non-health-care costs of travel, home care, and time were estimated based on questionnaires from a random subset of patients. The main economic outcome measures were cost per VF-7 score unit change and cost per patient in simultaneous versus sequential surgery. The study comprised 520 patients (241 patients included non-health-care and time cost analyses). Surgical outcomes and patient satisfaction were similar in both groups. Simultaneous cataract surgery saved 449 Euros (€) per patient in health-care costs and €739 when travel and paid home-care costs were included. The savings added up to €849 per patient when the cost of lost working time was included. Compared with sequential bilateral cataract surgery, simultaneous bilateral cataract surgery provided comparable clinical outcomes with substantial savings in health-care and non-health-care-related costs. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Radiation-induced bystander effect: the important part of ionizing radiation response. Potential clinical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wideł, Maria; Przybyszewski, Waldemar; Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna

    2009-08-18

    It has long been a central radiobiological dogma that the damaging effects of ionizing radiation, such as cell death, cytogenetic changes, apoptosis, mutagenesis, and carcinogenesis, are the results of the direct ionization of cell structures, particularly DNA, or indirect damage via water radiolysis products. However, several years ago attention turned to a third mechanism of radiation, termed the "bystander effect" or "radiation-induced bystander effect" (RIBE). This is induced by agents and signals emitted by directly irradiated cells and manifests as a lowering of survival, cytogenetic damage, apoptosis enhancement, and biochemical changes in neighboring non-irradiated cells. The bystander effect is mainly observed in in vitro experiments using very low doses of alpha particles (range; mGy, cGy), but also after conventional irradiation (X-rays, gamma rays) at low as well as conventional doses. The mechanisms responsible for the bystander effect are complex and still poorly understood. It is believed that molecular signals released from irradiated cells induce different signaling ways in non-irradiated neighboring cells, leading to the observed events. The molecular signals may be transmitted through gap junction intercellular communication and through a medium transfer mechanism. The nature of these transmitted factors are diverse, and still not definitely established. It seems that RIBE may have important clinical implications for health risk associated with radiation exposure. Potentially, this effect may have important implications in the creation of whole-body or localized side effects in tissues beyond the irradiation field and also in low-dose radiological and radioisotope diagnostics. Factors emitted by irradiated cells may result in the risk of genetic instability, mutations, and second primary cancer induction. They might also have their own part in inducing and extending post-radiation side effects in normal tissue. The bystander effect may be a

  3. Radiation-induced bystander effect: The important part of ionizing radiation response. Potential clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wideł

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available It has long been a central radiobiological dogma that the damaging effects of ionizing radiation, such as cell death, cytogenetic changes, apoptosis, mutagenesis, and carcinogenesis, are the results of the direct ionization of cell structures, particularly DNA, or indirect damage via water radiolysis products. However, several years ago attention turned to a third mechanism of radiation, termed the “bystander effect” or “radiation-induced bystander effect” (RIBE. This is induced by agents and signals emitted by directly irradiated cells and manifests as a lowering of survival, cytogenetic damage, apoptosis enhancement, and biochemical changes in neighboring non-irradiated cells. The bystander effect is mainly observed in in vitro experiments using very low doses of alpha particles (range; mGy, cGy, but also after conventional irradiation (X-rays, gamma rays at low as well as conventional doses. The mechanisms responsible for the bystander effect are complex and still poorly understood. It is believed that molecular signals released from irradiated cells induce different signaling ways in non-irradiated neighboring cells, leading to the observed events. The molecular signals may be transmitted through gap junction intercellular communication and through a medium transfer mechanism. The nature of these transmitted factors are diverse, and still not defi nitely established. It seems that RIBE may have important clinical implications for health risk associated with radiation exposure. Potentially, this effectmay have important implications in the creation of whole-body or localized side effects in tissues beyond the irradiation fi eld and also in low-dose radiological and radioisotope diagnostics. Factors emitted by irradiated cells may result in the risk of genetic instability, mutations, and second primary cancer induction. They might also have their own part in inducing and extending post-radiation side effects in normal tissue. The

  4. Radiobiology in clinical radiation therapy - Part III: Normal tissue damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, Elizabeth L.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: This is the third part of a course designed for residents in radiation oncology preparing for their boards. This part of the course will focus on the mechanisms underlying damage in normal tissues. Although conventional wisdom long held that killing and depletion of a critical cell(s) in a tissue was responsible for the later expression of damage, histopathologic changes in normal tissue can now be explained and better understood in terms of the new molecular biology. The concept that depletion of a single cell type is responsible for the observed histopathologic changes in normal tissues has been replaced by the hypothesis that damage results from the interaction of many different cell systems, including epithelial, endothelial, macrophages and fibroblasts, via the production of specific autocrine, paracrine and endocrine growth factors. A portion of this course will discuss the clinical and experimental data on the production and interaction of those cytokines and cell systems considered to be critical to tissue damage. It had long been suggested that interindividual differences in radiation-induced normal tissue damage was genetically regulated, at least in part. Both clinical and experimental data supported this hypothesis but it is the recent advances in human and mouse molecular genetics which have provided the tools to dissect out the genetic component of normal tissue damage. These data will be presented and related to the potential to develop genetic markers to identify sensitive individuals. The impact on clinical outcome of the ability to identify prospectively sensitive patients will be discussed. Clinically it is well-accepted that the volume of tissue irradiated is a critical factor in determining tissue damage. A profusion of mathematical models for estimating dose-volume relationships in a number of organs have been published recently despite the fact that little data are available to support these models. This course will review the

  5. [Sir Harold Ridley--the creator of modern cataract surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchowska, Iwona; Mariak, Zofia

    2005-01-01

    In February 2000, the worldwide ophthalmology community celebrated the 50th anniversary of one of the twentieth century's most important innovations in eye care--the implantation of the first intraocular lens after cataract extraction by Sir Harold Ridley. It was the initiation of a golden age for the development of ophthalmology, especially cataract surgery. In our paper we would like to remember this outstanding English ophthalmologist and his great invention.

  6. Women's viewpoints on radiation and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Tamiko

    2005-01-01

    The discoveries of X-ray by W.C. Roentgen and of radium by M. Curie were immediately followed by application of them to medical field. After the World War II, nuclear energy has been used as an energy source on the one hand, and radiations have been also applied to various familiar fields in daily life on the other hand. These are now being developed into essential technologies in our present life. However, many people in general still fear nuclear power and radiation. There are numerous cases clearly indicating a widespread rejection of anything ''nuclear'' in the society as a whole. People in radiation'' community have made great efforts to remove these unfortunate misunderstandings and negative regarding the use of radiation, but these have not been satisfied. In this paper, I would like to reexamine possible factors that have been led to the dissatisfaction and do so from a different perspective from the standpoint of women. (author)

  7. Expert System Diagnosis of Cataract Eyes Using Fuzzy Mamdani Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, I.; Romla, L.; Herawati, S.

    2018-01-01

    Cataracts are eye diseases characterized by cloudy or opacity of the lens of the eye by changing the colour of black into grey-white which slowly continues to grow and develop without feeling pain and pain that can cause blindness in human vision. Therefore, researchers make an expert system of cataract eye disease diagnosis by using Fuzzy Mamdani and how to care. The fuzzy method can convert the crisp value to linguistic value by fuzzification and includes in the rule. So this system produces an application program that can help the public in knowing cataract eye disease and how to care based on the symptoms suffered. From the results of the design implementation and testing of expert system applications to diagnose eye disease cataracts, it can be concluded that from a trial of 50 cases of data, obtained test results accuracy between system predictions with expert predictions obtained a value of 78% truth.

  8. Roadmap to Clinical Use of Gold Nanoparticles for Radiation Sensitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuemann, Jan, E-mail: jschuemann@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Berbeco, Ross [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chithrani, Devika B. [Department of Physics, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cho, Sang Hyun [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kumar, Rajiv [Nanomedicine Science and Technology Center, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); McMahon, Stephen J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Sridhar, Srinivas [Nanomedicine Science and Technology Center, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Krishnan, Sunil [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in interest in the use of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as radiation sensitizers for radiation therapy. This interest was initially driven by their strong absorption of ionizing radiation and the resulting ability to increase dose deposited within target volumes even at relatively low concentrations. These early observations are supported by extensive experimental validation, showing GNPs' efficacy at sensitizing tumors in both in vitro and in vivo systems to a range of types of ionizing radiation, including kilovoltage and megavoltage X rays as well as charged particles. Despite this experimental validation, there has been limited translation of GNP-mediated radiation sensitization to a clinical setting. One of the key challenges in this area is the wide range of experimental systems that have been investigated, spanning a range of particle sizes, shapes, and preparations. As a result, mechanisms of uptake and radiation sensitization have remained difficult to clearly identify. This has proven a significant impediment to the identification of optimal GNP formulations which strike a balance among their radiation sensitizing properties, their specificity to the tumors, their biocompatibility, and their imageability in vivo. This white paper reviews the current state of knowledge in each of the areas concerning the use of GNPs as radiosensitizers, and outlines the steps which will be required to advance GNP-enhanced radiation therapy from their current pre-clinical setting to clinical trials and eventual routine usage.

  9. Radiation chemistry - its Czechoslovak story and comments on general present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednar, J.

    1978-01-01

    The history is outlined of radiation chemistry in Czechoslovakia since 1954 and scientists contributing to the respective stages of its development are listed. Current trends of radiation chemistry in the world are indicated. (J.P.)

  10. Acute radiation proctitis. A clinical, histopathological and histochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovdenak, Nils

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study is: 1) A sequential description of the clinical course of acute radiation proctitis during pelvic RT. 2) A sequential description of the rectal mucosal histopathology during pelvic RT as a possible substrate for clinical toxicity. 3) To assess the mucosal protease activity during RT as a possible explanation of the observed tissue changes. 4) To assess the efficacy of prophylactic sucralfate in acute radiation proctitis a randomised study was initiated and carried out together with a meta-analysis of previously available data. 5) Most studies on clinical acute toxicity in pelvic RT use either the RTOG/EORTC score system or focus on diarrhoea/stool frequency. A more differentiated and sensitive recording was developed and tested to pick up symptoms escaping the commonly used scores. 6) Study the relation between histopathological findings and the clinical picture. 4 papers presenting various studies are included. The titles are: 1) Acute radiation proctitis: a sequential clinicopathologic study during pelvic radiotherapy. 2) Clinical significance of increased gelatinolytic activity in the rectal mucosa during external beam radiation therapy of prostate cancer. 3) Profiles and time course of acute radiation toxicity symptoms during conformal radiotherapy for cancer of the prostate. 4) Sucralfate does not ameliorate acute radiation proctitis. Some future prospects are discussed

  11. Acute radiation proctitis. A clinical, histopathological and histochemical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovdenak, Nils

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the study is: 1) A sequential description of the clinical course of acute radiation proctitis during pelvic RT. 2) A sequential description of the rectal mucosal histopathology during pelvic RT as a possible substrate for clinical toxicity. 3) To assess the mucosal protease activity during RT as a possible explanation of the observed tissue changes. 4) To assess the efficacy of prophylactic sucralfate in acute radiation proctitis a randomised study was initiated and carried out together with a meta-analysis of previously available data. 5) Most studies on clinical acute toxicity in pelvic RT use either the RTOG/EORTC score system or focus on diarrhoea/stool frequency. A more differentiated and sensitive recording was developed and tested to pick up symptoms escaping the commonly used scores. 6) Study the relation between histopathological findings and the clinical picture. 4 papers presenting various studies are included. The titles are: 1) Acute radiation proctitis: a sequential clinicopathologic study during pelvic radiotherapy. 2) Clinical significance of increased gelatinolytic activity in the rectal mucosa during external beam radiation therapy of prostate cancer. 3) Profiles and time course of acute radiation toxicity symptoms during conformal radiotherapy for cancer of the prostate. 4) Sucralfate does not ameliorate acute radiation proctitis. Some future prospects are discussed.

  12. Clinical applications of continuous infusion chemotherapy ahd concomitant radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, C.J.; Rotman, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: theoretical basis and clinical applications of 5-FU as a radiosensitizer; treatment of hepatic metastases from gastro intestingal primaries with split course radiation therapy; combined modality therapy with 5-FU, Mitomycin-C and radiation therapy for sqamous cell cancers; treatment of bladder carcinoma with concomitant infusion chemotherapy and irradiation; a treatment of invasiv bladder cancer by the XRT/5FU protocol; concomitant radiation therapy and doxorubicin by continuous infusion in advanced malignancies; cis platin by continuous infusion with concurrent radiation therapy in malignant tumors; combination of radiation with concomitant continuous adriamycin infusion in a patient with partially excised pleomorphic soft tissue sarcoma of the lower extremeity; treatment of recurrent carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses using concomitant infusion cis-platinum and radiation therapy; hepatic artery infusion for hepatic metastases in combination with hepatic resection and hepatic radiation; study of simultaneous radiation therapy, continuous infusion, 5FU and bolus mitomycin-C; cancer of the esophagus; continuous infusion VP-16, bolus cis-platinum and simultaneous radiation therapy as salvage therapy in small cell bronchogenic carcinoma; and concomitant radiation, mitomycin-C and 5-FU infusion in gastro intestinal cancer

  13. Pediatric cataract surgery in Madagascar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-28

    Mar 28, 2013 ... Results: A total of 60.5 percent of the 86 children operated on during ... cataract, an avoidable cause of blindness and visual disability in children on the island nation. .... counseling services, reimbursement of transportation,.

  14. Combined keratoplasty and cataract extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeler, U; Hinzpeter, E N

    1977-04-01

    A short film showing our technique of combined penetrating keratoplasty and intracapsular cataract extraction was shown, and the postoperative results in 72 eyes after an average of 3 years were reported.

  15. Radiation effects on algae and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, Rakesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The effects of radiation on algae have been summarized in this article. Today, algae are being considered to have the great potential to fulfill the demand of food, fodder, fuel and various pharmaceutical products. Red algae are particularly rich in the content of polysaccharides present in their cell wall. For isolation of these polysaccharides, separation of cells cemented together by middle lamella is essential. The gamma rays are known to bring about biochemical changes in the cell wall and cause the breakdown of the middle lamella. These rays ate also known to speed up the starch sugar inter-conversion in the cells which is very useful for the tapping the potential of algae to be used as biofuel as well as in pharmaceutical industries. Cyanobacteria, among algae and other plants are more resistant to the radiation. In some cyanobacteria the radiation treatment is known to enhance the resistance against the antibiotics. Radiation treatment is also known to enhance the diameter of cell and size of the nitrogen fixing heterocyst. (author)

  16. Industrial radiation protection: what it is happening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the standard NE-06.04 of CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - Brazil) about open and close industrial radiography installations licensing. This review does not substitute CNEN-6/73 resolution, only specificy in details, how those installations must actuate with reference to the company radiation protection plan. (C.M.) [pt

  17. Astronaut radiation. Will it become a problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, I.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. NRCP recommendations to NASA for astronauts' dose limits to deep-body, eyes and skin are discussed in outline in relation to the longer space flights (e.g. space station duties and a manned Mars mission). Cosmic rays, solar flares and trapped Van Allen belt radiation are considered. (U.K.)

  18. Clinical application of radiation dosimetry on X-ray radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, Takeo

    1995-01-01

    In the case of radiotherapy, it is important to give proper dose for a tumor, to be treated with the objective of therapy, and to evaluate the dose, considering dose for other organs at risk to a sufficient extent. To provide an exposure dose at the target volume of tumor parts, it should be required to get a good understanding of the correct dosimetric method and also to apply this to clinical application in practice. All over the country, so as not to produce any difference in the given dose, 'A practical code for the dosimetry of high energy X-rays in radiotherapy' was issued by the Japanese Associations of radiological physicists in 1972. In 1986, it was revised. At about 85% of therapeutic facilities in the country, radiation engineers perform dose measurements and controls. Therefore, I have explained the process of measurement and dose calculation, with the main objective directed at the engineers in charge of the radiotherapy so as to easily radiation dosimetry of X-ray with dosemeters and phantom used at each facility according to the 'practical code'. (author)

  19. Radiation curing technology progress and its industrial applications in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukachi, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Optics, electronics and display industries are now the driving forces for the Japanese radiation curing technology. The purpose of this paper is to overview the newly developed radiation curing technology in Japan, in particular, its industrial applications, and to present the market figures in radiation curing applications, which were surveyed by RadTech Japan in 2002 afresh. (author)

  20. Increasing sustainable cataract services in sub-Saharan Africa: an experimental initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasipriya M Karumanchi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To begin to meet the need for cataract surgery in sub-Saharan Africa, the cataract surgical rate (CSR should be at least 2,000 to 3,000; i.e. there should be 2,000-3,000 cataract operations per million population, per year. The current levels are below 1,000 (and often much lower. Sub-Saharan Africa poses a unique set of challenges: low population density; inadequate transportation systems that inhibit access; big differences in wealth; and a shortage of eye care resources (which are usually concentrated in larger cities. Additional issues relate to productivity, the supply chain and the quality of outcomes, all of which contribute to the low cataract surgical rates. It is in this context that the Hilton Foundation sought to enhance cataract surgical services in sub-Saharan Africa, through the Hilton Cataract Initiative.

  1. Clinical supervision, is it mutually beneficial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Clinical education in Nuclear Medicine is essential for student learning as it enables them to develop knowledge and competence and put theory into practice. While the benefit to the student is clear, the clinical education experience should be mutually beneficial. The role of the clinical supervisor involves teaching, role modelling, management and assessment. It could be assumed that the Supervisor would find the teaching role leading to increased knowledge; role modelling leading to increased reflection which improves practice; management skills being enhanced and assessment improving critical evaluation skills. The aim of this study was to assess the perceived benefits of taking on the role of a clinical supervisor. Clinical Supervisors participating in the Nuclear Medicine program were surveyed. Questions were grouped into three main categories - professional, interpersonal and communication. A Likert scale was used to assess perceived level of benefit and open-ended questions were included to obtain additional understanding of Supervisors' perceptions. Results from the survey indicate that 64% of supervisors felt an increase in work satisfaction by taking students, 68% agreed their level of performance was improved and 61% agreed that it deepened their understanding of Nuclear Medicine. It is concluded that respondents perceived a positive benefit to areas within the role of Clinical Supervisor. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  2. What effects has the cataract surgery on the development and progression of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willich, Stefan N.

    2006-12-01

    significance despite a large number of participants. Only one out of two clinical studies looked at further impairment in late stages of AMD and could not find an interrelation with cataract extraction. Thus the available evidence was not sufficient to come to a conclusion on the contribution of cataract extractions to the first manifestation of AMD and to the further impairment in late stages. Discussion: The presentation of the evaluated literature made clear that only a small number of publications dealt with the development of age related macula degeneration in consequence of a cataract extraction. The overall scientific level of evidence of these articles was not very high. Therefore it was not possible to obtain a well-defined conclusion on the effect of a cataract extraction on the development or progression of an age related macula degeneration. Conclusion: Additional well conducted clinical trials, that offer a sufficient number of patients, length of study period and adequate control for confounding variables like age and severity of cataract, are urgently needed. Health economic, ethical, social and legal aspect of the problem could and should be investigated after clarification of the mentioned medical issues.

  3. Evaluation of diopter after cataract surgery in high myopia combined cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Qi Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the diopter after cataract surgery for vision gain in high myopia and its effect on visual outcomes. METHODS: Sixty(120 eyeshigh myopia combined with cataract cases received phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in our hospital were retrospective studied. The patients were divided into three groups based on postoperative diopter: -1.0~-2.0D(group A, -2.25~-3.0D(group Band -3.25~-4.0D(group C. The uncorrected distance visual acuity(UCDVA, best corrected distant visual acuity(BCDVA, uncorrected near visual acuity(UCNVAand questionnaire of Activities of Daily Vision Scale(ADVSwere collected to assess the vision gain at 3mo after cataract surgery. RESULTS: At 3mo after surgery, UCDVA of group A was better than that of group B, and UCDVA of group B was better than that of group C. There were no differences in BCDVA among groups. There were significant differences between the three groups' UCNVA, it was best for the group C, followed by the group B, group A was the worst. For questionnaire, no difference was observed in patients' satisfactory for surgical results, but a significant difference was detected in postoperative glasses wearing frequency between groups. CONCLUSION:For cataract surgery in high myopia combined cataract, postoperative diopter should be calculated based on patients' daily requirements. For patients had not used to wearing glasses and near distant working condition, it's appropriated to reserve a minor degree of myopia. Conversely, for patients require near distant working and received wearing moderate and low hyperopia mirror, higher degree of myopia can be reserved.

  4. Radiation-induced cataracts: the Health Protection Agency's response to the ICRP statement on tissue reactions and recommendation on the dose limit for the eye lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffler, Simon; Ainsbury, Elizabeth; Gilvin, Phil; Harrison, John

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the response of the Health Protection Agency (HPA) to the 2011 statement from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) on tissue reactions and recommendation of a reduced dose limit for the lens of the eye. The response takes the form of a brief review of the most recent epidemiological and mechanistic evidence. This is presented together with a discussion of dose limits in the context of the related risk and the current status of eye dosimetry, which is relevant for implementation of the limits. It is concluded that although further work is desirable to quantify better the risk at low doses and following protracted exposures, along with research into the mechanistic basis for radiation cataractogenesis to inform selection of risk projection models, the HPA endorses the conclusion reached by the ICRP in their 2011 statement that the equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye should be reduced from 150 to 20 mSv per year, averaged over a five year period, with no year's dose exceeding 50 mSv.

  5. Optical Imaging of Ionizing Radiation from Clinical Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Travis M; Drain, Charles Michael; Grimm, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Nuclear medicine uses ionizing radiation for both in vivo diagnosis and therapy. Ionizing radiation comes from a variety of sources, including x-rays, beam therapy, brachytherapy, and various injected radionuclides. Although PET and SPECT remain clinical mainstays, optical readouts of ionizing radiation offer numerous benefits and complement these standard techniques. Furthermore, for ionizing radiation sources that cannot be imaged using these standard techniques, optical imaging offers a unique imaging alternative. This article reviews optical imaging of both radionuclide- and beam-based ionizing radiation from high-energy photons and charged particles through mechanisms including radioluminescence, Cerenkov luminescence, and scintillation. Therapeutically, these visible photons have been combined with photodynamic therapeutic agents preclinically for increasing therapeutic response at depths difficult to reach with external light sources. Last, new microscopy methods that allow single-cell optical imaging of radionuclides are reviewed. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  6. Clinical Investigation of Radiation Retinopathy Fundus and Fluorescein Angiographic Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiMei; QiuGT

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:To investigate the fundus and fluorescein angiographic features in the patients with radiation retinopathy.Clinical Materials:Color fundus photography and/or fluorescein angiography from 13 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinomas received external beam radiation were retrospectively analyzed.Reslts:In this study,26 damaged eyes of 13 patients eveloped some degree of radiation retinopathy.The earliest and most common finding was macular microvascular changes (microaneurysms and/or telangiectasia),which was observed in 100%(26/26)of the eyes.Intraretinal hemorrhages,macular capillary nonperfusion,and macular edema were noted in 84%,50%,and 42% of the eyes,respectively.Conclusions:Radiation retinopathy is common after external beam radiation of nasopharyngeal carcinomas.The prominent changes include maular microvascular changes,intraretinal hemorrhages and macular capillary nonperfusion.

  7. Quality control of radiation therapy in clinical trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, S.; Lustig, R.; Grundy, G.

    1983-01-01

    The RTOG is a group of participating institutions which has a major interest in furthering clinical radiation oncology. They have formulated protocols for clinical investigation in which radiation therapy is the major modality of treatment. In addition, other modalities, such as chemotherapy, radiation sensitizers, and hyperthermia, are used in combined approach to cancer. Quality control in all aspects of patient management is necessary to insure quality data. These areas include evaluation of pathology, physics, and dosimetry, and clinical patient data. Quality control is both time consuming and expensive. However, by dividing these tasks into various levels and time frames, by using computerized data-control mechanisms, and by employing appropriate levels of ancillary personnel expertise, quality control can improve compliance and decrease the cost of investigational trials

  8. Clinical linguistics: its past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Michael R

    2011-11-01

    Historiography is a growing area of research within the discipline of linguistics, but so far the subfield of clinical linguistics has received virtually no systematic attention. This article attempts to rectify this by tracing the development of the discipline from its pre-scientific days up to the present time. As part of this, I include the results of a survey of articles published in Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics between 1987 and 2008 which shows, for example, a consistent primary focus on phonetics and phonology at the expense of grammar, semantics and pragmatics. I also trace the gradual broadening of the discipline from its roots in structural linguistics to its current reciprocal relationship with speech and language pathology and a range of other academic disciplines. Finally, I consider the scope of clinical linguistic research in 2011 and assess how the discipline seems likely develop in the future.

  9. Current clinical trials testing combinations of immunotherapy and radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Marka; Kohrt, Holbrook; Levy, Ronald; Jones, Jennifer; Camphausen, Kevin; Dicker, Adam; Demaria, Sandra; Formenti, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical evidence of successful combinations of ionizing radiation with immunotherapy has inspired testing the translation of these results to the clinic. Interestingly, the preclinical work has consistently predicted the responses encountered in clinical trials. The first example came from a proof-of-principle trial started in 2001 that tested the concept that growth factors acting on antigen-presenting cells improve presentation of tumor antigens released by radiation and induce an abscopal effect. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor was administered during radiotherapy to a metastatic site in patients with metastatic solid tumors to translate evidence obtained in a murine model of syngeneic mammary carcinoma treated with cytokine FLT-3L and radiation. Subsequent clinical availability of vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors has triggered a wave of enthusiasm for testing them in combination with radiotherapy. Examples of ongoing clinical trials are described in this report. Importantly, most of these trials include careful immune monitoring of the patients enrolled and will generate important data about the proimmunogenic effects of radiation in combination with a variety of immune modulators, in different disease settings. Results of these studies are building a platform of evidence for radiotherapy as an adjuvant to immunotherapy and encourage the growth of this novel field of radiation oncology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Long term outcomes of bilateral congenital and developmental cataracts operated in Maharashtra, India. Miraj pediatric cataract study III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikshit M Gogate

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To study long term outcome of bilateral congenital and developmental cataract surgery. Subjects: 258 pediatric cataract operated eyes of 129 children. Materials and Methods: Children who underwent pediatric cataract surgery in 2004-8 were traced and examined prospectively in 2010-11. Demographic and clinical factors were noted from retrospective chart readings. All children underwent visual acuity estimation and comprehensive ocular examination in a standardized manner. L. V. Prasad Child Vision Function scores (LVP-CVF were noted for before and after surgery. Statistics: Statistical analysis was done with SPSS version 16 including multi-variate analysis. Results: Children aged 9.1 years (std dev 4.6, range 7 weeks-15 years at the time of surgery. 74/129 (57.4% were boys. The average duration of follow-up was 4.4 years (stddev 1.6, range 3-8 years. 177 (68.6% eyes had vision 6/18 and 157 (60.9% had BCVA >6/60 3-8 years after surgery. 48 (37.2% had binocular stereoacuity <480 sec of arc by TNO test. Visual outcome depended on type of cataract (P = 0.004, type of cataract surgery (P < 0.001, type of intra-ocular lens (P = 0.05, age at surgery (P = 0.004, absence of post-operative uveitis (P = 0.01 and pre-operative vision (P < 0.001, but did not depend on delay (0.612 between diagnosis and surgery. There was a statistically significant improvement for all the 20 questions of the LVP-CVF scale (P < 0.001. Conclusion : Pediatric cataract surgery improved the children′s visual acuity, stereo acuity and vision function. Developmental cataract, use of phacoemulsification, older children and those with better pre-operative vision had betterlong-termoutcomes.

