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Sample records for radiation build-up process

  1. Regularities of radiation defects build up on oxide materials surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitenbaev, M.I.; Polyakov, A.I.; Tuseev, T.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of experimental data by radiation defects study on different oxide elements (silicon, beryllium, aluminium, rare earth elements) irradiated by the photo-, gamma-, neutron-, alpha- radiation, protons and helium ions show, that gas adsorption process on the surface centers and radiation defects build up in metal oxide correlated between themselves. These processes were described by the equivalent kinetic equations for analysis of radiation defects build up in the different metal oxides. It was revealed in the result of the analysis: number of radiation defects are droningly increasing up to limit value with the treatment temperature growth. Constant of radicals death at ionizing radiation increases as well. Amount of surface defects in different oxides defining absorbing activity of these materials looks as: silicon oxide→beryllium oxide→aluminium oxide. So it was found, that most optimal material for absorbing system preparation is silicon oxide by it power intensity and berylium oxide by it adsorption efficiency

  2. Efforts to control radiation build-up in Ringhals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egner, K.; Aronsson, P.O.; Erixon, O. [Vattenfall AB, Vaeroebacka (Sweden)

    1995-03-01

    It is well known that good control of the primary chemistry in a PWR is essential in order to minimize material problems and fuel damages. It has also been well established that the water chemistry has a great influence on accumulation of corrosion products on the fuel and the radiation build-up on primary system surfaces. Ringhals was one of the pioneers to increase operating pH in order to reduce radiation build-up and has now been operating for ten years with pH at 7.4 or (in later years) 7.2. Our experience is favourable and includes low radiation levels in the new (1989) steam generators of Ringhals 2. Ringhals 4 has operated almost its whole life at pH 7.2 or higher and it remains one of the cleanest PWRs of its vintage. In addition to strict adherence to a stable operating chemistry, Ringhals is now working on a program with the aim to find optimum shut-down and start-up chemistry to reduce activity levels in the primary systems. A particular goal is to use the shut-down and start-up chemistry at the 1994 outage in Ringhals 3 in order to reduce doserates in preparation for the planned steam generator replacement in 1995. The paper summarizes the experience to date of the established operating chemistry, on-going tests with modified shut-down and start-up chemistry and other measures to limit or reduce the activity build-up.

  3. Efforts to control radiation build-up in Ringhals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egner, K.; Aronsson, P.O.; Erixon, O.

    1995-01-01

    It is well known that good control of the primary chemistry in a PWR is essential in order to minimize material problems and fuel damages. It has also been well established that the water chemistry has a great influence on accumulation of corrosion products on the fuel and the radiation build-up on primary system surfaces. Ringhals was one of the pioneers to increase operating pH in order to reduce radiation build-up and has now been operating for ten years with pH at 7.4 or (in later years) 7.2. Our experience is favourable and includes low radiation levels in the new (1989) steam generators of Ringhals 2. Ringhals 4 has operated almost its whole life at pH 7.2 or higher and it remains one of the cleanest PWRs of its vintage. In addition to strict adherence to a stable operating chemistry, Ringhals is now working on a program with the aim to find optimum shut-down and start-up chemistry to reduce activity levels in the primary systems. A particular goal is to use the shut-down and start-up chemistry at the 1994 outage in Ringhals 3 in order to reduce doserates in preparation for the planned steam generator replacement in 1995. The paper summarizes the experience to date of the established operating chemistry, on-going tests with modified shut-down and start-up chemistry and other measures to limit or reduce the activity build-up

  4. Building up the radiation protection infrastructure in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lust, Merle; Muru, Karin

    2008-01-01

    This paper will provide a timeline overview of the of radiation protection infrastructure following the 1999 declaration of independence. In Estonia, an independent competent authority was inaugurated in 1996 and the first Radiation Act was approved by Parliament the following year, in 1997. This paper will address several important factors and the means which promoted development. International cooperation was and remains an essential factor worthy of discussion. For example participation in International Atomic Energy Agency technical co-operation programme and co-operation with neighbouring countries greatly facilitated greatly the development. Political choices and the long term goal of accession to the European Union had great importance to the process also. Today, the Republic of Estonia is member of European Union and has built up a well functioning radiation protection system according the international standards and requirements. This paper is intended to share the experience and to facilitate the learning process. (author)

  5. Regularities of radiation defects build up on oxide materials surface; Zakonomernosti nakopleniya radiatsionnykh defektov na poverkhnosti oksidnykh materialov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitenbaev, M I; Polyakov, A I [Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst., Almaty (Kazakhstan); Tuseev, T [Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2005-07-01

    Analysis of experimental data by radiation defects study on different oxide elements (silicon, beryllium, aluminium, rare earth elements) irradiated by the photo-, gamma-, neutron-, alpha- radiation, protons and helium ions show, that gas adsorption process on the surface centers and radiation defects build up in metal oxide correlated between themselves. These processes were described by the equivalent kinetic equations for analysis of radiation defects build up in the different metal oxides. It was revealed in the result of the analysis: number of radiation defects are droningly increasing up to limit value with the treatment temperature growth. Constant of radicals death at ionizing radiation increases as well. Amount of surface defects in different oxides defining absorbing activity of these materials looks as: silicon oxide{yields}beryllium oxide{yields}aluminium oxide. So it was found, that most optimal material for absorbing system preparation is silicon oxide by it power intensity and berylium oxide by it adsorption efficiency.

  6. Characterizing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon build-up processes on urban road surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Liang; Liu, An; Li, Dunzhu; Zhang, Lixun; Guan, Yuntao

    2016-01-01

    Reliable prediction models are essential for modeling pollutant build-up processes on urban road surfaces. Based on successive samplings of road deposited sediments (RDS), this study presents empirical models for mathematical replication of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) build-up processes on urban road surfaces. The contaminant build-up behavior was modeled using saturation functions, which are commonly applied in US EPA's Stormwater Management Model (SWMM). Accurate fitting results were achieved in three typical urban land use types, and the applicability of the models was confirmed based on their acceptable relative prediction errors. The fitting results showed high variability in PAH saturation value and build-up rate among different land use types. Results of multivariate data and temporal-based analyses suggested that the quantity and property of RDS significantly influenced PAH build-up. Furthermore, pollution sources, traffic parameters, road surface conditions, and sweeping frequency could synthetically impact the RDS build-up and RDS property change processes. Thus, changes in these parameters could be the main reason for variations in PAH build-up in different urban land use types. - Highlights: • Sufficient robust prediction models were established for analysis of PAH build-up on urban road surfaces. • PAH build-up processes showed high variability among different land use types. • Pollution sources as well as the quantity and property of RDS mainly influenced PAH build-up. - Sufficient robust prediction models were established for analysis of PAH build-up on urban road surfaces. Pollution sources as well as the quantity and property of RDS mainly influenced PAH build-up.

  7. Radiation Build-Up Of High Energy Gamma In Shielding Of High Atomic Number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuliati, Helfi; Akhadi, Mukhlis

    2000-01-01

    Research to observe effect of radiation build-up factor (b) in iron (Fe) and lead (Pb) for high energy gamma shielding from exp.137 Cs (E gamma : 662 keV) and exp.60 Co (E gamma : 1332 keV) sources has been carried out. Research was conducted bt counting of radiation intensity behind shielding with its thickness vary from 1 to 5 times of half value thickness (HVT). NaI (TI) detector which connected to multi channel analyzer (MCA) was used for the counting. Calculation result show that all of b value are near to 1 (b∼1) both for Fe and Pb. Without inserting b in calculation, from the experiment it was obtained HVT value of Fe for high gamma radiation of 662 and 1332 keV were : (12,94 n 0,03) mm and (17,33 n 0,01) mm with their deviation standards were 0,2% and 0,06% respectively. Value of HVT for Pb with the same energy were : (6,31 n 0,03) mm and (11,86 n 0,03) mm with their deviation standars were : 0,48% and 0,25% respectively. HVL concept could be applied directly to estimate shielding thickness of high atomic number of high energy gamma radiation, without inserting correction of radiation build-up factor

  8. Radiation Build-Up In Shielding Of Low Activity High Energia Gamma Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helfi-Yuliati; Mukhlis-Akhadi

    2003-01-01

    Research to observe radiation build-up factor (b) in aluminium (Al), iron (Fe) and lead (Pb) for shielding of gamma radiation of high energy from 137 cs (E γ : 662 keV) source and 60 Co (E γ : 1332 keV) of low activity sources has been carried out. Al with Z =13 represent metal of low atomic number, Fe with Z =26 represent metal of medium atomic number, and Pb with Z = 82 represent metal of high atomic number. Low activity source in this research is source which if its dose rate decrease to 3 % of its initial dose rate became safe for the workers. Research was conducted by counting of radiation intensity behind shielding with its thickness vary from 1 to 5 times of half value thickness (HVT). NaI(TI) detector which connected to multi channel analyzer (MCA) was used for the counting. Calculation result show that all of b value are close to 1 (b ∼ 1) for all kinds of metals. No radiation build-up factor is required in estimating the shielding thickness from several kinds of metals for low activity of high energy gamma source. (author)

  9. French experience to reduce radiation field build-up and improve nuclear fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomazet, J.; Beslu, P.; Noe, M.; Stora, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    Over these last years, considerable information has been obtained on primary coolant chemistry, activity build-up and nuclear fuel behavior. As of December 1982, twenty three 900 MWe type reactors were in operation in France and about 1.3 millions of rods had been loaded in power reactors among which six regions of 17x17 fuel assemblies had completed successfully their third cycle of irradiation with a lead assembly burn-up of 37,000 MWd/MtU. Visual examination shows that crud deposited on fuel clads is mostly thin or inexistent. This result is due to the appropriate B/Li coolant concentration control which is currently applied in French reactors since several years. Correlatively, radiation field build-up is minimized and excessive external corrosion has never been observed. Nevertheless for higher coolant temperature plants, where occurrence of nucleate boiling could increase crud deposition, and for load follow and high burn-up operation, an extensive programme is performed jointly by Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Electricite de France, FRAMATOME and FRAGEMA to reduce even more the radiation field. This programme, described in the paper, includes: loop tests; on site chemical and radiochemical surveys; radiation field measurements; on site fuel examination crud-scrapping, crud analysis and oxide thickness measurements; hot cells examination. Some key results are presented and discussed in this paper. (author)

  10. Processing ultrasonic inspection data from multiple scan patterns for turbine rotor weld build-up evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xuefei; Rasselkorde, El Mahjoub; Abbasi, Waheed; Zhou, S. Kevin

    2015-03-01

    The study presents a data processing methodology for weld build-up using multiple scan patterns. To achieve an overall high probability of detection for flaws with different orientations, an inspection procedure with three different scan patterns is proposed. The three scan patterns are radial-tangential longitude wave pattern, axial-radial longitude wave pattern, and tangential shear wave pattern. Scientific fusion of the inspection data is implemented using volume reconstruction techniques. The idea is to perform spatial domain forward data mapping for all sampling points. A conservative scheme is employed to handle the case that multiple sampling points are mapped to one grid location. The scheme assigns the maximum value for the grid location to retain the largest equivalent reflector size for the location. The methodology is demonstrated and validated using a realistic ring of weld build-up. Tungsten balls and bars are embedded to the weld build-up during manufacturing process to represent natural flaws. Flat bottomed holes and side drilled holes are installed as artificial flaws. Automatic flaw identification and extraction are demonstrated. Results indicate the inspection procedure with multiple scan patterns can identify all the artificial and natural flaws.

  11. Activity build-up on the circulation loops of boiling water reactors: Basics for modelling of transport and deposition processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covelli, B.; Alder, H.P.

    1988-03-01

    In the past 20 years the radiation field of nuclear power plant loops outside the core zone was the object of investigations in many countries. In this context test loops were built and basic research done. At our Institute PSI the installation of a LWR-contamination loop is planned for this year. This experimental loop has the purpose to investigate the complex phenomena of activity deposition from the primary fluid of reactor plants and to formulate analytical models. From the literature the following conclusions can be drawn: The principal correlations of the activity build-up outside the core are known. The plant specific single phenomena as corrosion, crud-transport, activation and deposit of cobalt in the oxide layer are complex and only partially understood. The operational experience of particular plants with low contaminated loops (BWR-recirculation loops) show that in principle the problem is manageable. The reduction of the activity build-up in older plants necessitates a combination of measures to modify the crud balance in the primary circuit. In parallel to the experimental work several simulation models in the form of computer programs were developed. These models have the common feature that they are based on mass balances, in which the exchange of materials and the sedimentation processes are described by global empirical transport coefficients. These models yield satisfactory results and allow parameter studies; the application however is restricted to the particular installation. All programs lack models that describe the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic mechanisms on the surface of deposition layers. Analytical investigations on fouling of process equipment led to models that are also applicable to the activity build-up in reactor loops. Therefore it seems appropriate to combine the nuclear simulation models with the fundamental equations for deposition. 10 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Process and equipment for pressure build-up in nuclear reactor fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heer, W.F.; Carli, E.V. de.

    1976-01-01

    The equipment makes possible the build-up of inert gas pressure in a filled and closed fuel can, i.e. in a complete fuel rod. Handling is simple, it is suitable for mass production and only causes low processing costs. The quality, e.g. the degree of purity of the contents of the rod, remains unchangedin processing. The equipment consists of a vacuum-tight space, into which the equally vacuum tight fuel rod is introduced, and can be fixed so that its position can be reproduced unmistakeably. The vacuum space contains a connection for the inert gases and a laser arrangement. After inserting a fuel rod into the facility, this is evacuated and the fuel can has a hole bored in it by a laser beam. After fast equalisation of pressure, an inert gas at the required pressure is introduced into the chamber and the fuel rod. After the filling process is completed, the fuel can is closed again with the same laser beam. The quality of the seal obtained, i.e the leak-tightness of the fuel can, can be checked after reduction of the inert gas pressure and before taking out the fuel rod, by repeated evacuation of the chamber. Laser light energies between 13,000 and 110,000 Joule/sq cm are sufficient. Optimum results were obtained for a Zircaloy fuel can with about 52,000 Joule/sq cm. (TK) [de

  13. How does the interaction between spelling and motor processes build up during writing acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Sonia; Perret, Cyril

    2015-03-01

    How do we recall a word's spelling? How do we produce the movements to form the letters of a word? Writing involves several processing levels. Surprisingly, researchers have focused either on spelling or motor production. However, these processes interact and cannot be studied separately. Spelling processes cascade into movement production. For example, in French, producing letters PAR in the orthographically irregular word PARFUM (perfume) delays motor production with respect to the same letters in the regular word PARDON (pardon). Orthographic regularity refers to the possibility of spelling a word correctly by applying the most frequent sound-letter conversion rules. The present study examined how the interaction between spelling and motor processing builds up during writing acquisition. French 8-10 year old children participated in the experiment. This is the age handwriting skills start to become automatic. The children wrote regular and irregular words that could be frequent or infrequent. They wrote on a digitizer so we could collect data on latency, movement duration and fluency. The results revealed that the interaction between spelling and motor processing was present already at age 8. It became more adult-like at ages 9 and 10. Before starting to write, processing irregular words took longer than regular words. This processing load spread into movement production. It increased writing duration and rendered the movements more dysfluent. Word frequency affected latencies and cascaded into production. It modulated writing duration but not movement fluency. Writing infrequent words took longer than frequent words. The data suggests that orthographic regularity has a stronger impact on writing than word frequency. They do not cascade in the same extent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Unexpected 226Ra build-up in wet-process phosphoric-acid plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lardinoye, M.H.; Weterings, K.; Berg, W.B. van de

    1982-01-01

    During an investigation of the distribution of radium and uranium over the different process streams in phosphoric-acid production and in the nitrophosphate route, a higher than average radiation level was detected in the vicinity of some piping and vessels near the gypsum filters. This higher radiation level is caused by radium which is present in very low concentrations in the phosphates used for fertilizer production. Detectable radiation levels around vessels and piping in other phosphoric-acid works have since been determined. In all factories the filter part and especially the washing-acid section showed the highest radiation level. In the piping of the gypsum filter, through which the washing acid is discharged, a scaling of barium sulphate and calcium sulphate with a higher radium concentration is formed. The radium ions appeared to be incorporated in the barium sulphate lattice, hence the solubility of the radium precipitate is very low. The danger of internal contamination in cleaning operations by radioactive intake or inhalation of radon is very small in the cases described. The risk of external radiation can be prevented by periodically cleaning the equipment in which the radioactive scaling is formed. (author)

  15. Unexpected /sup 226/Ra build-up in wet-process phosphoric-acid plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lardinoye, M.H.; Weterings, K. (Stamicarbon B.V., Geleen (Netherlands)); van de Berg, W.B. (Unie van Kunstmestfabrieken, Utrecht (Netherlands))

    1982-04-01

    During an investigation of the distribution of radium and uranium over the different process streams in phosphoric-acid production and in the nitrophosphate route, a higher than average radiation level was detected in the vicinity of some piping and vessels near the gypsum filters. This higher radiation level is caused by radium which is present in very low concentrations in the phosphates used for fertilizer production. Detectable radiation levels around vessels and piping in other phosphoric-acid works have since been determined. In all factories the filter part and especially the washing-acid section showed the highest radiation level. In the piping of the gypsum filter, through which the washing acid is discharged, a scaling of barium sulphate and calcium sulphate with a higher radium concentration is formed. The radium ions appeared to be incorporated in the barium sulphate lattice, hence the solubility of the radium precipitate is very low. The danger of internal contamination in cleaning operations by radioactive intake or inhalation of radon is very small in the cases described. The risk of external radiation can be prevented by periodically cleaning the equipment in which the radioactive scaling is formed.

  16. Unexpected 226Ra build-up in wet-process phosphoric-acid plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardinoye, M H; Weterings, K; van de Berg, W B

    1982-04-01

    During an investigation of the distribution of radium and uranium over the different process streams in phosphoric-acid production and in the nitrophosphate route, a higher than average radiation level was detected in the vicinity of some piping and vessels near the gypsum filtres. This higher radiation level is caused by radium, which, as a decay product in the 238U series, is present in very low concentrations (1-50 pCi 226R/g) in the phosphates used for fertilizer production. Specific research later on established that there were detectable radiation levels around vessels and piping in other phosphoric-acid works as well. It turned out that in all factories the filter part, and especially the washing-acid section showed the highest radiation-level. In the piping of the gypsum filter, through which the washing acid is discharged, a scaling of bariumsulphate and calciumsulphate with a higher radiumconcentration (+/- 0.1 Ci/g) is formed. The radium ions appeared to be incorporated in the bariumsulphate lattice, hence the solubility of the radium precipitate is very low. The danger of internal pollution, for example in cleaning operations by radio-active intake or inhallation of radon is very small in the cases described. The risk of external radiation can be prevented by periodically cleaning (every 1-3 yr) the equipment in which the radio-active scaling is formed.

  17. Unexpected /sup 226/Ra build-up in wet-process phosphoric-acid plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lardinoye, M.H.; Weterings, K.; van de Berg, W.B.

    1982-04-01

    During an investigation of the distribution of radium and uranium over the different process streams in phosphoric-acid production and in the nitrophosphate route, a higher than average radiation level was detected in the vicinity of some piping and vessels near the gypsum filtres. This higher radiation level is caused by radium, which, as a decay product in the /sup 238/U series, is present in very low concentrations (1-50 pCi 226R/g) in the phosphates used for fertilizer production. Specific research later on established that there were detectable radiation levels around vessels and piping in other phosphoric-acid works as well. It turned out that in all factories the filter part, and especially the washing-acid section showed the highest radiation-level. In the piping of the gypsum filter, through which the washing acid is discharged, a scaling of bariumsulfate and calciumsulfate with a higher radium concentration (+/- 0.1 Ci/g) is formed. The radium ions appeared to be incorporated in the bariumsulphate lattice, hence the solubility of the radium precipitate is very low. The danger of internal pollution, for example in cleaning operations by radioactive intake or inhalation of radon is very small in the cases described. The risk of external radiation can be prevented by periodically cleaning (every 1-3 yr) the equipment in which the radioactive scaling is formed.

  18. Education in radiation protection. How to maintain competence and build up trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahlbruch, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Education and Training in Radiation Protection is the most important key to maintain the competence necessary to handle radioactive material or to use ionizing radiation. This article gives a short overview of new developments concerning E and T in RP for different fields of applications in Germany and provides some ideas how competence can support the development of trust between stakeholders in order to ensure RP.

  19. A study of build-up effects in high-energy radiation fields using a TEPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefert, M; Stevenson, G R [CERN, European Laboratory for Particle Physics, Geneva (Switzerland); Aroua, A [IAR, Institute for Applied Radiophysics, Lausanne (Switzerland); Sannikov, A V [IHEP, Institute for High-Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation)

    1995-09-04

    A dose of 2 mSv close to the body surface of a pregnant woman is considered by ICRP to assure a dose limit of 1 mSv to the foetus. Such an assumption depends on the energy spectrum and composition of the external radiation field and it was tested in radiation fields containing high-energy particles similar to those found around high-energy particle accelerators and in air-craft. Measurements of dose and dose equivalent were performed as a function of wall thickness using a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) in radiation fields at the CERN-EU Reference Radiation Facility. Results are presented both with respect to integral quantities and event size spectra. The decrease in dose and dose equivalent at a depth equivalent to that of the foetus was typically 10% in a high-energy stray radiation field and in the case of PuBe source neutrons amounted to only 30%. It is concluded that it would be prudent under such exposure conditions to limit the dose of a pregnant woman to 1 mSv in order to assure that the dose to the foetus remains below the same limit. (author)

  20. A study of build-up effects in high-energy radiation fields using a TEPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.; Stevenson, G.R.; Aroua, A.; Sannikov, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    A dose of 2 mSv close to the body surface of a pregnant woman is considered by ICRP to assure a dose limit of 1 mSv to the foetus. Such an assumption depends on the energy spectrum and composition of the external radiation field and it was tested in radiation fields containing high-energy particles similar to those found around high-energy particle accelerators and in air-craft. Measurements of dose and dose equivalent were performed as a function of wall thickness using a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) in radiation fields at the CERN-EU Reference Radiation Facility. Results are presented both with respect to integral quantities and event size spectra. The decrease in dose and dose equivalent at a depth equivalent to that of the foetus was typically 10% in a high-energy stray radiation field and in the case of PuBe source neutrons amounted to only 30%. It is concluded that it would be prudent under such exposure conditions to limit the dose of a pregnant woman to 1 mSv in order to assure that the dose to the foetus remains below the same limit. (author)

  1. An investigation of build-up effects in high energy radiation fields using a Handi TEPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aroua, A.; Sannikov, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    ICRP considers that a dose limit of 2 mSv close to the body surface of a pregnant woman will ensure a dose limit of 1 mSv to the foetus. This assumption depends on the energy spectrum and composition of the radiation fields, especially those containing high energy particles such as are found around particle accelerators or in aircraft. In this work the response of a tissue-equivalent proportional counter in radiation fields of different composition and energy was measured as a function of depth in cylindrical phantoms. The decrease in dose and dose equivalent at a phantom depth equivalent to that of a foetus was 10% in a typical high energy stray radiation field and 30% for neutrons from a Pu-Be source. It is concluded that it would be prudent in these cases to limit the exposure of a pregnant woman to 1 mSv in order to ensure that the dose to the foetus stays below the same limit. (Author)

  2. Evaluation of surface and build-up region dose for intensity-modulated radiation therapy in head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Heeteak; Jin, Hosang; Dempsey, James F.; Liu, Chihray; Palta, Jatinder; Suh, Tae-Suk; Kim, Siyong

    2005-01-01

    Despite much development, there remains dosimetric uncertainty in the surface and build-up regions in intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment plans for head and neck cancers. Experiments were performed to determine the dosimetric discrepancies in the surface and build-up region between the treatment planning system (TPS) prediction and experimental measurement using radiochromic film. A head and neck compression film phantom was constructed from two semicylindrical solid water slabs. Treatment plans were generated using two commercial TPSs (PINNACLE3 and CORVUS) for two cases, one with a shallow (∼0.5 cm depth) target and another with a deep (∼6 cm depth) target. The plans were evaluated for a 54 Gy prescribed dose. For each case, two pieces of radiochromic film were used for dose measurement. A small piece of film strip was placed on the surface and another was inserted within the phantom. Overall, both TPSs showed good agreement with the measurement. For the shallow target case, the dose differences were within ±300 cGy (5.6% with respect to the prescribed dose) for PINNACLE3 and ±240 cGy (4.4%) for CORVUS in 90% of the region of interest. For the deep target case, the dose differences were ±350 (6.5%) for PINNACLE3 and ±260 cGy (4.8%) for CORVUS in 90% of the region of interest. However, it was found that there were significant discrepancies from the surface to about 0.2 cm in depth for both the shallow and deep target cases. It was concluded that both TPSs overestimated the surface dose for both shallow and deep target cases. The amount of overestimation ranges from 400 to 1000 cGy (∼7.4% to 18.5% with respect to the prescribed dose, 5400 cGy)

  3. Build-up Factor Calculation for Ordinary Concrete, Baryte Concrete and Blast-furnace Slugges Concrete as γ Radiation Shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isman MT; Elisabeth Supriatni; Tochrul Binowo

    2002-01-01

    Calculation of build up factor ordinary concrete, baryte concrete and blast-furnace sludge concrete have been carried out. The calculations have been carried out by dose rate measurement of Cs 137 source before and after passing through shielding. The investigated variables were concrete type, thickness of concrete and relative possession of concrete. Concrete type variables are ordinary concrete, baryte concrete and blast sludge furnace concrete. The thickness variables were 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 cm. The relative position variables were dose to the source and close to detector. The result showed that concrete type and position did not have significant effect to build-up factor value, while the concrete thickness (r) and the attenuation coefficient (μ) were influenced to the build-up factor. The higher μr value the higher build-up factor value. (author)

  4. Process for prevention of water build-up in cryogenic distillation column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopewell, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    In a process for the separation of a hydrocarbon and acid gas containing feed stream in a cryogenic distillation column, a zone of the column which is operated at a temperature of 60 0 F or less, wherein free water accumulates or forms hydrates in the column from water vapor in the feed stream during the cryogenic process, and which process comprises separating the feed stream in the column into an overhead stream and a bottom stream, this patent describes the improvement which comprises: withdrawing a hydrocarbon and acid gas vapor stream which stream is enriched in water vapor with respect to the feed stream, thereby preventing the excess accumulation of free water or the formation of hydrates in the cryogenic column

  5. BUILD UP Skills Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsingdal, Charlotte Vartou; Lauridsen, Vagn Holk; Hougaard, Karsten Frøhlich

    opfyldelsen af 2020-målene, skal de rette kompetencer inden for energief-fektivitet og brug af vedvarende energi være til stede blandt de udførende i bygge- og an-lægsbranchen. Det er på denne baggrund, at Europa-Kommissionen har igangsat Build Up Skills projektet på tværs af Europa. Formålet med denne...

  6. Education in radiation protection. How to maintain competence and build up trust; Ausbildung im Strahlenschutz. Kompetenz erhalten, Vertrauen foerdern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahlbruch, J.W. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz

    2016-07-01

    Education and Training in Radiation Protection is the most important key to maintain the competence necessary to handle radioactive material or to use ionizing radiation. This article gives a short overview of new developments concerning E and T in RP for different fields of applications in Germany and provides some ideas how competence can support the development of trust between stakeholders in order to ensure RP.

  7. Study of the corrosion products in the primary system of PWR plants as the source of radiation fields build-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabant, R. van; Regge, P. de.

    1982-01-01

    In the first part the behaviour of the corrosion products in the primary system of PWR plants is depicted on the basis of a literature review of the field. Water chemistry, corrosion processes and activation of corrosion products are the main topics. In the second part the results of the characterization of corrosion particles in the primary coolant circuit of the Doel 1 and 2 reactors are described, during steady state operation and transient phases. In the third part the possibilities for radiation control at nuclear power plants are outlined. The filtration possibilities for the reactor coolant are explored in detail. (author)

  8. Radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Mod Ali

    2005-01-01

    This chapter covers the basic principle and application of radiation technology. The topic titled specific application discussed briefly the following subtopics: 1) Polymer modification - crosslinking, polymerisation, degradation, grafting; 2) Medical sterilisation; 3) Food irradiation; 4) Environmental protection - waste processing, pollutants treatment

  9. Energy absorption and exposure build-up factors in teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjunatha, H.C.; Rudraswamy, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Gamma and X-radiation are widely used in medical imaging and radiation therapy. The user of radioisotopes must have knowledge about how radiation interacts with matter, especially with the human body, because when photons enter the medium/body, they degrade their energy and build up in the medium, giving rise to secondary radiation which can be estimated by a factor which is called the 'build-up factor'. It is essential to study the exposure build up factor in radiation dosimetry. G.P. fitting method has been used to compute energy absorption and exposure build-up factor of teeth (enamel outer surface (EOS), enamel middle (EM), enamel dentin junction towards enamel (EDJE), enamel dentin junction towards dentin (EDJD), dentin middle (DM) and dentin inner surface (DIS)) for wide energy range (0.015 MeV-15 MeV) up to the penetration depth of 40 mean free path. The dependence of energy absorption and exposure build up factor on incident photon energy, Penetration depth and effective atomic number has also been assessed. The relative dose distribution at a distance r from the point source is also estimated. The computed exposure and absorption build-up factors are useful to estimate the gamma and Bremsstrahlung radiation dose distribution teeth which is useful in clinical dosimetry

  10. Build-up and management of transuranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, Kunihiko

    1984-01-01

    About 17,000,000 kW is generated by nuclear power station at present and this figure correspond to 20 % of total power generation in Japan, and is expected to increase year after year. Following the increase of power generation, build-up of Transuraium from nuclear power station will increase as a matter of course. In 2,000 AD; the build-up of Pu and TPu is expected to reach up to 200 T(TPu = 24 T). Effective management of TPu build-up is now an urgent problem Recycling of Pu and TPu including LWR-Pu recycling, ATR-Pu recycling and FBR-Pu recycling were investigated. In LWR-Pu recycling, recycling quantities of Pu and TPu, and generation of power increase following the repetition of recycling. In ATR-Pu recycling, the increase of TPu following recycling is more remakable than that of LWR-Pu recycling. On the contrary, in FBR-Pu recycling, TPu decreases following the repetition of recycling. The decrease of TPu is thought to be caused by extinction effect in FBR. All of these recycling are suitable for the utilization of Pu, but FBR-Pu recycling is most effective for utilization of Pu and decrease of TPu. Accordingly, when LWR or ATR recycling is applied, Pu shall be transferred to FBR after 1 - 2 recycling. For long-term management of TPu, recycling is not sufficient and some positive method such as oxtinction by strong neutron source like proton linear accelerator is necessary. Fundamental researches on nuclear fuel cycle, nuclide separation method and extinction process of TPu must be carried out. (Ishimitsu, A.)

  11. Perspective of radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Manwei

    1987-01-01

    The area of the applications of radiation techniques is very wide. This paper only relates to the applications of radiation techniques in industries including radiation chemical industry, radiation processing of foods and environmental protection by radiation, but the nuclear instruments and the instrumentations of radiation are out-side of our study. (author)

  12. Morphology, structure, composition and build-up processes of the active channel-mouth lobe complex of the Congo deep-sea fan with inputs from remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV) multibeam and video surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennielou, Bernard; Droz, Laurence; Babonneau, Nathalie; Jacq, Céline; Bonnel, Cédric; Picot, Marie; Le Saout, Morgane; Saout, Yohan; Bez, Martine; Savoye, Bruno; Olu, Karine; Rabouille, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    The detailed structure and composition of turbiditic channel-mouth lobes is still largely unknown because they commonly lie at abyssal water depths, are very thin and are therefore beyond the resolution of hull-mound acoustic tools. The morphology, structure and composition of the Congo turbiditic channel-mouth lobe complex (90×40 km; 2525 km2) were investigated with hull-mounted swath bathymetry, air gun seismics, 3.5 kHz sub-bottom profiler, sediment piston cores and also with high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and video acquired with a Remote Operating Vehicle (ROV). The lobe complex lies 760 km off the Congo River mouth in the Angola abyssal plain between 4740 and 5030 m deep. It is active and is fed by turbidity currents that deposit several centimetres of sediment per century. The lobe complex is subdivided into five lobes that have prograded. The lobes are dominantly muddy. Sand represents ca. 13% of the deposits and is restricted to the feeding channel and distributaries. The overall lobe body is composed of thin muddy to silty turbidites. The whole lobe complex is characterized by in situ mass wasting (slumps, debrites). The 1-m-resolution bathymetry shows pervasive slidings and block avalanches on the edges of the feeding channel and the channel mouth indicating that sliding occurs early and continuously in the lobe build-up. Mass wasting is interpreted as a consequence of very-high accumulation rates, over-steepening and erosion along the channels and is therefore an intrinsic process of lobe building. The bifurcation of feeding channels is probably triggered when the gradient in the distributaries at the top of a lobe becomes flat and when turbidity currents find their way on the higher gradient on the lobe side. It may also be triggered by mass wasting on the lobe side. When a new lobe develops, the abandoned lobes continue to collect significant turbiditic deposits from the feeding channel spillover, so that the whole lobe complex remains active. A

  13. Electron-Cloud Build-Up: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    I present a summary of topics relevant to the electron-cloud build-up and dissipation that were presented at the International Workshop on Electron-Cloud Effects 'ECLOUD 07' (Daegu, S. Korea, April 9-12, 2007). This summary is not meant to be a comprehensive review of the talks. Rather, I focus on those developments that I found, in my personal opinion, especially interesting. The contributions, all excellent, are posted in http://chep.knu.ac.kr/ecloud07/

  14. Radiation processing in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo

    2001-01-01

    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  15. Radiation processing in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  16. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both...... and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading...

  17. Industrial processing with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.

    1976-01-01

    The use of large isotopic radiation sources and accelerators in industry is reviewed. The advantages of various sources of ionizing radiation are indicated, and the development and present status of radiation technology are briefly described. Attention is given to the role played by radiation processing in the cross-linking of polymers as applied to cable insulation, artificial limbs and packaging materials, as well as for improving natural rubber. In addition, attention is given to radiation as a possible means of synthesizing polymers, of hardening non-conventional coatings and of manufacturing polymer-wood composites, thereby improving the properties of softwoods. The possibility of improving natural fibres by means of radiation is discussed, and attention is given to the important role already played by radiation in the sterilization of medical products. Finally, reference is made to the role which radiation can play in reducing food spoilage, as well as in making sewage sludge suitable for agricultural purposes [af

  18. Radiation processes in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Tucker, Wallace H

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this book is twofold: to provide a brief, simple introduction to the theory of radiation and its application in astrophysics and to serve as a reference manual for researchers. The first part of the book consists of a discussion of the basic formulas and concepts that underlie the classical and quantum descriptions of radiation processes. The rest of the book is concerned with applications. The spirit of the discussion is to present simple derivations that will provide some insight into the basic physics involved and then to state the exact results in a form useful for applications. The reader is referred to the original literature and to reviews for rigorous derivations.The wide range of topics covered is illustrated by the following table of contents: Basic Formulas for Classical Radiation Processes; Basic Formulas for Quantum Radiation Processes; Cyclotron and Synchrotron Radiation; Electron Scattering; Bremsstrahlung and Collision Losses; Radiative Recombination; The Photoelectric Effect; a...

  19. Radiation signal processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, M.; Knoll, G.; Strange, D.

    1980-01-01

    An improved signal processing system for radiation imaging apparatus comprises: a radiation transducer producing transducer signals proportional to apparent spatial coordinates of detected radiation events; means for storing true spatial coordinates corresponding to a plurality of predetermined apparent spatial coordinates relative to selected detected radiation events said means for storing responsive to said transducer signal and producing an output signal representative of said true spatial coordinates; and means for interpolating the true spatial coordinates of the detected radiation events located intermediate the stored true spatial coordinates, said means for interpolating communicating with said means for storing

  20. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both by international organizations (IAEA) and national laboratories have helped to improve the reliability of dose measurements. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading to traceable and reliable dosimetry are discussed. (author)

  1. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Boyd, A.W.; Chadwick, K.H.; McDonald, J.C.; Miller, A.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation processing is a relatively young industry with broad applications and considerable commercial success. Dosimetry provides an independent and effective way of developing and controlling many industrial processes. In the sterilization of medical devices and in food irradiation, where the radiation treatment impacts directly on public health, the measurements of dose provide the official means of regulating and approving its use. In this respect, dosimetry provides the operator with a means of characterizing the facility, of proving that products are treated within acceptable dose limits and of controlling the routine operation. This book presents an up-to-date review of the theory, data and measurement techniques for radiation processing dosimetry in a practical and useful way. It is hoped that this book will lead to improved measurement procedures, more accurate and precise dosimetry and a greater appreciation of the necessity of dosimetry for radiation processing. (author)

  2. Introduction to radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear technology such as γ-rays, electron beams and ion beams irradiation is widely used in industrial, medical and agricultural fields. The purpose of radiation application is aiming at increasing welfare and quality of our life. Radiation technology applied to medical care is widely known as X-ray diagnosis but the contribution of radiation processing to our daily life is not well known even though it is effectively used in industry and agriculture. The main radiation processing in industry is the modification of polymers, i.e. heat shrinkable tube, radial tire, plastic foam, etc. in a car, heat resistant wire and cable, semiconductor, floppy disk, etc. in a computer, and sterilization of medical devices. In Agriculture, radiation has been used in various fields such as food irradiation, sterile insect technique, mutation breeding, etc. contributing for human being to supply foods and sustainable environment. (author)

  3. Radiation processed polysaccharide products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Quoc Hien

    2007-01-01

    Radiation crosslinking, degradation and grafting techniques for modification of polymeric materials including natural polysaccharides have been providing many unique products. In this communication, typical products from radiation processed polysaccharides particularly plant growth promoter from alginate, plant protector and elicitor from chitosan, super water absorbent containing starch, hydrogel sheet containing carrageenan/CM-chitosan as burn wound dressing, metal ion adsorbent from partially deacetylated chitin were described. The procedures for producing those above products were also outlined. Future development works on radiation processing of polysaccharides were briefly presented. (author)

  4. Radiation processing and sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehisa, M.; Machi, S.

    1987-01-01

    This growth of commercial radiation processing has been largely dependent on the achievement in production of reliable and less expensive radiation facilities as well as the research and development effort for new applications. Although world statistics of the growth are not available, Figure 20-1 shows steady growth in the number of EBAs installed in Japan for various purposes. Growth rate of Co-60 sources supplied by AECL (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited), which supplied approximately 80% of the world market, approximately 10% per year, including future growth estimates. Potential applications of radiation processing under development are in environmental conservation (e.g., treatment of sewage sludge, waste water, and exhaust gases) and bioengineering (e.g., immobilization of bioactive materials). The authors plan to introduce her the characteristics of radiation processing, examples of its industrial applications, the status of its research and development activities, and an economic analysis

  5. Radiation processing of polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    Radiation processing is a very convenient tool for imparting desirable effects in polymeric materials and it has been an area of enormous interest in the last few decades. The success of radiation technology for processing of synthetic polymers can be attributed to two reasons namely, their ease of processing in various shapes and sizes, and secondly, most of these polymers undergo crosslinking reaction upon exposure to radiation. In recent years, natural polymers are being looked at with renewed interest because of their unique characteristics, such as inherent biocompatibility, biodegradability and easy availability. Traditionally, the commercial exploitation of natural polymers like carrageenans, alginates or starch etc. has been based, to a large extent, on empirical knowledge. But now, the applications of natural polymers are being sought in knowledge - demanding areas such as pharmacy and biotechnology, which is acting as a locomotive for further scientific research in their structure-function relationship. Selected success stories concerning radiation processed natural polymers and application of their derivatives in the health care products industries and agriculture are reported. This publication will be of interest to individuals at nuclear institutions worldwide that have programmes of R and D and applications in radiation processing technologies. New developments in radiation processing of polymers and other natural raw materials give insight into converting them into useful products for every day life, human health and environmental remediation. The book will also be of interest to other field specialists, readers including managers and decision makers in industry (health care, food and agriculture) helping them to understand the important role of radiation processing technology in polysaccharides

  6. Ionizing Radiation Processing Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rida Tajau; Kamarudin Hashim; Jamaliah Sharif; Ratnam, C.T.; Keong, C.C.

    2017-01-01

    This book completely brief on the basic concept and theory of ionizing radiation in polymers material processing. Besides of that the basic concept of polymerization addition, cross-linking and radiation degradation also highlighted in this informative book. All of the information is from scientific writing based on comprehensive scientific research in polymerization industry which using the radiation ionizing. It is very useful to other researcher whose study in Nuclear Sciencea and Science of Chemical and Material to use this book as a guideline for them in future scientific esearch.

  7. A study of energy and effective atomic number dependence of the exposure build-up factors in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, G.S.; Singh, P.S.; Mudahar, G.S.

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical method is presented to determine the gamma-radiation build-up factors in various biological materials. The gamma energy range is 0.015-15.0 MeV, with penetration depths up to 40 mean free paths considered. The dependence of the exposure build-up factor on incident photon energy and the effective atomic number (Z eff ) has also been assessed. In a practical analysis of dose burden to gamma-irradiated biological materials, the sophistication of Monte Carlo computer techniques would be applied, with associated detailed modelling. However, a feature of the theoretical method presented is its ability to make the consequences of the physics of the scattering process in biological materials more transparent. In addition, it can be quickly employed to give a first-pass dose estimate prior to a more detailed computer study. (author)

  8. Radiation processing of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Lebe, L.; Raffi, J.

    1983-06-01

    The ionizing radiations available for food processing are defined, their mode of action and principal effects are described. Toxicological studies (animal tests, radiochemistry) concerning irradiated food are reviewed. The characteristics of the irradiation procedure and the prospects of its industrial development in France are presented [fr

  9. Radiation in industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The uses of ionizing radiation can be divided into two broad categories. First, it can be used as a tool of investigation, measurement and testing, and secondly, it can be a direct agent in inducing chemical processes. For example, radiation can help in the detecting and locating of malignant tumours, and it can be employed also for the destruction of those tumours. Again, it can reveal intricate processes of plant growth and, at the same time, can initiate certain processes which result in the growth of new varieties of plants. Similarly in industry, radiation is both a tool of detection, testing and measurement and an active agent for the initiation of useful chemical reactions. The initiation of chemical reactions usually requires larger and more powerful sources of radiation. Such radiation can be provided by substances like cobalt 60 and caesium 137 or by machines which accelerate nuclear particles to very high energies. Of the particle-accelerating machines, the most useful in this field are those which accelerate electrons to energies considerably higher than those possessed by the electrons (beta particles) emitted by radioactive substances. These high-energy radiations produce interesting reactions both in organic life and in materials for industry. Several of the papers presented at the Warsaw conference were devoted to the application of ionizing radiation to polymerization and other useful reactions in the manufacture and treatment of plastics. The polymerization of the ethylene series of hydro-carbons was discussed from various angles and the technical characteristics and requirements were described. It was pointed out by some experts that the cross-linking effect of radiation resulted in a superior product, opening the way to new applications of polyethylene. Irradiated polyethylene film has been sold for several years, and electrical wire has been made with irradiated polyethylene as the insulating jacket. Other reactions discussed included the cross

  10. Process validation for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    1999-01-01

    Process validation concerns the establishment of the irradiation conditions that will lead to the desired changes of the irradiated product. Process validation therefore establishes the link between absorbed dose and the characteristics of the product, such as degree of crosslinking in a polyethylene tube, prolongation of shelf life of a food product, or degree of sterility of the medical device. Detailed international standards are written for the documentation of radiation sterilization, such as EN 552 and ISO 11137, and the steps of process validation that are described in these standards are discussed in this paper. They include material testing for the documentation of the correct functioning of the product, microbiological testing for selection of the minimum required dose and dose mapping for documentation of attainment of the required dose in all parts of the product. The process validation must be maintained by reviews and repeated measurements as necessary. This paper presents recommendations and guidance for the execution of these components of process validation. (author)

  11. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Reddy, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    The last few years have seen a significant increase in the use of ionising radiation in industrial processes and also international trade in irradiated products. With this, the demand for internationally accepted dosimetric techniques, accredited to international standards has also increased which is further stimulated by the emergence of ISO-9000 series of standards in industries. The present paper describes some of the important dosimetric techniques used in radiation processing, the role of IAEA in evolving internationally accepted standards and work carried out at the Defence Laboratories, Jodhpur in the development of a cheap, broad dose range and simple dosimeter for routine dosimetry. For this polyhydroxy alcohols viz., mannitol, sorbitol and inositol were studied using the spectrophotometric read out method. Out of the alcohols studied mannitol was found to be most promising covering a dose range of 0.01 kGy - 100 kGy. (author). 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  12. Analysis of the build-up of semi and non volatile organic compounds on urban roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub, Parvez; Ayoko, Godwin A; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Egodawatta, Prasanna

    2011-04-01

    Vehicular traffic in urban areas may adversely affect urban water quality through the build-up of traffic generated semi and non volatile organic compounds (SVOCs and NVOCs) on road surfaces. The characterisation of the build-up processes is the key to developing mitigation measures for the removal of such pollutants from urban stormwater. An in-depth analysis of the build-up of SVOCs and NVOCs was undertaken in the Gold Coast region in Australia. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Multicriteria Decision tools such as PROMETHEE and GAIA were employed to understand the SVOC and NVOC build-up under combined traffic scenarios of low, moderate, and high traffic in different land uses. It was found that congestion in the commercial areas and use of lubricants and motor oils in the industrial areas were the main sources of SVOCs and NVOCs on urban roads, respectively. The contribution from residential areas to the build-up of such pollutants was hardly noticeable. It was also revealed through this investigation that the target SVOCs and NVOCs were mainly attached to particulate fractions of 75-300 μm whilst the redistribution of coarse fractions due to vehicle activity mainly occurred in the >300 μm size range. Lastly, under combined traffic scenario, moderate traffic with average daily traffic ranging from 2300 to 5900 and average congestion of 0.47 were found to dominate SVOC and NVOC build-up on roads. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiation sources and process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honious, H.B.; Janzow, E.F.; Malson, H.A.; Moyer, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to radiation sources comprising a substrate having an electrically-conductive non-radioactive metal surface, a layer of a metal radioactive isotope of the scandium group, which in addition to scandium, yttrium, lanthanum and actinium, includes all the lanthanide and actinide series of elements, with the actinide series usually being preferred because of the nature of the radioactive isotopes therein, particularly americium-241, curium-244, plutonium-238, californium-252 and promethium-147, and a non-radioactive bonding metal codeposited on the surface by electroplating the isotope and bonding metal from an electrolytic solution, the isotope being present in the layer in minor amount as compared to the bonding metal, and with or without a non-radioactive protective metal coating covering the isotoype and bonding metal on the surface, the coating being sufficiently thin to permit radiation to pass through the coating. The invention also relates to a process for providing radiation sources comprising codepositing a layer of the metal radioactive isotope with a non-radioactive bonding metal from an electrolytic solution in which the isotope is present in minor molar amount as compared to the bonding metal such that the codeposited layer contains a minor molar amount of the isotope compared to the bonding metal by electroplating on an electrically-conductive non-radioactive metal surface of a cathode substrate, and with or without depositing a nonradioactive protective metal coating over the isotope and bonding metal on the surface, the coating being sufficiently thin to permit radiation to pass through the coating

  14. Radiation processing of horticulture produce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandal, R.K.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper deals with various aspects of radiation processing of horticultural products. The risk and success factors of the radiation processing units would be discussed, based on the experiences gained from the operation of Sac over a period of more than twenty years. Emphasis would be given to gamma radiation processing

  15. Building up Autonomy Through Reading Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Izquierdo Castillo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on an action research project conducted with six ninth grade students in a rural public school in Colombia. The purpose of the study was to determine how the implementation of three reading strategies (skimming, scanning, and making predictions, when reading topics selected by learners, helps them to improve their reading comprehension and promotes their autonomy in the learning process. The results show that these learners developed some autonomous features such as making decisions for learning and doing assigned homework, increasing reading awareness and motivation. Additionally, the training on reading strategies allowed them to succeed in their reading comprehension. We conclude that these reading strategies are tools that take learners along the path of autonomy.

  16. Metal transfer and build-up in friction and cutting

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, V D

    1956-01-01

    Metal Transfer and Build-up in Friction and Cutting aims to systematize our knowledge of the metal build-up, to describe some of the investigations past and present carried out in SFTI (Tomsk), and to make an effort to explain a number of the phenomena in cutting, scratching, and sliding from the point of view of metal transfer theory. The book opens with a chapter on the temperature of the rubbing interface of two solids. This temperature is needed in order to elucidate the nature of the formation of a build-up in scratching, cutting, and sliding. Separate chapters follow on the seizure phen

  17. Study of Charge Build Up in UCN Storage Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broering, Mark; Abney, Josh; Swank, Christopher; Filippone, Bradley; Yao, Weijun; Korsch, Wolfgang

    2017-09-01

    The neutron EDM collaboration at the Spallation Neutron Source(ORNL) is using ultra-cold neutrons in superfluid helium to improve the nEDM limit by about two orders of magnitude. These neutrons will be stored in target cells located in a strong, stable electric field. Local radiation will generate charged particles which may build up on the target cell walls reducing field strength over time. The field changes need to be kept below 1%, making it necessary to study this cell charging behavior, determine its effect on the experiment and find ways to mitigate this. In order to study this cell charging effect, a compact test setup was designed. Using this scaled down model, charged particles are generated by a 137Cs source and the electric field is monitored via the electo-optic Kerr effect. Liquid nitrogen has a much stronger response to electric fields than helium, making it an ideal candidate for first tests. Cell charging effects have been observed in liquid nitrogen. These results along with the experimental technique and progress toward a superfluid helium measurement will also be presented. This research is supported by DOE Grants: DE-FG02-99ER41101, DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  18. Building Up the Milky Way's Skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    A team of scientistshas now uncovered half of theentire skeleton of the Milky Way, using an automated method to identify large filaments of gas and dust hiding between stars in the galactic plane.Galactic distribution of 54 newly discovered filaments, plotted along with colored lines indicating six relevant spiral arms in our galaxy. The upper two plots show the consistency of the filaments motion with the spiral arms, while the lower shows their location within the galactic plane. [Wang et al. 2016]The Search for Nessie and FriendsThe Milky Ways interstellar medium is structured hierarchically into filaments. These structures are difficult to observe since they largely lie in the galactic plane, but if we can discover the distribution and properties of these filaments, we can better understand how our galaxy formed, and how the filaments affect star formation in our galaxy today.Some of the largest of the Milky Ways filaments are hundreds of light-years long like the infrared dark cloud nicknamed Nessie, declared in 2013 to be one of the bones of the Milky Way because of its position along the center of the Scutum-Centaurus spiral arm.Follow-up studies since the discovery of Nessie (like this one, or this) have found a number of additional large-scale filaments, but these studies all use different search methods and selection criteria, and the searches all start with visual inspection by humans to identify candidates.What if we could instead automate the detection process and build a homogeneous sample of the large filaments making up the skeleton of the Milky Way?Automated DetectionThis is exactly what a team of astronomers led by Ke Wang (European Southern Observatory) has done. The group used a customization of an algorithm called a minimum spanning tree the technique used to optimize the cost of internet networks, road networks, and electrical grids in our communities to perform an automated search of data from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey. The search was

  19. Build Up Your Bones! | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoporosis Build Up Your Bones! Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents Exercise ... who have been diagnosed with osteoporosis. The Best Bone-Building Exercise The best exercise for your bones ...

  20. Energy absorption build-up factors in teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjunatha, H.C.; Rudraswamy, B.

    2012-01-01

    Geometric progression fitting method has been used to compute energy absorption build-up factor of teeth [enamel outer surface, enamel middle, enamel dentin junction towards enamel, enamel dentin junction towards dentin, dentin middle and dentin inner surface] for wide energy range (0.015-15 MeV) up to the penetration depth of 40 mean free path. The dependence of energy absorption build-up factor on incident photon energy, penetration depth, electron density and effective atomic number has also been studied. The energy absorption build-up factors increases with the penetration depth and electron density of teeth. So that the degree of violation of Lambert-Beer (I = I 0 e -μt ) law is less for least penetration depth and electron density. The energy absorption build-up factors for different regions of teeth are not same hence the energy absorbed by the different regions of teeth is not uniform which depends on the composition of the medium. The relative dose of gamma in different regions of teeth is also estimated. Dosimetric implication of energy absorption build-up factor in teeth has also been discussed. The estimated absorption build up factors in different regions of teeth may be useful in the electron spin resonance dosimetry. (author)

  1. Characterizing heavy metal build-up on urban road surfaces: Implication for stormwater reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, An; Liu, Liang; Li, Dunzhu; Guan, Yuntao

    2015-01-01

    Stormwater reuse is increasingly popular in the worldwide. In terms of urban road stormwater, it commonly contains toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, which could undermine the reuse safety. The research study investigated heavy metal build-up characteristics on urban roads in a typical megacity of South China. The research outcomes show the high variability in heavy metal build-up loads among different urban road sites. The degree of traffic congestion and road surface roughness was found to exert a more significant influence on heavy metal build-up rather than traffic volume. Due to relatively higher heavy metal loads, stormwater from roads with more congested traffic conditions or rougher surfaces might be suitable for low-water-quality required activities while the stormwater from by-pass road sections could be appropriate for relatively high-water-quality required purposes since the stormwater could be relatively less polluted. Based on the research outcomes, a decision-making process for heavy metals based urban road stormwater reuse was proposed. The new finding highlights the importance to undertaking a “fit-for-purpose” road stormwater reuse strategy. Additionally, the research results can also contribute to enhancing stormwater reuse safety. - Highlights: • Heavy metal (HM) build-up varies with traffic and road surface conditions. • Traffic congestion and surface roughness exert a higher impact on HM build-up. • A “fit-for-purpose” strategy could suit urban road stormwater reuse

  2. Characterizing heavy metal build-up on urban road surfaces: Implication for stormwater reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, An [Research Centre of Environmental Engineering and Management, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Cooperative Research and Education Centre for Environmental Technology, Kyoto University–Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Liu, Liang; Li, Dunzhu [Research Centre of Environmental Engineering and Management, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); Guan, Yuntao, E-mail: guanyt@tsinghua.edu.cn [Research Centre of Environmental Engineering and Management, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, 518055 Shenzhen (China); School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Stormwater reuse is increasingly popular in the worldwide. In terms of urban road stormwater, it commonly contains toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, which could undermine the reuse safety. The research study investigated heavy metal build-up characteristics on urban roads in a typical megacity of South China. The research outcomes show the high variability in heavy metal build-up loads among different urban road sites. The degree of traffic congestion and road surface roughness was found to exert a more significant influence on heavy metal build-up rather than traffic volume. Due to relatively higher heavy metal loads, stormwater from roads with more congested traffic conditions or rougher surfaces might be suitable for low-water-quality required activities while the stormwater from by-pass road sections could be appropriate for relatively high-water-quality required purposes since the stormwater could be relatively less polluted. Based on the research outcomes, a decision-making process for heavy metals based urban road stormwater reuse was proposed. The new finding highlights the importance to undertaking a “fit-for-purpose” road stormwater reuse strategy. Additionally, the research results can also contribute to enhancing stormwater reuse safety. - Highlights: • Heavy metal (HM) build-up varies with traffic and road surface conditions. • Traffic congestion and surface roughness exert a higher impact on HM build-up. • A “fit-for-purpose” strategy could suit urban road stormwater reuse.

  3. The Effect of Sloshing on a Tank Pressure Build-up Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Banne, Håvard Bolstad

    2017-01-01

    This thesis work has aimed to identify how sloshing will affect a liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuel tank. The physical nature of LNG means it needs to be kept cooled and pressurized in order to remain in a liquid state. By implementing a pressure build-up unit (PBU) it is possible to pressurize the tank vaporizing the tank’s contents, for the vapour then to return to tank in a loop, building pressure in the process. A tank pressure build-up unit has been built in the laboratory ...

  4. Dosimetry and process control for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mod Ali, N.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Accurate radiation dosimetry can provide quality assurance in radiation processing. Considerable relevant experiences in dosimetry by the SSDL-MINT has necessitate the development of methods making measurement at gamma plant traceable to the national standard. It involves the establishment of proper calibration procedure and selection of appropriate transfer system/technique to assure adequate traceability to a primary radiation standard. The effort forms the basis for irradiation process control, the legal approval of the process by the public health authorities (medical product sterilization and food preservation) and the safety and acceptance of the product

  5. Effect of tungsten-187 in primary coolant on dose rate build-up in Vandellos 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Lillo, E.; Llovet, R.; Boronat, M.

