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Sample records for radiation brno czechoslovakia

  1. Czechoslovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    In 1986, the population of Czechoslovakia stood at 15.5 million, with an annual growth rate of 0.28%. Life expectancy averages 70 years. The literacy rate is 99%. The communist state is divided into 2 semi-autonomous republics: Czech Socialist Republic (Bohemia, Moravia) and the Slovak Socialist Republic (Slovakia). Of the labor force of 7.5 million, 14% are engaged in agriculture, 64% are employed in industry, construction, and commerce, and the remaining 22% are in the services and government sector. Czechoslovakia's gross national product (GNP) was US$128 billion in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 2.3% and a per capita income level of US$8300. The Communist Party controls almost all organized activity, including that of the government in all branches and at all levels. Czechoslovakia has a highly developed, industrialized economy that is tightly linked with the Soviet Union and other Eastern European countries. However, the economy is characterized by low growth, low technological sophistication, and structural imbalances caused by inappropriate investment decisions. The approach to these economic problems has been to continue to uphold central planning and controls. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia cites its efforts to improve the material welfare of the population. There is virtually no unemployment, and women comprise 47% of the labor force. Workers receive ample fringe benefits and there is an extensive social security program. Although the standard of living is difficult to measure, it is one of the highest in the communist world.

  2. Current state and prospects of radiation protection in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klener, V.

    1982-01-01

    The 25th anniversary of the foundation of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Hygiene is an opportunity for outlining the development in the field of radiation hygiene in Czechoslovakia. An integral system of radiation protection in Czechoslovakia involving a number of cooperating institutions is characterized. Specific tasks of radiation hygiene are fulfilled by Regional Hygiene Stations under the methodological guidance of the research institutes of the Ministries of Health of the Czech and Slovak republics. Another important problem of radiation hyaiene is the protection of health in respect to the impact of the nuclear fuel cycle; special attention is paid to reducing doses to the population due to radiodiagnostic procedures. Besides these highlights of its activity, radiation hygiene also controls the use of other sources of ionizing radiation in industry, agriculture and research. (author)

  3. Assessment of nuclear power sources in Czechoslovakia with respect to radiation protection limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melichar, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The principles are presented which underlie the determination of limits of planned population exposure during normal operation of nuclear installations and of reference levels of exceptional population exposure during nuclear power plant accidents. The introduction is discussed of authorized limits and levels in Czechoslovakia the USSR, CMEA countries and Sweden. An estimate is made of the radiation burden of the population during the development of the Czechoslovak nuclear power programme. (E.S.)

  4. LABORARTORY BRNO

    OpenAIRE

    Tománková, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Galerie architektury, moderního umění a designu se nachází na brněnské okružní třídě na křížení ulic Milady Horákové a Koliště. Stavba je typická svojí formou - stuhou, která se vine parcelou a vytváří transparentní, propustnou hmotu a zároveň ji spojuje s okolím. Stavba má 7 nadzemních a 1 podzemní podlaží. V budově se mimo prostory výstavní nachází učebny, přednáškový sál, kavárna a obchod. Gallery of architecture, modern art and design is located on green belt of Brno on the corner of M...

  5. Brno graafilise disaini biennaal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    17. VI-19. X 2008 avatud 23. Brno rahvusvahelisest graafilise disauini biennaalist "What's next in graphic design?". Tanel Kärp toob positiivsete näidetena Brno näitusele jõudnud Mart Andersoni Humala ja Kristjan Jagomäe Enigma kirjatüübid

  6. Perspectives and problems of application of the effects of ionizing radiation in water treatment technology in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacek, K.

    1978-01-01

    Investigations of the possibilities of the utilization of physico-chemical and biological effects of ionizing radiation in water treatment technology has been carried out in Czechoslovakia since 1976. In the area of water sources the radiation recovery of wells clogged with Fe(III) hydroxyoxides as a result of activity of some microorganism begins to be used. Other possible methods of the application of ionizing radiation as increase of disinfection efficiency of chlorination during irradiation, radiation deodorization and discoloration of drinking water are not utilized for economic reasons. In the area of waste water the radiation destruction of solution of some dyestuffs in the presence of charcoal was investigated. This process is complicated and cannot compete with current technologies. Radiation hygienization of sewage sludge with their perspective utilization as fertilizers was also investigated. At present a part of sewage sludge is agrotechnically used, yet with various restrictions. Technical and economic analysis showed that hygienization using electron accelerators would be very desirable as soon as renewed hygienic regulations of sludge depositions become valid. (Auth.)

  7. Case study - Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovar, P.

    1986-01-01

    In the lecture Case Study - Czechoslovakia with the sub-title 'Unified System of Personnel Preparation for Nuclear Programme in Czechoslovakia' the actual status and the current experience of NPP personnel training and preparation in Czechoslovakia are introduced. The above mentioned training system is presented and demonstrated by the story of a proxy person who is going to become shift engineer in a nuclear power plant in Czechoslovakia. (orig./HP)

  8. Radiopharmaceuticals in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hron, M.; Kronrad, L.; Svoboda, K.; Melichar, F.

    1986-01-01

    The history is briefly described of the production of radiopharmaceuticals in Czechoslovakia for nuclear medicine purposes. 131 I-labelled orthoiodohippurate and rose Bengal were first produced. Currently, 99m Tc is the most frequently requested radionuclide for radiopharmaceutical labelling. The preparation of 99m Tc is described in detail, a flow chart is shown and the network of 99m Tc distribution to hospitals outlined. In addition of 99m Tc and 131 I, UJV Rez produces other radionuclides for nuclear medicine, such as 113m In, 67 Ga, 35 S, 32 P, 203 Hg, 85 Sr. The methods are being developed of the production of 201 Tl, 125 I and 131 I-labelled bromosulfophthalein. (E.S.)

  9. The physics of the low-temperature plasma in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kracik, J.

    1985-01-01

    A survey is given of low-temperature plasma research in Czechoslovakia since 1954 and its main results are pointed out. In the first years, various processes in electric discharges and electromagnetic acceleration of plasma clusters were studied at Czechoslovak universities and in the Institute of Physics. In the study of ionization waves, Czechoslovak physicists achieved world priority. Later on, low-temperature plasma investigation began in the Institute of Plasma Physics, founded in 1959. The issues of plasma interaction with the solid state and plasma applications in plasma chemistry were studied mainly by its Department of Applied Plasma Physics. The main effort of this group, transferred recently to the Institute of Physics, is aimed at thin film production and plasma-surface interactions; similar experimental studies are also carried out at universities in Brno and Bratislava. Last but not least, arc spraying of powder materials using water-cooled plasmatrons is being developed by the Department of Plasma Technology of the Institute of Plasma Physics. (J.U.)

  10. Czechoslovakia's changing health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffel, M W; Raffel, N K

    1992-01-01

    Before World War II, Czechoslovakia was among the most developed European countries with an excellent health care system. After the Communist coup d'etat in 1948, the country was forced to adapt its existing health care system to the Soviet model. It was planned and managed by the government, financed by general tax money, operated in a highly centralized, bureaucratic fashion, and provided service at no direct charge at the time of service. In recent years, the health care system had been deteriorating as the health of the people had also been declining. Life expectancy, infant mortality rates, and diseases of the circulatory system are higher than in Western European countries. In 1989, political changes occurred in Czechoslovakia that made health care reform possible. Now health services are being decentralized, and the ownership of hospitals is expected to be transferred to communities, municipalities, churches, charitable groups, or private entities. Almost all health leaders, including hospital directors and hospital department heads, have been replaced. Physicians will be paid according to the type and amount of work performed. Perhaps the most important reform is the establishment of an independent General Health Care Insurance Office financed directly by compulsory contributions from workers, employers, and government that will be able to negotiate with hospitals and physicians to determine payment for services.

  11. Radon risk map of the city Brno

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansky, J.

    2000-01-01

    Data of radon risk mapping of the city Brno area from 1992 to 1999 were collected from databases of six private companies measuring radon risk there. The data sets are completed now. The first results are presented in this paper. In the city Brno area only low (385 measured sites) and medium (300) radon risk categories were found. The largest number of measured areas were situated in places with loess and loess loam (total quantity 344 sites, with medium radon risk category 158 sites), recent fluvial sediments (64, 32) and anthropogenous deposits (61, 23). High values of radon volume activity in soil gas were found predominantly in Quaternary sediments and in granodiorite, type Veverska Bityska, low values in leucotonalite and metabasalt. (author)

  12. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostalova, M.; Suk, J.; Kolar, S.

    1991-12-01

    In this paper are presented important findings on the potential for energy conservation and carbon emissions reduction over the coming decades in Czechoslovakia. The authors describe the state of the energy use in Czechoslovakia today and the measures required to transform its energy system to a market-based economy oriented towards the environmental goal of decreased energy intensity. This work furthers our understanding of the need for energy efficiency in the newly forming market economies of East and Central Europe. This paper is part of a series of country studies sponsored by the Global Climate Division of the Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). We have completed similar studies in Canada, the former Soviet Union, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Poland the United Kingdom, and the United States. Research is currently underway or planned in Bulgaria, Romania, and Ukraine

  13. The Soviet Decision to Invade Czechoslovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    inuary 1976 DDC - ’■’ rv > Canoron Station O T "> 1 ." Mexancria The caveat appearing on the title pi c.r. ol: Center for hib- avanced^earch...Soviets viewed the political developments in Czechoslovakia in 1968 with alarm bordering on paranoia, conditioned by the "dagger" phobia and by...published its Action Program entitled "The Czechoslovak Road to Socialism ," a program described by a Western authority as "a remarkable

  14. Pulsed magnetotherapy in Czechoslovakia--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerabek, J

    1994-01-01

    Pulsed magnetotherapy has been used in Czechoslovakia for more than one decade. It has been proved that this type of physical therapy is very efficient mainly in rheumatic diseases, in paediatrics (sinusitis, enuresis), and in balneological care of patients suffering from ischaemic disorders of lower extremities. Promising results have also been obtained in neurological diseases (multiple sclerosis, spastic conditions) and in ophthalmology, in degenerative diseases of the retina.

  15. Educating personnel for nuclear technology in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otcenasek, P.

    1980-01-01

    The basic preconditions are discussed of educating personnel for nuclear power and nuclear technology in Czechoslovakia. In educating specialists, the high societal significance of nuclear power and the need to obtain qualified personnel for safeguarding safety and reliability of nuclear facilities operation should primarily be borne in mind. The system of training applies not only to operating and maintenance personnel of nuclear power plants but also to fuel and power generation, transport, engineering, building industry, health care, education and other personnel. (J.B.)

  16. Cycle Transport in Cities – Best Practices versus Brno

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kallabová, Eva; Navrátil, Josef; Zemanová, V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2009), s. 16-27 ISSN 1210-8812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : cycle transport, Brno * good examples * questionnaire survey * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://www.scopus.com/record/display.url?eid=2-s2.0-70449368206&origin=resultslist&sort

  17. The Czechoslovak-Polish Club in Brno (1925–1939)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baron, Roman

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2011), s. 43-64 ISSN 1803-6546 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80150510 Keywords : Czechoslovak-Polish solidarity * Czechoslovak-Polish relations * Brno * associations * Interwar Period Subject RIV: AB - History

  18. Coal plows in underground mines in Czechoslovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasek, J.; Klimek, M.

    1980-05-01

    This article discusses factors which influence the possibility of using coal plows for mining black coal seams in Czechoslovakia. Seams inclined at angles up to 40 degrees can be mined by plows. Another factor which influences plow work is ease of separating coal seam from the direct roof: the plow can be used in seams with good or average separation, and can not be used in seams with roofs difficult to separate from the seam. Quality of rocks surrounding the coal seam: If the stability of the roof is low and strength of rock is low and roof falls occur easily coal plows can not be used. From among three classes of rock in Czechoslovakia plows can be used only in the class characterized by the highest strength. Intense seam dislocations are one of the most important difficulties in using coal plows. Plows can be used if height of seam dislocations is not greater than 40% of the seam thickness. Further factors which influence the possibility of using coal plows (coal resistance to cutting, features of cutting elements of the plow, specific features of the plow mechanism etc.) are also discussed. A method for assessing advantages and disadvantages of using coal plows in given circumstances is presented. (10 refs.) (In Czech)

  19. Innovation of power management structure in Czechoslovakia and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cibula, M

    1979-01-01

    The estimate is briefly indicated of power demand in Czechoslovakia till 1990 with the objective of attaining 142 mil. tonnes of specific fuel in that year. The demand will be met from domestic resources by 49%, exports by 44.2% and nuclear power by 6.8%. A brief comparison is presented of capital and fuel costs of brown coal fired power plants, hydroelectric plants and nuclear power plants in Czechoslovakia in 1990.

  20. Participation of Czechoslovakia in the beginnings of international cooperation on peaceful use of atomic energy (IAEA, UNSCEAR, ICRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesinska, E.

    2006-01-01

    The former Czechoslovakia, as a producer or natural uranium and a country heading to construction of nuclear power stations, took an active part in the establishment of international cooperation in peaceful use of atomic energy in the mid-1950s. Its 17-member delegation attended the 1 st International Conference on Peaceful Use of Atomic Energy in Geneva in August 1955. Czechoslovakia was invited to work of the twelve countries on the final draft of the International Atomic Energy Agency Statutes in 1956, it became a member of the IAEA Board of Governors (alternating with Poland), and the first Czechoslovak Governor P. Winkler was elected President of the Board in 1957. Czechoslovakia also was one of the fifteen countries designated to the UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation in 1955. Besides, Czechoslovak specialists participated actively in the work of committees of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for many years. Involvement in the international cooperation on peaceful use of atomic energy represented for Czechoslovakia obligations as well as stimuli to the national development of nuclear fields, including radiobiology. (author)

  1. Nuclear power in Czechoslovakia and Czechoslovakia's come-back to Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, K.

    1991-01-01

    The share of nuclear power plants in electricity generation in Czechoslovakia increased from 6% to 27% over the 1980-1990 period. Conventional power plants have not been contributing to the increase in the generation of electricity since 1980. A new structure is being established for bodies responsible for the development and safety of nuclear power industry. The responsibility for the extent, location and technical design of nuclear power plants has been taken over by the producers and licensees of these facilities. The Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission executes state surveillance over nuclear safety and over nuclear material management. (Z.M.)

  2. Monitoring of water quality of selected wells in Brno district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marková Jana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with two wells in the country of Brno-district (Brčálka well and Well Olšová. The aim of work was monitoring of elementary parameters of water at regular monthly intervals to measure: water temperature, pH values, solubility oxygen and spring yield. According to the client's requirements (Lesy města Brno laboratory analyzes of selected parameters were done twice a year and their results were compared with Ministry of Health Decree no. 252/2004 Coll.. These parameters: nitrate, chemical oxygen demand (COD, calcium and magnesium and its values are presented in graphs, for ammonium ions and nitrite in the table. Graphical interpretation of spring yields dependence on the monthly total rainfall and dependence of water temperature on ambient temperature was utilized. The most important features of wells include a water source, a landmark in the landscape, aesthetic element or resting and relaxing place. Maintaining wells is important in terms of future generations.

  3. Brno: genius loci. 47. mezinárodní hudebněvědné kolokvium, konané při Mezinárodním festivalu Janáček Brno 2012, Brno, 19.-21. listopadu 2012

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bajgarová, Jitka

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1-2 (2013), s. 190-192 ISSN 0018-7003. [Brno: genius loci. 47. mezinárodní hudebněvědné kolokvium, konané při Mezinárodním festival u Janáček Brno 2012. Brno, 19.11.2012-21.11.2012] Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : musicological conference * Brno * genius loci Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  4. The Experimental Biology in Czechoslovakia in 20th Century

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janko, Jan

    12, supplementum 1, - (2003), s. 53 ISSN 1212- 5083 . [Moderne Biologie: Möglichkeiten und Risiken, Hoffnung und Bedrohung. Prag, 05.05.2001-08.05.2001] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z8077915 Keywords : Czechoslovakia * history of life sciences Subject RIV: AB - History

  5. National minorities in Brno. The cultural heritage of Roma in excluded locations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšilová, Jana; Poláková, J.; Brožovičová, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 5 (2015), s. 18-34 ISSN 0862-8351 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : National minorities * Roma * Cultural heritage * exclusion * Brno Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  6. Exploitation of wind energy and its potential in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rychetnik, V.

    1990-01-01

    Examples from over the world are shown to demonstrate the potential of wind energy in power generation. The basic types of wind motors and the installed capacities are given. In Czechoslovakia the wind conditions are rather complex. Wind energy can be economically exploited at sites where the mean wind velocity at 10 m above the ground exceeds 4 m/s. This can cover about 2% of annual power generation in Czechoslovakia. The amount of electricity generated and its cost are estimated. The investment into a wind power plant would pay back in several years. The use of small wind power plants to supply, e.g., individual houses will be of limited importance. (M.D.). 4 figs., 8 refs

  7. Waste management and disposal in Czechoslovakia: Practices and proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marek, J.