  11. Radiofrequency radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, J.A.; Czerski, P.A.; Stuchly, M.A.; Mild, K.H.; Sheppard, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    High-level radiofrequency radiation is a source of thermal energy that carries all of the known implications of heating for biological systems, including burns, temporary and permanent changes in reproduction, cataracts, and death. In general, no changes in chromosomes, DNA or the reproductive potential of animals exposed to RF radiation have been reported in the absence of significant rises in temperature, though there are limited data on DNA and chromosomal changes at non-thermal levels. Human data are currently limited and do not provide adequate information about the relationship between prolonged low-level RF radiation exposure and increased mortality or morbidity, including cancer incidence. In epidemiological studies and clinical reports of RF effects in man, the problems of quantification are numerous and include uncertainties about ''dose'', health effects, latent periods, dose-response relationships, and interactions with other physical or chemical agents. 228 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Indication criteria for cataract extraction and gender differences in waiting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirthwaite, Goldina; Lundström, Mats; Albrecht, Susanne; Swahnberg, Katarina

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate national indication criteria tool for cataract extraction (NIKE), a clinical tool for establishing levels of indications for cataract surgery, in relation to gender differences in waiting times for cataract extraction (CE). Data were collected by The Swedish National Cataract Register (NCR). Eye clinics report to NCR voluntarily and on regular basis (98% coverage). Comparisons regarding gender difference in waiting times were performed between NIKE-categorized and non-NIKE-categorized patients, as well as between different indication groups within the NIKE-system. All calculations were performed in spss version 20. Multivariate analyses were carried out using logistic regression, and single variable analyses were carried out by Student's t-test or chi square as appropriate. Gender, age, visual acuity and NIKE-categorization were associated with waiting time. Female patients had a longer waiting time to CE than male, both within and outside the NIKE-system. Gender difference in waiting time was somewhat larger among patients who had not been categorized by NIKE. In the non-NIKE-categorized group, women waited 0.20 months longer than men. In the group which was NIKE-categorized, women waited 0.18 months longer than men. It is reasonable to assume that prioritizing patients by means of NIKE helps to reduce the gender differences in waiting time. Gender differences in waiting time have decreased as NIKE was introduced and there may be a variety of explanations for this. However, with the chosen study design, we could not distinguish between effects related to NIKE and those due to other factors which occurred during the study period. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Adrenomyeloneuropathy associated with congenital cataract. Report of a family with MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komori, Tetsuo; Nagashima, Toshiko; Hirose, Kazuhiko; Tanabe, Hitoshi; Tsubaki, Tadao

    1988-05-01

    Two cases of adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) in a family and the results of their MRI study are reported. Case 1, a 24-year-old male proband, was admitted to our hospital because of gait disturbance for three years. Bilateral cataracts were pointed out at birth, which required left side lenticotomy at age four. Neurological examinations on admission revealed a marked spastic paraparesis with pathological reflexes and a mild hypesthesia in the distal part of the left leg. No abnormal findings were detected in X-ray studies on the spine and spinal cord, electromyography and nerve conduction test. Serum very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) levels were apparently elevated, and the serum cortisol response to ACTH was low. Case 2, a 53-year-old woman, is the mother of Case 1 having a complaint of gait disturbance since age 51. She presented a mild spastic paraparesis with localized hypesthesia in the distal part of the both legs. She also had bilateral congenital cataracts. Her serum VLCFAs analysis indicated the intermediate levels between that of AMN and the normal control. Adrenal functions were normal. Cranial MRI (TR 2,000 msec/TE 80 msec) study disclosed high signal intensity areas in bilateral internal capsules in Case 1. These findings, suggesting the pathological change of dysmyelination, seemed to be well compatible with the clinical pictures. With these clinical findings and the laboratory data, these two cases were diagnosed as AMN. In addition, association of congenital cataract with AMN in both cases was characteristic in this family, which hasn't been reported in the literature. On regarding the genetic background of these two disorders, AMN and congenital cataract, it was speculated that each gene could be closely located on the same or very adjacent locus, possibly on Xq.

  14. Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation: Mexican clinical experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Pardo, M.E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. postal 18-1027, Col. Escandon 11801 Mexico DF (Mexico)], E-mail: memp@nuclear.inin.mx; Ley-Chavez, E. [ISSEMYM Toluca, Mexico DF (Mexico); Reyes-Frias, M.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. postal 18-1027, Col. Escandon 11801 Mexico DF (Mexico); Rodriguez-Ferreyra, P. [Hospital ' Dr. Nicolas San Juan' , Toluca, Mexico DF (Mexico); Vazquez-Maya, L.; Salazar, M.A. [Hospital General de Mexico, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation, such as amnion and pig skin, are a reality in Mexico. These tissues are currently processed in the tissue bank and sterilized in the Gamma Industrial Irradiation Plant; both facilities belong to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) (National Institute of Nuclear Research). With the strong support of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the bank was established at the ININ and the Mexican Ministry of Health issued its sanitary license on July 7, 1999. The Quality Management System of the bank was certified by ISO 9001:2000 on August 1, 2003; the scope of the system is 'Research, Development and Processing of Biological Tissues Sterilized with Gamma Radiation'. At present, more than 150 patients from 16 hospitals have been successfully treated with these tissues. This paper presents a brief description of the tissue processing, as well as the present Mexican clinical experience with children and adult patients who underwent medical treatment with radiosterilized amnion and pig skin, used as biological wound dressings on burns and ocular surface disorders.

  15. Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation: Mexican clinical experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pardo, M. E.; Ley-Chávez, E.; Reyes-Frías, M. L.; Rodríguez-Ferreyra, P.; Vázquez-Maya, L.; Salazar, M. A.

    2007-11-01

    Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation, such as amnion and pig skin, are a reality in Mexico. These tissues are currently processed in the tissue bank and sterilized in the Gamma Industrial Irradiation Plant; both facilities belong to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) (National Institute of Nuclear Research). With the strong support of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the bank was established at the ININ and the Mexican Ministry of Health issued its sanitary license on July 7, 1999. The Quality Management System of the bank was certified by ISO 9001:2000 on August 1, 2003; the scope of the system is "Research, Development and Processing of Biological Tissues Sterilized with Gamma Radiation". At present, more than 150 patients from 16 hospitals have been successfully treated with these tissues. This paper presents a brief description of the tissue processing, as well as the present Mexican clinical experience with children and adult patients who underwent medical treatment with radiosterilized amnion and pig skin, used as biological wound dressings on burns and ocular surface disorders.

  16. Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation: Mexican clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Pardo, M.E.; Ley-Chavez, E.; Reyes-Frias, M.L.; Rodriguez-Ferreyra, P.; Vazquez-Maya, L.; Salazar, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation, such as amnion and pig skin, are a reality in Mexico. These tissues are currently processed in the tissue bank and sterilized in the Gamma Industrial Irradiation Plant; both facilities belong to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) (National Institute of Nuclear Research). With the strong support of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the bank was established at the ININ and the Mexican Ministry of Health issued its sanitary license on July 7, 1999. The Quality Management System of the bank was certified by ISO 9001:2000 on August 1, 2003; the scope of the system is 'Research, Development and Processing of Biological Tissues Sterilized with Gamma Radiation'. At present, more than 150 patients from 16 hospitals have been successfully treated with these tissues. This paper presents a brief description of the tissue processing, as well as the present Mexican clinical experience with children and adult patients who underwent medical treatment with radiosterilized amnion and pig skin, used as biological wound dressings on burns and ocular surface disorders

  17. Cataracts in New World camelids (llamas, alpacas, vicuñas, and guanacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gionfriddo, Juliet R

    2002-05-01

    Cataracts are the most frequently seen lens diseases in New World camelids. The causes of cataracts are unknown in many animals, but cataracts secondary to intraocular inflammation seem to be common. Congenital or juvenile-onset cataracts, if another cause is not apparent, should be considered as possibly caused by heredity, and the affected animals should not be bred. Persistent hyaloid vascular anomalies may also have an important role in cataract formation and could be heritable or caused by an in utero disturbance. Pedigree analyses, test breedings, and possibly DNA studies of llamas with cataracts will be required to determine their potential heritability in these species. Cataract surgery can be done successfully in camelids. It is important to evaluate the posterior segment with B scan ultrasonography before surgery in animals in which the posterior segment previously has not been seen. This evaluation allows the surgeon to better prepare for the presence of hyaloid vascular anomalies. Use of phacoemulsification, gentle tissue handling, liberal use of anti-inflammatory medications and endothelial protectants (BSS + and viscoelastics) during surgery has increased the success rate of this surgery in camelids. Unlike cataract surgery in dogs and horses undergoing, cataract surgery, in camelids seems to be important to remove much of the posterior lens capsule. This removal prevents severe capsular fibrosis and subsequent vision loss. There is evidence that a posterior capsulectomy and anterior viterectomy can help prevent postoperative glaucoma. Research needs to be done to see whether these species have an increased risk for ciliary-block glaucoma.

  18. Effects of two antioxidants; α-lipoic acid and fisetin against diabetic cataract in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Emrah; Kiliçkan, Elif; Ayar, Ahmet; Çolak, Ramis

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether α-lipoic acid and fisetin have protective effects against cataract in a streptozotocin-induced experimental cataract model. Twenty-eight male BALB/C mice were made diabetic by the intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (200 mg/kg). Three weeks after induction of diabetes, mice were divided randomly into 4 groups in which each group contained 7 mice; fisetin-treated group (group 1), α-lipoic acid-treated group (group 2), fisetin placebo group (group 3), α-lipoic acid placebo group (group 4). Fisetin and α-lipoic acid were administered intraperitoneally weekly for 5 weeks. Cataract development was assessed at the end of 8 weeks by slit lamp examination, and cataract formation was graded using a scale. All groups developed at least grade 1 cataract formation. In the fisetin-treated group, the cataract stages were significantly lower than in the placebo group (p = 0.02). In the α-lipoic acid-treated group, the cataract stages were lower than in the placebo group but it did not reach to a significant value. Both fisetin and α-lipoic acid had a protective effect on cataract development in a streptozotocin-induced experimental cataract model. The protective effect of fisetin appears as though more effective than α-lipoic acid.

  19. CLINICAL FIELD NOTE - ULTRASOUND THERAPY: GETTING IT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Incorporating this vital information has led to a turn around in the evidence of ultrasound research ... in clinical practice, there has not been enough research evidence to support its .... Parameters: 1W/cm , 50% duty cycle (pulsed), 15 minutes,. 2 with a 5cm ... New England Journal of Medicine 317: 141-145. Gam, A.N., F.

  20. Prognostic importance of congenital cataract morphology: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağrı İlhan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Congenital cataract (CC has an important place in pediatric ocular diseases. CCs are different from senile nuclear cataracts in terms of their etiologic, clinic and morphological characteristics. CCs occur many different forms such as non-hereditary isolated cases or autosomal dominant bilateral cases. In addition, many of ocular and systemic diseases can be associated with CC and ophthalmologist should be aware of these potential risks. In this article, we questioned whether the different morphological features of CC have prognostic importance or effect decision of surgery by considering a case of CC.

  1. Radiation-polymerisable paint and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassata, J.C.; Dickie, R.A.

    1974-01-01

    A paint polymerisable under the effect of a radiation is presented. The main components, excluding non-polymerisable solvent, pigment, initiator and particle charge, are as follows: about 90 to 10 parts of a saturated thermoplastic vinyl polymer of average molecular mass around 2000 to 250,000, prepared from monofunctional vinyl monomers to the extent of at least 85% by weight; about 10 to 90 parts of vinyl monomer solvent for the polymer, up to 90% by weight of the solvent consisting of monovinyl monomers and the remainder being chosen amongst divinyl, trivinyl, tetravinyl monomers and their mixtures. The average molecular weight of the thermoplastic vinyl polymer has between 5000 and 50,000 [fr

  2. Genetics Home Reference: hypomyelination and congenital cataract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Institute: Facts About Cataract National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Peripheral Neuropathy Fact Sheet Educational Resources (5 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Cataracts in Children Boston Children's Hospital: Nervous ...

  3. One-year outcomes of AquaLase cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sonia H; Bhatt, Anand B

    2007-01-01

    The authors report surgical experience and clinical outcomes up to 1 year postoperatively in patients who underwent cataract surgery with the AquaLase liquefaction device (Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, TX). The device is a handpiece option for use with Alcon's Infiniti Vision System that uses heated balanced saline solution micropulses to liquefy lenticular material. Twenty-seven eyes of 23 patients underwent cataract extraction with the use of the AquaLase liquefaction device. The average age of participants was 68 years, and the average nuclear sclerotic grade was 1.96 on a 4-point scale. Outcomes were judged by metrics such as visual acuity, inflammation, endothelial cell count, and postoperative posterior capsule opacification. At 30 days postoperatively, 78% of eyes had a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20. Visual acuity was 20/25 or better 1 year postoperatively in 88% of patients without complications except conversion to ultrasound phacoemulsification for two dense cataracts.

  4. Operating Room Performance Improves after Proficiency-Based Virtual Reality Cataract Surgery Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Bach-Holm, Daniella; Kjærbo, Hadi

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of virtual reality proficiency-based training on actual cataract surgery performance. The secondary purpose of the study was to define which surgeons benefit from virtual reality training. DESIGN: Multicenter masked clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen cataract...... surgeons with different levels of experience. METHODS: Cataract surgical training on a virtual reality simulator (EyeSi) until a proficiency-based test was passed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Technical performance in the operating room (OR) assessed by 3 independent, masked raters using a previously validated...... task-specific assessment tool for cataract surgery (Objective Structured Assessment of Cataract Surgical Skill). Three surgeries before and 3 surgeries after the virtual reality training were video-recorded, anonymized, and presented to the raters in random order. RESULTS: Novices (non...

  5. Advances in hard nucleus cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Security and perfect vision and fewer complications are our goals in cataract surgery, and hard-nucleus cataract surgery is always a difficulty one. Many new studies indicate that micro-incision phacoemulsification in treating hard nucleus cataract is obviously effective. This article reviews the evolution process of hard nuclear cataract surgery, the new progress in the research of artificial intraocular lens for microincision, and analyse advantages and disadvantages of various surgical methods.

  6. Poor cataract surgical output: Eye care workers perspective in north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-01-25

    Jan 25, 2012 ... reasons were high cost and fear of surgery, distance of eye clinics from patients. Conclusions: Regular ... Cataract accounts for approximately 50% of the world. 37 million blind;[1] ..... Asia to sub-Saharan Africa? Glob Public ...

  7. Truths and fallacies concerning radiation and its effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    In childhood we learned many myths about radiation. For example, we were told that people exposed to x-rays would glow in the dark, become radioactive, or under the proper circumstances, turn into superhumans such as the ''Hulk'' or ''Spiderman.'' Although these and other childhood myths are not taken seriously, many misconceptions still exist about the effects of ionizing radiation. Does exposure to radiation necessarily imply an ill fate? It is the intent of this chapter to highlight a few of the truths and fallacies concerning radiation and its effects

  8. Effect of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (flacs) on endothelial cell count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.; Habib, A.; Ishaq, M.; Yaqub, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To compare the change in endothelial cell count after femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) versus conventional phacoemulsification. Study Design:Randomized controlled clinical trial. Place and Duration of Study:Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from January 2016 to August 2017. Methodology:Patients with senile cataract and age ranging from 40 to 80 years were included in the study. Patients with any other cause of endothelial cell loss, history of trauma, documented diabetes millitis, hypertention and glaucoma were excluded. Preoperative detailed ocular examination, including both anterior and posterior examination, was carried out. Patients were distributed into two groups. Group GP were planned for conventional phacoemulsification, while group GF underwent FLACS. All the surgeries were performed under local anesthesia by same ophthalmic surgeon. Specular microscope (Topcon specular microscope sp-3000p) was utilized to measure the endothelial cell count (ECC) before and 4 weeks after the surgery. Results:Fifty eyes (25 in each group) of 48 patients underwent cataract surgery by phacoemulsification or FLACS. Twenty-five (52.08%) out of the total were females while 23 (47.91%) were males. Median age of the participants in hacoemulsification group was 55 years (IQR 20.50), while in FLACS group it was 54 years (IQR 8). The median change in endothelial cell count was 228 (IQR 532) in Phaco group, while 23 (IQR 35) in FLACS group. (p<0.05 Mann Whitney U-test). Conclusion:FLACS is a safe and effective modality for cataract treatment and it induces significantly less endothelial cell loss than conventional phacoemulsification. (author)

  9. Epigenetic regulation of αA-crystallin in high myopia-induced dark nuclear cataract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Jia Zhu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the etiology of early-onset dark nucleus in high-myopic patients and its relationship with the epigenetic regulation of αA-crystallin (CRYAA. METHODS: We reviewed clinical data from patients who underwent cataract surgery at our center in 2012. Lens epithelial samples were collected during capsulorhexis, whereas young lens epithelium was donated. Cataract type and severity were graded according to the Lens Opacity Classification System III (LOCS III. DNA methylation was analyzed by pyrosequencing the CpG islands of the CRYAA promoter in the following groups: Age-Related Cataract (ARC Nuclear Color (NC 2-3; High-Myopic Cataract (HMC NC2-3; ARC NC5-6; HMC NC5-6; and in young lenses graded NC1. We analyzed CRYAA expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR, reverse transcription PCR, and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The odds ratio of dark nucleus in high-myopic patients was 5.16 (95% confidence interval: 3.98-6.69; p<0.001. CpG islands in lens epithelial CRYAA promoter in the HMC NC5-6 Group exhibited the highest methylation of all the groups, but no statistically significant differences were evident between the HMC NC2-3 and ARC NC2-3 Groups. Likewise, CRYAA mRNA and protein levels in the HMC NC5-6 Group were significantly lower than the ARC NC5-6 Group and high-myopic controls. CONCLUSIONS: High myopia is a risk factor for dark nucleus. Downregulation of CRYAA via the hypermethylation of CpG islands in its promoter could underlie the earlier onset of dark nucleus in high-myopic patients.

  10. Immediate Sequential Bilateral Cataract Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Andresen, Jens; Erngaard, Ditte

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present systematic review was to examine the benefits and harms associated with immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS) with specific emphasis on the rate of complications, postoperative anisometropia, and subjective visual function in order to formulate evidence......-based national Danish guidelines for cataract surgery. A systematic literature review in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane central databases identified three randomized controlled trials that compared outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or bilateral cataract surgery on two different dates. Meta-analyses were...... performed using the Cochrane Review Manager software. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE method (Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation). We did not find any difference in the risk of complications or visual outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or surgery...

  11. A novel GJA8 mutation (p.V44A causing autosomal dominant congenital cataract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Zhu

    Full Text Available To examine the mechanism by which a novel connexin 50 (Cx50 mutation, Cx50 V44A, in a Chinese family causes suture-sparing autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataracts.Family history and clinical data were recorded and direct gene sequencing was used to identify the disease-causing mutation. The Cx50 gene was cloned from a human lens cDNA library. Connexin protein distributions were assessed by fluorescence microscopy. Hemichannel functions were analyzed by dye uptake assay. Formation of functional channels was assessed by dye transfer experiments.Direct sequencing of the candidate GJA8 gene revealed a novel c.131T>C transition in exon 2, which cosegregated with the disease in the family and resulted in the substitution of a valine residue with alanine at codon 44 (p. V44A in the extracellular loop 1 of the Cx50 protein. Both Cx50 and Cx50V44A formed functional gap junctions, as shown by the neurobiotin transfer assay. However, unlike wild-type Cx50, Cx50V44A was unable to form open hemichannels in dye uptake experiments.This work identified a unique congenital cataract in the Chinese population, caused by the novel mutation Cx50V44A, and it showed that the V44A mutation specifically impairs the gating of the hemichannels but not the gap junction channels. The dysfunctional hemichannels resulted in the development of human congenital cataracts.

  12. Changes of postoperative macular structure in primary angle closure disease complicated with cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-long Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the change of postoperative macular structure in primary angle closure disease(PACDcomplicated with cataract. METHODS: The clinical data of 200 cases of PACD patients complicated with cataract treated in our hospital were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into the Group A(n=60, 60 eyes, treated with trabeculectomy, the Group B(n=72, 72 eyes, given the phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantationand the Group C(n=68, 68 eyes, given the trabeculectomy and phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantation. The vision changes before and after treatment and the changes of intraocular pressure and macular thickness(foveal area, near central area, foveal surrounding areabefore operation and at 1wk, 1 and 3mo after operation were compared and observed, and the incidence of complications was compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There were significant differences in the improvement rate and reduction rate of visual acuity among three groups at 3mo after operation(PPPPPPPPPCONCLUSION: Phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantation can relieve angle closure caused by pupillary block and lens factors, and can significantly improve the vision and reduce intraocular pressure of PACD patients with cataract, and it has small effects on postoperative macular edema with few complications.

  13. Microincision versus small-incision coaxial cataract surgery using different power modes for hard nuclear cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Chul; Byun, Yong Soo; Kim, Man Soo

    2011-10-01

    To compare the efficacy of microincision and small-incision coaxial phacoemulsification in treating hard cataracts using different ultrasound power modes. Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea. Randomized clinical trial. Eyes with hard cataract were randomized to have an initial incision of 1.80 mm, 2.20 mm, or 2.75 mm. The eyes in each group were equally randomized to treatment with burst, pulse, or continuous mode. Ultrasound time (UST), mean cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), surgically induced corneal astigmatism, incisional and central corneal thickness (CCT), and endothelial cell counts were evaluated. The study enrolled 180 eyes, 60 in each group. Two months postoperatively, there were no statistically significant differences in UST, CDE, CDVA, CCT, or percentage endothelial cell loss between the 3 incision groups. The 2.75 mm incision induced more astigmatism at 2 months and less incisional corneal edema at 1 week than the 1.80 mm or 2.20 mm incision (Phard cataract. The intraoperative energy use and ocular damage was less with the pulse and burst modes than with the continuous mode. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Observation of radiation effects on skin clinical roentgenologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Weizhong; Liu Yunling

    1987-01-01

    The clinical observation of the effects of chronic irradiation on skin in 158 cases of clinical roentgenologists was reported. The results revealed that the incidence of morphological changes of microcirculaton in finger nail fold was as high as 47.6% for roentgenologists in contract to 5.2% for healthy adults. Other positive signs for skin injury were found in about 10.8-46.2% of roentgenologists. Two cases with typical chronic dermatitis were reported in this paper as well. These resuls attracted our attention to the radiation protection for clinical roentgenologists

  15. Identification of H2O2 induced oxidative stress associated microRNAs in HLE-B3 cells and their clinical relevance to the progression of age-related nuclear cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song; Guo, Chenjun; Yu, Mengsi; Ning, Xiaona; Yan, Bo; Zhao, Jing; Yang, Angang; Yan, Hong

    2018-04-13

    This study is aimed to screen out the microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with H 2 O 2 induced oxidative stress in human lens epithelial B3 (HLE-B3) cell lines and investigate their relations with the progression of age-related nuclear cataract. H 2 O 2 was used to induce oxidative stress in HLE-B3 cells. A genome-wide expression profiling of miRNAs in HLE-B3 cells was performed to select the differentially expressed miRNAs before and after H 2 O 2 treatment. The selected miRNAs were validated by RT-PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Clinical specimens were divided into three groups according to the Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCSIII) and the expression levels of the selected miRNAs were tested by RT-PCR in the three groups. Bioinformatics analyses were applied to predict the target genes of the miRNA hits and construct the miRNA regulatory network. The expression level of MAPK14 was analyzed by Western blot. The H 2 O 2 induced oxidative stress model of HLE-B3 cells was established. Nineteen upregulated and 30 downregulated miRNAs were identified as differentially expressed miRNAs. Seven of the total 49 were validated in the cell model. RT-PCR of the clinical samples showed that the expression levels of miR-34a-5p, miR-630 and miR-335-3p were closely related with the severity of nuclear opacity. The images taken from FISH confirmed the results of RT-PCR. There were 172 target genes of the three miRNAs clustered in the category of response to stress. The regulatory network demonstrated that 23 target genes were co-regulated by multiple miRNAs. MAPK14 was the target gene of three miRNAs and the result were verified by Western blot. Up-regulation of miR-34a-5p and miR-630 and down-regulation of miR-335-3p are related with the progression of age-related nuclear cataract and the underlying mechanism awaits further functional research to reveal.

  16. Cataract surgery in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Theil, Pernille Koefoed; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the outcome after cataract surgery in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) treated with intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections in routine clinical practice. Methods We extracted information about patients recorded...

  17. Nanoscale radiation transport and clinical beam modeling for gold nanoparticle dose enhanced radiotherapy (GNPT) using X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygmanski, Piotr; Sajo, Erno

    2016-01-01

    We review radiation transport and clinical beam modelling for gold nanoparticle dose-enhanced radiotherapy using X-rays. We focus on the nanoscale radiation transport and its relation to macroscopic dosimetry for monoenergetic and clinical beams. Among other aspects, we discuss Monte Carlo and deterministic methods and their applications to predicting dose enhancement using various metrics.

  18. Radiation damage and its repair in non-sporulating bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moseley, B.E.B.

    1984-01-01

    A review is given of radiation damage and its repair in non-sporulating bacteria. The identification and measurement of radiation damage in the DNA of the bacteria after exposure to ultraviolet radiation and ionizing radiation is described. Measuring the extent of DNA repair and ways of isolating repair mutants are also described. The DNA repair mechanisms for UV-induced damage are discussed including photoreactivation repair, excision repair, post-replication recombination repair and induced error-prone repair. The DNA repair mechanisms for ionizing radiation damage are also discussed including the repair of both single and double-strand breaks. Other aspects discussed include the effects of growth, irradiation medium and recovery medium on survival, DNA repair in humans, the commercial use of UV and ionizing radiations and the future of ionizing irradiation as a food treatment process. (U.K.)

  19. Radiation-induced hondrosarcoma - a clinical case from our practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinova, L.; Georgiev, R.; Mihaylova, I.

    2013-01-01

    We present a clinical case of radiation - induced occipital extracerebral chondrosarcoma in 36 years old young man. The patient had undergone two brain operations 8 years ago due to oligodendroglioma in the left temporo - parietal area. These surgical interventions were partial and subtotal tumor extirpation, followed by local radiotherapy to the brain to a total dose of 56Gy. The necessity of immunohistochemistry (IHH) analysis for pathologic differential diagnosis in high grade brain and peripheral tumors was discussed. In this particular case a precise differential diagnosis between peripheral chondrosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma/pPNET is needed. important risk factors for the development of radiation-induced brain tumors and chondrosarcoma, extremely rarely diagnosed, was discussed. A very accurate precising of the treatment radiation dose is needed in young patients with malignant brain tumors, not only in the surrounding healthy brain tissues, but also in other tissues, such as skin, subcutaneous layer and bone. The exceeding of the radiation dose in the bone above 45-50 Gy, increases the risk of radiation - induced sarcoma with latent period over 8 years. Key words: Hondrosarcoma. Radiotherapy. Radiation-induced Sarcoma. Complex Treatment. Immunohistochemistry

  20. Clinical and experimental investigation on small intestinal injury following radiation therapy for carcinoma of uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Midori

    1977-01-01

    Radiation injury of the small bowel was observed in 6 of 460 patients with carcinoma of uterine cervix who were treated by radiation between April 1966 and December 1973 at Tokyo Women's Medical College, Department of Radiology. Three of these 6 patients were treated conservatively and the other 3 others underwent surgery but died subsequently. Clinically and surgically these 6 patients showed marked adhesions of intestinal loops, which may be accounted for by the radiation injury of the small bowel. Clinical experience has shown that it is necessary to use a small radiation field to decrease small bowel injury from radiation. An experiment using abdominal radiation in mice confirmed that LD sub(50/30) is larger with a center split, maintaining equal integral doses. In adult dogs, severe small bowel obstruction was observed with over 4000 rad irradiation. Small bowel injury was milder in case with center split, intracavitary irradiation, and small radiation field. It was concluded that center split is one of the methods of preventing radiation injury of the small bowel. (Evans, J.)

  1. Radiations from GSM Base Stations and its Biological Effects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    All rights reserved ... radiofrequency radiations on albino mice placed in exposure cages and ... information in Nigeria on the possible effects of the .... The slides were left to dry on the hot plate ... potential health effect of the RF radiations. It is also a pointer to the need for .... The telecommunication industry is an essential.