    1994-01-01

    The present work proposes a relationship between the Cobalt-60 piping deposited activity and the relatively high levels of Tungsten-187 in the coolant of Vandellos 2. The conclusions of this work can be applicable to other plants, since it proposes a tool to estimate and quantify the contribution of stellite to the generation of Cobalt-60 and the radiation dose build-up. (authors). 7 figs., 6 refs

  6. Dosimetry systems for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Desrosiers, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    Dosimetry serves important functions in radiation processing, where large absorbed doses and dose rates from photon and electron sources have to be measured with reasonable accuracy. Proven dosimetry systems are widely used to perform radiation measurements in development of new processes, validation, qualification and verification (quality control) of established processes and archival documentation of day-to-day and plant-to-plant processing uniformity. Proper calibration and traceability of routine dosimetry systems to standards are crucial to the success of many large-volume radiation processes. Recent innovations and advances in performance of systems that enhance radiation measurement assurance and process diagnostics include dose-mapping media (new radiochromic film and solutions), optical waveguide systems for food irradiation, solid-state devices for real-time and passive dosimetry over wide dose-rate and dose ranges, and improved analytical instruments and data acquisition. (author)

  7. Intel Legend and CERN would build up high speed Internet

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Intel, Legend and China Education and Research Network jointly announced on the 25th of April that they will be cooperating with each other to build up the new generation high speed internet, over the next three years (1/2 page).

  8. Quality assurance in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Mod Ali

    2002-01-01

    The growth of the radiation processing industries in Malaysia has presented the SSDL-MINT a new set of parameter for the Quality Assurance (QA) programs. The large massive doses of radiation required for commercial application of sterilization, cross-linking etc needs measurement method outside the scope of familiar radiation detection instruments. This requires establishment of proper calibration procedure and selection of appropriate transfer system/technique to assure adequate traceability to an international radiation standard. The benefit of accurate in-plant dosimetry for the operator, approving authority and purchaser are balanced against the extra dosimetric efforts required for good QA is presented. (Author)

  9. Signal processing for radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Nakhostin, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    This book provides a clear understanding of the principles of signal processing of radiation detectors. It puts great emphasis on the characteristics of pulses from various types of detectors and offers a full overview on the basic concepts required to understand detector signal processing systems and pulse processing techniques. Signal Processing for Radiation Detectors covers all of the important aspects of signal processing, including energy spectroscopy, timing measurements, position-sensing, pulse-shape discrimination, and radiation intensity measurement. The book encompasses a wide range of applications so that readers from different disciplines can benefit from all of the information. In addition, this resource: * Describes both analog and digital techniques of signal processing * Presents a complete compilation of digital pulse processing algorithms * Extrapolates content from more than 700 references covering classic papers as well as those of today * Demonstrates concepts with more than 340 origin...

  10. Radiative processes in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berends, F.A.; Kleiss, R.; Danckaert, D.; Causmaecker, P. De; Gastmans, R.; Troost, W.; Tai Tsun Wu

    1982-01-01

    It is shown how the introduction of explicit polarization vectors of the radiated gauge particles leads to great simplifications in the calculation of bremsstrahlung processes at high energies. (author)

  11. Radiation processing of natural polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman; Kamaruddin Hashim; Zulkafli Ghazali; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Jamaliah Sharif

    2006-01-01

    Radiation processing of natural polymer has been the subject of interest of countries in this region in the past 5 ∼ 7 years. Although some of the output of the research have been commercialized in particular for the applications in the agriculture and healthcare sectors, the potential applications of radiation processing of natural polymers in the medical sector are yet to be fully understood and developed. (author)

  12. Radiation processing of poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemand, J.G.; Hauser, G.A.M.; Clarke, I.R.; Thomas, A.C.

    1977-06-01

    Gamma irradiation, through its ability to inactivate microorganisms, has been shown to effectively extend the shelf life of commercially slaughtered chickens from 2-4 d to 14-21 d under normal refrigeration temperatures. Although a high percentage of carcasses were contaminated with Salmonella, the level of contamination was relatively low; the doses applied for shelf-life extention thus also served to eliminate this pathogen. Even when carcasses were artificially inoculated with Salmonella of levels several orders of magnitude higher than normal, the recommended radiation doses (3 or 5 kGy) were still capable of rendering the product 'pathogen free'. Irradiated poultry could not be distinguished organoleptically from control samples, even when twice the maximum recommended dose was applied. In conclusion, the irradiation of commercially produced poultry in South Africa with relatively low doses can be of significant benefit by (1) markedly extending the acceptable shelf life and (2) eliminating pathogenic bacteria present on the commercially available product [af

  13. Gamma irradiators for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Radiation technology is one of the most important fields which the IAEA supports and promotes, and has several programmes that facilitate its use in the developing Member States. In view of this mandate, this Booklet on 'Gamma Irradiators for Radiation Processing' is prepared which describes variety of gamma irradiators that can be used for radiation processing applications. It is intended to present description of general principles of design and operation of the gamma irradiators available currently for industrial use. It aims at providing information to industrial end users to familiarise them with the technology, with the hope that the information contained here would assist them in selecting the most optimum irradiator for their needs. Correct selection affects not only the ease of operation but also yields higher efficiency, and thus improved economy. The Booklet is also intended for promoting radiation processing in general to governments and general public

  14. Atomic spectroscopy and radiative processes

    CERN Document Server

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the basic physical principles of atomic spectroscopy and the absorption and emission of radiation in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. It summarizes the basics of electromagnetism and thermodynamics and then describes in detail the theory of atomic spectra for complex atoms, with emphasis on astrophysical applications. Both equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena in plasmas are considered. The interaction between radiation and matter is described, together with various types of radiation (e.g., cyclotron, synchrotron, bremsstrahlung, Compton). The basic theory of polarization is explained, as is the theory of radiative transfer for astrophysical applications. Atomic Spectroscopy and Radiative Processes bridges the gap between basic books on atomic spectroscopy and the very specialized publications for the advanced researcher: it will provide under- and postgraduates with a clear in-depth description of theoretical aspects, supported by practical examples of applications.

  15. Contribution of school to building up the partnership with parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the way in which headmasters and class masters perceive and estimate the factors, obstacles and incentives to building up a partnership between school and parents. The sample consists of 60 headmasters and 305 class masters from 60 schools (37 urban and 23 rural in Serbia. Headmasters and teachers filled in separate, but parallel questionnaires (modified only in the segment of different roles that were created for the purposes of research. Questionnaire items inquire about the factors contributing to the inclusion of parents, the obstacles in developing the cooperation between parents and school and the peculiarities of school environment that can contribute to the development of that cooperation, as well as about the peculiarities of the communication with parents. Research findings indicate that headmasters and teachers assess the importance of different components in the field of cooperation with parents in a similar, but not identical way. Most similarities are found in the perception of obstacles for establishing cooperation (the problems of coordinating time periods for meetings, previous bad experiences of parents regarding cooperation. The majority of differences lie in perceiving the importance of cooperation factors (headmasters emphasise the "parent factor", while teachers do so both for the "parent factor" and "child factor", as well as in perceiving the necessary incentives for the improvement of cooperation between school and parents (headmasters emphasise the spatial-temporal organization components, and teachers do so for spatial components and personal initiatives. In the assessments of both the headmasters and teachers we obtained differences marked by gender, the longitude of years of service, size of the settlement where the school is located (town-village. The general conclusion indicates that the topic of cooperation between school and parents is highly and in many ways context sensitive, and that the

  16. Radiation processing technology in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd Dahlan

    2004-01-01

    Radiation processing technology is widely used in industry to enhance efficiency and productivity, improve product quality and competitiveness. Efforts have been made by MINT to expand the application of radiation processing technology for modification of indigenous materials such as natural rubber and rubber based products, palm oil and palm oil based products and polysaccharide into new and high value added products. This paper described MINT experiences on developing products through R and D from the laboratory to the pilot plant stage and commercialization. The paper also explained some issues and challenges that MINT encountered in the process of commercialization of its R and D results. (author)

  17. Current status of radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, J.

    1979-01-01

    A summary is presented of recent developments and problems in the field of radiation processing. Examples are given of a wide range of industrial products and processes. Irradiation plants are discussed. Cross-linking and sterilization are still the principal areas of success. Some setbacks are mentioned, including the appearance of regulatory codes forbidding the use of high energy electrons in the irradiation of food packing materials. Promising applications, such as food sterilization, treatment of sewage and other wastes, chemical synthesis and the curing of paints. The need for more fundamental work on radiation chemistry is stressed. (U.K.)

  18. PyECLOUD and build-up simulations at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iadarola, G; Rumolo, G

    2013-01-01

    PyECLOUD is a newly developed code for the simulation of the electron cloud (EC) build-up in particle accelerators. Almost entirely written in Python, it is mostly based on the physical models already used in the ECLOUD code but, thanks to the implementation of new optimized algorithms, it exhibits a significantly improved performance in accuracy, speed, reliability and flexibility. Such new features of PyECLOUD have been already broadly exploited to study EC observations in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its injector chain as well as for the extrapolation to high luminosity upgrade scenarios. (author)

  19. Thermal effects in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1985-01-01

    The balance of ionizing radiation energy incident on an object being processed is discussed in terms of energy losses, influencing the amount really absorbed. To obtain the amount of heat produced, the absorbed energy is corrected for the change in internal energy of the system and for the heat effect of secondary reactions developing after the initiation. The temperature of a processed object results from the heat evolved and from the specific heat of the material comprising the object. The csub(p) of most materials is usually much lower than that of aqueous systems and therefore temperatures after irradiation are higher. The role of low specific heat in radiation processing at cryogenic conditions is stressed. Adiabatic conditions of accelerator irradiation are contrasted with the steady state thermal conditions prevailing in large gamma sources. Among specific questions discussed in the last part of the paper are: intermediate and final temperature of composite materials, measurement of real thermal effects in situ, neutralization of undesired warming experienced during radiation processing, processing at temperatures other than ambient and administration of very high doses of radiation. (author)

  20. Thermal effects in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1984-01-01

    The balance of ionizing radiation energy incident on an object being processed is discussed in terms of energy losses, influencing the amount really absorbed. To obtain the amount of heat produced, the absorbed energy is corrected for the change in internal energy of the system and for the heat effect of secondary reactions developing after the initiation. The temperature of a processed object results from the heat evolved and from the specific heat of the material comprising the object. The specific heat of most materials is usually much lower than that of aqueous systems and therefore temperatures after irradiation are higher. The role of low specific heat in radiation processing at cryogenic conditions is stressed. Adiabatic conditions of accelerator irradiation are contrasted with the steady state thermal conditions prevailing in large gamma sources. Among specific questions discussed in the last part of the paper are: intermediate and final temperature of composite materials, measurement of real thermal effects in situ, neutralization of undesired warming experienced during radiation processing, processing at temperatures other than ambient and administration of very high doses of radiation

  1. Radiation processing and market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1998-01-01

    In the system of totalitarian economy, regulated by bureaucracy, the real value of equipment, materials and services is almost completely unknown, what makes impossible the comparison of different technologies, eliminates competition, disturbs research and development. With introduction of market economy in Central and Eastern Europe, the radiation processing has lost doubtful support, becoming an independent business, subject to laws of free market economy. Only the most valuable objects of processing have survived that test. At the top of the list are: radiation sterilization of medical equipment and radiation induced crosslinking of polymers, polyethylene in particular. New elements of competition has entered the scene, as well as questions of international regulations and standards have appeared

  2. Understanding the build-up of SMBH and Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Francisco; Georgakakis, Antonis; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Akylas, Thanassis; Lanzuisi, Giorgio; Castello, N.

    2015-09-01

    . The excellent survey capabilities of Athena/WFI (effective area, angular resolution, field of view) will allow to measure the incidence of feedback in the shape of warm absorbers and Ultra Fast Outflows among the general population of AGN, as well as to complete the census of black hole growth by detecting and characterising significant samples of the most heavily obscured (including Compton thick) AGN, to redshifts z~3-4. The outstanding spectral throughput and resolution of Athena/X-IFU will permit measuring the energetics of those outflows to assess their influence on their host galaxies. The demographics of the heavily obscured and outflowing populations relative to their hosts are fundamental for understanding how major black hole growth events relate to the build-up of galaxies.

  3. Seafloor geodesy: Measuring surface deformation and strain-build up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Heidrun; Lange, Dietrich; Hannemann, Katrin; Petersen, Florian

    2017-04-01

    Seafloor deformation is intrinsically related to tectonic processes, which potentially may evolve into geohazards, including earthquakes and tsunamis. The nascent scientific field of seafloor geodesy provides a way to monitor crustal deformation at high resolution comparable to the satellite-based GPS technique upon which terrestrial geodesy is largely based. The measurements extract information on stress and elastic strain stored in the oceanic crust. Horizontal seafloor displacement can be obtained by acoustic/GPS combination to provide absolute positioning or by long-term acoustic telemetry between different beacons fixed on the seafloor. The GeoSEA (Geodetic Earthquake Observatory on the SEAfloor) array uses acoustic telemetry for relative positioning at mm-scale resolution. The transponders within an array intercommunicate via acoustic signals for a period of up to 3.5 years. The seafloor acoustic transponders are mounted on 4 m high tripod steel frames to ensure clear line-of-sight between the stations. The transponders also include high-precision pressure sensors to monitor vertical movements and dual-axis inclinometers in order to measure their level as well as any tilt of the seafloor. Sound velocity sensor measurements are used to correct for water sound speed variations. A further component of the network is GeoSURF, a self-steering autonomous surface vehicle (Wave Glider), which monitors system health and is able to upload the seafloor data to the sea surface and to transfer it via satellite. The GeoSEA array is capable of both continuously monitoring horizontal and vertical ground displacement rates along submarine fault zones and characterizing their behavior (locked or aseismically creeping). Seafloor transponders are currently installed along the Siliviri segment of the North Anatolian Fault offshore Istanbul for measurements of strain build-up along the fault. The first 18 month of baseline ranging were analyzed by a joint-least square inversion

  4. Scintiscanning of arthritis and analysis of build-up curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Tsuneo; Omori, Shigeo; Miyawaki, Haruo; Maniwa, Masato; Yoshizaki, Kenichi

    1975-01-01

    In the present study 40 knee joints with rheumatoid arthritis, 23 knee joints with osteoarthrosis deformans, 3 knee joints with non-synovitis, one knee joint with pyogenic arthritis and 4 normal knee joints were scanned. By analysis of build-up curves obtained immediately after the intravenous injection of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, the rate of accumulation of radioactivity (t 1/2) in the affected joints was simultaneously estimated in order to compare them with clinical findings. 1. Scintiscanning of arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthrosis deformans of the knee joint, non-specific synovitis, and pyogenic arthritis of the knee joint, yielded a positive scan for all of the joint diseases. 2. In the scintigram of healthy knee joints, there are no areas of RI accumulation or right to left difference. 3. In some instances abnormal uptake of RI was seen on scintigrams of arthritis even after normal clinical and laboratory findings had been achieved with therapy. 4. sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, a radionuclide with a short half-life, allows repeated scans and provides a useful radiologic means of evaluating therapeutic course and effectiveness. 5. Analysis of build-up curves revealed that the rate of accumulation of RI was faster in rheumatoid arthritis than in osteoarthrosis deformans. (auth.)

  5. Prediction of moisture migration and pore pressure build-up in concrete at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Y.; England, G.L.

    2004-01-01

    Prediction of moisture migration and pore pressure build-up in non-uniformly heated concrete is important for safe operation of concrete containment vessels in nuclear power reactors and for assessing the behaviour of fire-exposed concrete structures. (1) Changes in moisture content distribution in a concrete containment vessel during long-term operation should be investigated, since the durability and radiation shielding ability of concrete are strongly influenced by its moisture content. (2) The pressure build-up in a concrete containment vessel in a postulated accident should be evaluated in order to determine whether a venting system is necessary between liner and concrete to relieve the pore pressure. (3) When concrete is subjected to rapid heating during a fire, the concrete can suffer from spalling due to pressure build-up in the concrete pores. This paper presents a mathematical and computational model for predicting changes in temperature, moisture content and pore pressure in concrete at elevated temperatures. A pair of differential equations for one-dimensional heat and moisture transfer in concrete are derived from the conservation of energy and mass, and take into account the temperature-dependent release of gel water and chemically bound water due to dehydration. These equations are numerically solved by the finite difference method. In the numerical analysis, the pressure, density and dynamic viscosity of water in the concrete pores are calculated explicitly from a set of formulated equations. The numerical analysis results are compared with two different sets of experimental data: (a) long-term (531 days) moisture migration test under a steady-state temperature of 200 deg. C, and (b) short-term (114 min) pressure build-up test under transient heating. These experiments were performed to investigate the moisture migration and pressure build-up in the concrete wall of a reactor containment vessel at high temperatures. The former experiment simulated

  6. Temperature rise and Heat build up inside a parked Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Rose; Maheswaranathan, Ponn

    2001-11-01

    We have studied the heat build up inside a parked car under the hot summer Sun. Inside and outside temperatures were monitored every ten seconds from 9 AM to about 4 PM for a 2000 Toyota Camry parked in a Winthrop University parking lot without any shades or trees. Two PASCO temperature sensors, one inside the car and the other outside the car, are used along with PASCO-750 interface to collect the data. Data were collected under the following conditions while keeping track of the outside weather: fully closed windows, slightly open windows, half way open windows, fully open windows, and with window shades inside and outside. Inside temperatures reached as high as 150 degrees Fahrenheit on a sunny day with outside high temperature of about 100 degrees Fahrenheit. These results will be presented along with results from car cover and window tint manufacturers and suggestions to keep your car cool next time you park it under the Sun.

  7. Electron-Cloud Build-Up: Theory and Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    We present a broad-brush survey of the phenomenology, history and importance of the electron-cloud effect (ECE). We briefly discuss the simulation techniques used to quantify the electron-cloud (EC) dynamics. Finally, we present in more detail an effective theory to describe the EC density build-up in terms of a few effective parameters. For further details, the reader is encouraged to refer to the proceedings of many prior workshops, either dedicated to EC or with significant EC contents, including the entire 'ECLOUD' series. In addition, the proceedings of the various flavors of Particle Accelerator Conferences contain a large number of EC-related publications. The ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter series contains one dedicated issue, and several occasional articles, on EC. An extensive reference database is the LHC website on EC.

  8. Some new radiation processes in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    Some new plasma radiation processes are reviewed, viz., (1) emission near the electron plasma frequency, (2) direct amplification of radiation near the electron cycloton frequency, and (3) parametic amplification of radiation by stimulated scattering. (L.C.) [pt

  9. Global trends in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defalco, G.

    2003-01-01

    There will be a brief introduction of the companies of MDS serving the Medical, Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical sectors worldwide. MDS Nordion will be introduced in more detail focused on the products and services of our Nuclear Medicine and Ion Technologies business units. World Trends and issues in Radiation Processing will be discussed on: Sterilization of Medical Devices, Pharmaceuticals, Cosmetics and Consumer products and finally I will present an overview on Food Irradiation progress worldwide

  10. The evaluation of nylon and polyethylene as build-up material in a neutron therapy beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hough, J.H.; Binns, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    In high-energy neutron beams a substantial amount of build-up material is required to irradiate biological samples under conditions of charged particle equilibrium. Ideally A-150 tissue-equivalent plastic is used for this purpose. This material is however not always readily available and hence the need for a substitute compound. The selected hydrocarbon should satisfy two requirements: the quality of the radiation on the distal side needs to be the same as that measured for A-150 plastic and the absorbed dose should remain consistent. A tissue-equivalent proportional counter operating at reduced pressure not only measures the absorbed dose accurately but provides a means for assessing the nature of a radiation field in terms of a secondary charged particle spectrum. Using build-up caps manufactured from nylon (type 6) and polyethylene, it is shown that the former is an acceptable substitute for A-150 plastic. The data further demonstrate that both the absorbed dose and the spectral character of the measured single-event distribution are altered when polyethylene is used and that these discrepancies are attributable to the higher hydrogen content of polyethylene. (Author)

  11. Radiation processing activities at OGFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Atish

    2014-01-01

    CONCAST group of Industries has set up the first Radiation Processing Plant in Eastern India as 'VIKIRAN' named as Organic Green Foods Ltd., situated at Dankuni (Durgapur Highway Express) 25 km away from central Kolkata on August 21, 2004. Shri Sanjay Sureka, Managing Director of Organic Green Foods Ltd., Kolkata belongs to the famous CONCAST Group of Industries operates the largest plant of West Bengal engaged in manufacturing of Steel Industry. The facility was aimed at improving the quality of healthcare products and devices as well as Laboratory, Spice, Herbal and Ayurvedic Products of large volumes on an industrial scale. The operation of VIKIRAN for the last ten years, has unambiguously proved that both the above objectives have been fully met and now radiation sterilization has emerged as an efficient and effective industrial process. The irradiator is a panoramic wet storage class-IV type. This Facility is designed for 1000 KCi activity of source and is suitable in medium and high dose range application. VIKIRAN offers radiation sterilization service to more than 100 manufacturers

  12. Radiation microbiology relevant to radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallentire, A.

    1979-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: typical background studies involving laboratory models (measurement of radiation responses of different organisms, alone or on or in products; isolation of radiation resistant organisms from products and product environments; measurement of levels of preirradiation microbial contamination ('bioburden')); supplementary studies involving naturally occurring microbial contaminants (unit medical products; microbiological quality assurance; products in bulk; animal diet study). (U.K.)

  13. Dosimetry standards for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, H. IV

    1999-01-01

    For irradiation treatments to be reproducible in the laboratory and then in the commercial environment, and for products to have certified absorbed doses, standardized dosimetry techniques are needed. This need is being satisfied by standards being developed by experts from around the world under the auspices of Subcommittee E10.01 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). In the time period since it was formed in 1984, the subcommittee has grown to 150 members from 43 countries, representing a broad cross-section of industry, government and university interests. With cooperation from other international organizations, it has taken the combined part-time effort of all these people more than 13 years to complete 24 dosimetry standards. Four are specifically for food irradiation or agricultural applications, but the majority apply to all forms of gamma, x-ray, Bremsstrahlung and electron beam radiation processing, including dosimetry for sterilization of health care products and the radiation processing of fruits, vegetables, meats, spices, processed foods, plastics, inks, medical wastes and paper. An additional 6 standards are under development. Most of the standards provide exact procedures for using individual dosimetry systems or for characterizing various types of irradiation facilities, but one covers the selection and calibration of dosimetry systems, and another covers the treatment of uncertainties. Together, this set of standards covers essentially all aspects of dosimetry for radiation processing. The first 20 of these standards have been adopted in their present form by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), and will be published by ISO in 1999. (author)

  14. Dose Assurance in Radiation Processing Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; Chadwick, K.H.; Nam, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation processing relies to a large extent on dosimetry as control of proper operation. This applies in particular to radiation sterilization of medical products and food treatment, but also during development of any other process. The assurance that proper dosimetry is performed...... at the radiation processing plant can be obtained through the mediation of an international organization, and the IAEA is now implementing a dose assurance service for industrial radiation processing....

  15. Numerical Simulation of rivulet build up via lubrication equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzzi, N.; Croce, G.

    2017-11-01

    A number of engineering problems involve the evolution of a thin layer of liquid over a non-wettable substrate. For example, CO2 chemical absorption is carried out in packed columns, where post-combustion CO2 flows up while liquid solvent falls down through a collection of corrugated sheets. Further application include, among others, in-flight icing simulations, moisture condensation on de-humidifier fins, fogging build up and removal. Here, we present a development of an in-house code solving numerically the 2D lubrication equation for a film flowing down an inclined plate. The disjoining pressure approach is followed, in order to model both the contact line discontinuity and the surface wettability. With respect to the original implementation, the full modeling of capillary pressure terms according to Young- Laplace relation allows to investigate contact angles close to π/2. The code is thus validated with literature numerical results, obtained by a fully 3D approach (VOF), showing satisfying agreement despite a strong reduction in terms of computational cost. Steady and unsteady wetting dynamics of a developing rivulet are investigated (and validated) under different load conditions and for different values of the contact angles.

  16. Build up of Radioactive Krypton and Xenon Analysis System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. K.; Choi, C. S.; Chung, K. H.; Lee, W.; Cho, Y. H.; Lee, C. W.

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this project is to build up an analysis system to measure the activity of the atmospheric radioactive krypton and xenon in Korea. The work scopes of the project include the purchase and the installation of the analysis system to measure the activity of the radioactive krypton and xenon in air, and the establishment of the operation capability of the system through the training of the operator. The system consists of two air sampling systems, and one radioactivity analysis system, which incorporates the enrichment system, the gas chromatography to purify a mixture gas, and the gas proportional counter to count the activity of pure krypton and xenon gas. As planned originally, the establishment of the analysis system has been completed. At present, one air sampler is successfully being operated at a specific site of the South Korea to measure the background radioactivities of Kr-85 and Xe-133 in air. The other air sampler is being reserved at the KAERI in the Daejeon for a emergency like the second nuclear test of the North Korea. During the normal time, the reserved air sampler will be used to collect the air sample for the performance test of the analysis system and the cross analysis for the calibration of the system. The radioactivity analysis system has been installed at the KAERI, and is being used to measure the activity of Kr-85 and Xe-133 in the air sample from a domestic site

  17. The effect of plasma minor-radius expansion in the current build-up phase of a large tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tomofumi; Tazima, Teruhiko; Tani, Keiji; Tamura, Sanae

    1977-03-01

    A plasma simulation code has been developed to study the plasma current build-up process in JT-60. Plasma simulation is made with a model which represents well overall plasma behavior of the present-day tokamaks. The external electric circuit is taken into consideration in simulation calculation. An emphasis is placed on the simulation of minor-radius expansion of the plasma and behavior of neutral particles in the plasma during current build-up. A calculation with typical parameters of JT-60 shows a week skin distribution in the current density and the electron temperature, if the minor radius of the plasma expands with build-up of the plasma current. (auth.)

  18. Radiation sterilization: an industrial process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, F.J.

    1975-01-01

    A new dimension has been added to the use of radiation in the medical field with the introduction of radiation as a sterilizing agent. Its use in diagnosis through radioactive tracers or X-rays and in therapy administered with the most sophisticated of electrical machines or radioisotope units, is familiar in the hospital world, being well established therein. In contrast, the application of radiation sterilization is in industry where the installation of large radiation sources is already commonplace in many countries. The beginnings in the early 1950's centered on the Van de Graaff machine and linear accelerators and the pioneering efforts of Ethicon Inc. here in the United States must be recognized. However, although sterilization with electron beams is still current practice in a number of plants, the use of gamma rays from cobalt-60 is preferred. The first steps in this direction were taken by the U.K.A.E.A. which, in common with similar organizations elsewhere, was attempting to exploit the tremendous potential for cobalt-60 production arising through the rapid construction of nuclear reactors. The first full-scale commercial gamma plant was commissioned in the U.K. in 1960. It reached a loading of 500,000 curies before its demolition after twelve years of operation. The process gained rapid acceptance within industry and approval by health authorities because it provided a ''cold'' sterilization method combining the property of lethal effect with penetration. Its immediate impact occurred in the introduction of disposable products making it possible, for example, to use heat-labile plastics and new packaging materials and package designs. Certainly, the technique has proved complementary to sterilization methods based on heat and to the use of chemical agents, in particular ethylene oxide gas

  19. Innovative Applications in Radiation Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vroom, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    Prior to acquisition by Tyco International, Raychem Corporation initiated several programs to develop new products, reduce the production cost of existing products and identify new market areas that would utilize the skills available in the company in the area of radiation chemistry and radiation technology. Several areas were considered including radiation initiation of specific chemical reactions in polymers at high temperatures, the use of purpose built irradiation equipment for low cost production of specific high volume products and environmental remediation of ground or waste water. In this regard, the Corporation supported a program to improve how material is processed through an electron accelerator and to develop specific equipment to utilize these improvements. The goal was to make the radiation process a single entity as opposed to an accelerator and a material handling system. This paper discusses some of the developments from this program. In the area of radiation induced chemical reactions in polymers at elevated temperatures, a robust accelerator was developed that would allow the irradiation of polymeric materials in the melt as they exited forming equipment such as plastics extruders. Here the goal was to have a low energy, self shielded accelerator in the 300 KeV to 500 KeV range in which extruded polymeric material could be immediately processed in a single pass at melt temperature before it was cooled and allowed to encounter any surfaces. Two machines that met these criteria were constructed and will be discussed. Several of the innovations coming from the high processing temperature, single pass accelerator project were incorporated into the development of purpose built machines to process specific existing products such as wire and heat shrink tubing. Here the goal was to have machines with the minimum acceptable electron energy and compact shielding to reduce cost and foot print. Beam scanning technology developed will be discussed. A major

  20. Radiations from atomic collision processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernyi, D.

    1994-01-01

    The physics of atomic collision phenomena in which only the Coulomb forces have a role is an actual field or the research of the present days. The impact energy range in these collisions is very broad,it extends from the eV or even lower region to the GeV region or higher,i.e. it spans the region of three branches of physics,namely that of the atomic,the nuclear and the particle physics.To describe and explain the collision processes themselves, different models (collision mechanisms) are used and they are surveyed in the presentation. Different electromagnetic radiations and particles are emitted from the collision processes.Their features are shown in details together with the most important methods in their detection and study.Examples are given based on the literature and on the investigations of the author and his coworkers. The applications of the radiation from atomic collisions in other scientific fields and in the solution of different practical problems are also surveyed shortly. 16 figs., 2 tabs., 76 refs. (author)

  1. Uncertainty analysis of pollutant build-up modelling based on a Bayesian weighted least squares approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Khaled; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Rahman, Ataur; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2013-01-01

    Reliable pollutant build-up prediction plays a critical role in the accuracy of urban stormwater quality modelling outcomes. However, water quality data collection is resource demanding compared to streamflow data monitoring, where a greater quantity of data is generally available. Consequently, available water quality datasets span only relatively short time scales unlike water quantity data. Therefore, the ability to take due consideration of the variability associated with pollutant processes and natural phenomena is constrained. This in turn gives rise to uncertainty in the modelling outcomes as research has shown that pollutant loadings on catchment surfaces and rainfall within an area can vary considerably over space and time scales. Therefore, the assessment of model uncertainty is an essential element of informed decision making in urban stormwater management. This paper presents the application of a range of regression approaches such as ordinary least squares regression, weighted least squares regression and Bayesian weighted least squares regression for the estimation of uncertainty associated with pollutant build-up prediction using limited datasets. The study outcomes confirmed that the use of ordinary least squares regression with fixed model inputs and limited observational data may not provide realistic estimates. The stochastic nature of the dependent and independent variables need to be taken into consideration in pollutant build-up prediction. It was found that the use of the Bayesian approach along with the Monte Carlo simulation technique provides a powerful tool, which attempts to make the best use of the available knowledge in prediction and thereby presents a practical solution to counteract the limitations which are otherwise imposed on water quality modelling. - Highlights: ► Water quality data spans short time scales leading to significant model uncertainty. ► Assessment of uncertainty essential for informed decision making in water

  2. FASHIONABLY LATE? BUILDING UP THE MILKY WAY'S INNER HALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Heather L.; Harding, Paul; Helmi, Amina

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample of 246 metal-poor stars (RR Lyraes, red giants, and red horizontal branch stars) which is remarkable for the accuracy of its six-dimensional kinematical data, we find, by examining the distribution of stellar orbital angular momenta, a new component for the local halo which has an axial ratio c/a ∼ 0.2, a similar flattening to the thick disk. It has a small prograde rotation but is supported by velocity anisotropy, and contains more intermediate-metallicity stars (with -1.5 < [Fe/H] < -1.0) than the rest of our sample. We suggest that this component was formed quite late, during or after the formation of the disk. It formed either from the gas that was accreted by the last major mergers experienced by the Galaxy, or by dynamical friction of massive infalling satellite(s) with the halo and possibly the stellar disk or thick disk. The remainder of the halo stars in our sample, which are less closely confined to the disk plane, exhibit a clumpy distribution in energy and angular momentum, suggesting that the early, chaotic conditions under which the inner halo formed were not violent enough to erase the record of their origins. The clumpy structure suggests that a relatively small number of progenitors were responsible for building up the inner halo, in line with theoretical expectations. We find a difference in mean binding energy between the RR Lyrae variables and the red giants in our sample, suggesting that more of the RR Lyraes in the sample belong to the outer halo, and that the outer halo may be somewhat younger, as first suggested by Searle and Zinn. We also find that the RR Lyrae mean rotation is more negative than the red giants, which is consistent with the recent result of Carollo et al. that the outer halo has a retrograde rotation and with the difference in kinematics seen between RR Lyraes and blue horizontal branch stars by Kinman et al. (2007).

  3. Opacity Build-up in Impulsive Relativistic Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granot, Jonathan; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; Silva, Eduardo do Couto e

    2007-01-01

    Opacity effects in relativistic sources of high-energy gamma-rays, such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) or Blazars, can probe the Lorentz factor of the outflow as well as the distance of the emission site from the source, and thus help constrain the composition of the outflow (protons, pairs, magnetic field) and the emission mechanism. Most previous works consider the opacity in steady state. Here we study the effects of the time dependence of the opacity to pair production (γγ → e + e - ) in an impulsive relativistic source, which may be relevant for the prompt gamma-ray emission in GRBs or flares in Blazars. We present a simple, yet rich, semi-analytic model for the time and energy dependence of the optical depth, τγγ, in which a thin spherical shell expands ultra-relativistically and emits isotropically in its own rest frame over a finite range of radii, R 0 (le) R (le) R 0 +ΔR. This is particularly relevant for GRB internal shocks. We find that in an impulsive source (ΔR ∼ 0 ), while the instantaneous spectrum (which is typically hard to measure due to poor photon statistics) has an exponential cutoff above the photon energy (var e psilon)1(T) where tγγ((var e psilon)1) = 1, the time integrated spectrum (which is easier to measure) has a power-law high-energy tail above the photon energy (var e psilon)1* ∼ (var e psilon)1(ΔT) where ΔT is the duration of the emission episode. Furthermore, photons with energies (var e psilon) > (var e psilon)1* are expected to arrive mainly near the onset of the spike in the light curve or flare, which corresponds to the short emission episode. This arises since in such impulsive sources it takes time to build-up the (target) photon field, and thus the optical depth τγγ((var e psilon)) initially increases with time and (var e psilon)1(T) correspondingly decreases with time, so that photons of energy (var e psilon) > (var e psilon)1* are able to escape the source mainly very early on while (var e psilon)1(T) > (var

  4. Advances in radiation processing of polymeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, K.; Sasak, T.; Vikis, A.C.; Singh, A.

    1993-12-01

    In this paper we review recent advances in industrial applications of electron-beam irradiation in the field of polymer processing at the Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment (TRCRE) of JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute), and the Whiteshell Laboratories of AECL Research, Canada. Irradiation of a substrate with ionizing radiation produces free radicals through ionization and excitation events. The subsequent chemistry of these radicals is used in radiation processing as a substitute for conventional processing techniques based on heating and/or the addition of chemicals. The advantages of radiation processing include the formation of novel products with desirable material properties, favourable overall process economics and, often, environmental benefits

  5. Radiation processing: a versatile technology for industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabalfin, E.G.

    1996-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of x-ray in 1895 and radioactivity in 1896, it was recognized that ionizing radiation can modify the chemical, physical and/or biological properties of materials. However, it was only in the late 50's, when large radiation sources become available, has this unique property of radiation found industrial applications in radiation processing. Today, radiation processing has been used by industry in such diverse applications, such as radiation sterilization/decontamination of medical products, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and their raw materials; radiation cross-linking of wire and cable insulation; production of heat shrinkable materials and polymer foam; and radiation curing of coatings, adhesives and inks on a wide variety of substrates. In addition to being a clean environment-friendly technology, radiation processing can also be used for the conservation of the environment by such processes as radiation treatment of flue gases to remove SO 2 and NO x and disinfection of sewage sludge. Because of the many advantages offered by radiation processing, industry is showing strong interest in the technology as evidenced by the growing number of industrial radiation facilities in many countries. (author)

  6. Calculation of Dose Gamma Ray Build up Factor in Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gamma ray buildup factor was calculated by analyzing the narrow- beam and broad-beam geometry equations using Taylor's formula for isotropic sources and homogeneous materials. The buildup factor was programmed using MATLAB software to operate with any radiation energy (E), atomic number (Z) and the ...

  7. Status of radiation processing in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dela Rosa, A M [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2001-03-01

    Radiation processing, one of the well established applications of radiation and radioisotopes, has been successfully integrated into the industrial development of many countries worldwide. Environmental considerations embodied in the Montreal Protocol, the need for energy conservation brought about by escalating costs of fossil fuels, and the bright prospect of utilizing indigenous materials for value-added products have catalyzed the rapid development of radiation processing in the Asia region. This paper presents an overview of current developments in research activities and commercial applications of radiation processing in the Philippines. The areas of application include radiation sterilization of medical products, food irradiation, radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex, radiation modification of the marine polysaccharide, carrageenan, and upgrading of cellulosic agriwaste by irradiation. (author)

  8. Status of radiation processing in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Rosa, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation processing, one of the well established applications of radiation and radioisotopes, has been successfully integrated into the industrial development of many countries worldwide. Environmental considerations embodied in the Montreal Protocol, the need for energy conservation brought about by escalating costs of fossil fuels, and the bright prospect of utilizing indigenous materials for value-added products have catalyzed the rapid development of radiation processing in the Asia region. This paper presents an overview of current developments in research activities and commercial applications of radiation processing in the Philippines. The areas of application include radiation sterilization of medical products, food irradiation, radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex, radiation modification of the marine polysaccharide, carrageenan, and upgrading of cellulosic agriwaste by irradiation. (author)

  9. Status of radiation processing: Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niyogi, U.K.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation processing is a technique to process different types of materials by way of providing radiations of different energies for various applications. Depending upon the changes, one needs to select the radiations of appropriate energy. The well established mechanism behind the changes occurring in the material is the excitation of electrons in the molecules and atoms. It is a proven technology for more than five decades which results in the modification in materials, both at the bulk and surface levels. While radiations such as IR and UV have low energy and hence affect the surface of the material only, highly energetic radiations such as gamma and e-beam are useful to modify the material at the bulk level. Radiation processing is the most efficient technique for polymerization, sterilization, disinfestations, etc. which are applied in industries such as wires and cables, healthcare, food processing, pet/animal feed, herbal and ayurvedic, artificial jewellery, etc.

  10. Effect of radiation processing on meat tenderisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Chawla, S.P.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-01-01

    The effect of radiation processing (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on the tenderness of three types of popularly consumed meat in India namely chicken, lamb and buffalo was investigated. In irradiated meat samples dose dependant reduction in water holding capacity, cooking yield and shear force was observed. Reduction in shear force upon radiation processing was more pronounced in buffalo meat. Protein and collagen solubility as well as TCA soluble protein content increased on irradiation. Radiation processing of meat samples resulted in some change in colour of meat. Results suggested that irradiation leads to dose dependant tenderization of meat. Radiation processing of meat at a dose of 2.5 kGy improved its texture and had acceptable odour. - Highlights: • Effect of radiation processing on tenderness of three meat systems was evaluated. • Dose dependant reduction in shear force seen in buffalo meat. • Collagen solubility increased with irradiation

  11. Prospects for radiation processing in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Q.O.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the status of current facilities and capabilities for radiation processing is presented together with industrial data from some selected industries. Due to limited accessibility of actual production/consumption data only tentative conclusions could be made regarding radiation technology applications for local industries. The order of priority, based on available information, appears to be medical sterilization, food irradiation, wood products modification, radiation polymerization, and rubber latex ''vulcanization.'' There is still a need for market survey and analyses, upgrading of radiation facilities, enactment of appropriate legislations, training of industrial technologies, and increased financial investment in order to make radiation technology a viable alternative to current local practices. (author)

  12. Radiation processing of Garcinia cambogia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, Sanju; Varshney, Lalit

    2001-01-01

    Garcinia Cambogia (GC) extract is used in controlling obesity and many health related problems. Being a natural product, locally known as cocum powder, is often contaminated with various microbiological species. Ability of g-radiation is well established to eliminate such species and it could be used to protect the quality of the product. In the present study, GC extract was subjected to g-radiation dose in order to evaluate the stability of its active ingredients. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with Diode Array Detector (DAD) and Thermo-Gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to evaluate the product stability. No significant physico-chemical changes were observed in GC at 30 kGy. GC could be sterilized or decontaminated in dry powder form using gamma radiation without affecting its physico-chemical properties. (author)

  13. Building-up domestic enrichment capacity is emphasized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    This is an interim report presented by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Committee of the Japanese Atomic Energy Commission to recommend adequate policy lines in each field of fuel cycle. As for the procurement of natural uranium, advises are given for both state authorities and for private companies (including electric utilities) on the basis of the ''develop-and-import'' policy. As for the procurement of enriched uranium, the urgency of the development of enrichment techniques and plants is emphasized together with the important role of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). As for reprocessing, it is confirmed that the construction and operation of the second reprocessing plant should be undertaken by private interests. The state authorities are advised to undertake revisions of the relevant laws, regulations, and standards. As for plutonium recycle, the demonstration of the use of plutonium with Fugen type heavy water reactors, as well as light water reactors is encouraged. As for the radiative waste disposal, advices associated with experimental ocean dumping, solidification, storage, and geological disposal are given. Finally, as for spent fuel transportation, problems associate with the physical protection and the safety of spent fuel transportation are treated. (Aoki, K.)

  14. Validation of radiation sterilization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaluska, I.

    2007-01-01

    The standards for quality management systems recognize that, for certain processes used in manufacturing, the effectiveness of the process cannot be fully verified by subsequent inspection and testing of the product. Sterilization is an example of such a process. For this reason, sterilization processes are validated for use, the performance of sterilization process is monitored routinely and the equipment is maintained according to ISO 13 485. Different aspects of this norm are presented

  15. Simulation of Electron-Cloud Build-Up for the Cold Arcs of the LHC and Comparison with Measured Data

    CERN Document Server

    Maury Cuna, H; Rumolo, G; Tavian, L; Zimmermann, F

    2011-01-01

    The electron cloud generated by synchrotron radiation or residual gas ionization is a concern for LHC operation and performance. We report the results of simulations studies which examine the electron cloud build-up, at injection energy, 3.5 TeV for various operation parameters. In particular, we determine the value of the secondary emission yield corresponding to the multipacting threshold, and investigate the electron density, and heat as a function of bunch intensity for dipoles and field-free regions. We also include a comparison between simulations results and measured heat-load data from the LHC scrubbing runs in 2011.

  16. Measurement methods to build up the digital optical twin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochnau, Marcel; Holzbrink, Michael; Wang, Wenxin; Holters, Martin; Stollenwerk, Jochen; Loosen, Peter

    2018-02-01

    The realization of the Digital Optical Twin (DOT), which is in short the digital representation of the physical state of an optical system, is particularly useful in the context of an automated assembly process of optical systems. During the assembly process, the physical system status of the optical system is continuously measured and compared with the digital model. In case of deviations between physical state and the digital model, the latter one is adapted to match the physical state. To reach the goal described above, in a first step measurement/characterization technologies concerning their suitability to generate a precise digital twin of an existing optical system have to be identified and evaluated. This paper gives an overview of possible characterization methods and, finally, shows first results of evaluated, compared methods (e.g. spot-radius, MTF, Zernike-polynomials), to create a DOT. The focus initially lies on the unequivocalness of the optimization results as well as on the computational time required for the optimization to reach the characterized system state. Possible sources of error are the measurement accuracy (to characterize the system) , execution time of the measurement, time needed to map the digital to the physical world (optimization step) as well as interface possibilities to integrate the measurement tool into an assembly cell. Moreover, it is to be discussed whether the used measurement methods are suitable for a `seamless' integration into an assembly cell.

  17. SU-E-T-59: Calculations of Collimator Scatter Factors (Sc) with and Without Custom-Made Build-Up Caps for CyberKnife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wokoma, S; Yoon, J; Jung, J [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Lee, S [Rhode Island Hospital / Warren Alpert Medical, Providence, RI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of custom-made build-up caps for a diode detector in robotic radiosurgery radiation fields with variable collimator (IRIS) for collimator scatter factor (Sc) calculation. Methods: An acrylic cap was custom-made to fit our SFD (IBA Dosimetry, Germany) diode detector. The cap has thickness of 5 cm, corresponding to a depth beyond electron contamination. IAEA phase space data was used for beam modeling and DOSRZnrc code was used to model the detector. The detector was positioned at 80 cm source-to-detector distance. Calculations were performed with the SFD, with and without the build-up cap, for clinical IRIS settings ranging from 7.5 to 60 mm. Results: The collimator scatter factors were calculated with and without 5 cm build-up cap. They were agreed within 3% difference except 15 mm cone. The Sc factor for 15 mm cone without buildup was 13.2% lower than that with buildup. Conclusion: Sc data is a critical component in advanced algorithms for treatment planning in order to calculate the dose accurately. After incorporating build-up cap, we discovered differences of up to 13.2 % in Sc factors in the SFD detector, when compared against in-air measurements without build-up caps.

  18. Global trends in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defalco, Gerry

    2002-01-01

    A global leader in radioisotope technology with three business units: - Nuclear Medicine supplies about two-thirds of the world requirements for molybdenum-99 and other isotopes used to diagnose disease - Radiation Therapy business unit supplied more than over 2,300 cobalt cancer treatment machines and is a leader in treatment planning - Ion Technologies is the world's leading supplier of cobalt 60 and innovative gamma irradiation systems About Ion Technologies · Supply over 70% of world's cobalt-60 sources · Custom-designed and built irradiation systems · Comprehensive engineering, physics, logistics, installation and marketing services · Canadian Irradiation Center for unique 'hands on' training, R and D product irradiation

  19. Building up the control system for the superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, S.

    2005-01-01

    Using a distributed processing system, connected through a responsive network was a starting point decision. Such a system has contributed a great deal towards reduction of cabling, independence from real time s/w and simpler and more group-wise distributed s/w development, The top of the 3 tiers is the layer made of a number of workstation PC's to work as consoles, which are connected in a dedicated ethernet control LAN. The virtual middle tier is made of a large no. of industrial PC's which are also hooked to the control LAN. The lowest level is made up of assorted intelligent and smart controllers both commercial and laboratory made. (author)

  20. Effect of radiation processing on meat tenderisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Chawla, S. P.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-06-01

    The effect of radiation processing (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on the tenderness of three types of popularly consumed meat in India namely chicken, lamb and buffalo was investigated. In irradiated meat samples dose dependant reduction in water holding capacity, cooking yield and shear force was observed. Reduction in shear force upon radiation processing was more pronounced in buffalo meat. Protein and collagen solubility as well as TCA soluble protein content increased on irradiation. Radiation processing of meat samples resulted in some change in colour of meat. Results suggested that irradiation leads to dose dependant tenderization of meat. Radiation processing of meat at a dose of 2.5 kGy improved its texture and had acceptable odour.

  1. New trends in radiation processing of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, the modification of polymers covers radiation cross-linking, radiation induced polymerization (graft polymerization and curing) and the degradation of polymers. The success of radiation technology for the processing of synthetic polymers can be attributed to two reasons, namely the easiness of processing in various shapes and sizes and, secondly, most of these polymers undergo cross-linking reaction upon exposure to radiation. years, natural polymers are being looked at again with renewed interest because of their unique characteristics like inherent biocompatibility, biodegradability and easy availability. However the recent progress in the field regards development of new processing methods and technical solutions. No other break trough technologies or products based on synthetic polymers are reported recently. The future progress, both from scientific and practical points of view, concerns nanotechnology and natural polymer processing. Overview of the subject, including the works performed in the Institute of the author is presented in the paper. (author)

  2. Radiation processing of plastics for decorative purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnik, R.I.; Onisko, A.D.

    1982-01-01

    Methods are reviewed for the radiation processing of polymeric films, sheets, plates and panels to form patterns, drawings, images and decorative finishing which have been recently developed in various countries. Methods of beam and radiation processing of transparent plastics are described for making a decorative article with a pattern inside the volume; advantages and shortcomings of the methods are shown. The method of radiation processing of transparent dielectric plastics by electron beam of a Microtron is considered in detail. It provides an economical method of fabrication of large-size highly artistic decorative articles with an original pattern inside the volume. Radiation processing operations are presented which are aimed at creation and visualization of regions of extended thermalized electron space charges stored by irradiation of dielectric. Examples are presented of large-size highly artistic decorative articles of polymethylmethacrylate which were used in interior of buildings and demonstrated at home and international exhibitions. (author)

  3. VVER operational experience - effect of preconditioning and primary water chemistry on radioactivity build-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmitko, M.; Kysela, J.; Dudjakova, K.; Martykan, M.; Janesik, J.; Hanus, V.; Marcinsky, P.

    2004-01-01

    The primary coolant technology approaches currently used in VVER units are reviewed and compared with those used in PWR units. Standard and modified water chemistries differing in boron-potassium control are discussed. Preparation of the VVER Primary Water Chemistry Guidelines in the Czech Republic is noted. Operational experience of some VVER units, operated in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, in the field of the primary water chemistry, and radioactivity transport and build-up are presented. In Mochovce and Temelin units, a surface preconditioning (passivation) procedure has been applied during hot functional tests. The main principles of the controlled primary water chemistry applied during the hot functional tests are reviewed and importance of the water chemistry, technological and other relevant parameters is stressed regarding to the quality of the passive layer formed on the primary system surfaces. The first operational experience obtained in the course of beginning of these units operation is presented mainly with respect to the corrosion products coolant and surface activities. Effect of the initial passivation performed during hot functional tests and the primary water chemistry on corrosion products radioactivity level and radiation situation is discussed. (author)

  4. Decease of accelerator size for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Ryuichi; Sunaga, Hiromi

    2003-01-01

    The decrease of accelerator size is an essential means to improve the market competition power of the radiation processing industry and to expand the wide application. Trials for the decrease or minimization are increasing steadily including development of irradiation equipments for exclusive uses. Compact irradiation systems were outlined for the significance and recent examples of the decrease in radiation processing, the problems in the industrial application, and the future of compact accelerators. (author)

  5. Radiation processing of polysaccharide derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Fumio

    2004-01-01

    Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), carboxymethylstarch (CMS), carboxymethylchitin (CM-chitin) and carboxymethylchitosan (CM-chitosan) form gels when irradiated at paste-like condition. Bedsore prevention mat filled up CMC hydrogel crosslinked by irradiation at paste-like condition was practical applied as a health care products. It was found that CM-chitosan hydrogels have anti-microbial activity and effective as absorbents to remove metal ions. When crosslinked gel sheets of CM-chitin and CM-chitosan were immersed in copper (II) aqueous solution, absorption of Cu (II) were 161 mg/g and 172 mg/g, respectively. Radiation crosslinking of cellulose derivative such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate, (HPMCP) kneaded with aqueous alkali solution and methanol was achieved with EB-irradiation at paste-like condition. The HPMCP gel absorbed organic solvents such as chloroform and pyridine. (author)

  6. Radiation processing of aqueous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehringer, P.

    1997-09-01

    Groundwater contaminated with about 60 μg/L perchloroethylene (PCE) is purified by a combined ozone/electron beam irradiation process for subsequent use as drinking water. The design of the first commercial plant for such a groundwater remediation having a capacity of 108 m 3 /h is described. The mechanism of the combined ozone/electron beam process for PCE decomposition is discussed with respect to other ozone based advanced oxidation processes like ozone/U.V. and ozone/hydrogen peroxide. The formation of trace amounts of trichloroacetic acid as the only organic by-product in all these processes has been interpreted as an indication that PCE decomposition proceeds via the same mechanism in all cases. (author)

  7. History matching of transient pressure build-up in a simulation model using adjoint method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajala, I.; Haekal, Rachmat; Ganzer, L. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Almuallim, H. [Firmsoft Technologies, Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Schulze-Riegert, R. [SPT Group GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this work is the efficient and computer-assisted history-matching of pressure build-up and pressure derivatives by small modification to reservoir rock properties on a grid by grid level. (orig.)

  8. The build-up and characterization of nuclear burn-up wave in a fast ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K V Anoop

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... evaluating the quality of the wave by the researchers working in the field of nuclear burn-up wave build-up and propagation. Keywords. ... However, there are concerns relating to the nuclear safety, ... Simulation studies have.

  9. Radiation processing in the U.S.S.R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikaev, A. K.

    The present paper is a short review of the modern status of radiation processing in the U.S.S.R. Data on ionizing radiation sources used in radiation processing are reported. The main directions of the development of this field of technology: radiation modification of materials, radiation curing of coatings, radiation-chemical methods of synthesis, radiation sterilization of medical products, radiation treatment of food, application of ionizing radiation for the solution of ecological problems etc. -are considered.

  10. Progress in radiation processing of polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Haji-Saeid, Mohammad; Ahmed, Shamshad

    2005-07-01

    Modification in polymeric structure of plastic material can be brought either by conventional chemical means or by exposure to ionization radiation from ether radioactive sources or highly accelerated electrons. The prominent drawbacks of chemical cross-linking typically involve the generation of noxious fumes and by products of peroxide degradation. Both the irradiation sources have their merits and limitations. Increased utilization of electron beams for modification and enhancement of polymer materials has been in particular witnessed over the past 40 years. The paper highlights several recent cases of EB utilization to improve key properties of selected plastic products. In paper is provided a survey of radiation processing methods of industrial interest, encompassing technologies which are already commercially well established, through developments in the active R&D stage which show pronounced promise for future commercial use. Radiation cross-linking technologies discussed include: application in cable and wire, application in rubber tyres, radiation vulcanization of rubber latex, development of radiation crosslinked SiC fiber, polymer recycling, development of gamma compatible pp, hydrogels etc. Over the years, remarkable advancement has been achieved in radiation processing of natural polymers. Role of radiation in improving the processing of temperature of PCL for use as biodegradable polymer, in accelerated breakdown of cellulose into viscose and enhancement in yields of chitin/chitosan from sea-food waste, is described.

  11. Progress in radiation processing of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Haji-Saeid, Mohammad; Ahmed, Shamshad

    2005-01-01

    Modification in polymeric structure of plastic material can be brought either by conventional chemical means or by exposure to ionization radiation from ether radioactive sources or highly accelerated electrons. The prominent drawbacks of chemical cross-linking typically involve the generation of noxious fumes and by products of peroxide degradation. Both the irradiation sources have their merits and limitations. Increased utilization of electron beams for modification and enhancement of polymer materials has been in particular witnessed over the past 40 years. The paper highlights several recent cases of EB utilization to improve key properties of selected plastic products. In paper is provided a survey of radiation processing methods of industrial interest, encompassing technologies which are already commercially well established, through developments in the active R and D stage which show pronounced promise for future commercial use. Radiation cross-linking technologies discussed include: application in cable and wire, application in rubber tyres, radiation vulcanization of rubber latex, development of radiation crosslinked SiC fiber, polymer recycling, development of gamma compatible pp, hydrogels etc. Over the years, remarkable advancement has been achieved in radiation processing of natural polymers. Role of radiation in improving the processing of temperature of PCL for use as biodegradable polymer, in accelerated breakdown of cellulose into viscose and enhancement in yields of chitin/chitosan from sea-food waste, is described

  12. Progress in radiation processing of polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Industrial Applications and Chemistry Section, Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, Wagramer Street 5, Vienna 1400 (Austria) and Department of Process and Chemical Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland)]. E-mail: a-g.chmielewski@iaea.org; Haji-Saeid, Mohammad [International Atomic Energy Agency, Industrial Applications and Chemistry Section, Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, Wagramer Street 5, Vienna 1400 (Austria); Ahmed, Shamshad [Applied Chemistry Laboratories, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Box Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2005-07-01

    Modification in polymeric structure of plastic material can be brought either by conventional chemical means or by exposure to ionization radiation from ether radioactive sources or highly accelerated electrons. The prominent drawbacks of chemical cross-linking typically involve the generation of noxious fumes and by products of peroxide degradation. Both the irradiation sources have their merits and limitations. Increased utilization of electron beams for modification and enhancement of polymer materials has been in particular witnessed over the past 40 years. The paper highlights several recent cases of EB utilization to improve key properties of selected plastic products. In paper is provided a survey of radiation processing methods of industrial interest, encompassing technologies which are already commercially well established, through developments in the active R and D stage which show pronounced promise for future commercial use. Radiation cross-linking technologies discussed include: application in cable and wire, application in rubber tyres, radiation vulcanization of rubber latex, development of radiation crosslinked SiC fiber, polymer recycling, development of gamma compatible pp, hydrogels etc. Over the years, remarkable advancement has been achieved in radiation processing of natural polymers. Role of radiation in improving the processing of temperature of PCL for use as biodegradable polymer, in accelerated breakdown of cellulose into viscose and enhancement in yields of chitin/chitosan from sea-food waste, is described.

  13. Nonstationary pressure build up in full-pressure containments after a loss-of-coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfeld, G.

    1977-01-01

    The time histories of pressure, temperature and pressure difference during the pressure build up phase of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in the primary system in full-pressure containments of water cooled nuclear power reactors are treated. These are important for the design of such containments. The experiments within the German research program RS 50 ''Druckverteilung im Containment'' offered, for the first time, the opportunity to observe experimentally fluid-dynamic processes in a multiple divided full-pressure containment, and to test at the same time, computer codes which serve to describe the physical processes during the LOCA. The comparison of the results calculated by the computer codes ZOCO VI and DDIFF with the experimental results showed apparent deviations by special arrangements of the compartments and the vent flow paths of a model containment for the calculation of time dependent pressure-, temperature- and pressure difference-histories. The deviations lead to the development of the analytical model and computer code COFLOW. This new model was primarily designed to deal with the fluid-dynamic processes in the beginning phase of the blowdown as maximal pressure differences appear. Furthermore, it can be used to determine the maximum containment pressure, as well as for long term calculations. The analytical model and computer code COFLOW shows a better correlation between theory and experiment than previous codes

  14. Understanding innovation system build up. The rise and fall of the Dutch PV Innovation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negro, S.O.; Vasseur, V.; Hekkert, M.P.; Van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Renewable energy technologies have a hard time to break through in the existing energy regime. In this paper we focus on analysing the mechanisms behind this problematic technology diffusion. We take the theoretical perspective of innovation system dynamics and apply this to photovoltaic solar energy technology (PV) in the Netherlands. The reason for this is that there is a long history of policy efforts in The Netherlands to stimulate PV but results in terms of diffusion of PV panels is disappointingly low, which clearly constitutes a case of slow diffusion. The history of the development of the PV innovation system is analysed in terms of seven key processes that are essential for the build up of innovation systems. We show that the processes related to knowledge development are very stable but that large fluctuations are present in the processes related to 'guidance of the search' and 'market formation'. Surprisingly, entrepreneurial activities are not too much affected by fluctuating market formation activities. We relate this to market formation in neighbouring countries and discuss the theoretical implications for the technological innovation system framework.