    1984-01-01

    An overview is presented on the actual practices and planning for the management of radioactive wastes in Czechoslovakia. Types and specific arisings of wastes, applied immobilization processes, and the planning for disposal of reactor wastes are outlined. A comprehensive R and D programme is focussed on the management of reactor wastes, as the spent fuel is returned to the Sovjet Union after a 10 year cooling time. (orig.)

  8. Self-determination and Communism in Czechoslovakia 1921-1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Jašurek

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The author explores the idea of self-determination among communists trough the considerable period of the existence of Czechoslovakia. Its existence significantly influenced communist views on the concept of self-determination. The author identifies several crucial determinants of the development of the principle of self-determination in the communist environment though he chiefly focuses on its dynamics during internal Party struggles for which self-determination appears to be more salient than elsewhere.

  9. LOCAL GOVERNMENT TAX COMPETITION IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA 1918-1938

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Haas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluates tax competition among local governments in Czechoslovakia during the interwar period. Using correlation and regression analysis it proves that (1 local politicians took into account the tax policies of neighbouring jurisdictions when imposing additional tax rates on top of the direct central taxes, (2 there were some regional differences, (3 migration played its role in tax rate setting and (4 the "race-to-the-bottom" did not take place.

  10. Czechoslovakia's participation in IAEA's INIS/AGRIS direct access experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanik, Z.

    1980-01-01

    The task of establishing direct access to the INIS data base is being implemented in Czechoslovakia by the Nuclear Information Centre in Prague-Zbraslav. The aim and meaning of the experiment is to build a Czechoslovak network of terminals linked to the IAEA with the possibility of future connections to other data bases. The first stage is characterized by the use of a dial-up line. (M.S.)

  11. The monitoring of radioactive substances in biological food chains by the veterinary service in Czechoslovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, O [Central State Veterinary Institute, Prague, Czechoslovakia (Czech Republic)

    1986-07-01

    Czechoslovakia has established an environmental monitoring system to protect the hygienic conditions of the environment from the radiation hazard. The control authorities of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food take part in this system in order to collect information on the contamination with radioactive substances of soil, plants, game, food animals, foodstuffs and raw materials, i.e. information on all links of the food chain which extends from animals to man. A radioactive substances detection programme has been launched by the appropriate authorities in agriculture, animal husbandry and veterinary service. The programme includes a two-stage laboratory analysis of radioactive substances. The majority of laboratories covering the programme are already in operation.

  12. The monitoring of radioactive substances in biological food chains by the veterinary service in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawel, O.

    1986-01-01

    Czechoslovakia has established an environmental monitoring system to protect the hygienic conditions of the environment from the radiation hazard. The control authorities of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food take part in this system in order to collect information on the contamination with radioactive substances of soil, plants, game, food animals, foodstuffs and raw materials, i.e. information on all links of the food chain which extends from animals to man. A radioactive substances detection programme has been launched by the appropriate authorities in agriculture, animal husbandry and veterinary service. The programme includes a two-stage laboratory analysis of radioactive substances. The majority of laboratories covering the programme are already in operation

  13. Some aspects of nuclear power development in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simandl, S.; Stefec, V.

    1986-01-01

    Some technical and economic aspects of the development of nuclear power in Czechoslovakia are discussed. Specific conditions include the high population density of the territory and related factors as well as the shortage of raw materials for the construction of technological equipment and for the construction of buildings. It is stated that projects of future nuclear power plants should use reserves, such as are available in the standard project of a WWER-1000 nuclear power plant now being used in Temelin, as against foreign nuclear power plants. This mainly includes a bigger built-up area per installed megawatt of power and a greater number of personnel for operation and maintenance. Also discussed is the world-wide growth of capital costs, of construction time and of the number of workers needed for the construction of nuclear power plants. With the exception of the V-2 nuclear power plant the construction time of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants does not exceed world average. The maximum number of workers required for construction, however, compares unfavourably with advanced capitalist countries. Operating costs in Czechoslovakia are more favourable for nuclear power plants than for coal burning power plants and pumped-storage hydroelectric plants. (Z.M.)

  14. The ethical implications of nuclear power in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, A.

    1991-01-01

    Editor of the journal, the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission (CSAEC) is opening up a discussion on the basic problems of nuclear power in Czechoslovakia. Renowned authorities from the Czechoslovak political and professional community have been invited to contribute. Initiator of the discussion, the author of the paper formulated 5 principal tasks of Czechoslovak nuclear industry for the nearest period to come. CSAEC should only retain the function of State Surveillance over Nuclear Safety; the lowest permissible degree of nuclear safety should be defined for Czechoslovakia; Czechoslovak nuclear law should be modified so as to be compatible with the EC and not only with the IAEA; after completing the first two units of the Temelin nuclear power plant, links of the Czechoslovak nuclear industry should be established to some Western firm; and attitude to the feasibility of further operation of the Bohunice V-1 nuclear power plant and to the conditions of operation of the V-2 nuclear power plant should be formulated. (Z.M.)

  15. Influence of higher education and science on physical strucutre of the city of Brno

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, Antonín; Koutný, J.; Zapletalová, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2009), s. 41-48 ISSN 1899-0142 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Brno University * research * development Subject RIV: AP - Urban, Regional and Transport Planning www.acee-journa.pl

  16. Perception of Urban Renewal: Reflexions and Coherences of Socio-Spatial Patterns (Brno, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunc, J.; Navrátil, J.; Tonev, P.; Frantál, Bohumil; Klusáček, Petr; Martinát, Stanislav; Havlíček, M.; Černík, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2014), s. 66-77 ISSN 2065-4421 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0025 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : urban environment * revitalization * perception * Brno * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://technicalgeography.org/pdf/1_2014/07_kunc.pdf

  17. Radiation chemistry - its Czechoslovak story and comments on general present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednar, J.

    1978-01-01

    The history is outlined of radiation chemistry in Czechoslovakia since 1954 and scientists contributing to the respective stages of its development are listed. Current trends of radiation chemistry in the world are indicated. (J.P.)

  18. Perspectives of the state energy policy in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohal, L.; Cizek, R.; Fiser, M.

    1989-09-01

    Considering the rapid increase of fuel-energy resources, ensuring in individual stages the development of the national economy, the expense in procuring them is growing even more rapidly. At the same time the quality of brown coal which has the decisive share in total resources, is deteriorating. The constant increase of the consumption together with impaired coal quality, has a negative environmental impact. Reducing the energy intensity of the national economy is one of the basic directions of solving these problems. The energy intensity will decrease more than twofold as against the results of the previous years. It is expected that the amount of domestic consumption at the end of the next decade will be approximately at the level of the year 1990. The second line of action adopted within the national energy policy in Czechoslovakia is to change the primary resources structure as well as the energy carriers in final consumption. Beside the marked reduction of the share of liquid fuels in the field of the stationary power engineering, the reduction of the share of solid fuels takes place with the absolute increase of natural gas consumption. With respect to the tendencies to increase the total share of electricity in the final consumption to about 17 per cent, the electricity generated in nuclear power plants in Czechoslovakia will amount to about 50 per cent in 2000. The share of natural gas in the final consumption will increase about twofold against the year 1985. The third, is the gradual construction of integrated energy systems. The aim of the trend is to construct the combined energy-chemical and energy-metallurgical systems characterized by a high degree of vertical and horizontal order enabling the transition to the production of the second generation of organic fuels, the high economy of utilization and conversion of energy, carbon and hydrogen, the permanent solution of ecological problems connected with obtaining, conversion and utilization of energy

  19. Risks and benefits of energy systems in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohal, L.; Erban, P.; Kadlec, J.; Kraus, V.; Trcka, V.

    1984-01-01

    The paper describes the fundamental philosophy of an approach to risk and benefit assessment in the fuel and energy complex in Czechoslovakia. The first part analyses the need to solve the risk and benefit problems stemming from structural changes occurring in the Czechoslovakian fuel and energy complex. The second part describes main features of risk and benefit research with special respect to the fuel and energy complex defined within the framework of the national economy with interfaces to the relevant environment. Furthermore, a glimpse is given of how to assess, using the general philosophy, the risks and benefits of various developing variants of the fuel and energy complex. The third part deals with methodological aspects of such risk and benefit evaluation research with special consideration of the methods of long-term prediction in structural analysis and multi-measure assessment. Finally, further progress in solving these problems in VUPEK and some other Czechoslovakian scientific institutions is briefly noted. (author)

  20. "Our Song!" Nationalism in Folk Music Research and Revival in Socialist Czechoslovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvíl, Matěj

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 4 (2015), s. 397-405 ISSN 1788-6244 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Czechoslovakia * folk music * folk song collections * revival * politics * nationalism * communism Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  1. Secondary Geodiversity and its Potential for Urban Geotourism: A Case Study from Brno City, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubalíková Lucie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary geodiversity (represented by anthropogenic landforms, which can be considered a significant part of geoheritage of certain area can be seen as an important resource for geotourism and geoeducational activities within urban areas. Brno city (Czech Republic is rich in these landforms as well as numerous urban areas. Some of them (especially old quarries and underground spaces are already used for recreation, tourism and leisure or they serve as excursion localities for the university students, some of them are unique from the geoscience point of view and they have also certain added values (historical, archaeological or ecological. However, in some cases, their potential is not fully recognised. The article describes the main anthropogenic landforms within Brno city and analyses their suitability for geotourism and geoeducational activities.

  2. Reingeneering procesů nákupu ZKL Brno, a. s.

    OpenAIRE

    Šnajdrová, Eva

    2009-01-01

    ZKL Brno, a.s. is manufacturer of rolling and special bearings. The introductory part contains definitions of purchase, reengineering, centralization or stock mnagement. Then a short company description and a description of the original condition of the purchase follows. The main goal of this thesis is to find mistakes in the management of purchase with the help of commodity analysis, personnel analysis and stock analysis. In the end there is a new directive for purchasing presented.

  3. Power, ideology and children: Socialist childhoods in Czechoslovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Tesar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There was not one, singular childhood in socialist Czechoslovakia, but many and diverse, plural, childhoods. Spanning over 40 years (1948–1989, the Czechoslovak communist governance produced diverse conceptualisations of childhoods that remain often invisible, unexplored, and the current analyses are at best sketchy and refer mostly to pedagogical nuances of strong ideological pedagogical struggles. One way to explore such an abundance of historical data in a short journal article is to utilise a somewhat personal narrative of a child. This dialogic approach allows the strong presence of the voice of a child, re-told from an adult’s perspective, and it methodologically justifies an approach to thinking and theorising of socialist childhoods through Vaclav Havel’s (1985; 1989; 1990 theoretical thinking that has been utilised in philosophy of education previously (see Tesar, 2015e. There are also other examples of complex and thorough analyses of socialist childhoods in other countries (see for example Aydarova et al, 2016, and theoretical thinking about the socialist child as a foreigner to its own land, can be done through Kristeva’s lens (Arndt, 2015.

  4. The Beginnings of Photography in Central Europe. Friedrich Franz and the First Daguerreotypes in Brno

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnková, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 2 (2015), s. 121-141 ISSN 0308-7298 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP409/11/P834 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : photography * 19th century * daguerreotype * portraiture * Friedrich Franz * Franz Xaver Braumüller * Anton Gindl * Albin Heinrich * Cyril Napp * Josef Carl Lauer * Carl Schuh * Josef Wawra * Andreas Ettingshausen * Voigtländer metal camera * Ackerbaugesellschaft * Brno * Moravia * early photography in Central Europe Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  5. LABORARTORY BRNO

    OpenAIRE

    Krajčová, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Pri hmotovej skladbe som dbala na oslnenie, pohľadové osy, negatívne vplyvy (ako prach a hluk z dopravy) a chodca, ako základnú jednotku života v meste. Začala som uzavretím bloku. Vznikla príliš veľká hmota. Kultúrna inštitúcia ako stavba pre obyvateľov celého mesta by podľa mala byť odlíšená od svojho okolia. Mala by byť výrazna, a iná skladbou konštrukcie, ako aj celým výrazom. V minulosti sa takéto stavby umiestňovali na výrazne miesta, do zelene, kde bol na stavbu dobrý výhľad zo všetkýc...

  6. Czechoslovakia's electrical energy industry with special regard on the development of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulina, A.

    1979-01-01

    In electric energy production and consumption, Czechoslovakia holds a remarkable place. Its development after the second world war can be divided into four characteristic periods. The author summarizes the features of the past development and points out the tasks of the future in which the extension of nuclear power plant building plays an important role. (author)

  7. Stability of Monetary Unions : Lessons from the Break-Up of Czechoslovakia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fidrmuc, J.; Horváth, J.

    1998-01-01

    In 1993, Czechoslovakia experienced a two-fold break-up: On January 1st, the country disintegrated as a political union, while preserving an economic and monetary union. Then, the Czech-Slovak monetary union collapsed on February 8th. We analyze the economic background of the two break-ups, and

  8. Brno (k.ú. Bystrc, okr. Brno-město). Rokle. Neolit. Ojedinělý nález. Povrchový průzkum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kirchner, Karel; Kuča, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 50, 1-2 (2009), s. 253-254 ISSN 1211-7250 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/06/1024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Brno Reservoir * neolithic * surface survey Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  9. Radiation smog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, Z.

    1988-01-01

    The principle is described of the production of radiation smog resulting from radioactive emisions. The differences are discussed in the contamination over the territory of Czechoslovakia following the Chernobyl accident. The higher surface contamination of industrial areas recorded after the accident can be explained by electroprecipitation of industrial impurities with the radicals and ions of the radioactive cloud. (E.S.). 3 figs., 16 refs

  10. Medical decision support and medical informatics education: roots, methods and applications in czechoslovakia and the czech republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the history of medical informatics in Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic. It focuses on the topics of medical informatics education and decision support methods and systems. Several conferences held in Czechoslovakia and in the Czech Republic organized in cooperation with IMIA or EFMI are described. Support of European Union and Czech agencies in several European and national projects focused on medical informatics topics highly contributed to medical informatics development in Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic and to the establishment of the European Center for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Epidemiology as the joint workplace of Charles University in Prague and Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic in 1994.

  11. Trends and evolution of contamination in a well-dated water reservoir sedimentary archive: the Brno Dam, Moravia, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláček, J.; Bábek, O.; Matys Grygar, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 8 (2013), s. 2581-2593 ISSN 1866-6280 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Brno Dam * Dam sediments * Cs-137 dating * Heavy metals * Eutrophication Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.572, year: 2013

  12. Task of radiation hygiene inspection at NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevts, J.; Kunz, Eh.

    1983-01-01

    The task and functions of the radiation-hygiene inspection in Czechoslovakia are presented. The radiation safety related information amounts that are to be presented to the hygiene inspection institutions are determined. The hygiene inspection content and forms at the stages of NPP designing, construction and operation are discussed. The hygiene inspection place is determined within the general radiation safety system [ru

  13. Monitoring of the Green Roofs Installation in Brno-City District, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebrova, Tatiana; Beckovsky, David; Selnik, Petr

    2017-12-01

    In spite of the rapidly growing interest to the green roofs, there is insufficient information about their local quantities and areas in Czech Republic as well as in Central Europe. There is a lack of technical information that leads to the further development, application and environmental contribution of green roofs under local climatic conditions. The purpose of the research is to follow the tendency of how the process of green roofs’ popularization is performed in the Czech Republic and to determine basic parameters of the installed green roofs. These parameters include total quantity, area and the most common roof vegetation type (extensive or intensive); how many green roofs were installed over the last years and as a result, how the proportion of the green roofs to the conventional ones is changing. For initial evaluation Brno-City District was chosen as the next stage of university environmental project EnviHUT following the genesis of green roofs under local weather conditions.

  14. Comparison of the eLearning Solution at MUAF in Brno and Polytechnic University in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Foltýnek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of eLearning support of the university studies is setting up (or was setting up at the universities all over the world. This paper compares the eLearning technologies available at Mendel University in Brno (MUAF, Czech Republic, and Polytechnic University in Madrid (UPM, Spain, in the context of different conditions at both universities. The level of using of these technologies and practical experiences with them are evaluated too. In concrete this paper deals with the systems GATE (GAbinete de TeleEducación and AulaWeb, used at the UPM and system ELIS, used at MUAF. The fifteen-year experiences with development of eLearning at UPM are very valuable study material for the developers of the ELIS system. Some, especially conception properties of the ELIS system, can be, on the other hand, useful for inspiration vice versa.