  2. Topical anesthesia: possible risk factor for endophthalmitis after cataract extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Arumi, Jose; Fonollosa, Alex; Sararols, Laura; Fina, Francesc; Martínez-Castillo, Vicente; Boixadera, Ana; Zapata, Miguel A; Campins, Magda

    2007-06-01

    To assess the relationship between the risk for acute endophthalmitis after cataract extraction and whether certain factors, such as surgeon qualification, numerical order, duration of surgery, operating theater, and type of anesthesia (topical or retrobulbar), could be modified to decrease the risk. Single-center academic practice. Two epidemiological studies were performed: a case-control study and a retrospective cohort study. The surgical records of all patients with clinically diagnosed endophthalmitis within 30 days after cataract surgery performed between February 2002 and September 2003 were reviewed. The endophthalmitis cases were compared with 108 randomly selected controls (4 controls per case). The global incidence of endophthalmitis and the incidence according to type of anesthesia were calculated. Of 5011 cataract extractions performed, 27 cases of endophthalmitis occurred. The incidence was 5.39 per 1000 procedures. An independent statistically significant relationship was found between endophthalmitis and the use of topical anesthesia (odds ratio [OR], 11.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4-58.7) and surgery longer than 45 minutes (OR, 7.2; 95% CI, 1.7-29.7) but not between the other variables. The incidence of endophthalmitis was 1.8 per 1000 cataract extractions with retrobulbar anesthesia and 6.76 per 1000 with topical anesthesia (relative risk [RR], 3.76; 95% CI, 0.89-15.85). After the start of the study period was extended to May 2001, the incidence of endophthalmitis was 1.3 per 1000 cataract extractions with retrobulbar anesthesia and 8.7 per 1000 with topical anesthesia (RR, 6.72; 95% CI, 1.63-27.63). Results suggest that there may be an association between topical anesthesia and endophthalmitis after cataract extraction.

  3. Rodent models of congenital and hereditary cataract in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, B J; Tripathi, R C; Borisuth, N S; Dhaliwal, R; Dhaliwal, D

    1991-01-01

    Because the organogenesis and physiology of the lens are essentially similar in various mammals, an understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of the formation of cataract in an animal model will enhance our knowledge of cataractogenesis in man. In this review, we summarize the background, etiology, and pathogenesis of cataracts that occur in rodents. The main advantages of using rodent mutants include the well-researched genetics of the animals and the comparative ease of breeding of large litters. Numerous rodent models of congenital and hereditary cataracts have been studied extensively. In mice, the models include the Cts strain, Fraser mouse, lens opacity gene (Lop) strain, Lop-2 and Lop-3 strains, Philly mouse, Nakano mouse, Nop strain, Deer mouse, Emory mouse, Swiss Webster strain, Balb/c-nct/nct mouse, and SAM-R/3 strain. The rat models include BUdR, ICR, Sprague-Dawley, and Wistar rats, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), the John Rapp inbred strain of Dahl salt-sensitive rat, as well as WBN/Kob, Royal College of Surgeons (RCS), and Brown-Norway rats. Other proposed models for the study of hereditary cataract include the degu and the guinea pig. Because of the ease of making clinical observations in vivo and the subsequent availability of the intact lens for laboratory analyses at different stages of cataract formation, these animals provide excellent models for clinicopathologic correlations, for monitoring of the natural history of the aging process and of metabolic defects, as well as for investigations on the effect of cataract-modulating agents and drugs, including the prospect of gene therapy.

  4. Studies of health effects of low dose radiation and its application to medicare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Ishida, Kenji; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Koana, Takao; Magae, Junji; Watanabe, Masami; Sakamoto, Kiyohiko

    2008-01-01

    The articles contain following 7 topics of low dose radiation effects. Studies of Health Effects of Low dose Radiation and Its Application to Medicare'', describes the indication of Rn therapy and investigations of its usefulness mechanism mainly in Misasa Spa, Okayama Pref. ''Challenges for the Paradigm Shift (CRIEPI Studies)'', introduces studies against the paradigm that radiation dose is linearly and proportionally hazardous. ''Studies of High Background Radiation Area (CRIEPI Studies)'', describes global HBRA studies on chromosome affection and effect of smoking in HBRA. ''Is the Radiation Effect on Man Proportional to Dose? (CRIEPI Studies)'', describes studies of immature sperm irradiated at low dose against Linear-Non-threshold Theory (LNT) hypothesis. ''Induction of Radiation Resistance by Low Dose Radiation and Assessment of Its Effect in Models of Human Diseases (CRIEPI Studies)'', explains the adoptive response in radiation effect, suppression of carcinogenesis and immune regulation by previous low dose radiation in the mouse, and improvement of diabetes in the db/db mouse. ''Modulation of Biological Effects of Low Dose Radiation: Adoptive Response, Bystander Effect, Genetic Instability and Radiation Hormesis'', summarizes findings of each item. ''Cancer Treatment with Low dose Radiation to the Whole Body'', describes basic studies in the mouse tumor in relation to suppression of carcinogenesis and metastasis, immune activation and treatment, and successful clinical studies in patients with ovary, colon cancers and malignant lymphoma where survival has been significantly improved: a base of recent European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) clinical trials. The mechanism is essentially based on immune activation of patients to cure the disease. (R.T.)

  5. The challenges in improving outcome of cataract surgery in low and middle income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfield, Robert; Vishwanath, Kalluru; Ngounou, Faustin; Khanna, Rohit C

    2012-01-01

    Cataract is the leading cause of blindness globally and surgery is the only known measure to deal with it effectively. Providing high quality cataract surgical services is critical if patients with cataract are to have their sight restored. A key focus of surgery is the outcome of the procedure. In cataract surgery this is measured predominantly, using visual acuity. Population- and hospital-based studies have revealed that the visual outcome of cataract surgery in many low and middle income settings is frequently sub-optimal, often failing to reach the recommended standards set by the World Health Organization (WHO). Another way of measuring outcome of cataract surgery is to ask patients for their views on whether surgery has changed the functioning of their eyes and their quality of life. There are different tools available to capture patient views and now, these patient-reported outcomes are becoming more widely used. This paper discusses the visual outcome of cataract surgery and frames the outcome of surgery within the context of the surgical service, suggesting that the process and outcome of care cannot be separated. It also discusses the components of patient-reported outcome tools and describes some available tools in more detail. Finally, it describes a hierarchy of challenges that need to be addressed before a high quality cataract surgical service can be achieved. PMID:22944761

  6. The challenges in improving outcome of cataract surgery in low and middle income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lindfield

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cataract is the leading cause of blindness globally and surgery is the only known measure to deal with it effectively. Providing high quality cataract surgical services is critical if patients with cataract are to have their sight restored. A key focus of surgery is the outcome of the procedure. In cataract surgery this is measured predominantly, using visual acuity. Population- and hospital-based studies have revealed that the visual outcome of cataract surgery in many low and middle income settings is frequently sub-optimal, often failing to reach the recommended standards set by the World Health Organization (WHO. Another way of measuring outcome of cataract surgery is to ask patients for their views on whether surgery has changed the functioning of their eyes and their quality of life. There are different tools available to capture patient views and now, these patient-reported outcomes are becoming more widely used. This paper discusses the visual outcome of cataract surgery and frames the outcome of surgery within the context of the surgical service, suggesting that the process and outcome of care cannot be separated. It also discusses the components of patient-reported outcome tools and describes some available tools in more detail. Finally, it describes a hierarchy of challenges that need to be addressed before a high quality cataract surgical service can be achieved.

  7. Different alpha crystallin expression in human age-related and congenital cataract lens epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Zhou, Sheng; Guo, Minfei; Li, Yuting; Gu, Jianjun

    2016-05-28

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the different expressions of αA-crystallin and αB-crystallin in human lens epithelium of age-related and congenital cataracts. The central part of the human anterior lens capsule approximately 5 mm in diameter together with the adhering epithelial cells, were harvested and processed within 6 hours after cataract surgery from age-related and congenital cataract patients or from normal eyes of fresh cadavers. The mRNA and soluble protein levels of αA-crystallin and αB-crystallin in the human lens epithelium were detected by real-time PCR and western blots, respectively. The mRNA and soluble protein expressions of αA-crystallin and αB-crystallin in the lens epithelium were both reduced in age-related and congenital cataract groups when compared with the normal control group. However, the degree of α-crystallin loss in the lens epithelium was highly correlated with different cataract types. The α-crystallin expression of the lens epithelium was greatly reduced in the congenital cataract group but only moderately decreased in the age-related cataract group. The reduction of αA-crystallin soluble protein levels in the congenital cataract group was approximately 2.4 fold decrease compared with that of the age-related cataract group, while an mRNA fold change of 1.67 decrease was observed for the age-related cataract group. Similarly, the reduction of soluble protein levels of αB-crystallin in the congenital cataract group was approximately a 1.57 fold change compared with that of the age-related cataract group. A 1.75 fold change for mRNA levels compared with that of the age-related cataract group was observed. The results suggest that the differential loss of α-crystallin in the human lens epithelium could be associated with the different mechanisms of cataractogenesis in age-related versus congenital cataracts, subsequently resulting in different clinical presentations.

  8. Association of Cataract Surgery With Mortality in Older Women: Findings from the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Victoria L; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Yu, Fei; Cauley, Jane A; Li, Wenjun; Thomas, Fridtjof; Virnig, Beth A; Coleman, Anne L

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested an association between cataract surgery and decreased risk for all-cause mortality potentially through a mechanism of improved health status and functional independence, but the association between cataract surgery and cause-specific mortality has not been previously studied and is not well understood. To examine the association between cataract surgery and total and cause-specific mortality in older women with cataract. This prospective cohort study included nationwide data collected from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial and observational study linked with the Medicare claims database. Participants in the present study were 65 years or older with a diagnosis of cataract in the linked Medicare claims database. The WHI data were collected from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 2015. Data were analyzed for the present study from July 1, 2014, through September 1, 2017. Cataract surgery as determined by Medicare claims codes. The outcomes of interest included all-cause mortality and mortality attributed to vascular, cancer, accidental, neurologic, pulmonary, and infectious causes. Mortality rates were compared by cataract surgery status using the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusting for demographics, systemic and ocular comorbidities, smoking, alcohol use, body mass index, and physical activity. A total of 74 044 women with cataract in the WHI included 41 735 who underwent cataract surgery. Mean (SD) age was 70.5 (4.6) years; the most common ethnicity was white (64 430 [87.0%]), followed by black (5293 [7.1%]) and Hispanic (1723 [2.3%]). The mortality rate was 2.56 per 100 person-years in both groups. In covariate-adjusted Cox models, cataract surgery was associated with lower all-cause mortality (adjusted hazards ratio [AHR], 0.40; 95% CI, 0.39-0.42) as well as lower mortality specific to vascular (AHR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.39-0.46), cancer (AHR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0

  9. Impact of cataract surgery in reducing visual impairment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandekar, Rajiv; Sudhan, Anand; Jain, B K; Deshpande, Madan; Dole, Kuldeep; Shah, Mahul; Shah, Shreya

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to assess the impact of cataract surgeries in reducing visual disabilities and factors influencing it at three institutes of India. A retrospective chart review was performed in 2013. Data of 4 years were collected on gender, age, residence, presenting a vision in each eye, eye that underwent surgery, type of surgery and the amount the patient paid out of pocket for surgery. Visual impairment was categorized as; absolute blindness (no perception of light); blind (visual impairment (SVI) (visual impairment (6/18-6/60) and; normal vision (≥6/12). Statistically analysis was performed to evaluate the association between visual disabilities and demographics or other possible barriers. The trend of visual impairment over time was also evaluated. We compared the data of 2011 to data available about cataract cases from institutions between 2002 and 2009. There were 108,238 cataract cases (50.6% were female) that underwent cataract surgery at the three institutions. In 2011, 71,615 (66.2%) cases underwent surgery. There were 45,336 (41.9%) with presenting vision visual disability. The goal of improving vision related quality of life for cataract patients during the early stages of visual impairment that is common in industrialized countries seems to be non-attainable in the rural India.

  10. Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) and its harmful effects on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanam, Yasmin; Singh, Yogender

    2012-01-01

    After radiation exposure a series of many clinical syndromes appear that is called as Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS). ARS also known as radiation toxicology or radiation sickness. Both low and higher doses radiation exposure on human body cause different types of radiation syndromes. These radiations may be ionizing radiations. X-rays and gamma rays etc. some times neutrons or radionuclides may also be deposited in human body and their effective doses cause major injuries or abnormalities even sometimes death also. ARS consist of a sequence of phased symptoms. These symptoms appear after the radiation exposure for several days to several months or sometimes for a long period or years. ARS depends on the quantity of absorbed radiation dose (rad0). ARS is characterized by an initial prodromal stage of malaise, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Critical effects of ARS are Hematologic, that results infections to low white blood cells (WBC), bleeding due to low platelets and anemia due to low red blood cells (RBC), Gastrointestinal results nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and abdominal pain (exposure doses of 600-1000 rad) and Neurovascular depending on the exposure dose. Neurovascular syndrome typically occurs at exposure doses greater than 1000 rad. It presents with neurological symptoms such as dizziness, headache, or decreased level of consciousness with an absence of vomiting. The clinical course of radiation sickness following a single intensive exposure to whole body radiation is characterized by three successive phases; a prodromal phase, which develops within minutes or hours after exposure, an ensuring latent period, which is relatively asymptomatic; and the main phase of the illness. Complete Blood Count (CBC) are helpful for the diagnosis for ARS. ARS may cause skin damage or loss of epidermis. Person suffering from nausea, vomiting, diarrhea should be admitted to well equipped hospitals or clinics. High exposured persons should be analysed CBC. Their

  11. meson properties and its leptonic radiative decays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Now there is no one who doubt the color-singlet mechanism for double heavy meson production. Whereas the so-called color-octet mechanism still need to be tested, although it has been proposed for years and obtained a few experimental supports. Besides the reasons mentioned here precisely, the first observation of the ...

  12. Factors associated with strabismus after cataract extraction and primary intraocular lens implantation in congenital cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Jung Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate factors associated with the development of strabismus after cataract extraction and primary intraocular lens implantation.METHODS: The medical records of 122 patients, aged 1.5mo to 9y, who had undergone cataract extraction with primary intraocular lens implantation between January 1993 and August 2011 were reviewed. Fourteen patients (17 eyes with strabismus before cataract surgery were excluded. Patients were divided into those with congenital bilateral cataracts (64 patients, 128 eyes and those with unilateral cataracts (44 patients, 44 eyes. The associations between the development of strabismus and age at cataract surgery, pre- and post-cataract extraction corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, interocular CDVA difference, nystagmus, surgical method, and secondary cataract were evaluated.RESULTS: Factors significantly associated with the development of strabismus included age at cataract surgery (≤1y, preoperative mean CDVA ≤20/100, presence of nystagmus in the bilateral cataract group and postoperative interocular CDVA difference >20/70 in the unilateral group. Postoperative CDVA ≤20/100 and preservation of posterior capsule, and presence of secondary cataract were significant factors in both groups.CONCLUSION: Children with congenital cataracts should be monitored carefully after cataract surgery for the development of strabismus, especially when they underwent surgery at age ≤1y, and they have nystagmus, large postoperative interocular CDVA difference, poor preoperative and postoperative CDVA, preservation of the posterior capsule, or secondary cataract.

  13. What is radiation and how is it produced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, M.

    1984-01-01

    In summary, a short answer to the question posed by the title of this chapter may be attempted in the following manner. Radiation is electromagnetic or particulate energy emitted or produced as the consequence of electron motion, radioactive decay, or atomic and nuclear interactions. Ionizing radiation is that radiation having sufficient energy to produce positive and negative charges directly or indirectly when it interacts with matter. As with many ''simple'' definitions of complex subjects, this definition contains many terms equally, if not more, complex than the one it purports to define. Like the aroma a good meal, it conveys a feeling for the subject that should stimulate, rather than satisfy, the appetite

  14. Scattered radiation from applicators in clinical electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battum, L J van; Zee, W van der; Huizenga, H

    2003-01-01

    In radiotherapy with high-energy (4-25 MeV) electron beams, scattered radiation from the electron applicator influences the dose distribution in the patient. In most currently available treatment planning systems for radiotherapy this component is not explicitly included and handled only by a slight change of the intensity of the primary beam. The scattered radiation from an applicator changes with the field size and distance from the applicator. The amount of scattered radiation is dependent on the applicator design and on the formation of the electron beam in the treatment head. Electron applicators currently applied in most treatment machines are essentially a set of diaphragms, but still do produce scattered radiation. This paper investigates the present level of scattered dose from electron applicators, and as such provides an extensive set of measured data. The data provided could for instance serve as example input data or benchmark data for advanced treatment planning algorithms which employ a parametrized initial phase space to characterize the clinical electron beam. Central axis depth dose curves of the electron beams have been measured with and without applicators in place, for various applicator sizes and energies, for a Siemens Primus, a Varian 2300 C/D and an Elekta SLi accelerator. Scattered radiation generated by the applicator has been found by subtraction of the central axis depth dose curves, obtained with and without applicator. Scattered radiation from Siemens, Varian and Elekta electron applicators is still significant and cannot be neglected in advanced treatment planning. Scattered radiation at the surface of a water phantom can be as high as 12%. Scattered radiation decreases almost linearly with depth. Scattered radiation from Varian applicators shows clear dependence on beam energy. The Elekta applicators produce less scattered radiation than those of Varian and Siemens, but feature a higher effective angular variance. The scattered

  15. Review Recent progress in identification and characterization of loci associated with sex-linked congenital cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D D; Du, J Z; Topolewski, J; Wang, X M

    2016-07-29

    Congenital cataract is a common cause of blindness in children; however, its pathogenesis remains unclear. Genetic factors have been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of congenital cataract. The current genetic models of congenital cataract include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and sex-linked inheritance. Sex-linked congenital cataract could be inherited through the X or Y chromosome. Congenital cataract is a symptom associated with several X-linked disorders, including Nance-Horan syndrome, Lowe syndrome, Conradi-Hünermann-Happle syndrome, oculo-facio-cardio-dental syndrome, and Alport syndrome. On the other hand, the mechanism and characteristics of Y-linked congenital cataract remains to be identified. Despite its rarity, sex-linked congenital cataract has been known to seriously affect the quality of life of patients. In this review, we present our current understanding of the genes and loci associated with sex-linked congenital cataract. This could help identify novel approaches for the prevention, early diagnosis, and comprehensive disease treatment.

  16. Prostate specific antigen and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yang

    2000-01-01

    Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA), a serine proteases, is a glycoprotein consisting of a single polypeptide chain. Secreted exclusively by epithelial cells of the prostate gland, PSA is found largely in seminal plasma. Only a small amount of PSA can be found in normal serum. Serum PSA levels are found to be, considerably increased in prostate cancer patients. A number of studies on PSA have made great achievement on its biochemistry, analytical method and clinical application. PSA as one of the most important tumor marker, is used to help diagnosis and monitor the therapeutic efficacy of prostate cancer

  17. The Pediatric Cataract Register (PECARE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haargaard, Birgitte; Nyström, Alf; Rosensvärd, Annika

    2015-01-01

    examination with a pencil light at age 5 weeks, whereas newborn red reflex examination using a handheld ophthalmoscope is routine protocol in Swedish maternity wards. Data regarding age of referral were derived from the Pediatric Cataract Register (PECARE). All children operated on before 1 year of age...

  18. Evaluation of povidone-iodine applications in cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As a routine measure to prevent intraocular inflammation, rinsing conjunctival sac with povidone-iodine(PVP-Ihas been increasingly adopted in cataract surgery. It can effectively reduce the complications of cataract surgery, including endophthalmitis and corneal complications. However, PVP-I itself has certain side effects. Therefore, to achieve the best bactericidal effect and to avoid eye injury, it is necessary to find out the optimal treatment duration and concentration. This article offers a review on the latest researches worldwide in this field.

  19. Clinical implications of heterogeneity of tumor response to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suit, H.; Skates, S.; Taghian, A.; Okunieff, P.; Efird, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    Heterogeneity of response of tumor tissue to radiation clearly exists. Major parameters include histopathologic type, size (number of tumor rescue units (TRUs)), hemoglobin concentration, cell proliferation kinetics and immune rejection reaction by host. Further, normal and presumably tumor tissue response is altered in certain genetic diseases, e.g. ataxia telangiectasia. Any assessment of response of tumor tissue to a new treatment method or the testing of a new clinical response predictor is optimally based upon a narrow strata, viz., uniform with respect to known parameters of response, e.g. size, histological type. Even among tumors of such a clinical defined narrow strata, there will be residual heterogeneity with respect to inherent cellular radiation sensitivity, distributions of pO 2 , (SH), cell proliferation, etc. (author). 39 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Radiation doses to personnel in clinics for gynecologic oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, B.; Spanne, P.

    1985-01-01

    Radium or Cesium is used for radiotherapy of gynecologic cancer at six clinics in Sweden. This report gives a survey of the radiation doses the personnel is exposed to. The measurement were performed using TL-dosimeters. The dose equivalents for different parts of the body at specific working moments was deduced as well as the effective dose equivalent and the collective dose equivalent. 1983 the total collective dose equivalent for the six clinics was 1.3 manSv, which corresponds to 3.9 manmSv/g equivalent mass of Radium used at the treatments. (With 11 tables and 10 figures) (L.E.)

  1. Uses of chemotherapy together with radiation, and its biological basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Ikuo; Terashima, Toyozo

    1978-01-01

    Effect of use of anticancer drugs together with radiation, especially effects of Actinomycin D (AMD), Bleomycin (BLM), and Adriamycin (Ad) which seemed to have synergistic effect, and other substances which have possibility to have synergistic effect were described. It was clarified that AMD out of them showed synergistic effect to inhibit repair of sublethel damage induced by irradiation in addition to anticancer effect itself. Therefore, it is thought that use of AMD is effective especially to cancer with high radioresistance and it is better to administer this drug just before or just after irradiation. It seems to be better to administer at one time with high concentration in the allowable range. It is difficult to come to a conclusion as to BLM and Ad, generalized as well as the conclusion of AMD, but it seems to be better to use BLM and Ad together with irradiation at the same time. As BLM is highly effective especially to epithelial cells, it must be necessary to investigate whether there is a difference of characteristics between cells. In any case, there are two great factors, the concentration and action time (containing the time remaining in vivo) of drugs, and moreover, another factor, time relation to irradiation is added. Therefore, an experiment schedule is complicated so much, and it is important to study quantitatively on the basis of systematic experimental plan. As to clinical application of them, it is necessary to perform an experiment in vitro which is exullent in estimation and an experiment in vivo which certified the effects in keeping organic cooperation. (Tsunoda, M.)

  2. the first experience of phakoemulsification with vacuum trabeculoplasty ab interno for combined cataract and glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Trubilin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to describe of a new effective method of combined treatment of patients with primary open- angle glaucoma with mod- erately elevated intraocular pressure and cataract.Methods: Studies have been conducted among 30 patients (30 eyes from 46 to 85 years with a combination of cataract of varying degrees of maturity and open-angle glaucoma of different stages. In addition to the standard techniques there were used special clini- cal and functional methods of research: optical cogerent tomography of the anterior segment of the eye Visante OCt (Carl Zeiss, Ger- many, glaucomatous cupping and thickness of nerve fibers study using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope HRt II (Heidelberg Engineering, Germany. In accordance with the target patients were divided into 2 groups: the basic group consisted of 15 patients (15 eyes aged 63 to 76 years with primary open angle glaucoma of 1-2 stages and cataracts of varying degrees of maturity. In both groups there was performed the ultrasonic phakoemulsification of the lens on the phakoemulsificator Infinity (Alcon, US.Results: the analysis of intraocular pressure measurements showed that among patients from I and II group eye pressure had a downward trend in the early postoperative period, however, the average dynamics of reduction of the intraocular pressure in the group of patients where phakoemulsification and vacuum trabeculoplasty ab interno performed was higher than in the control group. In the gonioscopy of the corner of the anterior chamber the clinical presentation remained stable throughout the period of observation. In the postoperative period among patients in the main observation group according to OCt it was noted changing the depth of the anterior chamber of eye towards its increase by an average of 1.39 mm, as well as increasing the angle of the anterior chamber at an average of 9.98.Conclusion: Phakoemulsification with IOL implantation combined with vacuum trabeculoplasty ab interno is

  3. the first experience of phakoemulsification with vacuum trabeculoplasty ab interno for combined cataract and glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Trubilin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to describe of a new effective method of combined treatment of patients with primary open- angle glaucoma with mod- erately elevated intraocular pressure and cataract.Methods: Studies have been conducted among 30 patients (30 eyes from 46 to 85 years with a combination of cataract of varying degrees of maturity and open-angle glaucoma of different stages. In addition to the standard techniques there were used special clini- cal and functional methods of research: optical cogerent tomography of the anterior segment of the eye Visante OCt (Carl Zeiss, Ger- many, glaucomatous cupping and thickness of nerve fibers study using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope HRt II (Heidelberg Engineering, Germany. In accordance with the target patients were divided into 2 groups: the basic group consisted of 15 patients (15 eyes aged 63 to 76 years with primary open angle glaucoma of 1-2 stages and cataracts of varying degrees of maturity. In both groups there was performed the ultrasonic phakoemulsification of the lens on the phakoemulsificator Infinity (Alcon, US.Results: the analysis of intraocular pressure measurements showed that among patients from I and II group eye pressure had a downward trend in the early postoperative period, however, the average dynamics of reduction of the intraocular pressure in the group of patients where phakoemulsification and vacuum trabeculoplasty ab interno performed was higher than in the control group. In the gonioscopy of the corner of the anterior chamber the clinical presentation remained stable throughout the period of observation. In the postoperative period among patients in the main observation group according to OCt it was noted changing the depth of the anterior chamber of eye towards its increase by an average of 1.39 mm, as well as increasing the angle of the anterior chamber at an average of 9.98.Conclusion: Phakoemulsification with IOL implantation combined with vacuum trabeculoplasty ab interno is

  4. Processes for Quality Improvements in Radiation Oncology Clinical Trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzGerald, T.J.; Urie, Marcia; Ulin, Kenneth; Laurie, Fran; Yorty, Jeffrey C.; Hanusik, Richard; Kessel, Sandy; Jodoin, Maryann Bishop; Osagie, Gani; Cicchetti, M. Giulia; Pieters, Richard; McCarten, Kathleen; Rosen, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Quality assurance in radiotherapy (RT) has been an integral aspect of cooperative group clinical trials since 1970. In early clinical trials, data acquisition was nonuniform and inconsistent and computational models for radiation dose calculation varied significantly. Process improvements developed for data acquisition, credentialing, and data management have provided the necessary infrastructure for uniform data. With continued improvement in the technology and delivery of RT, evaluation processes for target definition, RT planning, and execution undergo constant review. As we move to multimodality image-based definitions of target volumes for protocols, future clinical trials will require near real-time image analysis and feedback to field investigators. The ability of quality assurance centers to meet these real-time challenges with robust electronic interaction platforms for imaging acquisition, review, archiving, and quantitative review of volumetric RT plans will be the primary challenge for future successful clinical trials

  5. Clinical decision making: how surgeons do it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crebbin, Wendy; Beasley, Spencer W; Watters, David A K

    2013-06-01

    Clinical decision making is a core competency of surgical practice. It involves two distinct types of mental process best considered as the ends of a continuum, ranging from intuitive and subconscious to analytical and conscious. In practice, individual decisions are usually reached by a combination of each, according to the complexity of the situation and the experience/expertise of the surgeon. An expert moves effortlessly along this continuum, according to need, able to apply learned rules or algorithms to specific presentations, choosing these as a result of either pattern recognition or analytical thinking. The expert recognizes and responds quickly to any mismatch between what is observed and what was expected, coping with gaps in information and making decisions even where critical data may be uncertain or unknown. Even for experts, the cognitive processes involved are difficult to articulate as they tend to be very complex. However, if surgeons are to assist trainees in developing their decision-making skills, the processes need to be identified and defined, and the competency needs to be measurable. This paper examines the processes of clinical decision making in three contexts: making a decision about how to manage a patient; preparing for an operative procedure; and reviewing progress during an operative procedure. The models represented here are an exploration of the complexity of the processes, designed to assist surgeons understand how expert clinical decision making occurs and to highlight the challenge of teaching these skills to surgical trainees. © 2013 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  6. Biologic effects and health hazards of microwave radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerski, P; Ostrowski, K; Shore, M L; Silverman, C., Suess, M.J.; Waldeskog, B

    1974-01-01

    Proceedings of an international symposium held in Warsaw, 15--18 Oct. 1973, sponsored by the World Health Organization, the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, and the Polish Scientific Council to the Minister of Health and Social Welfare are presented. It covered numerous aspects of exposure to microwave radiation. The papers more specifically relating to occupational exposure to microwaves deal with: measurement of microwave radiations, clinical manifestations, neurological findings, health status of microwave workers, blood protein disorders, effects of electromagnetic fields in densely populated areas, microwave cataract and concomitant pathology, retinal changes, assessment of lens translucency in microwave workers. A list of participants at the symposium and an author and subject index are appended.