  15. Determination of contamination-free build-up for 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, P.D.; Sibata, CH.; Paliwal, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental verification of the difference between absorbed dose in tissue and the collision fraction of kerma requires precise knowledge of the absorbed dose curve, particularly in the build-up and build-down regions. A simple method from direct measurement of contamination-free build-up for 60 Co, which should also be applicable for most of the photon energies commonly employed for treatment, is presented. It is shown that the contribution from air-scattered electrons to the surface dose may be removed by extrapolating measurements of build-up to zero field size. The remaining contribution to contamination from the collimators and other source-related hardware may be minimised by measuring these build-up curves sufficiently far from the source. These results were tested by measuring the build-up using a magnet to sweep scattered electrons from the primary photon beam and by measuring the surface dose in the limit of an evacuated beam path. The relative dose at zero depth in polystyrene was found to be approximately 8.9+-0.3% of the dose at the depth of maximum build-up. (author)

  16. RVNRL and radiation processing in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siri-Upathum, C.

    2000-01-01

    Industrial application of radiation processing in Thailand is gaining wide acceptance. The first private-owned radiation sterilization plant was established in 1984. Commercialization of protective rubber gloves from radiation vulcanized of natural rubber latex (RVNRL) started in 1993. Two new sterilization plants using electron beam accelerator and gamma irradiation were commissioned in 1997 and 1999 respectively. Another gamma sterilization plant is scheduled to operate in the year 2000. Additional electron accelerator is being installed in one operational gamma sterilization plant, for upgrading of gemstones. Research and development at Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) and universities has been focused on RVNRL, radiation treatment of sludge, grafting of cassava starch and utilization of irradiated silk protein. Except for RVNRL which has passed to commercial scale, pilot scale of radiation treatment of sludge has achieved its goal to be utilized as new resources for animal feed and fertilizer. (author)

  17. RVNRL and radiation processing in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siri-Upathum, C. [Department of Nuclear Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2000-03-01

    Industrial application of radiation processing in Thailand is gaining wide acceptance. The first private-owned radiation sterilization plant was established in 1984. Commercialization of protective rubber gloves from radiation vulcanized of natural rubber latex (RVNRL) started in 1993. Two new sterilization plants using electron beam accelerator and gamma irradiation were commissioned in 1997 and 1999 respectively. Another gamma sterilization plant is scheduled to operate in the year 2000. Additional electron accelerator is being installed in one operational gamma sterilization plant, for upgrading of gemstones. Research and development at Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) and universities has been focused on RVNRL, radiation treatment of sludge, grafting of cassava starch and utilization of irradiated silk protein. Except for RVNRL which has passed to commercial scale, pilot scale of radiation treatment of sludge has achieved its goal to be utilized as new resources for animal feed and fertilizer. (author)

  18. Radiation processing. Current status and future possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation processing developed following the Second World War and employees gamma- or electron-irradiation to process polymers, cure alkene-based inks and coatings, sterilize medical supplies, irradiate food, and manage wastes. The current status of these applications is described with the probable direction of future developments. (author)

  19. Kinetic and radiation processes in cluster plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of processes is made for a cluster plasma which is a xenon arc plasma of a high pressure with an admixture of tungsten cluster ions. Because cluster ions emit radiation, this system is a light source which parameters are determined by various processes such as heat release and transport of charged particles in the plasma, radiative processes involving clusters, processes of cluster evaporation and attachment of atoms to it that leads to an equilibrium between clusters and vapor of their atoms, processes of cluster generation, processes of the ionization equilibrium between cluster ions and plasma electrons, transport of cluster ions in the discharge plasma in all directions. These processes govern by properties of a specific cluster plasma under consideration. (author)

  20. A closed-form formulation for the build-up factor and absorbed energy for photons and electrons in the Compton energy range in Cartesian geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Volnei; Vilhena, Marco Tullio, E-mail: borges@ufrgs.b, E-mail: vilhena@pq.cnpq.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PROMEC/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Fernandes, Julio Cesar Lombaldo, E-mail: julio.lombaldo@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (DMPA/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica Pura e Aplicada. Programa de Pos Graduacao em Matematica Aplicada

    2011-07-01

    In this work, we report on a closed-form formulation for the build-up factor and absorbed energy, in one and two dimensional Cartesian geometry for photons and electrons, in the Compton energy range. For the one-dimensional case we use the LTS{sub N} method, assuming the Klein-Nishina scattering kernel for the determination of the angular radiation intensity for photons. We apply the two-dimensional LTS{sub N} nodal solution for the averaged angular radiation evaluation for the two-dimensional case, using the Klein-Nishina kernel for photons and the Compton kernel for electrons. From the angular radiation intensity we construct a closed-form solution for the build-up factor and evaluate the absorbed energy. We present numerical simulations and comparisons against results from the literature. (author)

  1. A closed-form formulation for the build-up factor and absorbed energy for photons and electrons in the Compton energy range in Cartesian geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Volnei; Vilhena, Marco Tullio; Fernandes, Julio Cesar Lombaldo

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report on a closed-form formulation for the build-up factor and absorbed energy, in one and two dimensional Cartesian geometry for photons and electrons, in the Compton energy range. For the one-dimensional case we use the LTS N method, assuming the Klein-Nishina scattering kernel for the determination of the angular radiation intensity for photons. We apply the two-dimensional LTS N nodal solution for the averaged angular radiation evaluation for the two-dimensional case, using the Klein-Nishina kernel for photons and the Compton kernel for electrons. From the angular radiation intensity we construct a closed-form solution for the build-up factor and evaluate the absorbed energy. We present numerical simulations and comparisons against results from the literature. (author)

  2. Redox processes in radiation biology and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstock, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    Free-radical intermediates, particularly the activated oxygen species OH, O - 2 , and 1 O 2 , are implicated in many types of radiation damage to biological systems. In addition, these same species may be formed, either directly or indirectly through biochemical redox reactions, in both essential and aberrant metabolic processes. Cell survival and adaptation to an environment containing ionizing radiation and other physical and chemical carcinogens ultimately depend upon the cell's ability to maintain optimal function in response to free-radical damage at the chemical level. Many of these feedback control mechanisms are redox controlled. Radiation chemical techniques using selective radical scavengers, such as product analysis and pulse radiolysis, enable us to generate, observe, and characterize individually the nature and reactivity of potentially damaging free radicals. From an analysis of the chemical kinetics of free-radical involvement in biological damage, redox mechanisms are proposed to describe the early processes of radiation damage, redox mechanisms are proposed to describe the early processes of radiation damage, its protection and sensitization, and the role of free radicals in radiation and chemical carcinogenesis

  3. Applications of Radiation Processing in Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, Lucille V.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation processing has long been known as commercially viable technology that can be beneficially used to enhance the characteristics of many materials. Several gamma irradiators and electron beam accelerators are operating worldwide which are utilized for various established industrial applications. These could be used for the following processes: a) radiation crosslinking e.g. crosslinking of wires and cables, heat shrinkable film and tube productions, manufacture of plastic bags and tubings for medical products, pre-curing of automobile tire components, curing of polymeric coatings, etc. b) radiation degradation e.g. Scrap Teflon (Polytetraflouroethylene) to form powders, disinfestations and pasteurization of agricultural products, sterilization of medical products, etc.; and c) radiation grafting e.g. grafted non-woven fabrics for metal adsorbent. Emerging applications for radiation processing include grafted membranes for fuel cell, electrodes, cell sheet for tissue engineering, nanoparticle production, polymer composite synthesis, and fibrous catalyst for biodiesel production. Current researches at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute consist of crosslinking of natural and synthetic polymers for medical application e.g. wound dressing, hemostats, and bioimplants for vesicouretal reflux (VUR); grafting of natural and synthetic fabrics for metal adsorbents; and radiation degradation of carrageenan as plant growth promoter. (author)

  4. Radiation processing of wood-plastic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czvikovszky, T.

    1992-01-01

    There are three main types of radiation-processed composite material derived from plastics and fibrous natural polymers. The first are the monomer-impregnated, radiation-treated wood-plastic composites (WPC). They became a commercial success in the early 1970s. More recently, work has focused on improving the WPCs by creating in them interpenetrating network (IPN) systems by the use of appropriate multifunctional oligomers and monomers. The main kinetic features of radiation-initiated chain polymerization remain applicable even in impregnated wood. The second type are the plastics filled or reinforced with dispersed wood fiber or other cellulosics (WFRP). In their case, radiation processing offers a new opportunity to apply radiation-reactive adhesion promoters between wood or cellulosic fibers and the thermoplastic matrices. The third type are the laminar composites made by electron beam coating of wood-based agglomerate sheets and boards. This chapter reviews the industrial applications and the radiation processing of the three types of the wood-plastic composites and indicates future trends. (orig.)

  5. Introduction [Radiation processing: Environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the problems of environmental damage and degradation of natural resources have received increasing attention throughout the world. Population growth, higher standards of living, increased urbanization and enhanced industrial activities all contribute to environmental degradation. For example, fossil fuels - including coal. natural gas, petroleum, shale oil and bitumen - are the main primary sources of heat and electrical energy production, and are responsible for a large number and amount of pollutants emitted to the atmosphere via exhaust gases from industry. power stations, residential heating systems and vehicles. All of these fuels are composed of major constituents such as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, and other components including sulphur and nitrogen compounds and metals. During the combustion process, different pollutants are emitted, such as fly ash (containing diverse trace elements (heavy metals)), SO x (including SO 2 and SO 3 ). NO x (including NO 2 and NO) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Air pollution caused by particulate matter and other pollutants not only directly impacts the atmospheric environment but also contaminates water and soil, leading to their degradation. Wet and dry deposition of inorganic pollutants leads to acidification of the environment. These phenomena have a negative impact on human health and on vegetation

  6. Radiation processing of natural polymer in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman; Kamaruddin Hashim; Zulkafli Ghazali; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Dahlan Hj. Mohd; Jamaliah Sharif

    2007-01-01

    Research on radiation processing of natural polymer has been carried out by Nuclear Malaysia since 10 years ago. The progress of the research is at various stages. Radiation processing of sago hydrogel has been commercialized. Meanwhile ago film for packaging is at the pilot scale trial. Palm oil products are ready to be further developed for commercialization with any interested industrial partner. On the other hand, some new materials are being developed based on natural rubber such as liquid natural as compatibilizer, natural rubber thermoplastic nanoclay composites and natural rubber magnetic nano particles composites. (author)

  7. Radiation processing of food and agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Reducing post-harvest food losses is becoming increasingly important for sustaining food supplies. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for improving food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Preservation of food by ionizing radiation involves controlled application of energy of ionizing radiation such as gamma rays, X-rays, and accelerated electrons to agricultural commodities, food products and ingredients, for improving their storage life, hygiene and safety. The process employs either gamma rays emitted by radioisotopes such as cobalt-60 or high-energy electrons or X-rays generated from machine sources

  8. Simulations of the Electron Cloud Build Up and Instabilities for Various ILC Damping Ring Configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivi, Mauro; Raubenheimer, Tor O.; Wang, Lanfa; Ohmi, Kazuhito; Wanzenberg, Rainer; Wolski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    In the beam pipe of the positron damping ring of the International Linear Collider (ILC), an electron cloud may be first produced by photoelectrons and ionization of residual gases and then increased by the secondary emission process. This paper reports the assessment of electron cloud effects in a number of configuration options for the ILC baseline configuration. Careful estimates were made of the secondary electron yield (sometimes in the literature also referred as secondary emission yield SEY or (delta), with a peak value (delta) max ) threshold for electron cloud build-up, and the related single- and coupled-bunch instabilities, as a function of beam current and surface properties for a variety of optics designs. When the configuration for the ILC damping rings was chosen at the end of 2005, the results from these studies were important considerations. On the basis of the joint theoretical and experimental work, the baseline configuration currently specifies a pair of 6 km damping rings for the positron beam, to mitigate the effects of the electron cloud that could present difficulties in a single 6 km ring. However, since mitigation techniques are now estimated to be sufficiently mature, a reduced single 6-km circumference is presently under consideration so as to reduce costs

  9. A model for the build-up of disordered material in ion bombarded Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    A new model based on experimental observation is developed for the build-up of disordered material in ion bombarded silicon. The model assumes that disordered zones are created in a background of migrating point defects, these zones then act as neutral sinks for such defects which interact with the zones and cause recrystallization. A simple steady state rate theory is developed to describe the build-up of disordered material with ion dose as a function of temperature. In general the theory predicts two distinct behaviour patterns depending on the temperature and the ion mass, namely a linear build-up with dose to complete disorder for heavy bombarding ions and a build-up to saturation at a relatively low level for light ions such as protons. However, in some special circumstances a transition region is predicted where the build-up of disorder approximately follows a (dose)sup(1/2) relationship before reverting to a linear behaviour at high dose. (author)

  10. Applications of radiation processing: SRI experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Shriram Applied Radiation Centre (SARC) is a part of Shriram Institute for Industrial Research (SRI), and was established in 1986, in collaboration with Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). SARC was established with a objective to popularize the radiation processing technology for various applications. SARC is a fully automatic, computerized plant setup as per the design and norms of BRIT/AERB for round the clock fail safe operations. The capacity of SARC Irradiator is 800 kCi of Cobalt -60 source which can process up to 10,000 cubic meters of material (0.1g/cc) at 25 kGy level

  11. Role of dosimetry in radiation processing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Kishor

    2001-01-01

    Today, radiation processing is a growing technology offering potential technological advantages as well as enhanced safety and economy. It is expanding on two fronts: the variety of applications is exploding as well as the sources of radiation. And with that comes the necessary advances in dosimetry. However, the success of the technology still depends on the assertion that the irradiated products are reliable and safe, whether they are health care products or cables and wires. And this is best assured through quality assurance programmes. The key element in QA in radiation processing is a well-characterised, reliable dosimetry that is traceable to the international measurement system. Traceability is the foundation for international acceptance of the irradiated products; and with international trade of irradiated products on the rise, it becomes absolutely critical. It is thus vital that the industry recognises this pivotal position of good dosimetry and the role a national standards laboratory plays in that connection. (author)

  12. Achievements and perspectives for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlcsby, A.

    1992-01-01

    In the last few decades the major practical applications of large radiation sources have been in the irradiation of macromolecular systems. These have risen rapidly to annual outputs of billions of dollars and continue to show steady growth. In other directions such as polymerization and grafting, radiation has been less successful, primarily because in these subjects radiation serves as only one step in a sequence of chemical reactions, and often these can be achieved by more conventional and familiar methods. We envisage future progress along several distinct lines. 1. Reduction in the cost of radiation. 2. The application of radiation technology in areas where valuable modifications are involved and where advantage can be taken of the remarkable control offered by electron beams. 3. Areas where the chemical alternatives do not exist or are difficult to apply. 4. A very different line of approach is to use radiation with its far more complete control and reproducibility to investigate many processes even if in the production stage itself a different technique is later utilized. Present examples are chemical kinetics as with ESR, pulse radiolysis, pulsed NMR, behavior of trapped charges, crystal structure, local modifications, reinforcement and orientation etc. (J.P.N.)

  13. Dosimetry and control of radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Eight invited papers on the general theme of 'Dosimetry and Control of Radiation Processing', presented at a one day symposium held at the National Physical Laboratory, are collected together in this document. Seven of the papers are selected and indexed separately. (author)

  14. Radiation processing of polyolefins and compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, A.; Biggs, J.; Maringer, M.

    1977-01-01

    Many properties of polyethylene and its copolymers are enhanced by crosslinking. This can be accomplished through the use of either peroxides or radiation. Crosslinking with peroxides is performed at elevated temperatures generally under pressure; catalyst residues remain in the product which have an adverse effect on electrical and possibly other properties. Radiation crosslinking, on the other hand, is performed under ambient conditions, is essentially free of pollution and offers lower overall production costs due to increased processing speed. A cost analysis of the two crosslinking processes applied to wire and cable coating is included. The advantages of radiation curing can be negated by processing problems which lead to inadequate product properties. Problems are described which may be encountered in developing a flame retardant, radiation curable compound for wire and cable coating. Of particular concern is the generation of a microporous structure which is accentuated by the presence of flame retardant ingredients and the absence of pressure inherent to the peroxide curing process. The procedures involved in solving these problems are briefly described. (author)

  15. Optimization of industrial processes using radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, Claudio G.; Silva Filho, Edmundo D. da; Toribio, Norberto M.; Gandara, Leonardo A.

    1996-01-01

    Aiming the enhancement of the staff protection against radiation in operational areas, the SAMARCO Mineracao S.A. proceeded a reevaluation and analysis of the real necessity of the densimeters/radioactive sources in the operational area, and also the development of an alternative control process for measurement the ore pulp, and introduced of the advanced equipment for sample chemical analysis

  16. Build-up of actinides in irradiated fuel rods of the ET-RR-1 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, M.; Naguib, K.; Morcos, H.N

    2001-09-01

    The content concentrations of actinides are calculated as a function of operating reactor regime and cooling time at different percentage of fuel burn-up. The build-up transmutation equations of actinides content in an irradiated fuel are solved numerically .A computer code BAC was written to operate on a PC computer to provide the required calculations. The fuel element of 10% {sup 235}U enrichment of ET-RR-1 reactor was taken as an example for calculations using the BAC code. The results are compared with other calculations for the ET-RR-1 fuel rod. An estimation of fissile build-up content of a proposed new fuel of 20% {sup 235}U enrichment for ET-RR-1 reactor is given. The sensitivity coefficients of build-up plutonium concentrations as a function of cross-section data uncertainties are also calculated.

  17. Analysis of surface and build up region dose for motorized wedge and omni wedge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panta, Raj Kumar; Sundarum, T.

    2008-01-01

    Megavoltage x-ray beam exhibits the well known phenomenon of dose build-up within the first few millimeters of incident phantom surface or skin. The skin sparing effect of high energy gamma or x-ray photon may be reduced or even lost, if the beam is contaminated with electron or low energy photons. Since skin dose in the treatment of deeply seated tumor may be a limiting factor in the delivery of tumoricidal dose due to possible complications such as erythema, desquamation, fibrosis, necrosis and epilation, the dose distribution in the build up region should be known. The objective of this study was to measure and investigate the surface and build-up region dose for 6 MV and 15 MV photon beam for Motorized wedge and Omni wedge in Precise Digital Linear Accelerator (Elekta)

  18. Modelling heavy metals build-up on urban road surfaces for effective stormwater reuse strategy implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Nian; Zhu, Panfeng; Liu, An

    2017-01-01

    Urban road stormwater is an alternative water resource to mitigate water shortage issues in the worldwide. Heavy metals deposited (build-up) on urban road surface can enter road stormwater runoff, undermining stormwater reuse safety. As heavy metal build-up loads perform high variabilities in terms of spatial distribution and is strongly influenced by surrounding land uses, it is essential to develop an approach to identify hot-spots where stormwater runoff could include high heavy metal concentrations and hence cannot be reused if it is not properly treated. This study developed a robust modelling approach to estimating heavy metal build-up loads on urban roads using land use fractions (representing percentages of land uses within a given area) by an artificial neural network (ANN) model technique. Based on the modelling results, a series of heavy metal load spatial distribution maps and a comprehensive ecological risk map were generated. These maps provided a visualization platform to identify priority areas where the stormwater can be safely reused. Additionally, these maps can be utilized as an urban land use planning tool in the context of effective stormwater reuse strategy implementation. - Highlights: • A model was developed to simulate heavy metal build-up loads on urban roads. • This model is based on artificial neural networks. • Land use fractions was used to model build-up loads on different particle sizes. • The maps of heavy metal spatial distribution and ecological risk were generated. • This model can be used for effective stormwater reuse strategy implementation. - Development of a robust modelling approach to mapping heavy metals build-up and their ecological risks for stormwater reuse safety.

  19. The place of radiation processing in polymer technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.

    1978-01-01

    A number of polymerisation processes initiated through radiation are discussed, among others the impregnation of wood with a monomer to form wood-polymer composites; radiation crosslinking of cable insulation; radiation degradation; radiation grafting of wool and textiles; and radiation sterilization of medical and pharmaceutical equipment. The last-named process is briefly compared to steam and to ethylene oxide sterlization

  20. The keys of the kingdom as paradigm for building up the church in reformed church government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. le R. du Plooy

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This article adopts an ecclesiological approach and concentrates on the prominent concepts the keys of the kingdom and building up the church. The article attempts to determine the significance those concepts may have for the government of the church and emphasises the close relationship between the keys of the kingdom and the building up of the church. According to Reformational viewpoints the administering of the keys serves the edification of the church. It becomes clear that the notae ecclesiae and the keys of the kingdom function as the basic elements of the church order and must be regarded as the basis or pillars upon which the church is built.

  1. A method of the sensitivity analysis of build-up and decay of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Hiroshi; Koyama, Kinji; Kuroi, Hideo

    1977-07-01

    To make sensitivity analysis of build-up and decay of actinides, mathematical methods related to this problem have been investigated in detail. Application of time-dependent perturbation technique and Bateman method to sensitivity analysis is mainly studied. For the purpose, a basic equation and its adjoint equation for build-up and decay of actinides are systematically solved by introducing Laplace and modified Laplace transforms and their convolution theorems. Then, the mathematical method of sensitivity analyses is formulated by the above technique; its physical significance is also discussed. Finally, application of eigenvalue-method is investigated. Sensitivity coefficients can be directly calculated by this method. (auth.)

  2. Basic principle of constant q/sub a/ current build-up in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, M.

    1985-05-01

    An analytic expression is derived such that the current profile shape is kept constant during the current build-up phase in tokamaks. The required conductivity profile is parametrized by two externally controllable parameters, I/sub p/ and a/sub p/ in the case of the Gaussian current profile. It is shown that a Gaussian current profile can be maintained for a realistically broad conductivity profile by using the constant q/sub a/ current build-up method even under the condition of a high I/sub p/

  3. Flavor profile of radiation processed food commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, S.; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Flavor is one of the major quality attributes that play an important role in driving consumer choices and preferences for food. Among the several attributes that decide the flavor quality of any food, aroma and taste are the most important. While volatile constituents contribute to aroma, taste is a perception stimulated by non-volatile principles of food. Radiation processing of food has in recent years assumed increasing importance as a method for hygenization. At the doses employed for food irradiation no significant qualitative changes in the aroma constituents have been reported in most cases. An increase in perceived aroma has however been observed in several radiation processed foods. Besides volatile aroma compounds non-volatile aroma precursors are ubiquitous in plant kingdom. These compounds have been reported to exist largely as bound glycosidic conjugates and are known to undergo breakdown during processing and storage. This results in release of free aroma, thereby, modifying the flavor quality of the product. No report, however, exists on the effect of radiation processing on these bound aroma precursors. Four major class of food namely spices, oil seeds, fruits and beverages were therefore taken up for a detailed study. With respect to aroma, an enhanced breakdown of aroma precursors namely isoeugenol and 4-vinyl guaiacol glycosides and release of free aglycones was demonstrated to result in an increased aroma quality of radiation processed monsooned coffee. Breakdown of phenyl ethanol glucoside resulted in a fruitier note to pomegranate while enhanced spicy note of irradiated nutmeg arise as a result of radiolytic break down p-cymene-7-ol rutinoside precursor and release of free p-cymene-7-ol. An increased color quality of irradiated saffron was a result of the formation of free carotene aglycones namely crocetin from its glycosidic precursors while changes in perceived taste quality of radiation processed soybean could be attributed to

  4. Studies and Development of Radiation Processed Nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varshney, Lalit; Sabharwal, Sunil; Francis, Sanju; Biswal, Jayashree [Radiation Technology Development Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2009-07-01

    Nanotechnology is the emerging technology that deals with processing, manipulating and manufacturing devices and products at the microscopic scale of molecules or atoms with structures smaller than 100 nanometers. Realizing its potential, Government of India spending on R&D in nanotechnology has gone up by an order of magnitude in last 5 years through various national and international programs. High energy gamma radiation and electron beams could be a useful tool to create innovative and newer nano-materials for various applications in medical field for treatment and detection purposes. Considering its certain advantage for producing nano-materials, radiation technology will play a crucial role in development of such materials. Research and development in the area of nano--particles on polymer films, hydrogels, silica particles and their nano-clusters using radiation technology could be a possible route for development of new functional nano-materials. (author)

  5. Radiation methods in dairy production and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguli, N.C.

    1975-01-01

    Various uses of radiotracers and radiation in dairy technology are described. In dairy production, radiotracers are used for studying: (1) rumen metabolism leading to protein synthesis (2) total body water, blood volume and sodium (3) minerals metabolism (4) relation between climatic stress and thyroid functioning of dairy animals (5) volume of milk in mammary glands (6) hormone level in dairy animals and (7) spermatozoa metabolism. In dairy processing, radiotracers are used for studying: (1) compositional analysis of milk and milk products and (2) efficiency of cleaning agents for cleaning dairy equipment. Ionizing radiation is used for: (1) preservation of milk and milk products and (2) sterilization of packaging materials. Radiation source has been used to monitor the over-run in ice-cream and the fill control for fluid in papar cartons. (M.G.B.)

  6. Studies and Development of Radiation Processed Nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Lalit; Sabharwal, Sunil; Francis, Sanju; Biswal, Jayashree

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the emerging technology that deals with processing, manipulating and manufacturing devices and products at the microscopic scale of molecules or atoms with structures smaller than 100 nanometers. Realizing its potential, Government of India spending on R&D in nanotechnology has gone up by an order of magnitude in last 5 years through various national and international programs. High energy gamma radiation and electron beams could be a useful tool to create innovative and newer nano-materials for various applications in medical field for treatment and detection purposes. Considering its certain advantage for producing nano-materials, radiation technology will play a crucial role in development of such materials. Research and development in the area of nano--particles on polymer films, hydrogels, silica particles and their nano-clusters using radiation technology could be a possible route for development of new functional nano-materials. (author)

  7. Radiation processing in the plastics industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, C.B.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of ionizing radiation with organic substrates to produce useful physical and chemical changes is the basis of the radiation processing industry for plastics. Electron beam (EB) accelerators dominate the industry; however, there are a few small applications that use gamma radiation. The five general product categories that account for over 95% of the worldwide EB capacity used for plastics production are the following: wire and cable insulation; heat-shrinkable film, tubes and pipes; radiation-curable coatings; rubber products; and polyolefin foam. A total of 6.1% of the yearly production of these products in the United States is EB treated. The United States accounts for 59% of the total worldwide EB capacity of 20.5 MW (1984), followed by Europe (16%) and Japan (15%). There are 469 to 479 individual EB units worldwide used for the production of plastics and rubber. The average annual rate of growth (AARG) for the EB processing of plastics in Japan, from 1977 to 1987, was 13.3%. The AARG for Japan has decreased from 20% for 1977 to 198, to 6.4% for 1984 to 1987. Radiation cross-linking, of power cable insulation (cable rating ≥75 kV), thick polyolefin and rubber sheet (≥15 mm), and thick-walled tubing is one fo the potential applications for a 5- to 10-MeV EB system. Other products such as coatings, films and wire insulation may be economically EB-treated using a 5 to 10 MeV accelerator, if several layers of the product could be irradiated simultaneously. Two general product categories that require more study to determine the potential of high-energy EB processing are moulded plastics and composite materials. 32 refs

  8. A new radiochromic film for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidney, L.N.; Lynch, D.C.; Willett, P.S.; Englund, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    Acid-sensitive leuco dyes in combination with a chlorine-containing polymer have been used to make a new kind of radiochromic film for radiation processing. When exposed to gamma, electron beam, or high intensity ultraviolet radiation, these films undergo a color change from colorless to royal blue, fuschia, or black, depending on the dye. The dose response for gamma and electron beam radiation has been characterized using reflection and transmission spectrophotometry over an adsorbed dose range of 1 to 100 kGy. The primary features of the films include improved color stability before and after irradiation and improved moisture resistance. The response and stability of the films make them useful for indicator (qualitative) or dosimeter (quantitative) films or labels for sterilization of medical products, food (especially meat, poultry, and spices), pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics, and the crosslinking of plastics, and the curing of polymer coatings. Large pieces of the film could be used in dose mapping when setting up and validating radiation processes and medical treatments

  9. Effect of heat build-up on carbon emissions in chimato compost piles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine impacts of heat build-up of chimato compost piles TD0, TD20, TD40, TD50, TD60, TD80 and TD100, made by blending maize stalks with 0, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80 and 100% Tithonia diversifolia, respectively, on carbon losses and emissions during composting. Compost piles temperatures ...

  10. Does the QCD vacuum build up a colour chemical potential dynamically?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sailer, K.; Greiner, W.

    1998-01-01

    The one-loop effective theory is found for QCD assuming an overcritical homogeneous gluon vector potential background that corresponds to a non-vanishing colour chemical potential. It is found that the vacuum is unstable against building up a non-vanishing colour chemical potential for sufficiently large number of flavours. (author)

  11. Ebola expert says building up health systems is best defence | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-05-22

    May 22, 2018 ... Ebola expert says building up health systems is best defence ... community of public health experts to control viral epidemics in several countries. ... says the problem of infectious diseases has grown in the past 30 years, but ...

  12. Effect of heat build-up on carbon emissions in chimato compost piles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Mlangeni

    atmospheric carbon compounds such as dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) into soil organic carbon compounds. (Biala, 2011; Gill et al., 2012; Biddlestone and Gray,. 1987). Maturity and stability of compost is partly dependent on type of feedstock that influence compost pile moisture content, aeration and heat build up. Well.

  13. Technological yields of sources for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1990-01-01

    The present report is prepared for planners of radiation processing of any material. Sources with cobalt-60 are treated marginally, because most probably, there will be no installation of technically meaningful activity in Poland before the year 2000. Calculations are focused on accelerators of electrons, divided into two groups: versatile linacs of energy up to 13 MeV and accelerators of lower energy, below 2 MeV, of better energetical yield but of limited applications. The calculations are connected with the confrontation of the author's technological expectations during the preparation of the linac project in the late '60s, with the results of twenty years of exploitation of the machine. One has to realize that from the 150 kV input power from the mains, only 5 kV of bent and scanned beam is recovered on the conveyor. That power is only partially used for radiation induced phenomena, sometimes only a few percent, because of the demanded homogeneity of the dose, of the mode of packing of the object and its shape, of losses at the edges of the scanned area and in the spaces between boxes, and of losses during the dead time due to the tuning of the machine and dosimetric operations. The use of lower energy accelerators may be more economical in case of objects of optimum type. At the first stage, that is of the conversion of electrical power into that of the low energy electron beam, the yield is 2-3 times better than in the case of linacs. Attention has been paid to the technological aspects of electron beam conversion into the more penetrating bremsstrahlung similar to gamma radiation. The advantages of these technologies, which make it possible to control the shape of the processed object are stressed. Ten parameters necessary for a proper calculation of technological yields of radiation processing are listed. Additional conditions which must be taken into account in the comparison of the cost of radiation processing with the cost of other technologies are also

  14. Collisional and radiative processes in fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, Graeme G.

    2003-01-01

    Since electrode life is the major limiting factor in operating fluorescent lamps, many lighting companies have introduced 'electrodeless' fluorescent lamps, using inductively coupled discharges. These lamps often operate at much higher power loadings than standard lamps and numerical models have not been successful in reproducing experimental measurements in the parameter ranges of interest. A comprehensive research program was undertaken to study the fundamental physical processes of these discharges, co-funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and OSRAM SYLVANIA under the name of ALITE. The program included experiments and modeling of radiation transport, computations of electron-atom and atom-atom cross sections and the first comprehensive power balance studies of a highly loaded fluorescent lamp. Results from the program and their importance to the understanding of the physics of fluorescent lamps are discussed, with particular emphasis on the important collisional and radiative processes. Comparisons between results of experimental measurements and numerical models are presented

  15. Detection of radiation processing in onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchacek, V.

    1985-01-01

    Two breeds of onions were used for irradiation. Both breeds were divided into two parts - the first was irradiated with a dose of 80 Gy and the second served as a control. The two parts were stored under the same conditions. Conductometry, liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry were used for detecting the radiation processing of the onions. Only from the spectrophotometric determination of 2-desoxysaccharides it was possible to safely distinguish irradiated onions from non-irradiated controls throughout storage time. (E.S.)

  16. Heat pump processes induced by laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuny, M.; Henningsen, T.

    1980-01-01

    A carbon dioxide laser system was constructed for the demonstration of heat pump processes induced by laser radiation. The system consisted of a frequency doubling stage, a gas reaction cell with its vacuum and high purity gas supply system, and provisions to measure the temperature changes by pressure, or alternatively, by density changes. The theoretical considerations for the choice of designs and components are dicussed.

  17. Future of radiation processing of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapiro, A.; Tabata, Y.; Stannett, V.; Dole, M.; Dobo, J.; Charlesby, A.

    1990-01-01

    The present development of radiation processing in the polymer field including well established technologies, with large scale productions and substantial markets, such as: crosslinking; curing of monomer-polymer formulations; sterilization of plastic supplies; are discussed. The manufacture of sophisticated devices with low volume production but large added value: electronic devices; resistors and several promising applications for which only small commercial productions are on stream today: chain degradation; polymerization; graft copolymerization, are reviewed. (author)

  18. Dosimetry systems for radiation processing in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Naoyuki

    1995-01-01

    The present situation of dosimetry systems for radiation processing industry in Japan is reviewed. For gamma-rays irradiation the parallel-plate ionization chamber in TRCRE, JAERI has been placed as a reference standard dosimeter for processing-level dose. Various solid and liquid chemical dosimeters are used as routine dosimeters for gamma processing industries. Alanine dosimeters is used for the irradiation purpose which needs precise dosimetry. For electron-beam irradiation the electron current density meter and the total absorption calorimeter of TRCRE are used for the calibration of routine dosimeters. Plastic film dosimeters, such as cellulose triacetate and radiochromic dye are used as routine dosimeters for electron processing industries. When the official traceability systems for processing-level dosimetry now under investigation is completed, the ionization chamber of TRCRE is expected to have a role of the primary standard dosimeter and the specified alanine dosimeter will be nominated for the secondary or reference standard dosimeter. (author)

  19. Consenting process for radiation facilities. V. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    Safety codes and standards are formulated on the basis of nationally and internationally accepted safety criteria for design, construction and operation of specific equipment, systems, structures and components of nuclear and radiation facilities. Safety, codes establish the objectives and set requirements that shall be fulfilled to provide adequate assurance for safety. Safety codes establish the objectives and set requirements that shall be fulfilled to provide adequate assurance for safety. Safety guides elaborate various requirements and furnish approaches for their implementation. Safety manuals deal with specific topics and contain detailed scientific and technical information on the subject. These documents are prepared by experts in the relevant fields and are extensively reviewed by advisory committees of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) before they are published. The documents are revised when necessary, in the light of experience and feedback from users as well as new developments in the field. AERB issued a safety code on Regulation of Nuclear and Radiation Facilities (AERB/SC/G) to spell out the requirements/obligations to be met by a nuclear or radiation facility for the issue of regulatory consent at every stage. This safety guide apprises the details of the regulatory requirements for setting up the radiation facility such as consenting process, the stages requiring consent, wherever applicable documents to be submitted and the nature and extent of review. The guide also gives information on methods of review and assessment adopted by AERB

  20. Consenting process for radiation facilities. V. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    Safety codes and standards are formulated on the basis of nationally and internationally accepted safety criteria for design, construction and operation of specific equipment, systems, structures and components of nuclear and radiation facilities. Safety, codes establish the objectives and set requirements that shall be fulfilled to provide adequate assurance for safety. Safety codes establish the objectives and set requirements that shall be fulfilled to provide adequate assurance for safety. Safety guides elaborate various requirements and furnish approaches for their implementation. Safety manuals deal with specific topics and contain detailed scientific and technical information on the subject. These documents are prepared by experts in the relevant fields and are extensively reviewed by advisory committees of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) before they are published. The documents are revised when necessary, in the light of experience and feedback from users as well as new developments in the field. AERB issued a safety code on Regulation of Nuclear and Radiation Facilities (AERB/SC/G) to spell out the requirements/obligations to be met by a nuclear or radiation facility for the issue of regulatory consent at every stage. This safety guide apprises the details of the regulatory requirements for setting up the radiation facility such as consenting process, the stages requiring consent, wherever applicable documents to be submitted and the nature and extent of review. The guide also gives information on methods of review and assessment adopted by AERB

  1. Consenting process for radiation facilities. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    Safety codes and standards are formulated on the basis of nationally and internationally accepted safety criteria for design, construction and operation of specific equipment, systems, structures and components of nuclear and radiation facilities. Safety, codes establish the objectives and set requirements that shall be fulfilled to provide adequate assurance for safety. Safety codes establish the objectives and set requirements that shall be fulfilled to provide adequate assurance for safety. Safety guides elaborate various requirements and furnish approaches for their implementation. Safety manuals deal with specific topics and contain detailed scientific and technical information on the subject. These documents are prepared by experts in the relevant fields and are extensively reviewed by advisory committees of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) before they are published. The documents are revised when necessary, in the light of experience and feedback from users as well as new developments in the field. AERB issued a safety code on Regulation of Nuclear and Radiation Facilities (AERB/SC/G) to spell out the requirements/obligations to be met by a nuclear or radiation facility for the issue of regulatory consent at every stage. This safety guide apprises the details of the regulatory requirements for setting up the radiation facility such as consenting process, the stages requiring consent, wherever applicable documents to be submitted and the nature and extent of review. The guide also gives information on methods of review and assessment adopted by AERB

  2. Primary water chemistry monitoring from the point of view of radiation build-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, G.L.; Civin, V.; Pinter, T.

    1997-01-01

    Basic operational principles of a computer code system calculating the primary circuit corrosion product activities based on actual measured plant chemistry data are presented. The code system consists of two parts: FeSolub.prg: calculates the characteristic iron solubilities based on actual primary water chemistry (H 3 BO 3 KOH, ... etc.) and plant load (MW) data. A developed solubility calculation method has been applied fitted to magnetite solubility data of several authors; RADTRAN.exe: calculates primary circuit water and surface corrosion product activities based on results of FeSolub.prg or planned water chemistry data up to the next shutdown. The computer code system is going to be integrated into a general primary water chemistry monitoring and surveillance system. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  3. Primary water chemistry monitoring from the point of view of radiation build-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, G L [Institute for Electrical Power Research, Budapest (Hungary); Civin, V [Hungarian Electricity Generating Board, Budapest (Hungary); Pinter, T [Nuclear Power Plant PAKS, Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-02-01

    Basic operational principles of a computer code system calculating the primary circuit corrosion product activities based on actual measured plant chemistry data are presented. The code system consists of two parts: FeSolub.prg: calculates the characteristic iron solubilities based on actual primary water chemistry (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}KOH, ... etc.) and plant load (MW) data. A developed solubility calculation method has been applied fitted to magnetite solubility data of several authors; RADTRAN.exe: calculates primary circuit water and surface corrosion product activities based on results of FeSolub.prg or planned water chemistry data up to the next shutdown. The computer code system is going to be integrated into a general primary water chemistry monitoring and surveillance system. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs.

  4. Role of urban surface roughness in road-deposited sediment build-up and wash-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Jiang, Qian; Xie, Wenxia; Li, Xuyong; Yin, Chengqing

    2018-05-01

    Urban road surface roughness is one of the most important factors in estimation of surface runoff loads caused by road-deposited sediment (RDS) wash-off and design of its control measures. However, because of a lack of experimental data to distinguish the role of surface roughness, the effects of surface roughness on RDS accumulation and release are not clear. In this study, paired asphalt and concrete road surfaces and rainfall simulation designs were used to distinguish the role of surface roughness in RDS build-up and wash-off. Our results showed that typical asphalt surfaces often have higher depression depths than typical concrete surfaces, indicating that asphalt surfaces are relatively rougher than concrete surface. Asphalt surfaces can retain a larger RDS amount, relative higher percentage of coarser particles, larger RDS wash-off loads, and lower wash-off percentage, than concrete surfaces. Surface roughness has different effects in RDS motilities with different particle sizes during rainfall runoff, and the settleable particles (44-149 μm) were notably influenced by it. Furthermore, the first flush phenomenon tended to be greater on relatively smooth surfaces than relatively rough surfaces. Overall, surface roughness plays an important role in influencing the complete process of RDS build-up and wash-off on different road characteristics.

  5. The application of radiation technology in industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvermann, J.

    1974-01-01

    The author makes a general survey of current applications for radiation processing such as sterilization of biological and medical supplies, crosslinking of polymers, production of durable press fabrics, radiation-cured coating, production of wood-plastic composites, radiation degradation and chemical synthesis. The adoption of radiation processing on large scale by Western Electric is presented. The trend in costs and the environmental problems has a profound effect on the future of radiation processing. (M.S.)

  6. Public relations and the radiation processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, T. Donna

    The world's uneasiness and mistrust regarding anything nuclear has heightened in recent years due to events such as Chernobyl and Three Mile Island. Opinion polls and attitude surveys document the public's growing concern about issues such as the depletion of the ozone layer, the resulting greenhouse effect and exposure of our planet to cosmic radiation. Ultimately, such research reveals an underlying fear regarding the unseen impacts of modern technology on the environment and on human health. These concerns have obvious implications for the radiation processing industry, whose technology is nuclear based and not easily understood by the public. We have already seen organized nuclear opponents mobilize public anxiety, fear and misunderstanding in order to oppose the installation of radiation processing facilities and applications such as food irradiation. These opponents will no doubt try to strengthen resistance to our technology in the future. Opponents will attempt to convince the public that the risks to public and personal health and safety outweigh the benefits of our technology. We in the industry must head off any tendency for the public to see us as the "enemy". Our challenge is to counter public uneasiness and misunderstanding by effectively communicating the human benefits of our technology. Clearly it is a challenge we cannot afford to ignore.

  7. Public relations and the radiation processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, T.D. (Nordion International Inc., Kanata, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    The world's uneasiness and mistrust regarding anything nuclear has heightened in recent years due to events such as Chernobyl and Three Mile Island. Opinion polls and attitude surveys document the public's growing concern about issues such as the depletion of the ozone layer, the resulting greenhouse effect and exposure of our planet to cosmic radiation. Ultimately, such research reveals an underlying fear regarding the unseen impacts of modern technology on the environment and on human health. These concerns have obvious implications for the radiation processing industry, whose technology is nuclear based and not easily understood by the public. We have already seen organized nuclear opponents mobilize public anxiety, fear and misunderstanding in order to oppose the installation of radiation processing facilities and applications such as food irradiation. These opponents will no doubt try to strengthen resistance to our technology in the future. Opponents will attempt to convince the public that the risks to public and personal health and safety outweigh the benefits of our technology. We in the industry must head off any tendency for the public to see us as the ''enemy''. Our challenge is to counter public uneasiness and misunderstanding by effectively communicating the human benefits of our technology. (author).

  8. Development of radiation processes for better environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majali, A.B.; Sabharwal, S.; Deshpande, R.S.; Sarma, K.S.S.; Bhardwaj, Y.K.; Dhanawade, B.R.

    1998-01-01

    The increasing population and industrialization, worldover, is placing escalating demands for the development of newer technologies that are environment friendly and minimize the pollution associated with the development. Radiation technology can be of benefit in reducing the pollution levels associated with many processes. The sulphur vulcanization method for natural rubber latex vulcanization results in the formation of considerable amounts of nitrosoamines, both in the product as well as in the factory environment. Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex has emerged as a commercially viable alternative to produce sulphur and nitrosoamine free rubber. A Co-60 γ-radiation based pilot plant has been functioning since April 1993 to produce vulcanized natural rubber latex (RVNRL) using acrylate monomers as sensitizer. The role of sensitizer, viz. n-butyl acrylate in the vulcanization process has been elucidated using the pulse radiolysis technique. Emission of toxic sulphur containing gases form an inevitable part of viscose-rayon process and this industry is in search of ways to reduce the associated pollution levels. The irradiation of cellulose results in cellulose activation and reduction in the degree of polymerization (DP). These effects can reduce the solvents required to dissolve the paper pulp. There is a keen interest in utilizing radiation technology in viscose rayon production. We have utilized the electron beam (EB) accelerator for reducing the degree of polymerization (DP) of paper pulp. Laboratory scale tests have been carried out to standardize the conditions for production of pulp having the desired DP by EB irradiation. The use of irradiated paper pulp can result in ∼40% reduction in the consumption of CS 2 in the process that can be beneficial in reducing the pollution associated with the process. PTFE waste can be recycled into a low molecular weight microfine powder by irradiation. An EB based process has been standardized to produce

  9. An industrial radiation source for food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadat, R.

    1986-01-01

    The scientific linacs realized by CGR MeV in France have been installed in several research centers, the medical accelerators of CGR MeV have been installed in radiotherapy centers all over the world, and the industrial linacs have been used for radiography in heavy industries. Based on the experience for 30 years, CGR MeV has realized a new industrial radiation source for food processing. CARIC is going to install a new machine of CGR MeV, CASSITRON, as the demand for radiation increased. This machine has been devised specially for industrial irradiation purpose. Its main features are security, simplicity and reliability, and it is easy to incorporate it into a production line. The use of CASSITRON for food industry, the ionizing effect on mechanically separated poultry meat, the capital and processing cost and others are explained. Only 10 % of medical disposable supplies is treated by ionizing energy in France. The irradiation for food decontamination, and that for industrial treatment are demanded. Therefore, CARIC is going to increase the capacity by installing a CASSITRON for sterilization. The capital and processing cost are shown. The start of operation is expected in March, 1986. At present, a CASSITRON is being installed in the SPI food processing factory, and starts operation in a few weeks. (Kako, I.)

  10. Cobalt 60 availability for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    In the last 20 years, the steady and significant growth in the application of radiation processing to industrial sterilization has been seen. The principal application of this technology is the sterilization of disposable medical products, food irradiation, the irradiation of personal care goods and so on. At present, more than 70 million curies of cobalt-60 supplied by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. have been used for gamma processing in these applications. This is estimated to be more than 80 % of the total cobalt-60 in service in the world. Commercial food irradiation has an exciting future, and as to the impact of food irradiation on the availability of cobalt-60 over the next ten years, two principal factors must be examined, namely, the anticipated demand for cobalt-60 in all radiation processing applications, and the supply of cobalt-60 to reliably meet the expected demand. As for the cobalt-60 in service today, 90 % is used for the sterilization of disposable medical products, 5 % for food irradiation, and 5 % for other application. The demand for up to 30 million curies of cobalt-60 is expected over the next 10 years. Today, it is estimated that over 150,000 tons of spices, fruit and fish are irradiated. The potential cobalt-60 production could exceed 110 million curies per year. Gamma processing application will demand nearly 50 million curies in 1990. (Kako, I.)

  11. Recent advances in radiation processing of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2013-01-01

    Commercial application of radiation technology for food processing started in the nineties after it was approved by FAO/IAEA/WHO and Codex Alimentarius Commission in the eighties. Sanitary applications were initially explored commercially with microbial decontamination of spices and dry ingredients as the primary commodities to be processed on a large scale. Subsequently, with the emergence of E.coli O157:H7 as the potential food poisoning risk in ground beef, irradiation of meat was initiated in the late nineties in the USA. Since then irradiation, has become a very useful food safety tool and the technology has been approved for addressing food safety risks in moluscan shellfish and vegetables like lettuce, spinach, and more recently for raw uncooked meat by USFDA. Phytosanitary applications assumed importance after USFDA approved irradiation as a method of phytosanitary treatment and subsequent endorsement of the process by International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) in 2003. These approvals were responsible for development of international trade in agricultural commodities. The first to demonstrate the feasibility of the process were India and Australia, the countries that exported mangoes to New Zealand and USA, respectively. As far as the source of radiation is concerned, the world is slowly moving towards deployment of machine sources, thereby reducing its dependence on radioisotopes for commercial irradiation. (author)

  12. Apparatus and method for radiation processing of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuberg, W.B.; Luniewski, R.

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for radiation degradation processing of polytetrafluoroethylene makes use of a simultaneous irradiation, agitation and cooling. The apparatus is designed to make efficent use of radiation in the processing. (author)

  13. Technological yields of sources for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1993-01-01

    The present report is prepared for planners of radiation processing of any material. Calculations are focused on accelerators of electrons, divided into two groups: versatile linacs of energy up to 13 MeV, and accelerators of lower energy, below 2 MeV, of better energy yield but of limited applications. The calculations are connected with the confrontation of the author's technological expectations during the preparation of the linac project in the late '60s, with the results of 25 years of exploitation of the machine. One has to realize that from the 200 kW input power from the mains, only 5 kW of bent and scanned beam is recovered on the conveyor. That power is only partially used for radiation induced phenomena, because of the demanded homogeneity of the dose, of the mode of packing of the object and its shape, of edges of the scanned area and in the spaces between boxes, and of loses during the idle time due to the tuning of the machine and dosimetric operations. The use of lower energy accelerators may be more economical than that of linacs in case of objects of specific type. At the first stage already, that is of the conversion of electrical power into that of low energy electron beam, the yield is 2-3 times better than in the case of linacs. Attention has been paid to the technological aspects of electron beam conversion into the more penetrating Bremsstrahlung similar to gamma radiation. The advantages of technologies, which make possible a control of the shape of the processed object are stressed. Special attention is focused to the relation between the yield of processing and the ratio between the maximum to the minimum dose in the object under the irradiation. (author). 14 refs, 14 figs

  14. Electron Cloud Build Up and Instability in the CLIC Damping Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, G; Papaphilippou, Y

    2008-01-01

    Electron cloud can be formed in the CLIC positron damping ring and cause intolerable tune shift and beam instability. Build up simulations with the Faktor2 code, developed at CERN, have been done to predict the cloud formation in the arcs and wigglers of the damping rings. HEADTAIL simulations have been used to study the effect of this electron cloud on the beam and assess the thresholds above which the electron cloud instability would set in.

  15. THE ROLE OF LANGUAGE GAME IN THE BUILDING UP OF A POLITICIAN'S IMAGE (PRAGMALINGUISTIC PERLOCUTIONARY EXPERIMENT)

    OpenAIRE

    Khanina E. A.

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the results of the pragmalinguistic experiment. Since language game is a result of speech creative work, which manifests the individuality of a linguistic personality, the politician can intentionally use language game and thereby consciously form his attractive image. The politician, who uses different kinds of language game, makes some personal characteristics building up the portrait aspect of effective political image more distinguished and thus affects the election ...

  16. Build-up dynamics of heavy metals deposited on impermeable urban surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicke, D; Cochrane, T A; O'Sullivan, A

    2012-12-30

    A method using thin boards (3 cm thick, 0.56 m(2)) comprising different paving materials typically used in urban environments (2 asphalt types and concrete) was employed to specifically investigate air-borne deposition dynamics of TSS, zinc, copper and lead. Boards were exposed at an urban car park near vehicular traffic to determine the rate of contaminant build-up over a 13-day dry period. Concentration profiles from simulated rainfall wash-off were used to determine contaminant yields at different antecedent dry days. Maximum contaminant yields after 13 days of exposure were 2.7 kg ha(-1) for TSS, 35 g ha(-1) zinc, 2.3 g ha(-1) copper and 0.4 g ha(-1) lead. Accumulation of all contaminants increased over the first week and levelled off thereafter, supporting theoretical assumptions that contaminant accumulation on impervious surfaces asymptotically approaches a maximum. Comparison of different surface types showed approximately four times higher zinc concentrations in runoff from asphalt surfaces and two times higher TSS concentrations in runoff from concrete, which is attributed to different physical and chemical compositions of the pavement types. Contaminant build-up and wash-off behaviours were modelled using exponential and saturation functions commonly applied in the US EPA's Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) showing good correlation between measured and modelled concentrations. Maximum build-up, half-saturation time, build-up rate constants and wash-off coefficients, necessary for stormwater contaminant modelling, were determined for the four contaminants studied. These parameters are required to model contaminant concentrations in urban runoff assisting in stormwater management decisions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dye film dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, J.C.; McLaughlin, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    Commercially available plastic films containing dyes or dye precursors are convenient dosimeters and imaging media for electron beams or photons used for industrial radiation processing. As ''grainless'' imaging systems having thicknesses down to a few micrometers, they provide high spatial resolution for determining detailed absorbed dose distributions through microdensitometric analysis. The radiation absorption properties of these systems are adjusted by changing film composition so that the dosimeter materials can be made to simulate the material of interest undergoing irradiation. Other advantages include long-term stability, dose-rate independence, and ease of use and calibration. Radiochromic dye films with thicknesses varying from 0.005 to 1 mm are presently used to monitor electron-beam or gamma-ray doses from 10 to 10 5 Gy (10 3 to 10 7 rad), typical of those encountered in medical applications, radiation curing of polymeric composites, wire and cable insulation, shrinkable plastic tubing and film, as well as sterilization of medical supplies and treatment of municipal and industrial wastes. An NBS calibration service to industry involves the traceability of standard 60 Co gamma ray absorbed dose measurements by means of these films employed as transfer standards

  18. Radiation processing facilities and services in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulkafli Ghazali

    2007-01-01

    It is envisaged that radiation processing will continue to play an important role towards the progress and development of industry in Malaysia. Malaysian Government will continue to play an active role to support R and D in this field by providing the necessary infrastructure, facility, trained manpower and research funds. Additional e-beam accelerator is planned to be installed at Nuclear Malaysia in 2007. The medium energy electron beam accelerator (1 MeV, 50 mA) will be mainly use to evaluate the commercial viability for treating aqueous products such as wastewater. (author)

  19. Building up STEM education professional learning community in school setting: Case of Khon Kaen Wittayayon School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thana, Aduldej; Siripun, Kulpatsorn; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    The STEM education is new issue of teaching and learning in school setting. Building up STEM education professional learning community may provide some suggestions for further collaborative work of STEM Education from grounded up. This paper aimed to clarify the building up STEM education learning community in Khon Kaen Wittayayon (KKW) School setting. Participants included Khon Kaen University researchers, Khon Kaen Wittayayon School administrators and teachers. Methodology regarded interpretative paradigm. The tools of interpretation included participant observation, interview and document analysis. Data was analyzed to categories of condition for building up STEM education professional learning community. The findings revealed that the actions of developing STEM learning activities and research showed some issues of KKW STEM community of inquiry and improvement. The paper will discuss what and how the community learns about sharing vision of STEM Education, supportive physical and social conditions of KKW, sharing activities of STEM, and good things from some key STEM teachers' ambition. The paper may has implication of supporting STEM education in Thailand school setting.

  20. Modelling heavy metals build-up on urban road surfaces for effective stormwater reuse strategy implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Nian; Zhu, Panfeng; Liu, An

    2017-12-01

    Urban road stormwater is an alternative water resource to mitigate water shortage issues in the worldwide. Heavy metals deposited (build-up) on urban road surface can enter road stormwater runoff, undermining stormwater reuse safety. As heavy metal build-up loads perform high variabilities in terms of spatial distribution and is strongly influenced by surrounding land uses, it is essential to develop an approach to identify hot-spots where stormwater runoff could include high heavy metal concentrations and hence cannot be reused if it is not properly treated. This study developed a robust modelling approach to estimating heavy metal build-up loads on urban roads using land use fractions (representing percentages of land uses within a given area) by an artificial neural network (ANN) model technique. Based on the modelling results, a series of heavy metal load spatial distribution maps and a comprehensive ecological risk map were generated. These maps provided a visualization platform to identify priority areas where the stormwater can be safely reused. Additionally, these maps can be utilized as an urban land use planning tool in the context of effective stormwater reuse strategy implementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nuclear science in the 20th century. Radiation chemistry and radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Tao; Xu Furong; Zheng Chunkai

    2003-01-01

    The application of nuclear science and technology to chemistry has led to two important subjects, radiation chemistry and radiation processing, which are playing important roles in many aspects of science and society. We review the development and major applications of radiation chemistry and radiation processing, including the basic physical and chemical mechanisms involved

  2. Some features of radiation processing in the plastics industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobo, J.

    1985-01-01

    In the last few years, the production of free radicals by radiation became competitive with chemical initiators. Nevertheless radiation processing got only a firm footing, where distinct advantages could be demonstrated as compared with conventional processes, either in the technology or the product quality. This paper is intended to direct attention to some of the special features of radiation processing. (author)

  3. Some features of radiation processing in the plastics industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    D´, J.

    In the last few years, the production of free radicals by radiation became competitive with chemical initiators. Nevertheless, radiation processing got only a firm footing, where distinct advantages could be demonstrated as compared with conventional processes, either in the technology or the product quality. This paper is intended to direct attention to some of the special features of radiation processing.