  15. Advance in radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klener, V.

    1975-01-01

    The development is reviewed of radiation hygiene in Czechoslovakia during the past twenty years since the formation of the branch as an independent discipline. The responsibilities of individual radiation hygiene research institutes in the country are indicated and the main tasks that have been solved so far are briefly outlined, including the research into the incidence of pulmonary cancer in uranium miners in which Czechoslovak radiation hygiene ranks first in the world. (L.O.)

  16. Long-term changes in CO{sub 2} emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia Identifying the drivers of environmental pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone Gingrich; Petra Kuskova; Julia K. Steinberger [University of Klagenfurt, Wien (Austria). Institute of Social Ecology

    2011-02-15

    This study presents fossil-fuel related CO{sub 2} emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia (current Czech Republic and Slovakia) for 1830-2000. The drivers of CO{sub 2} emissions are discussed by investigating the variables of the standard Kaya identity for 1920-2000 and conducting a comparative Index Decomposition Analysis. Proxy data on industrial production and household consumption are analysed to understand the role of the economic structure. CO{sub 2} emissions increased in both countries in the long run. Czechoslovakia was a stronger emitter of CO{sub 2} throughout the time period, but per-capita emissions significantly differed only after World War I, when Czechoslovakia and Austria became independent. The difference in CO{sub 2} emissions increased until the mid-1980s (the period of communism in Czechoslovakia), explained by the energy intensity and the composition effects, and higher industrial production in Czechoslovakia. Counterbalancing factors were the income effect and household consumption. After the Velvet revolution in 1990, Czechoslovak CO{sub 2} emissions decreased, and the energy composition effect (and industrial production) lost importance. Despite their different political and economic development, Austria and Czechoslovakia reached similar levels of per-capita CO{sub 2} emissions in the late 20th century. Neither Austrian 'eco-efficiency' nor Czechoslovak restructuring have been effective in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions to a sustainable level. 43 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Long-term changes in CO{sub 2} emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia. Identifying the drivers of environmental pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingrich, Simone; Steinberger, Julia K. [Institute of Social Ecology, Faculty for Interdisciplinary Studies Vienna, University of Klagenfurt, Schottenfeldgasse 29/5, 1070 Wien (Austria); Kuskova, Petra [Department of Social Geography and Regional Development, Charles University in Prague (Czech Republic)

    2011-02-15

    This study presents fossil-fuel related CO{sub 2} emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia (current Czech Republic and Slovakia) for 1830-2000. The drivers of CO{sub 2} emissions are discussed by investigating the variables of the standard Kaya identity for 1920-2000 and conducting a comparative Index Decomposition Analysis. Proxy data on industrial production and household consumption are analysed to understand the role of the economic structure. CO{sub 2} emissions increased in both countries in the long run. Czechoslovakia was a stronger emitter of CO{sub 2} throughout the time period, but per-capita emissions significantly differed only after World War I, when Czechoslovakia and Austria became independent. The difference in CO{sub 2} emissions increased until the mid-1980s (the period of communism in Czechoslovakia), explained by the energy intensity and the composition effects, and higher industrial production in Czechoslovakia. Counterbalancing factors were the income effect and household consumption. After the Velvet revolution in 1990, Czechoslovak CO{sub 2} emissions decreased, and the energy composition effect (and industrial production) lost importance. Despite their different political and economic development, Austria and Czechoslovakia reached similar levels of per-capita CO{sub 2} emissions in the late 20th century. Neither Austrian 'eco-efficiency' nor Czechoslovak restructuring have been effective in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions to a sustainable level. (author)

  18. Long-term changes in CO(2) emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia-Identifying the drivers of environmental pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Simone; Kušková, Petra; Steinberger, Julia K

    2011-02-01

    This study presents fossil-fuel related CO(2) emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia (current Czech Republic and Slovakia) for 1830-2000. The drivers of CO(2) emissions are discussed by investigating the variables of the standard Kaya identity for 1920-2000 and conducting a comparative Index Decomposition Analysis. Proxy data on industrial production and household consumption are analysed to understand the role of the economic structure. CO(2) emissions increased in both countries in the long run. Czechoslovakia was a stronger emitter of CO(2) throughout the time period, but per-capita emissions significantly differed only after World War I, when Czechoslovakia and Austria became independent. The difference in CO(2) emissions increased until the mid-1980s (the period of communism in Czechoslovakia), explained by the energy intensity and the composition effects, and higher industrial production in Czechoslovakia. Counterbalancing factors were the income effect and household consumption. After the Velvet revolution in 1990, Czechoslovak CO(2) emissions decreased, and the energy composition effect (and industrial production) lost importance. Despite their different political and economic development, Austria and Czechoslovakia reached similar levels of per-capita CO(2) emissions in the late 20th century. Neither Austrian "eco-efficiency" nor Czechoslovak restructuring have been effective in reducing CO(2) emissions to a sustainable level.

  19. The Meeting (Slet оf the Czech Sokol Movement in Brno on June 27-28, 1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotov Viktor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article is devoted to the so called slet of the Czech Sokol (Falcon movement which took place on June 27–28, 1914 in Brno, the capital city of the Margraviate of Moravia, which was a crown land within the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Czech Sokol Union was one of the most powerful nationalistic organizations in the country. Sport was primary, but not the only agenda of the Sokol movement, which was advancing Czech interests since 1862. This festival held on 27th and 28th of June 1914 was the last major Sokol event before the outbreak of World War I. The slet is examined as yet another episode of the national conflict between Czechs and Germans in the region. Officially it took place not in Brno, but in the nearby town of Královo Pole (“King’s field”, where the local authorities were Czech. In fact, this place was one of the urban districts of Brno, but the German-led town council kept it independent not to let the local Czech inhabitants vote at the elections. More then 100 000 participants and spectators of the slet wanted to turn some of the Czech-speaking locals, who were indifferent to the national cause or preferred the German identity, into Czechs and to proclaim Brno a Czech city. In this argument they relied on so called historical and natural rights at the same time. This desire inevitably led to the street clashes. At that time Brno was visited by lots of journalists and public figures from Serbia, Russian Empire and the Slovak lands. The slet was not only a major sporting event, but also a unique opportunity to promote Moravian cultural and artistic trends to the world. Elaborately prepared, the slet was cancelled on its second day, when the information from Sarajevo about an Archduke Franz Ferdinand being assassinated came. The Sokols in Lviv experienced a similar turn of events, when their celebration of the 200th anniversary of Taras Shevchenko’s birth was cancelled due to the bad news from Bosnia. Brno

  20. Between Expulsion and Rescue. The Transports for German-speaking Jews of Czechoslovakia in 1946

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapková, Kateřina

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2018), s. 66-92 ISSN 8756-6583 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ16-01775Y Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : German-speaking Jews * Czechoslovakia * transports Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  1. Postgraduate education in radiodiagnostics. The state over the world and in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heger, L.; Hlava, A.; Elias, P.; Keller, F.S.

    1991-01-01

    The system of postgraduate education in the USA is outlined. Its advantages include concentration of the education into university or major accredited hospitals, from which the physicians go to smaller hospitals already as specialists. Owing to their long-term systematic postgraduate education and training, they acquire their professional skills faster and at a higher standard. In Czechoslovakia, physicians after graduation frequently have to work without cooperation or supervision at health institutions lacking opportunities to pursue the whole discipline. (author). 2 refs

  2. The Psychoprophylactic Method of Painless Childbirth in Socialist Czechoslovakia: from State Propaganda to Activism of Enthusiasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrešanová, Ema

    2016-10-01

    This paper explores the history of the 'psychoprophylactic method of painless childbirth' in socialist Czechoslovakia, in particular, in the Czech and Moravian regions of the country, showing that it substantially differs from the course that the method took in other countries. This non-pharmacological method of pain relief originated in the USSR and became well known as the Lamaze method in western English-speaking countries. Use of the method in Czechoslovakia, however, followed a very different path from both the West, where its use was refined mainly outside the biomedical frame, and the USSR, where it ceased to be pursued as a scientific method in the 1950s after Stalin's death. The method was imported to Czechoslovakia in the early 1950s and it was politically promoted as Soviet science's gift to women. In the 1960s the method became widespread in practice but research on it diminished and, in the 1970s, its use declined too. However, in the 1980s, in the last decade of the Communist regime, the method resurfaced in the pages of Czechoslovak medical journals and underwent an exciting renaissance, having been reintroduced by a few enthusiastic individuals, most of them women. This article explores the background to the renewed interest in the method while providing insight into the wider social and political context that shaped socialist maternity and birth care in different periods.

  3. Nuclear power in Czechoslovakia and its development within the CMEA collaboration framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavel, S.

    1984-01-01

    The state of and prospects for the development of nuclear pwer and energy machine building in Czechoslovakia are considered. In 1980 the NPPs generated 1.5% of the country's energy. It is envisaged that by 1990 the share of NPPs will rise to 9.2% and by 2000 to 15%. Since 1974, when an agreement with the Soviet Union was signed on cooperation and specialization in producing equipment for NPPs, a new industry, nuclear power machine building, has been successfully developed in Czechoslovakia. The production of steam generators, volume compensators, main gate valves, pipelines, special fittings, special pumps and auxiliary systems of the primary circuit has been mastered. Presently, the Czechoslovakian industry is capable of manufacturing above 80% of the whole servicing equipment of WWER-440 power units. Alongside with the USSR, Czechoslovakia has become the second greatest supplier of equipment for NPPs among the COMECON member-states. By 2000 it is planned to put into operation 12 WWER-440 power unit and 6 WWER-1000 power units with the total capacity of 11280 MW. An experimental agro-nuclear complex will soon be constructed in which NPP heat will be utilized for growing vegetables, fruit, mushrooms and for breeding fish

  4. Regulatory inspections in nuclear plants in the field of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hort, M.; Fuchsova, D.

    2014-01-01

    State Office for Nuclear Safety executes state administration and performs inspections at peaceful use of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in the field of radiation protection and nuclear safety. Inspections on radiation protection at nuclear power plants are secured by inspectors of the Department of Radiation Protection in Fuel Cycle, who work at the Regional centre Brno and Ceske Budejovice. (authors)

  5. 8th Liblice Conference on the Statistical Mechanics of Liquids - Brno, Czech Republic, 13-18 June 2010 FOREWORD

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jackson, G.; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 190, 1 Sp.I:Sl (2011), s. 1-2 ISSN 0026-8976. [Liblice Conference on the Statistical Mechanics of Liquids /8./. Brno, 13.06.2010-18.06.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : editorial material * theories of liquids * statistical mechanics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.819, year: 2011

  6. Long-term changes in CO2 emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia-Identifying the drivers of environmental pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingrich, Simone; Kuskova, Petra; Steinberger, Julia K.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents fossil-fuel related CO 2 emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia (current Czech Republic and Slovakia) for 1830-2000. The drivers of CO 2 emissions are discussed by investigating the variables of the standard Kaya identity for 1920-2000 and conducting a comparative Index Decomposition Analysis. Proxy data on industrial production and household consumption are analysed to understand the role of the economic structure. CO 2 emissions increased in both countries in the long run. Czechoslovakia was a stronger emitter of CO 2 throughout the time period, but per-capita emissions significantly differed only after World War I, when Czechoslovakia and Austria became independent. The difference in CO 2 emissions increased until the mid-1980s (the period of communism in Czechoslovakia), explained by the energy intensity and the composition effects, and higher industrial production in Czechoslovakia. Counterbalancing factors were the income effect and household consumption. After the Velvet revolution in 1990, Czechoslovak CO 2 emissions decreased, and the energy composition effect (and industrial production) lost importance. Despite their different political and economic development, Austria and Czechoslovakia reached similar levels of per-capita CO 2 emissions in the late 20th century. Neither Austrian 'eco-efficiency' nor Czechoslovak restructuring have been effective in reducing CO 2 emissions to a sustainable level. - Research Highlights: →CO 2 emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia increased during industrialisation. →The differences were strongest during periods of different political regimes. →The main drivers for differences were energy composition and energy intensity.

  7. Ground beetles (Carabidae on quarry terraces in the vicinity of Brno (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Novotná

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of ground beetles (Carabidae, Coleoptera was monitored in the exhausted limestone quarry of massif Hády near Brno using formaldehyde pitfall traps with a monthly interval of collection. Research was conducted from April to October in 2009 and 2010. The obtained material was investigated on some synecological characteristics and species affiliation to bioindication groups. In total for both years, 462 specimens of 43 species were captured. Most species were found in habitats with vegetation cover in the immediate vicinity of cultivated agricultural land – 441 specimens of 39 species. In the quarry itself only a minimal amount of ground beetles was found – 21 specimens of 11 species. Decrease in the abundance of ground beetles towards the center of the quarry was demonstrated. Next, significant species of Brachinus crepitans, Brachinus explodens and Cicindela sylvicola (endangered species pursuant to Decree 395/1992 Coll. and species listed in the Red List were reported – near threatened Ophonus sabulicola and vulnerable Cylindera germanica (also endangered species pursuant to Decree 395/1992 Coll.

  8. Surveying the Vienna Meridian from Brno to Varaždin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Solarić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction provides a brief overview of using trigonometric chains for determining meridian arc lengths in Europe, as well as their extension to trigonometric networks in order to produce contemporary accurate maps in France. After Ruđer Bošković had visited Croatian-Hungarian Queen and Roman-German Empress Maria Theresa, she ordered Jesuit Joseph Liesganig to survey the meridian from Brno (Soběšice, over Vienna and Graz to Varaždin by establishing and surveying a trigonometric chain. That distance amounts to 320 km, i.e. the difference between latitude of the starting and finishing points of the chain equaled 2° 56' 45.85''. Two baselines were measured directly between Wiener Neustadt and Neunkirchen of 6410.903 Vienna fathom (12 158.175 m and between Seyring and Glizendorf in the Moravian field (Moravské pole, Marchfeld of 6387.862 Vienna fathom (12 114.478 m. Liesganig published previous Vienna Meridian survey results in Philosophical Transactions in London in 1768 and the final results in Latin in Dimensio Graduum Meridiani Viennensis et Hungarici in 1770. His results were quickly criticized and subsequently subjected to validation. Trigonometric point Varaždin is the first and oldest trigonometric point in Croatia.

  9. The role of nuclear power in the reassessment of Czechoslovakia's energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cibula, M.

    1991-01-01

    The role of nuclear industry in an effective solution of Czechoslovakia's economic, energy and ecological problems is discussed. It is concluded that the impacts of slowing-down of the construction of nuclear power plants can only be overcome by extending the operation of the ecologically unfavorable coal-fired power plants; orientation either to the construction of natural gas-fired power plants with combined steam-gas cycles associated with the use of heat, or to electricity imports does not offer a fundamental solution to the above problem. (Z.M.). 5 refs

  10. Study tour of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (formerly Czechoslovakia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee (RWMAC) is the independent body that advises the Secretaries of State for the Environment, Scotland and Wales on civil radioactive waste management issues. In September 1992, a RWMAC Study Group visited the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (CSFR - formerly Czechoslovakia) to learn about the radioactive waste management practices there. This publication reports on the Group's findings. The rapid political change, social conflicts over energy options, growing environmental concern, and lack of financial resources, being experienced by the CSFR, would point to the need for a body similar to RWMAC to advise on an overall policy. (Author)

  11. National report on nuclear power plant control and instrumentation in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirsky, P.; Karpeta, C.

    1986-01-01

    Research, development and design efforts in the field of nuclear power plant I and C systems in Czechoslovakia have been recently aimed at solving the following problems: setting the parameters of the WWER 440 units control and protection systems and testing them in the power phase of commissioning; design and simulation of the WWER 440 units control system performance under the conditions of steam bleeding for a centralized heat supply system; development of a simulation model of the unit WWER 1000 dynamics for the purpose of I and C systems investigation and design; design of innovated I and C systems for WWER 440 and WWER 1000 units

  12. History and the present of women football in the Czech Republic (Czechoslovakia)

    OpenAIRE

    Dědinová, Aneta

    2017-01-01

    Title of bachelor thesis: History and the present of organized woman's football in the Czech Republic/ Czechoslovakia Processed by: Aneta Dědinová Head of Bachelor Thesis: Doc. PhDr. Irena Slepičková, CSc. Aims of the work: Mapping the development and the current form of fiale football in the Czech Republic (hereinafter only the Czech Republic) in clubs and on a global scale. To find out how the situation in female football is perceived by representatives of local clubs and people working in ...