  7. Cugini's syndrome: its clinical history and diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gasbarrone

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This article deals with the description and diagnosis of a new nosographic syndrome, which received the eponym of "Cugini's syndrome" by the name of the Author who discovered its clinical picture. This syndrome is characterized by the binomial: "minimal target organ damage associated to monitoring prehypertension". CLINICAL HISTORY AND DIAGNOSIS: Between the years 1997 and 2002, the Author published a series of investigations regarding some office normotensives who inexplicably showed incipient signs of target organ damage (TOD. Investigated via ambulatory (A blood (B pressure (P monitoring (M, these subjects were surprisingly found not to be hypertensive. Neverthless, the office normotensives with TOD exibited the daily mean level of their systolic (S and diastolic (D BP (DML SBP/DBP significantly more elevated as compared to true normotensives. Because of these ABPM findings, the Author realized that the investigated subjects were false normotensives whose TOD was associated with a monitoring prehypertension (ABPM-diagnosable prehypertension alias monitoring prehypertension alias masked prehypertension. The year after the last Cugini's investigation, the INC-7 Reports introduced the term: "prehypertension" in its classification of arterial hypertension, as an office sphygmomanometric condition in between office normotension and office hypertension. The ABPM cut-off upper limits for a differential diagnosis between monitoring normotension, prehypertension and hypertension are reported, as calculated by the Author in its collection of ABPMs. The eponym of "Cugini's syndrome" was assigned in 2007 and confirmed in 2009. CONCLUSIVE REMARKS: The monitoring prehypertension is a further condition of discrepancy between office sphygmomanometry and ABPM, as per a masked prehypertension, whose diagnosis has to be immediately diagnosed, for preventing the onset of a TOD. There are reported the present investigations dealing with the possible

  8. Optical radiation and visual health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waxler, M.; Hitchins, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides a focus on the parameters of ultraviolet light, visible, and infrared radiation s which could cause long-term visual health problems in humans. It reviews early research on radiation effects on the eye, and gives detailed attention to the hazardous effects of optical radiation on the retinal pigment epithelium and the photoreceptors. These data are further analyzed with regard to five potential long-term visual health problems; retinal degeneration, visual aging, disorder of visual development, ocular drug phototoxicity, and cataracts. Finally, epidemiologic principles for studying the relationships between optical radiation and long-term visual health problems are reviewed, concluding with the implications for future research and radiation protection. The contents include: historical perspectives; optical radiation and cataracts; the involvement of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE); optical radiation damage to the ocular photoreceptors; possible role of optical radiation in retinal degenerations; optical radiation and the aged eye; optical radiation effects on aging and visual perception; optical radiation effects on visual development; and index

  9. Mal de meleda with congenital cataract: A novel case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha Sethi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mal de meleda (MdM, a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis is characterized by erythema and hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles with a sharp demarcation and that progress with age (progrediens and extend to the dorsal aspects of the hands and feet (transgrediens. It has been associated with various conditions albeit rarely with congenial cataract. Ocular lens and the skin have the same embryological origins. We hereby present this novel case report of Mal de meleda in association with congenital posterior subcapsular cataract which to the best of our knowledge has not been reported from India before.

  10. Influence of taurine and vitaiodurol on the development frequency of experimental stellate cataracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorenko, B.S.; Kabachenko, A.N.; Vajnshtejn, E.S.; Yartsev, E.I.; Kolesnikov, Yu.A.

    1978-01-01

    Comparative investigations of medical efficiency of 4% solutions of taurine and vita-iodurol have been carried out using the model of experimental stellate cataract in mice. 140 male mice of CBAxC 57 BL 6 line with 14-16g mass were investigated. Animals of 3 groups (35 mice in each) were exposed to 300 rad dose gamma-radiation with Co 60 . Radiation intensity was 10 rad/s. The animals were examined before irradiation and each 4 weeks after irradiation. In 25 weeks after irradiation, when lenticular opacity was observed in more than half the mice, the animals of the first group were dropped in two eyes by 1 drop of 4% distilled water taurine solution during a month. Animals of the second group got instillations of vita-iodurol by the same method. The third group of animals was the irradiated control group. The fourth group of mice was used as the intact control group. Lenticular opacities developed were classified by the Christenberry and Furth method, suggested for evaluating stellate lenticular opacities in small laboratory animals. It was shown, that instillations of 4% taurine solution into animals with initial stellate cataract during a month result in reducing the frequency of lenticular opacities by 30%. Taurine in used concentration results in pronounced medical effect. Vita-iodurol hadn't any therapentic effect on the course of initial stellate catarat in mice

  11. Clinical applications of 3-dimensional printing in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yizhou, E-mail: yizhou.zhao@dal.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, 5820 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 2Y9 (Canada); Moran, Kathryn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, 5820 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 2Y9 (Canada); Yewondwossen, Mammo; Allan, James; Clarke, Scott [Department of Medical Physics, Dalhousie University, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, 5820 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 2Y9 (Canada); Rajaraman, Murali; Wilke, Derek; Joseph, Paul [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, 5820 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 2Y9 (Canada); Robar, James L. [Department of Medical Physics, Dalhousie University, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, 5820 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 2Y9 (Canada)

    2017-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is suitable for the fabrication of complex radiotherapy bolus. Although investigated from dosimetric and feasibility standpoints, there are few reports to date of its use for actual patient treatment. This study illustrates the versatile applications of 3D printing in clinical radiation oncology through a selection of patient cases, namely, to create bolus for photon and modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT), as well as applicators for surface high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Photon boluses were 3D-printed to treat a recurrent squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the nasal septum and a basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the posterior pinna. For a patient with a mycosis fungoides involving the upper face, a 3D-printed MERT bolus was used. To treat an SCC of the nose, a 3D-printed applicator for surface brachytherapy was made. The structures' fit to the anatomy and the radiotherapy treatment plans were assessed. Based on the treatment planning computed tomography (CT), the size of the largest air gap at the interface of the 3D-printed structure was 3 mm for the SCC of the nasal septum, 3 mm for the BCC of the pinna, 2 mm for the mycosis fungoides of the face, and 2 mm for the SCC of the nose. Acceptable treatment plans were obtained for the SCC of the nasal septum (95% isodose to 99.8% of planning target volume [PTV]), the BCC of the pinna (95% isodose to 97.7% of PTV), and the mycosis fungoides of the face (90% isodose to 92.5% of PTV). For the latter, compared with a plan with a uniform thickness bolus, the one featuring the MERT bolus achieved relative sparing of all the organs at risk (OARs) distal to the target volume, while maintaining similar target volume coverage. The surface brachytherapy plan for the SCC of the nose had adequate coverage (95% isodose to 95.6% of clinical target volume [CTV]), but a relatively high dose to the left eye, owing to its proximity to the tumor. 3D printing can be implemented effectively in

  12. Clinical applications of 3-dimensional printing in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yizhou; Moran, Kathryn; Yewondwossen, Mammo; Allan, James; Clarke, Scott; Rajaraman, Murali; Wilke, Derek; Joseph, Paul; Robar, James L.

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is suitable for the fabrication of complex radiotherapy bolus. Although investigated from dosimetric and feasibility standpoints, there are few reports to date of its use for actual patient treatment. This study illustrates the versatile applications of 3D printing in clinical radiation oncology through a selection of patient cases, namely, to create bolus for photon and modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT), as well as applicators for surface high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Photon boluses were 3D-printed to treat a recurrent squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the nasal septum and a basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the posterior pinna. For a patient with a mycosis fungoides involving the upper face, a 3D-printed MERT bolus was used. To treat an SCC of the nose, a 3D-printed applicator for surface brachytherapy was made. The structures' fit to the anatomy and the radiotherapy treatment plans were assessed. Based on the treatment planning computed tomography (CT), the size of the largest air gap at the interface of the 3D-printed structure was 3 mm for the SCC of the nasal septum, 3 mm for the BCC of the pinna, 2 mm for the mycosis fungoides of the face, and 2 mm for the SCC of the nose. Acceptable treatment plans were obtained for the SCC of the nasal septum (95% isodose to 99.8% of planning target volume [PTV]), the BCC of the pinna (95% isodose to 97.7% of PTV), and the mycosis fungoides of the face (90% isodose to 92.5% of PTV). For the latter, compared with a plan with a uniform thickness bolus, the one featuring the MERT bolus achieved relative sparing of all the organs at risk (OARs) distal to the target volume, while maintaining similar target volume coverage. The surface brachytherapy plan for the SCC of the nose had adequate coverage (95% isodose to 95.6% of clinical target volume [CTV]), but a relatively high dose to the left eye, owing to its proximity to the tumor. 3D printing can be implemented effectively in

  13. Internal wave structures in abyssal cataract flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, Nikolay; Liapidevskii, Valery; Morozov, Eugene; Tarakanov, Roman

    2014-05-01

    We discuss some theoretical approaches, experimental results and field data concerning wave phenomena in ocean near-bottom stratified flows. Such strong flows of cold water form everywhere in the Atlantic abyssal channels, and these currents play significant role in the global water exchange. Most interesting wave structures arise in a powerful cataract flows near orographic obstacles which disturb gravity currents by forced lee waves, attached hydraulic jumps, mixing layers etc. All these effects were observed by the authors in the Romanche and Chain fracture zones of Atlantic Ocean during recent cruises of the R/V Akademik Ioffe and R/V Akademik Sergei Vavilov (Morozov et al., Dokl. Earth Sci., 2012, 446(2)). In a general way, deep-water cataract flows down the slope are similar to the stratified flows examined in laboratory experiments. Strong mixing in the sill region leads to the splitting of the gravity current into the layers having the fluids with different densities. Another peculiarity is the presence of critical layers in shear flows sustained over the sill. In the case under consideration, this critical level separates the flow of near-bottom cold water from opposite overflow. In accordance with known theoretical models and laboratory measurements, the critical layer can absorb and reflect internal waves generated by the topography, so the upward propagation of these perturbations is blocked from above. High velocity gradients were registered downstream in the vicinity of cataract and it indicates the existence of developed wave structures beyond the sill formed by intense internal waves. This work was supported by RFBR (grants No 12-01-00671-a, 12-08-10001-k and 13-08-10001-k).

  14. Antimetabolites in cataract surgery to prevent failure of a previous trabeculectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger E; Crichton, Andrew; Thomas, Bennett C

    2014-07-28

    Patients having cataract surgery have often earlier undergone a trabeculectomy for glaucoma. However, cataract surgery may be associated with failure of the previous glaucoma surgery and antimetabolites may be used with cataract surgery to prevent such failure. There is no systematic review on whether antimetabolites with cataract surgery prevent failure of a previous trabeculectomy. To assess the effects of antimetabolites with cataract surgery on functioning of a previous trabeculectomy. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014, Issue 5), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to June 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2014), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to June 2014), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 10 June 2014. We also searched the Science Citation Index database (July 2013) and reference lists of potentially relevant studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of antimetabolites with cataract surgery in people with a functioning trabeculectomy. Two review authors independently reviewed the titles and abstracts from the electronic searches. Two review authors independently assessed relevant full-text articles and entered data. We identified no RCTs to test the effectiveness of antimetabolites with cataract surgery in individuals with the intention of preventing failure of a previous trabeculectomy. There are no RCTs of antimetabolites with cataract surgery in people with a functioning trabeculectomy. Appropriately powered RCTs

  15. Radiation degradation and crosslinking of polytetrafluoroethylene and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Guozhong; Wang Mouhua; Tang Zhongfeng

    2009-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a high-performance engineering plastic and known as a typical material of radiation degradation. PTFE can be degraded by radiation under various conditions and PTFE micro-powder is usually fabricated by a combination of radiation and milling. PTFE can also be crosslinked by irradiation in the melt state (330∼340 degree C). The materials can be applied as a special additive due to its excellent wear resistance. Crosslinked PTFE may also be applied in lithography and fuel cell membrane in the future. In this paper, history and application of PTFE degradation and crosslinking products are reviewed. (authors)

  16. The progress in radiotherapy techniques and it's clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinfuss, M.; Walasek, T.; Byrski, E.; Blecharz, P.

    2011-01-01

    Three modem radiotherapy techniques were introduced into clinical practice at the onset of the 21 st century - stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT), proton therapy and carbon-ion radiotherapy. Our paper summarizes the basic principles of physics, as well as the technical reqirements and clinical indications for those techniques. SRT is applied for intracranial diseases (arteriovenous malformations, acoustic nerve neuromas, brain metastases, skull base tumors) and in such cases it is referred to as stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Techniques used during SRS include GammaKnife, CyberKnife and dedicated linacs. SRT can also be applied for extracranial disease (non-small cell lung cancer, lung metastases, spinal and perispinal tumors, primary liver tumors, breast cancer, pancreatic tumors, prostate cancer, head and neck tumors) and in such cases it is referred to as stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Eye melanomas, skull base and cervical spine chordomas and chordosarcomas, as well as childhood neoplasms, are considered to be the classic indications for proton therapy. Clinical trials are currently conducted to investigate the usefulness of proton beam in therapy of non-small cell lung cancer, prostate cancer, head and neck tumors, primary liver and oesophageal cancer Carbon-ion radiotherapy is presumed to be more advantageous than proton therapy because of its higher relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and possibility of real-time control of the irradiated volume under PET visualization. The basic indications for carbon-ion therapy are salivary glands neoplasms, selected types of soft tissue and bone sarcomas, skull base chordomas and chordosarcomas, paranasal sinus neoplasms, primary liver cancers and inoperable rectal adenocarcinoma recurrences. (authors)

  17. Surgical treatment of delayed radiation effects in the skin and its indication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilkorn, H.; Drepper, H.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1960 a total of 1200 patients with skin disease as delayed radiation effects were treated at the Hornheide special clinic, 40% of whom received plastic surgery. This requires knowledge of the type of radiation applied and when it was applied, additional harmful influences, exposure, differentiation in cases of ulcers between primary, cumulative, and combination effect, early radiation effects, and late radiation effects. Secondary factors leading possibly to necrosis may be: recidivation of the primary tumours, benign or malignant neoplasms, traumatic injuries such as injections, sampling, tight clothing, chemical factors like therapeuticals for local application, allergies, infections of the skin with bacteria or fungi, osteomyelitis, non-infections skin disease, and internal disease. A precondition for successful dermatological and surgical treatment are a careful review of the previous case history and exact diagnosis. Some clinical cases serve to illustrate the theoretical explanations and point out possibilities for surgical treatment. (TRV) [de

  18. Early versus late traumatic cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, S A; Rajabi, M B; Tabatabaei, S M; Soleimani, M; Rahimi, F; Yaseri, M

    2017-08-01

    PurposeTo determine the proper time for traumatic cataract surgery after open globe injuries.SettingFarabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.DesignRandomized clinical trial.Patients and methodsIn a randomized clinical trial, 30 eyes with traumatic cataract after open globe injury with IOL implantation underwent early (in the first week after the trauma) and 30 eyes underwent late cataract surgery (from the first to second month after the trauma). We excluded patients who were under 12-year-old. All patients were visited at 1 week, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months after surgery. In each visit, patients were examined regarding visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), anterior chamber inflammation, IOL position, and posterior synechiae. In addition, posterior segment evaluation and fundoscopy were performed. Intraoperative complication including posterior capsular rupture, anterior vitrectomy, and zonulysis as well as the site of IOL implantation were documented and post-operative complications including raised IOP, anterior chamber inflammation, visual axis opacity, posterior synechiae, subluxation of IOL, and IOL pigment deposition were listed.ResultsBest-corrected visual acuity 6 months after surgery was not different between the two groups. Also in early cataract surgery group, the rate of posterior capsular rupture was not significantly higher than the late surgery group (P=0.069). On the other hand, zonulysis was significantly higher in the late procedure group (P=0.039). Other complications including anterior vitrectomy, raised IOP, anterior chamber inflammation, visual axis opacity, posterior synechiae, subluxation of IOL, and IOL pigment deposition were not different in the two groups.ConclusionsEarly and late traumatic cataract surgery and IOL implantation after open globe injuries, have no significant difference regarding the post-surgical BCVA and prominent intraoperative and post-operative complications.

  19. Preoperative Expectations and Postoperative Outcomes of Visual Functioning among Cataract Patients in Urban Southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyan Chen

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between preoperative expectations and actual postoperative outcomes of visual function (VF among patients undergoing first eye cataract surgery.A longitudinal study of 182 patients from hospitals in urban Southern China were surveyed prior to surgery and 3 month after cataract surgery regarding their preoperative, expected postoperative and actual postoperative VF for each of the items on the Catquest-9SF and their satisfaction with cataract surgery. In addition, detailed clinical data were collected preoperatively and postoperatively.The majority of cataract patients in urban Southern China had high expectations for VF outcomes after cataract surgery and in most cases postoperative outcomes achieved the expected level of improvement. The mean (standard deviation, SD preoperative Catquest-9SF score was 15.7 (5.86 and the mean (SD expected postoperative score was 26.3 (2.93. The discrepancy between actual and expected improvement was significantly correlated with patients' health literacy, presence of systemic and ocular comorbidity, preoperative visual acuity of the surgery eye, LOCS III nuclear opalescence and cortical cataract grading.Cataract patients in urban Southern China had high expectations for surgery outcomes. Patients with low level of health literacy and the presence of systemic and ocular comorbidity may need a comprehensive counseling to decrease the discrepancy regarding expected and actual outcomes.

  20. A review of the biological and clinical aspects of radiation caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Gabrielle P; Jham, Bruno C; Magalhães, Cláudia S; Sensi, Luis Guilherme; Freire, Addah R

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this article is to review the clinical and biological features underlying the development and progression of radiation caries. Although radiotherapy (RT) plays an important role in the management of patients with head and neck cancer (HNC), it is also associated with several undesired side effects such as radiation caries which is a common, yet serious, complication. To review the condition, the Pubmed database was searched using the keywords "radiotherapy," "radiation," "caries," "hyposalivation," "prevention" and "management". Only studies published in the English language were selected. Cross-referencing identified additionally relevant studies. RT leads to alterations in the dentition, saliva, oral microflora, and diet of patients. Consequently, irradiated patients are at increased risk for the development of a rapid, rampant carious process known as radiation caries. Motivation of patients, adequate plaque control, stimulation of salivary flow, fluoride use, and nutritional orientation are essential to reduce the incidence of radiation caries and ultimately improve the quality of life for HNC patients. Radiation caries is an aggressive side effect of RT. Dentists play an important role in the prevention of the condition via comprehensive oral healthcare before, during, and after the active cancer therapy. Dentists should understand the clinical and biological aspects underlying radiation caries to prevent the development of lesions and provide optimal treatment when needed.

  1. Radiation resistance of clinical Acinetobacter spp.: A need for concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, E.A.; Gerner-Smidt, P.; Kristensen, H.

    1991-01-01

    As part of an epidemiological investigation of hospital infections caused by Acinetobacter spp. the radiation resistance of 15 clinical isolates and four reference strains was assessed. The radiation resistance (in D-6 values, viz. the dose necessary for reducing the initial number of colony forming units by a factor of 10(6)) was, in general, higher in the isolates of A. radioresistens than in the isolates of the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex and of A. lwoffi. However, the least resistant isolates of A. radioresistens had a D-6 value equal to or lower than the most resistant isolates of the other groups. The lowest D-6 values found were for two of the reference strains. The highest D-6 value was 35 kGy. Three isolates of A. johnsonii could not survive long enough in a dried preparation to make an assessment of the D-6 values possible. The radiation resistance of the 15 clinical isolates in the present study was higher than the resistance found in a study of similar isolates in 1970

  2. Radiation resistance of clinical Acinetobacter spp. : A need for concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, E.A.; Gerner-Smidt, P.; Kristensen, H. (Control Department, Statens Seruminstitut, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1991-06-01

    As part of an epidemiological investigation of hospital infections caused by Acinetobacter spp. the radiation resistance of 15 clinical isolates and four reference strains was assessed. The radiation resistance (in D-6 values, viz. the dose necessary for reducing the initial number of colony forming units by a factor of 10(6)) was, in general, higher in the isolates of A. radioresistens than in the isolates of the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex and of A. lwoffi. However, the least resistant isolates of A. radioresistens had a D-6 value equal to or lower than the most resistant isolates of the other groups. The lowest D-6 values found were for two of the reference strains. The highest D-6 value was 35 kGy. Three isolates of A. johnsonii could not survive long enough in a dried preparation to make an assessment of the D-6 values possible. The radiation resistance of the 15 clinical isolates in the present study was higher than the resistance found in a study of similar isolates in 1970.

  3. REVIEW OF CATARACT SURGERY FROM 1998 TO 2001 AT THE MURSKA SOBOTA GENERAL HOSPITAL EYE DEPARTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Šterman

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cataract is a leading cause of a reversible blindness in a developed world. The number of cataract surgery procedures performed has been increasing. This study describes methods and cataract surgery quality in Pomurje region, Slovenia from 1998 to 2001, to identify the need for cataract surgical service in this region.Methods. For the purposes of this study, data from medical documentation of all 1182 cataract surgery procedures performed in Murska Sobota Eye Department from 1998 to 2001 were obtained.Results. The rate of cataract surgery has increased from 1.5 to 3.3 per 1000 inhabitants during the observed period. The percentage of glaucoma and diabetes in operated patients has grown in this period. Extracapsular cataract extraction has been replaced by phacoemulsification. In 2001, 95.5% of procedures was performed by phacoemulsification and in 99.0% of cases intraocular lenses were implanted during the surgery. The average pre-operative visual acuity was 0.05 in 1998, 0.11 in 1999, 0.16 in 2000 and 0.22 in 2001. The average waiting period for surgery was 3 months in 1998 and 16 months in 2001.Uncorrected post-operative visual acuity of 1.0 was achieved in 29% and in 50% surgical procedures in years of 1998 and 2001, respectively. The number of complications decreased.Conclusions. A number of cataract surgeries increased and their outcomes showed a considerable improvement. At the same time, real patient needs weren’t addressed as waiting time for surgery increased. Waiting time for surgery has increased. It is to be feared that the number of patients, waiting for the cataract surgery, will increase unless the number of procedures increases. The number of procedures allowed to be performed is too low compared to the number of patients with cataracts.

  4. Cataract after total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation degree of visual impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempen-Harteveld, M. Loes van; Struikmans, Henk; Kal, Henk B.; Tweel, Ingeborg van der; Mourits, Maarten P.; Verdonck, Leo F.; Schipper, Jan; Battermann, Jan J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the degree of visual impairment as a result of cataract formation after total body irradiation (TBI) for bone marrow transplantation. Methods and Materials: The data from 93 patients who received TBI in 1 or 2 fractions as a part of their conditioning regimen for bone marrow transplantation were analyzed with respect to the degree of visual impairment as a result of cataract formation. The probability to develop severe visual impairment (SVI) was determined for all patients, and the degree of visual impairment was assessed for 56 patients with stabilized cataract, using three categories: no, mild, or severe. Results: For all 93 patients, the probability of developing a cataract causing SVI was 0.44. For allogeneic patients, it was 0.33 without and 0.71 with steroid treatment (p<0.001). All SVI-free probability curves reached a plateau distinct from the cataract-free curves. Apparently, cataracts developing late in the follow-up period rarely cause SVI. Of the patients with stabilized cataract, 32% had no visual impairment, 16% had mild, and 52% severe impairment. No or mild visual impairment was present in 61% of all patients with stable cataract and no steroid treatment compared with only 13% of the patients treated with steroids (p=0.035). Conclusion: SVI occurs in only some of the patients (52%) with stable cataract after TBI for bone marrow transplantation in 1 or 2 fractions. Steroid treatment markedly increases the probability of developing visual problems as result of a cataract after TBI

  5. Radiation dose of CT coronary angiography in clinical practice: Objective evaluation of strategies for dose optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yerramasu, Ajay; Venuraju, Shreenidhi; Atwal, Satvir; Goodman, Dennis; Lipkin, David; Lahiri, Avijit

    2012-01-01

    Background: CT coronary angiography (CTCA) is an evolving modality for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Radiation burden associated with CTCA has been a major concern in the wider application of this technique. It is important to reduce the radiation dose without compromising the image quality. Objectives: To estimate the radiation dose of CTCA in clinical practice and evaluate the effect of dose-saving algorithms on radiation dose and image quality. Methods: Effective radiation dose was measured from the dose-length product in 616 consecutive patients (mean age 58 ± 12 years; 70% males) who underwent clinically indicated CTCA at our institution over 1 year. Image quality was assessed subjectively using a 4-point scale and objectively by measuring the signal- and contrast-to-noise ratios in the coronary arteries. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to identify factors independently associated with radiation dose. Results: Mean effective radiation dose of CTCA was 6.6 ± 3.3 mSv. Radiation dose was significantly reduced by dose saving algorithms such as 100 kV imaging (−47%; 95% CI, −44% to −50%), prospective gating (−35%; 95% CI, −29% to −40%) and ECG controlled tube current modulation (−23%; 95% CI, −9% to −34%). None of the dose saving algorithms were associated with a significant reduction in mean image quality or the frequency of diagnostic scans (P = non-significant for all comparisons). Conclusion: Careful application of radiation-dose saving algorithms in appropriately selected patients can reduce the radiation burden of CTCA significantly, without compromising the image quality.

  6. On clinics and therapy of acute radiation disease at the recovery period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, G.I.; Ivanov, I.A.; Nikiforov, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    Main features of clinics and therapy of acute radiation disease at the recovery period are described. Search for ways of activization of recovery to improve the efficiency of treatments and to accelerate patients rehabilitation is of great interest for clinical medicine. It is outlined that correction of post-irradiation disorders of energy and plastic metabolism by means of influence on cell metabolism must begin as early as possible already at the initial period of disease

  7. Can Naturoptics Vision Improvement Methods Help Clear Cataracts, as Claimed by the Member of the Naturopathic Physicians Association of Massachusetts who Stabilized and/ or Improved Vision in all the Retinitis Pigmentosa, RP, Patients Treated by him?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Jean; McLeod, Roger

    2006-03-01

    Mac Dougall was advised against having a single crystalline lens with a slight cataract surgically removed; it would impact her ability to reengage vision's self-correcting feedback mechanisms. Her Florida ophthalmologist removed both lenses. A Massachusetts ophthalmologist was recently de-licensed for improperly performing just those services. An optometrist says reputed vision repair can easily be tracked and evaluated; we posit that Naturoptics effects on cataracts can be similarly assessed. ``Cures'' are detectable. Naturoptics users may show glaucoma reversal. EDWARD R. ELLIS, Jr., N.D. (The Chelmsford Clinic, Massachusetts), stabilizes RP, preventing blindness.

  8. Radiation effects on clinical examination data in Japanese radiological technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Okumura, Yutaka; Sugahara, Tsutomu; Aoyama, Takashi; Hashimoto, Tetsuaki; Yamamoto, Yoichi.

    1992-01-01

    Health survey for 1014 radiological technologists was undertaken in 10 districts in Japan. Estimated radiation doses were based on work duration, the status of radiation protection, X-ray equipments to be used, and exposure conditions. Two hundred and eighty-three technologists aged between 45 and 59 were enrolled in this study. Exposure doses ranged from 2 cGy to 337 cGy. According to exposure doses of either 40 cGy, smoking habits, and drinking habits, the subjects were classified into 7 groups. Clinical laboratory data, in addition to systolic and diastolic blood pressures, were analyzed. In comparing the sole effect of irradiation with that of smoking or drinking, the degree of irradiation effect was less than the other two factors. Smoking had a higher synergistic action than irradiation and drinking. (N.K.)