  4. Public health policy and the building up of a Brazilian medical identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro-Santos, L A

    2005-12-01

    Since George Herbert Mead studied "the social self" and the interactionists went further in distinguishing "images of self", a lecture on the building up of a Brazilian medical identity should try to focus on the patterns of self-images, presented images, and aspired-to images among the Brazilian medical elites during the First Republic (1889-1930). In no other period of Brazilian history were those "images" of professional identity so close--in contrast, later periods of Brazilian history witnessed an almost permanent "collision" or the clashing of such images among public health specialists. Oswaldo Cruz, Carlos Chagas, Artur Neiva and Belisário Pena are perhaps the best examples of successful careers as "sanitarians" (to recall John Duffy's historical work on luminaries before and after the "New Public Health" in the United States), and as important political actors during Brazil's First Republic. In light of the prominent political, policy-oriented, and scientific roles public health professionals played in Brazil, it is interesting to suggest that in large part such prominence resulted from the symbolic impact of the ideologies of sanitary reform on the political agenda of that period of Brazilian history. Where many studies look for personal rivalries and disputes around Chagas and Neiva as public figures, we may also see the importance of finding identity-building processes among public health specialists as an integrated group (e.g., trying to appear as "significant others" for the new generations of medical graduates in the country), regardless of existing rivalries. Cruz and Chagas, especially, were names with great impact in the Brazilian press (pro and con), a circumstance made possible largely by their easy and direct access to the Brazilian presidents Rodrigues Alves and Epitácio Pessoa, and, most clearly, by public health being one of Brazil's political priorities to find a place among the "civilized nations" of the world. A task that further

  5. Advances in ''radiation processing''. Repeat of a symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drawe, H.

    1984-01-01

    A symposium entitled ''International Meeting on Radiation Processing'' was held in Dubrovnik from 4th to 8th October, 1982. The current status of and the most recent developments in the field of radiation chemistry were presented. In the report presented here the reader is given a critical review of papers presented at the meeting, the following aspects being treated: Radiation measurements and quality control; radiation source technology; environmental application of radiation technology; radiation chemistry as related to nuclear technology; developments in applied polymer chemistry; radiation sterilization; radiation technological aspects in the food industry; low energy electron radiation applications; applied radiation chemistry and physics; bio-compatible materials, radiation plants; engineering economics and process optimization. (orig./RB) [de

  6. Radiation Processing of Advanced Composite Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Phil Hyun; Jeun, Joonpyo; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Advanced composites, such as carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics, are being used widely for many applications. Carbon fiber/epoxies composites have attracted special attention from the aircraft, aerospace, marine engineering, sporting goods and transportation industries, because they have useful mechanical properties including high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios, a corrosion resistant, impact and damage tolerance characteristics and wear properties. Thermal curing has been the dominant industrial process for advanced composites until now, however, a radiation curing process using UV, microwave x-ray, electron-beam(E-beam) and {gamma}-ray has emerged as a better alternative in recent years. These processes are compatible with the manufacturing of composites using traditional fabrication methods including a filament/tape winding, pultrusion, resin transfer moulding and hand lay-up. In this study, E-beam curable carbon fiber/epoxy composites were manufactured, and their mechanical properties were investigated. Two epoxy resins (bisphenol-A, bisphenol-F) containing photo-initiators (tri aryl sulfonium hexafluorophosphate, tri aryl sulfonium hexafluoroantimonate) were used as a matrix and a 4H-satin carbon woven fabric was used as a reinforcement. And then an electron beam irradiated the composites up to 200 kGy in a vacuum and an inert atmosphere. The cure cycle was optimized and the properties of composites were evaluated and analyzed via a differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, sol-gel extractions, FT-NIR, universal test machine, and an impact tester. The gel content, glass transition temperature and mechanical strength of the irradiated composites were increased with an increasing radiation dose.

  7. Radiation processing with the Messina electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auditore, L.; Barna, R.C.; De Pasquale, D.; Emanuele, U.; Loria, D.; Morgana, E.; Trifiro, A.; Trimarchi, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the last decades radiation processing has been more and more applied in several fields of industrial treatments and scientific research as a safe, reliable and economic technique. In order to improve existing industrial techniques and to develop new applications of this technology, at the Physics Department of Messina University a high power 5 MeV electron linac has been studied and set-up. The main features of the accelerating structure will be described together with the distinctive features of the delivered beam and several results obtained by electron beam irradiations, such as improvement of the characteristics of polymers and polymer composite materials, synthesis of new hydrogels for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications, reclaim of culture ground, sterilization of medical devices, development of new dosimeters for very high doses and dose rates required for monitoring of industrial irradiations

  8. Radiation induced processes in moss cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doehren, R. v.

    1975-01-01

    The moss F.h. shows apical growth in the protonema cells which spread radially from the spor. Every apical daughter cell during the state of 'Caulonema' and just before in the state of 'Caulonema Primanen' initiates cell division as soon as more than twice the length of the mother cell is reached. All this allows to follow radiation effects in single cells conveniently. UV irradiation on the range of 254 nm and 280 nm delivered at different parts of the cell area delays cell division markedly may suppress it, and is able to stop the process of growing in relation to the delivered dose and to the irradiated area as well. In case of irradiation of the area next to where the membrane is just being formed - that is to say next to the phragmoplast - the new membrane will be wrongly oriented. In particular giant cells are occurring in the case of nucleus irradiation during early prophase. (orig./GSE) [de

  9. Operational experience of gamma radiation processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Nilesh

    2014-01-01

    Universal lSO-MED is now proud to announce an extension of its irradiation service for low-dose applications specifically in agriculture commodities, food and healthcare applications with the start of Gujarat Agro Radiation Processing Facility at Village: Bavla, Ahmedabad (A Government Enterprise) Operated, Maintained and Managed by Universal Medicap Ltd. Availability of hygienic, safe and nutritious food commodities is essential for any sustainable human development. Food stability is an important element of economic stability and self-reliance of a nation. Though the need to preserve food has been felt by the mankind since the time immemorial, it is even stronger in today's context. The rising population and increasing gap between demand and supply, agro-climatic conditions, in adequate post-harvest practices, seasonal nature of produce and long distances between production and consumption centers underscore the need to device improved conservation and preservation strategies

  10. Radiation processing dosimetry - past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, W.L.

    1999-01-01

    Since the two United Nations Conferences were held in Geneva in 1955 and 1958 on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy and the concurrent foundation of the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1957, the IAEA has fostered high-dose dosimetry and its applications. This field is represented in industrial radiation processing, agricultural programmes, and therapeutic and preventative medicine. Such dosimetry is needed specifically for pest and quarantine control and in the processing of medical products, pharmaceuticals, blood products, foodstuffs, solid, liquid and gaseous wastes, and a variety of useful commodities, e.g. polymers, composites, natural rubber and elastomers, packaging, electronic, and automotive components, as well as in radiotherapy. Improvements and innovations of dosimetry materials and analytical systems and software continue to be important goals for these applications. Some of the recent advances in high-dose dosimetry include tetrazolium salts and substituted polydiacetylene as radiochromic media, on-line real-time as well as integrating semiconductor and diamond-detector monitors, quantitative label dosimeters, photofluorescent sensors for broad dose range applications, and improved and simplified parametric and computational codes for imaging and simulating 3D radiation dose distributions in model products. The use of certain solid-state devices, e.g. optical quality LiF, at low (down to 4K) and high (up to 500 K) temperatures, is of interest for materials testing. There have also been notable developments in experimental dose mapping procedures, e.g. 2D and 3D dose distribution analyses by flat-bed optical scanners and software applied to radiochromic and photofluorescent images. In addition, less expensive EPR spectrometers and new EPR dosimetry materials and high-resolution semiconductor diode arrays, charge injection devices, and photostimulated storage phosphors have been introduced. (author)

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic and thermal processes in solar flare energy build-up and release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tend, W. van.

    1979-01-01

    A solar flare can be described as an instability in the upper solar atmosphere that converts 10 28 ergs to 10 32 ergs of magnetic energy into other forms of energy, mainly kinetic energy. The solar flare gives rise to a wealth of observable phenomena. The author develops a fairly simple model to explain many of these apparently very diverse features of solar flares. (Auth.)

  12. PAD WELDING EFFECT ON CRANKSHAFT LENGTH WHILE MAKING BUILD-UP PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Vigerina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals a pad welding effect on axial sizes of a crankshaft to be built-up and a dependence of axial deformation of built-up element on an elasticity modulus, a heating temperature and thermal coefficient of linear expansion of an element and a plating, weave bead sizes. This dependence enables to forecast tensile stresses in the plating. The paper contains justification on limitation of axial deformation of the built crank due to decrease of pad welding numbers up to only one during the whole period of its lifetime and carrying out  resource-saving measures.

  13. Application to the radiation processing of polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshii, Fumio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2003-02-01

    Polypropylene (PP) and biodegradable polymer (blend of poly ({epsilon}-caploracton) 30/polybutylenesuccynate 70), PHB02 were irradiated with an electron beam to improve processability for production of thin film and foam. The processability of the polymer was improved due to enhancement of melt strength with irradiation at the dose range between 10 and 100 kGy. Increase of melt strength is due to entanglement of branch structure formed by irradiation. Possibility of high-speed production of thin film and production of foam have been achieved by this process. The soil degradation test showed that biodegradable polymer film buried in the soil was almost entirely degraded (97%) after two months and completely degraded after two and a half months. In the case of foam samples, 65% degradation was achieved after four months. Radiation crosslinked water-soluble polymer form hydrogel, which absorb much water. The hydrogel prepared by irradiation of polymer in aqueous solution was applied as dressing for healing of wound. In order to evaluate the healing effect of the polyethylene oxide (PEO) hydrogel dressing, wounds formed on the back of marmots were covered by the hydrogel. The healing under the wet environment of the hydrogel dressing had three advantages, compared with that of gauze dressing, which gives a dry environment: (1) enhancement of healing rate, (2) facilitation for changing the dressing, i.e. the hydrogel can be peeled off without any damage to the regenerated skin surface, and (3) hydrogel dressing material does not remain stuck on the wound. (author)

  14. Application to the radiation processing of polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Fumio

    2003-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) and biodegradable polymer (blend of poly (ε-caploracton) 30/polybutylenesuccynate 70), PHB02 were irradiated with an electron beam to improve processability for production of thin film and foam. The processability of the polymer was improved due to enhancement of melt strength with irradiation at the dose range between 10 and 100 kGy. Increase of melt strength is due to entanglement of branch structure formed by irradiation. Possibility of high-speed production of thin film and production of foam have been achieved by this process. The soil degradation test showed that biodegradable polymer film buried in the soil was almost entirely degraded (97%) after two months and completely degraded after two and a half months. In the case of foam samples, 65% degradation was achieved after four months. Radiation crosslinked water-soluble polymer form hydrogel, which absorb much water. The hydrogel prepared by irradiation of polymer in aqueous solution was applied as dressing for healing of wound. In order to evaluate the healing effect of the polyethylene oxide (PEO) hydrogel dressing, wounds formed on the back of marmots were covered by the hydrogel. The healing under the wet environment of the hydrogel dressing had three advantages, compared with that of gauze dressing, which gives a dry environment: (1) enhancement of healing rate, (2) facilitation for changing the dressing, i.e. the hydrogel can be peeled off without any damage to the regenerated skin surface, and (3) hydrogel dressing material does not remain stuck on the wound. (author)

  15. Assessment of radon build up pattern in a closed room with minimal ventilation disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.K.; Patnaik, R.L.; Jha, V.N.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Radon is ubiquitous in nature. The immediate source of Radon is 226 Ra is present in building materials underneath earth due to presence of natural uranium in terrestrial region. 222 Ra gas continuously diffused out into room atmosphere through the pores, cracks and fissures if any. The buildup of this 222 Rn is anticipated in a closed room lack of proper ventilation. A study was done to see the build up pattern of radon concentration by two different measurement techniques in a closed room of ESL, Jaduguda. Present paper summarizes the result of buildup study of 222 Rn in a closed room of lab for a period of 3 months

  16. Optimal Pile Arrangement for Minimizing Excess Pore Water Pressure Build-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Saadati, Meysam; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    Numerical analysis of pile group in a liquefiable soil was considered to investigate the influence of pile spacing on excess pore pressure distribution and liquefaction potential. The analysis is conducted using a two-dimensional plain strain finite difference program considering a nonlinear...... constitutive model for sandy soil, strength and stiffness reduction, and pile-soil interaction. The Mohr-Coulomb constitutive model coupled with Byrne pore pressure build-up model have been employed in the analysis. Numerical analysis results show that pile groups have significant influence on the dynamic...... response of sandy soil as they reduce the amount of excess pore pressure development during seismic shaking and may even prevent liquefaction....

  17. Concepts of radiation processes selection for industrial realization. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    For selection of radiation processes in industry the processes usually are analyzing by technological and social effects, power-insensitivity, common efficiency. Technological effect is generally conditioned with uniqueness of radiation technologies which allow to obtain new material or certain one but with new properties. Social effect first of all concerns with influence of radiation technologies on consumer's psychology. Implementation of equipment for radiation technological process for both the new material production and natural materials radiation treatment is related with decision of three tasks: 1) Choice of radiation source; 2). Creation of special equipment for radiation and untraditional stages of the process; 3) Selection of radiation and other conditions ensuring of achievement of optimal technological and economical indexes

  18. International meeting on radiation chemistry and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    The conference heard 76 papers; the abstracts of 74 of them were inputted in INIS. They deal with the basic principles and mechanisms of radiation chemistry, with radiolysis, radiation cross-linking of polymers, with methods and instruments for irradiation beam dosimetry, and with radiation application in the irradiation of foods and wastes. (M.D.)

  19. Radiation protection at radioisotope processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillier, L.R.; Decaire, R.

    2002-01-01

    MDS Inc. is Canada's largest diversified health and life sciences company and provides health care services and products to prevent, diagnose and treat disease. MDS Nordion Inc. is a subsidiary of MDS Inc. and is located in Ottawa, Ontario. It provides much of the world's supply of radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine primarily to diagnose, but also to treat disease. MDS Nordion is composed of three major production divisions at its Ottawa location and serves customers in three major markets. These are primarily: radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine (Nuclear Medicine Division), radiation processing for sterilization of medical equipment and supplies, and food (Ion Technologies Division), and teletherapy equipment used in cancer treatment (Therapy Systems Division). MDS Nordion supplies customers in over 100 countries, exporting more than 95 percent of its product processed in Canada. Every year, 15 to 20 million diagnostic imaging tests are carried out in hospitals around the world, using radioisotopes supplied by MDS Nordion. In addition, 150 to 200 million cubic feet (that's enough to cover an entire CFL field - including the end zones - stacked over half a kilometer high) of single use medical products are sterilized using MDS Nordion supplied equipment. MDS Nordion receives medical isotopes from AECL, Chalk River Laboratories and processes the material to purify and quantify the radioisotope product. Sealed sources, comprised of cobalt 60, are supplied from CANDU reactors. Production processes include ventilated shielded cells with remote manipulators, gloveboxes and fumehoods, to effectively control the safety of the workplace and the environment, and to prevent contamination of the products. The facilities are highly regulated by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) for safety and environmental protection. Products are also regulated by Health Canada and the US-Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (author)

  20. Nonthermal Radiation Processes in Interplanetary Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, A. C. L.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. En la interacci6n de haces de electrones energeticos con plasmas interplanetarios, se excitan ondas intensas de Langmuir debido a inestabilidad del haz de plasma. Las ondas Langmuir a su vez interaccio nan con fluctuaciones de densidad de baja frecuencia para producir radiaciones. Si la longitud de las ondas de Langmujr exceden las condicio nes del umbral, se puede efectuar la conversi5n de modo no lineal a on- das electromagneticas a traves de inestabilidades parametricas. As se puede excitar en un plasma inestabilidades parametricas electromagneticas impulsadas por ondas intensas de Langmuir: (1) inestabilidades de decaimiento/fusi5n electromagnetica impulsadas por una bomba de Lang- muir que viaja; (2) inestabilidades dobles electromagneticas de decai- miento/fusi5n impulsadas por dos bombas de Langrnuir directamente opues- tas; y (3) inestabilidades de dos corrientes oscilatorias electromagne- ticas impulsadas por dos bombas de Langmuir de corrientes contrarias. Se concluye que las inestabilidades parametricas electromagneticas in- ducidas por las ondas de Langmuir son las fuentes posibles de radiacio- nes no termicas en plasmas interplanetarios. ABSTRACT: Nonthermal radio emissions near the local electron plasma frequency have been detected in various regions of interplanetary plasmas: solar wind, upstream of planetary bow shock, and heliopause. Energetic electron beams accelerated by solar flares, planetary bow shocks, and the terminal shock of heliosphere provide the energy source for these radio emissions. Thus, it is expected that similar nonthermal radiation processes may be responsible for the generation of these radio emissions. As energetic electron beams interact with interplanetary plasmas, intense Langmuir waves are excited due to a beam-plasma instability. The Langmuir waves then interact with low-frequency density fluctuations to produce radiations near the local electron plasma frequency. If Langmuir waves are of sufficiently large

  1. Radiation processing in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1986-01-01

    In animal feeding studies, including the huge animal feeding studies on radiation sterilized poultry products irradiated with sterilizing dose of 58 kGy revealed no harmful effects. This finding is corroborated by the very extensive analysis of the radiolytic products, which indicated that the radiolytic products could not in the quantity found in the food be expected to produce any toxic effect. It thus appears to be proven with reasonable certainty that no harm will result from the proposed use of the process. Accordingly, FDA is moving forward with approvals while allowing the required time for hearings and objection. On July 5, 1983 FDA permitted gamma irradiation for control of microbial contamination in dried spices and dehydrated vegetable seasoning at doses up to 10 kGy; on June 19, 1984 the approval was expanded to cover insect infection; and additional seasonings and irradiation of dry or dehydrated enzyme preparations were approved on February 12 and June 4, respectively, 1985. In addition, in July 1985, FDA cleared irradiation of pork products with doses of 0.3 to 1 kGy for eliminating trichinosis. Approvals of other agencies, including Food and Drug Administration, Department of Agriculture, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Department of Transportation, Environmental Protection Agency, and States and local communities, are usually of a technological nature and can then be obtained if the process is technologically feasible. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Understanding the build-up of supermassive black holes and galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Francisco; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Georgakakis, Antonis

    2016-07-01

    . The excellent survey capabilities of Athena/WFI (effective area, angular resolution, field of view) will allow to measure the incidence of feedback in the shape of warm absorbers and Ultra Fast Outflows among the general population of AGN, as well as to complete the census of black hole growth by detecting and characterising significant samples of the most heavily obscured (including Compton thick) AGN, to redshifts z~3-4. The outstanding spectral throughput and resolution of Athena/X-IFU will permit measuring the energetics of those outflows to assess their influence on their host galaxies. The demographics of the heavily obscured and outflowing populations relative to their hosts are fundamental for understanding how major black hole growth events relate to the build-up of galaxies.

  3. The Build-Up Course of Visuo-Motor and Audio-Motor Temporal Recalibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimori Sugano

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The sensorimotor timing is recalibrated after a brief exposure to a delayed feedback of voluntary actions (temporal recalibration effect: TRE (Heron et al., 2009; Stetson et al., 2006; Sugano et al., 2010. We introduce a new paradigm, namely ‘synchronous tapping’ (ST which allows us to investigate how the TRE builds up during adaptation. In each experimental trial, participants were repeatedly exposed to a constant lag (∼150 ms between their voluntary action (pressing a mouse and a feedback stimulus (a visual flash / an auditory click 10 times. Immediately after that, they performed a ST task with the same stimulus as a pace signal (7 flashes / clicks. A subjective ‘no-delay condition’ (∼50 ms served as control. The TRE manifested itself as a change in the tap-stimulus asynchrony that compensated the exposed lag (eg, after lag adaptation, the tap preceded the stimulus more than in control and built up quickly (∼3–6 trials, ∼23–45 sec in both the visuo- and audio-motor domain. The audio-motor TRE was bigger and built-up faster than the visuo-motor one. To conclude, the TRE is comparable between visuo- and audio-motor domain, though they are slightly different in size and build-up rate.

  4. Correction of build-up factor one x-ray hvl measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuliati, Helfi; Akhadi, Mukhlis

    2000-01-01

    Research to obtain the value build-up factor (b) on half value layers (HVL) measurement of diagnostic X-Rays using pocket dosimeter behind aluminium (AI) filter with its thickness vary from 1 to 4 mm. From the measurement it was obtained HVL value of 1.997, 2.596 and 2.718 mmAI for X-Rays of kVp : 80 Kv with 1, 2, 3 and 4 mm filter thickness respectively. HVL value significantly increase with increasing AI filter thickness. Increasing of HVL means increasing filter thickness. From the calculation it was obtained increasing b value relative to 1 mm AI filter of 18.26 and 46% for filter thickness of 2, 3 and 4 mm respectively. Experiment result shows the need of involving b value in HVL calculation of X-Rays if the filter is relatively thick. Calculation of HVL of X-Rays can be carried out with thin layers filter. Key words : x-rays, half value layer, build up factor

  5. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  6. The advances in radiation processing technology and some suggestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jilan; Wei Genshuan; Ha Hongfei

    1992-01-01

    Radiation processing technology has been made great advances in the last decade especially in the developed countries. According to the conservative evaluation, the total sales of radiation processing products approached about 2-3 billion U.S. dollar in 1981, there after, the processing capacity at least doubles. Now, the intensities of 60 Co in use for radiation processing are (5.55-7.40) x 10 18 Bq and there are about 600 sets of electron accelerators for radiation processing. The total sales of radiation processing products are supposed to be over 10 billion U.S. dollar in 1989. However, there are only several fields commercialized. In great scale, such as radiation crosslinked heat shrinkable materials, radiation crosslinked electric cables and wires, and radiation sterilization of medical articles. In China, the radiation processing technology has been developed rapidly in the past years, but the processing capacity is still lower in comparing with developed countries. We suggest that much attention should be devoted to the training of the workers, technicians and managers. The basic theoretical and new technological researches are the keys for developing radiation processing technology at high speed in our country

  7. Impact of eccentricity build-up and graveyard disposal Strategies on MEO navigation constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Jonas; Domínguez-González, Raúl; Flegel, Sven K.; Sánchez-Ortiz, Noelia; Merz, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    With currently two constellations being in or close to the build-up phase, in a few years the Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) region will be populated with four complete navigation systems in relatively close orbital altitudes: The American GPS, Russian GLONASS, European Galileo, and Chinese BeiDou. To guarantee an appropriate visibility of constellation satellites from Earth, these constellations rely on certain defined orbits. For this, both the repeat pattern, which is basically defined by the semimajor axis and inclination, as well as the orbital planes, which are defined by the right ascension of ascending node, are determining values. To avoid an overcrowding of the region of interest, the disposal of satellites after their end-of-life is recommended. However, for the MEO region, no internationally agreed mitigation guidelines exist. Because of their distances to Earth, ordinary disposal manoeuvres leading to a direct or delayed re-entry due to atmospheric drag are not feasible: The needed fuel masses for such manoeuvres are by far above the reasonable limits and available fuel budgets. Thus, additional approaches have to be applied. For this, in general two options exist: disposal to graveyard orbits or the disposal to eccentricity build-up orbits. In the study performed, the key criterion for the graveyard strategy is that the disposed spacecraft must keep a safe minimum distance to the altitude of the active constellation on a long-term time scale of up to 200 years. This constraint imposes stringent requirements on the stability of the graveyard orbit. Similar disposals are also performed for high LEO satellites and disposed GEO payloads. The eccentricity build-up strategy on the other hand uses resonant effects between the Earth's geopotential, the Sun and the Moon. Depending on the initial conditions, these can cause a large eccentricity build-up, which finally can lead to a re-entry of the satellite. In this paper, the effects of applying either the first or

  8. Radiation processing and functional properties of soybean (Glycine max)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pednekar, Mrinal; Das, Amit K.; Rajalakshmi, V; Sharma, Arun

    2010-01-01

    Effect of radiation processing (10, 20 and 30 kGy) on soybean for better utilization was studied. Radiation processing reduced the cooking time of soybean and increased the oil absorption capacity of soy flour without affecting its proximate composition. Irradiation improved the functional properties like solubility, emulsification activity and foam stability of soybean protein isolate. The value addition effect of radiation processing has been discussed for the products (soy milk, tofu and tofu fortified patties) prepared from soybean.

  9. Recent status and progress of radiation processing in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yun Jong; Lee, Byoung Hun; Im, Don Sun; Kim, Jae Ho; Nho, Young Chang

    2008-01-01

    Radiation technology is currently used in a number of industrial processes such as sterilization, cross linking of polymer, food irradiation, rubber vulcanization in the tire manufacturing, contaminated medical waste, etc. Gamma ray and electron beam are the key examples of well-established economical applications of radiation processes. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent technological trends and activities for radiation processes in order for the industrial end users to better understand, and obtain useful information about the technology. It is clear that the radiation processing technology has potential for a variety of the industrial applications

  10. Recent status and progress of radiation processing in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Jong; Lee, Byoung Hun; Im, Don Sun; Kim, Jae Ho; Nho, Young Chang [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup(Korea, Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    Radiation technology is currently used in a number of industrial processes such as sterilization, cross linking of polymer, food irradiation, rubber vulcanization in the tire manufacturing, contaminated medical waste, etc. Gamma ray and electron beam are the key examples of well-established economical applications of radiation processes. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent technological trends and activities for radiation processes in order for the industrial end users to better understand, and obtain useful information about the technology. It is clear that the radiation processing technology has potential for a variety of the industrial applications.

  11. The Build-Up to Eruptive Solar Events Viewed as the Development of Chiral Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S. F.; Panasenco, O.; Berger, M. A.; Engvold, O.; Lin, Y.; Pevtsov, A. A.; Srivastava, N.

    2012-12-01

    When we examine the chirality or observed handedness of the chromospheric and coronal structures involved in the long-term build-up to eruptive events, we find that they evolve in very specific ways to form two and only two sets of large-scale chiral systems. Each system contains spatially separated components with both signs of chirality, the upper portion having negative (positive) chirality and the lower part possessing positive (negative) chirality. The components within a system are a filament channel (represented partially by sets of chromospheric fibrils), a filament (if present), a filament cavity, sometimes a sigmoid, and always an overlying arcade of coronal loops. When we view these components as parts of large-scale chiral systems, we more clearly see that it is not the individual components of chiral systems that erupt but rather it is the approximate upper parts of an entire evolving chiral system that erupts. We illustrate the typical pattern of build-up to eruptive solar events first without and then including the chirality in each stage of the build-up. We argue that a complete chiral system has one sign of handedness above the filament spine and the opposite handedness in the barbs and filament channel below the filament spine. If the spine has handedness, the observations favor its having the handedness of the filament cavity and coronal loops above. As the separate components of a chiral system form, we show that the system appears to maintain a balance of right-handed and left-handed features, thus preserving an initial near-zero net helicity. We further argue that the chiral systems allow us to identify key sites of energy transformation and stored energy later dissipated in the form of concurrent CMEs, erupting filaments and solar flares. Each individual chiral system may produce many successive eruptive events above a single filament channel. Because major eruptive events apparently do not occur independent of, or outside of, these unique

  12. Parallel processing Monte Carlo radiation transport codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    Issues related to distributed-memory multiprocessing as applied to Monte Carlo radiation transport are discussed. Measurements of communication overhead are presented for the radiation transport code MCNP which employs the communication software package PVM, and average efficiency curves are provided for a homogeneous virtual machine

  13. Radiation processing of minimally processed vegetables and aromatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trigo, M.J.; Sousa, M.B.; Sapata, M.M.; Ferreira, A.; Curado, T.; Andrada, L.; Botelho, M.L.; Veloso, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Vegetables are an essential part of people's diet all around the world. Due to cultivate techniques and handling after harvest, these products, may contain high microbial load that can cause food borne outbreaks. The irradiation of minimally processed vegetables is an efficient way to reduce the level of microorganisms and to inhibit parasites, helping a safe global trade. Evaluation of the irradiation's effects was carried out in minimal processed vegetables, as coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), mint (Mentha spicata L.), parsley (Petroselinum crispum Mill, (A.W. Hill)), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and watercress (Nasturium officinale L.). The inactivation level of natural microbiota and the D 10 values of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria innocua in these products were determined. The physical-chemical and sensorial characteristics before and after irradiation at a range of 0.5 up to 2.0 kGy applied doses were also evaluated. No differences were verified in the overall of sensorial and physical properties after irradiation up to 1 kGy, a decrease of natural microbiota was noticed (≥2 log). Based on the determined D 10 , the amount of radiation necessary to kill 10 5 E. coli and L. innocua was between 0.70 and 1.55 kGy. Shelf life of irradiated coriander, mint and lettuce at 0.5 kGy increased 2, 3 and 4 days, respectively, when compared with non-irradiated.

  14. Radiation processing of minimally processed vegetables and aromatic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trigo, M.J. [Instituto Nacional dos Recursos Biologicos, L-INIA, Quinta do Marques, 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal)], E-mail: mjptrigo@gmail.com; Sousa, M.B.; Sapata, M.M.; Ferreira, A.; Curado, T.; Andrada, L. [Instituto Nacional dos Recursos Biologicos, L-INIA, Quinta do Marques, 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Botelho, M.L. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2696 Sacavem (Portugal); Veloso, M.G. [Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria de Lisboa, Av. da Universidade Tecnica, Alto da Ajuda, 1300-477 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-07-15

    Vegetables are an essential part of people's diet all around the world. Due to cultivate techniques and handling after harvest, these products, may contain high microbial load that can cause food borne outbreaks. The irradiation of minimally processed vegetables is an efficient way to reduce the level of microorganisms and to inhibit parasites, helping a safe global trade. Evaluation of the irradiation's effects was carried out in minimal processed vegetables, as coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), mint (Mentha spicata L.), parsley (Petroselinum crispum Mill, (A.W. Hill)), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and watercress (Nasturium officinale L.). The inactivation level of natural microbiota and the D{sub 10} values of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria innocua in these products were determined. The physical-chemical and sensorial characteristics before and after irradiation at a range of 0.5 up to 2.0 kGy applied doses were also evaluated. No differences were verified in the overall of sensorial and physical properties after irradiation up to 1 kGy, a decrease of natural microbiota was noticed ({>=}2 log). Based on the determined D{sub 10}, the amount of radiation necessary to kill 10{sup 5}E. coli and L. innocua was between 0.70 and 1.55 kGy. Shelf life of irradiated coriander, mint and lettuce at 0.5 kGy increased 2, 3 and 4 days, respectively, when compared with non-irradiated.

  15. Radiation processing of minimally processed vegetables and aromatic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, M. J.; Sousa, M. B.; Sapata, M. M.; Ferreira, A.; Curado, T.; Andrada, L.; Botelho, M. L.; Veloso, M. G.

    2009-07-01

    Vegetables are an essential part of people's diet all around the world. Due to cultivate techniques and handling after harvest, these products, may contain high microbial load that can cause food borne outbreaks. The irradiation of minimally processed vegetables is an efficient way to reduce the level of microorganisms and to inhibit parasites, helping a safe global trade. Evaluation of the irradiation's effects was carried out in minimal processed vegetables, as coriander ( Coriandrum sativum L .), mint ( Mentha spicata L.), parsley ( Petroselinum crispum Mill, (A.W. Hill)), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) and watercress ( Nasturium officinale L.). The inactivation level of natural microbiota and the D 10 values of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria innocua in these products were determined. The physical-chemical and sensorial characteristics before and after irradiation at a range of 0.5 up to 2.0 kGy applied doses were also evaluated. No differences were verified in the overall of sensorial and physical properties after irradiation up to 1 kGy, a decrease of natural microbiota was noticed (⩾2 log). Based on the determined D10, the amount of radiation necessary to kill 10 5E. coli and L. innocua was between 0.70 and 1.55 kGy. Shelf life of irradiated coriander, mint and lettuce at 0.5 kGy increased 2, 3 and 4 days, respectively, when compared with non-irradiated.

  16. Energy balance in processes of transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, S.V.; Tsytovich, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    The authors consider the transition radiation arising when a charged particle crosses an interface between two nonabsorbing media. It is shown that energy balance is observed under these circumstances. The fulfillment of energy balance in transition radiation for nonabsorbing media is rigorously demonstrated. This allows one to find the energy of the transition radiation from the change in the energy of the intrinsic field of the charge and the work of forces for volume waves, which in a number of cases of complicated configurations may prove to be considerably simpler than a direct calculation of the radiation power. For surface waves, a calculation of the work of forces enables one to determine the radiation power directly

  17. Document turn-over analysis to determine need of NPP construction in build-up structures of reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojpe, D.K.; Lyubavin, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    Document turn-over to determine used of NPP construction in build-up structures of reinforced concrete is carried out. Ways of improving determination of needs of NPP construction board in the mentioned structures are pointed out

  18. Radiation processing of food to ensure food safety and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Satyendra

    2016-01-01

    Radiation processing of food utilizes the controlled application of energy from ionizing radiations such as γ-rays , electrons and X-rays on food. Gamma-rays and X-rays are short wavelength radiations of the electromagnetic spectrum. The approved sources of gamma radiation for food processing are radioisotopes (Cobalt-60 and Caesium-137), electron beam (up to 10 MeV) and X-rays (up to 5 MeV) wherein the latter two are generated by machines using electricity. γ-radiation can penetrate deep into the food materials causing the desired effects. Irradiation works by disrupting the biological processes that lead to decay. While interacting with water and other biomolecules that constitute the food and living organisms, radiation energy is absorbed by these molecules. The interactions of radiation and radiolytic products of water with DNA impair the reproduction of microorganism and insects, and thus help in achieving the desired objectives pertaining to food safety and security

  19. Trend and future of radiation processing of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo

    2000-01-01

    Five Asian countries have been cooperating with Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment (TRCRE), Japan, in the field of radiation processing of polymers. The experience of cooperation is summarized. Main processes are polymerization of monomers, cross-linking and degradation of polymers, graft polymerization and curing. The industrial state-of-art of radiation processing in Japan is described. The characteristics of radiation processes are compared with other processes. The future prospect of processing is also described. The growth in cross-linking and degradation are anticipated, whereas graft polymerization and curing are to confront to severe competition with other methods. The possibility of developing new area of radiation processing in Asian counties is pointed out. (A. Yamamoto)

  20. Radiation biology using synchrotron radiation. In relation to radiation chemistry as an initial process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Katsumi

    1995-01-01

    Radiation biology using synchrotron radiation have been investigated, focusing on the mechanism of the formation of molecular damage. This paper introduces recent outcome of these studies. First, the process from imparted energy to the formation of molecular damage is outlined. The previous studies can be largely categorized as dealing with (1) biological effects of inner-shell ionization on elements composing the living body and (2) X-ray energy dependence of biological effects. Bromine and phosphorus are used as elements for the study of inner-cell ionization. In the study on lethal effects of monochromatic soft X-rays on the BrdUMP-incorporated yeast cells, Auger enhancement was found to occur. The first report on the effects of K-shell absorption of cellular phosphorus atoms has revealed that biological effects on cellular lethality and genetic changes was enhanced by 40%. Plasmid DNA and oligonucleotide have been used to study biological effects of vacuum ultraviolet rays to monochromatic soft X-ray, which makes it possible to study strand breaks. Because experimental production of energy required for the formation of double strand breaks has become possible, synchrotron radiation plays a very important role in radiation biological studies. Finally, future issues are presented. (N.K.)

  1. A modified method of calculating the lateral build-up ratio for small electron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyner, E; McCavana, P; McClean, B

    2006-01-01

    This note outlines an improved method of calculating dose per monitor unit values for small electron fields using Khan's lateral build-up ratio (LBR). This modified method obtains the LBR directly from the ratio of measured, surface normalized, electron beam percentage depth dose curves. The LBR calculated using this modified method more accurately accounts for the change in lateral scatter with decreasing field size. The LBR is used along with Khan's dose per monitor unit formula to calculate dose per monitor unit values for a set of small fields. These calculated dose per monitor unit values are compared to measured values to within 3.5% for all circular fields and electron energies examined. The modified method was further tested using a small triangular field. A maximum difference of 4.8% was found. (note)

  2. Internal background build-up measurements in CaF2:Mn thermoluminescent dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasybrahmanyam, V.; Measures, M.P.

    1977-01-01

    Some problems associated with the internal background build-up (IBB) of CaF 2 :Mn thermoluminescent dosimeters are reported. As a result of an investigation of batches of the EG and G model 15 dosimeter it is considered that measurements using this type of dosimeter are accurate and reproducible once the IBB has been determined. However, the use of the Manufacturer's claimed average of 0.064 mR/day can lead to erroneous results when determining environmental background dose rates. The authors therefore urge a rigid quality control program by the manufacturer and suggest that purchasers should be supplied with IBB information of each batch of dosimeters. Meanwhile each user should be aware of the IBB problem and be extremely cautious when using these dosimeters for environmental monitoring purposes. (U.K.)

  3. Resonant laser power build-up in ALPS. A 'light-shining-through-walls' experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehret, Klaus; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Frede, Maik

    2009-05-01

    The ALPS collaboration runs a light-shining-through-walls (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into weakly interacting sub-eV particles (WISPs) inside of a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. In this paper we report on the first successful integration of a large-scale optical cavity to boost the available power for WISP production in this type of experiments. The key elements are a frequency tunable narrow line-width continuous wave laser acting as the primary light source and an electronic feed-back control loop to stabilize the power build-up. We describe and characterize our apparatus and demonstrate the data analysis procedures on the basis of a brief exemplary run. (orig.)

  4. Resonant laser power build-up in ALPS-A 'light shining through a wall' experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehret, Klaus; Frede, Maik; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Hildebrandt, Matthias; Knabbe, Ernst-Axel; Kracht, Dietmar; Lindner, Axel; List, Jenny; Meier, Tobias; Meyer, Niels; Notz, Dieter; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas; Wiedemann, Guenter; Willke, Benno

    2009-01-01

    The ALPS Collaboration runs a 'light shining through a wall' (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into 'weakly interacting sub-eV particles' (WISPs) inside of a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. In this paper we report on the first successful integration of a large-scale optical resonant cavity to boost the available power for WISP production in this type of experiments. The key elements are a frequency tunable narrow line-width continuous wave laser acting as the primary light source and an electronic feed-back control loop to stabilize the power build-up. We describe and characterize our apparatus and demonstrate the data analysis procedures on the basis of a brief exemplary run.

  5. Chemical aspects of radiation damage processes: radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmus, K.D.

    1975-01-01

    The formation of primary species and radiation chemical yields are discussed. In a section on chemical scavenging of primary species the author considers scavenging kinetics and competition reactions and gives a brief outline of some experimental methods. The radiation chemistry of aqueous solutions is discussed as an example for polar solvents. Cyclohexane is used as an example for non-polar solvents. The importance of excited states and energy transfer is considered. Reactions in the solid state are discussed and results on linear energy transfer and average ion pair formation for various kinds of radiation are surveyed. (B.R.H.)

  6. The practice of safety culture construction in radiation processing enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Xiangshan; Zhang Yue; Yang Bin; Xu Tao; Liu Wei; Hao Jiangang

    2014-01-01

    Security is an integral part of the process of business operations. The radiation processing enterprises due to their own particularity, more need to focus on the operation of the safety factors, the construction of corporate safety culture is of great significance in guiding carry out the work of the Radiation Protection. Radiation processing enterprises should proceed from their own characteristics, the common attitude of security systems and security construction, and constantly improved to ensure the personal safety of radiation workers in the area of safety performance. (authors)

  7. Development, validation and routine control of a radiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishor Mehta

    2010-01-01

    Today, radiation is used in industrial processing for variety of applications; from low doses for blood irradiation to very high doses for materials modification and even higher for gemstone colour enhancement. At present, radiation is mainly provided by either radionuclides or machine sources; cobalt-60 is the most predominant radionuclide in use. Currently, there are several hundred irradiation facilities worldwide. Similar to other industries, quality management systems can assist radiation processing facilities in enhancing customer satisfaction and maintaining and improving product quality. To help fulfill quality management requirements, several national and international organizations have developed various standards related to radiation processing. They all have requirements and guidelines for development, validation and routine control of the radiation process. For radiation processing, these three phases involve the following activities. Development phase includes selecting the type of radiation source, irradiation facility and the dose required for the process. Validation phase includes conducting activities that give assurance that the process will be successful. Routine control then involves activities that provide evidence that the process has been successfully realized. These standards require documentary evidence that process validation and process control have been followed. Dosimetry information gathered during these processes provides this evidence. (authors)

  8. Principles of interaction of ionizing radiation with matter and basic radiation chemistry processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santar, I.; Bednar, J.

    1976-01-01

    The basic principles are given of the interaction of ionizing radiation with matter and the main trends are pointed out in radiation chemistry. A brief characteristics is given of the basic radiation chemical processes in gases and in the condensed phase, namely in water and in organic substances. (B.S.)

  9. Radiation processing of carrageenan using electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abad, L.V.; Aranilla, C.T.; Relleve, L.; Dela Rosa, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Electron beam accelerator has been widely employed in the modification of natural polymers for the development of materials used in biomedical and agricultural applications. The carrageenans are among these materials that show a vast potential for these types of applications. Previous studies at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute focused on the utilization of gamma radiation to modify the carrageenans. Radiation degradation of carrageenan found valuable use as plant growth promoter. Hydrogels for burn dressing using blends of carrageenan and synthetic polymers have also been made using gamma radiation. While previous studies have been focused on the use of gamma radiation to modify the carrageenans, recent studies expanded the technology to electron beam. Concretely, researches are along the following two areas: a) Degradation studies of aqueous carrageenan using the LEEB and b) Preparation of blend polysaccharide derivatives such as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), and hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) with kappa-carrageenan (KC) by EB radiation. These works were done at the Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment (TRCRE) by two PNRI colleagues under the nuclear researcher exchange program of the Japan Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). The first area had already been reported and discussed in the last project meeting held in Malaysia. (author)

  10. Growth of Radiation Processing Plant, Vashi - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ranjeet

    2014-01-01

    Radiation Processing Plant, Vashi (RPP) is the first commercial scale Gamma Irradiator for food processing in India. The facility was commissioned on 1 st January 2000 with the mandate of showcasing commercial viability of food processing using gamma radiation. Some of the food products that are processed at RPP, Vashi include dehydrated onion powder, coriander, turmeric, black pepper, cumin, pet food and dried seafood items. RPP, Vashi is the largest radiation processor of food products in the country. More than 95% of the quantity processed is exported to various countries generating millions of foreign exchange annually

  11. Recent developments in analytical detection methods for radiation processed foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jilan

    1993-01-01

    A short summary of the programmes of 'ADMIT' (FAO/IAEA) and the developments in analytical detection methods for radiation processed foods has been given. It is suggested that for promoting the commercialization of radiation processed foods and controlling its quality, one must pay more attention to the study of analytical detection methods of irradiated food

  12. Radiation chemistry - extravaganza or an integral component of radiation processing of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, M.G.; DeGraff, E.

    1983-01-01

    The role of radiation chemistry in radiation processing of foods is discussed in detail. A few examples demonstrating the relevance of the radiation chemistry of model systems to food-irradiation technology are given. The importance of irradiation parameters such as dose, dose rate, temperature, atmosphere, physical state and additives in achieving acceptable and high quality of irradiated foods are emphasized. A few examples of radiation-induced free radical reactions in model compounds relevant to foods are also discussed. (author)

  13. Application of Java technology in radiation image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Weifeng; Li Zheng; Chen Zhiqiang; Zhang Li; Gao Wenhuan

    2002-01-01

    The acquisition and processing of radiation image plays an important role in modern application of civil nuclear technology. The author analyzes the rationale of Java image processing technology which includes Java AWT, Java 2D and JAI. In order to demonstrate applicability of Java technology in field of image processing, examples of application of JAI technology in processing of radiation images of large container have been given

  14. Extremely rare collapse and build-up of turbulence in stochastic models of transitional wall flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Joran

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a numerical and theoretical study of multistability in two stochastic models of transitional wall flows. An algorithm dedicated to the computation of rare events is adapted on these two stochastic models. The main focus is placed on a stochastic partial differential equation model proposed by Barkley. Three types of events are computed in a systematic and reproducible manner: (i) the collapse of isolated puffs and domains initially containing their steady turbulent fraction; (ii) the puff splitting; (iii) the build-up of turbulence from the laminar base flow under a noise perturbation of vanishing variance. For build-up events, an extreme realization of the vanishing variance noise pushes the state from the laminar base flow to the most probable germ of turbulence which in turn develops into a full blown puff. For collapse events, the Reynolds number and length ranges of the two regimes of collapse of laminar-turbulent pipes, independent collapse or global collapse of puffs, is determined. The mean first passage time before each event is then systematically computed as a function of the Reynolds number r and pipe length L in the laminar-turbulent coexistence range of Reynolds number. In the case of isolated puffs, the faster-than-linear growth with Reynolds number of the logarithm of mean first passage time T before collapse is separated in two. One finds that ln(T)=A_{p}r-B_{p}, with A_{p} and B_{p} positive. Moreover, A_{p} and B_{p} are affine in the spatial integral of turbulence intensity of the puff, with the same slope. In the case of pipes initially containing the steady turbulent fraction, the length L and Reynolds number r dependence of the mean first passage time T before collapse is also separated. The author finds that T≍exp[L(Ar-B)] with A and B positive. The length and Reynolds number dependence of T are then discussed in view of the large deviations theoretical approaches of the study of mean first passage times and

  15. Extremely rare collapse and build-up of turbulence in stochastic models of transitional wall flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Joran

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a numerical and theoretical study of multistability in two stochastic models of transitional wall flows. An algorithm dedicated to the computation of rare events is adapted on these two stochastic models. The main focus is placed on a stochastic partial differential equation model proposed by Barkley. Three types of events are computed in a systematic and reproducible manner: (i) the collapse of isolated puffs and domains initially containing their steady turbulent fraction; (ii) the puff splitting; (iii) the build-up of turbulence from the laminar base flow under a noise perturbation of vanishing variance. For build-up events, an extreme realization of the vanishing variance noise pushes the state from the laminar base flow to the most probable germ of turbulence which in turn develops into a full blown puff. For collapse events, the Reynolds number and length ranges of the two regimes of collapse of laminar-turbulent pipes, independent collapse or global collapse of puffs, is determined. The mean first passage time before each event is then systematically computed as a function of the Reynolds number r and pipe length L in the laminar-turbulent coexistence range of Reynolds number. In the case of isolated puffs, the faster-than-linear growth with Reynolds number of the logarithm of mean first passage time T before collapse is separated in two. One finds that ln(T ) =Apr -Bp , with Ap and Bp positive. Moreover, Ap and Bp are affine in the spatial integral of turbulence intensity of the puff, with the same slope. In the case of pipes initially containing the steady turbulent fraction, the length L and Reynolds number r dependence of the mean first passage time T before collapse is also separated. The author finds that T ≍exp[L (A r -B )] with A and B positive. The length and Reynolds number dependence of T are then discussed in view of the large deviations theoretical approaches of the study of mean first passage times and multistability

  16. Use of ionising radiation for food processing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninjoor, V.

    1989-01-01

    Food irradiation is a recently developed technique used to sterilize and preserve food. Food products are exposed to ionising radiations such as X-rays, gamma rays or high energy electrons which destroy food borne pathogens and parasites and inhibit sprouting. Shelf life of food is extended. The following aspects of radiation processing of food are discussed in the monograph: radiation sources, choice of dose for specific results, safety and nutritional quality of radiation processed food, international status of acceptance of food irradiation, and cost. (M.G.B.). 6 tabs

  17. Dosimetry control for radiation processing - basic requirements and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, M.; Tsrunchev, Ts.

    2004-01-01

    A brief review of the basic international codes and standards for dosimetry control for radiation processing (high doses dosimetry), setting up a dosimetry control for radiation processing and metrology control of the dosimetry system is made. The present state of dosimetry control for food processing and the Bulgarian long experience in food irradiation (three irradiation facilities are operational at these moment) are presented. The absence of neither national standard for high doses nor accredited laboratory for calibration and audit of radiation processing dosimetry systems is also discussed

  18. Industrialization drive of radiation processing for economic growth in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yanxiao

    1996-12-01

    The transfer of research and development achievements of radiation processing to routine industrial applications in China is reviewed. While making a brief survey of historical background, the paper indicates the different roles that various domestic organizations played in the industrialization drive of radiation processing. Among them the Government's role is the most important one. In accordance with recent growth of the number of industrial radiation facilities (e.g. cobalt-60 irradiators and electron beam accelerators) and current application of radiation processing in main fields in different parts of the country, it can be said that a new radiation processing industry is shaping up in its developing stage to satisfy the growing requirements for economic booming in China. (16 refs.)

  19. Uji ketahanan galur padi terhadap wereng coklat biotipe 3 melalui population build-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baehaki Suherlan Effendi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Screening of rice lines resistance to brown planthopper (BPH through mass screening, filtering line resistance and the population build-up are essential for the release of resistant rice varieties. In addition, the stages of the endurance are important in determining the stability of resistance, as well as the type of resistant. The research was carried out in the screen house at Indonesian Center for Rice Research in 2007. The BPH used in the research was the off spring of BPH biotype 3 that had been rearing on IR42 (bph2 variety since 1994. The result of this research showed that 22.2% of 18 lines/varieties were moderately resistant to BPH biotype 3ft namely BP4130-1f-13-3-2*B, BP4188-7f-1-2-2*B, BP2870-4e- Kn-22-2-1-5*B, and Pulut Lewok. On the population build-up test, the above lines/varieties were moderately resistant to BPH biotype 3pb. The low FPLI values were found in BP4130-1f-13-3-2*B and Pulut Lewok. The highest tolerance index was found on BP4130-1f- 13-3-2*B and Pulut Lewok followed by BP2870-4e-Kn-22-2-1-5*B and BP4188-7f-1-2-2*B. Pulut Lewok has the highest antibiosis index and is not significantly different to BP4130-1f-13-3-2*B, while BP4188-7f-1-2-2*B was lowest. Although Pulut Lewok has antibiosis defense mechanism, it is not tolerant to BPH biotype 3. The BP4130-1f-13-3-2*B line have both antibiosis and tolerant to BPH biotype 3. BP4188-7f-1-2-2*B line has tolerance character, but does not have character of antibiosis to BPH biotype 3.

  20. Wave processes. Auroral kilometer radiowave radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safargaleev, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    Characteristics of auroral kilometer radiowave radiation (AKRR) are discussed. AKRR is produced at altitudes 1.5-3 R e (R e is the Earth radius) in the auroral cavity. Electrons at energy 1-15 keV are always observed in AKRR production regions

  1. Statistical data processing with automatic system for environmental radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkh, V.G.; Ostroglyadov, S.V.

    1986-01-01

    Practice of statistical data processing for radiation monitoring is exemplified, and some results obtained are presented. Experience in practical application of mathematical statistics methods for radiation monitoring data processing allowed to develop a concrete algorithm of statistical processing realized in M-6000 minicomputer. The suggested algorithm by its content is divided into 3 parts: parametrical data processing and hypotheses test, pair and multiple correlation analysis. Statistical processing programms are in a dialogue operation. The above algorithm was used to process observed data over radioactive waste disposal control region. Results of surface waters monitoring processing are presented

  2. Radiation processing of liquid with low energy electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo

    2003-01-01

    Radiation induced emulsion polymerization, radiation vulcanization of NR latex (RVNRL) and radiation degradation of natural polymers were selected and reviewed as the radiation processing of liquid. The characteristic of high dose rate emulsion polymerization is the occurrence of cationic polymerization. Thus, it can be used for the production of new materials that cannot be obtained by radical polymerization. A potential application will be production of polymer emulsion that can be used as water-borne UV/EB curing resins. The technology of RVNRL by γ-ray has been commercialized. RVNRL with low energy electron accelerator is under development for further vulcanization cost reduction. Vessel type irradiator will be favorable for industrial application. Radiation degradation of polysaccharides is an emerging and promising area of radiation processing. However, strict cost comparison between liquid irradiation with low energy EB and state irradiation with γ-ray should be carried out. (author)

  3. Radiation processing of liquid with low energy electron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2003-02-01

    Radiation induced emulsion polymerization, radiation vulcanization of NR latex (RVNRL) and radiation degradation of natural polymers were selected and reviewed as the radiation processing of liquid. The characteristic of high dose rate emulsion polymerization is the occurrence of cationic polymerization. Thus, it can be used for the production of new materials that cannot be obtained by radical polymerization. A potential application will be production of polymer emulsion that can be used as water-borne UV/EB curing resins. The technology of RVNRL by {gamma}-ray has been commercialized. RVNRL with low energy electron accelerator is under development for further vulcanization cost reduction. Vessel type irradiator will be favorable for industrial application. Radiation degradation of polysaccharides is an emerging and promising area of radiation processing. However, strict cost comparison between liquid irradiation with low energy EB and state irradiation with {gamma}-ray should be carried out. (author)

  4. An Empirical Model for Build-Up of Sodium and Calcium Ions in Small Scale Reverse Osmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subriyer Nasir

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple models for predicting build-up of solute on membrane surface were formulated in this paper. The experiments were conducted with secondary effluent, groundwater and simulated feed water in small-scale of RO with capacity of 2000 L/d. Feed water used in the experiments contained varying concentrations of sodium, calcium, combined sodium and calcium. In order to study the effect of sodium and calcium ions on membrane performance, experiments with ground water and secondary effluent wastewater were also performed. Build-up of salts on the membrane surface was calculated by measuring concentrations of sodium and calcium ions in feed water permeate and reject streams using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS. Multiple linear regression of natural logarithmic transformation was used to develop the model based on four main parameters that affect the build-up of solute in a small scale of RO namely applied pressure, permeate flux, membrane resistance, and feed concentration. Experimental data obtained in a small scale RO unit were used to develop the empirical model. The predicted values of theoretical build-up of sodium and calcium on membrane surface were found in agreement with experimental data. The deviation in the prediction of build-up of sodium and calcium were found to be 1.4 to 10.47 % and 1.12 to 4.46%, respectively.

  5. UV and EB radiation processing in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Ultraviolet and electron beams (EB) are to be considered as complementary technologies in the radiation processing field. In many countries, UV processing is used as the pathfinder for EB. In the developing countries the decision to adopt radiation processing techniques to choose between UV and EB will largely be determined by economics, the availability of the chemists and also skilled personnel to service both lines and equipment. (orig./A.B.)

  6. An assessment of prospects for radiation processing in Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razem, D.; Dvornik, I.

    1981-01-01

    The possibilities are reviewed under the headings: food irradiation; sterilization of medical supplies; crosslinking of polymers. It is concluded that radiation sterilization of disposable medical supplies appears most attractive for immediate application; food irradiation can have only a limited success, at least with the present generation of strong inherited attitudes. Processes for radiation crosslinking of polymers are to a large extent subject to industrial secrecy; however, some possibilities are seen. A center for radiation services in Yugoslavia is proposed. (U.K.)

  7. Variations in 6MV x-ray radiotherapy build-up dose with treatment distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butson, M.J.; Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Wollongong, NSW; Cheung, T.; Yu, P.K.N.