  13. [Self-rated health status and its implications. Population study of pregnant women in Brno].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchalová, M; Kukla, L; Okrajek, P

    2012-12-01

    The subject of self-rated health status of women in fertile age has not yet been investigated in our country. As our study is longitudinal and the same questions-questionnaire items regarding self-rated health of the monitored women are repeated in each investigation phase, we are able to not only find out which factors are related but also verify how this relationship evolves with their ageing, life situation changes and growing up of their children. Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Brno. Pregnant women from the Brno part of ELSPAC study rated their health status for the time period before becoming pregnant, for the first months of pregnancy and for the half of pregnancy. On the four-grade scale of self-reported health status the associations with their personal health-history (from prenatal questionnaires and prenatal and obstetrician health-care network) were investigated. The monitored women rated their pre-pregnancy health-status increasingly worse with increasing age and weight, increasing morbidity, increasing medicine consumption and with increasing number of injuries. Also their parents, siblings and children were more often ill and more often admitted in hospitals as in-patients. These women required more specialized care starting in their childhood, suffered more from infectious diseases, operations, injuries, stresses and break-ups of their original families. Their misunderstanding with parents was occurred with higher frequency, their upbringing was more strict, they suffered from school failures more often, they had problems with the police and premature pregnancies. According to the mothers education, especially the daughters of college educated women felt subjectively worse. Also women with basic level of education, problems at work, financial troubles, those who had many children and less adults in their household rated their health worse. They were also unemployed and dissatisfied with their housing

  14. [Twenty-second conference of the Czechoslovak Demographic Society: "The Demographic Position of Czechoslovakia within Europe and the World"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialova, L; Rychtarikova, J; Roubicek, V; Stloukal, L; Veres, P; Koschin, F; Novakova, B; Pavlik, Z

    1992-01-01

    This is a collection of short papers presented at a conference held in Prague, Czechoslovakia, in 1991. The focus of the conference was on the demographic changes that have occurred in Czechoslovakia since World War II and their relationship to such changes in the rest of Europe and elsewhere in the world. Essay topics include fertility trends; contraceptive prevalence, including abortion rates; living standards and health care; and changes in the age structure. Some data for selected countries are included for comparison. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  15. Open Space between Residential Buildings as a Factor of Sustainable Development - Case Studies in Brno (Czech Republic) and Vienna (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilnarová, Pavla; Wittmann, Maxmilian

    2017-12-01

    The characteristics of open spaces between residential buildings have, as authors suppose, an impact on the sustainable development of urban areas. Spatial arrangement and accessibility of these spaces, the type and height of surrounding buildings, the quantity and character of greenery, and many more characteristics influence the quality of environment, and the quality of life of local residents. These and further characteristics of the open spaces between residential buildings influence the ecological stability of the area, its hygienic qualities, the intensity and way of using by various social groups, and also the prices of real estates. These qualities indicate the environmental, social and economic sustainability of the urban area. The proposed research methodology assessed specific indicators of sustainability within a range from 0 to 10 points. 5 points correspond to the general standard in the area, 0 points indicate degradation, and 10 points indicate the highest contribution to sustainable development. Observation methods, questionnaire survey, statistical analyses, and methods of measurement were used to determine the values of the given indicators. The paper analyses the impact of the open spaces between residential buildings on sustainability via the case studies performed in the Central European cities of Brno, Czech Republic and Vienna, Austria. Two forms of residential urban structures in the City of Brno in the Czech Republic were selected for the analysis: the closed courtyards in the urban block from the 19th century and the open spaces in the housing estates constructed under socialism in the 20th century. The question is, if the different forms of spaces between residential buildings influence the sustainability of urban area and satisfaction of inhabitants in different ways. A complementary case study in Vienna indicates that inhabitants of a housing estate in Vienna, as well as inhabitants of housing estates in Brno, highly appreciate the

  16. Approach to air pollution abatement in Czechoslovakia (especially of sulfur dioxide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilik, O.

    1991-01-01

    The development of particulate and SO 2 emissions in Czechoslovakia in 1970-1989 and the contributions of the individual industry branches are given. The Air Protection Act was adopted in July 1991; it introduces the concept of emission limits, to be laid down in a differentiated way for new and existing facilities. An overview of the limits for newly built facilities is given. Coal desulfurization, which is a crucial point in the minimization of air pollution, is a difficult task because in Czechoslovakia, sulfur is present in coal in various forms. The coal gasification and pressure fluidized combustion techniques hold great promise in this respect. Desulfurization shall be implemented so that for each source exceeding 100 MWe, the SO 2 level shall be lower than approximately 500 mg/Nm 3 ; this requires a desulfurization efficiency of about 95%. For smaller sources the situation will be less severe because their limiting SO 2 concentration will be about 1700 mg/Nm 3 , requiring a desulfurization efficiency of about 55%. For NO x emissions, the reaching of the emission limit of 650 mg/Nm 3 seems practicable for the majority of brown coal powder furnaces. As to particulate emissions, none of the existing energy sources complies with the proposed limit of 100 mg/Nm 3 for new sources. This will call for reconstruction or complete upgrading of separator facilities at all the operated sources. (Z.S.). 2 tabs

  17. Firemní kultura a její vliv na efektivitu práce ve společnosti Ikea Brno s.r.o

    OpenAIRE

    Logara, Vanja

    2010-01-01

    Diplomová práce se zaměřuje na identifikaci kulturních hodnot společnosti IKEA Brno ve srovnání s malou firmou Lino s.r.o. Výzkum probíhal na základě podrobné analýzy stavu společnosti a firemní kultury a následnými metodami dotazování, a to metodou VSM94, myšlenkovými mapami a osobním interview. Výstupem by měl být seznam konkrétních kroků, které je možno implementovat ve společnosti IKEA Brno. This diploma thesis is focused on the identification of cultural values in IKEA Brno, compared ...

  18. Lightcurves and Periods for Asteroids 1081 Reseda 2117 Danmark, 2315 Czechoslovakia, 2871 Schober, 6392 Takashimizuno, and (6409) 1992 VC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankov, Arten; Ditteon, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Ten asteroids were observed at the Oakley Southern Sky Observatory on six nights during the months of 2008 July and August. The asteroids were 1081 Reseda, 1421 Esperanto, 2117 Danmark, 2315 Czechoslovakia, 2871 Schober, 6392 Takashimizuno, (6409) 1992 VC, 7046 Reshetnev, (14276) 2000 CF2, and (32219) 2000 OU20.

  19. English Teaching Profiles from the British Council: Burma, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Lesotho, New Zealand, Pakistan, Qatar, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The role of English and the status of English language instruction is reported for Burma, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Lesotho, New Zealand, Pakistan, Qatar, and Malaysia. The profile for each country contains a summary of English instruction within and outside of the educational system, teacher supply and qualifications,…

  20. Prehistory of the ICRP and participation of Czechoslovakia in the beginnings of international cooperation in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesinska, Emilie

    2010-01-01

    National and international initiatives in the first half of the 20th century preceding the founding of the ICRP are described and the involvement of Czechoslovakia in the initiatives and their impact on the development of radiology in the country is outlined

  1. The application of new economic and ecological approaches to energetics in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libich, V.; Kadrnozka, J.; Drahos, I.

    1986-10-01

    Orientation on local low-grade coal and nuclear sources also for heat supply, with which the construction of large heating systems and heat transport on large distances is connected, these are specific features of energy economy in Czechoslovakia. The development programme is challenging in economic respect, it causes numerous ecological problems, as well as those connected with coverage of variable loads. In case of additional construction at a later date many problems appear requiring differentiated approach that depends on concrete conditions. In the paper there are described possibilities and conditions of heat accumulation in feed water, in gravity accumulators at very quick changes of output, the accumulation systems involving steam release facilities and heat accumulation in heat conducting systems. Also the manufacture of heat generating equipment has an important role to play. There are given the outlines of construction of hot water accumulators. Specific conditions of the Czechoslovak energy economy also include the problem of efficient combustion of low-grade coal with a high sulfur content. In this connection it is especially the fluidized bed combustion that is under consideration. This combustion process can be run by clinkering of ash particles or a klinkerless process can be used. The combustion process can be either single-stage or double-stage. All these combustion methods are used in boilers made in Czechoslovakia. In the paper two types of boilers are described: the boiler with cooled fluidized bed and the fluidized bed reactor installed in front of a powdered coal fired boiler. There is briefly outlined the experience obtained from the operation of these boilers

  2. Towards the Expert Governance. Social Scientific Expertise and the Socialist State in Czechoslovakia, 1950s-1980s

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sommer, Vítězslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2016), s. 138-157 ISSN 2521-0947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-19437Y Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Czechoslovakia * Communist Party * social ism Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings) http://serendipities.uni-graz.at/index.php/serendipities/article/view/2/pdf

  3. Toward a Population Revolution? The Threat of Extinction and Family Policy in Czechoslovakia 1930s–1950s

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rákosník, J.; Šustrová, Radka

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 2 (2018), s. 177-193 ISSN 0363-1990 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-35273S Institutional support: RVO:67985921 Keywords : Czechoslovakia, 1930s-1950s * family policy * social policy Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings) Impact factor: 0.239, year: 2016

  4. Application of ionizing radiation in foods and feeds treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanis, T.

    1984-01-01

    The proceedings contain 21 papers presented at the seminar which was held in Prague on November 28, 1983. The topic of the papers was current knowledge of ionizing radiation applications for treating foodstuffs and feeds and the confrontation of the applications thereof in Czechoslovakia and elsewhere in the world. (J.P.)

  5. Dělnický dům a proměny sociálně vyloučené oblasti : Případová studie lokality Brno-Cejl

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšilová, Jana; Brožovičová, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2015), s. 157-176 ISSN 1429-0618 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Socially excluded areas * Upper and Lower Cejl * Brno * Ethnology * Urban renovation * Roma inhabitants * Anthropology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology , Ethnology

  6. Od lidové písně k evropské etnologii - 100 let Etnologického ústavu Akademie věd, Brno 5.-7.10.2005

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházková, Jarmila

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 1 (2006), s. 99-100 ISSN 0018-7003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : Moravian folksong * folklore studies * ethnology * Brno Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  7. Long-term changes in CO{sub 2} emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia-Identifying the drivers of environmental pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingrich, Simone, E-mail: simone.gingrich@uni-klu.ac.a [Institute of Social Ecology, Faculty for Interdisciplinary Studies Vienna, University of Klagenfurt, Schottenfeldgasse 29/5, 1070 Wien (Austria); Kuskova, Petra [Department of Social Geography and Regional Development, Charles University in Prague (Czech Republic); Steinberger, Julia K. [Institute of Social Ecology, Faculty for Interdisciplinary Studies Vienna, University of Klagenfurt, Schottenfeldgasse 29/5, 1070 Wien (Austria)

    2011-02-15

    This study presents fossil-fuel related CO{sub 2} emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia (current Czech Republic and Slovakia) for 1830-2000. The drivers of CO{sub 2} emissions are discussed by investigating the variables of the standard Kaya identity for 1920-2000 and conducting a comparative Index Decomposition Analysis. Proxy data on industrial production and household consumption are analysed to understand the role of the economic structure. CO{sub 2} emissions increased in both countries in the long run. Czechoslovakia was a stronger emitter of CO{sub 2} throughout the time period, but per-capita emissions significantly differed only after World War I, when Czechoslovakia and Austria became independent. The difference in CO{sub 2} emissions increased until the mid-1980s (the period of communism in Czechoslovakia), explained by the energy intensity and the composition effects, and higher industrial production in Czechoslovakia. Counterbalancing factors were the income effect and household consumption. After the Velvet revolution in 1990, Czechoslovak CO{sub 2} emissions decreased, and the energy composition effect (and industrial production) lost importance. Despite their different political and economic development, Austria and Czechoslovakia reached similar levels of per-capita CO{sub 2} emissions in the late 20th century. Neither Austrian 'eco-efficiency' nor Czechoslovak restructuring have been effective in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions to a sustainable level. - Research Highlights: {yields}CO{sub 2} emissions in Austria and Czechoslovakia increased during industrialisation. {yields}The differences were strongest during periods of different political regimes. {yields}The main drivers for differences were energy composition and energy intensity.

  8. Some aspects of increasing the quality of personnel training for nuclear power plants in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacko, J.; Frimmelova, A.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear power plant personnel in Czechoslovakia is subject to periodical training in accordance with the Unified System of Nuclear Facility Personnel Training. This training is the responsibility of the Educational and Training Centre of the Nuclear Plant Research Institute in Trnava. Nuclear plant personnel is divided into 7 groups as follows: A - supervisory technical-administrative management staff; B - selected operating personnel such as shift supervisors, unit supervisors, reactor operators and secondary circuit operators; C - engineering-technical personnel of technical and maintenance departments; D - managing shift-operating staff; E - workers at technical plant departments; F - operational shift workers and servicemen; and G - maintenance personnel. These groups are respected in the training, which includes basic training, re-training and additional training. The basic training comprises 8 stages: general theoretical education; specialized theoretical education; on-the-job training in a plant designated for training; training on a simulator (group B); preparing for and taking final examinations for the certificate; doubling in the NPP designated for training (groups B, D, F); preparation in the NPP of future employment; preparing for and taking the state examination for obtaining the license (group B). Details of the management of the training process, experience gained during the implementation of the training and challenges for future improvement of the system are outlined. (P.A.)

  9. Environmental impact assessment for nuclear and coal-fired power stations in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapcik, V.

    1994-01-01

    Czechoslovakia has had legislation requiring environmental impact assessment since 1992. A methodology for complex evaluation of areas with thermal and nuclear energy sources, as related to ecology and environment, was developed by the staff of the Department of Ecology in accordance with the environmental Protection act (No. 17/1992) for use by the Czech Energy Company (Prague). This methodology will serve as a handbook of environmental impact assessment for the energy industry. Chapter 1 of the handbook describes the project, including information on the site, design, and size of the thermal or nuclear power station. Chapter 2 includes the data necessary to identify and assess the main effects that the project is likely to have on the environment. Chapter 3 describes aspects of the environment likely to be affected significantly by a proposed project, including population, fauna, flora, soil, water, air, climatic factors, material assets (such as architectural and archeological heritage), landscape, and the interrelationship between the above factors. Chapter 4 summarizes the measures envisaged to prevent, reduce, and where possible, offer any significant adverse effects on the environment

  10. Intersectional Discrimination of Romani Women Forcibly Sterilized in the Former Czechoslovakia and Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Gwendolyn; Szilvasi, Marek

    2017-12-01

    This paper reviews domestic and international activism seeking justice for Romani and other women harmed by coercive, forced, and involuntary sterilization in the former Czechoslovakia and Czech Republic. Framed by Michel Foucault's theory of biopower, it summarizes the history of these abuses and describes human rights campaigns involving domestic and international litigation, advocacy, and grassroots activism, as well as the responses of the Czech governments. The paper describes how legal and policy work during the past decade has led to recognition of coercive, forced, and involuntary sterilization as a present-day human rights issue worldwide, to the adoption of new guidelines on female sterilization, and to a joint statement on the issue by seven UN agencies. Relying on academic literature, reports by domestic and international human rights groups, state investigations, judgments from Czech courts and the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), media reports, and the experience of the authors, who have been allies of the Romani women harmed in the Czech Republic since 2005 and 2012, respectively, the paper describes the current state of play with respect to achieving redress for them, including current conceptual, legal, political, and social obstacles and their antecedents in 20th century notions of population control.

  11. Main approaches to automation of management systems in the coal industry. [Czechoslovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafouk, P; Dlabaya, I; Frous, S

    1980-01-01

    The main approaches to automation of management systems in the coal industry of Czechoslovakia are enumerated. Organizational structure of the branch and concern form of organization. Complex improvement of management system and source of continued development of the branch. Automated control systems, an integral part of the complex management system. Primary problem - automation in the area of design of the information system. Centralization of methodological management of operations in the area of control system development. Unified approach to breakdown of control system into branches. Organizational support of the development of the control system, problems solved by the department of control system development of the Ministry, main department of control system development of the Research Institute, departmental committees in the branch. The use of principles of control system development in the Ostravsko-Karvinsk mining concern is demonstrated. Preparation for development of the control system in the concern: elaboration of concepts and programs of control system development. Design of control system of the concern. Control system of an enterprise in the concern as an integral control system. Support of control system development in organizations, participants in this process, their jurisdiction and obligations. Annual plans of control system development. Centralized subsystems and enterprises. Methods of coordination of the process of improvement of control and support of the harmony of decisions made. Technical support of control system development, construction of a unified network of computer centers in enterprises with combined resources of computer technology.

  12. Long-term prospects of capital demands of nuclear power sources construction in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sladek, V.; Kysel, J.