  9. Far infrared radiation (FIR): its biological effects and medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, Fatma; Hamblin, Michael R

    2012-11-01

    Far infrared (FIR) radiation (λ = 3-100 μm) is a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum that has been investigated for biological effects. The goal of this review is to cover the use of a further sub-division (3- 12 μm) of this waveband, that has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, to stimulate cells and tissue, and is considered a promising treatment modality for certain medical conditions. Technological advances have provided new techniques for delivering FIR radiation to the human body. Specialty lamps and saunas, delivering pure FIR radiation (eliminating completely the near and mid infrared bands), have became safe, effective, and widely used sources to generate therapeutic effects. Fibers impregnated with FIR emitting ceramic nanoparticles and woven into fabrics, are being used as garments and wraps to generate FIR radiation, and attain health benefits from its effects.

  10. Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Normal cells have a level of epigenetic programming that is superimposed on the genetic code to establish and maintain their cell identity and phenotypes. This epigenetic programming can be thought as the architecture, a sort of cityscape, that is built upon the underlying genetic landscape. The epigenetic programming is encoded by a complex set of chemical marks on DNA, on histone proteins in nucleosomes, and by numerous context-specific DNA, RNA, protein interactions that all regulate the structure, organization, and function of the genome in a given cell. It is becoming increasingly evident that abnormalities in both the genetic landscape and epigenetic cityscape can cooperate to drive carcinogenesis and disease progression. Large-scale cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for shaping the epigenetic cityscape are among the most common mutations observed in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Interestingly, although the constellation of genetic mutations in a given cancer can be quite heterogeneous from person to person, there are numerous epigenetic alterations that appear to be highly recurrent, and nearly universal in a given cancer type, including in prostate cancer. The highly recurrent nature of these alterations can be exploited for development of biomarkers for cancer detection and risk stratification and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we explore the basic principles of epigenetic processes in normal cells and prostate cancer cells and discuss the potential clinical implications with regards to prostate cancer biomarker development and therapy.

  11. Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Yegnasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal cells have a level of epigenetic programming that is superimposed on the genetic code to establish and maintain their cell identity and phenotypes. This epigenetic programming can be thought as the architecture, a sort of cityscape, that is built upon the underlying genetic landscape. The epigenetic programming is encoded by a complex set of chemical marks on DNA, on histone proteins in nucleosomes, and by numerous context-specific DNA, RNA, protein interactions that all regulate the structure, organization, and function of the genome in a given cell. It is becoming increasingly evident that abnormalities in both the genetic landscape and epigenetic cityscape can cooperate to drive carcinogenesis and disease progression. Large-scale cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for shaping the epigenetic cityscape are among the most common mutations observed in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Interestingly, although the constellation of genetic mutations in a given cancer can be quite heterogeneous from person to person, there are numerous epigenetic alterations that appear to be highly recurrent, and nearly universal in a given cancer type, including in prostate cancer. The highly recurrent nature of these alterations can be exploited for development of biomarkers for cancer detection and risk stratification and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we explore the basic principles of epigenetic processes in normal cells and prostate cancer cells and discuss the potential clinical implications with regards to prostate cancer biomarker development and therapy.

  12. Willingness to Pay for Cataract Surgery Provided by a Senior Surgeon in Urban Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Zuo, Yajing; Lin, Xianhua; Ling, Yunlan; Lin, Xiaofeng; Li, Mingge; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Zheng, Yingfeng

    2015-01-01

    To study willingness to pay for cataract surgery and surgical service provided by a senior cataract surgeon in urban Southern China. This study was a cross-sectional willingness-to-pay (WTP) interview using bidding formats. Two-hundred eleven persons with presenting visual impairment in either eye due to cataract were enrolled at a tertiary eye hospital. Participants underwent a comprehensive eye examination and a WTP interview for both surgery and service provided by a senior surgeon. Demographic information, socioeconomic status and clinical data were recorded. Among 211 (98% response rate) persons completing the interview, 53.6% were women and 80.6% were retired. About 72.2% had a monthly income lower than 1000 renminbi (US $161). A total of 189 (89.6%) were willing to pay for cataract and the median amount of WTP was 6000 renminbi (US$968). And 102 (50.7%) were willing to pay additional fees for surgery performed by a senior surgeon, and the median amount of WTP was 500 renminbi (US$81). In regression models adjusting for age and gender, persons with preexisting eye diseases other than cataract, were more likely to pay for cataract surgery and service provided by a senior surgeon (P = 0.04 for both). In urban China, cataract patients, especially those with preexisting eye conditions, are willing to pay additional fees for a senior surgeon. Moving to a system where the price of cataract surgery is proportional to the consultant' skill and expertise is possible and may have a potential impact on waiting list and quality of eye care. Further studies are needed to examine the impact of such pricing system on attitudes and choices of cataract patients.

  13. Willingness to Pay for Cataract Surgery Provided by a Senior Surgeon in Urban Southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Wang

    Full Text Available To study willingness to pay for cataract surgery and surgical service provided by a senior cataract surgeon in urban Southern China.This study was a cross-sectional willingness-to-pay (WTP interview using bidding formats. Two-hundred eleven persons with presenting visual impairment in either eye due to cataract were enrolled at a tertiary eye hospital. Participants underwent a comprehensive eye examination and a WTP interview for both surgery and service provided by a senior surgeon. Demographic information, socioeconomic status and clinical data were recorded.Among 211 (98% response rate persons completing the interview, 53.6% were women and 80.6% were retired. About 72.2% had a monthly income lower than 1000 renminbi (US $161. A total of 189 (89.6% were willing to pay for cataract and the median amount of WTP was 6000 renminbi (US$968. And 102 (50.7% were willing to pay additional fees for surgery performed by a senior surgeon, and the median amount of WTP was 500 renminbi (US$81. In regression models adjusting for age and gender, persons with preexisting eye diseases other than cataract, were more likely to pay for cataract surgery and service provided by a senior surgeon (P = 0.04 for both.In urban China, cataract patients, especially those with preexisting eye conditions, are willing to pay additional fees for a senior surgeon. Moving to a system where the price of cataract surgery is proportional to the consultant' skill and expertise is possible and may have a potential impact on waiting list and quality of eye care. Further studies are needed to examine the impact of such pricing system on attitudes and choices of cataract patients.

  14. A randomized clinical trial of hyperthermia and radiation versus radiation alone for superficially located cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egawa, Sunao; Tsukiyama, Iwao; Watanabe, Shaw

    1989-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial was performed in order to evaluate the effect of combined hyperthermia and radiation for superficially located tumors. Ten institutions participated in this study and 92 evaluable patients were entered from September 1985 to March 1987 (44 patients for radiation plus hyperthermia and 48 for radiation only). Superficially located tumors, more than 3x3 cm in diameter, regardless of whether they were primary or metastatic, and of their histology, were included in the study. Radiotherapy was performed by the conventional fractionation method (2 Gyx5/week). Hyperthermia was conducted once a week. There was no statistical difference between the two groups regarding age, sex, the distribution of tumors and treatment parameters. The complete response (CR) and partial response (PR) rate for the hyperthermia plus radiation group was 81.8%, while the rate for the radiation alone group was 62.6% (p<0.05). Six factors were selected for analysis of the above effect by a multiple logistic model. Sex contributed the most (p=0.001), then the site of the tumor (p=0.016) and the method of treatment (p=0.023). Sex and the site influenced the results. Age, irradiation dose and frequency and duration of heating were not significant factors for response to treatment. (author)

  15. The global state of cataract blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cameron M; Afshari, Natalie A

    2017-01-01

    Cataracts are a significant cause of blindness and visual impairment worldwide. The present article reviews the literature and describes the current extent of cataracts globally, barriers to treatment, and recommendations for improving the treatment of cataracts. Prevalence and absolute number of blind because of cataracts remain high, although rates are declining in many areas globally. The age-standardized prevalence of blindness in adults older than 50 remains highest in western sub-Saharan Africa, with a rate of 6.0%. The greatest declines in age-standardized blindness because of cataracts in adults older than 50 between 1990 and 2010 were in East Asia, tropical Latin America, and western Europe. Recent studies have largely found higher rates of cataracts in women than in men. A new simulator for training ophthalmologists in manual small-incision cataract surgery holds promise for the future. The rates of cataract surgery are increasing and postoperative outcomes are improving worldwide, yet challenges to reducing the cataract burden further remain. Cost, an insufficient number of ophthalmologists, and low government funding remain significant barriers but investment in further eye care infrastructure and training of additional ophthalmologists would improve the current situation.

  16. Clinical picture of delayed radiation effects in the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundeiker, M.

    1987-01-01

    Chronic radiation injuries of the skin develop over years or decades. Gradually increasing atrophy, sclerosis, telangiectasis, possibly - in highly exposed parts of the skin - keratosis due to radiation ulcers, carcinomas and basilomas occur after a latency period of decades, not so much in X-ray-injured skin after tumour therapy as in diffusely altered X-ray-injured skin after multiple exposure to low doses. Radiotherapy is indispensable, but like other effective methods of treatment it requires stringent indications, accurate execution and careful after-treatment. (TRV) [de

  17. Project reconversion Service Hospital Radiation Oncology Clinics-Medical School

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarneti, A.; Levaggi, G.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: The Health Sector operates within the framework of Social Policy and it is therefore one of the ways of distribution of public benefit, like Housing, Education and Social Security. While public spending on health has grown in recent years, its distribution has been uneven and the sector faces funding and management problems. The Service Hospital Radiation Oncology has reduced its health care liavility , lack technological development and unsufficient human resources and training. Aim: developing an inclusive reform bill Service Hospital Radiation Oncology .Material and Methods: This project tends to form a network institutional, introducing concepts of evidence-based medicine, risk models, cost analysis, coding systems, system implementation of quality management (ISO-9000 Standards). Proposes redefining radiotherapy centers and their potential participation in training resource development goals humanos.Promueve scientific research of national interest. Separate strictly administrative function, management and teaching. The project takes into account the characteristics of demand, the need to order it and organize around her, institutional network system and within the Hospital das Clinicas own related services related to Service Hospital Radiation Oncology , Encourages freedom of choice, and confers greater equity in care. The project would managed by the Hospital Clínicas. Conclusions: We believe this proposal identifies problems and opportunities, Service Hospital Radiation Oncology proposes the development of institutional network under one management model

  18. Exposure to low dose ionising radiation: Molecular and clinical consequences.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, Lynn M

    2014-07-10

    This review article provides a comprehensive overview of the experimental data detailing the incidence, mechanism and significance of low dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS). Important discoveries gained from past and present studies are mapped and highlighted to illustrate the pathway to our current understanding of HRS and the impact of HRS on the cellular response to radiation in mammalian cells. Particular attention is paid to the balance of evidence suggesting a role for DNA repair processes in the response, evidence suggesting a role for the cell cycle checkpoint processes, and evidence investigating the clinical implications\\/relevance of the effect.

  19. Persistent fetal vasculature: ocular features, management of cataract and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Beatriz Tartarella

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: To describe ocular features, management of cataract and functional outcomes in patients with persistent fetal vasculature. METHODS: Retrospective, descriptive case series of patients with persistent fetal vasculature. Data were recorded from the Congenital Cataract Section of Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil from 2001 to 2012. All patients were evaluated for sex, age at diagnosis, systemic findings, laterality, age at surgery, and initial and final follow-up visual acuities. Follow-up and complications after cataract surgery were recorded. Ultrasound was performed in all cases and ocular eco-Doppler was performed in most. RESULTS: The study comprised 53 eyes from 46 patients. Age at diagnosis ranged from 5 days of life to 10 years-old (mean 22.7 months. Twenty-seven patients were male (58.7%. Persistent fetal vasculature was bilateral in 7 patients (15.2%. Forty-two eyes (79.2% had combined (anterior and posterior forms PFV presentation, 5 eyes (9.4% had only anterior persistent fetal vasculature presentation and 6 eyes (11.3% had posterior persistent fetal vasculature presentation. Thirty-eight eyes (71.7% were submitted to cataract surgery. Lensectomy combined with anterior vitrectomy was performed in 18 eyes (47.4%. Phacoaspiration with intraocular lens implantation was performed in 15 eyes (39.5%, and without lens implantation in 5 eyes (13.2%. Mean follow-up after surgery was 44 months. Postoperative complications were posterior synechiae (3 cases, retinal detachment (2 cases, phthisis (3 cases, posterior capsular opacification (8 cases, inflammatory pupillary membrane (5 cases, glaucoma (4 cases, intraocular lens implantation displacement (1 case and vitreous hemorrhage (2 cases. Complications were identified in 19 (50% of the 38 operated eyes. Visual acuity improved after cataract surgery in 83% of the eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with persistent fetal vasculature have variable clinical presentation. There is an

  20. How to prevent endophthalmitis in cataract surgeries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelkar Aditya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative endophthalmitis is a very devastating complication and every step should be taken to reduce its occurrence. Unattended air conditioning filter systems are often the culprits and regular maintenance of the filters is of paramount importance. Shedders of pathogenic organisms amongst the theater personnel should be identified by regular screening and should be promptly treated. In addition to the use of Povidone iodine 5% solution in the conjunctival sac few minutes prior to surgery, proper construction of wound, injectable intraocular lenses, use of prophylactic intracameral antibiotics or prophylactic subconjunctival antibiotic injection at the conclusion of cataract surgery, placing a patch after the surgery for at least 4 h and initiating topical antibiotics from the same day of surgery helps to lower the frequency of postoperative endophthalmitis. Intraoperative posterior capsule rupture and anterior vitrectomy are risk factors for acute endophthalmitis, and utmost care to prevent posterior capsular rent should be taken while performing cataract surgery. Also, in case of such complication, these patients should be closely monitored for early signs of endophthalmitis in the postoperative period. In the unfortunate event of endophthalmitis the diagnosis should be prompt and treatment must be initiated as early as possible.

  1. Radiation cross-linked PVC and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Junming; Chen Ruyan; Jia Chaoxing; Li Min; Li Chengxin

    1990-04-01

    The radiation cross-linking technique is adopted for improving the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) heat-resistance and reducing its thermocontractibility. For examining its properties a small insulation sheath made from modified PVC material has been tested at 260 0 5 seconds. The results obtained were satisfactory

  2. Results of endocapsular phacofracture debulking of hard cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davison JA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available James A Davison Wolfe Eye Clinic, Marshalltown, IA, USA Purpose/aim of the study: To present a phacoemulsification technique for hard cataracts and compare postoperative results using two different ultrasonic tip motions during quadrant removal.Materials and methods: A phacoemulsification technique which employs in situ fracture and endocapsular debulking for hard cataracts is presented. The prospective study included 56 consecutive cases of hard cataract (LOCS III NC [Lens Opacification Classification System III, nuclear color], average 4.26, which were operated using the Infiniti machine and the Partial Kelman tip. Longitudinal tip movement was used for sculpting for all cases which were randomized to receive longitudinal or torsional/interjected longitudinal (Intelligent Phaco [IP] strategies for quadrant removal. Measurements included cumulative dissipated energy (CDE, 3 months postoperative surgically induced astigmatism (SIA, and corneal endothelial cell density (ECD losses.Results: No complications were recorded in any of the cases. Respective overall and longitudinal vs IP means were as follows: CDE, 51.6±15.6 and 55.7±15.5 vs 48.6±15.1; SIA, 0.36±0.2 D and 0.4±0.2 D vs 0.3±0.2 D; and mean ECD loss, 4.1%±10.8% and 5.9%±13.4% vs 2.7%±7.8%. The differences between longitudinal and IP were not significant for any of the three categories.Conclusion: The endocapsular phacofracture debulking technique is safe and effective for phacoemulsification of hard cataracts using longitudinal or torsional IP strategies for quadrant removal with the Infiniti machine and Partial Kelman tip. Keywords: astigmatism, cataract, corneal endothelium, phacoemulsification, viscoelastic

  3. Genetics Home Reference: congenital cataracts, facial dysmorphism, and neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Institute: Facts About Cataracts National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Hereditary Neuropathies Educational Resources (5 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Cataracts in Children Centers for Disease Control ...

  4. Radiation exposure--do urologists take it seriously in Turkey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söylemez, Haluk; Altunoluk, Bülent; Bozkurt, Yaşar; Sancaktutar, Ahmet Ali; Penbegül, Necmettin; Atar, Murat

    2012-04-01

    A questionnaire was administered to urologists to evaluate attitudes and behaviors about protection from radiation exposure during fluoroscopy guided endourological procedures. The questionnaire was e-mailed to 1,482 urologists, including urology residents, specialists and urologists holding all levels of academic degrees, between May and June 2011. The questionnaire administered to study participants was composed of demographic questions, and questions on radiation exposure frequency, and the use of dosimeters and flexible protective clothes. If a respondent reported not using dosimeters or protective clothes, additional questions asked for the reason. Of the 1,482 questionnaires 394 (26.58%) were returned, of which 363 had completed answers. A total of 307 physicians (84.58%) were exposed to ionizing radiation, of whom 79.61% stated that they perform percutaneous nephrolithotomy at the clinic. Fluoroscopy guidance was the initial choice of 96.19% of urologists during percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Despite the common use of lead aprons (75.24%) most urologists did not use dosimeters (73.94%), eyeglasses (76.95%) or gloves (66.67%) while 46.44% always used thyroid shields during fluoroscopy. When asked why they did not use protective clothing, the most common answers were that protective clothes are not ergonomic and not practical. Results clearly highlight the lack of use of ionizing radiation protection devices and dosimeters during commonly performed fluoroscopy guided endourological procedures among urologists in Turkey. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A broadly applicable surgical teaching method: evaluation of a stepwise introduction to cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloek, Carolyn E; Borboli-Gerogiannis, Sheila; Chang, Kenneth; Kuperwaser, Mark; Newman, Lori R; Lane, Anne Marie; Loewenstein, John I

    2014-01-01

    Although cataract surgery is one of the most commonly performed surgeries in the country, it is a microsurgical procedure that is difficult to learn and to teach. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a new method for introducing postgraduate year (PGY)-3 ophthalmology residents to cataract surgery. Hospital-based ophthalmology residency program. Retrospective cohort study. PGY-3 and PGY-4 residents of the Harvard Medical School Ophthalmology Residency from graduating years 2010 to 2012. In July 2009, a new method of teaching PGY-3 ophthalmology residents cataract surgery was introduced, which was termed "the stepwise introduction to cataract surgery." This curriculum aimed to train residents to perform steps of cataract surgery by deliberately practicing each of the steps of surgery under a structured curriculum with faculty feedback. Assessment methods included surveys administered to the PGY-4 residents who graduated before the implementation of these measures (n = 7), the residents who participated in the first and second years of the new curriculum (n = 16), faculty who teach PGY-4 residents cataract surgery (n = 8), and review of resident Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education surgical logs. Resident survey response rate was 100%. Residents who participated in the new curriculum performed more of each step of cataract surgery in the operating room, spent more time practicing each step of cataract surgery on a cataract surgery simulator during the PGY-3 year, and performed more primary cataract surgeries during the PGY-3 year than those who did not. Faculty survey response rate was 63%. Faculty noted an increase in resident preparedness following implementation of the new curriculum. There was no statistical difference between the precurriculum and postcurriculum groups in the percentage turnover of cataracts for the first 2 cataract surgery rotations of the PGY-4 year of training. The introduction of cataract surgery to PGY-3 residents

  6. The USA prepares to change its radiation protection regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is preparing to revise its basic regulation on protection of people from ionizing radiation. The current regulation, ''Standards for protection against radiation'' -commonly referred to as ''Part 20'' - was originally published for comment in 1955. The regulation was based on early recommendations from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). In 1977, the ICRP made major changes in its recommendations, known as ICRP-26. In 1990, the NRC Commissioners approved a new Part 20 reflecting ICRP-26, but improvements are to be specified and considered before a new regulation is published. (author)

  7. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group clinical trials with misonidazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, T.H.; Stetz, J.; Phillips, T.L.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the progressive clinical trials of the hypoxic cell radiosensitizer, misonidazole, in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Presentation is made of all the schemas of the recently completed and currently active RTOG Phase II and Phase III studies. Detailed information is provided on the clinical toxicity of the Phase II trials, specifically regarding neurotoxicity. With limitations in drug total dose, a variety of dose schedules have proven to be tolerable, with a moderate incidence of nausea and vomiting and mild peripheral neuropathy or central neuropathy. No other organ toxicity has been seen, specifically no liver, renal or bone marrow toxicities. An additional Phase III malignant glioma trial in the Brain Tumor Study Group is described

  8. Clinical implementation and quality assurance for intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, C.-M.; Price, R.; McNeeley, S.; Chen, L.; Li, J.S.; Wang, L.; Ding, M.; Fourkal, E.; Qin, L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the clinical implementation and quality assurance (QA) for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) based on the experience at Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, USA. We will review our procedures for the clinical implementation of the IMRT technique and the requirements for patient immobilization, target delineation, treatment optimization, beam delivery and system administration. We will discuss the dosimetric requirements and measurement procedures for beam commissioning and dosimetry verification for IMRT. We will examine the details of model-based dose calculation for IMRT treatment planning and the potential problems with such dose calculation algorithms. We will discuss the effect of beam delivery systems on the actual dose distributions received by the patients and the methods to incorporate such effects in the treatment optimization process. We will investigate the use of the Monte Carlo method for dose calculation and treatment verification for IMRT

  9. Effects of gonadal irradiation in clinical radiation therapy: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.C.; Casarett, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    Recent improvements in radiation therapy of some malignancies in lower abdominal sites are leading to prolongation of life in persons of child-bearing age. These successes require an evaluation of the possible undesirable consequences of the unavoidable gonadal irradiation that occurs in these cases. A review of radiobiological data from experimental animal studies and retrospective clinical studies suggests that in most instances human gonadal exposures in both sexes are insufficient to cause permanent sterility, because the exposures are fractionated and the total gonadal dose is much less than 600 rads. As a consequence, return of fertility must be anticipated, and the worrisome questions of radiation-induced genetic damage in subsequent pregnancies must be addressed. This review did not substantiate this fear, because no case reports could be found of malformed infants among the progency of previously irradiated parents. Some experimental studies suggest that radiation-damaged spermatogonia are self-destructive, but any evidence for this phenomenon in the ovary is nonexistent. We suggest that the difference between fact and theory here may be the mathematical result of the interplay of low probability for occurrences and the few patients who until now have survived long enough for study

  10. Adoption of intracameral antibiotic prophylaxis of endophthalmitis following cataract surgery: update on the ESCRS Endophthalmitis Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, Peter

    2014-01-01

    To determine the use of intracameral cefuroxime at the end of cataract surgery since the beneficial results were first reported by the European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons Endophthalmitis Study Group in 2006, 250 ophthalmic surgeons affiliated with both public and private hospitals and clinics across Europe were surveyed. The questions regarded their awareness of the results of the ESCRS endophthalmitis study and their current use or non-use of intracameral antibiotics in their cataract procedures. Seventy-four percent of respondents said they always or usually use intracameral antibiotics in their cataract surgery procedures. The most frequently cited reasons for not using cefuroxime or other intracameral antibiotics was the lack of an approved commercial preparation and related anxieties regarding the risk of dilution errors and contamination. More than 90% of respondents said they would use cefuroxime if an approved single-unit dose product were commercially available.

  11. A Robust Automated Cataract Detection Algorithm Using Diagnostic Opinion Based Parameter Thresholding for Telemedicine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashwat Pathak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes and evaluates an algorithm to automatically detect the cataracts from color images in adult human subjects. Currently, methods available for cataract detection are based on the use of either fundus camera or Digital Single-Lens Reflex (DSLR camera; both are very expensive. The main motive behind this work is to develop an inexpensive, robust and convenient algorithm which in conjugation with suitable devices will be able to diagnose the presence of cataract from the true color images of an eye. An algorithm is proposed for cataract screening based on texture features: uniformity, intensity and standard deviation. These features are first computed and mapped with diagnostic opinion by the eye expert to define the basic threshold of screening system and later tested on real subjects in an eye clinic. Finally, a tele-ophthamology model using our proposed system has been suggested, which confirms the telemedicine application of the proposed system.

  12. On-line radiation teaching materials using IT technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hiroyoshi

    2005-01-01

    We developed the on-line radiation teaching materials using the Internet, in order to provide the teaching support materials of atomic power and radiation educations in on-school study, as well as to create the complementary study system in off-school study. The themes of teaching materials were selected from requests by teachers. In the case of an elementary school, the teaching material 'an environmental problem and atomic power' was created as the aggregate of each content for study without boundary between subjects. The teaching material 'medical treatment and radiation' was created for junior high school students to raise the individual knowledge. In the case of a high school, the teaching material nucleus and radiation' was prepared to supplement the physical study of students. The on-line teaching materials were tried to 300 junior high school and high school students, 68% of students answered that the teaching material is effective to understand atomic power and radiation, though 17% answered they were not effective. Although there are problems to prepare IT learning equipments and learning follow-up system in the material, it is suggested that the on-line teaching materials will provide the novel learning system including debates for the study. This method has no limitation of time and place. (author)

  13. Cataract in small animals: classification and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahiano Montiani Ferreira

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Cataract means any opacity present in the lens, lens capsule or both. The opacities may vary in size, location, shape and rate of progression. By slit-lamp biomicroscopy it is possible to examine them with precision, determining its exact location and peculiarities, resulting in a safe, accurate diagnosis. Due to its variable origin and appearance, several methods of classification have been used. Classification by aetiology, grade of maturity, location and age of the patients are presented in this review. Surgical removal is the only effective therapy for this disease. Among the surgical techniques available to this day, endocapsular phacoemulsification excells for its better results, despite of its high cost, if compared to classical intra and extra capsular facectomies.

  14. Radiation dosimetry and its influencing factors for the multi-detector/slice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Mei; Zheng Junzheng

    2008-01-01

    The Multi-Detector/Slice Spiral Computed Tomography (MDCT/MSCT)reflects the new progress in equipment and technology for radiology. Its popularized application demonstrates its advantages for clinical diagnosis. With the continuous development and growing uses of the MDCT/MSCT, the medical exposure of the patients and public has also been increasing. Therefore, assessment of the radiation dose and radiation risk from X-CT has become an increasingly important concern that should be addressed. Thus, this paper summarizes the main characteristics of the MDCT/MSCT emphasizing particularly on the radiation dosimetry, and reviews the expressions and measures of radiation dose in the MDCT/MSCT. In addition, main factors that influence radiation dose from the MDCT/MSCT are also discussed. A proper grasp of its radiation dosimetry and assessment method can significantly help radiologists, health physicists, medical physicists, X-CT engineers and manufacturers improve the management of radiation dose while optimizing the image quality in the MDCT/MSCT. (authors)

  15. Radiobiology in clinical radiation therapy part I - Systems and principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Eric J.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: This course is designed for residents in radiation oncology, preparing for their boards. It includes the physics and chemistry of the absorption of radiation, a description of the biological systems used to obtain a quantitative relationship between dose and biological effect, as well as a review of the basic principles in radiation biology that have been established. The biological effects of radiation may result from the direct action, which refers to ionizations in the DNA itself, or the indirect action which is mediated by free radicals. For x or gamma rays, about 70% of the damage is by the indirect action, which can be modified by oxygen and various chemical agents. Radiation-induced DNA damage may lead to carcinogenesis and hereditary effects, which are important in personnel protection, or to cell lethality which is the basis of radiotherapy. Chromosome aberrations and cell lethality appear to result from the interaction of two lesions (probably double strand breaks) which leads to the linear-quadratic relationship. This refers to mitotic death, which is the most common form of radiation induced death. Programmed cell death orApoptosis also occurs which appears to be important in more radiosensitive tumors, and relatively unimportant in radioresistant tumors. A number of quantitative biological test systems have been developed to quantify the effects of radiation as a function of dose. Cells may be cultured in vitro, of normal and neoplastic origin, and survival curves produced with reproductive integrity plotted as a function of dose. Normal tissue systems where reproductive integrity can be scored as an endpoint include skin, gut, colony forming units in the bone marrow, as well as breast, thyroid and testis. The response of some normal tissues depends, not only on the fraction of cells killed, but on the tissue architecture in terms of functional subunits, this will be discussed in Part III. A range of transplantable tumors have been studied

  16. [Radiation protection in interventional radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamus, R; Loose, R; Wucherer, M; Uder, M; Galster, M

    2016-03-01

    The application of ionizing radiation in medicine seems to be a safe procedure for patients as well as for occupational exposition to personnel. The developments in interventional radiology with fluoroscopy and dose-intensive interventions require intensified radiation protection. It is recommended that all available tools should be used for this purpose. Besides the options for instruments, x‑ray protection at the intervention table must be intensively practiced with lead aprons and mounted lead glass. A special focus on eye protection to prevent cataracts is also recommended. The development of cataracts might no longer be deterministic, as confirmed by new data; therefore, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has lowered the threshold dose value for eyes from 150 mSv/year to 20 mSv/year. Measurements show that the new values can be achieved by applying all X‑ray protection measures plus lead-containing eyeglasses.