    2003-01-01

    Dose in the build up region for high energy x-rays produced by a medical linear accelerator is affected by the x-ray source to patient surface distance (SSD). The use of isocentric treatments whereby the tumour is positions 100cm from the source means that depending of the depth of the tumour and the size of the patient, the SSD can vary from distances of 80cm to 100cm. To achieve larger field sizes, the SSD can also be extended out to 120cm at times. Results have shown that open fields are not significantly affected by SSD changes with deviations in percentage dose being less than 4% of maximum dose for SSD's from 80cm to 120cm SSD. With the introduction of beam modifying devices such as Perspex blocking trays, the effects are significant with a deviation of up to 22% measured at 6MV energy with a 6mm Perspex tray for SSD's from 80cm to 120cm. These variations are largest at the skin surface and reduce with depth. The use of a multi leaf collimator for blocking removes extra skin dose caused by the Perspex block trays with decreasing SSD. Copyright (2003) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  8. SSD effects on high energy x-ray surface and build up dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, T.; Yu, P.K.N.; Butson, M.J.; Cancer Services, Wollongong, NSW

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Dose in the build up region for high energy x-rays produced by a medical linear accelerator is affected by the x-ray source to patient surface distance (SSD). The use of isocentric treatments whereby the tumour is positions 100cm from the source means that depending of the depth of the tumour and the size of the patient, the SSD can vary from distances of 80cm to 100cm. To achieve larger field sizes, the SSD can also be extended out to 120cm at times. Results have shown that open fields are not significantly affected by SSD changes with deviations in percentage dose being less than 4% of maximum dose for SSD's from 80cm to 120cm SSD. With the introduction of beam modifying devices such as Perspex blocking trays, the effects are significant with a deviation of up to 22% measured at 6MV energy with a 6mm Perspex tray for SSD's from 80cm to 120cm. These variations are largest at the skin surface and reduce with depth. The use of a multi leaf collimator for blocking removes extra skin dose caused by the Perspex block trays with decreasing SSD. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  9. Studies of E-Cloud Build up for the FNAL Main Injector and for the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    We present a summary of recent simulation studies of the electron-cloud (EC) build-up for the FNAL MI and for the LHC. In the first case we pay particular attention to the dependence on bunch intensity N b at injection energy assuming the nominal bunch spacing t b = 19 ns, and we focus on the dipole magnets and field-free regions. The saturated value of the average EC density shows a clear threshold in N b beyond which the beam will be approximately neutralized on average. For the case of the LHC we limit our discussion to arc dipoles at collision energy, and bunch spacings t b = 25 ns or t b = 75 ns. The main variables exercised in this study are N b and the peak value of the secondary emission yield (SEY) (delta) max . For t b = 25 ns we conclude that the EC power deposition is comfortably below the available cooling capacity of the cryogenic system if (delta) max is below ∼ 1.2 at nominal N b . For t b = 75 ns, the EC power deposition is insignificant. As a byproduct of this exercise, we reach a detailed understanding of the significant role played by the backscattered secondary electrons. This article summarizes the results, an slightly extends the discussions, presented in Refs. 1 and 2

  10. An Effective Strategy to Build Up a Balanced Test Suite for Spectrum-Based Fault Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During past decades, many automated software faults diagnosis techniques including Spectrum-Based Fault Localization (SBFL have been proposed to improve the efficiency of software debugging activity. In the field of SBFL, suspiciousness calculation is closely related to the number of failed and passed test cases. Studies have shown that the ratio of the number of failed and passed test case has more significant impact on the accuracy of SBFL than the total number of test cases, and a balanced test suite is more beneficial to improving the accuracy of SBFL. Based on theoretical analysis, we proposed an PNF (Passed test cases, Not execute Faulty statement strategy to reduce test suite and build up a more balanced one for SBFL, which can be used in regression testing. We evaluated the strategy making experiments using the Siemens program and Space program. Experiments indicated that our PNF strategy can be used to construct a new test suite effectively. Compared with the original test suite, the new one has smaller size (average 90% test case was reduced in experiments and more balanced ratio of failed test cases to passed test cases, while it has the same statement coverage and fault localization accuracy.

  11. Comparative study of mechanical properties of direct core build-up materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The strength greatly influences the selection of core material because core must withstand forces due to mastication and para-function for many years. This study was conducted to evaluate certain mechanical properties of commonly used materials for direct core build-up, including visible light cured composite, polyacid modified composite, resin modified glass ionomer, high copper amalgam, and silver cermet cement. Materials and Methods: All the materials were manipulated according to the manufacturer′s recommendations and standard test specimens were prepared. A universal testing machine at different cross-head speed was used to determine all the four mechanical properties. Mean compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, flexural strength, and elastic modulus with standard deviations were calculated. Multiple comparisons of the materials were also done. Results: Considerable differences in compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and flexural strength were observed. Visible light cured composite showed relatively high compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, and flexural strength compared with the other tested materials. Amalgam showed the highest value for elastic modulus. Silver cermet showed less value for all the properties except for elastic modulus. Conclusions: Strength is one of the most important criteria for selection of a core material. Stronger materials better resist deformation and fracture provide more equitable stress distribution, greater stability, and greater probability of clinical success.

  12. Building up the standard gauge model of high energy physics. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekaran, G.

    1989-01-01

    This chapter carefully builds up, step by step, the standard gauge model of particle physics based on the group SU(3) c x SU(2) x U(1). Spontaneous symmetry breaking via the Nambu-Goldstone mode, and then via the Higgs mode for gauge theories, are presented via examples, first for the Abelian U(1) and then for the non-Abelian SU(2) case. The physically interesting SU(2) x U(1) model is then taken up. The emergence of massive vector bosons is demonstrated. After this preparation, the 'standard model' of the late 60's prior to the gauge theory revolution, based on the V-A current-current weak interactions, minimal electromagnetism, and an unspecified strong interaction, all in quark-lepton language, is set up. It is then compared to the standard gauge model of SU(3) c x SU(2) x U(1). The compelling reasons for QCD as the gauge theory of strong interactions are spelt out. An introduction to renormalization group methods as the main calculational tool for QCD, asymptotic freedom, infrared problems, and physically motivated reasons for going beyond the standard model are presented. (author). 6 refs.; 19 figs.; 2 tabs

  13. Estimation of build up of dose rate on U3O8 product drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, J.P.N.; Shinde, A.M.; Deshpande, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    In fuel reprocessing plant, plutonium oxide and uranium oxide (U 3 O 8 ) are products. Approximately 180 kg U 3 O 8 is filled in SS drum and sealed firmly before storage. In PHWR natural uranium (UO 2 ) is used as fuel. In natural uranium, thorium-232 is present as an impurity at few tens of ppm level. During irradiation in power reactors, due to nuclear reaction formation of 232 U from 232 Th takes place. Natural decay of 232 U leads to the formation of 208 Tl. As time passes, there is buildup of 208 Tl and hence increase in dose rate on the drum containing U 3 O 8 . It is essential to estimate the buildup of dose rate considering the external radiological hazards involved during U 3 O 8 drum handling, transportation and fuel fabrication. This paper describes the calculation of dose rate on drum in future years using MCNP code. For dose rate calculation decay of fission product activity which remains as contamination in product and build up of '2 08 Tl from 232 U is considered. Some measured values of dose rate on U 3 O 8 drum are given for the comparisons with estimated dose rate based on MCNP code. (author)

  14. Treatment of Municipal and Industrial Waste by Radiation Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaziz, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years the effort in science and technology is shifting from conventional technologies preventing the pollution of air, water and soil, towards processing by gamma or by electron beam (EB) irradiation in order to prevent pollution, rather than curing the problems caused by production processes, which are not optimized with regard to pollution control. Radiation processing may help to improve the environmental situation in two aspects : It provides alternatives to conventional technologies for the cleaning of air, flue gases and water,...etc, and it also helps to realize clean processes for preventing pollution in the first place. This paper will outline the basic principles of radiation processing for waste streams of environmental relevance, will summarize the state-of -the-art in environmental applications of radiation processing to show both the advantages and the limitations of the radiation processing of waste streams, and to highlight the environmental and economic benefits of clean processes made possible by radiation processing applied to municipal and industrial waste. Reference is made to gamma and EB radiation sources, and description of new technologies is presented

  15. Evolution of the radiation processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Marshall R.

    2013-04-01

    Early investigations of the effects of treating materials with ionizing radiations began in 1894 with the irradiation of gases at atmospheric pressure using cathode rays from a Crookes gas-discharge tube, in 1895 with the discovery of X-rays emitted from a Crookes tube, and in 1896 with the discovery of radioactivity in uranium. In 1897, small electrically charged particles were detected and identified in the gas discharges inside Crookes tubes. These particles were then named electrons. During the next three decades, it was found that these novel forms of energy could produce ions to initiate chemical reactions in some gases and liquids. By 1921, it had also been shown that insects, parasites and bacteria could be killed by treatment with ionizing radiation. In 1925, a high-vacuum tube with a thermionic cathode and a thin metallic anode was developed to produce electron beams in air by using accelerating potentials up to 250 kilovolts. That unique apparatus was the precursor of the many types of electron accelerators that have been developed since then for a variety of industrial applications. In 1929, the vulcanization of natural rubber without using any chemical additives was achieved by irradiation with electrons from a 250 kilovolt accelerator. In 1939, several liquid monomers were polymerized by treatment with gamma rays from radioactive nuclides. These early results were not exploited before the end of World War II because intense sources of ionizing radiation were not available then. Shortly after that war, there was increased interest in developing the peaceful uses of atomic energy, which included the chemical and biological effects of radiation exposures. Many uses that have been developed since then are described briefly in this paper. These industrial applications are now producing billions of US dollars in revenue every year.

  16. Utilization of polysaccharides by radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Radiation treatment has been applied for improvement or pasteurization of agro-resources to recycle the resources and to reduce the pollution of environment. By using the radiation effect for pasteurization, upgrading of cellulosic wastes of oil palm to animal feeds and mushroom has been studied under the bilateral research cooperation between JAERI and MINT (Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research). The necessary dose for pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main cellulosic by-product of palm oil industry, was determined as 10 kGy. After pasteurization, the EFB substrate was inoculated with Pleurotus sajor-caju and fermented for 1 month. The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. For the improvement of resources, radiation effects on polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to induce the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities. The anti-bacterial activity and elicitor activity of chitosan were induced by irradiation. The induction of phytoalexins was also observed by irradiated pectin but the higher elicitor activity for pisatin was obtained by chitosan than pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa carrageenan irradiated at 100 kGy. Furthermore, some radiation degraded polysaccharides suppressed the damage of environmental stress on plants. (author)

  17. Evolution of the radiation processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, Marshall R. [IBA Industrial, Inc., 151 Heartland Boulevard, Edgewood, NY 11717 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Early investigations of the effects of treating materials with ionizing radiations began in 1894 with the irradiation of gases at atmospheric pressure using cathode rays from a Crookes gas-discharge tube, in 1895 with the discovery of X-rays emitted from a Crookes tube, and in 1896 with the discovery of radioactivity in uranium. In 1897, small electrically charged particles were detected and identified in the gas discharges inside Crookes tubes. These particles were then named electrons. During the next three decades, it was found that these novel forms of energy could produce ions to initiate chemical reactions in some gases and liquids. By 1921, it had also been shown that insects, parasites and bacteria could be killed by treatment with ionizing radiation. In 1925, a high-vacuum tube with a thermionic cathode and a thin metallic anode was developed to produce electron beams in air by using accelerating potentials up to 250 kilovolts. That unique apparatus was the precursor of the many types of electron accelerators that have been developed since then for a variety of industrial applications. In 1929, the vulcanization of natural rubber without using any chemical additives was achieved by irradiation with electrons from a 250 kilovolt accelerator. In 1939, several liquid monomers were polymerized by treatment with gamma rays from radioactive nuclides. These early results were not exploited before the end of World War II because intense sources of ionizing radiation were not available then. Shortly after that war, there was increased interest in developing the peaceful uses of atomic energy, which included the chemical and biological effects of radiation exposures. Many uses that have been developed since then are described briefly in this paper. These industrial applications are now producing billions of US dollars in revenue every year.

  18. Utilization of polysaccharides by radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2000-01-01

    Radiation treatment has been applied for improvement or pasteurization of agro-resources to recycle the resources and to reduce the pollution of environment. By using the radiation effect for pasteurization, upgrading of cellulosic wastes of oil palm to animal feeds and mushroom has been studied under the bilateral research cooperation between JAERI and MINT (Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research). The necessary dose for pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main cellulosic by-product of palm oil industry, was determined as 10 kGy. After pasteurization, the EFB substrate was inoculated with Pleurotus sajor-caju and fermented for 1 month. The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. For the improvement of resources, radiation effects on polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated to induce the biological activities. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities. The anti-bacterial activity and elicitor activity of chitosan were induced by irradiation. The induction of phytoalexins was also observed by irradiated pectin but the higher elicitor activity for pisatin was obtained by chitosan than pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. carrageenan derived from red marine algae can promote growth of rice and the highest effect was obtained with kappa carrageenan irradiated at 100 kGy. Furthermore, some radiation degraded polysaccharides suppressed the damage of environmental stress on plants. (author)

  19. Review of radiation processing of natural polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, natural polymers are being investigated with renewed interest because of their abundant quantity and unique characteristics such as inherent biocompatibility, biodegradability and renewable. It is also known as green polymer. Natural polymers such as carrageen, alginate, chitin/chitosan and starch are traditionally used in food-based industry. But now, the applications of natural polymers are being sought in knowledge-driven areas such as healthcare, agro-technology and industry. Radiation degraded alginates, carrangeenan and chitosan as plant growth promoter and protector have been developed. Radiation degraded chitosan, carraneenan and starch have also been used together with synthetic polymers for hydrogel production to be used for wound dressing, skin moisturization and for biodegradable packaging films and foams. Radiation crosslinking of natural polymer derivatives such as carboxymethyl chitosan, carboxymethyl starch have been successfully developed in Japan and used for various applications such as removal of pollutants, removal of waters from liverstock excrete as well as for bedsores protection mat. (author)

  20. Current Status of Radiation Processing of Natural Polymers in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramnani, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation processing is being used on commercial basis in India since 1974 with the operation of ISOMED plant for radiation sterilization of medical products and Electron beam machine (ILU-6) in 1986. Since then many new products and processes have been investigated and some of them have culminated into useful applications. Many Indian industries produce and process natural polymers for local consumption and export. India exports about 120,000 tons of polysaccharides every year. Natural polysaccharides like guar gum, gum acacia, gum tora, agar, psylium husk etc are treated with gamma radiation mainly for controlling microbial contamination and sterilization. Radiation processing has also been used to reduce molecular weight of the polysaccharides in some applications. Recently, a few new applications have emerged where natural polysaccharides are used as additives and which play important role in controlling basic radiation chemistry reactions to produce useful products. Developed at BARC, radiation processed wound dressings, superabsorbent materials and low molecular weight chitosan are the products which have been used and could find potential applications in health care and agriculture sector. Radiation processed hydrogel wound dressings containing natural polysaccharides have already been commercialized. Some of the applications recently developed at BARC using natural polymers are briefly described below

  1. Aesthetic Closure of Maxillary and Mandibular Anterior Spaces Using Direct Composite Resin Build-Ups: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schick Simona-Georgiana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of multiple spaces in the anterior aesthetic zone can produce discomfort for patients and its treatment can be difficult for dental professionals. A variety of treatment options are available and these include orthodontic movement, prosthetic indirect restorations or direct composite resin build-ups. Among these, the closure of interdental spaces using composite build-ups combined with orthodontic treatment is considered to be most conservative. This type of treatment has several advantages like the maximum preservation of tooth substance (no tooth preparation, no need for anesthesia, no multiple time-consuming visits, no provisional restorations and also comparably low costs. Clinical Consideration: This case report describes the clinical restorative procedure of direct composite resin build-ups for the closure of multiple anterior spaces.

  2. About Solar Radiation Intensity Measurements and Data Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICH-VANCEA Claudiu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the intensity of solar radiation is one of the directions of investigation necessary for the implementation of photovoltaic systems in a particular geographical area. This can be done by using specific measuring equipment (pyranometer sensors based onthermal or photovoltaic principle. In this paper it is presented a method for measuring solar radiation (which has two main components - direct radiation and diffuse radiation with sensors based on photovoltaic principle. Such data are processed for positioning solarpanels, in order their efficiency to be maximized.

  3. Manual of radiation processing of cassava starch hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonsuk, Manit

    2007-01-01

    The radiation processing of natural cassava starch (CS) is described for the improvement of its properties. A series of hydrogels were prepared from gelatinized CS and vinylpyrrolidone by radiation-induced graft copolymerization. Hydrogels were also synthesized from radiation-induced crosslinking of carboxymethyl CS. The optimum condition for the swelling ratio and gel fraction of the obtained hydrogels is irradiation at low dose. The polymeric chelating resins containing the hydroxamic acid groups were synthesized from the polymethyl acrylate (PMA)-grafted CS via gamma radiation. (M.H.)

  4. Utilization of carbohydrates by radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Yoshii, F.

    2002-01-01

    Upgrading and utilization of carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated for recycling these bio-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction, etc. were induced. On the other hand, some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose and carboxymethylstarch, could be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produce the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use

  5. Modification of bioplastic by radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, Naotsugu

    2008-01-01

    The application of bioplastic derived from renewable resource is expected to address the problem of global warming. The thermostability of poly(lactic acid) (PLA), of which practical use was especially expected, is improved by radiation-induced crosslinking with additives. The obtained highly heat-resistant and transparent PLA is applied as heat-shrinkable materials, injection molded parts. In addition, the development of the PLA with flexible elasticity by holding plasticizer was succeeded. Therefore, it is proven that crosslinking technology is beneficial to expanding the application of PLA. (author)

  6. Radiation processing in India. Current status and future program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Jai Pal

    2003-01-01

    Radiation processing is an alternative to conventional methods such as thermal and chemical processing in many industrial applications. In India, this technology has found extensive applications in area of healthcare, agriculture, food preservation, industry and environment. Both gamma radiation and electron beam accelerators are being utilized for this purpose. Presently, 6 commercial gamma irradiators housing about 1.5 million curie Co-60 and an annual turnover of over US$ 2 million and 3 commercial electron beam (EB) accelerators with installed capacity of 185 kW are commercially operating in India. Five demonstration plants housing a total of 0.5 million curie Co-60 have been set up to assess the techno-commercial viability of the processes such as radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex, decontamination of spices, hygienization of sewage sludge, shelf-life extension of onions. The new areas being explored include use of electron beam treated pulp for viscose-rayon process, radiation processed 'hydrogel' burn/wound dressings and radiation processing of natural polymers. In the present paper, the current status of this program, especially the recent developments and future direction of radiation processing technology in India is reviewed. (author)

  7. Dosimetry as an integral part of radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1999-01-01

    Different connections between high-dose dosimetry and radiation processing are discussed. Radiation processing cannot be performed without proper dosimetry. Accurate high dose and high dose rate dosimetry exhibits several aspects: first of all it is the preservation of the quality of the product, then fulfillment of legal aspects and last but not the least the safety of processing. Further, seldom discussed topics are as follow: dosimetric problems occurring with double-side EB irradiations, discussed in connection with the deposition of electric charge during electron beam irradiation. Although dosimetry for basic research and for medical purposes are treated here only shortly, some conclusions reached from these fields are considered in dosimetry for radiation processing. High-dose dosimetry of radiation has become a separate field, with many papers published every year, but applied dosimetric projects are usually initiated by a necessity of particular application. (author)

  8. Modeling of Cloud/Radiation Processes for Cirrus Cloud Formation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liou, K

    1997-01-01

    This technical report includes five reprints and pre-prints of papers associated with the modeling of cirrus cloud and radiation processes as well as remote sensing of cloud optical and microphysical...

  9. Hydropower build-up and the timber floating in Northern Finland after the Second World War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenninen, N. (Univ. of Oulu, Thule Inst. (Finland)). email: niko.hanninen@oulu.fi

    2009-07-01

    During the Second World War, Finland lost a substantial amount of built and yet un-built hydropower capacity to Soviet Union due to loss of Karelia. The most significant energy user at the time was the forest industry, especially paper and pulp mills, which had to replace this loss and to secure uninterrupted supply of energy in the future; otherwise the industry could not realise their expansion plans. One solution was to harness the still untouched northern waters for the service of the industry and society in large. However, these rivers served already the forest industry in another way, as transport routes in floating of timber. Vast waterways had made the emergence of forest industry in Finland possible. Transportation of timber from distant forests, located more than hundreds of kilometres away from the mills, was possible using rivers and lakes. Especially in Northern Finland the industry had to rely on floating as the railway network was less extensive than in some other parts of the country. The objective of this paper is to study closer, how the emergence of vast hydropower dams in these northern rivers from late 1940's to 1970's changed the transportation of timber. Road transportation in particular could not compete with floating because of their higher costs and the lack of suitable trucks and roads, but this changed after the war. Despite the fact that expanding industries consumed more and more timber, the role of floating decreased. But how did these ratios change during this period? Did the build-up of hydropower plants contribute to this shift of timber transportations from waterways to the land? Salmon and logs did not fit on the same river, the fishermen had to yield in the end. Did the hydropower plants do the same to the floaters

  10. To integrate family planning into the building up of mental civilization by offering comprehensive services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    The government of Nangong City, a newly instituted city with a relatively large proportion of agricultural workers has integrated family planning into the building up of mental civilization. As a result, in 1986, the family planning practice rate was 98.4%. One way the government accomplished this was by developing production to eliminate poverty, to show that population development has a significant impact on socioeconomic development. To help change people's attitudes about family planning, the government 1) used publicity, such as speechmaking, mass media, and courses in population theory; 2) awarded those who made contributions; 3) carried out publicity and education in accordance with characteristics of different groups of people; and 4) encouraged bridegrooms to live with their wives' families if the wives' parents had had no son. Another technique the government used as the popularization of scientific knowledge about population theory, physiology and hygiene, birth control, and eugenics and health in births. A 4th method was to popularize knowledge of laws and regulations, such as of early marriage and consanguineous marriage. 5th, the government developed social security undertakings: 1) giving priority to single-child families and 2) taking care of the elderly. Finally, the government improved maternal and child care by 1) providing premarital health care; 2) creating a project for healthier births and better upbringing; 3) family planning workers showing warm concern for reproductive women; and 4) controlling women's diseases and providing health care knowledge, as well as family planning services. These 6 activities have resulted in 1) the decreasing momentum of per capita arable land being controlled, 2) 1-child couples having more time to learn, 3) the development of educational undertakings, 4) a change in people's traditional practices, and 5) improvement in the understanding of patriotism.

  11. Venom Immunotherapy in High-Risk Patients: The Advantage of the Rush Build-Up Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Yossi; Confino-Cohen, Ronit; Goldberg, Arnon

    2017-01-01

    Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is considered to be the gold standard treatment for patients with hymenoptera venom allergy. This treatment induces systemic reactions (SR) in a significant number of patients. To evaluate the outcome of VIT in patients with known risk factors for VIT-induced SR and to compare rush VIT (RVIT) and conventional VIT (CVIT). All of the patients who received VIT and had at least one of the following risk factors were included: current cardiovascular disease, uncontrolled asthma, high basal serum tryptase, current treatment with β-blockers or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and age >70 or bee venom. Thirty-five (54.7%) patients underwent RVIT and 29 CVIT. The incidence of patients who developed SR during the build-up phase was similar for RVIT and CVIT (25.7 and 27.5%, respectively; p = 1). However, the incidence of SR per injection was significantly higher in CVIT than in RVIT (5.6 and 2.75%, respectively; p = 0.01). Most reactions (79.1%) were mild, limited to the skin. Most of the patients (92.1%) reached the full maintenance dose of 100 μg. This dose was reached by a significantly larger number of patients receiving RVIT compared to CVIT (100 and 82.7%, respectively; p = 0.01). None of the patients experienced exacerbation of their concurrent chronic disease during VIT. VIT can be performed safely and efficiently in patients with risk factors for immunotherapy. In these patients RVIT appears to be safer and more efficient than CVIT. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Clinical comparison of various esthetic restorative options for coronal build-up of primary anterior teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Duhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to compare the clinical performance of composite, strip crowns, biological restoration, and composite with stainless steel band when used for the coronal build-up of anterior teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients aged 3-6 years presenting with mutilated primary anterior teeth due to caries or trauma were selected for the study using randomized simple sampling. A total of 52 primary anterior teeth were randomly divided into four equal groups having 13 teeth in each group. Teeth in Group I were restored with composite, in Group II with strip crowns, in Group III with biologic restoration and with stainless steel band reinforced composite in group IV. The restorations were evaluated for color match, retention, surface texture, and anatomic form according to Ryge′s Direct (US Public Health Service evaluation criteria at baseline (immediate postoperative, after 48 h, 3, 6, and 9 months. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using Chi-square test, and level of significance, that is, P value was determined. Results: At baseline, none of the groups showed any color changes. Other than Group III all other groups showed highly significant changes (P 0.05. Deterioration in surface texture was exhibited maximum by restorations in Group IV followed by Group I at 3 months. Whereas, no surface changes were seen in Group II and III. Only Group I and IV showed discontinuity in anatomic form after 3 months. After 6 months, except in Group II, discontinuity in anatomic form was observed in all the groups. Discontinuity in anatomic form was seen in all the 4 groups after 9 months although the difference was not significant (P > 0.05. Conclusion: Biological restoration was found to be most satisfying esthetically owing to color compatibility with the patient′s tooth. Thus, it has a great potential to be used as esthetic restorative option in primary anteriors.

  13. Radiation entropy influx as a measure of planetary dissipative processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izakov, M.N.

    1989-01-01

    Dissipative processes including high flows of matter and energy occur at the planets. Radiation negentropy influx, resulting from difference of entropy fluxes of incoming solar and outgoing thermal radiation of the planet, is a measure of all these processes. Large share of radiation negentropy influx is spent in the vertical thermal fluxes which keep the planet temperature conditions. Next share of radiation negentropy consumption at the Earth is water evaporation. It's rest part is used for the dynamics, which is explained by the efficiency insignificant amount of heat engine, which generates movements in the atmosphere and ocean. Essentially higher share of radiation negentropy influx, than at the Earth, is spent at the Venus, where there are practically no water

  14. Thermal characterization of radiation processed contact lens material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, L.; Choughule, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermomechanical analysis (TMA) and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) were used to characterize radiation processed contact lens gel material of 2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate(HEMA). DSC revealed two types of water in the gels. DSC and TGA in combination were used to quantitate the percentage of different types of the water in the gel material. Temperature expansion coefficients values indicate more dimensions stability in the radiation processed lenses of similar water contents. (author)

  15. Organoleptic quality and antioxidant status of radiation processed food commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, S.; Sharma, J.; Arul, A.K.; Variyar, P.S.; Sharma, A.

    2009-01-01

    Effect of radiation processing on the organoleptic qualities such as aroma, taste and colour as well as antioxidant status of various food classes such as beverages (monsooned coffee), spices (nutmeg), fruits (pomegranate), oil seeds (soybean) and vegetables (guar beans) was investigated. The factors responsible for these attributes were shown to be liberated from their glycosidic precursors during radiation processing, thus resulted in an enhancement of organoleptic quality and antioxidant status. (author)

  16. Emerging applications of radiation processing. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 160 gamma irradiators and 1200 electron accelerator based processing units are in operation worldwide. In recent years the IAEA has prepared a directory of industrial gamma irradiators and held several meetings on developments in radiation technology applications. Developments involving the engineering of new sources (both isotope and electrical), high power accelerator applications, etc. have been reported recently, making a review and evaluation of this progress timely. Therefore the IAEA organized a technical meeting in Vienna, Austria, from 28 to 30 April 2003 to review the present situation and the potential contribution of radiation technology to sustainable development. Engineering developments and other features of radiation sources, both isotope and accelerator, were discussed. Recent research has concentrated on three fields: medical and food products, polymers, and environmental pollution control. The stability of radiation sterilized medical implants, as well as the uses of radiation processing for sterilization or decontamination of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical raw materials, radiation synthesis and modification of polymers for biomedical applications have been studied. Since separation and enrichment technologies play an important role in product recovery and pollution control, the possibility of radiation synthesis of stimuli-responsive membranes, hydrogels and adsorbents is being investigated. Finally, aside from the technologies for flue gas and wastewater treatment already in use, further research is ongoing on the treatment of organic contaminants in both gaseous and liquid phases. Environmental applications, which also offer new opportunities, should be carefully reviewed to reflect existing regulations and current knowledge. The increasingly serious problem of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) emissions may be solved in part by the application of radiation technology. This is being studied on a pilot scale for the removal of

  17. Emerging applications of radiation processing. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 160 gamma irradiators and 1200 electron accelerator based processing units are in operation worldwide. In recent years the IAEA has prepared a directory of industrial gamma irradiators and held several meetings on developments in radiation technology applications. Developments involving the engineering of new sources (both isotope and electrical), high power accelerator applications, etc. have been reported recently, making a review and evaluation of this progress timely. Therefore the IAEA organized a technical meeting in Vienna, Austria, from 28 to 30 April 2003 to review the present situation and the potential contribution of radiation technology to sustainable development. Engineering developments and other features of radiation sources, both isotope and accelerator, were discussed. Recent research has concentrated on three fields: medical and food products, polymers, and environmental pollution control. The stability of radiation sterilized medical implants, as well as the uses of radiation processing for sterilization or decontamination of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical raw materials, radiation synthesis and modification of polymers for biomedical applications have been studied. Since separation and enrichment technologies play an important role in product recovery and pollution control, the possibility of radiation synthesis of stimuli-responsive membranes, hydrogels and adsorbents is being investigated. Finally, aside from the technologies for flue gas and wastewater treatment already in use, further research is ongoing on the treatment of organic contaminants in both gaseous and liquid phases. Environmental applications, which also offer new opportunities, should be carefully reviewed to reflect existing regulations and current knowledge. The increasingly serious problem of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) emissions may be solved in part by the application of radiation technology. This is being studied on a pilot scale for the removal of

  18. Controlling of degradation effects in radiation processing of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-05-01

    The interest of Member States of the IAEA in introducing radiation technology into the polymer and plastics industry is growing. This publication summarizes a number of studies conducted in the framework of a coordinated research project (CRP) on controlling of degradation effects on polymers by radiation processing technologies. It reviews a variety of applications and details the most important results and achievements of the participating centres and laboratories during the course of the CRP. The publication is intended to be of use to scientists implementing the technology and managers of radiation processing facilities

  19. Radiation processing of polymer emulsion, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo; Katakai, Akio; Ito, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Naohiro; Araki, Kunio

    1983-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate was polymerized in emulsion by Co-60 γ-rays below 19 deg C in a batch reactor by using sodium lauryl sulfate as emulsifier. The conversion-time curves of the polymerization system showed two rate regions, i.e., a fact conversion rate in early stage, and a much slower rate in latter stage. The change in rate occurred at about 70 % conversion. The molecular weight of product polymer decreased with increasing conversion during the course of polymerization in latter stage, in contrast to the behavior in early stage. The distribution of the monomer in emulsion in latter stage was evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance technique. The decrease of the molecular weight with conversion is due to the radiation-induced degradation of product polymer accelerated by the monomers absorbed in the polymer particles. (author)

  20. Radiation processing of polymer emulsion, 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo; Katakai, Akio; Hagiwara, Miyuki

    1983-01-01

    Radiation induced emulsion copolymerization of strong acid monomer was investigated to reduce the curing temperature of core shell particle emulsion having N-(n-butoxymethyl) acrylamide (NBM) moities in shell part. The strong acid monomers used were 3-chloro-2-acidphosphoxypropyl methacrylate, acid-phosphoxyethyl methacrylate, 2-acrylamide-2-methyl-propane sulfonic acid, and sodium p-styrenesulfonate. Curing was remarkably promoted by the presence of copolymerized strong acid monomer in shell part. Tensile strength of the film cured at 120 0 C was identical with that of conventional NBM core-shell emulsion film cured at 160 0 C. However, the water absorbing capacity of the film cured at 120 0 C was extremely high. The water resistance was found to increase with decreasing the amount of adsorbed polyelectrolyte on the particle surface. (author)

  1. Build-up and wash-off dynamics of atmospherically derived Cu, Pb, Zn and TSS in stormwater runoff as a function of meteorological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Louise U; Cochrane, Thomas A; O'Sullivan, Aisling

    2015-03-01

    Atmospheric pollutants deposited on impermeable surfaces can be an important source of pollutants to stormwater runoff; however, modelling atmospheric pollutant loads in runoff has rarely been done, because of the challenges and uncertainties in monitoring their contribution. To overcome this, impermeable concrete boards (≈ 1m(2)) were deployed for 11 months in different locations within an urban area (industrial, residential and airside) throughout Christchurch, New Zealand, to capture spatially distributed atmospheric deposition loads in runoff over varying meteorological conditions. Runoff was analysed for total and dissolved Cu, Zn, Pb, and total suspended solids (TSS). Mixed-effect regression models were developed to simulate atmospheric pollutant loads in stormwater runoff. In addition, the models were used to explain the influence of different meteorological characteristics (e.g. antecedent dry days and rain depth) on pollutant build-up and wash-off dynamics. The models predicted approximately 53% to 69% of the variation in pollutant loads and were successful in predicting pollutant-load trends over time which can be useful for general stormwater planning processes. Results from the models illustrated the importance of antecedent dry days on pollutant build-up. Furthermore, results indicated that peak rainfall intensity and rain duration had a significant relationship with TSS and total Pb, whereas, rain depth had a significant relationship with total Cu and total Zn. This suggested that the pollutant speciation phase plays an important role in surface wash-off. Rain intensity and duration had a greater influence when the pollutants were predominantly in their particulate phase. Conversely, rain depth exerted a greater influence when a high fraction of the pollutants were predominantly in their dissolved phase. For all pollutants, the models were represented by a log-arctan relationship for pollutant build-up and a log-log relationship for pollutant wash

  2. Present status of radiation processing in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabata, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Crosslinking of insulating materials including cables, tubes, sheets, pipes and polymer foam, curing of coating, surface treatment and other processes developed recently will be presented. Future prospects in this field will be discussed. (Author) [pt

  3. Influence of radiation processing of grapes on wine quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sumit; Padole, Rupali; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Grapes (Var. Shiraz and Cabernet) were subjected to radiation processing (up to 2 kGy) and wines were prepared and matured (4 months, 15 °C). The wines were analyzed for chromatic characteristics, total anthocyanin (TA), phenolic (TP) and total antioxidant (TAC) content. Aroma of wines was analyzed by GC/MS and sensory analysis was carried out using descriptive analysis. TA, TP and TAC were 77, 31 and 37 percent higher for irradiated (1500 Gy) Cabernet wines, while irradiated Shiraz wines demonstrated 47, 18 and 19 percent higher TA, TP and TAC, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed that radiation processing of grapes resulted in increased extraction of phenolic constituents in wine with no qualitative changes. No major radiation induced changes were observed in aroma constituents of wine. Sensory analysis revealed that 1500 Gy irradiated samples had higher fruity and berry notes. Thus, radiation processing of grapes resulted in wines with improved organoleptic and antioxidant properties. - Highlights: • Grapes were subjected to radiation processing before wine making. • Wines from irradiated grapes had higher antioxidant and phenolics compared to control. • HPLC analysis confirmed improved extraction of phenolics due to radiation processing. • Aroma profile and sensory quality of control and irradiated wines were similar

  4. The new development of radiation processing in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dianhua

    1998-12-01

    China Isotope and Radiation Association (CIRA) investigated the status of radiation processing in China's mainland. There are 45 accelerators each with beam power over 5 kW, the total beam power is 2005 kW. There are 48 γ facilities each with designed capacity over 1.11 x 10 4 TBq (0.3 million curies) and other 75 units with designed capacity less than 1.11 x 10 4 TBq. The total loaded capacity is 4.63 x 10 5 TBq, more than one third of the designed capacity. radiation processing is mainly used in producing chemical-industrial products (as heat-shrinkable products and radiation cross-linked wire and cable) in China. Some enterprises with annual output value over a hundred million RMB have emerged. Radiation processing is also used in preservation and disinfection of food. In 1977, six kinds of hygienic standards for irradiated food were authorized. Radiation sterilization of disposable medical products, radiation desulphurization and denitration are also being developed in China

  5. Packaging materials for use in radiation processing of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragusin, M.; Rotaru, P.R.

    1999-01-01

    In radiation processing of food, the product often has to be prepackaged to prevent microbial recontamination during and after irradiation. The packaging material is exposed to radiation during radiation processing and radiation stability is a key consideration in the selection of packaging materials. The effects of ionizing radiation on many food packaging materials at the dose levels recommended for food precessing can be minimized by selecting appropriate radiation resistant materials. It is important to select materials in which chemicals formed as a result of the radiation treatment do not migrate and interact with the food, affecting its organoleptic and toxicological aspects. It is also important to select materials in which the physical properties are not altered to the extent they cannot resist damage during commercial production, shipment and storage. Radiation treatment of food may be classified broadly into two categories: 1. Processes requiring doses less than 10 kGy; 2. Processes requiring doses from 25 to 40 kGy for production of commercial sterility. In radiation processing of foods, gamma radiation from radioisotopes Co-60 and Cs-137 is most widely used because of its high penetrating power. Electron beam irradiation (E<10 MeV) and X-rays (E<5 MeV) can also be used for certain speciality food and packaging to the food. Because the public acceptance of irradiated foods is a major problem in marketing such products, we have developed in our laboratory an alternative techniques. These techniques are based on applying films on the surfaces of foods. The films are edible, i.e. they are an aqueous solution based on caseine, glycerine, poly-etilene-glycol (PEG), crosslinked by radiation processing. So, our techniques implies no longer the food irradiation but instead its isolation from the environmental biological attacks by means of edible films obtained by irradiation. The protective properties of films, as special humidity, oxygen and fat barriers, are

  6. 21 CFR 179.39 - Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and..., PROCESSING AND HANDLING OF FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 179.39 Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food. Ultraviolet radiation for the processing and treatment of food may be...

  7. Impacts of traffic and rainfall characteristics on heavy metals build-up and wash-off from urban roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub, Parvez; Ayoko, Godwin A; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Kokot, Serge

    2010-12-01

    An investigation into the effects of changes in urban traffic characteristics due to rapid urbanisation and the predicted changes in rainfall characteristics due to climate change on the build-up and wash-off of heavy metals was carried out in Gold Coast, Australia. The study sites encompassed three different urban land uses. Nine heavy metals commonly associated with traffic emissions were selected. The results were interpreted using multivariate data analysis and decision making tools, such as principal component analysis (PCA), fuzzy clustering (FC), PROMETHEE, and GAIA. Initial analyses established high, low, and moderate traffic scenarios as well as low, low to moderate, moderate, high, and extreme rainfall scenarios for build-up and wash-off investigations. GAIA analyses established that moderate to high traffic scenarios could affect the build-up, while moderate to high rainfall scenarios could affect the wash-off of heavy metals under changed conditions. However, in wash-off, metal concentrations in 1-75 μm fraction were found to be independent of the changes to rainfall characteristics. In build-up, high traffic activities in commercial and industrial areas influenced the accumulation of heavy metal concentrations in particulate size range from 75 - >300 μm, whereas metal concentrations in finer size range of 300 μm can be targeted for removal of Ni, Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Zn from build-up, while organic matter from 300 μm can be targeted for removal of Cd, Cr, Pb, and Ni from wash-off. Cu and Zn need to be removed as free ions from most fractions in wash-off.

  8. Application of radiation in industrial processes (Paper No. IT-01)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, T.S.

    1990-02-01

    The application of radiations both from gamma irradiation sources and electron beams has immense potential in diverse fields of industry and public health care programmes. The technical and economic effectiveness of radiation technology has been well demonstrated in different parts of the world and in India over last few years. The major applications for using this technology favourably considered all over the world include radiation sterilisation of medical products, hygienisation of sewage sludge, radiation processing of wood plastic composites, vulcanisation of natural rubber latex, cross linking of wires and cables using radiation, production of bio materials and drugs release systems and treatment of flue gases. Some of the areas which have been successfully exploited on an industrial or semi industrial scale in India and the current status of this programme is high lighted in this paper. (author). 9 refs

  9. Some novel concepts in radiation processing technology applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Lalit

    2014-01-01

    Search for better materials and processes has been a part of the evolution of mankind and it still continues to be so as it is being realized that earth's resources are not everlasting and effect of rapid growth on environment may adversely affect the future development. Sustainable development is the only choice for today for long term survival. Better quality and high functional materials, made by superior technologies are being demanded by the society. Radiation processing technology has significantly contributed to meet the expectation of the people in providing superior products and processes while preserving the environment. Processes are being developed where resources are fully utilized with maximum advantages and little disturbance to the environment. More than 1500 electron beam accelerators and about 500 Gamma Irradiators are presently in use and many are being deployed for radiation processing of medical supplies, pharmaceuticals and herbal materials, treat effluents and preserve food and agricultural products and several industrial products. DAE has an ambitious plan to deploy radiation technology for societal benefits in India. In the presentations some interesting applications of Radiation Processing Technology will be discussed which includes (1) Radiation Processing of Cashew Apple fruit for bio-ethanol production (2) High Energy Battery separators (3) Plant Growth Promoters and (4) Tunable biodegradability. The discussion would reveal how a waste product like cashew apple can be converted to useful materials and advanced materials like HEB separators and Tunable Biodegradable films can be made using radiation technology. Use of radiation de-polymerized polysaccharides in some experiments have shown unexpected increase in agriculture output giving new concepts to increase the productivity. (author)

  10. ASPECTS OF QMS IN RADIATION PROCESSING FACILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUNGU Ion Bogdan

    2016-05-01

    there are numerous factors that influence the effectiveness of service process, the objective is to analyze few important criteria like traceability, maintenance, and control of nonconform products and how it influence the desired results. The expected results show the necessity and utility of such an assessment in order to achieve improved results and implicitly, the increase in customer satisfaction.

  11. Reactor design concepts for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berejka, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    During the formative years of irradiation processing, the 1950s and 1960s, there was laboratory and academic interest in the use of this form of energy transfer to initiate polymerization for the manufacture of plastics and in other chemical processes. Studies were often based on low-dose-rate Cobalt-60 systems. The electron beam (EB) accelerator technology of the time was not as yet at the robust and industrially reliable state that it is now at the beginning of the twenty-first century. A series of reactor designs illustrate how an electron beam can be incorporated into reactor vessels for initiating gas and liquid phase polymerizations on a continuous basis. Development of such approaches, which would rely upon contemporary, high current electron beams to initiate polymerization, would help the chemical processing industry alleviate its problems of catalyst disposal and its related environmental concerns. Systems for treating materials in bulk at low doses, such as those typically used for grain disinfection, at high through-put rates, are also illustrated. Simplified shielding is envisioned in each proposed process system

  12. Radiation processing of food and allied products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    Assuring adequate food security to citizens of the country requires deployment of strategies for augmenting agricultural production while reducing post-harvest losses. Appropriate post-harvest processing, handling, storage and distribution practices are as important as the efforts to increase productivity for sustained food security, food safety and international trade in agricultural commodities. Nuclear energy has played a significant role both in the improvement of crop productivity, as well as, in the preservation and hygienization of agricultural produce

  13. Radiation Monitoring System in Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Gil Sung; Kook, D. H.; Choung, W. M.; Ku, J. H.; Cho, I. J.; You, G. S.; Kwon, K. C.; Lee, W. K.; Lee, E. P

    2006-09-15

    The Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process is under development for effective management of spent fuel by converting UO{sub 2} into U-metal. For demonstration of this process, {alpha}-{gamma} type new hot cell was built in the IMEF basement . To secure against radiation hazard, this facility needs radiation monitoring system which will observe the entire operating area before the hot cell and service area at back of it. This system consists of 7 parts; Area Monitor for {gamma}-ray, Room Air Monitor for particulate and iodine in both area, Hot cell Monitor for hot cell inside high radiation and rear door interlock, Duct Monitor for particulate of outlet ventilation, Iodine Monitor for iodine of outlet duct, CCTV for watching workers and material movement, Server for management of whole monitoring system. After installation and test of this, radiation monitoring system will be expected to assist the successful ACP demonstration.

  14. Radiation Monitoring System in Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Gil Sung; Kook, D. H.; Choung, W. M.; Ku, J. H.; Cho, I. J.; You, G. S.; Kwon, K. C.; Lee, W. K.; Lee, E. P.

    2006-09-01

    The Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process is under development for effective management of spent fuel by converting UO 2 into U-metal. For demonstration of this process, α-γ type new hot cell was built in the IMEF basement . To secure against radiation hazard, this facility needs radiation monitoring system which will observe the entire operating area before the hot cell and service area at back of it. This system consists of 7 parts; Area Monitor for γ-ray, Room Air Monitor for particulate and iodine in both area, Hot cell Monitor for hot cell inside high radiation and rear door interlock, Duct Monitor for particulate of outlet ventilation, Iodine Monitor for iodine of outlet duct, CCTV for watching workers and material movement, Server for management of whole monitoring system. After installation and test of this, radiation monitoring system will be expected to assist the successful ACP demonstration

  15. Effects of gamma radiation in cauliflower (Brassica spp) minimally processed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Thomaz, Fernanda S.; Trindade, Reginaldo A.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.; Alencar, Severino M.

    2007-01-01

    Consumers demand for health interests and the latest diet trends. The consumption of vegetables worldwide has increased every year over the past decade, consequently, less extreme treatments or additives are being required. Minimally processed foods have fresh-like characteristics and satisfy the new consumer demand. Food irradiation is an exposure process of the product to controlled sources of gamma radiation with the intention to destroy pathogens and to extend the shelf life. Minimally processed cauliflower (Brassica oleraceae) exposed to low dose of gamma radiation does not show any change in sensory attributes. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the low doses of gamma radiation on sensorial aspects like appearance, texture and flavor of minimally processed cauliflower. (author)

  16. Radiation decontamination of dry food ingredients and processing aids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J

    1984-01-01

    Radiation decontamination of dry ingredients, herbs and enzyme preparations is a technically feasible, economically viable and safe physical process. The procedure is direct, simple, requires no additives and is highly efficient. Its dose requirement is moderate. Radiation doses of 3-10 kGy (0.3-1 mrad) have proved sufficient to reduce the viable counts to a satisfactory level. Ionising radiations do not cause any significant rise in temperature. The flavour, texture or other important technological or sensory properties of most ingredients are not influenced at radiation doses necessary for satisfactory decontamination, and radiation obviates the chemical residue problem. The microflora surviving radiation decontamination of dry ingredients are more susceptible to subsequent antimicrobial treatments. Recontamination can be prevented as the product can be irradiated in its final packaging. Irradiation could be carried out in commercial containers and would result in considerable savings of energy and labour as compared to alternative decontamination techniques. Radiation processing of these commodities is an established technology in several countries and more clearances on irradiated foods are expected to be granted in the near future.

  17. The effect of low radiation doses on DNA repair processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuschl, H.

    1978-08-01

    Error free DNA repair processes are an important preprequisite for the maintenance of genetic integrity of cells. They are of special importance for persons therapeutically or occupationally exposed to radiation. Therefore the effect of radiation therapy and elevated natural background radiation on unscheduled DNA synthesis was tested in peripheral lymphocytes of exposed persons. Both, autoradiographic studies of unscheduled DNA synthesis and measurement of 3 H-thymidine uptake into double stranded and single-strand containing DNA fractions revealed an increase of capacity for DNA repair. (author)

  18. Present status and expected progress in radiation processing dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovács, A.; Miller, A.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the present status of radiation processing dosimetry including the methods used most widely in gamma- and electron processing as well as the new methods under development or introduction. The recent trends with respect to calibrationof routine dosimetry systems as well...

  19. Physicochemical processes occurring under action of ionizing radiation in sarcophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarov, S.I.; Pshenichny, V.A.; Vilenskaya, L.N.; Korchevnaya, O.V.; Martseniuk, L.S.

    1998-01-01

    The result of analysis of environment ionization process inside Sarcophagus owing to alpha-, beta- and gamma-radiation processes with forming of ions. It is shown that as a result of ionization and physicochemical transformations gaseous mixtures, which are dangerous for personnel's health and can influence upon general technical safety of Sarcophagus, can release into atmosphere

  20. Radiation Processed Materials in Products from Polymers for Agricultural Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-15

    This publication results from a technical meeting on radiation processed materials in products from polymers for agricultural applications, which was held from 8 to 12 July 2013 at the IAEA in Vienna. The meeting provided a forum for the sharing of practical experiences and lessons learned, and reviewed the recent developments in the use of radiation technologies for the preparation of environmental friendly products based on polymers for agricultural applications.

  1. Radiation processing for PTFE composite reinforced with carbon fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akihiro Oshima; Akira Udagawa; Yousuke Morita

    1999-01-01

    The present work is an attempt to evaluate the performance of crosslinked PTFE as a polymer matrix for carbon fiber-reinforced composite materials. The carbon fiber-reinforced PTFE pre-composite, which is laminated with PTFE fine powder, is crosslinked by electron beam irradiation. Mechanical and frictional properties of the crosslinked PTFE composite obtained are higher than those of PTFE resin. The crosslinked PTFE composite with high mechanical and radiation resistant performance is obtained by radiation crosslinking process

  2. Radiation Processed Materials in Products from Polymers for Agricultural Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    This publication results from a technical meeting on radiation processed materials in products from polymers for agricultural applications, which was held from 8 to 12 July 2013 at the IAEA in Vienna. The meeting provided a forum for the sharing of practical experiences and lessons learned, and reviewed the recent developments in the use of radiation technologies for the preparation of environmental friendly products based on polymers for agricultural applications

  3. Comparison of build-up region doses in oblique tangential 6 MV photon beams calculated by AAA and CCC algorithms in breast Rando phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunun, P.; Tangboonduangjit, P.; Dumrongkijudom, N.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the build-up region doses on breast Rando phantom surface with the bolus covered, the doses in breast Rando phantom and also the doses in a lung that is the heterogeneous region by two algorithms. The AAA in Eclipse TPS and the collapsed cone convolution algorithm in Pinnacle treatment planning system were used to plan in tangential field technique with 6 MV photon beam at 200 cGy total doses in Breast Rando phantom with bolus covered (5 mm and 10 mm). TLDs were calibrated with Cobalt-60 and used to measure the doses in irradiation process. The results in treatment planning show that the doses in build-up region and the doses in breast phantom were closely matched in both algorithms which are less than 2% differences. However, overestimate of doses in a lung (L2) were found in AAA with 13.78% and 6.06% differences at 5 mm and 10 mm bolus thickness, respectively when compared with CCC algorithm. The TLD measurements show the underestimate in buildup region and in breast phantom but the doses in a lung (L2) were overestimated when compared with the doses in the two plannings at both thicknesses of the bolus.

  4. Quality control through dosimetry at a contract radiation processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.; Roediger, A.H.A.

    1985-01-01

    Reliable dosimetry procedures constitute a very important part of process control and quality assurance at a contract gamma radiation processing facility that caters for a large variety of different radiation applications. The choice, calibration and routine intercalibration of the dosimetry systems employed form the basis of a sound dosimetry policy in radiation processing. With the dosimetric procedures established, detailed dosimetric mapping of the irradiator upon commissioning (and whenever source modifications take place) is carried out to determine the radiation processing characteristics and peformance of the plant. Having established the irradiator parameters, routine dosimetry procedures, being part of the overall quality control measures, are employed. In addition to routine dosimetry, independent monitoring of routine dosimetry is performed on a bi-monthly basis and the results indicate a variation of better than 3%. On an annaul basis the dosimetry systems are intercalibrated through at least one primary standard dosimetry laboratory and to date a variation of better than 5% has been experienced. The company also participates in the Pilot Dose Assurance Service of the International Atomic Energy Agency, using the alanine/ESR dosimetry system. Routine calibration of the instrumentation employed is carried out on a regular basis. Detailed permanent records are compiled on all dosimetric and instrumentation calibrations, and the routine dosimetry employed at the plant. Certificates indicating the measured absorbed radiation doses are issued on request and in many cases are used for the dosimetric release of sterilized medical and pharmaceutical products. These procedures, used by Iso-Ster at its industrial gamma radiation facility, as well as the experience built up over a number of years using radiation dosimetry for process control and quality assurance are discussed. (author)

  5. Radiation processing of biodegradable polymer and hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshii, Fumio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Poly({epsilon}-caprolactone), PCL, (melting temperature 60degC) was gamma-irradiated in the solid state at 30 to 55degC, the molten state, and the supercooled state(irradiation at 45 to 55degC after melting, 80degC) under vacuum to improve its heat resistance. Irradiation of PCL in the supercooled state led to the highest gel content and this polymer has high heat resistance. On the other hand, relatively smaller doses such as 15 and 30 kGy were effective to improve processability of PCL by formation of branch structure during irradiation. It was found that carboxymethylcellulose with relatively high degree of substitution led crosslinking at high concentration in aqueous solution such as 10% by irradiation. (author)

  6. Radiation processing of biodegradable polymer and hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Fumio

    2000-01-01

    Poly(ε-caprolactone), PCL, (melting temperature 60degC) was gamma-irradiated in the solid state at 30 to 55degC, the molten state, and the supercooled state(irradiation at 45 to 55degC after melting, 80degC) under vacuum to improve its heat resistance. Irradiation of PCL in the supercooled state led to the highest gel content and this polymer has high heat resistance. On the other hand, relatively smaller doses such as 15 and 30 kGy were effective to improve processability of PCL by formation of branch structure during irradiation. It was found that carboxymethylcellulose with relatively high degree of substitution led crosslinking at high concentration in aqueous solution such as 10% by irradiation. (author)

  7. Probing the Build-Up of Quiescent Galaxies at z>3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Steven

    We propose to perform the most robust investigation to date into the evolution of massive quiescent and star-forming galaxies at z > 3, at a time when the universe was less than two billion years old. The build-up of quiescent galaxies in particular is poorly understood, primarily due to large Poisson and cosmic variance issues that have plagued previous studies that probed small volumes, leading to a disagreement on the quiescent fraction by a factor of >3 in the literature. Our proposed work is only now possible due to a new legacy survey led by our team: the Spitzer-HETDEX Exploratory Large Area Survey (SHELA), which is imaging a 23 deg^2 area of the sky at optical, and near, mid and far-infrared, and X-ray wavelengths. In particular, the wide area coverage of the Spitzer/IRAC data allows us to be sensitive to massive galaxies at very high redshifts, the Herschel data allows us to rule out lower-redshift counterparts, and the XMM-Newton data allows us to remove quasar contaminants from our sample. This survey covers a volume >14X that of the largest previous survey for quiescent galaxies at z=3.5, and ~6X larger than that of the largest previous survey for star-forming galaxies at z=4. All of these data exist in the region soon to be observed by the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX), which will provide high-precision measures of halo masses and local density at z~3. Using this exquisite multi-wavelength dataset, we will measure the abundance of massive quiescent galaxies at z ~ 3-5, and, combining with measures of the halo masses and environment, compare properties of quiescent galaxies to star-forming galaxies to investigate the physical cause behind the quenching. We will also investigate the onset of quenching in star-forming galaxies in two ways, first by studying the relation between star formation rate and stellar mass, to search for a break in the typically-linear relation at high masses, and second by constraining the feedback

  8. Inbreeding and building up small populations of stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Nogueira-Neto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the viability of small populations of Hymenoptera is a matter of importance to gain a better zoological, ethological, genetical and ecological knowledge of these insects, and for conservation purposes, mainly because of the consequences to the survival of colonies of many species of bees, wasps, and ants. Based on the Whiting (1943 principle, Kerr & Vencovski (1982 presented a hypothesis that states that viable populations of stingless bees (Meliponini should have at least 40 colonies to survive. This number was later extended to 44 colonies by Kerr (1985. This would be necessary to avoid any substantial amount of homozygosis in the pair of chromosomic sexual loci, by keeping at least six different sexual gene alleles in a reproductive population. In most cases this would prevent the production of useless diploid males. However, several facts weigh against considering this as a general rule. From 1990 to 2001, 287 colony divisions were made, starting with 28 foundation colonies, in the inbreeding and population experiments with the Meliponini reported here. These experiments constitute the most extensive and longest scientific research ever made with Meliponini bees. In ten different experiments presented here, seven species (one with two subspecies of Meliponini bees were inbred in five localities inside their wide-reaching native habitats, and in two localities far away from these habitats. This was done for several years. On the whole, the number of colonies increased and the loss of colonies over the years was small. In two of these experiments, although these populations were far (1,000 km and 1,200 km from their native habitat, their foundation colonies were multiplied successfuly. It was possible to build up seven strong and three expanding medium populations, starting with one, two, three or even five colonies. However, in six other cases examined here, the Whiting (1943 principle and the hypothesis of Kerr & Vencovski (1982

  9. Status and prospect of radiation processing technology in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khairul Zaman Hj. Mohd Dahlan; Nahrul Khair Alang Md Rashid [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2001-03-01

    Radiation processing technology in Malaysia is gaining acceptance by the local industry. The technology has proven to enhance the industrial efficiency, productivity and improve product quality and competitiveness. For many years, variety of radiation crosslinkable materials based on synthetic polymers have been produced either in the form of thermoplastic resins, polymer blends or composites. Today, effort is being focused towards producing environmentally friendly and biodegradable materials using natural polymers. The government of Malaysia through the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) has developed research program to utilize indigenous materials such as natural rubber, palm oil and polysaccharide. Radiation processing technology is used to process (crosslink/grafting/curing) the materials at a competitive cost. This technology can be applied in several industrial sectors such as automobile, aerospace, construction and healthcare. (author)

  10. Status and prospect of radiation processing technology in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd Dahlan; Nahrul Khair Alang Md Rashid

    2001-01-01

    Radiation processing technology in Malaysia is gaining acceptance by the local industry. The technology has proven to enhance the industrial efficiency, productivity and improve product quality and competitiveness. For many years, variety of radiation crosslinkable materials based on synthetic polymers have been produced either in the form of thermoplastic resins, polymer blends or composites. Today, effort is being focused towards producing environmentally friendly and biodegradable materials using natural polymers. The government of Malaysia through the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) has developed research program to utilize indigenous materials such as natural rubber, palm oil and polysaccharide. Radiation processing technology is used to process (crosslink/grafting/curing) the materials at a competitive cost. This technology can be applied in several industrial sectors such as automobile, aerospace, construction and healthcare. (author)

  11. Quality audit service of the IAEA for radiation processing dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, K.; Girzikowsky, R.