    1988-01-01

    The capital demands are compared for four variants of nuclear power plant construction projects to be implemented in Czechoslovakia by the year 2030. By the year 2000, all variants are expected to achieve the total installed capacity of 11,280 MW. Construction in the following period then differs: by the year 2030 total installed nuclear capacity is to reach the following values: 1st variant - 30,000 MW; 2nd variant - 35,000 MW, 3rd variant - 36,500 MW and 4th variant - 27,760 MW. WWER-1000, WWER-1500 and WWER-500 reactors are expected to be installed in the variant projects which differ in speed of construction and life of the units. They are designed such as to provide for the smooth transfer of building workers from one site to the next. The comparison of capital demands shows that a suitable siting strategy and site preparation can save costs and preclude serious sociological problems. The possible extension of the life of nuclear power plants will provide for a better use of primary investments and improve the economic efficiency of nuclear power plants. (Z.M.). 2 figs., 4 tabs., 6 refs

  13. Frances Elisabeth Crowell and the politics of nursing in Czechoslovakia after the first world war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, E D

    1999-01-01

    The firmly entrenched, negative attitude regarding the nurse in Czechoslovakia was a major deterrent to the development of nursing education in that country after the First World War. Social work was the culturally acceptable form of caring activity for educated women who perceived nursing as a hospital function performed by the religious orders and the less educated. Alice Masaryk, an innovative force in addressing social welfare problems after the war, reinforced this perception. Despite her early investigative experience in social welfare in American settlements before the war, Masaryk gave no indication that she was aware of the recent progress in the development of nursing in America. Her attitude fostered the indecisiveness of the ministers who lacked a clear understanding of nursing and who were reluctant to make any innovative changes that would modernize the profession. Furthermore, older physicians were content with the current nursing situation and did not share younger physicians' visions of a public health team that included well-educated nurses. Crowell had to negotiate within this political and cultural environment where the major figures struggled against proposed changes that may have seemed not only expensive, but also unsettling to their way of life. She recognized the necessity of respecting the Czech position and cooperating with them in attaining an amicable solution. Her educational and professional background, and the European cultural insights she had gained during her years in the U.S. supported her well in meeting this challenge.

  14. Radioimmunoassay of serum 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine using reagents available in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safarcik, K.; Zavada, M.; Mueller, J.

    1980-01-01

    An accurate and reliable method for the determination of the total serum 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T 3 ) was developed using reagents available in Czechoslovakia. The method makes it possible to determine T 3 within the sensitivity limits of the method (0.04 ng T 3 /ml) to 10 ng T 3 /ml of serum. Long-term stability of determination was studied using three control sera; for the average concentrations 0.8; 1.31 and 4.17 ng/ml the variation coefficients of long-term stability 17.9, 8.7 and 13.2% were calculated. For a group of 49 sera a comparison was made with a kit by Byk-Mallincrodt. Good agreement of the resulting concentrations was found. The limits of physiological values were determined using a group of 107 individuals with normal function of the thyroid gland from 0.88 to 2.18 ng T 3 /ml serum. (author)

  15. Archeologický ústav Akademie věd ČR, Brno, v. v. i. - Přehled roku 2015

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležel, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2016), s. 339-342 ISSN 1211-7250 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Institute of Archaeology of the CAS, Brno * annual report * 2015 Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://prehled-vyzkumu.arub.avcr.cz/miranda2/ export /sitesavcr/arub-prehled-vyzkumu/prehled-cisel-a-clanku/prehled-vydanych-cisel/files/PV-57_2_zprava-o-cinnosti.pdf

  16. History of radiation protection in the Czech Republic. Ten years of the National Radiation Protection Institute, 1995-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabkova, A.

    2006-01-01

    The first part of the publication, highlighting the history of radiation protection in the country which today is the Czech Republic, is divided into the following sections: Inception of the field of science and applications 'Protection from ionizing radiation'; Beginnings of work with ionizing radiation in the Czech lands; Formulation of the first health physics and radiation protection requirements in the Czech lands; Beginnings of institutionalization of radiation protection in Czechoslovakia after World War II; The Clinic and Institute of Occupational Medicine in Prague; Institute of Occupational Hygiene and Occupational Diseases in Prague and the regional Institute of Occupational Hygiene and Occupational Diseases in Bratislava; Peaceful uses of atomic energy in Czechoslovakia; First man-made radioisotopes in Czechoslovakia; Health rules and standards applicable to work with ionizing radiation; The responsibilities of the Ministry of Health in the area of health physics and radiation protection within peaceful uses of atomic energy in the Czech Socialist Republic; Research Institute of Health Physics; Institute of Occupational Hygiene and Prevention of Occupational Diseases in the Mining and Processing of Radioactive Raw Materials; Health physics and radiation protection in sectorial and national research plans; Health Physics Centre, Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology; National Radiation Protection Institute (as a subsidiary of the State Office for Nuclear Safety). The second part of the publication gives details of the recent history of the National Radiation Protection Institute. (P.A.)

  17. NOVÉ NA STARÉ – Brno, nároží Bratislavská - Stará

    OpenAIRE

    Červinková, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    Řešené území se nachází v městské části Brno-střed, na nárožní poloze ulic Bratislavská a Stará. Je tvořeno několika parcelami, které jsou v současné době nezastaveny, nebo se na nich nachází stavby dočasného charakteru. Část vymezeného území dnes slouží jako parkoviště Policie České republiky. Od historického centra ji dělí dopravní - malý městský okruh vedoucí ulicí Koliště. V blízkosti řešeného území jsou městské domy většinou s obchodním parterem, postavené v rozmezí konce 19. - 1.pol. 20...

  18. LET’s start new a LETS: Learning from a case-study investigation in Brno, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Kala

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings information about the operation of RozLEŤSe, a LETS (Local Exchange Trading System network, based inBrno. LETS are parallel sustainable monetary systems, in which local community networks attempt to extricate themselves from the international economy by using their own currency. LETS is supposed to promote sustainable development by localising economic development. Although, there used to be several LETS group in the Czech Republic, all of them vanished during the first few years of the new millennium.  RozLEŤSe was built from the remains of former LETS groups. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine possible threats to the future existence of the group and evaluate its current operations. This research is a sociological case study investigation examining the socio-demographic characteristics, motivations and organisational functioning of the group. We point out some serious threats to the group (lack of supply, growth in negative credit, decrease in trust and offer possible solutions. 

  19. The spatial variability of air temperature and nocturnal urban heat island intensity in the city of Brno, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrovolný Petr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to quantify the effects of a number of factors on the nocturnal air temperature field in a medium-sized central European city located in complex terrain. The main data sources consist of mobile air temperature measurements and a geographical database. Temperature measurements were taken along several profiles through the city centre and were made under a clear sky with no advection. Altogether nine sets of detailed measurements, in all seasons, were assembled. Altitude, quantity of vegetation, density of buildings and the structure of the transportation (road system were considered as explanatory variables. The result is that the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and the density of buildings were the most important factors, each of them explaining a substantial part (more than 50% of overall air temperature variability. Mobile measurements with NDVI values as a covariate were used for interpolation of air temperature for the entire study area. The spatial variability of nocturnal air temperature and UHI intensity in Brno is the main output presented. Air temperatures interpolated from mobile measurements and NDVI values indicate that the mean urban heat island (UHI intensity in the early night in summer is at its highest (approximately 5 °C in the city centre and decreases towards the suburban areas.

  20. Geographical modelling based on spatial differentiation of fire brigade actions: A case study of Brno, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popelínský Jan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes crisis situations solved by The Fire Rescue Service of the South Moravian Region (FRS in the city of Brno during 24 weeks between 7th April 2013 and 20th September 2013. The article deals briefly with all FRS actions and then focuses on fires. The open-access database of FRS is used for analysis. It is accessed from a database of the innovative web application StreetAlert, which allows users to learn about current fire brigade actions in the specified distance from the mobile phone. The data are processed in PostgreSQL and then spatial analysis is performed using the most detailed administrative division of the city – basic settlement units. As this division of urban space is used also in the most recent Czech census (2011, it is possible to use sociodemographic statistical data for comparison. The article identifies spatial regularities in the distribution of fires, describes the structure of the fires in terms of the type of event (fires of waste, fires of grass and forest, fires of buildings, discovers their possible dependence on the specific characteristics of urban space, finds potentially dangerous places (kernel density analysis, draws valid conclusions applicable to similar settlements, and shows the possible use of the data for local government. The main benefit of the research lies in revealing the spatial distribution of the examined phenomena.

  1. Ecotoxicological Assessment of Sediment Leachates of Small Watercourses in the Brno City Suburban Area (South Moravia, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Beklová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediments of two small watercourses Leskava and Troubsky Brook in the Brno city suburban area were examined for their ecotoxicity. Using a standard procedure, extracts of the sediments were prepared for diagnostic tests. These extracts were tested for acute toxicity to fresh-water organisms. The ecotoxicological tests were performed on the fresh-water alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the vascular water plant Lemna minor, on a representative of invertebrates – the water flea Daphnia magna and on the Xenopus laevis frog embryo and luminiscent Vibrio fischeri bacteria. Possible toxic effects were evaluated using the test determining the inhibition of the growth of white mustard root Sinapis alba. Results of ecotoxicological assessment of sediment leachates showed that their quality varied significantly during the year. Differences were found between results of sediment evaluations from different collection profiles, which may indicate effects of point source pollution. Of the ecotoxicological tests used, the most sensitive organisms included the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, bioluminiscent bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. The highest concentrations of arsenic were found by chemical analysis in both spring and autumn sediment leachate samples collected at Site L1 (Leskava. The highest organic pollutant concentrations were found in autumn sediment leachate samples from Site L1. In total PAH sums, phenanthrene was the dominant pollutant at all the sites investigated.

  2. The saga of psychoanalysis in Eastern Europe: repression and rebirth in Hungary, and in former Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Mészáros

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper shortly presents the early roles of Budapest, Prague, and Belgrade in the development of psychoanalytic movement in Central-Europe before the Second World War. Mapping this historical heritage, it suggests how psychoanalysts of former Soviet Bloc countries could restore their own psychoanalytic communities. The study investigates the consequences of these dictatorial and authoritarian regimes for psychoanalysis and for psychoanalysts focusing on similarities and differences in Hungary, in former Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia. Furthermore, it emphasizes the contribution of the international professional organizations - the International Psychoanalytic Association, and the European Psychoanalytic Federation - for reintegration of Budapest, Prague, and Belgrade to the international psychoanalytic community.

  3. Technical Report: The Development and Experience with UAV Research Applications in Former Czechoslovakia (1960s-1990s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolejka, Jaromír; Plánka, Ladislav

    2018-02-01

    The use of unmanned aerial vehicles in a number of fields of human activity represents the second wave of interest in the development and application of automated flying remotely controlled machines to collect aerial data. The former Czechoslovakia was one of the world's leading countries in the 1960s-1990s in terms of an unprecedented boom of development and applications of flying machines for imaging the Earth's surface. The reasons for their use were the same as today. Since the mid-1960s, radio-controlled (RC) models of aircraft carrying various types of photographic cameras have been developed. In spite of many administrative constraints, kite helicopters, fixed-wing aircrafts, and rogallo-wing aircrafts gradually began to be used in research. The photographic cameras for 1, 2, 4, and 6 bands carried by RC-aircraft models were developed in cooperation with leading Czech companies. These cameras used colour and black-and-white films, positive and negative films, and panchromatic, spectrozonal, and multispectral films. The general methodology and the RC-aircraft model application rules were both developed. The dominant processing method was the visual image interpretation, with and without the assistance of instruments. Optical and digital image mixers were used in Czechoslovakia, so it was possible to use natural and unnatural colour composites to highlight the studied phenomenon. A number of examples of the techniques and the scientific applications are presented in the article.

  4. Plant physiology at the institute for philosophy in Brno in Mendel’s teacher F. Diebl textbook from 1835

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Šebánek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gregor Mendel attended lectures of F. Diebl, professor of natural history and agricultural science at the Institute of Philosophy in Brno. Diebl published his lectures in a textbook “Abhandlungen über die allgemeine und besondere Naturgeschichte, Brünn 1835.” From the textbook the level of scientific knowledge in plant biology is obvious, with which the later founder of a new field of biology – genetics got acquainted. Diebl considered germination to be a specific method of fermentation transforming seed starch into a sugary matter which nourishes the germinating plant. In the physiology of nutrition he distinguished nutrition from the soil via roots from nutrition from the air via leaves. The former is based primarily on the humus theory of A. Thaer (1809 because not until 5 years after the publication of Diebl’s textbook J. Liebig initiated the mineral theory. Diebl’s presentation of photosynthesis was based on information available at that time about the release of oxygen by green plants under conditions of light and the uptake of CO2, but he had no knowledge about the passage of CO2 into the leaves through stomata. Remarkable is Diebl’s discovery that respiration increases during flowering. Electricity is considered to be a force significantly supporting the life processes of plants. Diebl also noticed the difference between diurnal and night evaporation of water from the leaves. In his textbook growth is connected with nutrition only, as it was the entire 19th century. Stem thickening from the cambium is described very simply. Bud and root regeneration is given the term reproduction which today is commonly used in relation to sexual reproduction. Diebl considered nyctinastic movements (bending or unbending of the leaves and closing of the flowers at night to be “sleep”. He described fertilisation in a primitive way, because it was not until 1848 that the first exact description came out.

  5. Assessment of Environmental Determinants of Physical Activity: a Study of Built Environment Indicators in Brno, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brázdová, Zuzana Derflerová; Klimusová, Helena; Hruška, Dalibor; Prokopová, Alice; Burjanek, Aleš; Wulff, Krauff Rainer Schwanhaeuser

    2015-11-01

    Research on physical activity in relation to obesity gradually becomes more focused on environmental determinants, which can potentially influence people's health choices. The present article addresses the topic of physical activity from a wider sociological perspective. Our pilot study was designed with the objective of testing the applicability of a method included in the EC 6th Framework Programme EURO-PREVOB, in the Czech context. The method examines specific determinants of the built environment that can have an impact on physical activity at the population level. In addition, the study aims to analyze possible differences in built environment indicators and their relation to the physical activity of people living in neighbourhoods with areas of varying socioeconomic status. The field study was carried out in the city of Brno, Czech Republic, in 5 neighbourhood quintiles, i.e. areas divided according to the socioeconomic status of local residents. In each quintile, we evaluated the quality of the built environment according to the quality, aesthetics and safety of segregated cycle facilities, playgrounds/playing areas, public open spaces, marked road crossings and pavements as well as signs of incivilities and devastation. Between the five quintiles, significant differences were found in the quality of parks and playgrounds/playing areas, pavements, marking of pedestrian crossings, and in general aesthetics, i.e. signs of incivilities and devastation of the built environment. No differences were found in the quality and use of cycle facilities. The method we used for the evaluation of the built environment proved highly applicable in Czech populated areas. Monitoring of built environment indicators in the Czech Republic should provide a basis for health maps, showing potential associations between the prevalence of high-incidence, non-infectious diseases and various social determinants of physical activity. This information might help in achieving an

  6. Application of ionizing radiation to the preservation of objects of art and historical monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janovsky, I.

    2006-01-01

    A brief introduction into the title topic, concentrating on the history of the efforts worldwide and, in particular, in Czechoslovakia (or today's Czech Republic). Specifically named are the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez, Prague Institute of Chemical Technology, Central Bohemian Museum at Roztoky with its irradiation facility, and the Central Institute for Isotope and Radiation Research in Leipzig, Germany. (P.A.)

  7. Monitoring of risk metals in chub (Leuciscus cephalus L. from the Svitava and Svratka rivers in the urban area of Brno, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Harkabusová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Brno agglomeration on the distribution of risk elements (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, As in tissues of a total of 50 chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.. Contamination by metals was monitored in fish from different sites on the Svitava and Svratka rivers in the urban agglomeration of Brno in 2008. Metal concentration was determined in the muscle, liver and kidney by high-resolution atomic absorption spectrometry. Electrothermic technique was used to assess lead, cadmium and copper concentrations; zinc content was determined by flame technique and arsenic by hydride generation. The highest concentrations of cadmium, lead, arsenic and zinc in individual tissues, ranked in a descending order as follows: kidney > liver > muscle; for copper it was liver > kidney > muscle. The highest concentrations of cadmium, arsenic and zinc were determined in chub kidney from the locality of Kníničky (1.35 ± 0.97, 0.186 ± 0.076, and 299.7 ± 123.4 mg·kg-1 respectively; the highest concentration of lead was on the Svratka before junction (0.28 ± 0.19 mg·kg-1. The highest contamination with risk metals was found in chub from the Svratka. The assessed concentrations have shown minimum participation of the Brno agglomeration in the accumulation of metals. The concentrations of all risk elements in chub from all of the monitored localities do not pose any environmental or health threat. This study updates published data on chub from the Rivers Svitava and Svratka on concentration of risk elements.