  17. SSPM based radiation sensing: Preliminary laboratory and clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konnoff, Daniel C.; Plant, Thomas K.; Shiner, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Recent Solid State Photomultiplier (SSPM) technology has matured, reaching a performance level that is suitable for replacement of the ubiquitous photomultiplier tube in selected applications for environmental radiation monitoring, clinical dosimetry, and medical imaging purposes. The objective of this work is low signal level laboratory and high signal level clinical testing of the Hamamatsu MPPC (S10362-11-050C), Photonique SSPM (0810G1), and Voxtel SiPM (SQBF-EKAA/SQBF-EIOA) SSPMs coupled to different inorganic scintillator crystals (Prelude 420, BGO), inorganic doped glass scintillator material SiO 2 :Cu 2+ and organic BCF-12 plastic scintillating fibers, used as detector elements. Plastic Optical Fibers (POFs) and Glass Optical Fibers (GOFs) are used as signal conduits for laboratory and clinical testing. Further, reduction of electron-beam-generated Cerenkov light in optical fibers is facilitated by the inclusion of metalized air-core capillary tubing between the BCF-12 plastic scintillating fiber and the POF. In a clinical setting dose linearity, percent depth dose, and angular measurements for 6 MV/18 MV photon beams and 9 MeV electron beams are compared with and without the use of the air-core capillary tubing for BCF-12 plastic scintillating fiber. These same measurements are repeated for SiO 2 :Cu 2+ scintillator material without air-core capillary tubing.

  18. The anti-cataract molecular mechanism study in selenium cataract rats for baicalin ophthalmic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li N

    2018-05-01

    selected to be identified between the BA-SLNs group and the model group. A total of 23 proteins were identified, and 12 of which were crystalline proteins.Conclusion: We considered crystalline proteins to play important roles in preserving the normal expression levels of proteins and the transparency of lenses. The general trend in the BA-SLN-treated lenses’ data showed that BA-SLNs regulated the protein expression mode of cataract lenses to normal lenses. Our findings suggest that BA-SLNs may be a potential therapeutic agent in treating cataract by regulating protein expression and may also be a strong candidate for future clinical research. Keywords: BA-SLNs, 2-DE patterns, nano-LC–MS/MS, IPA, SDS-PAGE

  19. A method to adjust radiation dose-response relationships for clinical risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane Lindegaard; Vogelius, Ivan R

    2012-01-01

    Several clinical risk factors for radiation induced toxicity have been identified in the literature. Here, we present a method to quantify the effect of clinical risk factors on radiation dose-response curves and apply the method to adjust the dose-response for radiation pneumonitis for patients...

  20. Modeling silica aerogel optical performance by determining its radiative properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Silica aerogel has been known as a promising candidate for high performance transparent insulation material (TIM. Optical transparency is a crucial metric for silica aerogels in many solar related applications. Both scattering and absorption can reduce the amount of light transmitted through an aerogel slab. Due to multiple scattering, the transmittance deviates from the Beer-Lambert law (exponential attenuation. To better understand its optical performance, we decoupled and quantified the extinction contributions of absorption and scattering separately by identifying two sets of radiative properties. The radiative properties are deduced from the measured total transmittance and reflectance spectra (from 250 nm to 2500 nm of synthesized aerogel samples by solving the inverse problem of the 1-D Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE. The obtained radiative properties are found to be independent of the sample geometry and can be considered intrinsic material properties, which originate from the aerogel’s microstructure. This finding allows for these properties to be directly compared between different samples. We also demonstrate that by using the obtained radiative properties, we can model the photon transport in aerogels of arbitrary shapes, where an analytical solution is difficult to obtain.

  1. Modeling silica aerogel optical performance by determining its radiative properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lin; Yang, Sungwoo; Bhatia, Bikram; Strobach, Elise; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2016-02-01

    Silica aerogel has been known as a promising candidate for high performance transparent insulation material (TIM). Optical transparency is a crucial metric for silica aerogels in many solar related applications. Both scattering and absorption can reduce the amount of light transmitted through an aerogel slab. Due to multiple scattering, the transmittance deviates from the Beer-Lambert law (exponential attenuation). To better understand its optical performance, we decoupled and quantified the extinction contributions of absorption and scattering separately by identifying two sets of radiative properties. The radiative properties are deduced from the measured total transmittance and reflectance spectra (from 250 nm to 2500 nm) of synthesized aerogel samples by solving the inverse problem of the 1-D Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE). The obtained radiative properties are found to be independent of the sample geometry and can be considered intrinsic material properties, which originate from the aerogel's microstructure. This finding allows for these properties to be directly compared between different samples. We also demonstrate that by using the obtained radiative properties, we can model the photon transport in aerogels of arbitrary shapes, where an analytical solution is difficult to obtain.

  2. Radiation crosslinking of polymer materials and its functional properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Fumio

    2006-01-01

    It was found out that radiation crosslinking of biodegradable polymer such as poly (butylene succinate, PBS) and poly(ε-caprolactone, PCL) could be achieved by radiation in the presence of small amount of trimethallyl isocyanurate (TMAIC) or 1% triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC). Such modification is very effective to improve heat resistance for PBS and PCL. Poly (lactic acid, PLA) undergoes crosslinking effectively with 3% TAIC by radiation. Outstanding feature of these polymers is their biodegradability even after crosslinking. Radiation crosslinking of polysaccharide derivatives such as carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC) is also achieved in aqueous solution at high concentration (paste-like state). The crosslinking behavior was largely affected by the degree of substitution (DS) and polymer concentration. After removal of water the dry CMC gel is used as water absorbent material. This dry gel is the most effective for removal of large amounts of water from organic wastes, resulting in the acceleration of their fermentation. Measurement of swelling ratio of the dry CMC gel in 0.9% NaCl aqueous solution was carried out to expand application fields for this material. Radiation crosslinked poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel was successfully commercialized from July 2004 as wound dressing for accelerated healing. Furthermore, this material was also used as gel protector to prevent shore sore and was further commercialized. (author)

  3. Bilateral Sequential NAION following Cataract Extraction: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Barequet

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a 64-year-old patient who developed nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION in both eyes following cataract extraction. The cataract surgeries in both eyes were uneventful and performed within a year, and NAION occurred a few months postoperatively in both eyes. A review of the literature on this rare complication is provided. This case report serves to raise awareness among cataract surgeons about this potential complication associated with irreversible visual loss, and especially about its high risk of bilaterality.

  4. Perioperative antibiotics for prevention of acute endophthalmitis after cataract surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Emily W; Lindsley, Kristina; Tulenko, Samantha E; Nanji, Afshan A; Leyngold, Ilya; McDonnell, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    Background Endophthalmitis is a severe inflammation of the anterior or posterior (or both) chambers of the eye that may be sterile or associated with infection. It is a potentially vision-threatening complication of cataract surgery. Prophylactic measures for endophthalmitis are targeted against various sources of infection. Objectives To evaluate the effects of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for endophthalmitis following cataract surgery compared with no prophylaxis or other form of prophylaxis. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 12), Ovid MEDLINE, Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily (January 1946 to December 2016), Embase (January 1980 to December 2016), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (1982 to December 2016),the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We used no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 6 December 2016. We also searched for additional studies that cited any included trials using the Science Citation Index. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials that enrolled adults undergoing cataract surgery (any method and incision type) for lens opacities due to any origin. We included trials that evaluated preoperative antibiotics, intraoperative (intracameral, subconjunctival or systemic), or postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis for acute endophthalmitis. We excluded studies that evaluated antiseptic preoperative preparations using agents such as povidone iodine or antibiotics for treating acute endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently reviewed abstracts and

  5. Radiobiology in clinical radiation therapy - Part I: Systems and principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Eric J.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: This course is designed for residents in radiation oncology, preparing for their boards. It begins with the principles of cell and molecular biology as they relate to carcinogenesis, and concentrates on the principles of radiation biology that have been established by the use of quantitative biological systems. Malignant cells are characterized by their capacity for unlimited proliferation; this change from normal cells is the consequence of genetic changes that may include the activation of dominantly acting oncogenes and/or the deletion of recessively acting tumor suppressor genes. The biological effects of radiation may result from the direct action, which refers to ionizations in the DNA itself, or the indirect action which is mediated by free radicals. Radiation-induced DNA damage may lead to carcinogenesis and hereditary effects, which are important in personnel protection, or to cell lethality which is the basis of radiotherapy. Chromosome aberrations and cell lethality appear to result from the interaction of two lesions (probably double strand breaks) which leads to the ubiquitous linear-quadratic relationship. This refers to mitotic death, which is the most common form of radiation induced death. Programmed cell death or Apoptosis also occurs which is important in more radiosensitive tumors, and relatively unimportant in radioresistant tumors. A number of quantitative biological test systems have been developed to quantify the effects of radiation as a function of dose. Cells may be cultured in vitro, of normal and neoplastic origin, and survival curves produced with reproductive integrity plotted as a function of dose. Normal tissue systems where reproductive integrity can be scored as an endpoint include skin, gut, colony forming units in the bone marrow, as well as breast, thyroid and testis. The response of some normal tissues depends, not only on the fraction of cells killed, but on the tissue architecture in terms of functional subunits

  6. Visual Outcome of Cataract Surgery | Ukponmwan | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the visu al ou tcome of cataract su rgery in a tertiary hosp ital in Nigeria. Methods: Three hu nd red and seventy eyes (370) that had cataract su rgery in the op hthalmology d ep artment of University of Benin Teaching Hosp ital (UBTH) from July 2007 to December 2008 were includ ed in the stu d y.

  7. Evaluation of Complications of Extracapsular Cataract Extraction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, 1Department of Ophthalmology, Guinness. Eye Centre, Onitsha, Nigeria. Abstract .... Br J Ophthalmol 2007;91:1315‑7. 6. Hennig A. Sutureless non‑phaco cataract surgery: A solution to reduce worldwide cataract blindness? Community Eye.

  8. Pediatric cataract surgery in Madagascar | Randrianotahina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: In Madagascar, presentation for congenital and developmental cataract is very late, visual outcome poor and follow‑up inadequate. There is an urgent need for a childhood blindness program to effectively deal with pediatric cataract, an avoidable cause of blindness and visual disability in children on the island ...

  9. Retrobulbar versus subconjunctival anesthesia for cataract surgery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To compare the effectiveness, in terms of pain relief and akinesia of retrobulbar and subconjunctival an aesthesia during cataract surgery and also to compare the degree of postoperative ptosis associated with each technique. Materials and Methods: Consecutive adult patients undergoing cataract surgery ...

  10. Prevalence of Cataract Blindness in Rural Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjørn

    Background: Over three-quarter of all blindness worldwide are preventable and usually caused by cataract and trachoma. Objective: To assess the ... Ophthalmologists from other areas conduct cataract operations once or twice each ... Some patients may have two eyes disorder causing visual impairment. The accepted ...

  11. Radiation protection and radiation safety: CERN and its host states to sign a tripartite agreement.

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    On 15 November CERN and its Host States will sign a tripartite agreement that replaces the existing bilateral agreements in matters of radiation protection and radiation safety at CERN. It will provide, for the first time, a single forum where the three parties will discuss how maximum overall safety can best be achieved in the specific CERN context.   CERN has always maintained close collaboration with its Host States in matters of safety. “The aim of this collaboration is especially to ensure best practice in the field of radiation protection and the safe operation of CERN’s facilities”, explains Ralf Trant, Head of the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection (HSE) Unit. Until today, CERN’s collaboration with its Host States was carried out under two sets of bilateral agreements: depending on which side of the French-Swiss border they were being carried out on, a different framework applied to the same activities. This approach has b...

  12. Rapid Clinical Bacteriology and Its Future Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Géraldine; Peyret, Michel; Chatellier, Sonia; Zambardi, Gilles; Schrenzel, Jacques; Shortridge, Dee; Engelhardt, Anette; Dunne, William Michael

    2013-01-01

    Clinical microbiology has always been a slowly evolving and conservative science. The sub-field of bacteriology has been and still is dominated for over a century by culture-based technologies. The integration of serological and molecular methodologies during the seventies and eighties of the previous century took place relatively slowly and in a cumbersome fashion. When nucleic acid amplification technologies became available in the early nineties, the predicted "revolution" was again slow but in the end a real paradigm shift did take place. Several of the culture-based technologies were successfully replaced by tests aimed at nucleic acid detection. More recently a second revolution occurred. Mass spectrometry was introduced and broadly accepted as a new diagnostic gold standard for microbial species identification. Apparently, the diagnostic landscape is changing, albeit slowly, and the combination of newly identified infectious etiologies and the availability of innovative technologies has now opened new avenues for modernizing clinical microbiology. However, the improvement of microbial antibiotic susceptibility testing is still lagging behind. In this review we aim to sketch the most recent developments in laboratory-based clinical bacteriology and to provide an overview of emerging novel diagnostic approaches. PMID:23301218

  13. Thymoma calcification: Is it clinically meaningful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkaied Homam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Among anterior mediastinal lesions, thymoma is the most common. Thymomas are tumors of thymic epithelial cell origin that are distinguished by inconsistent histological and biologic behavior. Chest imaging studies typically show a round or lobulated tumor in the anterior mediastinum. Calcifications in thymomas are classically punctuate or amorphous, positioned within the lesion. Chest computed tomography (CT features suggesting higher risk thymoma consist of tumor heterogeneity, vascular involvement, lobulation, pulmonary nodules, lymphadenopathy, and pleural manifestations. Imaging findings have an imperfect ability to predict stage and prognosis for thymoma patients. Our objective is to highlight the clinical implications of thymoma calcifications on the diagnosis, clinical manifestation and prognosis. A pubmed and google search was performed using the following words: thymoma calcification, calcified thymus, mediastinal calcification, anterior mediastinal calcification, and calcified thymoma. After reviewing 370 articles, 32 eligible articles describing thymoma calcifications were found and included in this review. Although the presence of thymus calcifications was more common in patients with invasive thymomas, they were present in significant portion of non-invasive thymomas. The presence of calcifications was not a significant factor in differentiating between benign and malignant thymoma. As a result, the type, location, size or other characteristics of thymus gland calcifications were not relevant features in clinical and radiologic diagnosis of thymoma. The histopathological diagnosis is still the only possible way to confirm the neoplastic nature of thymoma. All types of thymomas should be evaluated and managed independently of the presence of calcifications.

  14. Damage of DNA by radiation and it's recovery, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Noboru; Matsuura, Tomio; Sato, Hiroyuki.

    1974-01-01

    The damage and recovery of DNA was investigated by the incorporation of thymine derivatives (DHT, I trans, II trans, cis and glycol) into exponentially growing Tetrahymena cells. The strain employed was Tetrahymena pyriformis, Variety I, mating type IV. It is well known that these thymine derivatives are induced in vivo by radiation. The in vivo damage of DNA induced by radiation, and its recovery, were confirmed experimentally by means of gradient separation of sucrose density and by analytical ultra centrifugation (UVC). The recovery of DNA, its excision repair and its recombinational repair were compared with the recovery of Bacillus subtilis whose recovery kinetics were already known. 1) The damage of DNA was more sensitive to glycol than to II trans and cis. On the other hand, DHT is not sensitive for breaking DNA strand. 2) In its recovery damaged DNA was no more sensitive to glycol than to hhp as was true for Bacillus subtilis. (author)

  15. Study on radiation discoloration of PE and its mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huiliang; Wang Chun; Chen Wenxiu

    2001-01-01

    In order to find the major reason for the radiation discoloration of PE, the changes of yellow index (YI) of HDPE and LDPE under γ irradiation in air or N 2 and after irradiation are measured using colorimeter. The growth and decay of alkyl free radical formed in HDPE and LDPE, and the change of the absorbance of conjugated double bonds formed in PE are measured using ESR and UV-Visible spectrometer. The YI of HDPE is higher than that of LDPE at the same radiation dose. The YI of PE irradiated in air is higher than that of PE irradiated in N 2 at the same radiation dose. The YI of PE irradiated different dose decreases with post-irradiation storage time firstly, up to a certain time, it becomes stable. It is found that the formation and decay of free radicals is very similar to that of the change of YI, whereas, the change of the absorbance of conjugated double bonds formed in PE is different to the change of YI. The results are discussed, it is believed that the major reason for the radiation discoloration is the formation of trapped free radicals

  16. Gamma Radiation Assessment In Kartini Reactor And Its Vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazid, M.; Supriyatni, E.; Maryono; Bastianudin, Aris

    2000-01-01

    Measurement to calculate dose assesment for gamma radiation in Kartini Reactor and its vicinity has been done whether on operated or un operated condition. Measurement was performed using height pressured ionization chamber, Reuther Stokes RS-112 production. Measurement location was determined based on distance variation inwardly and outwardly of reactor building and its vicinity. The result showed that the average dose rate in the reactor building when un operated is in the range of 11.4-38.6 mu rad/hour and when the reactor operated is 166.4-1910.9 mu rad/hour. While the vicinity of the reactor on operated condition the average dose rate is 34.4-38.6 mu rad/hour in un operated condition is 6.9-7.0 mu rad/hour. This result showed that the reactor operated did not rise the radiation exposure level in its vicinity. From the personnel assesment dose rate of gamma radiation is 28.54 mrem/week on operated condition, 0.90 mrem.week on un operated condition. While dose rate outside the reactor is 0.44 and 0.27 mrem/week for operated and un operated condition consecutively. This dose rate is still below maximum permissible dose than recommended by the national regulation of radiation protection from BAPETEN No. 01/Ka.BAPETEN/V-99

  17. Radiation - it's not the mother of all hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donovan, E.

    1999-01-01

    The public, the media, and even many in the technically educated community, have an inordinate dread of things radioactive. Any radioactive material or contamination in the environment, even in trivial amounts, can be seen and feared as a human and environmental catastrophe. And yet other, significant hazards and risks that are encountered in life, are either accepted resignedly or are confidently tackled with sensible protection strategies. Australian Radiation Protection Society (ARPS) should develop and undertake deliberate strategies of its own, to foster protection of the population not only from genuine radiation hazards, but also, via an education campaign, from exaggerated perceptions of risk. Data on relative risks of some common life hazards are presented and compared to risks from a variety of radiation-related activities and scenarios. The comparison is not reflected in the public perspective. ARPS should firstly convince its own membership that radiation risk management is a mature and successful technology. Then ARPS should break out from its relatively closeted practices and address a deliberate program to educate the public, and combat the sensation-mongering media, concerning their eccentric attitudes to this class of hazard

  18. Preliminary clinical outcomes from the Peruvian National Cataract Elimination Plan Resultados clínicos preliminares del Plan Nacional de Lucha contra la Ceguera por Catarata del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz P. Stryjewski

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of a publicly funded cataract elimination program. METHODS: Outcomes of all patients (186 who received extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE surgery free of charge at the Instituto Regional de Oftalmología in northern Peru in the first year (August 2008 to July 2009 of the Peruvian National Cataract Elimination Plan were compared retrospectively with the outcomes of all patients (68 who paid in the highest charge tier for ECCE surgery during the same period. Preoperatively, the median uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA of National Plan patients was Hand Motion; the UCVA of paying patients was Counting Fingers (P = 0.09. Complication frequency and visual acuity (uncorrected visual acuity, pinhole visual acuity, and best correct visual acuity were the primary outcome measures. The World Health Organization (WHO Vision 2020 goal is for 85% of operated eyes to achieve 20/60 vision; the Ministerio de Salud del Perú goal is for 75% of eyes to achieve 20/50. RESULTS: One month postoperatively, only 24% of National Plan patients achieved a UCVA of 20/60. The median UCVA for both groups was 20/100 (P = 0.23. Intraoperative complications occurred in 27% of all patients; postoperative complications occurred in 39%. Patients more likely to have a poor outcome (UCVA OBJETIVO: Evaluar los resultados clínicos de un programa de lucha contra la ceguera por catarata con financiamiento público. MÉTODOS: Los resultados obtenidos de todos los pacientes (186 sometidos a una operación gratuita de extracción extracapsular de catarata (EECC en el Instituto Regional de Oftalmología del norte del Perú, durante el primer año (de agosto del 2008 a julio del 2009 de la ejecución del Plan Nacional de Lucha contra la Ceguera por Catarata del Perú, se compararon retrospectivamente con los resultados de los pacientes (68 que pagaron los honorarios más elevados por una operación quirúrgica de EECC durante el mismo per

  19. Grading nuclear, cortical and posterior subcapsular cataracts using an objective scatter index measured with a double-pass system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaseca, Meritxell; Romero, Maria José; Arjona, Montserrat; Luque, Sergio Oscar; Ondategui, Juan Carlos; Salvador, Antoni; Güell, José L; Artal, Pablo; Pujol, Jaume

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate objectively intraocular scattering in eyes with nuclear, cortical and posterior subcapsular cataracts by means of an objective scatter index (OSI) obtained from double-pass images. To compare the results with those obtained using clinical conventional procedures. In this prospective, observational, cross-sectional, non-consecutive case series study, 188 eyes with cataracts of 136 patients were analysed (123 eyes had nuclear, 41 eyes had cortical and 24 eyes had posterior subcapsular cataracts). The control group consisted of 117 eyes of 68 healthy patients. Patient examination included subjective refraction, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), cataract grade using the lens opacities classification system III (LOCS III) and OSI. We found a decrease in the BSCVA and an increase in the OSI with increasing cataract grade. Statistically significant differences were observed when the OSI of eyes without cataracts and those with different LOCS III were compared. The comparison between the OSI and LOCS III reported good percentages of agreement regarding the number of eyes classified in equivalent levels: 72.4% (nuclear cataracts), 86.6% (cortical cataracts) and 84.3% (posterior subcapsular cataracts). A non-linear regression model was applied between OSI and BSCVA, which resulted in the following multiple correlation coefficients: r=0.878 (nuclear), r=0.843 (cortical) and r=0.844 (posterior subcapsular). The results of the study showed that OSI is a useful parameter for evaluating large amounts of intraocular scattering that can be used, in combination with other conventional procedures, as a valuable tool in clinical practice to grade cataracts objectively.

  20. Primary versus secondary intraocular lens implantation in the management of congenital cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaa H Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Primary IOL implantation was found to be safe and effective in the management of congenital cataract; it leads to lower incidence of complications and better visual outcomes compared with aphakia and secondary IOL implantation.

  1. Low Nephron Number and Its Clinical Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie A. Luyckx

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available decades ago, that developmental programming of the kidney impacts an individual’s risk for hypertension and renal disease in later life. Low birth weight is the strongest current clinical surrogate marker for an adverse intrauterine environment and, based on animal and human studies, is associated with a low nephron number. Other clinical correlates of low nephron number include female gender, short adult stature, small kidney size, and prematurity. Low nephron number in Caucasian and Australian Aboriginal subjects has been shown to be associated with higher blood pressures, and, conversely, hypertension is less prevalent in individuals with higher nephron numbers. In addition to nephron number, other programmed factors associated with the increased risk of hypertension include salt sensitivity, altered expression of renal sodium transporters, altered vascular reactivity, and sympathetic nervous system overactivity. Glomerular volume is universally found to vary inversely with nephron number, suggesting a degree of compensatory hypertrophy and hyperfunction in the setting of a low nephron number. This adaptation may become overwhelmed in the setting of superimposed renal insults, e.g. diabetes mellitus or rapid catch-up growth, leading to the vicious cycle of on-going hyperfiltration, proteinuria, nephron loss and progressive renal functional decline. Many millions of babies are born with low birth weight every year, and hypertension and renal disease prevalences are increasing around the globe. At present, little can be done clinically to augment nephron number; therefore adequate prenatal care and careful postnatal nutrition are crucial to optimize an individual’s nephron number during development and potentially to stem the tide of the growing cardiovascular and renal disease epidemics worldwide.

  2. Mutagenic action of non-ionizing radiations: its implication in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhvanath, U.; Subrahmanyam, P.; Sankaranarayanan, N.; Singh, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Mutagenic effects of non-ionizing radiations except in the ultraviolet and near ultraviolet region are just not known. Results of the investigation carried out using a sensitive diploid yeast system, are presented. The arginine requiring mutant yeast strain BZ34 reverts to prototrophy following exposure to ionizing radiation. Reversion frequencies were determined following exposure to UV (254 nm), near ultraviolet (313, 353 nm) visible region (480 nm), neodymium laser (1.01 μm) and microwave (2450 MHz) radiations. An Aminco - Bowman Spectrophotofluorimeter was used to obtain wavelengths from UV to visible region. Yeast suspensions (concentration of 10 7 cells/ml) were irradiated to doses ranging from 10 7 to 10 9 erg/cm 3 as determined with potassium ferri-oxalate system. Exposure to laser pulses and microwave radiation ranged up to 45 J/cm 2 and 60 mW-h/cm 2 respectively. Results showed that the reversion induction efficiency decreased by six orders of magnitude from ionizing radiations to ultraviolet for the same absorbed dose and this efficiency has further decreased by a factor of fifteen when the wavelength is increased from 254 nm to 313 nm. Although killing could be effected with laser beams (45 J/cm 2 for 50% survival) no increase in the reversion was observed than the background level. It is concluded that radiation of wavelengths higher than 450 nm up to 12 cm studied is not mutagenic and with sufficient intensities of these radiations only killing of cells is possible due to thermal effects. This finding is compared with other known functional and morphological effects at cellular level due to low-level exposures of non-ionizing radiations

  3. Traditional couching is not an effective alternative procedure for cataract surgery in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schémann, J F; Bakayoko, S; Coulibaly, S

    2000-12-01

    In Mali, more cataract patients receive sight-restoring surgery using a traditional "couching" procedure (the lens inside the vitreous body) than by modern cataract surgery. In order to evaluate the relative effectiveness and other outcomes of the traditional procedure compared to the modern surgical intervention, we conducted a population-based survey in a rural district of Mali in 1996. A total of 99,800 persons from 160 villages were eligible to be included in the sample. All individuals operated for cataract by a modern procedure were checked for visual acuity and questioned regarding their clinical history, the cost of the surgery and their satisfaction with the surgery immediately following the operation and presently. Each patient was paired with one person operated by a traditional cataract surgical procedure. From a total population of 99,800 we found 85 individuals (0.085%) who had been operated by intracapsular extraction (ICCE) without lens implantation and we paired these with 82 individuals operated by the traditional method and by a local healer. In both groups, males were predominant (74.4% in the modern group and 61.3% in the traditional) and the median age was 65 and 68 years, respectively. Men with a higher social status (defined as administrative or religious authority) were slightly more common among those operated by ICCE (18.9%) than among those operated by the traditional healer (4.4%). Nearly half (47.6%) of the patients operated by couching did not know that a modern alternative existed. The mean cost to the patient of the two procedures was similar; with traditional couching costing on average US$ 42.10 and modern surgery (including transport and drugs) costing US$ 52.40. The traditional healer was often paid partially in kind and the price paid varied according to the patient's ability to pay. The clinical results differed greatly between the two methods. After aphakic correction of eyes operated by ICCE, 5.3% had good vision (33/18), 76

  4. The Argentine Approach to Radiation Safety: Its Ethical Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    The ethical bases of Argentina's radiation safety approach are reviewed. The applied principles are those recommended and established internationally, namely: the principle of justification of decisions that alters the radiation exposure situation; the principle of optimization of protection and safety; the principle of individual protection for restricting possible inequitable outcomes of optimized safety; and the implicit principle of inter generational prudence for protection future generations and the habitat. The principles are compared vis-a-vis the prevalent ethical doctrines: justification vis-a-vis teleology; optimization vis-a-vis utilitarianism; individual protection vis-a-vis de ontology; and, inter generational prudence vis-a-vis aretaicism (or virtuosity). The application of the principles and their ethics in Argentina is analysed. These principles are applied to All exposure to radiation harm; namely, to exposures to actual doses and to exposures to actual risk and potential doses, including those related to the safety of nuclear installations, and they are harmonized and applied in conjunction. It is concluded that building a bridge among all available ethical doctrines and applying it to radiation safety against actual doses and actual risk and potential doses is at the roots of the successful nuclear regulatory experience in Argentina.