    1996-01-01

    The mandate of the International Atomic Energy Agency includes assistance to Member States to establish nuclear technologies safely and effectively. In pursuit of this, a quality audit service for dosimetry relevant to radiation processing was initiated as a key element of the High-Dose Standardization Programme of the IAEA. The standardization of dosimetry for radiation processing provides a justification for the regulatory approval of irradiated products and their unrestricted international trade. In recent times, the Agency's Dosimetry Laboratory has placed concentrated effort towards establishing a quality assurance programme based on the ISO 9000 series documents. The need for reliable and accurate dosimetry for radiation processing is increasing in Member States and we can envisage a definite role for the SSDLs in such a programme. (author). 10 refs, 3 figs

  12. Radiation processing of natural polymers: The IAEA contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haji-Saeid, Mohammad; Safrany, Agnes; Sampa, Maria Helena de O.; Ramamoorthy, Natesan

    2010-01-01

    Radiation processing offers a clean and additive-free method for preparation of value-added novel materials based on renewable, non-toxic, and biodegradable natural polymers. Crosslinked natural polymers can be used as hydrogel wound dressings, face cleaning cosmetic masks, adsorbents of toxins, and non-bedsore mats; while low molecular weight products show antibiotic, antioxidant, and plant-growth promoting properties. Recognizing the potential benefits that radiation technology can offer for processing of natural polymers into useful products, the IAEA implemented a coordinated research project (CRP) on 'Development of Radiation-processed products of Natural Polymers for application in Agriculture, Healthcare, Industry and Environment'. This CRP was launched at the end of 2007 with participation of 16 MS to help connecting radiation technology and end-users to derive enhanced benefits from these new value-added products of radiation-processed natural materials. In this paper the results of activities in participating MS related to this work will be presented.

  13. Radiation processing of natural polymers: The IAEA contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji-Saeid, Mohammad; Safrany, Agnes; Sampa, Maria Helena de O.; Ramamoorthy, Natesan

    2010-03-01

    Radiation processing offers a clean and additive-free method for preparation of value-added novel materials based on renewable, non-toxic, and biodegradable natural polymers. Crosslinked natural polymers can be used as hydrogel wound dressings, face cleaning cosmetic masks, adsorbents of toxins, and non-bedsore mats; while low molecular weight products show antibiotic, antioxidant, and plant-growth promoting properties. Recognizing the potential benefits that radiation technology can offer for processing of natural polymers into useful products, the IAEA implemented a coordinated research project (CRP) on "Development of Radiation-processed products of Natural Polymers for application in Agriculture, Healthcare, Industry and Environment". This CRP was launched at the end of 2007 with participation of 16 MS to help connecting radiation technology and end-users to derive enhanced benefits from these new value-added products of radiation-processed natural materials. In this paper the results of activities in participating MS related to this work will be presented.

  14. Role of BRIT in promoting radiation processing technology in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandi, L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Some of the major applications of radiation processing include: the sterilization of products such as medical devices to kill bacteria or in the case of food, hygienize the product; the treatment of export bulk commodities such as tropical fruits to extend shelf life by slowing the ripening process and inhibiting sprouting and to kill quarantine pests such as fruit flies. Radiation processing is a value addition process. Taking note of these benefits, Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India constituted Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT) in March 1989 by carving it out from Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The mandate given to BRIT was to extend commercial applications of radioisotopes and radiation in the areas of Health, Agriculture, Industry and Research without losing sight of societal obligations. So far Department of Atomic Energy has set up three demonstration plants, namely, Isomed, RPP, Vashi and Krushak for high, medium and low dose applications of radiation respectively. The safe and business like operation of these facilities amply demonstrated the embedded safety and commercial viability of this technology

  15. Energy saving estimation on radiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Hideaki; Maekawa, H.; Ito, Y.; Nishikawa, I.; Fujii, H.; Murata, K.

    1982-01-01

    When the quantity of paint used for industrial coating is assumed to be 420,000 tons, it is estimated that the area being coated is 2.8 billion m 2 , the petroleum required for pretreatment steam, drying and baking is 1.68 million tons, and the required amount of energy saving is 120,000 tons per year in terms of petroleum. The authors examined how the adoption of electron beam curing for surface coating contributes to the energy saving. So far, it has been said that electron beam curing is more efficient than thermal or light curing in energy consumption, but the premise condition was not clear. The theoretical energy requirement for thermal curing, light curing and electron beam curing was calculated and compared. The comparison of the measured values was also performed. The amount of energy required for thermal curing, UV light curing and electron beam curing was roughly 100:10:1, and the cost of energy for them was 50:5:1. In spite of the large merit of electron beam curing, it has not spread as expected, because of the repayment cost of the facility and the cost of inert gas required for the process. Energy saving is brought about by electron beam curing, but the overall cost must be examined case by case. (Kako, I.)

  16. Signal Processing Model for Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D H

    2008-07-28

    This note describes the design of a simplified gamma ray transport model for use in designing a sequential Bayesian signal processor for low-count detection and classification. It uses a simple one-dimensional geometry to describe the emitting source, shield effects, and detector (see Fig. 1). At present, only Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption are implemented for the shield and the detector. Other effects may be incorporated in the future by revising the expressions for the probabilities of escape and absorption. Pair production would require a redesign of the simulator to incorporate photon correlation effects. The initial design incorporates the physical effects that were present in the previous event mode sequence simulator created by Alan Meyer. The main difference is that this simulator transports the rate distributions instead of single photons. Event mode sequences and other time-dependent photon flux sequences are assumed to be marked Poisson processes that are entirely described by their rate distributions. Individual realizations can be constructed from the rate distribution using a random Poisson point sequence generator.

  17. Activity build-up in the primary circuit of pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachse, G.; Mittag, I.

    1986-01-01

    Based upon international literature, the following topics are reviewed: research and development efforts; release, transport, and deposition of radioactive corrosion products under primary circuit conditions; experimental results in test and technical systems; possibilities of controlling radiation fields in nuclear power plants by water-chemical measures, decontamination, and high-temperature filtration. (author)

  18. Applications of Biopolymers Modified by Radiation Processing. Chapter 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamada, M. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    Radiation processing using quantum beam such as electron beam and gamma rays is a clean process. Using this process, biopolymers with low environmental burden were modified for agricultural and environmental applications. High performance materials such as soil conditioner for arid area, spray coating Washi (Japanese paper), biodegradable dummy lens, chemically-induced biodegradable plastic, biodiesel catalyst, and plant growth promoter were developed by radiationinduced crosslinking, graft polymerization, and degradation. (author)

  19. International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, Harry IV

    1990-01-01

    Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms and applications of radiation processing. To date, the group has completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment. This set will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies or other standards-setting organizations for their procedures and protocols. (author)

  20. International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, H. IV.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms of radiation processing. The group has now completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment, and will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies in their procedures and protocols. 1 tab

  1. Install and operate type radiation processing plant for marine products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohli, A.K. [BARC-BTIR Complex, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Atomic Energy. Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology

    2002-07-01

    Marine products can be carrier of several pathogens. Radiation processing is a very useful technique that is used to eliminate pathogens and also to extend shelf life of fresh fish. For marine products three processes are involved namely: radurization to pasteurize fresh chilled fish for extending shelf life; radicidation to sanitize frozen fishery products by elimination of pathogenic microorganisms and radiation disinfestations to eliminate insects from dehydrated fishery products. The paper brings out conceptual design of a compact radiation processing plant that can cater to all the three processes. The design is different from conveyor type of designs. The design is specially configured to maintain the temperature of frozen products and overdose ratio within limits specified. The throughput depends upon the source strength, type of product, the size of box and its configuration in which these could be arranged. The design has many features, which make it a very safe, convenient and economical method for processing of such items or for that matter all the food products, which are amenable for radiation processing. (author)

  2. Install and operate type radiation processing plant for marine products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohli, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Marine products can be carrier of several pathogens. Radiation processing is a very useful technique that is used to eliminate pathogens and also to extend shelf life of fresh fish. For marine products three processes are involved namely: radurization to pasteurize fresh chilled fish for extending shelf life; radicidation to sanitize frozen fishery products by elimination of pathogenic microorganisms and radiation disinfestations to eliminate insects from dehydrated fishery products. The paper brings out conceptual design of a compact radiation processing plant that can cater to all the three processes. The design is different from conveyor type of designs. The design is specially configured to maintain the temperature of frozen products and overdose ratio within limits specified. The throughput depends upon the source strength, type of product, the size of box and its configuration in which these could be arranged. The design has many features, which make it a very safe, convenient and economical method for processing of such items or for that matter all the food products, which are amenable for radiation processing. (author)

  3. Developments and potential of radiation processing in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singson, C; Carmona, C [Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, Diliman, Quezon City

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the research and development activities in three areas of radiation processing, namely: food irradiation, medical product sterilization and wood plastic combination. Plans and efforts exerted to acquire a larger gamma source to augment our present 5,000 curie source are discussed. Cost estimates for a radiation facility are presented on the basis of the market potential of food irradiation and medical product sterilization. Existing local industries that can benefit from the adaptation of irradiation technology in their processing requirements are described.

  4. Radiation-thermal processes of conversion in the coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafaev, I.I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The brief review, history, modern condition and bibliographic data on research of radiation-stimulated processes in coals are adduced in the report. Results of new researches of influence of gamma - radiation and accelerated electrons on pyrolysis, gasification, desulphurization, paramagnetism, adsorption and optical properties of coals in wide intervals of change of absorbed dose, dose rate, temperature, radiation type and other parameters of processes are stated. As object of researches Turkish (Yeni koy, Yatagan) and Russian (Siberia) coals were used. Specific peculiarities of influence of ionizing radiations on fossil fuels, bringing in change of their reactivity as result of destruction and polycondensation processes are considered. a)Pyrolysis: Under action of gamma-radiation and accelerated electrons the rate of thermal (t) pyrolysis grows and the ratio of radiation-thermal (rt) and thermal (t) processes: Wrt/ Wt depends on dose rate and temperature. By increase of dose rate the radiation effects grows, and at increase of temperature this effect is reduced. The influence of high rate heating of coals under pulls action of accelerated electrons on conversion degree and product composition has been established. The investigation regularities of formation liquid and gas products is resulted at radiation - thermal processing of mixtures of lignites with fuel oil. These experiments were conducted in flowing conditions in the interval of temperature T=350-500 degrees centigrade, power of the pulls accelerated electrons P=30-50 W, flow velocity of fuel oil 0,2-2 ml/minute. As a index of process were controlled conversion degree of coals, overall yield, contents and characteristic of liquid and gas products. The products of thermal treatment of these mixtures and also radiation-thermal treatment of separate components significantly less than radiation-thermal conversion of binary mixtures. It has been established that radiation effect has a positive

  5. Surface photo reaction processes using synchrotron radiation; Hoshako reiki ni yoru hyomenko hanno process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaizumi, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Materials Research; Yoshigoe, A. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Urisu, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan). Institute for Molecular Science

    1997-08-20

    This paper introduces the surface photo reaction processes using synchrotron radiation, and its application. A synchrotron radiation process using soft X-rays contained in electron synchrotron radiated light as an excited light source has a possibility of high-resolution processing because of its short wave length. The radiated light can excite efficiently the electronic state of a substance, and can induce a variety of photochemical reactions. In addition, it can excite inner shell electrons efficiently. In the aspect of its application, it has been found that, if radiated light is irradiated on surfaces of solids under fluorine-based reaction gas or Cl2, the surfaces can be etched. This technology is utilized practically. With regard to radiated light excited CVD process, it may be said that anything that can be deposited by the ordinary plasma CVD process can be deposited. Its application to epitaxial crystal growth may be said a nano processing application in thickness direction, such as forming an ultra-lattice structure, the application being subjected to expectation. In micromachine fabricating technologies, a possibility is searched on application of a photo reaction process of the radiated light. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Radiation dosimetry for commissioning Egypt's 'ega-gamma I' facility for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Behay, A.Z.; Rageh, S.I.; El-Assy, N.B.; Roushdy, H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation for sterilization of medical products and biological tissues has become an alternative to autoclaving or gas treatment by ethylene oxide. Moreover, large radiation facilities are now increasing for processing many industrial products, such as rubber, textiles, plastics, coatings, films, wire and cable. For quality control of irradiated products released to the public, greater consideration is now being given to the use of physical radiation dosimetry, since it is simple, reliable, and reproducible. This work describes dosimetry for the new 60 Co irradiation plant, located at the National Center for Radiation Research and Technology of Egypt. Detailed measurements of absorbed dose extremes in product boxes processed in the plant were made using commercially supplied dyed plastic dosimeters (Red Acrylic and Red Perspex). These physical dosimeters were calibrated against the yield of cerous ion due to γ-ray irradiation of ceric sulphate solution as a standard chemical dosimeter. (author)

  7. Humidity Build-Up in a Typical Electronic Enclosure Exposed to Cycling Conditions and Effect on Corrosion Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2016-01-01

    The design of electronic device enclosures plays a major role in determining the humidity build-up inside the device as a response to the varying external humidity. Therefore, the corrosion reliability of electronic devices has direct connection to the enclosure design. This paper describes......, thermal mass, and port/opening size. The effect of the internal humidity build-up on corrosion reliability has been evaluated by measuring the leakage current (LC) on interdigitated test comb patterns, which are precontaminated with sodium chloride and placed inside the enclosure. The results showed...... that the exposure to cycling temperature causes significant change of internal water vapor concentration. The maximum value of humidity reached was a function of the opening size and the presence of thermal mass inside the enclosure. A pumping effect was observed due to cycling temperature, and the increase...

  8. Radiation processing of dry food ingredients - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation decontamination of dry ingredients, herbs and enzyme preparations is a technically feasible, economically viable and safe physical process. The procedure is direct, simple, requires no additives, does not leave residues and is highly efficient. Its dose requirement is moderate. Radiation doses of 3 to 10 kGy proved to be sufficient to reduce the viable cell counts to a satisfactory level. Ionizing radiations do not cause any significant rise in temperature and the flavour, texture or other important technological or sensory properties of most ingredients are not influenced at radiation doses necessary for a satisfactory decontamination. The microflora surviving the cell-count reduction by irradiation is more sensitive to subsequent food processing treatments than the microflora of untreated ingredients. Recontamination can be prevented since the product can be irradiated in its final packaging. Irradiation can be carried out in commercial containers and it results in considerable savings of energy and labour as compared to alternative decontamination techniques. Radiation processing of dry ingredients is an emerging technology in several countries and more and more clearances on irradiated foods are issued or expected to be granted in the near future. (author)

  9. Radiation processing of dry food ingredients - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J

    1985-01-01

    Radiation decontamination of dry ingredients, herbs and enzyme preparations is a technically feasible, economically viable and safe physical process. The procedure is direct, simple, requires no additives, does not leave residues and is highly efficient. Its dose requirement is moderate. Radiation doses of 3 to 10 kGy proved to be sufficient to reduce the viable cell counts to a satisfactory level. Ionizing radiations do not cause any significant rise in temperature and the flavour, texture or other important technological or sensory properties of most ingredients are not influenced at radiation doses necessary for a satisfactory decontamination. The microflora surviving the cell-count reduction by irradiation is more sensitive to subsequent food processing treatments than the microflora of untreated ingredients. Recontamination can be prevented since the product can be irradiated in its final packaging. Irradiation can be carried out in commercial containers and it results in considerable savings of energy and labour as compared to alternative decontamination techniques. Radiation processing of dry ingredients is an emerging technology in several countries and more and more clearances on irradiated foods are issued or expected to be granted in the near future.

  10. Additives in UV and ionising radiation grafting and curing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, J.L.; Ng, L.T.; Viengkhou, V.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Curing of polymers induced by both UV and ionising radiation are now established technologies. Currently both systems are predominantly based on acrylate chemistry. UV processes use photoinitiators to achieve fast polymerisation. In the proposed paper the significance of the occurrence of concurrent grafting with cure will be examined. particularly with respect to the recycling of finished product. Basic studies on grafting initiated by UV and ionising radiation will be discussed. Polar methyl methacrylate (MMA) and non-polar styrene will be used as representative monomers with cellulose and propylene typifying the backbone polymers. The additives chosen for examination in this study are predominantly components used in radiation curing formulations since grafting and curing are known to be mechanically related. The additives used were mineral acid, photoinitiators, vinyl ethers, oligomers, polyfunctional monomers including multifunctional acrylates (MFAs) and methacrylates (MFMAs). For the first time the use of charge transfer complexes in the Mulliken sense as additives in radiation grafting will be discussed. The CT complexes themselves, being monomers, have also been grafted to the above polymers. Recent developments with excimer laser sources for initiating these processes will be discussed, especially the use of non-acrylate chemistry. Excimer laser sources are shown to complement conventional UV and ionising radiation and are photoinitiator free. Mechanisms for the above grafting and curing processes will be outlined

  11. Calculation procedure of temperature carditions of building-up and high frequency current brazing of articles of complex shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivnitskij, B.Ya.

    1984-01-01

    A technique of calculating the temperature regime of building-up and high frequency current brazing of articles of complex shape is suggested. The technique consists in division of complex detail into several simple components. Heat balances equation is compiled for each of them taking into account the heat exchange with other elements. It is possible to determine optimum regimes for heating and cooling rather efficiently using a computer

  12. Effect of curing mode on the hardness of dual-cured composite resin core build-up materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Galvão Arrais

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the Knoop Hardness (KHN values of two dual-cured composite resin core build-up materials and one resin cement exposed to different curing conditions. Two dual-cured core build-up composite resins (LuxaCore®-Dual, DMG; and FluoroCore®2, Dentsply Caulk, and one dual-cured resin cement (Rely X ARC, 3M ESPE were used in the present study. The composite materials were placed into a cylindrical matrix (2 mm in height and 3 mm in diameter, and the specimens thus produced were either light-activated for 40 s (Optilux 501, Demetron Kerr or were allowed to self-cure for 10 min in the dark (n = 5. All specimens were then stored in humidity at 37°C for 24 h in the dark and were subjected to KHN analysis. The results were submitted to 2-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test at a pre-set alpha of 5%. All the light-activated groups exhibited higher KHN values than the self-cured ones (p = 0.00001, regardless of product. Among the self-cured groups, both composite resin core build-up materials showed higher KHN values than the dual-cured resin cement (p = 0.00001. LuxaCore®-Dual exhibited higher KHN values than FluoroCore®2 (p = 0.00001 when they were allowed to self-cure, while no significant differences in KHN values were observed among the light-activated products. The results suggest that dual-cured composite resin core build-up materials may be more reliable than dual-cured resin cements when curing light is not available.

  13. Radiation processing of minimally processed fruits and vegetables to ensure microbiological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandekar, J.R.; Saroj, S.D.; Shashidhar, R.; Dhokane, V.S.; Hajare, S.N.; Nagar, V.; Sharma, A.

    2009-01-01

    Minimally processed fruits and vegetables are in demand as they offer ready rich source of nutrients and convenience to consumers. However, these products are often unsafe due to contamination with harmful pathogens. Therefore, a study was carried out to analyze microbiological quality of minimally processed fruits, vegetables and sprouts and to optimize radiation dose necessary to ensure safety of these commodities. Microbiological quality of these products was found to be poor. Decimal reduction dose (D 10 ) for Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in these minimally processed foods (MPF) were in the range of 164 to 588 Gy. Radiation processing with 2 kGy dose of gamma radiation resulted in 5 log reduction of S. Typhimurium and 4 log reduction of L. monocytogenes. The treatment did not significantly affect nutritional, organoleptic and textural properties. These results suggest that radiation processing can ensure safety of these products. (author)

  14. Effectiveness of radiation processing for elimination of Salmonella Typhimurium from minimally processed pineapple (Ananas comosus Merr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Dhokane, Varsha S; Hajare, Sachin N; Sharma, Arun; Bandekar, Jayant R

    2007-04-01

    The microbiological quality of market samples of minimally processed (MP) pineapple was examined. The effectiveness of radiation treatment in eliminating Salmonella Typhimurium from laboratory inoculated ready-to-eat pineapple slices was also studied. Microbiological quality of minimally processed pineapple samples from Mumbai market was poor; 8.8% of the samples were positive for Salmonella. D(10) (the radiation dose required to reduce bacterial population by 90%) value for S. Typhimurium inoculated in pineapple was 0.242 kGy. Inoculated pack studies in minimally processed pineapple showed that the treatment with a 2-kGy dose of gamma radiation could eliminate 5 log CFU/g of S. Typhimurium. The pathogen was not detected from radiation-processed samples up to 12 d during storage at 4 and 10 degrees C. The processing of market samples with 1 and 2 kGy was effective in improving the microbiological quality of these products.

  15. Source term evaluation model for high-level radioactive waste repository with decay chain build-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Manish; Sunny, Faby; Oza, R B

    2016-09-18

    A source term model based on two-component leach flux concept is developed for a high-level radioactive waste repository. The long-lived radionuclides associated with high-level waste may give rise to the build-up of activity because of radioactive decay chains. The ingrowths of progeny are incorporated in the model using Bateman decay chain build-up equations. The model is applied to different radionuclides present in the high-level radioactive waste, which form a part of decay chains (4n to 4n + 3 series), and the activity of the parent and daughter radionuclides leaching out of the waste matrix is estimated. Two cases are considered: one when only parent is present initially in the waste and another where daughters are also initially present in the waste matrix. The incorporation of in situ production of daughter radionuclides in the source is important to carry out realistic estimates. It is shown that the inclusion of decay chain build-up is essential to avoid underestimation of the radiological impact assessment of the repository. The model can be a useful tool for evaluating the source term of the radionuclide transport models used for the radiological impact assessment of high-level radioactive waste repositories.

  16. The effect of different initial densities of nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) on the build-up of Pasteuria penetrans population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darban, Daim Ali; Pathan, Mumtaz Ali; Bhatti, Abdul Ghaffar; Maitelo, Sultan Ahmed

    2005-02-01

    Pasteuria penetrans will build-up faster where there is a high initial nematode density and can suppress root-knot nematode populations in the roots of tomato plants. The effect of different initial densities of nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) (150, 750, 1500, 3000) and P. penetrans infected females (F1, F3) densities (F0=control and AC=absolute control without nematode or P. penetrans inoculum) on the build-up of Pasteuria population was investigated over four crop cycles. Two major points of interest were highlighted. First, that within a confined soil volume, densities of P. penetrans can increase >100 times within 2 or 3 crop cycles. Second, from a relatively small amount of spore inoculum, infection of the host is very high. There were more infected females in the higher P. penetrans doses. The root growth data confirms the greater number of females in the controls particularly at the higher inoculum densities in the third and fourth crops. P. penetrans generally caused the fresh root weights to be higher than those in the control. P. penetrans has shown greater reduction of egg masses per plant at most densities. The effects of different initial densities of M. javanica and P. penetrans on the development of the pest and parasite populations were monitored. And no attempt was made to return the P. penetrans spores to the pots after each crop so the build-up in actual numbers of infected females and spores under natural conditions may be underestimated.

  17. The effect of build-up cap materials on the response of an ionization chamber to 60Co gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, M.P.O.; Almeida, C.E. de

    1993-01-01

    Knowledge of the effect of wall and build-up cap materials on ionization chamber response is necessary to determine absorbed dose in a medium using a calibration factor based on exposure or kerma in air. Attenuation and scattering effects of 60 Co gamma rays in the ionization chamber wall and build-up cap, as well as their non-equivalence to air, were studied with an OFS ionization chamber (Delrin wall) and a set of build-up caps specially built for this purpose. Results for a specific material were plotted as functions of wall and cap total thickness, extrapolated to zero wall thickness, then corrected for mean centre of electron production in the wall (= 0.136 g cm -2 ). Correction factors for a specific thickness were analysed in relation to cap material, and to relative responses compared with values calculated by using AAPM, SEFM and IAEA formalisms for cap effects. A Monte Carlo calculation was performed to compare the experimental and theoretical values. Calculations showed an agreement within 0.1% with experimental values and a wall effect of approximately 1.6%. (Author)

  18. A One-Dimensional Particle-in-Cell Model of Plasma Build-Up in Vacuum Arcs

    CERN Document Server

    Timko, H; Kovermann, J; Taborelli, M; Nordlund, K; Descoeudres, A; Schneider, R; Calatroni, S; Matyash, K; Wuensch, W; Hansen, A; Grudiev, A

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of plasma build-up in vacuum arcs is essential in many fields of physics. A one-dimensional particle-in-cell computer simulation model is presented, which models the plasma developing from a field emitter tip under electrical breakdown conditions, taking into account the relevant physical phenomena. As a starting point, only an external electric field and an initial enhancement factor of the tip are assumed. General requirements for plasma formation have been identified and formulated in terms of the initial local field and a critical neutral density. The dependence of plasma build-up on tip melting current, the evaporation rate of neutrals and external circuit time constant has been investigated for copper and simulations imply that arcing involves melting currents around 0.5-1 A/mu m(2),evaporation of neutrals to electron field emission ratios in the regime 0.01 - 0.05, plasma build-up timescales in the order of similar to 1 - 10 ns and two different regimes depending on initial ...

  19. Radiation processing technology in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyuki Hagiwara

    1997-01-01

    The address discusses the following issue - towards the 21st century, we are required more and more to create innovative technologies to solve problems about environment, energy, natural resources, materials, health care, food and others which are the great concern to human beings. For the radiation processing technology to survive, it will be required to provide answers to those problems. The use of radiation of polymer modification will remain as an important field of the radiation application. Some other promising polymer processing can be cited as those which will grow in near future; for environment technology - polymeric fibers grafted with ion exchange residues to remove toxic metals for cleaning industrial waste water; For health care technology - crosslinked polyvinylalcohol hydrogel for wound dressing (irradiation of hydrogel); For high performance materials technology - less toxic crosslinked natural rubber latex (irradiation of emulsion), abrasion resistant crosslinked PTFE (irradiation at high temperature)

  20. One Hair Postulate for Hawking Radiation as Tunneling Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Hui; Sun Chang-Pu; Cai Qing-Yu; Liu Xu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    For Hawking radiation, treated as a tunneling process, the no-hair theorem of black hole together with the law of energy conservation is utilized to postulate that the tunneling rate only depends on the external qualities (e.g., the mass for the Schwarzschild black hole) and the energy of the radiated particle. This postulate is justified by the WKB approximation for calculating the tunneling probability. Based on this postulate, a general formula for the tunneling probability is derived without referring to the concrete form of black hole metric. This formula implies an intrinsic correlation between the successive processes of the black hole radiation of two or more particles. It also suggests a kind of entropy conservation and thus resolves the puzzle of black hole information loss in some sense. (general)

  1. Recent developments in the field of radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrzej, G. Chmielewski

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radiation has been discovered more than one hundred years ago. Since than, properties of radiation to modify physico-chemical properties of materials have found many applications. Radiation technologies applying gamma sources and electron accelerators for material processing are well established processes. There are over 160 gamma industrial irradiators and 1300 electron industrial accelerators in operation worldwide. They are being widely used for sterilization, food irradiation and polymer processing. New developments in the field of radiation sources engineering are compact size gamma irradiators, high power electron accelerators (medium energy range) for environmental applications and other types (high energy range) for materials' processing, with direct e-/X conversion. Future applications of low energy, inexpensive EB processing systems are foreseen. Electron beam lithography for microelectronics is a well-established technique. The already tested e-/X system equipped in an accelerator of 700 kW power opens new horizons for this kind of application. The developments described above need introduction of new computational methods that facilitate prediction of dose distribution, even in containers filled with complex products of varying densities. This technique provides good solutions for homeland security applications which may be complemented by mobile system applications. Technologies to be developed besides environmental applications could be nano materials, structure engineered materials (sorbents, the composites, ordered polymers, etc.) and natural polymers' processing. New products based on radiation processed polysaccharides have already been commercialized in many countries of the East Asia and Pacific Region, especially in those being rich in natural polymers. Very important and promising applications concern environment protection - radiation technology being a clean and environment friendly process, helps to curb pollutants' emission as

  2. Processing of oil products using complex radiation-thermal treatment and radiation oxonolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaikin, Yu.A.; Zaikina, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    Most of industrial radiation facilities afford an opportunity to produce a considerable amount of reactive ozone-containing gaseous mixtures parallel to the basic production that causes no detriment to the output of the main designed product. The synergetic action of the ozone-containing mixtures and ionizing radiation is of a special interest for industrial application since it can be efficiently used in a wide range of technologies, in particular, for stimulation of chemical conversion in hydrocarbons accompanied by intensive oxidizing processes. In this paper the effect of simultaneous radiation-thermal processing and radiation oxonolysis on hydrocarbon chemical conversion, and subsequent alterations in composition and properties of oil products were studied on the example of high-viscous oil (Karazhanbas field, Kazakhstan) subjected to irradiation by 2 MeV electrons combined with radiation ozonization in the bubbling mode. It was stated that application of the bubbling mode for radiation-induced ozonization of high-viscous oil leads to decrease in the yields of engine fuels in average by 8-10 % compared with those obtained in the conditions when radiation-thermal cracking was applied without bubbling. In the latter case mean yields of the wide gas-oil fraction with boiling start temperature of 350 deg. C, that included gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel, were about 76-80 %. Decrease in the gasoline yields does not lead to noticeable alterations in hydrocarbon contents of the gasoline fraction (boiling beginning bellow 175 deg. C) compared with gasoline produced be radiation-thermal cracking, in both cases it meets requirements for high quality standards. However, essential difference was observed in properties of heavy residua of oil processing (oil fractions with T boil >350 deg. C), i.e. the fractions that contained high concentrations of asphaltenes and pitches. Application of radiation oxonolysis diminishes concentrations of high-molecular aromatic

  3. Migration and demographical processes in the zone of radiation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhachev, N.E.

    2006-01-01

    The state of demographical processes in the zone of radiation control is analyzed, the influence of social-psychological factors of reproduction of population is considered. On the basis statistic data and results of sociological research the causes of the reduction of insensitivity reproduction behavior of the families in Belarus are revealed. (authors)

  4. Research and development on radiation processing in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulatunge, S.S.; Motha, L.; Sultanbawa, Y.; Malavipathirana, S.; Silva, A de; Nanayakkara, S.; Hewajulige, I.G.N.; Silva, K.R.C de

    2008-01-01

    Research on radiation processing of natural polymer such as polysaccharides of chitosan, cellulose, carrageenan has been carried out in Sri Lanka since the year 2004. The research group have been involving in development activities on application of chitin and chitosan for wound dressing, irradiated chitosan on shelf life extension of fruits such as papaya, banana, mangoes, radiation crosslinked super-absorbent hydrogel from sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by radiation processing. Hydrogels prepared with PVA/Carrageenan/Agar has been studied on guinea pigs to determine the wound healing effect. Irradiated chitosan powder and chitosan solution was studied in vitro and found chitosan solution (1%) directly subjected to irradiation dosages even at 5 kGy was highly effective in control of anthracnose causing organism of papaya. In vivo studies with irradiated 1% chitosan solution on Rathana and red lady variety of papaya shows better control of spoilage of papaya to a considerable extent. The government of Sri Lanka (Ministry of Science and Technology and Atomic Energy Authority) is in the process of establishing the first government owned Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility and it will be helpful to transfer the output of R and D in radiation processing. (author)

  5. Radiation processing. Present situation of the applications in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laizier, J.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given of radiation processings in Europe: sterilization, food irradiation, sewage treatment, cross-linking of polyethylenes, vinyl polychlorides, rubbers and polymers, electron beam drying of coatings on wood, plastics and paper, production of wood-plastic composites, polymerization of ethylene and vinyl monomers [fr

  6. Radiation in industrial processes;Applications reviewed at Warsaw Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-10-15

    The uses of ionizing radiation can be divided into two broad categories. First, it can be used as a tool of investigation, measurement and testing, and secondly, it can be a direct agent in inducing chemical processes. For example, radiation can help in the detecting and locating of malignant tumours, and it can be employed also for the destruction of those tumours. Again, it can reveal intricate processes of plant growth and, at the same time, can initiate certain processes which result in the growth of new varieties of plants. Similarly in industry, radiation is both a tool of detection, testing and measurement and an active agent for the initiation of useful chemical reactions. The initiation of chemical reactions usually requires larger and more powerful sources of radiation. Such radiation can be provided by substances like cobalt 60 and caesium 137 or by machines which accelerate nuclear particles to very high energies. Of the particle-accelerating machines, the most useful in this field are those which accelerate electrons to energies considerably higher than those possessed by the electrons (beta particles) emitted by radioactive substances. These high-energy radiations produce interesting reactions both in organic life and in materials for industry. Several of the papers presented at the Warsaw conference were devoted to the application of ionizing radiation to polymerization and other useful reactions in the manufacture and treatment of plastics. The polymerization of the ethylene series of hydro-carbons was discussed from various angles and the technical characteristics and requirements were described. It was pointed out by some experts that the cross-linking effect of radiation resulted in a superior product, opening the way to new applications of polyethylene. Irradiated polyethylene film has been sold for several years, and electrical wire has been made with irradiated polyethylene as the insulating jacket. Other reactions discussed included the cross

  7. A commercial multipurpose radiation processing facility for Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welt, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The State of Hawaii offers a unique challenge for the designer of an economically feasible radiation processing system. Based on the prevailing agricultural export requirements, the radiation facility must be capable for handling a variety of bulky fruit and vegetable products for insect disinfestation purposes and, yet, provide proper economies for the users of the facility. A capability must exist for irradiating other types of products requiring higher doses, e.g., fish and shellfish products for shelf-life extension, which might require a dose approximately eight times higher than the disinfestation dose, or even medical product or a food sterilization dose, which would be approximately twelve times higher than the required shelf-life extension dose. The Radiation Technology Model RT 4l0l-4048 radiation processing facility provides the necessary versatility and operational reliability to meet the challenge. The technical features and economic analyses demonstrate the advantages of this computer-operated pallet irradiation system. Actual performance data from the Radiation Technology subsidiary operations in West Memphis, Arkasas, and Burlilngton, North Carolina, are presented along with photographs of the proposed system for Hawaii

  8. Use of radiation processing technology gradually expands in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The use of radioisotopes and radiation is expanding in the fields of industries and medicine with a high potentiality of the application to environmental protection. The technology transfer on the use of isotopes and radiation is progressing in the framework of international cooperation. But the industry has maintained wait and see attitude on the commercialization of food irradiation. Such present features were the highlight in the 19th Japan Conference on Radiation and Radioisotopes held on November 14-16. 72 papers from 19 countries were presented and discussed in 13 sessions. The progress of accelerator technology has contributed to the expansion of radiation processing market. The importance of the application of isotopes and radiation to environmental protection has been gradually acknowledged, and the electron beam treatment of flue gas for acid rain abatement and the elimination of chlorinated ethylene from drinking water were discussed. Drastic change has not been seen in the climate of food irradiation, however there are several positive indicators which support the prediction of slow but steady progress in the commercialization of the process and the trade of irradiated foods. (K.I.)

  9. Radiation process control, study and acceptance of dosimetric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radak, B.B.

    1984-01-01

    The methods of primary dosimetric standardization and the calibration of dosimetric monitors suitable for radiation process control were outlined in the form of a logical pattern in which they are in current use on industrial scale in Yugoslavia. The reliability of the process control of industrial sterilization of medical supplies for the last four years was discussed. The preparatory works for the intermittent use of electron beams in cable industry were described. (author)

  10. Dosimetric aspects of radiation processing of food and allied products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, G.; Bhat, R.M.; Bhatt, B.C.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Gamma radiation processing in the last 4-5 decades is continuously gaining importance in processing of a wide variety of products, as it can modify physical, chemical and biological properties of the materials, including food and allied products on industrial scale due its inherent qualities like ease of processing in finally packaged form, eco-friendly nature and other obvious reasons over conventional means of processing. Food and allied products are either from agricultural produce or animal origin; they get easily contaminated from soil during harvesting, handling, processing, environment conditions, storage and transport from various types of micro-organisms including pathogens. In many countries it is mandatory to bring down the population of micro-organisms to an acceptable level and complete elimination of pathogens before such products are accepted for human or animal consumption. Processing of food and allied products by radiation has its own challenges due to wider public acceptance of irradiated food, a wide range, 0.25-50kGy, of absorbed dose requirements for different category of such products and purposes, use of a variety of packaging materials in different shapes and sizes and because of its perishable nature. More than 50 countries including India in the world have accepted radiation processing of food and allied products by radiation. Dosimetry is an important aspect of radiation processing, whether it is food or allied product. Uniformity in dose delivered to these products depends on several factors such as product carrier to source frame alignment, product carrier and product/tote box design, product loading pattern, attenuation due to product thickness, product bulk density that varies from 0.1-1.0 kg/l and the plant design whether during processing product overlaps the source or otherwise. In this presentation dosimetric aspects of radiation processing of food and allied products and problems associated with dosimetry of such

  11. Application of ionizing radiation processing in biomedical engineering and microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongfej, H.; Jilan, W.

    1988-01-01

    The applied radiation chemistry has made great contributions to the development of polymeric industrial materials by the characteristics reaction means such as crosslinking, graft copolymerization and low-temperature or solid-phase polymerization, and become a important field on peaceful use of atomic energy. A brief review on the applications of ionizing radiation processing in biomedical engineering and microelectronics is presented. The examples of this technique were the studies on biocompatible and biofunctional polymers for medical use and on resists of lithography in microelectronics

  12. Economic benefits analysis of listed companies in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yingming; Xu Tao; Zhang Yue; Yang Bin; Zhao Wenying

    2012-01-01

    Radiation processing industry is an important part of civilian nuclear technology and develop rapidly during the past decade. Radiation modification of new materials industries use new technology to promote new product development and application and get good economic benefit. There are problems and bottlenecks during the development, such as how to implement the guideline of optimize the industrial structure and upgrade the product, and adapt the market develop law and need. By analysing the typical listed companies in this field together with the domestic economic development condition and future situation, we give the development strategy and method in the future. (authors)

  13. EPR-dosimetry for radiation processing of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peimel-Stuglik, Z.; Fabisiak, S.

    2002-01-01

    The usefulness of two, easy accessible alanine-polymer dosimeters to low (D ≤ 10 kGy) ionizing radiation dose measurements, were investigated. In both cases (ALANPOL from IChTJ and foil dosemeters from Gamma Service, Radeberg, Germany) the results were positive. EPR-alanine method based on the described dosimeters meets the requirements to use it in radiation processing of food. Thin foil dosemeters from Gamma Service are recommended mainly for dose distribution measurements. ALANPOL - for routine use. The advantage of ALANPOL is lower price, higher sensitivity and high resistance to unfavourable environmental conditions, including water. (author)

  14. Radiation processing program at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman

    2007-01-01

    Radiation processing technology has been proven to enhance industrial efficiency and productivity, improve product quality and competitiveness. For many years, variety of radiation crosslinkable materials based on synthetic polymers have been studied at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency either in the form of thermoplastic resins, polymer blends or composites. At present, effort is focused towards developing new materials based on natural polymers such as natural rubber and rubber based products, palm oil and palm oil based products and polysaccharide. In this respect, the most challenging issues are to develop new materials/products that have commercial value and to bring the products from laboratory to market. (author)

  15. Process for curing ionizing radiation-highly sensitive resin composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, K.; Sasaki, T.; Tabei, K.; Goto, K.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for curing a radiation curable composition consisting essentially of (a) an amide represented by the formula R,CONR 2 R 3 and (b) an unsaturated polyester resin by irradiating the composition with an ionizing radiation. R 1 is H, an alkyl groups having from 1 to 17 carbon atoms or an alkenyl groups having from 1 to 17 carbon atoms, and R 2 and R 3 are each -H, -CH 3 , or -CH 2 OH. R 1 and R 2 taken together represent alkylene having 2 to 5 carbon atoms

  16. Applications of ionizing radiation processing in biomedical engineering and microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Hongfei; Wu Jilan

    1987-01-01

    The applied radiation chemistry has made great contributions to the development of polymeric industrial materials by the characteristic reaction means such as corsslinking, graft copolymerization and low-temperature or solid-phase polymerization, and become an important field on peaceful use of atomic energy. A brief review on the applications of ionizing radiation processing in biomedical engineering and microelectronics is presented. The examples of this techique were the studies on biocompatible and biofunctional polymers for medical use and on resists of lithography in microelectronics. (author)

  17. Development of Quantum Devices and Algorithms for Radiation Detection and Radiation Signal Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Tokhy, M.E.S.M.E.S.

    2012-01-01

    The main functions of spectroscopy system are signal detection, filtering and amplification, pileup detection and recovery, dead time correction, amplitude analysis and energy spectrum analysis. Safeguards isotopic measurements require the best spectrometer systems with excellent resolution, stability, efficiency and throughput. However, the resolution and throughput, which depend mainly on the detector, amplifier and the analog-to-digital converter (ADC), can still be improved. These modules have been in continuous development and improvement. For this reason we are interested with both the development of quantum detectors and efficient algorithms of the digital processing measurement. Therefore, the main objective of this thesis is concentrated on both 1. Study quantum dot (QD) devices behaviors under gamma radiation 2. Development of efficient algorithms for handling problems of gamma-ray spectroscopy For gamma radiation detection, a detailed study of nanotechnology QD sources and infrared photodetectors (QDIP) for gamma radiation detection is introduced. There are two different types of quantum scintillator detectors, which dominate the area of ionizing radiation measurements. These detectors are QD scintillator detectors and QDIP scintillator detectors. By comparison with traditional systems, quantum systems have less mass, require less volume, and consume less power. These factors are increasing the need for efficient detector for gamma-ray applications such as gamma-ray spectroscopy. Consequently, the nanocomposite materials based on semiconductor quantum dots has potential for radiation detection via scintillation was demonstrated in the literature. Therefore, this thesis presents a theoretical analysis for the characteristics of QD sources and infrared photodetectors (QDIPs). A model of QD sources under incident gamma radiation detection is developed. A novel methodology is introduced to characterize the effect of gamma radiation on QD devices. The rate

  18. Prospects of using natural antioxidants in radiation processed food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanatt, S.R.; Chander, Ramesh; Sharma, Arun

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Microbial contamination of food is a serious concern both for food producer and consumer. Radiation processing of food is one of the most effective technologies that can extend the shelf-life and eliminate pathogenic bacteria in food. However, wide acceptability of radiation processed food products will depend upon quality parameters such as oxidative changes, color stability and organoleptic attributes. Any food processing technique is known to accelerate lipid peroxidation and radiation processing is no exception. Irradiation does not adversely affect the overall nutritive value of food and the oxidative changes induced by irradiation are similar to those observed using conventional food processing methods. Combination of various processing conditions such as storage and cooking, results in accelerated oxidative deterioration. The growing demand for convenience foods and the evolving markets for pre cooked food, call for techniques to prevent lipid oxidation in prepared stored food. Products of lipid peroxidation adversely affect the color, flavor and texture of the food. It is therefore necessary to control these changes for better product development. Methods commonly employed by the food industry include the use of antioxidants. Presently, most of the antioxidants used are synthetic but consumer concern has become a driving force for exploring the use of natural antioxidants. The increase interest in substitution of synthetic antioxidants with natural antioxidants has fostered research on screening of plant materials in order to identify new compounds. We have investigated the antioxidant potential of several plant extracts, herbs and waste generated by the food industry, such as potato peel, banana peel, mango peel, mint, cinnamon extracts and chitosan. Mint extract was found to have the maximum antioxidant activity as tested by several in vitro antioxidant assays. The antioxidant activity of mint extract was comparable to that of BHT the commonly

  19. Advancements in internationally accepted standards for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, H. IV; Derr, D.D.; Vehar, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    Subcommittees of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) are developing standards on various aspects of radiation processing. Nine standards on how to select and calibrate dosimeters, where to put them, how many to use, and how to use individual types of dosimeter systems have been published. The group is also developing standards on how to use gamma, electron beam, and X-ray facilities for radiation processing, and a standard on how to treat dose uncertainties. Efforts are underway to promote inclusion of these standards into procedures now being developed by government agencies and by international groups such as the United Nations' International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) in order to harmonize regulations and help avoid trade barriers. Standards on good irradiation practices for meat and poultry and for fresh fruits, and for the irradiation of seafood and spices have been developed. These food-related standards are based on practices previously published by ICGFI. Standards for determining doses for radiation hardness testing of electronics have been developed. Standards on the Fricke and TLD dosimetry systems are equally useful in other radiation processing applications. (Author)

  20. Evaluation of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) processed by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Priscila Vieira da

    2009-01-01

    The peach palm can be obtained from several species of palms, but the peach palm has attracted great interest by producers, as has characteristics of precocity, rusticity and tillering, producing a palm-quality differentiating it from other palmettos for their sweet flavor and yellowish . The food irradiation has been used as a treatment to ensure microbiological food safety of products to avoid infection. Its use combined with minimal processing could increase the safety and quality of minimally processed vegetables. We aimed at evaluating the effect of gamma radiation and electron beams to control bacteria; assess the physical characteristics through analysis of color and texture in peach palm in natura minimally processed and subjected to ionizing radiation stored at 8 deg C as well as evaluating the sensory characteristics. The results in the microbiological analysis showed that ionizing radiation promotes reduction of microbial load in both treatments. In the analysis of color we can conclude that among all the treatments the sample irradiated with 1.5 kGy showed more differences when compared with the other samples. Observing texture characteristics we could conclude that irradiation changed the texture of the palm, unlike the treatment by electron beams that showed no difference between samples. For the sensory analysis, the gamma radiation with dose of 1.5 kGy, induced changes in sensory properties to the attributes and overall appearance. The dose of 1 kGy caused no significant difference, so a recommended dose for the irradiation of the studied product. (author)

  1. Application of radiation technology to sewage sludge processing: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianlong; Wang Jiazhuo

    2007-01-01

    Sewage sludge is unwanted residual solid wastes generated in wastewater treatment and its management is one of the most critical environmental issues of today. The treatment and disposal of sludge contribute a considerable proportion of the cost for running a wastewater treatment plant. The increasing amount of swage sludge and more and more legislative regulation of its disposal have stimulated the need for developing new technologies to process sewage sludge efficiently and economically. One ideal consideration is to recycle it after proper treatment. Radiation technology is regarded to be a promising alternative for its high efficiency in pathogen inactivation, organic pollutants oxidation, odor nuisance elimination and some other characteristics enhancement, which will facilitate the down-stream process of sludge treatment and disposal. Here we present a brief review of application of radiation technology on sewage sludge processing. Some basic information of two currently available irradiation systems and fundamental radiation chemistry are introduced firstly; then the world-wide application of this promising technology is reviewed; various effects of radiation on sludge is discussed in detail; and some concluding remarks are given and some future directions are also proposed

  2. Physics of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    This chapter discusses the following topics: concept of atom and elements; molecules and compounds; basic principles of radiation; types of radiations; radioactivity, unit of radioactivity, specific activity, radioactive decay, ionisation and ions, interaction of radiation with matters, modes of interaction: photoelectric absorption: Compton scattering, pair-production; attenuation of x and gamma radiation; build-up factors

  3. Numerical Analysis and Experimental Verification of Stresses Building up in Microelectronics Packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaie Adli, A.R.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis comprises a thorough study of the microelectronics packaging process by means of various experimental and numerical methods to estimate the process induced residual stresses. The main objective of the packaging is to encapsulate the die, interconnections and the other exposed internal

  4. Radiation processing of biological tissues for nuclear disaster management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rita

    2012-01-01

    A number of surgical procedures require tissue substitutes to repair or replace damaged or diseased tissues. Biological tissues from human donor like bone, skin, amniotic membrane and other soft tissues can be used for repair or reconstruction of the injured part of the body. Tissues from human donor can be processed and banked for orthopaedic, spinal, trauma and other surgical procedures. Allograft tissues provide an excellent alternative to autografts. The use of allograft tissue avoids the donor site morbidity and reduces the operating time, expense and trauma associated with the acquisition of autografts. Further, allografts have the added advantage of being available in large quantities. This has led to a global increase in allogeneic transplantation and development of tissue banking. However, the risk of infectious disease transmission via tissue allografts is a major concern. Therefore, tissue allografts should be sterilized to make them safe for clinical use. Radiation processing has well appreciated technological advantages and is the most suitable method for sterilization of biological tissues. Radiation processed biological tissues can be provided by the tissue banks for the management of injuries due to a nuclear disaster. A nuclear detonation will result in a large number of casualties due to the heat, blast and radiation effects of the weapon. Skin dressings or skin substitutes like allograft skin, xenograft skin and amniotic membrane can be used for the treatment of thermal burns and radiation induced skin injuries. Bone grafts can be employed for repairing fracture defects, filling in destroyed regions of bone, management of open fractures and joint injuries. Radiation processed tissues have the potential to repair or reconstruct damaged tissues and can be of great assistance in the treatment of injuries due to the nuclear weapon. (author)

  5. Chemistry and technology of radiation processed composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czvikovszky, T.

    1985-01-01

    Composite materials of synthetics (based on monomers, oligomers and thermoplastics) and of natural polymers (wood and other fibrous cellulosics) prepared by radiation processing, offer valuable structural materials with enhanced coupling forces between the components. The applied polymer chemistry of such composites shows several common features with that of radiation grafting, e.g. the polymerization rate of oligomer-monomer mixtures in wood remains in most cases proportional to the square-root of the initiating dose-rate, just as in the simultaneous grafting, demonstrating that the chain termination kinetics remain regularly bimolecular in the corresponding dose-rate ranges. In the processing experiences of such composites, low dose requirement, easy process-control, and good technical feasibility have been found for composites of wood with oligomer-monomer mixtures, for coconut fibres with unsaturated polyesters and for pretreated wood fibre with polypropylene. (author)

  6. Real-time information and processing system for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oprea, I.; Oprea, M.; Stoica, M.; Badea, E.; Guta, V.

    1999-01-01

    The real-time information and processing system has as main task to record, collect, process and transmit the radiation level and weather data, being proposed for radiation protection, environmental monitoring around nuclear facilities and for civil defence. Such a system can offer information in order to provide mapping, data base, modelling and communication and to assess the consequences of nuclear accidents. The system incorporates a number of stationary or mobile radiation monitoring equipment, weather parameter measuring station, a GIS-based information processing center and the communication network, all running on a real-time operating system. It provides the automatic data collection on-line and off-line, remote diagnostic, advanced presentation techniques, including a graphically oriented executive support, which has the ability to respond to an emergency by geographical representation of the hazard zones on the map.The system can be integrated into national or international environmental monitoring systems, being based on local intelligent measuring and transmission units, simultaneous processing and data presentation using a real-time operating system for PC and geographical information system (GIS). Such an integrated system is composed of independent applications operating under the same computer, which is capable to improve the protection of the population and decision makers efforts, updating the remote GIS data base. All information can be managed directly from the map by multilevel data retrieving and presentation by using on-line dynamic evolution of the events, environment information, evacuation optimization, image and voice processing

  7. Current status of the radiation technology and quality control for radiation processing in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Enrique Francisco Prietro

    2013-01-01

    The use of the radiation technology has gained acceptance in various regions of the world, where studies estimated that the installed capacity increases at a rate of 6 % per year and Latin America is part of this increase, due the advantages of this process when it is employed for the food preservation, sterilization of medical pharmaceutical material and to control the insect pests. This paper shows the art state of the application of Radiation Technology in Latin America, as well as the technological characteristics of the most gamma irradiation facilities and minor number the electron beam accelerator facilities, the types of irradiated products, state of the Quality Management System and the Dosimetric Systems used in the Radiation Processing Control in the Region. (author)

  8. Uranium mining and processing: their radiation impact into the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostapczuk, Peter; Zoriy, Petro; Dederichs, Herbert; Lennartz, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    Based on Thorium and Uranium determination in soil and plants samples collected in the region of Aktau, Kazakhstan the distribution pattern of environmental pollution by these elements was correlated with the radiation dose. The main radiation source was the waste deposit of the equipment used by the uranium processing (dose higher than 5 μSv/h). The mining area and also the transportation way from mine to the uranium factory has also an radiation impact which is difficult to estimate. Based on the data found by plants and soil samples all the area under study has a higher pollution level by Thorium and Uranium than the control area (about 0.1μSv/h). Due to observed strong wind blowing in different directions it is possible that the particle of uranium ore has been transported for long distance and polluted the plants and upper soil layer. The further investigations should get more information about this supposition. (author)

  9. Genetic effects of ionizing radiation and repair processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuschl, H.

    1986-11-01

    Since DNA (=desoxyribonucleic acid) is the largest molecule within the cell it is the most important target for direct and indirect radiation effects. Within DNA the total genetic information is stored, thus damage to DNA in germ cells causes genetic disorders and damage in somatic cells is implicated in cancer and immunodeficiences. Alterations of DNA structure are not only due to ionizing radiation effects, but also to spontaneous DNA modifications and damage from interactions with environmental ultraviolet light and chemical agents. To maintain its genetic integrity, each organism had to develop different repair systems able to recognize and remove DNA damage. Repeated exposure to a DNA damaging agent can even lead to adaptation processes and increased resistance to the same agent. At normal function of repair systems it can be assumed that the capacity of those systems is adequate to scope with the effects of low radiation doses. (Author)

  10. Twenty new ISO standards on dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar IV, H.

    2000-01-01

    Twenty standards on essentially all aspects of dosimetry for radiation processing were published as new ISO standards in December 1998. The standards are based on 20 standard practices and guides developed over the past 14 years by Subcommittee E10.01 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The transformation to ISO standards using the 'fast track' process under ISO Technical Committee 85 (ISO/TC85) commenced in 1995 and resulted in some overlap of technical information between three of the new standards and the existing ISO Standard 11137 Sterilization of health care products - Requirements for validation and routine control - Radiation sterilization. Although the technical information in these four standards was consistent, compromise wording in the scopes of the three new ISO standards to establish precedence for use were adopted. Two of the new ISO standards are specifically for food irradiation applications, but the majority apply to all forms of gamma, X-ray, and electron beam radiation processing, including dosimetry for sterilization of health care products and the radiation processing of fruit, vegetables, meats, spices, processed foods, plastics, inks, medical wastes, and paper. Most of the standards provide exact procedures for using individual dosimetry systems or for characterizing various types of irradiation facilities, but one covers the selection and calibration of dosimetry systems, and another covers the treatment of uncertainties using the new ISO Type A and Type B evaluations. Unfortunately, nine of the 20 standards just adopted by the ISO are not the most recent versions of these standards and are therefore already out of date. To help solve this problem, efforts are being made to develop procedures to coordinate the ASTM and ISO development and revision processes for these and future ASTM-originating dosimetry standards. In the meantime, an additional four dosimetry standards have recently been published by the ASTM but have

  11. Radiation processing applications in the Czechoslovak water treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacek, K.; Pastuszek, F.; Sedlacek, M.

    1986-01-01

    The regeneration of biologically clogged water wells by radiation proved to be a successful and economically beneficial process among other promising applications of ionizing radiation in the water supply technology. The application conditions and experience are mentioned. The potential pathogenic Mycobacteria occuring in the warm washing and bathing water are resistant against usual chlorine and ozone concentrations. The radiation sensitivity of Mycobacteria allowed to suggest a device for their destroying by radiation. Some toxic substances in the underground water can be efficiently degraded by gamma radiation directly in the wells drilled as a hydraulic barrier surrounding the contaminated land area. Substantial decrease of CN - concentration and C.O.D. value was observed in water pumped from such well equipped with cobalt sources and charcoal. The removing of pathogenic contamination remains to be the main goal of radiation processing in the water purification technologies. The decrease of liquid sludge specific filter resistance and sedimentation acceleration by irradiation have a minor technological importance. The hygienization of sludge cake from the mechanical belt filter press by electron beam appears to be the optimum application in the Czechoslovak conditions. The potatoes and barley crop yields from experimental plots treated with sludge were higher in comparison with using the manure. Biological sludge from the municipal and food industry water purification plants contains nutritive components. The proper hygienization is a necessary condition for using them as a livestock feed supplement. Feeding experiments with broilers and pigs confirmed the possibility of partial (e.g. 50%) replacement of soya-, bone, or fish flour in feed mixtures by dried sludge hygienized either by heat or by the irradiation. (author)

  12. Radiation processing applications in the Czechoslovak water treatment technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacek, K.; Pastuszek, F.; Sedláček, M.

    The regeneration of biologically clogged water wells by radiation proved to be a successful and economically beneficial process among other promising applications of ionizing radiation in the water supply technology. The application conditions and experience are mentioned. The potential pathogenic Mycobacteria occuring in the warm washing and bathing water are resistant against usual chlorine and ozone concentrations. The radiation sensitivity of Mycobacteria allowed to suggest a device for their destroying by radiation. Some toxic substances in the underground water can be efficiently degraded by gamma radiation directly in the wells drilled as a hydraulic barrier surrounding the contaminated land area. Substantial decrease of CN - concentration and C.O.D. value was observed in water pumped from such well equipped with cobalt sources and charcoal. The removing of pathogenic contamination remains to be the main goal of radiation processing in the water purification technologies. The decrease of liquid sludge specific filter resistance and sedimentation acceleration by irradiation have a minor technological importance. The hygienization of sludge cake from the mechanical belt filter press by electron beam appears to be the optimum application in the Czechoslovak conditions. The potatoes and barley crop yields from experimental plots treated with sludge were higher in comparison with using the manure. Biological sludge from the municipal and food industry water purification plants contains nutritive components. The proper hygienization is a necessary condition for using them as a livestock feed supplement. Feeding experiments with broilers and pigs confirmed the possibility of partial (e.g. 50%) replacement of soya-, bone- or fish flour in feed mixtures by dried sludge hygienized either by heat or by the irradiation.