  8. Exploiting Victory, Sinking into Defeat: Uniformed Violence in the Creation of the New Order in Czechoslovakia and Austria, 1918–1922

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 4 (2016), s. 827-855 ISSN 0022-2801 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-14612S Institutional support: RVO:67985921 Keywords : Czechoslovakia, 1918-1922 * Austria, 1918-1922 * violence Subject RIV: AB - History Impact factor: 1.061, year: 2016

  9. The tool of power legitimisation and guardianship. Social policy and its implementation in the pension systems of Czechoslovakia and the German Democratic Republic (1970-1989)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vilímek, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2015), s. 57-89 ISSN 2336-3142 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : social policies * normalization * Czechoslovakia 1970-1989 * East Germany 1970-1989 Subject RIV: AB - History http://www.usd.cas.cz/casopis/czech-journal-of-contemporary-history-3-2015/

  10. Analysis of rainfall intensities using very dense network measurements and radar information for the Brno area during the period 2003-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salek, Milan; Stepanek, Petr; Zahradnicek, Pavel [Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-02-15

    This study presents a data quality control and spatial analysis of maximum precipitation sums of various durations for the area of the city of Brno, using a dense network of automatic gauge stations and radar information. The measurements of 18 stations in the area of Brno, Czech Republic were established for the purposes of better management of the city sewerage system. Before evaluation of the measurements, quality control was executed on the daily, hourly and 15-minute precipitation sums. All suspicious data were compared with radar measurements and erroneous input data were removed. From this quality controlled data, the maxima of precipitation sums for durations of 5, 10, 15 and 60 minutes were calculated for the given time frames (months, seasons and years) and were spatially analyzed. The role of spatial precipitation estimates using weather radar data for hourly rainfall accumulations has been investigated as well. It is revealed that radar measurements show rather little improvement of the areal precipitation estimates when such a dense gauge network is available in real time, but it would be hard to replace radar measurements by any other source of data for successful quality control of the rain-gauge data, especially in summer months. (orig.)

  11. 25 years of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna and Czechoslovakia's part in its activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simane, C.; Tucek, J.

    1981-01-01

    The main tasks and results attained by the individual units of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna are briefly described: by the high energy laboratory, the nuclear problems laboratory, the laboratory of theoretical physics, the laboratory of neutron physics, the laboratory of nuclear reactions, the laboratory of computer technology and automation, and by the unit responsible for the implementation of the project for accelerators of positively charged ions based on the principle of collective acceleration using electron rings. Czechoslovakia contributes approximately 6% to the financing of the Institute. Also briefly described are the main fields of cooperation between Czechoslovak research institutes and the laboratories of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. (Z.M.)

  12. Secular Trends and Latitude Gradients in Sex Ratios at Birth in Czechoslovakia and the Post-Czechoslovakian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Grech

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Latitude gradients and secular trends in Europe and North America have been found in the male-female ratio at birth (M/F: male births divided by total births which is expected to be 0.515. Annual national data for Czechoslovakia and the post-Czechoslovakian (Czech Republic and Slovakia countries for male and female live births were obtained from the World Health Organisation and analysed with contingency tables. This study analysed 13,123,538 live births. An overall decreasing trend in M/F was found (p < 00001. No latitude gradient was noted. There was an overall deficit of 15,232 male births based on an M/F of 0.515. M/F is declining in this region, despite well developing economies that have resisted the worldwide slowdown. An interplay of several poorly understood factors is likely.

  13. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  14. Každodenní život městských protestantských komunit pozdního 18. století. Brno a nové Město na Moravě

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bolom-Kotari, Sixtus

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 1 (2014), s. 269-298 ISSN 0231-7443 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : 1781 * Brno * Nové Město na Moravě * Edict of Tolerance * Enlightenment * Protestantism Subject RIV: AB - History

  15. International comparison of the economy of constructing nuclear power plants by using the method of referred investment costs in Czechoslovakia and in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, P.; Jelen, J.

    1989-01-01

    The method of referred investment costs was applied to a comparison of the economy of constructing the nuclear power plant at Temelin, Czechoslovakia, with that for the hypothetic nuclear power plant at Middletown, USA. For a reasonably adopted Czechoslovak crown/USD rate, the obtained costs for building the Temelin power plant are 50% higher than those for building the reference Middletown power plant. This compares rather favorably with the general level of investment costs in Czechoslovakia under the present economic conditions. The analysis performed shows that savings in investment costs should be sought in the fields of technological modernization of preparatory work and in all construction work, with the aim to reduce particularly live work. (P.A.). 12 tabs., 8 refs

  16. „Are We Still Behaving as Revolutionaries?“. Radovan Richta, Theory of Revolution and Dilemmas of Reform Communism in Czechoslovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sommer, Vítězslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 1 (2017), s. 93-110 ISSN 0925-9392 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-19437Y Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Czechoslovakia * scientific and technological revolution * reform communism * Radovan Richta Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings) Impact factor: 0.059, year: 2016

  17. Before the Exodus: Czechoslovakia as a Transit Country for Jewish Refugees from Poland Until the Pogrom in Kielce, 1945-1946

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Friedl, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2017), s. 129-154 ISSN 0084-3296 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-01233S Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : Jewish refugees * Czechoslovakia * Poland * Bricha Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  18. Assessment of mercury contamination of the Svitava and Svratka rivers and muscle of chub (Leuciscus cephalus L. in the urban agglomeration of Brno in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Kružíková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the total mercury and methylmercury content in the muscle of chub (Leuciscus cephalus L., the total mercury in the river sediments and the evaluation of health risks associated with fish contamination. Chub were caught at seven localities on the Svratka and Svitava rivers in the agglomeration of Brno in 2008. The results were compared to those obtained from the same sites in 2007. Total mercury was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using an AMA 245 analyzer, and methylmercury was determined by gas chromatography (using an electron-capture detector after acid digestion and toluene extraction in chub muscle. The highest concentrations of total mercury and methylmercury (0.12 ± 0.14 and 0.07 ± 0.02 mg·kg-1 fresh weight, respectively were found in Svratka before junction (south of Brno, whereas the lowest concentration of mercury and methylmercury in chub (0.06 ± 0.01 and 0.04 ± 0.01 mg·kg-1 was detected in Svitava before junction with the Svratka River. Total mercury in sediments ranged from 0.01 to 1.05 mg·kg-1 dry weight, the highest value was detected in the sediment from Rajhradice. The lowest content (0.01 mg·kg-1 was at Kníničky. Hazard indices calculated for the selected localities showed no health risk for either a standard consumer or a fishing family. Fish from the Svitava and Svratka rivers show very low mercury concentration and hazard index and their consumption poses no health risk from total mercury and methylmercury contamination.

  19. One of the great conundrums of the 20th century science - ionizing radiation: Radiation processing and applications in the Czech Lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janovsky, I.

    2007-01-01

    The article deals with the following topics: Milestones in the early history of radiation and radiation sources (1895-1954); Radiation effects - early observations and further development; Scope of radiation processing; Radiation processing in the Czech Lands (i.e. Bohemia + Moravia = the Czech part of Czechoslovakia or Austria-Hungary till 1918) (radiation sterilization of medical items; radiation processing of cable insulations; radiation preservation of objects of art and historical monuments; radiation modification of semiconductors; radiation synthesis of organic compounds; food irradiation; application of ionizing radiation in agriculture and gardening; radiation regeneration of water wells; radiation degradation of chlorinated biphenyls; radiation coloration of glass for decorative purposes; some other applications; and problems associated with practical radiation processing). An overview of 60 Co gamma irradiators and electron accelerators installed at Czech institutions is presented in the tabular form. (P.A.)

  20. Development of science and technology in underground coal mining in Czechoslovakia during the 7th 5 year plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimek, M.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews main tasks of underground coal mining in Czechoslovakia from 1981 to 1985 in the following basins: Ostrava-Karvina, Kladno, Prievidza, Most and Sokolov. The planned increase of brown and black coal output in each of the basins is discussed. Selected problems associated with mining are evaluated: significant increase of mining depth, rock burst hazards, methane hazards and water influx in the Ostrava-Karvina basin. Investment program in the current 5 year plan as well as until the year 2000 is analyzed: sinking of 38.8 km of mine shafts and 4.4 km of blind shafts. Equipment for shaft sinking produced in the USA (by Robins the 241 SB-184) and in the USSR (the Uralmash Sk-1U system) is compared. Design and technical specifications of the two systems are given. Equipment for mine drivage is also reviewed. The following machines are described: the TVM-55H by Demag (FRG), the TBS V-600E/Sch by Wirth (FRG), the TBM ser. 18a781 by Robins (USA) and the MARK-18T by JARVA (USA). Selected types of powered supports which will be widely used in coal mines in the current 5 year plan are evaluated. Research programs in underground coal mining are reviewed (safety, mining thin coal seams, slice mining of thick coal seams in the Namurian B series, mining extremely thick seams with stowing of the top slice and mining with caving the 4.5 m thick bottom slice). (4 refs.) (In Czech)

  1. Use of fixation techniques in processing radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seliga, M.

    1977-01-01

    The current state of radioactive waste disposal from the Bohunice nuclear power plant is described. The method of vacuum cementation was chosen for solidifying liquid radioactive wastes. This method makes it possible to obtain a product whose properties, namely strength, leachability, and radiation stability allow for the production of blocks without packing material. Also solved was the fixation of liquid radioactive waste using bituminization based on mixing liquid radioactive waste with aqueous bitumen emulsion in a film evaporator in which the mixture of liquid radioactive wastes and bitumen emulsion evaporate producing solid bitumen. The parameters are given of the cementation and bituminization lines which are designed for use in nuclear power plants with WWER type reactors. (J.B.)

  2. Dílna kultury zvoncovitých pohárů na zpracování rohovce typu Stránská skála (Brno, katastrální území Slatina)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebela, Lubomír; Škrdla, Petr; Přichystal, A.; Kopacz, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2016), s. 119-128 ISSN 2453-8612 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Moravia (East part of Czech Republic) * Stránská skála (Brno, cadastral territory of Slatina) * Bell Beaker culture * workshop * chert of the Stránská skála type Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology https://fphil.uniba.sk/fileadmin/fif/katedry_pracoviska/karch/MusArch/1_1/119-128.pdf

  3. The participation of the Experimental Design Factory of the Uranium Industry of Czechoslovakia in the design of a tunneling machine with disk bits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastner, P

    1983-01-01

    A tunneling machine, two prototypes of which were designed and built jointly on the basis of scientific and technical cooperation between the Experimental Design Factory of the Uranium Industry of Czechoslovakia and the VEB-Schachtbau enterprise (East Germany), is described. The experimental design operations were conducted under the methodological leadership of the Mine Construction in the Uranium Industry (Czechoslovakia) enterprise. The experimental design factory developed a general design system for the machine and its individual subassemblies. The detailed technical documentation for the machine units was developed by both enterprises. Each enterprise made two complexes of specific units and spare parts. The prototypes were assembled in both countries with the technical assistance of the producer enterprise of the appropriate subassembly. Industrial tests were conducted by each enterprise independently with technical assistance and delivery of spare parts on the part of the producer enterprise. A machine under the title of VM 24-27 was used to drill more than 2,300 meters of water supply tunnel in East Germany in 1982 and a machine called the RS 24-27 (29) was used in Prague in the same year to drill approximately 1,400 meters of cable collectors. The machine is designed for the passage of rounded mine drifts with a diameter of 2.4 to 2.7 (2.9) meters) to the full cross section in stable rocks. Its overall length is 32.5 meters, while the total weight is 85 tons. The shift productivity was 9.55 meters. Since 1979 the Mining Construction in the Uranium Industry and the Experimental Design Plant of the Uranium Industry Enterprises of Czechoslovakia have supplied disk bits for the TVM Demag tunnel drilling machines (West Germany) and RS 24-27 and the HG 210 Wirth (West Germany) cross cut drills.

  4. BY THE EXPERIENCE OF FOREIGN INTERNSHIP AMONG RUSSIAN STUDENTS’ OF CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF IZHSTU AT BRNO UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery P. Grahov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate the possibilities of foreign internships among Russian students. Methods. The methods involve general-scientific methods of theoretical research – analysis and synthesis. Results. The article is devoted to the analysis of foreign internships of Civil Engineering Department of Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University in foreign universities for a specific period of time. The authors analyze the entry of Russian students into the European educational process. Additionally, the authors describe the educational process of training among Russian students of the Industrial and Civil Construction Department in Brno University of Technology. The training is conducted in accordance with the project of the European Union «Lifelong Learning Programme», which involves some non-profitable projects of foreign exchange of students and teachers; e.g. Erasmus Mundus, that is accessible more or less for all universities all over the world. A brief assessment of teaching subjects in the Czech University is given. The concept of students’ foreign internships as a part of preparation of intended graduates with a degree in «Construction» is extended. Evident, current and future advantages and benefits of such foreign internship projects are noted. Scientific novelty and practical significance. The research findings include the developed recommendations for students’ internship organization in foreign universities. 

  5. Attracting Pupils and Students to Natural Sciences: Challenges in Higher Education on the Example of Science Learning Centre Bioskop Masaryk University (Brno, the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Konečný

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many universities in the Czech Republic lack students´ interest in the studies of natural science. That is why all the universities have to come up with an idea how to popularize these scientific fields to attract potential university applicants. One of the ways of achieving that is to create educational centres, which are able, thanks to these programmes, to approach students of primary and secondary schools and show them the natural sciences. The presented example of one particular educational centre (Bioskop Masaryk University, Brno, the Czech Republic evaluates the success rate of their activities while using written questionnaire survey among the visitors of the programmes (students of primary and secondary schools as well as their pedagogues. The results have shown that thanks to these activities the centre created quality conditions for popularization of natural sciences. The results have also proven the centre´s ability to present natural sciences in an attractive and entertaining way to students of elementary and secondary schools. These students expressed their interest in the study of natural sciences and they would like to visit the centre again

  6. Radiation techology in cable making industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourim, P.; Vokal, A.

    1985-01-01

    Electron accelerators are used in radiation cross-linking of elastomer and thermoplastic layers of cable insulation and sheathing. Another application is cross-linking of insulation bands and moulded products to achieve thermal contractibility. Ionizing radiation is used for curing insulation lacquers on winding leads. In Czechoslovakia, problems of radiation curing of silicone rubber have been studied since 1973. Instrumentation has been installed including accelerators. The feasibility has also been studied of radiation cross-linking of insulation and semiconductor cable cores of hose-type trailing cables. Polyethylene mixes have been designed and prepared which are suitable for radiation cross-linking aimed at increasing thermal resistance above 100 degC. (M.D.)

  7. Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol Mora, J.

    1999-01-01

    The exposition to ionizing radiations is a constant fact in the life of the human being and its utilization as diagnostic and therapeutic method is generalized. However, it is notorious how as years go on, the fear to the ionizing radiation seems to persist too, and this fact is not limited to the common individual, but to the technical personnel and professional personnel that labors with them same. (S. Grainger) [es

  8. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The basic facts about radiation are explained, along with some simple and natural ways of combating its ill-effects, based on ancient healing wisdom as well as the latest biochemical and technological research. Details are also given of the diet that saved thousands of lives in Nagasaki after the Atomic bomb attack. Special comment is made on the use of radiation for food processing. (U.K.)

  9. Radiation protection in the Czechoslovak nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, J.; Koc, J.; Hynek, J.; Trousil, J.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation monitoring by means of the central information system and of autonomous, portable and laboratory devices as well as a brief characteristic of the nuclear power plant radiation fields are described. The new personal dosimetric film and thermoluminescent badges and the method (including the block diagram) for personal dose evaluation are also introduced. Internal contamination monitoring is performed by means of a whole-body counter and excreta sample analysis. Monitoring the influence of effluents from nuclear power plants on environment in Czechoslovakia is based on significant radionuclide measurements in ventilation stacks and in the environment, also by means of the telemetric system, all in connection with mathematical models. (author)

  10. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winther, J.F.; Ulbak, K.; Dreyer, L.; Pukkala, E.; Oesterlind, A.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic countries occurs at an average effective dose per capita per year of about 3 mSv (Iceland, 1.1 mSv) from natural sources, and about 1 mSv from man-made sources. While the natural sources are primarily radon in indoor air, natural radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation and gamma radiation from soil and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180 cases of lung cancer (1% of all lung cancer cases) per year could be avoided in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 if indoor exposure to radon were eliminated, and that an additional 720 cases (6%) could be avoided annually if either radon or tobacco smoking were eliminated. Similarly, it was estimated that the exposure of the Nordic populations to natural sources of ionizing radiation other than radon and to medical sources will each give rise to an annual total of 2120

  11. Situation Report--Austria, Cameroon, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, German Federal Republic, Greece, Hungary, Irish Republic, Jamaica, Malta, Norway, Sabah, Sarawak, Spain, Tahiti (French Polynesia), Tonga, Turkey, and United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 21 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Austria, Cameroon, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, German Federal Republic, Greece, Hungary, Irish Republic, Jamaica, Malta, Norway, Sabah, Sarawak, Spain, Tahiti, Tonga, Turkey, and United…

  12. A Comparison of Educational Research Organizations and Methods, and Their Respective Influence on Secondary School Practices, in Poland, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia and the U.S.S.R. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William H.E.