  5. Radiation what it is, what you need to know

    CERN Document Server

    Gale, Robert Peter

    2013-01-01

    The essential guide to radiation: the good, the bad, and the utterly fascinating, explained with unprecedented clarity. Earth, born in a nuclear explosion, is a radioactive planet; without radiation, life would not exist. And while radiation can be dangerous, it is also deeply misunderstood and often mistakenly feared. Now Robert Peter Gale, M.D,—the doctor to whom concerned governments turned in the wake of the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters—in collaboration with medical writer Eric Lax draws on an exceptional depth of knowledge to correct myths and establish facts. Exploring what have become trigger words for anxiety—nuclear energy and nuclear weapons, uranium, plutonium, iodine-131, mammogram, X-ray, CT scan, threats to the food chain—the authors demystify the science and dangers of radiation, and examine its myriad benefits, from safely sterilizing our food to the relatively low-risk fuel alternative of nuclear energy. This is the book for all readers who have asked themselves questions such...

  6. Nuclear radiation and its role in general nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempaiah, A.; Ravi, C.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation is really nothing more than the emission of energy through space, as well as through physical objects. Nuclear radiations are emitted due to decay of nuclei of radioactive materials and damage cells and the DNA inside them through its ionizing effect. That causes melanoma and other cancers. Nuclear radiation has a number of beneficial uses especially in medical field with low levels of radioactive compounds, better than X-rays. There are some 440 nuclear reactors worldwide, people around will be under the effect of radiation. In nuclear medicine (medical imaging) small amount of radioactive materials were used to diagnose and determine the severity of or treat a variety of disease, including many types of cancers, heart disease, gastrointestinal, endocrine, neurological disorders and other abnormalities within the body it is painless and cost-effective techniques and provides information about both structure and function. Nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures called Gamma camera, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) were discussed in this paper. (author)

  7. Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Radiation Oncology (French Ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The application of radiation in human health, for both diagnosis and treatment of disease, is an important component of the work of the IAEA. The responsibility for the increasing technical aspects of this work is undertaken by the medical physicist. To ensure good practice in this vital area structured clinical training programmes are required to complement academic learning. This publication is intended to be a guide to the practical implementation of such a programme for radiation therapy. There is a general and growing awareness that radiation medicine is increasingly dependant on well trained medical physicists that are based in the clinical setting. However an analysis of the availability of medical physicists indicates a large shortfall of qualified and capable professionals. This is particularly evident in developing countries. While strategies to increase academic educational opportunities are critical to such countries, the need for guidance on structured clinical training was recognised by the members of the Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) for research, development and training related to nuclear sciences for Asia and the Pacific. Consequently a technical cooperation regional project (RAS6038) under the RCA programme was formulated to address this need in the Asia Pacific region by developing suitable material and establishing its viability. Development of a clinical training guide for medical physicists specialising in radiation therapy was started in 2005 with the appointment of a core drafting committee of regional and international experts. Since 2005 the IAEA has convened two additional consultant group meetings including additional experts to prepare the present publication. The publication drew heavily, particularly in the initial stages, from the experience and documents of the Clinical Training Programme for Radiation Oncology Medical Physicists as developed by the Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine. Their

  8. Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Radiation Oncology (Spanish Ed.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The application of radiation in human health, for both diagnosis and treatment of disease, is an important component of the work of the IAEA. The responsibility for the increasing technical aspects of this work is undertaken by the medical physicist. To ensure good practice in this vital area structured clinical training programmes are required to complement academic learning. This publication is intended to be a guide to the practical implementation of such a programme for radiation therapy. There is a general and growing awareness that radiation medicine is increasingly dependant on well trained medical physicists that are based in the clinical setting. However an analysis of the availability of medical physicists indicates a large shortfall of qualified and capable professionals. This is particularly evident in developing countries. While strategies to increase academic educational opportunities are critical to such countries, the need for guidance on structured clinical training was recognised by the members of the Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) for research, development and training related to nuclear sciences for Asia and the Pacific. Consequently a technical cooperation regional project (RAS6038) under the RCA programme was formulated to address this need in the Asia Pacific region by developing suitable material and establishing its viability. Development of a clinical training guide for medical physicists specialising in radiation therapy was started in 2005 with the appointment of a core drafting committee of regional and international experts. Since 2005 the IAEA has convened two additional consultant group meetings including additional experts to prepare the present publication. The publication drew heavily, particularly in the initial stages, from the experience and documents of the Clinical Training Programme for Radiation Oncology Medical Physicists as developed by the Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine. Their

  9. Clinical, biological, histological features and treatment of oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonan, Paulo Rogerio Ferreti; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte; Almeida, Oslei Paes de; Alves, Fabio de Abreu

    2005-01-01

    The oral mucositis is a main side effect of radiotherapy on head and neck, initiating two weeks after the beginning of the treatment. It is characterized by sensation of local burning to intense pain, leading in several cases, to the interruption of the treatment. The purpose of this work is to review the main published studies that discuss the clinical, biological and histopathological features of oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy and to describe the main approaches recommended to prevent or to treat it. Although the clinical features of mucositis are intensively described in the literature, few studies address the histopathological alterations in oral mucositis and only recently, its biological processes have been investigated. The biological mechanisms involved in the radiation tissue damage have been only recently discussed and there is no consensus among treatment modalities. Yet, the progressive knowledge in the histopathology and biological characteristics of oral mucositis probably will lead to more effective in prevention and control strategies. (author)

  10. Types and rate of cataract development in mice irradiated at different ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajewski, A.K.; Majewska, K.; Slowikowska, M.G.; Chomiczewski, K.; Kulig, A.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of age on the development of radiation cataract has been investigated in an inbred A strain of mice and, as a result, the patterns of age dependence and senile mice cataract development were obtained. In general, the lenses of mice 1 to 3 days old were the most sensitive to radiation; the maximum resistance was noted in 5-day-old mice, and from this age up to 3 to 7 weeks of life there was a period of increasing sensitivity. In older animals the lens sensitivity tends to level off. The early stages of cataract occurred in all irradiated groups at a younger age than in the control group, but the late stages occurred in irradiated groups at the same age as the senile cataract occurred in the control group. Two types of cataract were observed. One was typical for young irradiated mice 1 to 5 days of age and the other was typical for all remaining irradiated groups and for a control group. Also, an attempt was made to correlate the obtained results with the cell kinetics in normal lens epithelium

  11. Observation of Influence of Cataract Surgery on the Ocular Surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Park

    . Therefore, it could elucidate the development of dry eye related to cataract surgery.

  12. Photocoagulation treatment for clinically significant radiation macular oedema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinyoun, J.L.; Zamber, R.W.; Lawrence, B.S.; Barlow, W.E.; Arnold, A.M. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Macular oedema is a leading cause of vision loss in patients with radiation retinopathy. In an effort to find an effective treatment for this vision threatening complication, 12 eyes (eight patients) were treated with photocoagulation for clinically significant radiation macular oedema (CSRMO) defined as central macular thickening, exudates threatening the macular centre, or one disc area of thickening in the macula. Median visual acuity improved from 20/100 pre-operatively to 20/90 at the initial post-operative examination (mean follow up 5 months) and to 20/75 at the final post-operative examination (mean follow up 39 months). At the final post-operative examination, visual acuity had improved in eight (67%) eyes and six (50%) eyes had complete resolution of the CSRMO; two (17%) other eyes had improved anatomically in that fewer CSRMO criteria were present. These results suggest that macular photocoagulation is effective in decreasing macular oedema and improving vision in eyes with CSRMO. (author).

  13. Photocoagulation treatment for clinically significant radiation macular oedema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinyoun, J.L.; Zamber, R.W.; Lawrence, B.S.; Barlow, W.E.; Arnold, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Macular oedema is a leading cause of vision loss in patients with radiation retinopathy. In an effort to find an effective treatment for this vision threatening complication, 12 eyes (eight patients) were treated with photocoagulation for clinically significant radiation macular oedema (CSRMO) defined as central macular thickening, exudates threatening the macular centre, or one disc area of thickening in the macula. Median visual acuity improved from 20/100 pre-operatively to 20/90 at the initial post-operative examination (mean follow up 5 months) and to 20/75 at the final post-operative examination (mean follow up 39 months). At the final post-operative examination, visual acuity had improved in eight (67%) eyes and six (50%) eyes had complete resolution of the CSRMO; two (17%) other eyes had improved anatomically in that fewer CSRMO criteria were present. These results suggest that macular photocoagulation is effective in decreasing macular oedema and improving vision in eyes with CSRMO. (author)

  14. Femtosecond laser-assisted compared with standard cataract surgery for removal of advanced cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Kathryn M; Schultz, Tim; Talamo, Jonathan H; Dick, H Burkhard

    2015-09-01

    To compare effective phacoemulsification time (EPT) for the removal of brunescent cataracts treated with femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery with standard cataract phacoemulsification techniques. Ruhr University Eye Hospital, Bochum, Germany. Comparative prospective case study. The Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III) grading system was used to measure eyes divided into 4 groups having cataract surgery. Groups 1 and 2 contained eyes with LOCS III grade nuclear opalescence (NO) 3 cataracts treated with standard cataract surgery and femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery, respectively. Groups 3 and 4 contained brunescent cataracts, LOCS III grades NO5, treated with standard cataract surgery and femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery, respectively. There were 240 eyes, with 60 eyes in each group. The EPT in Group 1 ranged from 0.46 to 3.10 (mean 1.38); the EPT in all eyes in Group 2 was 0 (P Talamo, and Dick are consultants to Abbott Medical Optics, Inc. Dr. Schultz has no financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Knowledge of Radiation Hazards, Radiation Protection Practices and Clinical Profile of Health Workers in a Teaching Hospital in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awosan, K J; Ibrahim, Mto; Saidu, S A; Ma'aji, S M; Danfulani, M; Yunusa, E U; Ikhuenbor, D B; Ige, T A

    2016-08-01

    Use of ionizing radiation in medical imaging for diagnostic and interventional purposes has risen dramatically in recent years with a concomitant increase in exposure of patients and health workers to radiation hazards. To assess the knowledge of radiation hazards, radiation protection practices and clinical profile of health workers in UDUTH, Sokoto, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 110 Radiology, Radiotherapy and Dentistry staff selected by universal sampling technique. The study comprised of administration of standardized semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire (to obtain information on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of radiation hazards, and radiation protection practices of participants), clinical assessment (comprising of chest X-ray, abdominal ultrasound and laboratory investigation on hematological parameters), and evaluation of radiation exposure of participants (extracted from existing hospital records on their radiation exposure status). The participants were aged 20 to 65 years (mean = 34.04 ± 8.83), most of them were males (67.3%) and married (65.7%). Sixty five (59.1%) had good knowledge of radiation hazards, 58 (52.7%) had good knowledge of Personal Protective Devices (PPDs), less than a third, 30 (27.3%) consistently wore dosimeter, and very few (10.9% and below) consistently wore the various PPDs at work. The average annual radiation exposure over a 4 year period ranged from 0.0475mSv to 1.8725mSv. Only 1 (1.2%) of 86 participants had abnormal chest X-ray findings, 8 (9.4%) of 85 participants had abnormal abdominal ultrasound findings; while 17 (15.5%) and 11 (10.0%) of 110 participants had anemia and leucopenia respectively. This study demonstrated poor radiation protection practices despite good knowledge of radiation hazards among the participants, but radiation exposure and prevalence of abnormal clinical conditions were found to be low. Periodic in-service training and monitoring on radiation safety was

  16. A novel mutation in MIP associated with congenital nuclear cataract in a Chinese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai Jie; Li, Sha Sha; Yun, Bo; Ma, Wen Xian; Jiang, Tian Ge; Zhu, Si Quan

    2011-01-08

    To identify the underlying genetic defect in a Chinese family affected with autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataract. A four-generation Chinese family with inherited nuclear cataract phenotype was recruited. Detailed family history and clinical data were recorded. All reported nuclear cataract-related candidate genes were screened for causative mutations by direct DNA sequencing. Effects of amino acid changes on the structure and function of protein were predicted by bioinformatics analysis. All affected individuals in this family showed nuclear cataracts. Sequencing of the candidate genes revealed a heterozygous c.559C>T change in the coding region of the major intrinsic protein (MIP), which caused a substitution of highly conserved arginine by cysteine at codon 187 (p.R187C). This mutation co-segregated with all affected individuals and was not observed in unaffected family members or 110 ethnically matched controls. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the mutation was predicted to affect the function and secondary structure of MIP protein. This study identified a novel disease-causing mutation p.R187C in MIP in a Chinese cataract family, expanding the mutation spectrum of MIP causing congenital cataract.

  17. Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing through highly scattering ex vivo human cataractous lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Shen, Yuecheng; Ruan, Haowen; Brodie, Frank L.; Wong, Terence T. W.; Yang, Changhuei; Wang, Lihong V.

    2018-01-01

    Normal development of the visual system in infants relies on clear images being projected onto the retina, which can be disrupted by lens opacity caused by congenital cataract. This disruption, if uncorrected in early life, results in amblyopia (permanently decreased vision even after removal of the cataract). Doctors are able to prevent amblyopia by removing the cataract during the first several weeks of life, but this surgery risks a host of complications, which can be equally visually disabling. Here, we investigated the feasibility of focusing light noninvasively through highly scattering cataractous lenses to stimulate the retina, thereby preventing amblyopia. This approach would allow the cataractous lens removal surgery to be delayed and hence greatly reduce the risk of complications from early surgery. Employing a wavefront shaping technique named time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing in reflection mode, we focused 532-nm light through a highly scattering ex vivo adult human cataractous lens. This work demonstrates a potential clinical application of wavefront shaping techniques.

  18. Interventions to improve access to cataract surgical services and their impact on equity in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramke, Jacqueline; Petkovic, Jennifer; Welch, Vivian; Blignault, Ilse; Gilbert, Clare; Blanchet, Karl; Christensen, Robin; Zwi, Anthony B; Tugwell, Peter

    2017-11-09

    Cataract is the leading cause of blindness in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and the prevalence is inequitably distributed between and within countries. Interventions have been undertaken to improve cataract surgical services, however, the effectiveness of these interventions on promoting equity is not known. To assess the effects on equity of interventions to improve access to cataract services for populations with cataract blindness (and visual impairment) in LMICs. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2017, Issue 3), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 12 April 2017), Embase Ovid (1980 to 12 April 2017), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database) (1982 to 12 April 2017), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch); searched 12 April 2017, ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov); searched 12 April 2017 and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en); searched 12 April 2017. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We included studies that reported on strategies to improve access to cataract services in LMICs using the following study designs: randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled before-and-after studies, and interrupted time series studies. Included studies were conducted in LMICs, and were targeted at disadvantaged populations, or disaggregated outcome data by 'PROGRESS-Plus' factors (Place of residence; Race/ethnicity/ culture/ language; Occupation; Gender/sex; Religion; Education; Socio-economic status; Social capital/networks. The 'Plus' component includes disability, sexual orientation and age). Two authors (JR and JP) independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed them for risk of bias. Meta-analysis was not possible, so included studies were

  19. The role of radiation therapy in pediatric oncology as assessed by cooperative clinical trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angio, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Major advances have been made in pediatric oncology, and many are due to the advent of the cooperative clinical trial. This important research tool was originally developed for the testing of various therapeutic strategies for the management of children with acute leukemia. Such trials were eminently successful, as the consistently better long-term survival rates for children with this hitherto uniformly lethal disease can attest. The method soon found favor for the investigation of patients with so-called solid tumors. These trails were originally concerned with the elucidation of the value of various chemotherapeutic agents. Radiation therapists soon became involved, however, and this discipline became more heavily represented in study design and data analyses. Much radiation therapy information has been gained, some through prospective, randomized clinical investigations and some through retrospective reviews of roentgen therapy as it was employed in protocols accenting other aspects of care. Voluminous, important radiation therapy data have been deduced through the latter retrospective kinds of analyses, but this review will be confined largely to the published results of prospective, randomized cooperative clinical trials where radiation therapy was a governing variable. Certain investigations of historical interest will also be cited together with other results that established important principles even though not so rigorous in design

  20. Missense Mutations in CRYAB Are Liable for Recessive Congenital Cataracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Jiao

    Full Text Available This study was initiated to identify causal mutations responsible for autosomal recessive congenital cataracts in consanguineous familial cases.Affected individuals underwent a detailed ophthalmological and clinical examination, and slit-lamp photographs were ascertained for affected individuals who have not yet been operated for the removal of the cataractous lens. Blood samples were obtained, and genomic DNA was extracted from white blood cells. A genome-wide scan was completed with short tandem repeat (STR markers, and the logarithm of odds (LOD scores were calculated. Protein coding exons of CRYAB were sequenced, bi-directionally. Evolutionary conservation was investigated by aligning CRYAB orthologues, and the expression of Cryab in embryonic and postnatal mice lens was investigated with TaqMan probe.The clinical and ophthalmological examinations suggested that all affected individuals had nuclear cataracts. Genome-wide linkage analysis suggested a potential region on chromosome 11q23 harboring CRYAB. DNA sequencing identified a missense variation: c.34C>T (p.R12C in CRYAB that segregated with the disease phenotype in the family. Subsequent interrogation of our entire cohort of familial cases identified a second familial case localized to chromosome 11q23 harboring a c.31C>T (p.R11C mutation. In silico analyses suggested that the mutations identified in familial cases, p.R11C and p.R12C will not be tolerated by the three-dimensional structure of CRYAB. Real-time PCR analysis identified the expression of Cryab in mouse lens as early as embryonic day 15 (E15 that increased significantly until postnatal day 6 (P6 with steady level of expression thereafter.Here, we report two novel missense mutations, p.R11C and p.R12C, in CRYAB associated with autosomal recessive congenital nuclear cataracts.

  1. [Femtosecond laser in cataract surgery. A critical appraisal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menapace, R M; Dick, H B

    2014-01-01

    The use of femtosecond lasers (FSL) is increasingly spreading in cataract surgery. Potential advantages over standard manual cataract surgery are the superior precision of corneal incisions and capsular openings as well as the reduction of ultrasound energy for lens nucleus work-up. Exact positioning and dimensioning of the anterior capsular opening should help reduce decentration and tilt of the intraocular lens (IOL) optics and thus achieve better target refraction. Together with the possibility to correct low-grade corneal astigmatism by precise arcuate incision, FSL technology is expected to convert cataract surgery from a purely curative into a refractive procedure. Apart from own experiences this review article critically analyses the pertinent literature published so far as well as congress presentations and personal reports of other FSL surgeons. The advantages and disadvantages are scrutinized with regard to their impact on the surgical and refractive results and compared with those experienced by the authors with manual cataract surgery over several decades. Economic and healthcare political aspects are also addressed. The use of FSL surgery improves the precision and reproducibility of corneal incisions and the capsular opening and reduces the amount of ultrasound energy required for lens nucleus work-up. However, the clinical benefits must be put into perspective due to the subsequent surgical manipulation of the incisions (during lens emulsification, aspiration and IOL injection), the lacking possibility to visualize the crystalline lens equator as the reference for correct capsulotomy centration and the relativity of ultrasound energy consumption on the corneal endothelial trauma. This is of particular relevance against the background of the significantly higher costs. Conversely, tears of the anterior capsule edge which, apart from interfering with correct IOL positioning, may entail serious complications presently occur more frequently with all FSL

  2. Sub-Tenon's anaesthesia versus topical anaesthesia for cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Joanne; Sales, Karl

    2015-08-27

    significant, was probably too small to be of clinical relevance. The quality of the evidence was rated as high for intraoperative pain and moderate for pain at 24 hours. We did find differences in pain during administration of local anaesthetic (low level of evidence), and indications that surgeon satisfaction (low level of evidence) and participant satisfaction (moderate level of evidence) were less with topical anaesthesia. There was not enough evidence to say that one technique would result in a higher or lower incidence of intraoperative complications compared with the other. Both topical anaesthesia and sub-Tenon's anaesthesia are accepted and safe methods of providing anaesthesia for cataract surgery. An acceptable degree of intraoperative discomfort has to be expected with either of these techniques. Randomized controlled trials on the effects of various strategies to prevent intraoperative pain during cataract surgery could prove useful.

  3. The clinical demand for information and the radiation dose in pelvimetry and amniography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbrand, H.F.; Lindmark, G.; Ytterbergh, C.

    1982-01-01

    Radiographic measurements are an important part of antenatal care and are in fact used to a great extent in nulliparous women. In view of this clinical background and also for ethical reasons, reduction of the radiation doses is mandatory. As radiographic pelvimetry is used in so many pregnant women, it is of importance that no higher radiation doses are applied than are absolutely needed to guarantee correct and necessary information. Dose reduction is afforded in two different ways - by optimizing the imaging techniques and by closing a suitable film-screen combination. Measurement of absorbed doses in patients was carried out with highly sensitive lithium fluoride thermoluminiscence dosimeters (TLD) with a dimension of 3x3x0.9 mm (Harshaw type TLD-100). All TLD probes were calibrated with Co60 radiation between the measurement series. Absorbed radiation doses were measured in the rectum for different film-screen combinations. Depending on the position of the fetus in relation to the maternal pelvis, it is obvious that in any individual case varying parts of the fetus will lie directly in the radiation beam. In amniography the absorbed radiation doses will vary from case to case depending on the number of exposures, which should not exceed six, and the duration of fluoroscopy, which should be no longer than 1 min. With the use of lanex Regular screens and highly coned images the radiation dose will not exceed 3.0 mGy. Since a high image quality is mandatory for evaluation of disorders in the fetal skeleton, measurements were not performed with other high-speed screens. The MR 800 screen appears to provide further reduction of the radiation dose in this type of examination. (orig./MG)

  4. Conjunctival Goblet Cell Density Following Cataract Surgery With Diclofenac Versus Diclofenac and Rebamipide: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kumiko; Miyake, Kensaku; Kondo, Nagako; Asano, Sayaka; Takeda, Junko; Takahashi, Akiko; Takashima, Yuko; Kondo, Mineo

    2017-09-01

    To determine the effects of topical diclofenac or betamethasone with concomitant application of topical rebamipide on the conjunctival goblet cell density in eyes after cataract surgery. Randomized clinical trial. Eighty patients who were scheduled for cataract surgery. Patients were randomized into 4 groups according to the postoperative topical drugs to be given; Group A, diclofenac alone; Group B, diclofenac and rebamipide; Group C, betamethasone alone; and Group D, betamethasone and rebamipide. Impression cytology was performed before and at 1 month after the surgery, and the mean density of goblet cells was determined. The mean (± SD) density of goblet cells before the surgery in Group A was 257.0 ± 188.7 cells/mm 2 , and it decreased significantly to 86.5 ± 76.7 cells/mm 2 at 1 month after the surgery (P = .002). In Group B, the goblet cell density was not statistically different between before (238.5 ± 116.6 cells/mm 2 ) and at 1 month after the surgery (211.3 ± 184.4 cells/mm 2 , P = .55). In Groups C and D, the mean density of goblet cells was decreased at 1 month after the surgery, but the decreases were not significant (P = .11 and P = .52, respectively). After cataract surgery with postoperative topical diclofenac, the conjunctival goblet cell density was significantly reduced, and this reduction was blocked by the concomitant use of topical rebamipide. These results suggest that the concomitant use of topical rebamipide with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is beneficial, especially in cases with postoperative dry eyes. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Study on biological response to space radiation and its countermeasure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Suk; Kim, Jae Kyung; Park, Jong Heum; Kim, Jin Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    The purpose is to develop the core technologies for the advanced life supporting system based on radiation technology by 2015 and to be a member of G7 in the space technology research field. And it is the final aim that contribution for establishment of the self-supporting technology and national strength by 2020. To simulate the space environment of microgravity and expose to space radiation, denervation model was established in Gamma Phytotron. The changes in microflora population in animal model was shown. The effect of simulated microgravity and long-term exposure to irradiation was investigated. In the experiment of MARS 500, crews for expedition to Mars had been served by Korean space foods (Bulgogi, Bibimbap, Seaweed soup, Mulberry beverage, Kimchi, Sujeonggwa) for 120 days, then their immunity will be examined and compared with it on the ground.

  6. Study on biological response to space radiation and its countermeasure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Suk; Kim, Jae Kyung; Park, Jong Heum; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2011-12-01

    The purpose is to develop the core technologies for the advanced life supporting system based on radiation technology by 2015 and to be a member of G7 in the space technology research field. And it is the final aim that contribution for establishment of the self-supporting technology and national strength by 2020. To simulate the space environment of microgravity and expose to space radiation, denervation model was established in Gamma Phytotron. The changes in microflora population in animal model was shown. The effect of simulated microgravity and long-term exposure to irradiation was investigated. In the experiment of MARS 500, crews for expedition to Mars had been served by Korean space foods (Bulgogi, Bibimbap, Seaweed soup, Mulberry beverage, Kimchi, Sujeonggwa) for 120 days, then their immunity will be examined and compared with it on the ground

  7. Analysis of the clinical benefit of 5-fluorouracil and radiation treatment in locally advanced pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, Barbara J.; Perera, Francisco E.; Kocha, Walter; Tomiak, Anna; Taylor, Marianne; Vincent, Mark; Bauman, Glenn S.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the palliative benefit of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and radiotherapy in patients with surgically unresectable localized pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients with locally advanced surgically unresectable symptomatic pancreatic cancer received 5-FU chemotherapy and local radiation therapy. They were retrospectively reviewed in regard to their clinical benefit response (a composite of measurement of pain assessment, weight, and Karnofsky performance status [KPS]), as well as radiological response, time to progression, and overall survival. Results: Median survival for the 25 patients was 9 months and median progression-free survival was 6 months. Thirty-two percent of patients survived in excess of 1 year. Analgesic requirements increased >50% in 2 patients and KPS deteriorated in 10 patients. Of the 13 remaining patients, 2 sustained a >7% weight loss and 2 gained weight post-treatment. Six patients improved in one parameter of analgesic consumption, weight loss or KPS without deteriorating in any others. Thus, the clinical benefit response index for 5-FU-radiation was 6/25 (24%). In terms of tumor response, 8 patients (44%) demonstrated a reduction in tumor volume post-treatment, 4 of whom (22%) experienced a >50% reduction. Four additional patients had radiologically stable disease. Conclusion: In this retrospective analysis, the clinical benefit response index for 5-FU-radiation was 24%, a value similar to the 23.8% reported for single agent gemcitabine. The median survival of 7 months was also similar to the 5.65 months reported for gemcitabine. The radiological partial response rate of 22% and the 1-year survival of 32% were higher for 5-FU-radiation than the reported values for gemcitabine. A randomized trial would be necessary to compare 5-FU-radiation to gemcitabine directly; however, from this review it did not appear that the overall palliative benefit of 5-FU-radiation was inferior to gemcitabine

  8. Association of Clinical Response and Long-term Outcome Among Patients With Biopsied Orbital Pseudotumor Receiving Modern Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhu, Roshan S., E-mail: rprabhu@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Kandula, Shravan; Liebman, Lang [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Wojno, Ted H.; Hayek, Brent [Division of Oculoplastics, Orbital and Cosmetic Surgery, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Hall, William A.; Shu, Hui-Kuo; Crocker, Ian [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate institutional outcomes for patients treated with modern radiation therapy (RT) for biopsied orbital pseudotumor (OP). Methods and Materials: Twenty patients (26 affected orbits) with OP were treated with RT between January 2002 and December 2011. All patients underwent biopsy with histopathologic exclusion of other disease processes. Sixteen patients (80%) were treated with intensity modulated RT, 3 (15%) with opposed lateral beams, and 1 (5%) with electrons. Median RT dose was 27 Gy (range 25.2-30.6 Gy). Response to RT was evaluated at 4 months post-RT. Partial response (PR) was defined as improvement in orbital symptoms without an increase in steroid dose. Complete response (CR) 1 and CR 2 were defined as complete resolution of orbital symptoms with reduction in steroid dose (CR 1) or complete tapering of steroids (CR 2). The median follow-up period was 18.6 months (range 4-81.6 months). Results: Seventeen patients (85%) demonstrated response to RT, with 7 (35%), 1 (5%), and 9 (45%) achieving a PR, CR 1, and CR 2, respectively. Of the 17 patients who had ≥PR at 4 months post-RT, 6 (35%) experienced recurrence of symptoms. Age (>46 years vs ≤46 years, P=.04) and clinical response to RT (CR 2 vs CR 1/PR, P=.05) were significantly associated with pseudotumor recurrence. Long-term complications were seen in 7 patients (35%), including 4 with cataract formation, 1 with chronic dry eye, 1 with enophthalmos, and 1 with keratopathy. Conclusions: RT is an effective treatment for improving symptoms and tapering steroids in patients with a biopsy supported diagnosis of OP. Older age and complete response to RT were associated with a significantly reduced probability of symptom recurrence. The observed late complications may be related to RT, chronic use of steroids/immunosuppressants, medical comorbidities, or combination of factors.