  13. Effect of 60Co radiation processing in mate (Ilex paraguariensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furgeri, Camilo

    2009-01-01

    The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a native species from South America, is mainly consumed as typical beverage called chimarrao and terere. An important problem that has been afflicting this product since a long time is its natural fungal contamination responsible to affect its physical, health and nutritional qualities. In order to improve this product quality, radiation processing can be effective in reducing pathogens levels, with minimal nutritional and sensory changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from 60 Co at doses 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy in reducing fungal contamination in mate, as well as analyze its nutritional and sensory characteristics. The following methodologies were applied: analysis of yeast and mold, total phenolic compounds analysis, antioxidant analysis, quantification of phenolic compounds and xanthines by liquid chromatography and sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed a decreasing molds and yeasts growth with increasing radiation doses. Regardless of the radiation dose applied there were no decrease of total phenolic compounds in both infusions. Chimarrao samples irradiated with 7 and 10 kGy showed a decrease in the DPPH radical-scavenger activity, nevertheless for terere samples, there were no significant difference. Chimarrao chromatographic profile did not show a variation on xanthines quantification, however a 10 kGy radiation dose caused a change to phenolic compounds quantitative profile. Terere samples did not show any significant difference to any analyzed compounds. Sensory analysis did not exhibit a significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated chimarrao samples, as well as between irradiated and non irradiated terere samples. It could be concluded that gamma radiation processing of mate may be a feasible alternative to industry, since there was a reduction on fungal contamination, without changes in sensory qualities and with minimum alterations in quantitative and

  14. Effect of 60CO radiation processing in mate (Ilex paraguariensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furgeri, Camilo

    2009-01-01

    The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a native species from South America, is mainly consumed as typical beverage called chimarrao and terere. An important problem that has been afflicting this product since a long time is its natural fungal contamination responsible to affect its physical, health and nutritional qualities. In order to improve this product quality, radiation processing can be effective in reducing pathogens levels, with minimal nutritional and sensory changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma radiation from 60 Co at doses 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10kGy in reducing fungal contamination in mate, as well as analyze its nutritional and sensory characteristics. The following methodologies were applied: analysis of yeast and mold, total phenolic compounds analysis, antioxidant analysis, quantification of phenolic compounds and xanthines by liquid chromatography and sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed a decreasing molds and yeasts growth with increasing radiation doses. Regardless of the radiation dose applied there were no decrease of total phenolic compounds in both infusions. Chimarrao samples irradiated with 7 and 10kGy showed a decrease in the DPPH radical-scavenger activity, nevertheless for terere samples, there were no significant difference. Chimarrao chromatographic profile did not show a variation on xanthines quantification, however a 10kGy radiation dose caused a change to phenolic compounds quantitative profile. Terere samples did not show any significant difference to any analyzed compounds. Sensory analysis did not exhibit a significant difference between irradiated and non irradiated chimarrao samples, as well as between irradiated and non irradiated terere samples. It could be concluded that gamma radiation processing of mate may be a feasible alternative to industry, since there was a reduction on fungal contamination, without changes in sensory qualities and with minimum alterations in quantitative and

  15. Radiation cured coating containing glitter particles and process therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, P.R.; Sears, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation curable coatings for use on a variety of substrates and curable by exposure to ionizing irradiation of ultraviolet light are well known. The use of urethane type coatings cured with ultraviolet light to provide protective wear layers for wall or floor tile is for instance described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,180,615. U.S. Pat. No. 3,918,393 describes a method for obtaining a non-glossy coating on various substrates by curing radiation sensitive material with ionizing irradiation or ultraviolet light in two stages. In this process the coating is partially cured in an oxygen-containing atmosphere and the curing is completed in an inert atmosphere. U.S. Pat. No. 4,122,225 discloses a method and apparatus for coating tile which involves the application of one coat of radiation curable material to an entire substrate followed by partial curing and the subsequent application and curing of a second coat or radiation curable material only on high areas of the substrate which are subject to greater than average wear. Use of pigment in radiation cured coatings on products such as floor covering which are subject to wear during use has presented substantial difficulties. Incorporation of pigment, especially enough pigment to make the coating opaque, makes the coating hard to cure and substantially reduces the thicknesses of coating which can be cured relative to a clear coating cured under the same conditions

  16. Radiation processing technology for industrial waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Radiation sterilization technology, cross-linked polymers and curing, food and environmental applications of the radiation is widely used for many years. At the same time, drinking water and wastewater treatment are the part of the radiation technology applications. For this purpose, drinking water and wastewater treatment plants in various countries has been established. In this project, gamma / electron beam radiation treatment is intended to be used for the treatment of alkaloid, textiles and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) wastewater. In this regard, the chemical characterization of wastewater, the interaction with radiation, biological treatment and determination of toxicological properties are the laboratory studies milestones. After laboratory studies, the establishment of a pilot scale treatment plant has been planned. Within the framework of the project a series of dye used in textile industry were examined. Besides the irradiation, the changes in treatment efficiency were investigated by using of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide in conjunction with the irradiation. Same working methods were implemented in the wastewater treatment of Bolvadin Opium Alkaloid Factory as well. In addition to chemical analysis in this study, aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment process also have been applied. Standard reference materials has been used for the marine sediment study contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls.

  17. The effect of electron collimator leaf shape on the build-up dose in narrow electron MLC fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatanen, T; Vaeaenaenen, A; Lahtinen, T; Traneus, E

    2009-01-01

    Previously, we have found that the build-up dose from abutting narrow electron beams formed with unfocussed electron multi-leaf collimator (eMLC) steal leaves was higher than with the respective open field. To investigate more closely the effect of leaf material and shape on dose in the build-up region, straight, round (radius 1.5 cm) and leaf ends with a different front face angle of α (leaf front face pointing towards the beam axis at an angle of 90 - α) made of steel, brass and tungsten were modelled using the BEAMnrc code. Based on a treatment head simulation of a Varian 2100 C/D linac, depth-dose curves and profiles in water were calculated for narrow 6, 12 and 20 MeV eMLC beams (width 1.0 cm, length 10 cm) at source-to-surface distances (SSD) of 102 and 105 cm. The effects of leaf material and front face angle were evaluated based on electron fluence, angle and energy spectra. With a leaf front face angle of 15 deg., the dose in the build-up region of the 6 MeV field varied between 91 and 100%, while for straight and round leaf shapes the dose varied between 89 and 100%. The variation was between 94 and 100% for 12 and 20 MeV. For abutting narrow 6 MeV fields with total field size 5 x 10 cm 2 , the build-up doses at 5 mm depth for the face angle 15 deg. and straight and round leaf shapes were 96% and 86% (SSD 102 cm) and 89% and 85% (SSD 105 cm). With higher energies, the effect of eMLC leaf shape on dose at 5 mm was slight (3-4% units with 12 MeV) and marginal with 20 MeV. The fluence, energy and angle spectra for total and leaf scattered electrons were practically the same for different leaf materials with 6 MeV. With high energies, the spectra for tungsten were more peaked due to lower leaf transmission. Compared with straight leaf ends, the face angle of 15 deg. and round leaf ends led to a 1 mm (for 6 MeV) and between 1 and 5 mm (12 and 20 MeV at a SSD of 105 cm) decrease of therapeutic range and increase of the field size, respectively. However

  18. Evolutionary patterns and processes in the radiation of phyllostomid bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Leandro R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phyllostomid bats present the most extensive ecological and phenotypic radiation known among mammal families. This group is an important model system for studies of cranial ecomorphology and functional optimisation because of the constraints imposed by the requirements of flight. A number of studies supporting phyllostomid adaptation have focused on qualitative descriptions or correlating functional variables and diet, but explicit tests of possible evolutionary mechanisms and scenarios for phenotypic diversification have not been performed. We used a combination of morphometric and comparative methods to test hypotheses regarding the evolutionary processes behind the diversification of phenotype (mandible shape and size and diet during the phyllostomid radiation. Results The different phyllostomid lineages radiate in mandible shape space, with each feeding specialisation evolving towards different axes. Size and shape evolve quite independently, as the main directions of shape variation are associated with mandible elongation (nectarivores or the relative size of tooth rows and mandibular processes (sanguivores and frugivores, which are not associated with size changes in the mandible. The early period of phyllostomid diversification is marked by a burst of shape, size, and diet disparity (before 20 Mya, larger than expected by neutral evolution models, settling later to a period of relative phenotypic and ecological stasis. The best fitting evolutionary model for both mandible shape and size divergence was an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process with five adaptive peaks (insectivory, carnivory, sanguivory, nectarivory and frugivory. Conclusions The radiation of phyllostomid bats presented adaptive and non-adaptive components nested together through the time frame of the family's evolution. The first 10 My of the radiation were marked by strong phenotypic and ecological divergence among ancestors of modern lineages, whereas the

  19. Evolutionary patterns and processes in the radiation of phyllostomid bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The phyllostomid bats present the most extensive ecological and phenotypic radiation known among mammal families. This group is an important model system for studies of cranial ecomorphology and functional optimisation because of the constraints imposed by the requirements of flight. A number of studies supporting phyllostomid adaptation have focused on qualitative descriptions or correlating functional variables and diet, but explicit tests of possible evolutionary mechanisms and scenarios for phenotypic diversification have not been performed. We used a combination of morphometric and comparative methods to test hypotheses regarding the evolutionary processes behind the diversification of phenotype (mandible shape and size) and diet during the phyllostomid radiation. Results The different phyllostomid lineages radiate in mandible shape space, with each feeding specialisation evolving towards different axes. Size and shape evolve quite independently, as the main directions of shape variation are associated with mandible elongation (nectarivores) or the relative size of tooth rows and mandibular processes (sanguivores and frugivores), which are not associated with size changes in the mandible. The early period of phyllostomid diversification is marked by a burst of shape, size, and diet disparity (before 20 Mya), larger than expected by neutral evolution models, settling later to a period of relative phenotypic and ecological stasis. The best fitting evolutionary model for both mandible shape and size divergence was an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process with five adaptive peaks (insectivory, carnivory, sanguivory, nectarivory and frugivory). Conclusions The radiation of phyllostomid bats presented adaptive and non-adaptive components nested together through the time frame of the family's evolution. The first 10 My of the radiation were marked by strong phenotypic and ecological divergence among ancestors of modern lineages, whereas the remaining 20 My were

  20. Ionization chamber with build-up cup spectral sensitivity to megavoltage (0.5-20 MeV) photon fluences in free air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorlachev, G.E.

    2002-01-01

    In-air measurements of photon beam properties, used in radiation therapy, is common practice for determining radiation output dependence from the field size, known as head scatter factors (HSF). PMMA and brass build-up caps are most popular miniphantoms for providing electron equilibrium. Discrepancies up to 2% in HSF measurements by different combinations of detectors and equilibrium caps have been published. One of the main reasons of those discrepancies is the detector system spectral sensitivity and differences in primary and scatter radiation spectra. In the light of new model based dose calculation methods direct radiation fluence measurement is of great interest. So, understanding of detector spectral sensitivity is important task for modern dosimetry of radiation therapy. In the present study Monte Carlo (MC) method was employed to calculate ionization chamber response to monoenergetic photon fluences, normalized to water kerma units. Simulation was done using EGS4 package. Electron transport was performed with ESTEPE equal to 4%. PEGS cross sections were generated for maximal energy 20 MeV with cutoff kinetic energy 10 KeV both for photons and electrons. Scanditronix RK-05 ionization chamber was chosen as a prototype. Eight cylindrical miniphantoms, representing four materials (PMMA, Al, Cu, Pb) and two front wall thickness, were simulated. Results are presented. Miniphantom front wall thicknesses in each case are shown in the figure. Diameter depends on the material and equal respectively: PMMA - 4, Al - 2.5, Cu - 1.5, and PB - 1.5 cm. Ionization chamber outer diameter is equal to 0.7 cm. Detector sensitivity has considerable energy dependence. Two effects explain it. First is the radiation attenuation in the miniphantom. Second is pair production, which dominates in high atomic number miniphantoms for energies above 5 MeV. Depending on the miniphantom material detector response changes from 1.5 to 5 times in the energy range from 0.5 to 20 MeV. Correct

  1. Radioactive well logging system with shale (boron) compensation by gamma ray build-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelman, H.E.; Arnold, D.M.; Pitts, R.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Earth formations in the vicinity of a well borehole are repetitively bombarded with bursts of high energy neutrons. A radiation detector in a sonde in the borehole senses the gamma rays induced by the capture of thermal neutrons and sends signals representative thereof to the surface. At the surface, two single channel energy analyzers, such as from 1.30 to 2.92 MeV and from 3.43 to 10.0 MeV, sense the formation thermal neutron capture gamma ray response after each neutron burst. The counts of thermal neutron capture gamma rays in these analyzers are used to distinguish between the presence of salt water and hydrocarbons, which is logged. By controlling the repetition rate of the neutron source, measured counting rates in formations with relatively large thermal neutron lifetimes are emphasized, compensating for borehole effects which could otherwise give rise to erroneous results in shale formations, which have a high boron content. 11 claims, 5 figures

  2. Process controls for radiation hardened aluminum gate bulk silicon CMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, B.L.

    1975-01-01

    Optimized dry oxides have recently yielded notable improvements in CMOS radiation-hardness. By following the proper procedures and recipes, it is now possible to produce devices which will function satisfactorily after exposure to a total ionizing dose in excess of 10 6 RADS (Si). This paper is concerned with the controls required on processing parameters once the optimized process is defined. In this process, the pre-irradiation electrical parameters must be closely controlled to insure that devices will function after irradiation. In particular, the specifications on n- and p-channel threshold voltages require tight control of fixed oxide charge, surface-state density, oxide thickness, and substrate and p-well surface concentrations. In order to achieve the above level of radiation hardness, certain processing procedures and parameters must also be closely controlled. Higher levels of cleanliness are required in the hardened process than are commonly required for commercial CMOS since, for hardened dry oxides, no impurity gettering can be employed during or after oxidation. Without such gettering, an unclean oxide is unacceptable due to bias-temperature instability. Correct pre-oxidation cleaning, residual surface damage removal, proper oxidation and annealing temperatures and times, and the correct metal sintering cycle are all important in determining device hardness. In a reproducible, hardened process, each of these processing steps must be closely controlled. (U.S.)

  3. Component build-up method for engineering analysis of missiles at low-to-high angles of attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsch, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    Methods are presented for estimating the component build-up terms, with the exception of zero-lift drag, for missile airframes in steady flow and at arbitrary angles of attack and bank. The underlying and unifying bases of all these efforts are slender-body theory and its nonlinear extensions through the equivalent angle-of-attack concept. Emphasis is placed on the forces and moments which act on each of the fins, so that control cross-coupling effects as well as longitudinal and lateral-directional effects can be determined.

  4. Induction-linear accelerators for food processing with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagunas-Solar, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    Electron accelerators with sufficient beam power and reliability of operation will be required for applications in the large-scale radiation processing of food. Electron beams can be converted to the more penetrating bremsstrahlung radiation (X-rays), although at a great expense in useful X-ray power due to small conversion efficiencies. Recent advances in the technology of pulse-power accelerators indicates that Linear Induction Electron Accelerators (LIEA) are capable of sufficiently high-beam current and pulse repetition rate, while delivering ultra-short pulses of high voltage. The application of LIEA systems in food irradiation provides the potential for high product output and compact, modular-type systems readily adaptable to food processing facilities. (orig.)

  5. Transmission fidelity is the key to the build-up of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Hannah M; Laland, Kevin N

    2012-08-05

    Many animals have socially transmitted behavioural traditions, but human culture appears unique in that it is cumulative, i.e. human cultural traits increase in diversity and complexity over time. It is often suggested that high-fidelity cultural transmission is necessary for cumulative culture to occur through refinement, a process known as 'ratcheting', but this hypothesis has never been formally evaluated. We discuss processes of information transmission and loss of traits from a cognitive viewpoint alongside other cultural processes of novel invention (generation of entirely new traits), modification (refinement of existing traits) and combination (bringing together two established traits to generate a new trait). We develop a simple cultural transmission model that does not assume major evolutionary changes (e.g. in brain architecture) and show that small changes in the fidelity with which information is passed between individuals can lead to cumulative culture. In comparison, modification and combination have a lesser influence on, and novel invention appears unimportant to, the ratcheting process. Our findings support the idea that high-fidelity transmission is the key driver of human cumulative culture, and that progress in cumulative culture depends more on trait combination than novel invention or trait modification.

  6. Preliminary radiation-oxidizing treatment influence on radiation-catalytic activity of zirconium during water decomposition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibov, A.A.; Aliyev, A.G.; Agayev, T.N.; Aliyev, S.M.; Velibekova, G.Z.

    2004-01-01

    The study of physical-chemical processes proceeding in contact of metal constructional materials nuclear reactors with water at simultaneous influence of temperature and radiation represents the large interest at the decision of problems material authority and safety of work of nuclear -power installations [1-2]. One of the widely widespread materials of active zone nuclear reactors is metal zirconium and its alloys. The influence of preliminary radiation processing on radiation, radiation -thermal and thermal processes of accumulation of molecular hydrogen and oxidation zirconium in contact with water is investigated at T=673 K and ρ=5mg/sm 3 [3-4]. Initial samples zirconium previously has been exposed by an irradiation in medium H 2 O 2 at D=20-410 kGy. The contribution of radiation processes in these contacts in process thermo-radiation decomposition of water and oxidation of materials of zirconium is revealed. It is established that the interaction of Zr metal, preliminary treated by radiation, with water at radiation -heterogeneous processes leads to passivity of a surface. The rate meanings of thermal, radiation -thermal processes and radiation-chemical yields of hydrogen are determined. It is revealed, that at radiation-heterogeneous processes in system Zr +H 2 O (ρ =5mg/sm 3 T=673 K) the increase of the absorbed doze up to 123 kGy results to reduction of a radiation -chemical yield of molecular hydrogen. The further increase of the absorbed doze results to increase of a radiation -chemical yield of hydrogen. The observable effect at the preliminary radiation of zirconium is connected to formation of oxide phase on a surface. The mechanism of radiation -heterogeneous processes proceeding in system Zr+H 2 O is suggested. (author)

  7. Radiation processing of natural polymers using low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2004-01-01

    Radiation processing is widely used in Japan and the economic scale of radiation application amounted to about 71 b$ (ratio relative to GDP: 1.7%) in total. It consisted of 60 b$ (85%) in industry, 10 b$ (14%) in medicine and 1 b$ (1%) in agriculture. Irradiation using gamma-ray from 60 Co and electron beam is commercially used for the sterilization and modification of materials. Utilization of natural polymers by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.e. anti-bacterial activity, elicitor activity, plant growth promotion, suppression of environmental stress on plants. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. Low energy electron beam (EB) irradiation has a variety of applications and good safety. A self-shielded low energy electron accelerator system needs an initial investment much lower than a 60 Co facility. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective not only for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides but also for radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex (RVNRL). Some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), carboxymethyl-starch and carboxymethyl-chitin/chitosan, can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

  8. Effects of chemical sensitizers on gamma radiation processing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of gamma radiation processing in cross-linking natural rubber latex (NRL) for production of dipped goods has been studied. NRL produced in Ghana was irradiated to 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy, respectively, in a Gamma Chamber of dose rate 0.65 kGy/h. Irradiation of the NRL was also carried out in the ...

  9. THE WORK PROCESS IN RADIOLOGICAL NURSING: INVISIBILITY OFIONIZING RADIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Melo,Juliana Almeida Coelho de; Gelbcke,Francine Lima; Huhn,Andrea; Vargas,Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Qualitative descriptive and exploratory research, performed with 20 nursing professionals working in a general radiology unit and surgery center with the "C-arm" equipment, and the hemodynamics unit of a southern Brazilian teaching hospital. Aim was to analyze the dimensions of the work process for radiological technology nurse professionals. This paper made clear that radiological technologies are outside nursing, which leads to the invisibility of ionizing radiation, leading to ina...

  10. Future Prospects: Ionization Radiation Processing Technology. Chapter 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rida Tajau

    2017-01-01

    This final chapter concluded that the ionizing radiation processing technology was potentially used to develop new and advanced products. The new advanced products which been discussed was HBPUA, printing ink, PSA, hydrogel, bioplastic, SWA, CNT, RVNRL and others. With this new innovative technology, it will develop the country's economy and increase the productivity of manufacturing industry, medical, science and technology and also strenghten the social science field.

  11. Status and future trends of radiation processing in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugao, A.B.; Andrade, E; Silva, L.G.

    1998-01-01

    Electron-beam and gamma irradiation of polymers are widely applied in Brazil today. The main applications are: radio-induced crosslinking of wire and cable for automobile and appliance industry; heat shrinkable tubes for appliance, automobile and electronic; heat shrinkable packing for food processing industry; sterilization of medical supplies and so on. Nevertheless, there are only a few industrial facilities about 20 years old in full operation at present and there are some new low energy machines for food packing. The reason for such absence of investment in this area was studied and the relation between automobile and appliance production with radiation processing was fully demonstrated for Brazil case. In conclusion, it was shown that the industry of radiation processing of polymers is likely to experience a strong growth based on the continuous increase in the production of automobiles and appliances. The R and D activities of IPEN are an important support for developing the necessary technology and developing the necessary confidence in the radiation as tool for economical and social growth

  12. Status and future trends of radiation processing in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugão, A. B.; Andrade, E.; Silva, L. G.

    1998-06-01

    Electron-beam and gamma irradiation of polymers are widely applied in Brazil today. The main applications are: - radio-induced crosslinking of wire and cable for automobile and appliance industry; - heat shrinkable tubes for appliance, automobile and electronic; - heat shrinkable packing for food processing industry; - sterilization of medical supplies and so on. Nevertheless, there are only a few industrial facilities about 20 years old in full operation at present and there are some new low energy machines for food packing. The reason for such absence of investment in this area was studied and the relation between automobile and appliance production with radiation processing was fully demonstrated for Brazil case. In conclusion, it was shown that the industry of radiation processing of polymers is likely to experience a strong growth based on the continuous increase in the production of automobiles and appliances. The R&D activities of IPEN are an important support for developing the necessary technology and developing the necessary confidence in the radiation as tool for economical and social growth.

  13. Building-up influence: post-war industrialization in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Haddad

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the post-War industrialization process in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais, focusing on one of its desirable outcomes, namely the capacity to generate growth through the impact of strong input-output linkages. This process is placed into historical perspective considering the ideas that permeate the economic development debate throughout the period of analysis. Changes in the regional economic structure are assessed through the use of three input-output tables for the years of 1953, 1980 and 1995. By adopting the fields of influence methodology as the analytical core, it is shown that the efforts towards the creation of a more integrated regional economy have generated stronger influence of the targeted sectors (metal products, transportation equipment, chemical, and services. However, structural changes also contributed to strengthen leakage in the system originated in traditional economic activities.

  14. Radiation-induced processes in the metallic powders after electron and gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajkin, Yu.A.; Aliev, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    In the work the quantitative assessments for conditions both healing and growth of micropores in metal volume and surface layers have been made. Taking into account of these rules is important at a choice of radiation processing conditions for fine-disperse powders characterizing with increased porosity. Numerical evaluation shows, that under irradiation of a metals by electrons with energy 2 MeV and electron current density about 1 μA/cm 2 within 300-400 K temperature range the optimal doses for the micropores healing make up a several Mrad. Further increase of dose could lead to formation of pores in the crystal volume. Principal conclusions about radiation porosity development character of metallic particles surface layers one can make from analysis of the point defects distribution near surface and computing of radiation-induced diffusion coefficients

  15. Review on transactinium isotope build-up and decay in reactor fuel and related sensitivities to cross section changes and results and main conclusions of the IAEA-Advisory Group Meeting on Transactinium Nuclear Data, held at Karlsruhe, November 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuesters, H.; Lalovic, M.

    1976-04-01

    In this report a review is given on the actinium isotope build-up and decay in LWRs, LMFBRs and HTRs. The dependence of the corresponding physical aspects on reactor type, fuel cycle strategy, calculational methods and cross section uncertainties is discussed. Results from postirradiation analyses and from integral experiments in fast zero power assemblies are compared with theoretical predictions. Some sensitivity studies about the influence of actinium nuclear data uncertainties on the isotopic concentration, decay heat, and the radiation out-put in fuel and waste are presented. In a second part, the main results of the IAEA-Advisory Group Meeting on Transactinium Nuclear Data are summarized and discussed. (orig.) [de

  16. Building up an electrocatalytic activity scale of cathode materials for organic halide reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellomunno, C.; Bonanomi, D.; Falciola, L.; Longhi, M.; Mussini, P.R.; Doubova, L.M.; Di Silvestro, G.

    2005-01-01

    A wide investigation on the electrochemical activity of four model organic bromides has been carried out in acetonitrile on nine cathodes of widely different affinity for halide anions (Pt, Zn, Hg, Sn, Bi, Pb, Au, Cu, Ag), and the electrocatalytic activities of the latter have been evaluated with respect to three possible inert reference cathode materials, i.e. glassy carbon, boron-doped diamond, and fluorinated boron-doped diamond. A general electrocatalytic activity scale for the process is proposed, with a discussion on its modulation by the configuration of the reacting molecule, and its connection with thermodynamic parameters accounting for halide adsorption

  17. Investigating the build-up of precedence effect using reflection masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartcher-O'Brien, Jessica; Buchholz, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    signal processing, such an approach represents a bottom-up approach to the buildup of precedence. Three conditioner configurations measuring a possible buildup of reflection suppression were compared to the baseline RMT for four reflection delays ranging from 2.5–15 ms. No buildup of reflection...... suppression was observed for any of the conditioner configurations. Buildup of template (decrease in RMT for two of the conditioners), on the other hand, was found to be delay dependent. For five of six listeners, with reflection delay=2.5 and 15 ms, RMT decreased relative to the baseline. For 5- and 10-ms...

  18. The chemistry and activity build up in the primary systems of pressurized water nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darras, Raymond.

    1980-11-01

    After giving a background information on the present standards for the primary coolant in pressurized water nuclear reactors, the choice of particular chemical additives to the water is presented and their main properties are given; the various radioactivated products that are derived from these additives are also considered. The corrosion products transport through the whole primary circuit is then investigated. Two basically different types of processes, particularly about surface deposits, are characterized: that of suspended solids and that of soluble species, which are both carried by water. The physico-chemical data that rule the variations of solubilities for the more important elements are reviewed with details. From these data, the relation between corrosion products transport and radioactive contamination in primary circuits are examined, and this in the complex physico-chemical conditions of plant operation. Characteristic measurements, from operating power reactors, are also presented to illustrate the preceeding phenomena. Finally a chapter reviews the possible solutions against the radioactive contamination of the circuits and their surroundings: - a more adequate choice of materials, - a search for better surface treatment and application methods, - a better evaluation of the existing water conditioning, - an efficient filtration of the fluid, - the use of decontaminating processes [fr

  19. Enhancement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracheva, A. Yu.; Zav’yalov, M. A.; Ilyukhina, N. V.; Kukhto, V. A.; Tarasyuk, V. T.; Filippovich, V. P. [All-Russia Research Institute of Preservation Technology (Russian Federation); Egorkin, A. V.; Chasovskikh, A. V. [Research Institute of Technical Physics and Automation (Russian Federation); Pavlov, Yu. S., E-mail: rad05@bk.ru [Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Prokopenko, A. V., E-mail: pav14@mail.ru [National Research Nuclear University (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation); Strokova, N. E. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Artem’ev, S. A. [Russian Research Institute of Baking Industry (Russian Federation); Polyakova, S. P. [Russian Research Institute of Confectionery Industry (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The work is dedicated to improvement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies. International practice of radiation processing of food raw materials is presented and an increase in the consumption of irradiated food products is shown. The prospects of using radiation technologies for the processing of food products in Russia are discussed. The results of studies of radiation effects on various food products and packaging film by γ radiation and accelerated electrons are presented.

  20. Enhancement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracheva, A. Yu.; Zav’yalov, M. A.; Ilyukhina, N. V.; Kukhto, V. A.; Tarasyuk, V. T.; Filippovich, V. P.; Egorkin, A. V.; Chasovskikh, A. V.; Pavlov, Yu. S.; Prokopenko, A. V.; Strokova, N. E.; Artem’ev, S. A.; Polyakova, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    The work is dedicated to improvement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies. International practice of radiation processing of food raw materials is presented and an increase in the consumption of irradiated food products is shown. The prospects of using radiation technologies for the processing of food products in Russia are discussed. The results of studies of radiation effects on various food products and packaging film by γ radiation and accelerated electrons are presented.

  1. Estimation of radiation dose received by the radiation worker during 18F FDG injection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Ashish Kumar; Zade, Anand; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2011-01-01

    The radiation dosimetric literature concerning the medical and non-medical personnel working in nuclear medicine departments are limited, particularly radiation doses received by radiation worker in nuclear medicine department during positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceutical injection process. This is of interest and concern for the personnel. To measure the radiation dose received by the staff involved in injection process of Fluorine-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). The effective whole body doses to the radiation workers involved in injections of 1511 patients over a period of 10 weeks were evaluated using pocket dosimeter. Each patient was injected with 5 MBq/kg of 18 F FDG. The 18 F-FDG injection protocol followed in our department is as follows. The technologist dispenses the dose to be injected and records the pre-injection activity. The nursing staff members then secure an intravenous catheter. The nuclear medicine physicians/residents inject the dose on a rotation basis in accordance with ALARA principle. After the injection of the tracer, the nursing staff members flush the intravenous catheter. The person who injected the tracer then measures the post-injection residual dose in the syringe. The mean effective whole body doses per injection for the staff were the following: Nurses received 1.44 ± 0.22 μSv/injection (3.71 ± 0.48 nSv/MBq), for doctors the dose values were 2.44 ± 0.25 μSv/injection (6.29 ± 0.49 nSv/MBq) and for technologists the doses were 0.61 ± 0.10 μSv/injection (1.58 ± 0.21 nSv/MBq). It was seen that the mean effective whole body dose per injection of our positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) staff who were involved in the 18 F-FDG injection process was maximum for doctors (54.34% differential doses), followed by nurses (32.02% differential doses) and technologist (13.64% differential doses). This study confirms that low levels of radiation dose are received by staff during 18 F-FDG injection and

  2. Application of large radiation sources in chemical processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, K.

    1977-01-01

    Large radiation sources and their application in chemical processing industry are described. A reference has also been made to the present developments in this field in India. Radioactive sources, notably 60 Co, are employed in production of wood-plastic and concrete-polymer composites, vulcanised rubbers, polymers, sulfochlorinated paraffin hydrocarbons and in a number of other applications which require deep penetration and high reliability of source. Machine sources of electrons are used in production of heat shrinkable plastics, insulation materials for cables, curing of paints etc. Radiation sources have also been used for sewage hygienisation. As for the scene in India, 60 Co sources, gamma chambers and batch irradiators are manufactured. A list of the on-going R and D projects and organisations engaged in research in this field is given. (M.G.B.)

  3. The strategic value of industrial radiation manufacturing and processing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappas, W.J.; Silverman, J.

    1993-01-01

    Planned and projected budget cuts over the next many years will reduce the number of Department of Defense (DoD) personnel and the diversity and quantity of their armaments and systems. Consequently, there is a requirement for the deployment of more effective defense equipment and their more efficient operation. Concomitant with this challenge is an opportunity for innovative technologies that can, at a lower cost, produce new, stronger, more durable materials-and do so with less environmental impact. Radiation processing offers this potential for (a) creating significant cost savings and performance advantages in a broad range of defense materials; (b) destroying and detoxifying dangerous chemicals, ordnance, and rocket propellants; (c) cleaning noxious gaseous effluents; and (d) purifying contaminated water. Radiation technology has the potential to immediately affect defense materials and, in the short and long terms, US industrial international competitiveness

  4. Radiative processes of two entangled atoms in cosmic string spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huabing; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the radiative processes of two static two-level atoms in a maximally entangled state coupled to vacuum electromagnetic field in the cosmic string spacetime. We find that the decay rate from the entangled state to the ground state crucially depends on the atomic separation, the polarization directions of the individual atoms, the atom-string distance and the deficit angle induced by the string. As the atom-string distance increases, the decay rate oscillates around the result in Minkowski spacetime and the amplitude gradually decreases. The oscillation is more severe for larger planar angle deficit. We analyze the decay rate in different circumstances such as near zone and specific polarization cases. Some comparisons between symmetric and antisymmetric states are performed. By contrast with the case in Minkowski spacetime, we can reveal the effects of the cosmic string on the radiative properties of the entangled atoms.

  5. Program package for processing energy spectra of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stejskalova, E.

    1985-01-01

    A library of programs for processing energy spectra of nuclear radiation using an ICL 4-72 computer is described. The library is available at the computer centre of the Prague universities and bears the acronym JADSPE. The programs perform the computation of positions, areas and half-widths of lines in the energy spectrum of the radiation, they give a graphic representation of the course of energy spectra on the printer and on the CALCOMP recorder; they also perform the addition or subtraction of energy spectra with possible aligning of the beginnings or ends of the spectra or of maximums of chosen lines. A model function in the form of a symmetric Gaussian function is used for the computation of parameters of spectral lines, and the variation of the background with energy is assumed to be linear. (author)

  6. Treatment and Recycling Process for Biosolids by Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. K.; Yoo, D. H.; Lee, B. J.; Park, C. K.; Lee, M. J.

    2005-01-01

    The volume of sludge is increasing rapidly on a yearly basis in Korea. Liquid sewage sludge generated in Korea has been treated as reuse (7%), landfill (5%), incineration (12%) and ocean dump (72%) in 2003 [1]. Ocean dump is the main treatment of sewage sludge up to date but incineration and landfill will be increased because Korean government will restrict ocean dump in the near future. Desirable treatment of sewage sludge is still a sensitive issue though many scientists have vigorously studied the safe and environmentally sound treatment of sewage sludge and reducing sludge cake. Therefore reduction of moisture content in sludge and recycling by radiation is the main objective in this work. Here we studied the radiation technique as a pretreatment process to enhance sludge dewaterability, to disinfect micro-organisms, and to remove the toxic organics in sewage sludge simultaneously. The improvement of sludge compost after irradiation was also observed to develop the method for recycling of sludge

  7. Collisional and radiative processes in high-pressure discharge plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kurt H.; Kurunczi, Peter F.; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2002-05-01

    Discharge plasmas at high pressures (up to and exceeding atmospheric pressure), where single collision conditions no longer prevail, provide a fertile environment for the experimental study of collisions and radiative processes dominated by (i) step-wise processes, i.e., the excitation of an already excited atomic/molecular state and by (ii) three-body collisions leading, for instance, to the formation of excimers. The dominance of collisional and radiative processes beyond binary collisions involving ground-state atoms and molecules in such environments allows for many interesting applications of high-pressure plasmas such as high power lasers, opening switches, novel plasma processing applications and sputtering, absorbers and reflectors for electromagnetic waves, remediation of pollutants and waste streams, and excimer lamps and other noncoherent vacuum-ultraviolet light sources. Here recent progress is summarized in the use of hollow cathode discharge devices with hole dimensions in the range 0.1-0.5 mm for the generation of vacuum-ultraviolet light.

  8. Radiation processing of natural polymers for industrial and agricultural applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, El-Sayed A.; AbdEl-Rehim, H.; Diaa, D.A.; El-Barbary, A.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation induced degradation technology is a new and promising application of ionizing radiation to develop viscose, pulp, paper, food preservation, pharmaceutical production, and natural bioactive agents industries. Controlling the degree of degradation, uniform molecular weight distribution, saving achieved in the chemicals (used in conventional methods) on a cost basis, and environmentally friendly process are the beneficial effects of using radiation technology in these industries. However, for some development countries such technology is not economic. Therefore, a great efforts should be done to reduce the cost required for such technologies. One of the principle factors for reducing the cost is achieving the degradation at low irradiation doses. The addition of some additives such as potassium per-sulfate (KPS), ammonium per-sulfate (APS), or H 2 O 2 to natural polymers (carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), chitosan, carrageenan and Na-alginate) during irradiation process accelerates their degradation. The highest degradation rate of polysaccharides obtained when APS was used. The end product of irradiated CMC, chitosan, carrageenan and Na-alginate may be used as food additive or benefited in agricultural purposes. On the other hand, radiation crosslinking of PAAm or PNIPAAm is affected by the presence of natural polymer like CMC-Na and carrageenan due to their degradability which could be controlled according to its concentration in the bulk medium and irradiation dose. Accordingly, the gel content, thermo-sensitivity (LCST) and swelling properties of PNIPAAm based natural polymers could be controlled. The swelling of the prepared copolymer hydrogels was investigated for its possible use in personal care articles particularly diapers or as carriers for drug delivery systems. The prepared crosslinked copolymers possessed high and fast swelling properties in simulated urine media and the swelling ratios of CMC-Na/PAAm gels in urine are acceptable for diaper

  9. Radiation Processing of Natural Polymers for Industrial Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation induced degradation technology is a new and promising application of ionizing radiation to develop viscose, pulp, paper, food preservation, pharmaceutical production, and natural bioactive agents industries. Controlling the degree of degradation, uniform molecular weight distribution, saving achieved in the chemicals (used in conventional methods) on a cost basis, and environmentally friendly process are the beneficial effects of using radiation technology in these industries. However, for some development countries such technology is not economic. Therefore, a great effort should be done to reduce the cost required for such technologies. One of the principle factors for reducing the cost is achieving the degradation at low irradiation doses. The addition of some additives such as potassium per-sulfate (KPS), ammonium per-sulfate (APS), or H 2 O 2 to natural polymers (carboxy-methylcellulose (CMC), chitosan, carrageenan and Na-alginate) during irradiation process accelerates their degradation. The highest degradation rate of polysaccharides obtained when APS was used. The end product of irradiated CMC, chitosan, carrageenan and Na-alginate may be used as food additive or benefited in agricultural purposes. On the other hand, radiation crosslinking of PAAm or PNIPAAm is affected by the presence of natural polymer like CMC-Na and carrageenan due to their degradability which could be controlled according to its concentration in the bulk medium and irradiation dose. Accordingly, the gel content, thermo-sensitivity (LCST) and swelling properties of PNIPAAm based natural polymers could be controlled. The swelling of the prepared copolymer hydrogels was investigated for its possible use in personal care articles particularly diapers or as carriers for drug delivery systems. The prepared crosslinked copolymers possessed high and fast swelling properties in simulated urine media and the swelling ratios of CMC-Na /PAAm gels in urine are acceptable for diaper

  10. The status of radiation processing dosimetry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenxiu; Li Chenghua; Pang Ruicao; Zhang Yanli.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation processing is a rapidly expanding technology in China since 1970s. About 50 facilities of Co-60 source with the designed capacity more than 3.7PBq have been set up in Beijing, Shanghai, and 36 cities. The total charged activity of sources is more than 862PBq some facilities are shown in Table 1. More than 26 electron beam (EB) irradiation facilities have been established as listed in Table 2. The total power of electron beams had reached about 926 kW. The effectiveness of the process depends on the proper application of dose and its measurement. The importance of dosimetry events on the processing control of irradiation technology and the quality assurance of irradiated products has been acknowledged in China, which was introduced in this paper. (author)

  11. Influence of Pressure Build-Up Time of Compression Chamber on Improving the Operation Frequency of a Single-Piston Hydraulic Free-Piston Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-bo Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A single-piston hydraulic free-piston engine with a two-cylinder four-stroke diesel engine as its driver is introduced. It takes the free-piston assembly a certain time to move after the pressure in the compression chamber starts to increase. The time difference between the pressure increasing and the piston starting to move is defined as the pressure build-up time. The characteristics of the pressure build-up time and its influence on the performance of the free-piston engine are introduced and analyzed. Based on the basic law of dynamics of the free-piston assembly, the parameters which influence the pressure build-up time are analyzed. And then improvement and optimization are proposed to shorten the pressure build-up time.

  12. Factors determining the viability of radiation processing in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, H.J. van der

    1988-01-01

    In the fifteen years since the introduction of radiation processing to South Africa, four commercial irradiation facilities have been established. These are involved in the processing of a large variety of products, from syringes and prostheses to strawberries and sugar yeast. Three of the facilities are devoted mainly to food irradiation and several thousand tonnes are now processed annually. During this period it was repeatedly experienced that the successful introduction of radiation processing in general, and food radurization in particular, on a commercial scale was critically dependent on the following factors: acceptance by the producer, industry and consumer; initial capital expenditure; running costs and overheads in general; and continuous throughput. All of these factors contribute to the processing cost which is the ultimate factor in determining the value/price ratio for the potential entrepreneur and customer of this new technology. After a market survey had identified the need for a new food irradiation facility to cope with the growing interest in commercial food radurization in the Western Cape, the above-mentioned factors were of cardinal importance in the design and manufacture of a new irradiator. The resulting batch-pallet facility which was commissioned in August 1986, is rather inefficient as far as energy utilization is concerned but this shortcoming is compensated for by its low cost, versatility and low hold-up. Although the facility has limitations as far as the processing of really large volumes of produce is concerned, it is particularly suitable not only for developing countries, but for developed countries in the introductory phase of commercial food radurization. (author)

  13. Factors determining the viability of radiation processing in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linde, HJ; Basson, RA

    In the fifteen years since the introduction of radiation processing to South Africa, four commercial irradiation facilities have been established. These are involved in the processing of a large variety of products, from syringes and prostheses to strawberries and sugar yeast. Three of the facilities are devoted mainly to food irradiation and several thousand tonnes are now processed annually. During this period it was repeatedly experienced that the successful introduction of radiation processing in general, and food radurization in particular, on a commercial scale was critically dependent on the following factors: acceptance by the producer, industry and consumer; initial capital expenditure; running costs and overheads in general; and continous throughput. All of these factors contribute to the processing cost which is the ultimate factor in determing the value/price ratio for the potential entrepreneur and customer of this new technology. After a market survey had identified the need for a new food irradiation facility to cope with the growing interest in commercial food radurization in the Western Cape, the above-mentioned factors were of cardinal importance in the design and manufacture of a new irradiator. The resulting batch-pallet facility which was commisioned in August 1986, is rather inefficient as far as energy utilization is concerned but this shortcoming is compensated for by its low cost, versatility and low hold-up. Although the facility has limitations as far as the processing of really large volumes of produce is concerned, it is particularly suitable not only for developing countries, but for developed countries in the introductory phase of commercial food radurization.

  14. The process and promotion of radiation-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    Radiation-induced cell death is divided into reproductive and interphase death, whose process can be revealed by time-lapse observations. Pedigree analyses of progenies derived from a surviving progenitor cell have shown that moribund cells appear in clusters among cells which are apparently undamaged (lethal sectoring). Sister cell fusion, which likely results from chromosome bridge, is the most frequently observed cell abnormality leading to reproductive death. While interphase death does not occur unless the dose exceeds 10 Gy for low LET radiation such as X-rays, high-LET radiation is very effective at inducing interphase death (RBE: ≅3 at 230 keV/μm). Expression or fixation of potentially lethal damage (PLD) is closely associated with cell cycle events and enhanced by inducing premature chromosome condensation (PCC) at a nonpermissive temperature in tsBN2 cells with a ts-defect in RCC1 protein (a regulator of chromatin condensation) which monitors the completion of DNA replication. Furthermore, higher-order structural changes in nuclear matrix such as induced by leptomycin B, an inhibitor of CRM1 (chromosome region maintenance) protein, also play an important role in the fixation of PLD. (author)

  15. Features of radiation chemical processes in ethylene-styrene copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leshchenko, S.S.; Mal'tseva, A.P.; Iskakov, L.I.; Karpov, V.L.

    1976-01-01

    A study was made of statistical copolymers of ethylene with styrene to determine their structure and properties and radio-chemical transformations. The styrene content of the copolymers ranged from 1 to 85 mole%. The investigation covered non-irradiated copolymers and those irradiated with doses of 1-1000Mrad at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature. It is shown that styrene units present in the CES inhibited all radio-chemical processes compared with PE irradiated under similar conditions. It is suggested that the radiation resistance of CES with styrene contents up to 10 mole % increases in the course of irradiation as a result of the formation of structures with a high degree of conjugation which are more capable of scattering absorbed energy than in the case of phenyl rings by themselves. The most promising of the CES examined is the one with a styrene content of 5 mole %. The mechanical properties of this copolymer are similar to those of PE, and its radiation resistance rises under service conditions in the presence of ionizing radiation

  16. Wave Characteristics of Temperature Inversion Process of Nighttime Radiation,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-09

    CHARACTERISTICS OF TEMPERATURE INVERSION PROCESS OF NIGHTTIME RADIATION By: Zhou Mingyu and Zhang ¥i English pages: 8 Source: Kexue Tongbao, 1982, pp. 156...lJournal of Meteorology], 39 (1981), 1:70-81. 3. Drazin, P. G., J. Fluid. Mech., 4 (1958), 214-224. 4. Zhou Mingyu et al., QIXIANG XUEBAO, 38 (1980), 3: 250...258. 5. Emnanuel, C. B., B-L. Meteor., 5(1973), N(1/2)8 19-27. 6. Zhou Mingyu et al., J. Acoust. Soc., A. m., 68 (1980), 1: 303-308. 8 I iI

  17. Radiation processing for value addition to spices and condiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, Varsha S.; Parte, Madan N.; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    Both major and minor Indian spices and their blends were found to have significant high level of bacterial and fungal load. Radiation processing at 10 kGy dose was found to be effective for hygienization of spices and condiments without affecting their flavor and other quality attributes. Inter and Intra country transportation studies confirmed the retention of spice quality following irradiation, transportation and storage. A safe storage period was also determined for sambar powder packaged in metallised laminate pouch, which turned out to be 20 months under ambient storage conditions. Some spices were also found to have radioprotective effect. (author)

  18. One of the great conundrums of the 20th century science - ionizing radiation: Radiation processing and applications in the Czech Lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janovsky, I.

    2007-01-01

    The article deals with the following topics: Milestones in the early history of radiation and radiation sources (1895-1954); Radiation effects - early observations and further development; Scope of radiation processing; Radiation processing in the Czech Lands (i.e. Bohemia + Moravia = the Czech part of Czechoslovakia or Austria-Hungary till 1918) (radiation sterilization of medical items; radiation processing of cable insulations; radiation preservation of objects of art and historical monuments; radiation modification of semiconductors; radiation synthesis of organic compounds; food irradiation; application of ionizing radiation in agriculture and gardening; radiation regeneration of water wells; radiation degradation of chlorinated biphenyls; radiation coloration of glass for decorative purposes; some other applications; and problems associated with practical radiation processing). An overview of 60 Co gamma irradiators and electron accelerators installed at Czech institutions is presented in the tabular form. (P.A.)

  19. Building up a citizen-based project of renewable energies. Energy transition by local actors: stakes and modalities - Recommendation guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This guide first presents the energy and social context which could lead to citizen-based projects, presents some European examples and identifies some French limitations, and defines a citizen-based project. The second part proposes an overview of such a project and its various steps, and outlines the importance of some basic actions: to build up a pilot group and to define the project, to choose the right moment and to retain control of the project, to communicate and to mobilise. The next part presents the project methodology: elaboration of specification, establishment of partnership, definition of a business model, choice of a legal status. The last part addresses how to mobilise local and citizen funding: own funds and bank loan, participation of citizen and local communities

  20. Resonant laser power build-up in ALPS-A 'light shining through a wall' experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehret, Klaus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Frede, Maik [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Ghazaryan, Samvel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Hildebrandt, Matthias [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Knabbe, Ernst-Axel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Kracht, Dietmar [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Lindner, Axel, E-mail: axel.lindner@desy.d [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); List, Jenny [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Meier, Tobias [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert-Einstein-Institute, and Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Leibniz Universitaet, Hannover, Callinstrasse 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Meyer, Niels; Notz, Dieter; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Wiedemann, Guenter [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Willke, Benno [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert-Einstein-Institute, and Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Leibniz Universitaet, Hannover, Callinstrasse 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2009-12-21

    The ALPS Collaboration runs a 'light shining through a wall' (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into 'weakly interacting sub-eV particles' (WISPs) inside of a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. In this paper we report on the first successful integration of a large-scale optical resonant cavity to boost the available power for WISP production in this type of experiments. The key elements are a frequency tunable narrow line-width continuous wave laser acting as the primary light source and an electronic feed-back control loop to stabilize the power build-up. We describe and characterize our apparatus and demonstrate the data analysis procedures on the basis of a brief exemplary run.

  1. Evaluation of pollutant build-up and wash-off from selected land uses at the Port of Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Kitchen, Brad

    2009-02-01

    The quality of stormwater runoff from seaports can be an important source of pollution to the marine environment. Currently, little knowledge exists with regards to the pollutant generation capacity specific to seaports as they do not necessarily compare well with conventional urban land use. The research project focussed on the assessment of pollutant build-up and wash-off. The study was undertaken using rainfall simulation and small impervious plots for different port land uses with the results obtained compared to typical urban land uses. The study outcomes confirmed that the Port land uses exhibit comparatively lower pollutant concentrations. However, the pollutant characteristics varied across different land uses. Hence, the provision of stereotypical water quality improvement measures could be of limited value. Particle size < 150microm was predominant in suspended solids. Therefore, if suspended solids are targeted as the surrogate parameter for water quality improvement, this particle size range needs to be removed.

  2. Resonant laser power build-up in ALPS. A 'light-shining-through-walls' experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehret, Klaus; Ghazaryan, Samvel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Frede, Maik [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (DE)] (and others)

    2009-05-15

    The ALPS collaboration runs a light-shining-through-walls (LSW) experiment to search for photon oscillations into weakly interacting sub-eV particles (WISPs) inside of a superconducting HERA dipole magnet at the site of DESY. In this paper we report on the first successful integration of a large-scale optical cavity to boost the available power for WISP production in this type of experiments. The key elements are a frequency tunable narrow line-width continuous wave laser acting as the primary light source and an electronic feed-back control loop to stabilize the power build-up. We describe and characterize our apparatus and demonstrate the data analysis procedures on the basis of a brief exemplary run. (orig.)

  3. Gamma radiation processing dosimetry with commercial silicon diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Danilo Cardenuto

    2009-01-01

    This work envisages the development of dosimeters based on Si diodes for gamma radiation dosimetry from 1 Gy up to 100 Gy. This dose range is frequently utilized in radiation processing of crystal modifications, polymers crosslinking and biological studies carried out in the Radiation Technology Center at IPEN-CNEN/SP. The dosimeter was constructed by a commercial SFH00206 (Siemens) Si diode, operating in a photovoltaic mode, whose electrical characteristics are suitable for this application. The current generated in the device by the Cobalt-60 gamma radiation from the Irradiators types I and II was registered with a digital electrometer and stored during the exposure time. In all measurements, the current signals of the diode registered as a function of the exposure time were very stable. Furthermore, the device photocurrent was linearly dependent on the dose rate within a range of 6.1x10 -2 Gy/min up to 1.9x10 2 Gy/min. The calibration curves of the dosimeters, e.g., the average charge registered as a function of the absorbed dose were obtained by the integration of the current signals as a function of the exposure time. The results showed a linear response of the dosimeter with a correlation coefficient better than 0.998 for total absorbed dose up to 120 Gy. Finally, due to the small experimental errors 5 % it was also possible to measure the transit dose due to the movement of the Cobalto- 60 radioactive sources in irradiation facilities used in this work. (author)

  4. Control of external radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following subjects are discussed - Control of external radiation exposure: working time, working distance, shielding: Total Linear Attenuation Coefficient, Half-Value Layer (HVL), Tenth-Value Layer (TVL); Build-up Factor

  5. A resin composite material containing an eugenol derivative for intracanal post cementation and core build-up restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaroof, A; Rojo, L; Mannocci, F; Deb, S

    2016-02-01

    To formulate and evaluate new dual cured resin composite based on the inclusion of eugenyl methacrylate monomer (EgMA) with Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin systems for intracanal post cementation and core build-up restoration of endodontically treated teeth. EgMA was synthesized and incorporated at 5% (BTEg5) or 10% (BTEg10) into dual-cure formulations. Curing properties, viscosity, Tg, radiopacity, static and dynamic mechanical properties of the composites were determined and compared with Clearfil™DC Core-Plus, a commercial dual-cure, two-component composite. Statistical analysis of the data was performed with ANOVA and the Tukey's post-hoc test. The experimental composites were successfully prepared, which exhibited excellent curing depths of 4.9, 4.7 and 4.2 mm for BTEg0, BTEg5 and BTEg10 respectively, which were significantly higher than Clearfil™DC. However, the inclusion of EgMA initially led to a lower degree of cure, which increased when measured at 24 h with values comparable to formulations without EgMA, indicating post-curing. The inclusion of EgMA also lowered the polymerization exotherm thereby reducing the potential of thermal damage to host tissue. Both thermal and viscoelastic analyses confirmed the ability of the monomer to reduce the stiffness of the composites by forming a branched network. The compressive strength of BTEg5 was significantly higher than the control whilst flexural strength increased significantly from 95.9 to 114.8 MPa (BTEg5) and 121.9 MPa (BTEg10). Radiopacity of the composites was equivalent to ∼3 mm Al allowing efficient diagnosis. The incorporation of EgMA within polymerizable formulations provides a novel approach to prepare reinforced resin composite material for intracanal post cementation and core build-up and the potential to impart antibacterial properties of eugenol to endodontic restorations. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A 4-year clinical evaluation of direct composite build-ups for space closure after orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Mustafa; Tuncer, Safa; Öztaş, Evren; Tekçe, Neslihan; Uysal, Ömer

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the medium-term clinical performance of direct composite build-ups for diastema closures and teeth recontouring using a nano and a nanohybrid composite in combination with three- or two-step etch-and-rinse adhesives following treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. A total of 30 patients (mean age, 19.5 years) received 147 direct composite additions for teeth recontouring and diastema closures. A nano and a nanohybrid composite (Filtek Supreme XT and CeramX Duo) were bonded to tooth structure by using a three-step (Scotchbond Multipurpose) or a two-step (XP Bond) etch and rinse adhesive. Ten out of 147 composite build-ups (composite addition) constituted tooth recontouring cases, and the remaining 137 constituted diastema closure cases. The restorations were evaluated by two experienced, calibrated examiners according to modified Ryge criteria at the following time intervals: baseline, 1, 2, 3, and 4 years. The 4-year survival rates were 92.8 % for Filtek Supreme XT/Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus and 93 % for CeramX Duo/XP Bond. Only ten restorations failed (5 Filtek Supreme XT and 5 CeramX Duo). Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the two composite-adhesive combinations with respect to color match, marginal discoloration, wear/loss of anatomical form, caries formation, marginal adaptation, and surface texture on comparing the five time periods (baseline, 1, 2, 3, and 4 years) The 4-year survival rates in the present study were favorable. The restorations exhibited excellent scores with regard to color match, marginal adaptation, surface texture, marginal discoloration, wear/loss of anatomical form, and caries formation, after 4 years of clinical evaluation. Clinical relevance An alternative clinical approach for correcting discrepancies in tooth size and form, such as performing direct composite restorations following fixed orthodontic treatment, may be an excellent and minimally invasive treatment.

  7. Radiation processing for environmental-friendly industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majali, A.B.; Sabharwal, S.

    1997-01-01

    The Isotope Division of BARC is equipped with a 2-MeV electron beam (EB) accelerator and a 70,000 Ci Cobalt-60 source: these are mainly utilized to develop technologies of interest to our industries and needs. These include development of polyethylene 'O' rings having dimensional stability above the melting point, radiation degradation of PTFE and enhancement of colour in diamonds. The viscose rayon industry is an important industry in India. This industry faces stiff regulations from environmental pollution control agencies primarily due to the emission of toxic sulphur containing gases, and is in search of ways to reduce the pollution levels associated with the process. The irradiation of cellulose with ionizing radiation results in cellulose activation and reduction in the degree of polymerization (DP). There is a keen interest in utilizing radiation technology in viscose rayon production. We have utilized the 2-MeV electron beam accelerator for reducing the degree of polymerization (DP) of paper pulp. Laboratory scale tests have been carried out to standardize the conditions for processing of pulp having desired degree of polymerization. Our studies show that the use of irradiated pulp can significantly reduce the consumption of CS 2 and be beneficial in reducing pollution associated with the process. An electron-beam irradiation based process has been developed to convert the PTFE waste into a low molecular weight (1x10 4 -1x10 5 ) PTFE powder that can be easily processed into a fine micropowder having industrial demand. Even carbon or metal filled PTFE has been recycled using this process. The conventional method of crosslinking linear polymers by thermo-clinical method leads to the formation of homogeneously crosslinked materials which are extremely slow for industrial applications. Electron beam irradiation has been used to create inhomogeneous crosslinking of a temperature-sensitive polymer- poly(vinyl methyl ether)(PVME) so as to produce a fast response

  8. Radiation processing with high-energy X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, Marshall R.; Stichelbaut, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    The physical, chemical or biological characteristics of selected commercial products and materials can be improved by radiation processing. The ionizing energy can be provided by accelerated electrons with energies between 75 keV and 10 MeV, gamma rays from cobalt-60 with average energies of 1.25 MeV or X-rays with maximum energies up to 7.5 MeV. Electron beams are preferred for thin products, which are processed at high speeds. Gamma rays are used for products that are too thick for treatment with electron beams. High-energy X-rays can also be used for these purposes because their penetration in solid materials is similar to or even slightly greater than that of gamma rays. Previously, the use of X-rays had been inhibited by their slower processing rates and higher costs when compared with gamma rays. Since then, the price of cobalt-60 sources has been increased and the radiation intensity from high-energy, high-power X-ray generators has also increased. For facilities requiring at least 2 MCi of cobalt-60, the capital and operating costs of X-ray facilities with equivalent processing rates can be less than that of gamma-ray irradiators. Several high-energy electron beam facilities have been equipped with removable X-ray targets so that irradiation processes can be done with either type of ionizing energy. A new facility is now being built which will be used exclusively in the X-ray mode to sterilize medical products. Operation of this facility will show that high-energy, high-power X-ray generators are practical alternatives to large gamma-ray sources. (author)

  9. Application of radiation technology to biomass conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnet, A.C.G.

    1984-01-01

    The work carried out at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) is reported for the following research projects: wood powdering of pre-irradiated chips; effect of combining electron beam processing (EBP) with other pretreatments on the saccharification of lignocellulosic materials; radiation immobilization of enzymes. The EBP of eucalyptus chips at an average dose of 1.5 x 10 5 Gy allowed a reduction of the energy required to produce a given weight of wood particles smaller than 300 μm by a factor of five. Wood powder of this particle size proved to be an excellent fuel for suspension firing system and could be used as raw material to feed continuous hydrolytic processes. Conversion efficiencies of 25.8% and 53.4%, respectively, were obtained in the production of reducing sugar by enzymatic hydrolysis of eucalyptus wood and sugarcane bagasse when materials were previously irradiated at 10 5 Gy, pulverized at 50 mesh and impregnated with 2% NaOH solution. Immobilization of cellulase by radiation induced polymerization of hydroxy-ethyl-methacrylate(HEMA) was effective when made at - 78 0 C in the presence of silica gel adsorbents or polyethylene glycol. (Author) [pt

  10. Radiative processes in a laser-fusion plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, P.M.; Kubis, J.J.; Mitrovich, D.