    A study conducted in Poland, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, and the U.S.S.R. reports how these countries functioned in bridging the traditional gap between the development of theoretical research in education and the achievement of the desired reforms in school policies and practices. The choice of communist dictatorships as study subjects was based…

  13. Radon investigation in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burian, I.

    1992-01-01

    After a short description of the history of radon measurements in mines, the results of bare track detector application in dwellings are commented on. Many related methods and problems are discussed. Most experiences are similar to the published ones, but details are specific for Central Europe (absence of air-conditioning, etc.). (author)

  14. Daily radiation. 150 days after Chernobyl: food adviser and cesium map updated. Taegliche Strahlung. Lebensmittelratgeber und Caesiumkarte auf neuestem Stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Contains contributions of basic character about radioactivity, measurement of radioactivity, the fuel cycle, the temporal evolution of radiation burden, fuel reprocessing plants and limit values. Further there are a food adviser, an estimation of risk from food, and a cesium map for Austria from August 1986. Finally there are contributions about Wackersdorf in West Germany, Temelin in Czechoslovakia and on energy policy. The contributions are not connected with particular authors. 10 refs., 29 figs., 11 tabs. (qui).

  15. Waste incineration plant Brno. Engineering and reconstruction to a modern technology standard; Muellverbrennungsanlage Bruenn. Planung und Umbau auf einen modernen Anlagenstandard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quicker, P.; Boerner, R.; Metschke, J.; Eggenstein, U.; Dolezal, V.; Faulstich, M. [ATZ Entwicklungszentrum, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    The waste incineration plant in Brno, Czech Republic will be reconstructed in main parts according to the reference documents of best available technology (BAT). The site has a tradition of more than one hundred years in the field of thermal waste treatment. But the status of the incineration plant does not comply with current requirements. Therefore, it is planned to re-install two complete boiler lines (each with a nominal waste capacity of 14 t/h), including peripheral devices for pre-treatment and waste feed, flue gas cleaning and energy utilization. The challenge lies in the terms of the project. Existing buildings and installations will be in use during the project and continuous operation of the plant is required as far as possible. The ATZ Entwicklungszentrum has been involved in developing the call for tenders, the negotiation process with tenderers and the selection of tenders. Technical focus of the support laid on furnace and boiler with special emphasis in corrosion protection as well as on flue gas cleaning. ATZ has developed the following proposals for the technological design and configuration of these process components in accordance with the BAT document on waste incineration: For optimized corrosion protection in the boiler and combustion chamber, the side walls of the combustion chamber and the ignition ceiling should be lined with back-casting SiC-panels. In the burnout-zone, an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ramming material must be applied. Above the combustion chamber, in the temperature zone up to approximately 850 C, air ventilated SiC-panels are the best solution. The rest of the first draught, the boiler ceiling and the first half of the second draught should be weld-cladded with Inconel 625. Same treatment should be applied to membrane walls and those pipes of the first superheater bundle, which are particularly exposed to flue gas. A technological and economical comparison of different options for flue gas treatment showed that dry and semi

  16. Status and outlook of heat supply in the Czech Republic with the city Brno as example; Stand und Aussichten der Fernwaermeversorgung in der Tschechischen Republik am Beispiel der Stadt Bruenn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohout, V.; Ochrana, L.

    1997-01-01

    At present much emphasis is placed on adapting the existing plants to modern environmental requirements. The last coalfired heat plant of the Brno district heating system, the heat plant `Cerveny mlyn` (`red mill`), will be replaced by a combined cycle gas turbine that will come into operation before the end of 1998. Another example of the technical modernization programme are the environmental protective measures at the Brno waste incineration plant that was connected to the city`s district heating system in 1992. These technical measures and the integration of the various heat and CHP plants into the overall district heating system have already resulted in a marked reduction of environmentally harmful emissions and thus made an important contribution towards improving the city`s quality of life. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Autoren berichten ueber die bisherige Entwicklung und den Stand der Waermeversorgung in der Tschechischen Republik unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Fernwaerme. Die vielerorts eingeleitete Erneuerung und Modernisierung der Fernwaermeanlagen wird am Beispiel der Stadt Bruenn dargestellt. Die Anpassung der Waermeproduktionsanlagen an die Erfordernisse des Umweltschutzes entsprechend dem Stand der Technik macht betraechtliche Investitionen noetig, wobei in Bruenn der Ersatz alter Kohlekessel durch Gaskessel und Gas-Kombianlagen im Vordergrund steht. (orig.)

  17. Kulturní park Brno

    OpenAIRE

    Tesařová, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    Cílem projektu je návrh novostavby kulturně-společenského centra v Brně na Mikuláškově náměstí ve Starém Lískovci. Základní myšlenkou návrhu nebylo pouze navrhnout stavbu, která spolehlivě vyhoví svému účelu, ale také vytvořit živé prostředí pro setkávání lidí a společné trávení volného času. Na daném pozemku uprostřed panelového sídliště navíc nebylo žádoucí ubírat zelených ploch, a tak došlo k utvoření parku na střechách objektů. Tím získal tento původně zapomenutý pozemek svůj charakter a ...

  18. Renewable Energy Sources Brno '93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The proceedings contain 27 contributions dealing with unconventional energy sources. The numbers of contributions in the individual classes of topics indicate that interest has mostly concentrated on the direct utilization of solar energy, whereas wind energy, hydroelectric energy and geothermal energy receive less attention and the use of biomass is at the margin of interest. (J.B.)

  19. Waste heat utilization in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1983-01-01

    The Proceedings contain 17 papers presented at meetings of the Working Group for Waste Heat Utilization of the Committee of the European Society of Nuclear Methods in Agriculture of which 7 fall under the INIS scope. The working group met in May 1980 in Brno, Czechoslovakia, in October 1981 in Aberdeen, Scotland and in September 1982 in Brno. (Z.M.)

  20. Twenty years of the Nuclear Research Institute and its contribution to the development of nuclear power and technology in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havel, S.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is presented of the most important results of scientific research efforts of the Nuclear Research Institute (UJV) attained in the 20 years of the Institute's existence. In 1975 the proportion of the individual fields of research was as follows: reactor technology 37%, reactor materials 19%, nuclear fuel processing including waste processing 18%, ionizing radiation applications 16%, others 10%. In the field of reactor technology, orientation is evident to light-water and fast reactors (1975): light-water reactors 40%, fast reactors 44%, heavy-water reactors 16%. The most significant contribution of the Institute to the first Czechoslovak nuclear power plant A-1 in the past period included the construction of the TR-0 heavy-water critical assembly, the choice of suitable uranium alloys and their thermal and mechanical treatment for the A-1 fuel elements, corrosion and mechanical stability study of cladding materials and post-irradiation fuel study performed in the UJV hot chambers. Significant for the development of light-water reactors are mainly the study of water regimes of radiation-exposed circuits, the solution of primary circuit chemical problems, participation in the international research programme of the CMEA countries related to the ZR-6 (Budapest) critical assembly, and the study of Zr-based cladding materials. UJV is the main Czechoslovak study centre for the development of a fast reactor and its staff have written a number of programmes for the computation of such a reactor and its fuel cycle. Also available is a suitable experimental facility. The Institute also participates in the research of UO 2 -based ceramic fuel, and in the field of spent fuel and radioactive waste processing in the development of extraction processes and the application of fluoride technology. As for ionizing radiation applications, UJV has since 1960 been manufacturing radioactive preparations including, to a limited extent, radiopharmaceuticals. It is envisaged that

  1. Radiation protection regulations in Slovakia and application of BSS and EC council directives provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktory, D.

    2003-01-01

    Slovakia, a part of the former Czechoslovak Federation, has been on the map of Europe as an independent country for only 10 years. It is a relatively small country with 5,5 million of inhabitants. The use of radiation sources in medicine, industry and research is extensive, but it corresponds with the size of country and the number of inhabitants. Nowadays here are nearly 600 licensee holders in medicine and in industry and 5 000 radiation sources in national registry. The nuclear industry is relatively developed in Slovakia. In the former Czechoslovakia, the responsibilities for nuclear safety and radiation protection were divided between two authorities. The federal authority for nuclear safety and regional authorities - regional hygienist for the radiation protection were responsible. Regional health protection authorities were managed by two separate Ministries of the Health of Czech and Slovak federal Republics. After the splitting of Czechoslovakia the development differs slightly in both countries. In the Czech Republic both authorities have merged, in Slovakia the people in power were not able to carry out such a radical change, so here the model of two independent authorities have remained. This system has been working since 1950's. (author)

  2. Long term changes in social metabolism and land use in Czechoslovakia, 1830-2000. An energy transition under changing political regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuskova, Petra [Department of Social Geography and Regional Development, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague (Czech Republic); Gingrich, Simone; Krausmann, Fridolin [Institute of Social Ecology, Faculty for Interdisciplinary Studies Vienna, Klagenfurt University (Austria)

    2008-12-01

    Industrialisation goes along with sweeping changes in society's interrelations with its environment. The transition from an agrarian to an industrial society leads to fundamentally new patterns in social metabolism, a process which has been described as socio-metabolic transition. This paper investigates this transition for the case of the current Czech and Slovak Republics and presents a dataset on the development of key variables related to social metabolism during the last 170 years. The dataset includes time series data on the extraction of biomass and fossil fuels, energy consumption and land use. Combining data on Bohemia and Moravia (1830-1915) with data on Czechoslovakia (1918-1992) and the Czech and Slovak Republics (1993-2002), the study covers a period of consecutive political and institutional changes. It includes the feudal regime of the late period of the Habsburg Empire and its disintegration with WWI, the short period of the Czechoslovak Republic in the interwar period, the era of a planned economy under a communist regime, the collapse of this regime and the subsequent turn towards a market economy and European integration in the 1990s. The period was characterized by economic and physical growth. It saw a doubling of population and a growth in GDP by a factor 20. Domestic energy consumption (DEC) increased by a factor 10 and the share of biomass in DEC declined from more than 98% to less than 20%. All in all the observed changes closely resemble the characteristic path of the socio-metabolic transition as observed in other Western European economies. Major political and economic changes did not result in fundamental alterations of the socio-metabolic transition until the mid-20th century. The communist era (1945-1989) was characterized by rapid physical growth and changes in the energy and land use system very similar to those of other Western European economies in the same period, however leading to DEC values substantially higher than those

  3. Use of EMW radiation in the building industry at defects in buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobotka Jindřich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses theory and application of microwave radiation and experimental optimization of microwave radiation to eliminate moisture content in wood elements. It will be appreciated that the rising moisture leaking into the structure, resulting in defects and structures of the buildings themselves. Owing to its properties, microwave radiation has been used in the construction industry in modern times, in particular to dry wet masonry of buildings. Effects of electromagnetic radiation on building structures lead to relatively sharp decreases in moisture content from damp building structures or elements. The influence of electromagnetic radiation on building structures lead to oscillation of water molecules contained in the material, which cause a phase transformation of water into vapour. Consequently, the vapour evaporates from the moist material, thereby drying the element exposed to radiation. The article describes experiments carried out at the Faculty of Civil Engineering of the Faculty of Technology in Brno that demonstrate successful decrease of water content in building materials using microwave radiation. First, the understanding of microwave radiation will be discussed. Following an analysis of research results an optimum intensity of microwave radiation sources as well as the necessary length of the irradiation of microwave radiation have been determined with respect to the particular type of building material and the success rate of elimination of moisture.

  4. Risk estimates for the health effects of alpha radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.C.; McNeill, K.G.

    1981-09-01

    This report provides risk estimates for various health effects of alpha radiation. Human and animal data have been used to characterize the shapes of dose-response relations and the effects of various modifying factors, but quantitative risk estimates are based solely on human data: for lung cancer, on miners in the Colorado plateau, Czechoslovakia, Sweden, Ontario and Newfoundland; for bone and head cancers, on radium dial painters and radium-injected patients. Slopes of dose-response relations for lung cancer show a tendency to decrease with increasing dose. Linear extrapolation is unlikely to underestimate the excess risk at low doses by more than a factor of l.5. Under the linear cell-killing model, our best estimate

  5. Old Brno - CITY INSTEAD OF FACTORY

    OpenAIRE

    Hanousek, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Řešené území se nachází v oblasti Starého Brna v blízkosti Mendlova náměstí, které v současné době funguje jako dopravní uzel. Jedná se o plochu bývalé továrny Kras a na něj navazující území směrem k brněnskému výstavišti. Mou snahou bylo vytvořit příjemnou lokalitu pro komfortní bydlení se zázemím, službami a obchody. Veřejnými prostory pro volný čas s dostatkem zeleně pro harmonické prostředí, kde budou lidé rádi trávit čas po příchodu z práce. V návrhu jsou co nejvhodněji kombinované funkc...

  6. Radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, F.; Rodgers, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book include: Interaction of ionizing radiation with matter; Primary products in radiation chemistry; Theoretical aspects of radiation chemistry; Theories of the solvated electron; The radiation chemistry of gases; Radiation chemistry of colloidal aggregates; Radiation chemistry of the alkali halides; Radiation chemistry of polymers; Radiation chemistry of biopolymers; Radiation processing and sterilization; and Compound index

  7. Radiation and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landfermann, H.H.; Solbach, C.

    1992-11-01

    The brochure explains the major types of radiation, the radiation sources, effects, uses, and risks, as well as the regulatory system adopted by the government in order to keep the risks as low as possible. (orig./DG) [de

  8. Radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, Sung Jin; Kim, Seung Guk; No, Gyeong Seok; Park, Myeong Hwan; Ann, Bong Seon

    1998-03-01

    This book explains technical terms about radiation measurement, which are radiation, radiation quantity and unit such as prefix of international unit, unit for defence purposes of radiation, coefficient of radiation and interaction, kinds and principles of radiation detector, ionization chamber, G-M counter, G-M tube, proportional counter, scintillation detector, semiconductor radiation detector, thermoluminescence dosimeter, PLD, others detector, radiation monitor, neutron detector, calibration of radiation detector, statistics of counting value, activation analysis and electronics circuit of radiation detector.

  9. Culture and public centre Brno-damlake/Theme"Brno-city in the midle of the Europe"/

    OpenAIRE

    Říhová, Táňa

    2013-01-01

    V rámci diplomové práce je řešeno téma Brněnské přehrady a jejího efektivního využití. Samotným předmětem diplomové práce je kulturně-společenské centrum (dále jen centrum). Projekt sleduje široký urbanistický kontext a poskytuje nový pohled na provoz a využití této lokality. Obsahuje návrh koordinace pohybu a efektivního využití nejatraktivnějších ploch, které bezprostředně souvisí s vodní hladinou. Kulturně-společenské centrum je koncipováno jako součást krajiny. Navazuje a propojuje dvě úr...

  10. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1975-01-01

    Physical and radiological terms, quantities, and units. Basic principles of radiation protection (ICRP, IAEA, EURATOM, FRG). Biological effects of ionizing radiation. Objectives of practical radiation protection. (HP) [de

  11. Present status of food irradiation in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salkova, Z.; Kubin, K.; Stanek, M.; Horacek, P.

    1978-01-01

    Information is supplied on the Czechoslovak Nuclear Programme in the field of food irradiation. The results of irradiating varieties of potatoes predominating in the CSSR, onions and mushrooms are summarized. Attention is also paid to the attitude of the Czechoslovak Health Authorities and to consumer trials. Further tasks towards the introduction of this technology on an industrial scale are discussed. (author)

  12. Problems of zirconium metal production in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vareka, J.; Vaclavik, E.

    1975-01-01

    The problems are summed up of the production and quality control of zirconium sponge. A survey is given of industrial applications of zirconium in form of pure metal or alloys in nuclear power production, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, chemical engineering and electrical engineering. A survey is also presented of the manufacture of zirconium metal in advanced capitalist countries. (J.B.)

  13. Czechoslovakia's participation in the INIS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakos, A.

    1980-01-01

    The development of the Czechoslovak participation in the INIS system is described. A detailed description is presented of the methods and technology of document processing within the INIS scope by the Czechoslovak Nuclear Information Centre. (M.S.)

  14. A Nobel Prize in Czechoslovakia; Yaroslav Geyrovskiy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brabernets, Irzhi

    1960-01-01

    The notification of the awarding of a Nobel Prize to Yaroslav Geyrovskiy in the field of chemistry in l959 came to the scientist while he was at work at the Polarographic Institute of the Czechoslovak...