  9. Association of Clinical Response and Long-term Outcome Among Patients With Biopsied Orbital Pseudotumor Receiving Modern Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhu, Roshan S.; Kandula, Shravan; Liebman, Lang; Wojno, Ted H.; Hayek, Brent; Hall, William A.; Shu, Hui-Kuo; Crocker, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate institutional outcomes for patients treated with modern radiation therapy (RT) for biopsied orbital pseudotumor (OP). Methods and Materials: Twenty patients (26 affected orbits) with OP were treated with RT between January 2002 and December 2011. All patients underwent biopsy with histopathologic exclusion of other disease processes. Sixteen patients (80%) were treated with intensity modulated RT, 3 (15%) with opposed lateral beams, and 1 (5%) with electrons. Median RT dose was 27 Gy (range 25.2-30.6 Gy). Response to RT was evaluated at 4 months post-RT. Partial response (PR) was defined as improvement in orbital symptoms without an increase in steroid dose. Complete response (CR) 1 and CR 2 were defined as complete resolution of orbital symptoms with reduction in steroid dose (CR 1) or complete tapering of steroids (CR 2). The median follow-up period was 18.6 months (range 4-81.6 months). Results: Seventeen patients (85%) demonstrated response to RT, with 7 (35%), 1 (5%), and 9 (45%) achieving a PR, CR 1, and CR 2, respectively. Of the 17 patients who had ≥PR at 4 months post-RT, 6 (35%) experienced recurrence of symptoms. Age (>46 years vs ≤46 years, P=.04) and clinical response to RT (CR 2 vs CR 1/PR, P=.05) were significantly associated with pseudotumor recurrence. Long-term complications were seen in 7 patients (35%), including 4 with cataract formation, 1 with chronic dry eye, 1 with enophthalmos, and 1 with keratopathy. Conclusions: RT is an effective treatment for improving symptoms and tapering steroids in patients with a biopsy supported diagnosis of OP. Older age and complete response to RT were associated with a significantly reduced probability of symptom recurrence. The observed late complications may be related to RT, chronic use of steroids/immunosuppressants, medical comorbidities, or combination of factors

  10. Trend of environmental radiation protection and its current related studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Reviewed are the international trend of environmental radiation protection (ERP), Japanese studies of radiation effects on environmental livings from aspects of ecosystem to molecular level, and the future view. ERP is particularly closed up toward promotion after its first involvement in the general global conference, UN Conference on Environment and Development (1992). International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) has conducted such actions for the environment as establishing protection essentials for non-human species (2003), organizing Committee 5 (2005), and defining Reference Animals and Plants (2008) where Derived Consideration Reference Levels of 0.1-100 mGy/d are proposed, together with cooperative actions by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and European projects. Japanese NIRS is now enrolled in the project of Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety-II (IAEA). Major Japanese studies of radiation effects on environmental livings have utilized killifish (medaka: Oryzias latipes), springtail, earthworm, nematode, cultured plant cell (cedar), poplar, etc. Studies of the radiation effect on microcosm consisting of 3 livings have led to establishing a model for mathematical analysis and of 8 livings, have defined 50% affect dose of 5600 Gy gamma-ray. Irradiation of gamma-ray at 1 Gy/d for 5-10 days to the soil has been shown to result in alteration of the composition of natural earth bacterial population by denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis, which being a promising tool for evaluating the alteration of soil composition and function. At molecular levels, transcriptome analysis of various cells from yeast to man, is performed after irradiation of gamma-ray, neutron, heavy particles and others to reveal radiation-induced gene expression; and Hi-CEP (high

  11. Radiation. It is all one and the same. Psychological aspects of electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Berg, G.P.

    1997-01-01

    It is clear that the effects of electromagnetic radiation from power transmission lines and radio/TV-towers on public health are minor. Compared to those minor effects the attention from the media and the public anxiety for this subject is out of all proportions. However, this is understandable while the reaction to the complaints often is inadequate. There appears to be a large difference between the official risk assessment and the public perception of the risks of electromagnetic radiation. 1 fig., 12 refs

  12. The limiting dose rate and its importance in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakkiam, D.; Sonwani, Swetha; Arul Ananthakumar, A.; Mohankumar, Mary N.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of defining a low dose of ionizing radiation still remains unclear. Before attempting to define a low dose, it is more important to define a low-dose rate since effects at low dose-rates are different from those observed at higher dose-rates. Hence, it follows that low dose-rates rather than a low dose is an important criteria to determine radio-biological effects and risk factors i.e. stochastic health effects. Chromosomal aberrations induced by ionizing radiations are well fitted by quadratic model Y= áD + âD 2 + C with the linear coefficient of dose predominating for high LET radiations and low doses of low LET. At higher doses and dose rates of sparsely ionizing radiation, break pairs produced by inter-track action leads to the formation of exchange type aberrations and is dependent on dose rate. Whereas at lower doses and dose rates, intra-track action produces break pairs and resulting aberrations are in direct proportion to absorbed dose and independent of dose rate. The dose rate at which inter-track ceases to be observable and where intra-track action effectively becomes the sole contributor of lesion-pair formation is referred to as limiting dose rate (LDR). Once the LDR is reached further reduction in dose rates will not affect the slope of DR since breaks produced by independent charged particle tracks are widely separated in time to interact with each other for aberration yield. This linear dependency is also noticed for acute exposures at very low doses. Existing reports emphasizes the existence of LDR likely to be e6.3cGyh -1 . However no systematic studies have been conducted so far to determine LDR. In the present investigation DR curves were constructed for the dose rates 0.002 and 0.003 Gy/min and to define LDR at which a coefficient approaches zero. Extrapolation of limiting low dose rate data can be used to predict low dose effects regardless of dose rate and its definition ought to serve as a useful index for studies pertaining

  13. Ionizing radiation induced genomic instability and its relation to radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhongwen

    2000-01-01

    There are widespread testimonies that the genomic instability induced by ionizing irradiation exits in mammal and its vitro cells. Genomic instability can enhance the frequency of genetic changes among the progeny of the original irradiated cells. In the radiation-leukemogenesis, there is no significant difference between controls and CBA/H mouses of PPI (preconception patent irradiation), but the offsprings of the PPI recipients show a different character (shorter latent period and higher incidence) after an extra γ-radiation. The radiation-induced genomic instability may get the genome on the verge of mutation and lead to carcinogens following mutation of some critical genes. The genomic instability, as the early event of initiation of carcinomas, may be play a specific or unique role

  14. Clinical course of brain stroke in the persons exposed to ionizing radiation under the production conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchmanov, A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose was to study the risk factors and clinical course of brain strokes in professionally exposed workers being employed in plutonium production in comparison with a control group. The method and materials of study -clinical supervision and clinical database creation on 162 cases of brain stroke (128 males and 34 females) developed among professionally exposed workers. Age of patient varied from 21 to 68 years (in average -51.6 y.). The control group consisted of patients with the same diagnosis, worked on the same enterprise, but non-exposed to radiation. Data on the totally accumulated dose of external gamma radiation were received on the base of the individual dosimeters (from 0.1 cSv to 52 cSv, in average about 13 cSv); the plutonium-239 body content was estimated accordingly to the level of urine radionuclide excretion (from 0.4 kBq to 1.6 kBq, in average about 0.33 kBq). Muscle's hypertinsion and pathological great-toe reflexes in paretic legs and hands, hemianopsia, impressive and ataxic aphasia prevailed in the patients with ischemic brain strokes in system of internal carotid artery, exposed to radiation. The changes of muscle's tension, ataxia and nystagmus were marked more often in the professionals with ischemic brain strokes in system of vertebrobasilar artery. The illness proceeded more easy and with smaller frequency of frustration of consciousness and algesthesia, irrespective of a type ischemic brain strokes in the people exposed to ionizing radiation, than in patients of non-irradiated group. It was found that the arterial hypertension appeared to be the main risk factor for the brain stroke in both groups of patients (in 81.48% and 91.15% of cases). There was no marked differences in significance of risk factors and in main clinical parameters of various types of ischemic brain strokes among the patients professionally exposed to radiation in comparison with a control group. (author)

  15. Capabilities for Clinical Management of Radiation Injuries of the Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine (EMERCOM of Russia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksanin, S.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the capabilities for clinical management of radiation injuries available at the Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine (NRCERM) of the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defense, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters (EMERCOM). NRCERM is a federal state budgetary institution and the Russian Federation's head organization for providing medical assistance for persons overexposed to ionizing radiation, responders to radiation emergencies and people evacuated from radiation contaminated areas. As the WHO Collaborating Center for Treatment and Rehabilitation of Accident Recovery Workers of Nuclear and Other Disasters and a member of the WHO Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network (REMPAN), NRCERM is prepared to provide assistance and technical support in case of a radiation accident. For this purpose, NRCERM hospitals are equipped with technologically advanced facilities and possess well-trained specialist staff. (authors)

  16. Radiation converter scintillator screen and its manufacturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delattre, D.; Rougeot, H.; Tassin, C.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention concerns scintillating screens receiving X or gamma radiation and converting it in luminous photons. The screen comprises a needle structure scintillating material. Its concave surface is quite smooth. The screen is obtained by evaporation on a frame having a perfectly smooth convex surface; the constituting material has a thermal dilatation coefficient different from the scintillating material one. After evaporation, the scintillating screen is set apart from the frame by simple heating. It is used for radiological image intensifier tubes and scintigraphy tubes [fr

  17. Optimization of surgical treatment of cataract in patients with diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Lipatov, D.; Chistyakov, T.; Kuzmin, A.

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To compare different methods for surgical treatment of cataract in patients with diabetes melli-tus (DM) and substantiate the choice of its optimalmodality. Materials and methods. Analysis included data on 209 patients (221 eyes) treated from January 2008 to December 2009 in the Department ofRetinopathy and Ophthalmosurgey, Endocrinological Research Centre. Diabetic cataract was managed using UNIVERSAL-II, LEGACY EVEREST,and INFINITI phacoemulsifiers. Parameters studied inc...

  18. Fear of falling and associated factors in community elderly with cataracts

    OpenAIRE

    Cascalho, Lorena de Andrade; Paz, Leonardo Petrus da Silva; Romão, Juliana de Faria Fracon e; Menezes, Ruth Losada de

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate prevalence of the fear of falling of elderly with cataracts living in the community and the associated factors with high concern with falling occurrences. Methods: A cross-sectional, analytical and observational study. It was composed by 86 elderly diagnosed with bilateral cataracts. To quantify the fear of falling among elderly, the scale Falls Efficacy Scale-International-Brasil (FES-I-BRASIL) was used. Other variables were obtained through application o...

  19. Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about radiation risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, Jolyon H; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Burkart, Werner; Simon, Steven L; Wojcik, Andrzej; Cardis, Elisabeth; Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot; Hayata, Isamu

    2009-01-01

    Natural radiation is the major source of human exposure to ionising radiation, and its largest contributing component to effective dose arises from inhalation of 222 Rn and its radioactive progeny. However, despite extensive knowledge of radiation risks gained through epidemiologic investigations and mechanistic considerations, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure are still poorly understood. The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations living in high natural background radiation (HNBR) areas (Guarapari, Brazil; Kerala, India; Ramsar, Iran; Yangjiang, China), including radon-prone areas, to low dose risk estimation. Much of the direct information about risk related to HNBR comes from case-control studies of radon and lung cancer, which provide convincing evidence of an association between long-term protracted radiation exposures in the general population and disease incidence. The success of these studies is mainly due to the careful organ dose reconstruction (with relatively high doses to the lung), and to the fact that large-scale collaborative studies have been conducted to maximise the statistical power and to ensure the systematic collection of information on potential confounding factors. In contrast, studies in other (non-radon) HNBR areas have provided little information, relying mainly on ecological designs and very rough effective dose categorisations. Recent steps taken in China and India to establish cohorts for follow-up and to conduct nested case-control studies may provide useful information about risks in the future, provided that careful organ dose reconstruction is possible and information is collected on potential confounding factors.

  20. Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about radiation risks?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendry, Jolyon H; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Burkart, Werner [Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Simon, Steven L [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Wojcik, Andrzej [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Cardis, Elisabeth [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar) and CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica - CIBERESP, Barcelona (Spain); Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot [Radiobiology and Epidemiology Department, Radiological and Human Health Division, Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Hayata, Isamu [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)], E-mail: jhendry2002uk@yahoo.com

    2009-06-01

    Natural radiation is the major source of human exposure to ionising radiation, and its largest contributing component to effective dose arises from inhalation of {sup 222}Rn and its radioactive progeny. However, despite extensive knowledge of radiation risks gained through epidemiologic investigations and mechanistic considerations, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure are still poorly understood. The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations living in high natural background radiation (HNBR) areas (Guarapari, Brazil; Kerala, India; Ramsar, Iran; Yangjiang, China), including radon-prone areas, to low dose risk estimation. Much of the direct information about risk related to HNBR comes from case-control studies of radon and lung cancer, which provide convincing evidence of an association between long-term protracted radiation exposures in the general population and disease incidence. The success of these studies is mainly due to the careful organ dose reconstruction (with relatively high doses to the lung), and to the fact that large-scale collaborative studies have been conducted to maximise the statistical power and to ensure the systematic collection of information on potential confounding factors. In contrast, studies in other (non-radon) HNBR areas have provided little information, relying mainly on ecological designs and very rough effective dose categorisations. Recent steps taken in China and India to establish cohorts for follow-up and to conduct nested case-control studies may provide useful information about risks in the future, provided that careful organ dose reconstruction is possible and information is collected on potential confounding factors.

  1. Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about radiation risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Jolyon H; Simon, Steven L; Wojcik, Andrzej; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Burkart, Werner; Cardis, Elisabeth; Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot; Hayata, Isamu

    2014-01-01

    Natural radiation is the major source of human exposure to ionising radiation, and its largest contributing component to effective dose arises from inhalation of 222Rn and its radioactive progeny. However, despite extensive knowledge of radiation risks gained through epidemiologic investigations and mechanistic considerations, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure are still poorly understood. The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations living in high natural background radiation (HNBR) areas (Guarapari, Brazil; Kerala, India; Ramsar, Iran; Yangjiang, China), including radon-prone areas, to low dose risk estimation. Much of the direct information about risk related to HNBR comes from case–control studies of radon and lung cancer, which provide convincing evidence of an association between long-term protracted radiation exposures in the general population and disease incidence. The success of these studies is mainly due to the careful organ dose reconstruction (with relatively high doses to the lung), and to the fact that large-scale collaborative studies have been conducted to maximise the statistical power and to ensure the systematic collection of information on potential confounding factors. In contrast, studies in other (non-radon) HNBR areas have provided little information, relying mainly on ecological designs and very rough effective dose categorisations. Recent steps taken in China and India to establish cohorts for follow-up and to conduct nested case–control studies may provide useful information about risks in the future, provided that careful organ dose reconstruction is possible and information is collected on potential confounding factors. PMID:19454802

  2. [Rehabilitation methods for children with complicated cataract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, G; Cuşnir, V; Septichina, Natalia; Cuşnir, Vitalie

    2010-01-01

    The work deals with the results of surgical treatment of 155 patients, who had uveal cataract, by method of facoemulsification with artificial crystalline lens transplanting. The age of the sick varied from 3 to 15 as a result of a complex treatment, involving determination of ethnic factor in the development of uveal cataract, before- and after-operation conservative medical treatment, surgical treatment of abscuration ambliopia 78.1% children and the keenness of sight 0.4 and 68.7% got binocularious sight. The study lot of posttraumatic cataract affected children included 189 patients, from them 68 with stationary cataract, 87 with intumescent cataract and 34 with postoperatorial aphakia. Age from 2 to 15 years. 76.3% cases of evolution without postoperatorial complications, in 13.7% intraoperatorial were observed different complications. The work presents the results of surgical treatment 196 of children, who had innate cataract, by the method of facoasoriation with soft intra-eyepiece lens transplanting from 133 patients who had two-sided cataract, 63 had monolateral cataract. All children underwent laser simulation and videocomputer auto-training in post-operation period. As a result of the treatment, 66.8% patients got the amelioration of sight with 0.4, and 58% got binocular sight. The children's age varied between 6 months and 15 years. This article presents a review of the treatment results of 213 children with posttraumatic, congenital and complicated cataracts. The rehabilitation of the patients with the lens pathology includes a complex of measures of early diagnosis, surgery, optimal correction, medical treatment before and after surgery, the prophilaxis and treatment of complications. This approach permits to increase the visual acuity in 83.8% and to restore the binocular vision in 71.4% patients.

  3. The social construction of paediatric cataract: how parents make sense of their child’s condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Krishnatray

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionChildhood cataract, congenital and traumatic, is the most common treatable cause of childhood blindness, being responsible for 10 to 30 per cent of all childhood blindness. Preventing blindness from childhood cataract requires not only high-quality paediatric surgery, but also an awareness of parents’ understanding of the eye problem, and why they might not agree to surgery for their child. Several studies have examined the medical and social aspects of childhood cataract. Foster et al.1 point out that childhood blindness has huge socio-economic costs, and restoring the sight of one child blind from cataract is considered equivalent to restoring the sight of 10 elderly adults. It is therefore crucial that we understand why parents might not take up the option of surgery.

  4. Survey of Tsuruga inhabitants concerning radiation and its risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoda, Yoshihiko; Yamano, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident has led to changes in the acceptance of nuclear power in many people. The authors conducted an opinion survey of 300 adult inhabitants of Tsuruga city in Fukui prefecture, Japan. The aim of this survey is to obtain people's opinions concerning radiation and its risks. Authors classified Tsuruga inhabitants on the basis of responses to questions on the concept and knowledge of risk and the cognition of radiation by factor and cluster analyses of multivariable analysis. Using the results of these analyses, Tsuruga inhabitants have been assigned to five categories: “acceptance group,” “anxiety group,” and three intermediate groups. (author)

  5. Radiation risk and its estimation for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, F.W.

    1979-01-01

    The level of knowledge achieved in estimating risks due to the operation of nuclear facilities is discussed. In this connection it is analyzed to what extent risk estimates may be used for establishing requirements for facilities and measures of radiation protection and accident prevention. At present, estimates of risks are subject to great uncertainties. However, the results attainable already permit to discern the causes of possible accidents and to develop effective measures for preventing such accidents. For the time being (and maybe in principle) risk estimation is possible only with more or less arbitrary premises. Within the foreseeable future, cost-benefit comparisons cannot compensate for discretionary decisions in establishing requirements for measures of radiation protection and accident prevention. In preparing such decisions based on experience, expert opinions, political and socio-economic reflections and views, comparison of the risk of novel technologies with existing ones or accepted risks may be a useful means. (author)

  6. Sutureless Cataract Surgery: Principles and Steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Sandford-Smith

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cataracts cause about 50% of world blindness. There is little likelihood of effective prevention becoming available in the next few years and so the only treatment will remain surgical. For many of the other major causes of world blindness, like trachoma, xerophthalmia and onchocerciasis, the remedy is community-based, not hospital-based, and requires prevention rather than treatment. The prevalence of blinding cataract will only increase as people live longer, so cataract will continue to be, by far, the most important treatable cause of blindness.

  7. Radiation risk and protection of patients in clinical SPECT/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brix, Gunnar; Nekolla, Elke A.; Nosske, Dietmar [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department of Medical and Occupational Radiation Protection, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Borowski, Markus [Klinikum Braunschweig, Institute of Radiation Diagnostics and Nuclear Medicine, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Clinical studies have demonstrated that hybrid single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT for various diagnostic issues has an added value as compared to SPECT alone. However, the combined acquisition of functional and anatomical images can substantially increase radiation exposure to patients, in particular when using a hybrid system with diagnostic CT capabilities. It is, therefore, essential to carefully balance the diagnostic needs and radiation protection requirements. To this end, the evidence on health effects induced by ionizing radiation is outlined. In addition, the essential concepts for estimating radiation doses and lifetime attributable cancer risks associated with SPECT/CT examinations are presented taking into account both the new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) as well as the most recent radiation risk models. Representative values of effective dose and lifetime attributable risk are reported for ten frequently used SPECT radiopharmaceuticals and five fully diagnostic partial-body CT examinations. A diagnostic CT scan acquired as part of a combined SPECT/CT examination contributes considerably to, and for some applications even dominates, the total patient exposure. For the common SPECT and CT examinations considered in this study, the lifetime attributable risk of developing a radiation-related cancer is less than 0.27 %/0.37 % for men/women older than 16 years, respectively, and decreases markedly with increasing age at exposure. Since there is no clinical indication for a SPECT/CT examination unless an emission scan has been indicated, the issue on justification comes down to the question of whether it is necessary to additionally acquire a low-dose CT for attenuation correction and anatomical localization of tracer uptake or even a fully diagnostic CT. In any case, SPECT/CT studies have to be optimized, e.g. by adapting dose reduction measures from state-of-the-art CT practice, and

  8. Detailed prospective peer review in a community radiation oncology clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James D; Chesnut, Thomas J; Eastham, David V; Demandante, Carlo N; Hoopes, David J

    In 2012, we instituted detailed prospective peer review of new cases. We present the outcomes of peer review on patient management and time required for peer review. Peer review rounds were held 3 to 4 days weekly and required 2 physicians to review pertinent information from the electronic medical record and treatment planning system. Eight aspects were reviewed for each case: 1) workup and staging; 2) treatment intent and prescription; 3) position, immobilization, and simulation; 4) motion assessment and management; 5) target contours; 6) normal tissue contours; 7) target dosimetry; and 8) normal tissue dosimetry. Cases were marked as, "Meets standard of care," "Variation," or "Major deviation." Changes in treatment plan were noted. As our process evolved, we recorded the time spent reviewing each case. From 2012 to 2014, we collected peer review data on 442 of 465 (95%) radiation therapy patients treated in our hospital-based clinic. Overall, 91 (20.6%) of the cases were marked as having a variation, and 3 (0.7%) as major deviation. Forty-two (9.5%) of the cases were altered after peer review. An overall peer review score of "Variation" or "Major deviation" was highly associated with a change in treatment plan (P peer review. Indicators on position, immobilization, simulation, target contours, target dosimetry, motion management, normal tissue contours, and normal tissue dosimetry were significantly associated with a change in treatment plan. The mean time spent on each case was 7 minutes. Prospective peer review is feasible in a community radiation oncology practice. Our process led to changes in 9.5% of cases. Peer review should focus on technical factors such as target contours and dosimetry. Peer review required 7 minutes per case. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Microscope Integrated Intraoperative Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Cataract Surgery: Uses and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudeep; Kummelil, Mathew Kurian; Kharbanda, Varun; Arora, Vishal; Nagappa, Somshekar; Shetty, Rohit; Shetty, Bhujang K

    2016-05-01

    To demonstrate the uses and applications of a microscope integrated intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography in Micro Incision Cataract Surgery (MICS) and Femtosecond Laser Assisted Cataract Surgery (FLACS). Intraoperative real time imaging using the RESCAN™ 700 (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Oberkochen, Germany) was done for patients undergoing MICS as well as FLACS. The OCT videos were reviewed at each step of the procedure and the findings were noted and analyzed. Microscope Integrated Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography was found to be beneficial during all the critical steps of cataract surgery. We were able to qualitatively assess wound morphology in clear corneal incisions, in terms of subclinical Descemet's detachments, tears in the inner or outer wound lips, wound gaping at the end of surgery and in identifying the adequacy of stromal hydration, for both FLACS as well as MICS. It also enabled us to segregate true posterior polar cataracts from suspected cases intraoperatively. Deciding the adequate depth of trenching was made simpler with direct visualization. The final position of the intraocular lens in the capsular bag and the lack of bioadhesivity of hydrophobic acrylic lenses were also observed. Even though Microscope Integrated Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography is in its early stages for its application in cataract surgery, this initial assessment does show a very promising role for this technology in the future for cataract surgery both in intraoperative decision making as well as for training purposes.

  10. A survey of clinical performance skills requirements in medical radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowntree, P.A.; Veitch, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper outlines the reasons behind carry out a study of clinical performance skills requirements and the method being used to gather data. It describes the changes which have occurred in radiographer education in Queensland, the broader impact brought about by changes in professional body requirements and the development of a Competency based Standards Document for the profession. The paper provides examples of the survey design and layout being developed for distribution to third year students in the Medical Imaging Technology major of the Bachelor of Applied Science (Medical Radiation Technology) Queensland University of Technology, graduates and clinical departments in Queensland. 1 tab., 1 fig

  11. Cataracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NEI Intranet (Employees Only) *PDF files require the free Adobe® Reader® software for viewing. This website is maintained by the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this website can be addressed ...

  12. Povidone-Iodine Concentration and Dosing in Cataract Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, Jagger C; George, Mary J; Meyer, Dale R; Rosco, Michael G; Habib, Matthew M

    2018-05-17

    Iodine has been recognized as an effective bactericide since the 1800's, and povidone-iodine (PI) solution has been applied to the ocular surface and periocular skin since the 1980's to prevent endophthalmitis in cataract surgery. In vitro, PI solution kills bacteria very quickly at dilute concentrations (0.05-1.0%). In many instances, PI kills bacteria more quickly at these dilute concentrations than more conventional (5%-10%) concentrations. This is due to greater availability of diatomic free iodine in dilute solution, the bactericidal component of PI. The toxicity of PI, both in vitro and clinically has been shown to be related to concentration. Current American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) and the European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons (ESCRS) recommendations regarding PI use suggest using 5% PI prior to surgery. An alternative dosing strategy uses dilute PI repetitively throughout cataract surgery (0.25% every thirty seconds). We review the povidone-iodine literature with attention to basic science and use of dilute PI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Arcuate foramen and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakmark, O.; Gurdal, E.; Cavdar, S.; Ekinci, G.; Yildiz, E.

    2005-01-01

    The present study determines the degree of ossification of the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane in dry bone, plane lateral cervical spine radiographs and computer tomography (CT). The average length, width and the area of the arcuate foramen were measured on dry bone and on cervical CT. Further, age, gender and complaints of the patients of shoulder and arm pain, neck pain, headache, vertigo, and lacrimation in relation to the presence of bony complete or incomplete arcuate foramen were evaluated. From February 2004 to January 2005 60 dry atlases were obtained from the Anatomy Department, University of Marmara, Istanbul, Turkey and 416 lateral cervical spine radiographs were obtained from the Radiology department for neurological and orthopedic evaluations. Each complete arcuate foramen was calculated with the aid of Clemex Vision PE demo version computer program. Among the 60 dry atlases examined 7 (11.7%) had complete and 2 (3.3 %) had incomplete bony bridge formation. Of the 416 plane lateral cervical spine radiographs examined, 30 (7.2%) had complete and 26 (6.25%) had incomplete bony bridge formation. Of the 30 complete arcuate foramen 24 (80%) were females and 6 (20%) were males. The frequency of having a complete arcuate foramen in females was 8.45%, and in males it was 4.55%. Further, of the 26 incomplete arcuate foramen 20 (76.9%) were females and 6 (23.1%) were males. The frequency of having an incomplete arcuate foramen in females was 7%, and in males was 4.55%. The statistical evaluations showed that patients with complete arcuate foramen had significant complaints of shoulder-arm pain (p=0.0072), neck pain (p=0.0072) and vertigo (p=0.0598) compared to patients with incomplete arcuate foramen. The patients with complete arcuate foramen had a headache ratio of 12:30 and this ratio was 2:26 in patients with incomplete arcuate foramen and the difference between complete and incomplete arcuate foramen was statistically significant (p=0.0062). Further