    1976-01-01

    Plasmas compressed and heated by an intense laser pulse offer promise for the ignition of propagating thermonuclear burn and, ultimately, for use in fusion reactors. It is evident theoretically that the emission and absorption of x-rays by the plasma has a significant effect on the dynamics of the laser compression process. In order to achieve densities high enough for efficient thermonuclear burn, the fusion pellet must be compressed along a low adiabat. This will not be possible if the compressed region of the pellet is significantly preheated by x-rays originating in the hot outer regions. A satisfactory model of compression hydrodynamics must, therefore, include a comprehensive treatment of radiation transport based on a non-LTE model of the plasma. The model must be valid for Fermi-Dirac statistics, since high compression along a low adiabat will, in general, produce degenerate electron distributions. This report is concerned with the plasma model and the corresponding radiation emission and absorption coefficients, including nonthermal processes which occur in the laser deposition region

  11. Radiation processes for the development, production and examination of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, L.

    1984-01-01

    The process of doping semi-conductors by irradiating them with beams of ions, called ion implantation, has long been part of the industrial mass production of electronic solid components as the basis of the micro-electronics revolution. The use of electron and X-ray beams has made the manufacture of small silicon chips possible, so as to increase the memory and microprocessor capacity of a wafer. Using electron and γ rays, many compound materials based on polymers, have been manufactured, where only a small part of the nearly infinite number of combinations has been touched so far. The applications of radiation hardening extend from the treatment of coatings and paints for surface protection to glues and printed colours. The multiplicity of nuclear examination processes for solids and their surfaces has produced knowledge on the structure of materials, which accelerates the purposeful development of improved and new materials and makes it easier, sometimes even making it possible. Radiation methods are an important aid for quality control and assurance for material production. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Signal Processing Device (SPD) for networked radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmapurikar, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.; Sawhney, A.; Patil, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    A networked radiation and parameter monitoring system with three tier architecture is being developed. Signal Processing Device (SPD) is a second level sub-system node in the network. SPD is an embedded system which has multiple input channels and output communication interfaces. It acquires and processes data from first level parametric sensor devices, and sends to third level devices in response to request commands received from host. It also performs scheduled diagnostic operations and passes on the information to host. It supports inputs in the form of differential digital signals and analog voltage signals. SPD communicates with higher level devices over RS232/RS422/USB channels. The system has been designed with main requirements of minimal power consumption and harsh environment in radioactive plants. This paper discusses the hardware and software design details of SPD. (author)

  13. Reliability of high power electron accelerators for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Accelerators applied for radiation processing are installed in industrial facilities where accelerator availability coefficient should be at the level of 95% to fulfill requirements according to industry standards. Usually the exploitation of electron accelerator reviles the number of short and few long lasting failures. Some technical shortages can be overcome by practical implementation the experience gained in accelerator technology development by different accelerator manufactures. The reliability/availability of high power accelerators for application in flue gas treatment process must be dramatically improved to meet industrial standards. Support of accelerator technology dedicated for environment protection should be provided by governmental and international institutions to overcome accelerator reliability/availability problem and high risk and low direct profit in this particular application. (author)

  14. Initial processes of radiation effects on genomic stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve du Penhoat, Marie-Anne; Touati, Alain; Sage, Evelyne; Houee-Levin, Chantal; Lacombe, Sandrine; Politis, Marie-Françoise; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre; Spezia, Riccardo; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe; Wien, Frank; Fujii, Kentaro; Yokoya, Akinari; Shikazono, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    We describe the progresses and current status of the REIMEI study on 'Initial processes of radiation effects on genomic stability', which is a new collaborative project between France and Japan. The theoretical study on the fragmentation pattern of doubly ionized deoxyribose has reached a new stage focusing on the effect of water molecules surrounding the deoxyribose molecule. In order to substantiate the theoretical predictions, new devices have been installed in a SPring-8 beamline. To explore the origin of signal transduction of DNA repair processes, a preliminary CD measurement in the far UV region was performed to study histone conformation changes. Based on these results, we will propose a new experimental subject in SOLEIL synchrotron to investigate the conformational changes of phosphorylated histone. Preliminary experiments using mammalian cell free extract have also been performed focusing on the role of DNA polymerases on the mutagenic potential of clustered DNA lesions. (author)

  15. Possible implications of large scale radiation processing of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1990-01-01

    Large scale irradiation has been discussed in terms of the participation of processing cost in the final value of the improved product. Another factor has been taken into account and that is the saturation of the market with the new product. In the case of successful projects the participation of irradiation cost is low, and the demand for the better product is covered. A limited availability of sources makes the modest saturation of the market difficult with all food subjected to correct radiation treatment. The implementation of the preservation of food needs a decided selection of these kinds of food which comply to all conditions i.e. of acceptance by regulatory bodies, real improvement of quality and economy. The last condition prefers the possibility of use of electron beams of low energy. The best fulfilment of conditions for successful processing is observed in the group of dry food, in expensive spices in particular. (author)

  16. Possible implications of large scale radiation processing of food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagórski, Z. P.

    Large scale irradiation has been discussed in terms of the participation of processing cost in the final value of the improved product. Another factor has been taken into account and that is the saturation of the market with the new product. In the case of succesful projects the participation of irradiation cost is low, and the demand for the better product is covered. A limited availability of sources makes the modest saturation of the market difficult with all food subjected to correct radiation treatment. The implementation of the preservation of food needs a decided selection of these kinds of food which comply to all conditions i.e. of acceptance by regulatory bodies, real improvement of quality and economy. The last condition prefers the possibility of use of electron beams of low energy. The best fullfilment of conditions for succesful processing is observed in the group of dry food, in expensive spices in particular.

  17. Processes for Quality Improvements in Radiation Oncology Clinical Trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzGerald, T.J.; Urie, Marcia; Ulin, Kenneth; Laurie, Fran; Yorty, Jeffrey C.; Hanusik, Richard; Kessel, Sandy; Jodoin, Maryann Bishop; Osagie, Gani; Cicchetti, M. Giulia; Pieters, Richard; McCarten, Kathleen; Rosen, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Quality assurance in radiotherapy (RT) has been an integral aspect of cooperative group clinical trials since 1970. In early clinical trials, data acquisition was nonuniform and inconsistent and computational models for radiation dose calculation varied significantly. Process improvements developed for data acquisition, credentialing, and data management have provided the necessary infrastructure for uniform data. With continued improvement in the technology and delivery of RT, evaluation processes for target definition, RT planning, and execution undergo constant review. As we move to multimodality image-based definitions of target volumes for protocols, future clinical trials will require near real-time image analysis and feedback to field investigators. The ability of quality assurance centers to meet these real-time challenges with robust electronic interaction platforms for imaging acquisition, review, archiving, and quantitative review of volumetric RT plans will be the primary challenge for future successful clinical trials

  18. Reliability of high power electron accelerators for radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimek, Z. [Department of Radiation Chemistry and Technology, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    Accelerators applied for radiation processing are installed in industrial facilities where accelerator availability coefficient should be at the level of 95% to fulfill requirements according to industry standards. Usually the exploitation of electron accelerator reviles the number of short and few long lasting failures. Some technical shortages can be overcome by practical implementation the experience gained in accelerator technology development by different accelerator manufactures. The reliability/availability of high power accelerators for application in flue gas treatment process must be dramatically improved to meet industrial standards. Support of accelerator technology dedicated for environment protection should be provided by governmental and international institutions to overcome accelerator reliability/availability problem and high risk and low direct profit in this particular application. (author)

  19. Method of processing radiation-contaminated organic polymer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshii.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To process radiation contaminated organic high polymer materials with no evolution of toxic gases, at low temperature and with safety by hot-acid immersion process using sulfuric acid-hydrogen peroxide. Method: Less flammable or easily flammable organic polymers contaminated with radioactive substances, particularly with long life actinoid are heated and carbonized in concentrated sulfuric acid. Then, aqueous 30% H 2 O 2 solution is continuously added dropwise as an oxidizing agent till the solution turns colourless. If the carbonization was insufficient, addition of H 2 O 2 solution is stopped temporarily and the carbonization is conducted again. Thus, the organic polymers are completely decomposed by the wet oxidization. Then, the volume of the organic materials to be discharged is decreased and the radioactive substances contained are simultaneously concentrated and collected. (Seki, T.)

  20. Radiation processing for value addition in fish and fishery products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandekar, J.R.; Karani, M.; Kakatkar, A.S.; Sharma, A.

    2009-01-01

    Fish is highly nutritious as it contains easily digestible proteins and nutritionally important vitamins and polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, due to high ambient temperature in tropical countries, fish is spoiled rapidly. Spoilage of fish during transportation and storage amounting to about 30% of the catch results in heavy economic losses. The microbiological hazard related to the presence of food-borne pathogens is also common in both marine and aqua-cultured fish and shellfish. In dried products (moisture content, < 20%) insects are mainly responsible for the loss of quality during storage. Radiation processing can play a major role in ensuring security and safety of fish and fishery products by reducing post-harvest losses and eliminating pathogenic microorganisms. Being a 'cold process' the technology helps in retaining the quality of fishery products in 'as is' condition. (author)

  1. Radiation imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmayne, I.

    1986-05-21

    A detector for the detection of radiation such as X-ray radiation comprises an array of scintillation elements embedded in a sheet of radiation absorbing material. The scintillation elements are monitored individually, for example by a corresponding array of photodiodes, to build up a picture of the incident radiation. The front face of the sheet and the inner walls of the bores may be coated with a reflective material. The detector finds particular application in weld radiography. The detector may be stepped relative to the radiation source, the signals produced by the rows of the detector as they pass a predetermined point being summed.

  2. Radiation imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmayne, Ian.

    1986-01-01

    A detector for the detection of radiation such as X-ray radiation comprises an array of scintillation elements embedded in a sheet of radiation absorbing material. The scintillation elements are monitored individually, for example by a corresponding array of photodiodes, to build up a picture of the incident radiation. The front face of the sheet and the inner walls of the bores may be coated with a reflective material. The detector finds particular application in weld radiography. The detector may be stepped relative to the radiation source, the signals produced by the rows of the detector as they pass a predetermined point being summed. (author)

  3. Upgrading of oil palm wastes by radiation processing - project review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahrul Khair Alang Md Rashid

    1998-01-01

    Early works on oil palm waste treatment at MINT started in 1984 with the objective of degrading EFB (Empty Fruit Bunches) by radiation. This idea was shared by JAERI that adopted the research project with MINT in 1986 under the Japanese Science and Technology Agency (STA) programme. The results of these preliminary works show that EFB can be degraded using gamma radiation at a dose of ranging from 500 to 1000 kGy - 50 to 100 times higher than what is considered to be the economic dose. It is generally accepted that the economics of radiation treatment process could only be realised if the treatment dose can be kept below 10 kGy, which was incidentally, during the course of this early works, found to be the pasteurisation dose for oil palm by - products. With these information, MINT and JAERI agreed to pursue further research in this area and formulated a bilateral research co-operation in radiation pasteurisation of EFB and subsequent degradation by cellulolytic fungi or mushrooms. The research has the objective of upgrading EFB, which was not considered as suitable for feed due to its known physical properties as coarse and highly fibrous, to animal feed as well as substrate for mushroom cultivation and enzyme production. In addition to the desire to provide an environment friendly method for waste disposal to a growing industry, the possibility of catalysing the development of livestock industry by commercial farming in the process is another motivation for this project. Malaysia is estimated to be only about 40% self-sufficient in beef production. Thus there is great opportunity for the growth and expansion of this industry in Malaysia. However, growth in ruminant population should not result in the alienation of land for pastures. Among the reasons for the lack of interest in livestock production through commercial farming is the unavailability of local feed material which could be cheaper than imported feed grains, particularly maize. Feed is one the main cost

  4. Upgrading of oil palm wastes by radiation processing - project review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alang Md Rashid, Nahrul Khair [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi (Malaysia)

    1998-07-01

    Early works on oil palm waste treatment at MINT started in 1984 with the objective of degrading EFB (Empty Fruit Bunches) by radiation. This idea was shared by JAERI that adopted the research project with MINT in 1986 under the Japanese Science and Technology Agency (STA) programme. The results of these preliminary works show that EFB can be degraded using gamma radiation at a dose of ranging from 500 to 1000 kGy - 50 to 100 times higher than what is considered to be the economic dose. It is generally accepted that the economics of radiation treatment process could only be realised if the treatment dose can be kept below 10 kGy, which was incidentally, during the course of this early works, found to be the pasteurisationdose for oil palm by - products. With these information, MINT and JAERI agreed to pursue further research in this area and formulated a bilateral research co-operation in radiation pasteurisation of EFB and subsequent degradation by cellulolytic fungi or mushrooms. The research has the objective of upgrading EFB, which was not considered as suitable for feed due to its known physical properties as coarse and highly fibrous, to animal feed as well as substrate for mushroom cultivation and enzyme production. In addition to the desire to provide an environment friendly method for waste disposal to a growing industry, the possibility of catalysing the development of livestock industry by commercial farming in the process is another motivation for this project. Malaysia is estimated to be only about 40% self-sufficient in beef production. Thus there is great opportunity for the growth and expansion of this industry in Malaysia. However, growth in ruminant population should not result in the alienation of land for pastures. Among the reasons for the lack of interest in livestock production through commercial farming is the unavailability of local feed material which could be cheaper than imported feed grains, particularly maize. Feed is one the main cost

  5. Impacts of radiation processing on physicochemical properties of Table Eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M. D. H.; Abdul Azeem, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of gamma irradiation on pathogens, quality, and functional properties of shell eggs. Using intact, fresh while and brown shell eggs, inoculated with 10 9 colony-forming units (cfu) of S enteritidis and S, typhimurium. The effect of gamma-irradiation at doses 2,4 and 6 kGy of gamma irradiation on bacteriologic and population and physical characteristics (Haugh units and yolk color), chemical composition (moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash), the rheological changes (viscosity), pH and protean solubility of the eggs were determinate d. Results showed that 2 kGy, the number of S, enteritidis and eggs internal quality as freshness as measured by albumen height and the number of hugh units, and yolk color index were all significantly reduced with increasing irradiation doses. On significant change was found after irradiation in egg white or yolk in the chemical composition (moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash). After irradiation, the foaming ability and foam capacity of egg white were increasing radiation doses> The viscosity of egg white and yolk decreased with increasing doses of irradiation. The pH of the egg white and yolk increasing doses of radiation dose. The protein salability decreased significantly in egg white and yolk with increasing radiation dose. These Results Suggest that gamma irradiation reduce the freshness of shell eggs and improving important functional properties such as to foaming ability and foaming capacity. Gamma irradiation can also be applied to the egg breaking process sine irradiation reduces the viscosity of egg white and yolk, which can allow egg whites and yolks to be separated with greater efficiency. (Author)

  6. Radiation processing of leafy vegetables to ensure their microbial safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khade, H.D.; Jain, M.P.; Satyendra, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Leafy vegetables which are consumed in raw form such as spinach, coriander and mint were found to be heavily burdened with microbial load including presumptive coliform, an indicator of pathogenic contaminations. Total aerobic plate counts in fresh spinach, coriander and mint samples collected from different location of Mumbai and nearby cities were found to be in the order of ∼ 10 7 to ∼ 10 8 CFU/g. In these samples yeast and mould count was in the order of ∼10 5 CFU/g and presumptive coliform in the order of ∼ 10 4 to ∼10 5 CFU/g. As per USFDA coliform load in the food commodity should be nil. The finding thus indicates that these fresh vegetables are not safe for raw consumption. Hence there is utmost need of process which can ensure the safety by reducing their microbial load below permissible level (<10 4 CFU/gm) and coliform load to nil without affecting the appearance and quality of such produce. In this study gamma radiation was used for hygienization of leafy vegetables. The sample were first cleaned in potable water followed by sodium hypochlorite wash (200 ppm for 20 min), air dried, packed in styrofoam based tray, wrapped with cling film and radiation processed at 1 to 2.5 kGy and stored at 4 and 10℃ . Post irradiation microbiological analysis of radiation processed samples was carried out at in 2 kGy irradiated samples total plate count was below ∼10 3 CFU/g and presumptive coliform count was below detectable level. Yeast and mould count in these samples also reduced to below ∼ 10 3 CFU/g. Based on the study the following combination treatment can be given to raw leafy vegetables, washing with potable water (5 min) → sodium hypochlorite (200 ppm 20 min) wash → Air drying → Packaging in styrofoam based tray and wrapping with cling film → Irradiation at 2 kGy → storage at 4℃ . Besides ensuring safety the treatment also resulted in increased shelf life extension of the commodities up to 20 days. (author)

  7. Dosimetry study for electron beam irradiation in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunaga, Hiromi; Haruyama, Yasuyuki; Takizawa, Haruki; Kojima, Takuji; Yotsumoto, Keiichi

    1995-01-01

    For certain critical applications such as medical device sterilization and food irradiation, accurate calibration of electron energy and absorbed dose is required to assure the quality of irradiated products. To meet this requirement, TRCRE, JAERI has carried out research and development on high dose radiation dosimetry for electron beams in the energy range used in radiation processing (0.15 - 3.0 MeV). JAERI has developed a simultaneous electron beam energy and dosimeter calibration system that consist of a total absorption calorimeter, an electron current density meter, and a stacked thin-film dosimeter set. For low energy electrons, where it is important to measure the depth-dose profile in materials with high depth resolution, we studied the feasibility of a method using Gafchromic film dosimeters. This film, which has an 8-μm thick sensitive layer, is combined with a stepped array of absorber films of the same thickness to produce a high-resolution depth-dose profile on the Gafchromic film. The depth-dose profile obtained in this manner has about five times greater resolution than conventional radiochromic film dosimetry. (author)

  8. [Biomarkers of radiation-induced DNA repair processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallard, Alexis; Rancoule, Chloé; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Espenel, Sophie; Sauvaigo, Sylvie; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Claire; Magné, Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    The identification of DNA repair biomarkers is of paramount importance. Indeed, it is the first step in the process of modulating radiosensitivity and radioresistance. Unlike tools of detection and measurement of DNA damage, DNA repair biomarkers highlight the variations of DNA damage responses, depending on the dose and the dose rate. The aim of the present review is to describe the main biomarkers of radiation-induced DNA repair. We will focus on double strand breaks (DSB), because of their major role in radiation-induced cell death. The most important DNA repair biomarkers are DNA damage signaling proteins, with ATM, DNA-PKcs, 53BP1 and γ-H2AX. They can be analyzed either using immunostaining, or using lived cell imaging. However, to date, these techniques are still time and money consuming. The development of "omics" technologies should lead the way to new (and usable in daily routine) DNA repair biomarkers. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiation processing program at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman Hj. Mohd Dahlan

    2008-01-01

    Radiation processing technology has been proven to enhance industrial efficiency and productivity, improve product quality and competitiveness. For many years, varieties of radiation crosslinkable materials based on synthetic polymers have been studied at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency either in the form of thermoplastic resins, polymer blends or composites. At present, effort is focused towards developing new materials based on natural polymers such as natural rubber and rubber based products, palm oil and palm oil based products and polysaccharide. Hydrogel based on sago starch has been developed and commercialized for face mask. As for wound dressing application, sago hydrogel is still subjected to the clinical evaluation. Sago starch has also been modified for biodegradable products such as bio-film and bio-foam for packaging purposes. On the other hand palm oil based acrylate resins have been synthesized at the Nuclear Malaysia for pressure sensitive adhesive and printing ink applications. Meanwhile, natural rubber is used in a polymer blend and composites for automotive components. All of these products are at various stages of commercialization. (author)

  10. Effect of Radiation Processing on Protein Quality of Certain Legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niely, H.F.G

    2007-01-01

    The Effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas (Pisum satinum L), cow peas (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils (Lens culinaris Med), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas (Cicer arietinurn L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and available lysine (AE). IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AE, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes

  11. Radiation processing of polymers with high energy electron beams: novel materials and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, K.S.S.; Sabharwal, Sunil

    2002-01-01

    High-energy ionizing radiation available from electron beam (EB) accelerators has the ability to create extremely reactive species like free radicals or ions at room temperature or even at low temperature in any phase and in a variety of substrates without addition of external additives. This unique advantage of high energy has been utilized in the recent years to produce better quality materials in an environment friendly and cost-effective manner. The availability of high power and reliable EB accelerators has provided new tools to modify the materials and/or processes for a variety of applications. At BARC, a 2 MeV, 20 kW electron beam accelerator has been the nucleus of developing industrial applications of radiation processing in India for last 10 years. The focus has been on developing technologies that are of relevance to Indian socio-economic conditions and also provide economic benefits to the industry. In the areas of polymer processing industry, commercial success has already been achieved while for exploring its applications in the areas of food and agriculture and environment, technology demonstration plants are being set up. The current status of the programme, the new developments and future direction of radiation processing technology shall be presented in this paper. (author)

  12. Seizing the strategic opportunities of emerging technologies by building up innovation system: monoclonal antibody development in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mao-Yu; Li, Jian; Hu, Hao; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2015-11-04

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), as an emerging technology, have become increasingly important in the development of human therapeutic agents. How developing countries such as China could seize this emerging technological opportunity remains a poorly studied issue in prior literature. Thus, this paper aims to investigate the research and development of mAbs in China based on an innovation system functions approach and probes into the question of how China has been taking advantage of emerging technologies to overcome its challenges of building up a complete innovation system in developing mAbs. Mixed research methods were applied by combining archival data and field interviews. Archival data from the China Food and Drug Administration, Web of Science, the United States Patent and Trademark Office, the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, and the National Science and Technology Report Service were used to examine the status quo of the technology and research and development (R&D) activities in China, while the opinions of researchers and managers in this field were synthesized from the interviews. From the perspective of innovation system functions, technological development of mAb in China is being driven by incentives such as the subsidies from the State and corporate R&D funding. Knowledge diffusion has been well served over the last 10 years through exchanging information on networks and technology transfer with developed countries. The State has provided clear guidance on search of emerging mAb technologies. Legitimacy of mAb in China has gained momentum owing to the implementation of government policies stipulated in the "The Eleventh Five-year Plan" in 2007, as well as national projects such as the "973 Program" and "863 Program", among others. The potential of market formation stays high because of the rising local demand and government support. Entrepreneurial activities for mAb continue to prosper. In addition, the situation of resource supply has been improved

  13. Building up a collaborative network for the surveillance of HIV genetic diversity in Italy: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzia Sanarico

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of infection with HIV-1 non-B subtypes in Italy has been reported to raise, due to increased migration flows and travels. HIV-1 variants show different biological and immunological properties that impact on disease progression rate, response to antiretroviral therapy (ART and sensitivity of diagnostic tests with important implications for public health. Therefore, a constant surveillance of the dynamics of HIV variants in Italy should be a high public health priority. Organization of surveillance studies requires building up a platform constituted of a network of clinical centers, laboratories and institutional agencies, able to properly collect samples for the investigation of HIV subtypes heterogeneity and to provide a database with reliable demographic, clinical, immunological and virological data. AIM: We here report our experience in building up such a platform, co-ordinated by the National AIDS Center of the Istituto Superiore di Sanita, taking advantage of a pilot study aimed at evaluating HIV subtypes diversity in populations of HIV-infected migrant people in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred and thirty four HIV-infected migrants were enrolled in 9 Italian clinical centers located throughout the Italian territory. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs for sample collection were provided by the National AIDS Center to each clinical center. In addition, clinical centers were required to fill up a case report form (crf for each patient, which included demographic, clinical, immunological and virological information. RESULTS: All centers properly collected and stored samples from each enrolled individual. Overall, the required information was correctly provided for more than 90% of the patients. However, some fields of the crf, particularly those including information on the last HIV-negative antibody test and presence of co-infections, were properly filled up in less than 80% of the enrolled migrants. Centers

  14. Radiation processing technology for preparation of fine shaped biomedical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumakura, M.; Yoshida, M.; Asano, M. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Yamanaka, H. (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-06-01

    Radiation processing technology for the preparation of fine shaped biomedical materials was studied from the aspect of a development of the technology and its application. Electron beam irradiation technology was applied to the preparation of fine shaped biomedical materials such as thin polymer films in diagnosis, in which enzyme and antibody were used as a bioactive substance. Electron beam cast-polymerization and electron beam repeat surface-polymerization, that are surface irradiation techniques of homogeneous hydrophilic monomer solution containing enzymes made it possible to form the immobilized antibody films. In this technique, the films with various thicknesses (50-500 [mu]m) were obtained by regulating the electron beam energy. The thin polymer films immobilizing anti-[alpha]-fetoprotein were evaluated from the aspect of immunoagents for diagnosis of liver cancer. (Author).

  15. Radiation processing of food: role in national development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2002-01-01

    Radiation technology can be harnessed in several ways depending on the needs. With adequate storage and packaging regimes it increases the possibilities of handling and distribution of farm produce, thereby improving its supply and management. It can add value to the product by improving its hygiene and quarantine. This is becoming increasingly important for ensuring biosecurity in international trade. Being a newly emerging technology from laboratory to market place, it may face several hurdles. These hurdles may involve engineering or technological challenges during scale-up, post-processing handling and management, problems of security of facilities, consumer attitudes and other unforeseen factors. A small beginning has been made in this direction with a setting up of two technology demonstration units, one for spices and other for onion, by the department. The experience of running these two units and a few more that are contemplated the private sector would probably determine the role the technology would play in future in the national development

  16. Electrophoretic build-up of alternately multilayered films and micropatterns based on graphene sheets and nanoparticles and their applications in flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhiqiang; Du, Jianjun; Cao, Xuebo; Sun, Yinghui; Zhou, Weiya; Hng, Huey Hoon; Ma, Jan; Chen, Xiaodong; Xie, Sishen

    2012-10-22

    Graphene nanosheets and metal nanoparticles (NPs) have been used as nano-building-blocks for assembly into macroscale hybrid structures with promising performance in electrical devices. However, in most graphene and metal NP hybrid structures, the graphene sheets and metal NPs (e.g., AuNPs) do not enable control of the reaction process, orientation of building blocks, and organization at the nanoscale. Here, an electrophoretic layer-by-layer assembly for constructing multilayered reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/AuNP films and lateral micropatterns is presented. This assembly method allows easy control of the nano-architecture of building blocks along the normal direction of the film, including the number and thickness of RGO and AuNP layers, in addition to control of the lateral orientation of the resultant multilayered structures. Conductivity of multilayered RGO/AuNP hybrid nano-architecture shows great improvement caused by a bridging effect of the AuNPs along the out-of-plane direction between the upper and lower RGO layers. The results clearly show the potential of electrophoretic build-up in the fabrication of graphene-based alternately multilayered films and patterns. Finally, flexible supercapacitors based on multilayered RGO/AuNP hybrid films are fabricated, and excellent performance, such as high energy and power densities, are achieved. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Improving the hygienic quality of chicken through radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgby-Tetteh, W.

    2010-06-01

    Irradiation is considered one of the most efficient technological processes for the reduction of microorganisms in food, It can be used to improve the safety of food products, and to extend their shelf lives. The aim of this study was to improve the hygienic quality of chicken through radiation processing. As part of the study a microbial assessment of broiler chicken thighs from three retail outlets (supermarket, local markets and farms) was conducted. The total viable count and total coliform counts were determined. Hygienic quality indicator organisms such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated and microbial counts made. Radiation sensitivity test to determine the D 10 (decimal reduction does) of E. coli on chicken at refrigeration and frozen temperature were conducted. D 10 values were 0.22 ± 0.02 and 0.32 ± 0.03 kGy at refrigerated and frozen temperatures respectively. A storage test consisting of an uninoculated pack experiment and a challenge test to explore the effect of irradiation and frozen food storage on the total viable count and survival of E. coli was conducted. Chicken thigh samples were treated with 0 (non irradiated), 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 kGy of gamma irradiation and held frozen for 56 days. The control and irradiated samples were stored at -18 o C and underwent microbial analysis and sensory evaluation at 7 days intervals. It was observed that irradiation and frozen storage reduced microbial loads. There were significant differences in sensory quality characteristics during freezing storage in chicken meat. The combination of irradiation and frozen storage resulted in greater overall reductions on microbial loads thus improving hygienic quality. (au)

  18. Decontamination of Chlorpyrifos packing using ionizing radiation: processing optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Manoel Nunes; Sampa, Maria Helena de Oliveira; Duarte, Celina Lopes

    2007-01-01

    The discharge of empty plastic packing of pesticide can be an environmental concern causing problems to human health, animals and plants if done without inspection and monitoring. Among the commercial pesticides, chlorpyrifos, o, o- Diethyl - o- (3,5,6 - trichloro - 2 - pyridyl) phosphorothioate, has significant importance because of its wide distribution, extensive use and persistence. The most commonly used formulations include the emulsified concentrate, granule, wet powder and dispersible granule has significant importance because of its wide distribution and extensive use and persistence. The hydroxyl .OH attack is the most efficient process of chemical oxidation. The degradation-induced of chlorpyrifos by gamma radiolysis was studied in packaging of high-density polyethylene tree layer coextruded, named COEX, irradiated intact and fragments. The intact packing was irradiated with water and the fragmented packing was irradiated with water and with a solution of 50% of water and 50% of acetonitrile. An AECL 'Gammacell 2201 60 Co source and a multipurpose gamma irradiator were used in the processing. The chemical analysis of the chlorpyrifos and by-products were made using a gas chromatography associated to the mass spectrometry (MSGC-Shimadzu QP5000. Radiation processing of packing in pieces showed higher efficiency in removing chlorpyrifos than whole packing. The presence of water showed fundamental to promote the formation of frees radicals and acetonitrile facilitate the dissolution of chlorpyrifos and consequently its removal. (author)

  19. Decontamination of Chlorpyrifos packing using ionizing radiation: processing optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Manoel Nunes; Sampa, Maria Helena de Oliveira; Duarte, Celina Lopes [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: mnmori@ipen.br; mhosampa@ipen.br; clduarte@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The discharge of empty plastic packing of pesticide can be an environmental concern causing problems to human health, animals and plants if done without inspection and monitoring. Among the commercial pesticides, chlorpyrifos, o, o- Diethyl - o- (3,5,6 - trichloro - 2 - pyridyl) phosphorothioate, has significant importance because of its wide distribution, extensive use and persistence. The most commonly used formulations include the emulsified concentrate, granule, wet powder and dispersible granule has significant importance because of its wide distribution and extensive use and persistence. The hydroxyl .OH attack is the most efficient process of chemical oxidation. The degradation-induced of chlorpyrifos by gamma radiolysis was studied in packaging of high-density polyethylene tree layer coextruded, named COEX, irradiated intact and fragments. The intact packing was irradiated with water and the fragmented packing was irradiated with water and with a solution of 50% of water and 50% of acetonitrile. An AECL 'Gammacell 2201 {sup 60}Co source and a multipurpose gamma irradiator were used in the processing. The chemical analysis of the chlorpyrifos and by-products were made using a gas chromatography associated to the mass spectrometry (MSGC-Shimadzu QP5000. Radiation processing of packing in pieces showed higher efficiency in removing chlorpyrifos than whole packing. The presence of water showed fundamental to promote the formation of frees radicals and acetonitrile facilitate the dissolution of chlorpyrifos and consequently its removal. (author)

  20. Gamma radiation in the conservation Cucurbita moschata processed minimally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Laboratório de Radiobiologia e Ambiente; Harder, Márcia N.C., E-mail: marcia.harder@fatec.sp.gov.br [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Piracicaba (FATEC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dep. Roque Trevisan; Arthur, Paula B.; Pires, Juliana; Filho, Jorge C., E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br, E-mail: juliana.angelo@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on (Cucurbita moschata) processed minimally. The zucchinis were acquired in of Horticulture Department of the ESALQ/ USP, Piracicaba, SP. Brazil, and taken to the laboratory of Food Irradiation of CENA/USP, where they were washed in running water, peeled and cut in cubes. The squash cubes were dipped in a solution of sodium hypochlorite 15ml/L for 4 minutes and kept in plastic box (polypropylene). They were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control), 1.0 and 2.0 kGy, in a source of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 with a dose rate of 0.666 kGy/h, and stored in temperature of 5°C. After 1, 3 and 7 days of irradiation were realized analyses of: color (factors L, a, b), pH, Brix and acidity. By obtained results conclude that there is not statistics difference between the treatments processed by irradiation and the control. Therefore the dose of 2.0 kGy can be used to reduce the level of microbial load without affects the physical chemical characteristics of minimally processed zucchini. (author)

  1. Gamma radiation in the conservation Cucurbita moschata processed minimally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Arthur, Valter

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on (Cucurbita moschata) processed minimally. The zucchinis were acquired in of Horticulture Department of the ESALQ/ USP, Piracicaba, SP. Brazil, and taken to the laboratory of Food Irradiation of CENA/USP, where they were washed in running water, peeled and cut in cubes. The squash cubes were dipped in a solution of sodium hypochlorite 15ml/L for 4 minutes and kept in plastic box (polypropylene). They were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control), 1.0 and 2.0 kGy, in a source of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 with a dose rate of 0.666 kGy/h, and stored in temperature of 5°C. After 1, 3 and 7 days of irradiation were realized analyses of: color (factors L, a, b), pH, Brix and acidity. By obtained results conclude that there is not statistics difference between the treatments processed by irradiation and the control. Therefore the dose of 2.0 kGy can be used to reduce the level of microbial load without affects the physical chemical characteristics of minimally processed zucchini. (author)

  2. Development of Food Preservation and Processing Technologies by Radiation Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun

    2007-07-01

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following: As the first cooperative venture business technically invested by National Atomic Research Development Project, institute/company's [technology-invested technology foundation No. 1] cooperative venture, Sun-BioTech Ltd., was founded and stated its business. This suggested new model for commercialization and industrialization of the research product by nation-found institute. From the notice of newly approved product list about irradiated food, radiation health related legal approval on 7 food items was achieved from the Ministry of health and wellfare, the Korea Food and Drug Administration, and this contributed the foundation of enlargement of practical use of irradiated food. As one of the foundation project for activation of radiation application technology for the sanitation and secure preservation of special food, such as military meal service, food service for patient, and food for sports, and instant food, such as ready-to-eat/ready-to-cook food, the proposal for radiation application to the major military commander at the Ministry of National Defence and the Joint Chiefs of Staff was accepted for the direction of military supply development in mid-termed plan for the development of war supply. Especially, through the preliminary research and the development of foundation technology for the development of the Korean style space food and functional space food, space Kimch with very long shelf life was finally developed. The development of new item/products for food and life science by combining RT/BT, the development of technology for the elimination/reduction of

  3. Development of Food Preservation and Processing Technologies by Radiation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun [and others

    2007-07-15

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following: As the first cooperative venture business technically invested by National Atomic Research Development Project, institute/company's [technology-invested technology foundation No. 1] cooperative venture, Sun-BioTech Ltd., was founded and stated its business. This suggested new model for commercialization and industrialization of the research product by nation-found institute. From the notice of newly approved product list about irradiated food, radiation health related legal approval on 7 food items was achieved from the Ministry of health and wellfare, the Korea Food and Drug Administration, and this contributed the foundation of enlargement of practical use of irradiated food. As one of the foundation project for activation of radiation application technology for the sanitation and secure preservation of special food, such as military meal service, food service for patient, and food for sports, and instant food, such as ready-to-eat/ready-to-cook food, the proposal for radiation application to the major military commander at the Ministry of National Defence and the Joint Chiefs of Staff was accepted for the direction of military supply development in mid-termed plan for the development of war supply. Especially, through the preliminary research and the development of foundation technology for the development of the Korean style space food and functional space food, space Kimch with very long shelf life was finally developed. The development of new item/products for food and life science by combining RT/BT, the development of technology for the elimination/reduction of

  4. Development of Food Preservation and Processing Technologies by Radiation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun (and others)

    2007-07-15

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following: As the first cooperative venture business technically invested by National Atomic Research Development Project, institute/company's [technology-invested technology foundation No. 1] cooperative venture, Sun-BioTech Ltd., was founded and stated its business. This suggested new model for commercialization and industrialization of the research product by nation-found institute. From the notice of newly approved product list about irradiated food, radiation health related legal approval on 7 food items was achieved from the Ministry of health and wellfare, the Korea Food and Drug Administration, and this contributed the foundation of enlargement of practical use of irradiated food. As one of the foundation project for activation of radiation application technology for the sanitation and secure preservation of special food, such as military meal service, food service for patient, and food for sports, and instant food, such as ready-to-eat/ready-to-cook food, the proposal for radiation application to the major military commander at the Ministry of National Defence and the Joint Chiefs of Staff was accepted for the direction of military supply development in mid-termed plan for the development of war supply. Especially, through the preliminary research and the development of foundation technology for the development of the Korean style space food and functional space food, space Kimch with very long shelf life was finally developed. The development of new item/products for food and life science by combining RT/BT, the development of technology for the elimination/reduction of

  5. Advanced processing of CdTe pixel radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gädda, A.; Winkler, A.; Ott, J.; Härkönen, J.; Karadzhinova-Ferrer, A.; Koponen, P.; Luukka, P.; Tikkanen, J.; Vähänen, S.

    2017-12-01

    We report a fabrication process of pixel detectors made of bulk cadmium telluride (CdTe) crystals. Prior to processing, the quality and defect density in CdTe material was characterized by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The semiconductor detector and Flip-Chip (FC) interconnection processing was carried out in the clean room premises of Micronova Nanofabrication Centre in Espoo, Finland. The chip scale processes consist of the aluminum oxide (Al2O3) low temperature thermal Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), titanium tungsten (TiW) metal sputtering depositions and an electroless Nickel growth. CdTe crystals with the size of 10×10×0.5 mm3 were patterned with several photo-lithography techniques. In this study, gold (Au) was chosen as the material for the wettable Under Bump Metalization (UBM) pads. Indium (In) based solder bumps were grown on PSI46dig read out chips (ROC) having 4160 pixels within an area of 1 cm2. CdTe sensor and ROC were hybridized using a low temperature flip-chip (FC) interconnection technique. The In-Au cold weld bonding connections were successfully connecting both elements. After the processing the detector packages were wire bonded into associated read out electronics. The pixel detectors were tested at the premises of Finnish Radiation Safety Authority (STUK). During the measurement campaign, the modules were tested by exposure to a 137Cs source of 1.5 TBq for 8 minutes. We detected at the room temperature a photopeak at 662 keV with about 2 % energy resolution.

  6. Build-up of the silicon micro-strip detector array in ETF of HIRFL-CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pengfei; Li Zhankui; Li Haixia

    2014-01-01

    Silicon micro-strip detectors have been widely used in the world-famous nuclear physics laboratories due to their better position resolution and energy resolution. Double-sided silicon micro-strip detectors with a position resolution of 0.5 mm × 0.5 mm, have been fabricated in the IMP (Institute of Modern Physics, CAS) by using microelectronics technology. These detectors have been used in the ETF (External Target Facility) of HIRFL-CSR, as ΔE detectors of the ΔE-E telescope system and the track detectors. With the help of flexibility printed circuit board (FPCB) and the integrated ASIC chips, a compact multi-channel front-end electronic board has been designed to fulfill the acquisition of the energy and position information of the Silicon micro-strip detectors. It is described in this paper that the build-up of the Silicon micro-strip detector array in ETF of HIRFL-CSR, the determination of the energy resolution of the detector units, and the energy resolution of approximately 1% obtained for 5∼9 MeV α particles in vacuum. (authors)

  7. Rigging dark haloes: why is hierarchical galaxy formation consistent with the inside-out build-up of thin discs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon, C.; Pogosyan, D.; Kimm, T.; Slyz, A.; Devriendt, J.; Dubois, Y.

    2011-12-01

    State-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations show that gas inflow through the virial sphere of dark matter haloes is focused (i.e. has a preferred inflow direction), consistent (i.e. its orientation is steady in time) and amplified (i.e. the amplitude of its advected specific angular momentum increases with time). We explain this to be a consequence of the dynamics of the cosmic web within the neighbourhood of the halo, which produces steady, angular momentum rich, filamentary inflow of cold gas. On large scales, the dynamics within neighbouring patches drives matter out of the surrounding voids, into walls and filaments before it finally gets accreted on to virialized dark matter haloes. As these walls/filaments constitute the boundaries of asymmetric voids, they acquire a net transverse motion, which explains the angular momentum rich nature of the later infall which comes from further away. We conjecture that this large-scale driven consistency explains why cold flows are so efficient at building up high-redshift thin discs inside out.

  8. DC Model Cable under Polarity Inversion and Thermal Gradient: Build-Up of Design-Related Space Charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Adi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the field of energy transport, High-Voltage DC (HVDC technologies are booming at present due to the more flexible power converter solutions along with needs to bring electrical energy from distributed production areas to consumption sites and to strengthen large-scale energy networks. These developments go with challenges in qualifying insulating materials embedded in those systems and in the design of insulations relying on stress distribution. Our purpose in this communication is to illustrate how far the field distribution in DC insulation systems can be anticipated based on conductivity data gathered as a function of temperature and electric field. Transient currents and conductivity estimates as a function of temperature and field were recorded on miniaturized HVDC power cables with construction of 1.5 mm thick crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE insulation. Outputs of the conductivity model are compared to measured field distributions using space charge measurements techniques. It is shown that some features of the field distribution on model cables put under thermal gradient can be anticipated based on conductivity data. However, space charge build-up can induce substantial electric field strengthening when materials are not well controlled.

  9. Process for hardening an alkyd resin composition using ionizing radiation. [electron beams, gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T; Murata, K; Maruyama, T

    1969-11-27

    In an alkyd resin composition having free hydroxide radicals and containing a conjugated unsaturated fatty acid and/or oil as a component thereof, a process for hardening an alkyd resin composition comprises the steps of dissolving into a vinyl monomer, the product obtained by the semi-esterification reaction of said hydroxide radicals with acid anhydrides having polymerizable radicals and hardening by ionizing radiation to provide a coating with a high degree of cross-linking, with favorable properties such as toughness, hardness, chemical resistance and resistance to weather and with the feasibility of being applied as the ground and finish coat on metals, wood, paper, outdoor construction or the like. Any kind of ionization radiation, particularly accelerated electron beams, ..gamma.. radiation can be used at 50/sup 0/C to -5/sup 0/C for a few seconds or minutes, permitting continuous operation. In one example, 384 parts of phthalic anhydride, 115 parts of pentaerythritol, 233 parts of trimethylol ethane, 288 parts of tung fatty acid and 49 parts of para-tertiary-butyl benzoic acid are mixed and heated with 60 parts of xylene to an acid value of 12. In addition, 271 parts of maleic anhydride and 0.6 parts of hydroquinone are admixed with the content and heated to terminate the reaction. 100 parts of a 50% stylene solution of this alkyd resin are mixed with 1 part of a 60% toluene solution of cobalt naphthenate, and then coated on a glass plate and irradiated with high energy electron beams of 300 kV with a dose of 5 Mrad for 1 sec.

  10. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The basic facts about radiation are explained, along with some simple and natural ways of combating its ill-effects, based on ancient healing wisdom as well as the latest biochemical and technological research. Details are also given of the diet that saved thousands of lives in Nagasaki after the Atomic bomb attack. Special comment is made on the use of radiation for food processing. (U.K.)

  11. UDAD, Radiation Exposure to Man at Uranium Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momeni, M.H.; Yuan, Y.; Zielen, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: The Uranium Dispersion and Dosimetry (UDAD) program provides estimates of potential radiation exposure to individuals and to the general population in the vicinity of a uranium processing facility such as a uranium mine or mill. Only transport through the air is considered. Exposure results from inhalation, external irradiation from airborne and ground- deposited activity, and ingestion of foodstuffs. Individual dose commitments, population dose commitments, and environmental dose commitments are computed. The program was developed for application to uranium mining and milling; however, it may be applied to dispersion of any other pollutant. 2 - Method of solution: The removal of radioactive particles from a contaminated area such as uranium tailings by wind action is estimated from theoretical and empirical wind-erosion equations according to the wind speed, particle size distribution, surface roughness, and other parameters. Atmospheric concentrations of radioactivity from specific sources are calculated by means of a dispersion-deposition-resuspension model. Source depletion as a result of deposition, fallout of the heavier particulates, and radioactive decay and ingrowth of radon daughters are included in a sector-averaged, Gaussian plume dispersion model. The average air concentration at any given receptor location is assumed to be constant during each annual release period, but to increase from year to year because of resuspension. Surface contamination is estimated by including buildup from deposition, ingrowth of radio- active daughters, and removal by radioactive decay, weathering, and other environmental processes. Deposition velocity is estimated on the basis of particle size, density, and physical and chemical environmental conditions which influence the behavior of the smaller particles. Calculation of the inhalation dose to an individual is based on the ICRP Task Group Lung Model (TGLM). Estimates of the dose to

  12. Assessment of Antioxidant Properties of Radiation Processed Lupin Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niely, H.F.G.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the radiation processing of lupin seeds (Lupinus albus spp. Giza 2) were carried out at dose levels of 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy. The chemical composition (protein, fat, total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids and fatty acids) and antioxidant properties of its methanolic extracts were assessed. The result showed that there were non-significant changes observed for protein, fat and ash of processed samples as compared with non-irradiated samples. Meanwhile, the crude fiber was decreased linearly as a function of radiation dose. The total phenolic compounds were increased by 9.92%, 11.75% and 13.82% and flavonoids by 2.5%, 7.1% and 7.5% for the 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples, respectively. Regarding lupin fatty acid contents, the results indicated that gamma irradiation up to 10 kGy did not cause important changes in the percentage of the fatty acids. At 7.5 and 10.0 mg/ml of sample concentration, the antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts for 2.5 to 10 kGy irradiated lupin seeds were significantly higher than those of methanolic extracts of the non-irradiated control. Reducing powers of methanolic extracts from lupin irradiated at 2.5 and 5 kGy were comparable except for 10 kGy irradiated lupin seeds, and had more power than methanolic extracts from non-irradiated lupin. The reducing powers of the methanolic extract from 10 kGy irradiated lupin was decreased at all concentrations (from 0.5 to 10 mg/ml) than of methanolic extracts from non-irradiated or irradiated lupin seeds at 2.5 and 5 kGy. At 2.5 mg/ml, all methanolic extracts showed excellent scavenging abilities of 91.6 to 103.27% against DPPH radicals. The scavenging abilities of methanolic extracts from 2.5 to 10 kGy irradiated lupin were better than that of the non-irradiated control at 10 mg/ml. With irradiation at 2.5-10 kGy, lupin seeds showed higher chelating ability on ferrous ions than did the non-irradiated control. It could be concluded that gamma irradiation of lupin

  13. Economic evaluation of radiation processing in urban solid wastes treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carassiti, F.; Lacquaniti, L.; Liuzzo, G.

    During the last few years, quite a number of studies have been done, or are still in course, on disinfection of urban liquid wastes by means of ionizing radiations. The experience gained by SANDIA pilot plant of irradiation on dried sewage sludge, together with the recently presented conceptual design of another plant handling granular solids, characterized by high efficiency and simple running, have shown the possibility of extending this process to the treatment of urban solid wastes. As a matter of fact, the problems connected to the pathogenic aspects of sludge handling are often similar to those met during the disposal of urban solid wastes. This is even more so in the case of their reuse in agriculture and zootechny. The present paper introduces the results of an analysis carried out in order to evaluate the economical advantage of inserting irradiation treatment in some process scheme for management of urban solid wastes. Taking as an example a comprehensive pattern of urban solid wastes management which has been analysed and estimated economically in previous works, we first evaluated the extra capital and operational costs due to the irradiation and then analysed economical justification, taking into account the increasing commercial value of the by-products.

  14. Process of coping with intracavity radiation treatment for gynecologic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nail, L.M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the process of coping with the experience of receiving intracavity radiation treatment (ICR) for gynecologic cancer. Data were collected on the outcomes of coping, emotion (Profile of Mood States) and level of function (Sickness Impact Profile), and symptom severity and upset the evening before, during, the day after, and 1 to 2 weeks after treatment. The subjects (N = 28) had a mean age of 52 years, 39% were employed full-time, 56% had occupations as manual workers, 57% had completed 12 or more years of education, and 68% were married or widowed. The treatment required the subjects to be hospitalized on complete bedrest with radiation precautions for an average of 48 hours. Intrauterine devices were used to treat 18 subjects and vaginal applications were used to treat 10 subjects. Negative mood and level of disruption in function were generally low. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no change in negative mood over time while the change in function was attributable to the increase in disruption during treatment. Utilization of affective coping strategies and problem-oriented coping strategies was positively correlated with negative mood and disruption in function over the points of measurement. The results indicate that subjects tolerated ICR well and rapidly resumed usual function following discharge from the hospital, despite the persistence of some symptoms 1 to 2 weeks after treatment. The positive association between the utilization of coping strategies and negative outcomes of coping suggests a need to examine the measurement of coping strategies and consider the possibility that these actions represent a response to a stressful situation rather than a method of dealing with the situation

  15. Healing wounds - radiation processing technology for hydrogel dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Lalit

    2009-01-01

    Uses of hydrogels are known and have several applications in medical field. Drug delivery devices, contact lenses, wound dressing, artificial cartilage's or membranes, vascular prosthesis, gel coated catheters etc., are some of the examples. Due to direct relevance to human health, scientists have been continuously exploring these systems. Generally, hydro (water) gels contain 30-90% of water entrapped in a three dimensional network structure of a hydrophilic polymer. The large water content makes them highly bio-compatible and therefore preferred for use as biomaterials. Some of the hydrophilic polymers used in these applications include poly (vinyl pyrrolidone), poly (ethylene oxide), poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (acrylic acid ). Depending upon the nature of application, the size of these hydrogel can vary from nanometers (nanogels, injectable hydrogels) to centimeters to meters (wound dressing, fire blankets, drug delivery devices and implants). BARC hydrogel dressings have been so far used for treating burns, leprosy ulcers, animal bites, diabetic foot ulcers, herpes, fresh scars, bullet injuries, boils, pimples, sun burns, abrasion, surgical wounds of breast cancer, as bolus for radiation therapy in cancer etc. The use of gels have shown excellent result in diabetic ulcers which definitely provides an alternate to expensive biotech products and relief to expanding population of diabetics in India. Its application and some of the examples are shown in the paper. Other hydrogel based products which are under development in the authors laboratory are radiation processed silver nano-particle hydrogels to treat infected wounds and fire blankets for whole body coverage for protection from fire for defense personnel and fire service people

  16. Application of controlled radiation-induced degradation in polymers: less exploited aspect of radiation processing of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haji Saeid, M.; Guven, O.

    2007-01-01

    Industrial use of ionizing radiation treatment has been most successful in applications related to polymeric materials. The polymer, plastics and rubber industries have benefited from the unique advantages of ionizing radiation since its inception as an industrial tool to modify their properties and manufacture novel materials with value addition to the end product. The established and emerging applications of electron beam processing of polymers are based on the well known ultimate effects of ionizing radiation on polymers namely, crosslinking, curing, grafting and chain scissioning. Radiation-induced crosslinking dominates most applications, whereas the chain scissioning effect is much less explored and currently limited to radiation-induced degradation of Teflon, cellulose and polypropylene. The controlling of radiation-induced degradation for achieving a target average molecular weight or distribution has been evaluated for some polysaccharides, biopolymers and waste inner tubes whereas mitigation of the degradative effects of radiation has been analyzed from the point of view of using certain stabilizers, copolymers and annealing at an appropriate temperature. Several new or highly specialized techniques such as positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. Rutherford backscattering, elastic recoil detection analysis and solid waste NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy have been applied to the study or radiation-induced degradation. New information has been collected on the morphological changes associated with radiation-induced degradation processes, including chain scission, oxidation and free volume alteration. The IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on Controlling of Degradation Effects in Radiation Processing of Polymers dealt with the role and importance of using ionizing radiation in controlling properties of natural and synthetic polymers through its degradative effect. This paper provides a summary of most important results

  17. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting on Application of Isotopes and Radiation: Book 2. Chemistry, Environment, Radiation Process, And Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhadi, F; Sisworo, E L; Maha, M; Ismachin, M; Hilmy, N; Sumatra, M; Mugiono,; Wandowo,; Soebianto, Y S [Center for Application of Isotopes and Radiation, National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1998-07-01

    The aim of the 10th Meeting of the Isotope and Radiation Application is to disseminate the result of research on application of nuclear techniques on agriculture, animal, biology, chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry. The meeting was held in Jakarta, 18-19 February 1998, and there were 6 invited papers and 52 papers indexed individually. This proceeding is divided by two volumes. Volume I and volume II consists of agriculture, animal, biology and chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry, respectively.(ID)

  18. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting on Application of Isotopes and Radiation: Book 2. Chemistry, Environment, Radiation Process, And Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhadi, F.; Sisworo, E.L.; Maha, M.; Ismachin, M.; Hilmy, N.; Sumatra, M.; Mugiono; Wandowo; Soebianto, Y.S.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the 10th Meeting of the Isotope and Radiation Application is to disseminate the result of research on application of nuclear techniques on agriculture, animal, biology, chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry. The meeting was held in Jakarta, 18-19 February 1998, and there were 6 invited papers and 52 papers indexed individually. This proceeding is divided by two volumes. Volume I and volume II consists of agriculture, animal, biology and chemistry, environment, radiation process and industry, respectively.(ID)

  19. THE XMM CLUSTER SURVEY: THE BUILD-UP OF STELLAR MASS IN BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stott, J. P.; Collins, C. A.; Hilton, M.; Capozzi, D.; Sahlen, M.; Lloyd-Davies, E.; Hosmer, M.; Liddle, A. R.; Mehrtens, N.; Romer, A. K.; Miller, C. J.; Stanford, S. A.; Viana, P. T. P.; Davidson, M.; Hoyle, B.; Kay, S. T.; Nichol, R. C.

    2010-01-01

    We present deep J- and K s -band photometry of 20 high redshift galaxy clusters between z = 0.8 and1.5, 19 of which are observed with the MOIRCS instrument on the Subaru telescope. By using near-infrared light as a proxy for stellar mass we find the surprising result that the average stellar mass of Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) has remained constant at ∼9 x 10 11 M sun since z ∼ 1.5. We investigate the effect on this result of differing star formation histories generated by three well-known and independent stellar population codes and find it to be robust for reasonable, physically motivated choices of age and metallicity. By performing Monte Carlo simulations we find that the result is unaffected by any correlation between BCG mass and cluster mass in either the observed or model clusters. The large stellar masses imply that the assemblage of these galaxies took place at the same time as the initial burst of star formation. This result leads us to conclude that dry merging has had little effect on the average stellar mass of BCGs over the last 9-10 Gyr in stark contrast to the predictions of semi-analytic models, based on the hierarchical merging of dark matter halos, which predict a more protracted mass build-up over a Hubble time. However, we discuss that there is potential for reconciliation between observation and theory if there is a significant growth of material in the intracluster light over the same period.

  20. Process of upgrading the radiation protection services in R. Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolovska, L.

    2007-01-01

    The utilization of radiation to be safe, reliable, and clean and environment friendly needs sufficient resources. Sufficient sources for national infrastructure could be professionals in radiation safety, laboratory and service facilities. These facilities and services are needed for intervention, calibration and intercomparison of radiation measuring equipment, personal dosimetry, environmental monitoring, and radioactive waste management. Radiological protection services need to be exercised in a manner that provides the most benefit to licenses and to society to. It should not be too little or too much; it has to be prudent, well based, equitable, and open. And it must be relevant. Based on the analyses of national situation of applications of radiation sources and national technical and professional resources, a centralised approach of radiation services positioning in the radiation legislation has been followed. By the Act, the existing services within the Republic Institute of Public Health Protection have been organized as the Radiation Protection Centre and are defined as a professional and technical service provider. The activities of Radiation Protection Centre are fulfilled through three departments: Radiation dosimetry, Radioecology and Labour medicine department. By the Act, the waste management service has to be established through National waste storage facility for low and intermediate waste. (author)