  15. Area Handbook Series: Czechoslovakia: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    It would play an im- portant role in the development of the Czech nation. The Bohemian Kingdom was a major medieval and early modern political, eco...implications for Czech history, it is im- portant to remember that the Bohemian Kingdom was a medieval state in which ethnic or national questions were...London], 5, No. 3, Autumn 1976, 57-60. " Literatura ." Encyklopidia Slovenska, III. Bratislava: VEDA, 1979. Mandel, Stefan. "Filling the Vacuum," Index on

  16. Utilization of INIS output in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanik, Z.; Blazek, J.

    1978-01-01

    Information on INIS output materials - INIS magnetic tape, INIS Atomindex, full texts of non-conventional literature on microfiches. Complex is provided of INIS-SDI service by the Nuclear Information Centre for CSSR. The Unified Software System (USS) of the UVTEI-UTZ (the Central Technical Base of the Central Office for Scientific, Technical and Economic Information) is used for the automated processing of INIS magnetic tapes. A survey of INIS-SDI services in the years 1974 to 1978 is given. The further development of the system consists in the use of the terminal network, with direct access to the IAEA computer in Vienna. (author)

  17. Bacteriological Controls at Czechoslovakia Blood Transfusion Centers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jezkova, Zdenka

    1961-01-01

    .... Bacterial contamination may come about: 1. Through incorrect preparation of the transfusion material, such as the withdrawal equipment,transfusion flasks, reservative solution, and, particularly, through inadequate sterilization; 2...

  18. Outline of geothermal activity in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franko, O.; Bodis, D.; Dendek, M.; Remsik, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that in respect of different geothermal conditions in the Bohemian Massif (unfavorable) and in the West Carpathians (favorable), the development and utilization of geothermal energy are concentrated in Slovakia. THe utilization of geothermal energy for the heating of buildings in spas commenced in 1958. Thermal energy of geothermal waters was used for direct heating through heat exchangers, and in one case by a heat pump. Concentrated continuous development and utilization of geothermal energy started in 1971

  19. Genetics in Czechoslovakia (1935): An Edition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimůnek, Michal V.; Hossfeld, U.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 53, 1/2 (2017), s. 23-30 ISSN 0085-0748 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 Keywords : Mendel * genetics * history Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  20. Ionizing radiation, radiation sources, radiation exposure, radiation effects. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, E.

    1985-01-01

    Part 2 deals with radiation exposure due to artificial radiation sources. The article describes X-ray diagnosis complete with an analysis of major methods, nuclear-medical diagnosis, percutaneous radiation therapy, isotope therapy, radiation from industrial generation of nucler energy and other sources of ionizing radiation. In conclusion, the authors attempt to asses total dose, genetically significant dose and various hazards of total radiation exposure by means of a summation of all radiation impacts. (orig./WU) [de

  1. New organizational framework of the radiation protection in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klener, V.

    1996-01-01

    The first administrative acts concerning Radiation Protection were issued on the territory of today's Czech Republic already in the times when it was part of the then Austro-Hungarian Empire. They delt with the regulation of the medical application of radon waters and radioactive mud used in spas. Between the World War I and the World War II the activities related to Radiation Protection covered only some particular facets of the challenge. Two outstanding personalities contributing to the progress in this field are worth mentioning. Prof. Teisinger, founder of occupational medicine in Czechoslovakia with high reputation also in the then Yugoslavia, started to follow-up the health status in radiation workers and strongly supported the idea of personnel monitoring. Prof. Frantisek Behounek - physicist and well known participant of the general Nobile's expedition to the North Pole - performed investigations in dosimetric methods and started to study the radon problems in uranium mines. A systematic approach to Radiation Protection has been adopted from the early nineteen-fifties. In 1956 the Department of Radiation Hygiene was established within the Institute of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases, headed by Prof. Teisinger. The staff of this Department increased during years from 30 to almost a hundred, and finally, in 1965 an autonomous Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene was created. New tasks related to Radiation Protection arose also at the regional level and not all of them could be handled from this central establishment. Following the model of the Soviet Hygiene Service the Czechoslovak Ministry of Public Health set up in 1957 a network of Stations of Hygiene and Epidemiology in the country. At the level of Regions - the higher level of administrative areas that time - the groups for Radiation Protection were formed to conduct the daily work at workplaces and in their environment

  2. Atoms, radiation, and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes basic atomic and nuclear structure, the physical processes that result in the emission of ionizing radiations, and external and internal radiation protection criteria, standards, and practices from the standpoint of their underlying physical and biological basis. The sources and properties of ionizing radiation-charged particles, photons, and neutrons-and their interactions with matter are discussed in detail. The underlying physical principles of radiation detection and systems for radiation dosimetry are presented. Topics considered include atomic physics and radiation; atomic structure and radiation; the nucleus and nuclear radiation; interaction of heavy charged particles with matter; interaction of beta particles with matter; phenomena associated with charged-particle tracks; interaction of photons with matter; neutrons, fission and criticality; methods of radiation detection; radiation dosimetry; chemical and biological effects of radiation; radiation protection criteria and standards; external radiation protection; and internal dosimetry and radiation protection

  3. Natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feliciano, Vanusa Maria Delage

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic radiation, as well as cosmogenic radiation, terrestrial radiation, radon and thorium are introduced in this chapter 3. The distribution of natural radiation sources is treated, where the percentage distribution of the contribution relative to exposure to radiation from natural and artificial sources is also included

  4. Radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochsner, S.F.; Head, L.H.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive review of radiation enteritis is presented. Experience in clinical radiation therapy has indicated that the small bowel is the segment of the alimentary tract that is most susceptible to radiation damage. (U.S.)

  5. Radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pao, C.T.; Green, W.K.

    1978-01-01

    A system for indicating radiation from a radioactive fluid such as a gas wherein simultaneous indications of the activity concentration of radioactivity of the gas, the radiation dose rate and average energy of the radiation are provided

  6. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ures Pantazi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This work define procedures and controls about ionizing radiations. Between some definitions it found the following topics: radiation dose, risk, biological effects, international radioprotection bodies, workers exposure, accidental exposure, emergencies and radiation protection

  7. Radiation sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposure to ionizing radiation. There are two main types of radiation: nonionizing and ionizing. Nonionizing radiation comes in the form of light, radio waves, microwaves and radar. These forms usually don't cause tissue damage. ...

  8. Ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, J.

    1989-01-01

    Ionizing radiation results in biological damage that differs from other hazardous substances and is highly dangerous to man. Ionizing radiation cannot be perceived by man's sense organs and the biological damage cannot be detected immediately afterwards (except in very high doses). Every human being is exposed to low doses of radiation. The structure of the atom; sources of ionizing radiation; radiation units; biological effects; norms for radiation protection; and the national control in South Africa are discussed. 1 fig., 5 refs

  9. Radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Cancergram deals with all aspects of radiation carcinogenesis. The term radiation here includes U-V radiation and the entire electromagnetic spectrum, electron and other charged particle beams, neutrons, and alpha and beta radiation from radioactive substances. Abstracts included concern relationships between radiation and carcinogenesis in humans, experimental induction of tumors in animals by irradiation, studies on the mechanism of radiation carcinogenesis at the cellular level, studies of RBE, dose response or dose threshold in relation to radiation carcinogenesis, and methods and policies for control of radiation exposure in the general population. In general, this Cancergram excludes abstracts on radio-therapy, radiologic diagnosis, radiation pathology, and radiation biology, where these articles have no bearing on radiation carcinogenesis

  10. Radiation practices and radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    The guide presents the principal requirements on accuracy of radiation measurements and on the approval, calibration and operating condition inspections of radiation meters, together with requirements for dosimetric services measuring the individual radiation doses of workers engaged in radiation work (approved dosimetric services). The Guide also sets out the definitions of quantities and units used in radiation measurements. The radiation protection quantities used for assessing the harmful effects of radiation and for expressing the maximum values for radiation exposure (equivalent dose and effective dose) are set out in Guide ST 7.2. This Guide concerns measurements of ionizing radiation involved in radiation practices, the results of which are used for determining the radiation exposure of workers engaged in radiation work and members of the public, and of patients subject to the use of radiation in health services, or upon the basis of which compliance with safety requirements of appliances currently in use and of their premises of use or of the workplaces of workers is ensured. The Guide also concerns measurements of the radon concentration of inhaled air in both workplaces and dwellings. The Guide does not apply to determining the radiation exposure of aircrews, determination of exposure caused by internal radiation, or measurements made to protect the public in the event of, or in preparation for abnormal radiation conditions

  11. Infrared Radiation and Blackbody Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    tut present graph Tutorial Presentation Graph Interactive Media Element This interactive tutorial covers the following: How infrared radiation was discovered., The regions of infrared radiation and their relations to temperature., The nature of blackbody radiation and Planck's radiation law., The relationship between temperature and the power emitted by radiation.The interactions in this tutorial include clicking to reveal new information, and questions that help students...

  12. Radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Priyanka

    2014-01-01

    The use of radiation sources is a privilege; in order to retain the privilege, all persons who use sources of radiation must follow policies and procedures for their safe and legal use. The purpose of this poster is to describe the policies and procedures of the Radiation Protection Program. Specific conditions of radiation safety require the establishment of peer committees to evaluate proposals for the use of radionuclides, the appointment of a radiation safety officer, and the implementation of a radiation safety program. In addition, the University and Medical Centre administrations have determined that the use of radiation producing machines and non-ionizing radiation sources shall be included in the radiation safety program. These Radiation Safety policies are intended to ensure that such use is in accordance with applicable State and Federal regulations and accepted standards as directed towards the protection of health and the minimization of hazard to life or property. It is the policy that all activities involving ionizing radiation or radiation emitting devices be conducted so as to keep hazards from radiation to a minimum. Persons involved in these activities are expected to comply fully with the Canadian Nuclear Safety Act and all it. The risk of prosecution by the Department of Health and Community Services exists if compliance with all applicable legislation is not fulfilled. (author)

  13. Radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Sections include: dose units, dose limits, dose rate, potential hazards of ionizing radiations, control of internal and external radiation exposure, personal dosemeters, monitoring programs and transport of radioactive material (packaging and shielding)

  14. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallmeier, K.H.; Meisel, A.; Ranft, J.

    1982-01-01

    The physical background and the properties of synchrotron radiation are described. The radiation offers many useful applications in the fields of spectroscopy and structural investigations. Some examples are given

  15. Radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, L.Eh.; B'yuli, D.K.; Karmikel, Dzh.Kh.E.

    1985-01-01

    Recommendations on radiation monitoring of personnel, used medical ionizing radiation source, are given. The necessity to carry out radiation monitoring of situation at medical personnel's positions and personnel dosimetry is marked. It is convenient to subdivide radiation monitoring into 3 types: usual, surgical and special. Usual monitoring is connected with current work; surgical monitoring is carried out to receive information during a concrete operation; special monitoring is used to detect possible deviation from standard conditions of work or when suspecting them

  16. Medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This leaflet in the At-a-Glance Series describes the medical use of X-rays, how X-rays help in diagnosis, radiation protection of the patient, staff protection, how radioactive materials in nuclear medicine examinations help in diagnosis and the use of radiation in radiotherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging, a diagnostic technique involving no ionizing radiation, is also briefly examined. The role of the NRPB in the medical use of radiation is outlined. (UK)

  17. Ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: characteristics of ionizing radiations; biological effects; comparison of radiation and other industrial risks; principles of protection; cost-benefit analysis; dose limits; the control and monitoring of radiation; reference levels; emergency reference levels. (U.K.)

  18. Radiation watchdog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, R.

    1984-01-01

    Designated by WHO as a Collaborating Centre, the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee provides assistance to all countries of the Americas in radiation accidents including human contamination or overexposure. It also conducts courses in radiation emergency response for health professionals from throughout the world

  19. Radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, L.

    1979-01-01

    On a scientific basis and with the aid of realistic examples, the author gives a popular introduction to an understanding and judgment of the public discussion over radiation hazards: Uses and hazards of X-ray examinations, biological radiation effects, civilisation risks in comparison, origins and explanation of radiation protection regulations. (orig.) [de

  20. Ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, W.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to simplify some of the relevant points of legislation, biological effects and protection for the benefit of the occupational health nurse not familiar with the nuclear industries. The subject is dealt with under the following headings; Understanding atoms. What is meant by ionizing radiation. Types of ionizing radiation. Effects of radiation: long and short term somatic effects, genetic effects. Control of radiation: occupational exposure, women of reproductive age, medical aspects, principles of control. The occupational health nurse's role. Emergency arrangements: national arrangements for incidents involving radiation, action to be taken by the nurse. Decontamination procedures: external and internal contamination. (U.K.)

  1. Radiation imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmayne, I.

    1986-05-21

    A detector for the detection of radiation such as X-ray radiation comprises an array of scintillation elements embedded in a sheet of radiation absorbing material. The scintillation elements are monitored individually, for example by a corresponding array of photodiodes, to build up a picture of the incident radiation. The front face of the sheet and the inner walls of the bores may be coated with a reflective material. The detector finds particular application in weld radiography. The detector may be stepped relative to the radiation source, the signals produced by the rows of the detector as they pass a predetermined point being summed.

  2. Radiation imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmayne, Ian.

    1986-01-01

    A detector for the detection of radiation such as X-ray radiation comprises an array of scintillation elements embedded in a sheet of radiation absorbing material. The scintillation elements are monitored individually, for example by a corresponding array of photodiodes, to build up a picture of the incident radiation. The front face of the sheet and the inner walls of the bores may be coated with a reflective material. The detector finds particular application in weld radiography. The detector may be stepped relative to the radiation source, the signals produced by the rows of the detector as they pass a predetermined point being summed. (author)

  3. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Aman; Sharma, Shivam; Parasher, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Radiation dose measurement, field of radiobiology, is considered to be critical factor for optimizing radiation protection to the health care practitioners, patients and the public. This lead to equipment that has dose - area product meters permanently installed. In many countries and even institution, the range of equipment is vast and with the opportunity for radiation protection and dose recording varies considerably. Practitioners must move with the changed demands of radiation protection but in many cases without assistance of modern advancements in technology Keeping the three basic safety measures Time, Dose and Shielding we can say 'Optimum dose is safe dose' instead of 'No dose is safe dose'. The purpose enclosed within the title 'Radiation Protection'. The use of radiation is expanding widely everyday around the world and crossing boundaries of medical imaging, diagnostic and. The way to get the ''As low as reasonably achievable' is only achievable by using methodology of radiation protection and to bring the concern of general public and practitioners over the hazards of un-necessary radiation dose. Three basic principles of radiation protection are time, distance and shielding. By minimizing the exposure time increasing the distance and including the shielding we can reduce the optimum range of dose. The ability of shielding material to attenuate radiation is generally given as half value layer. This is the thickness of the material which will reduce the amount of radiation by 50%. Lab coat and gloves must be worn when handling radioactive material or when working in a labeled radiation work area. Safety glasses or other appropriate splash shields should be used when handling radioactive material. 1. Reached to low dose level to occupational workers, public as per prescribed dose limit. 2. By mean of ALARA principle we achieved the protection from radiation besides us using the radiation for our benefit

  4. Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, James E

    2007-01-01

    Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based. The work covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data. The procedures that are used to protect man and the environment from the potential harmful effects of

  5. Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics are two closely integrated programs whose joint purpose is to explore the connections between the primary physical events produced by radiation and their biological consequences in cellular systems. The radiation dosimetry program includes the theoretical description of primary events and their connection with the observable biological effects. This program also is concerned with the design and measurement of physical parameters used in theory or to support biological experiments. The radiation biophysics program tests and uses the theoretical developments for experimental design, and provides information for further theoretical development through experiments on cellular systems

  6. Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics are two closely integrated programs whose joint purpose is to explore the connections between the primary physical events produced by radiation and their biological consequences in cellular systems. The radiation dosimetry program includes the theoretical description of primary events and their connection with the observable biological effects. This program also is concerned with design and measurement of those physical parameters used in the theory or to support biological experiments. The radiation biophysics program tests and makes use of the theoretical developments for experimental design. Also, this program provides information for further theoretical development through experiments on cellular systems

  7. Activation of adenosine receptors and inhibition of cyclooxygenases: two recent pharmacological approaches to modulation of radiation suppressed hematopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, M.; Pospisil, M.; Vacek, A.; Hola, J.; Weiterova, L.; Streitova, D.; Znojil, V.

    2008-01-01

    Searching for drugs conforming to requirements for protection and/or treatment of radiation-induced damage belongs to the most important tasks of current radiobiology. In the Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Biophysics, v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno, Czech Republic, two original approaches for stimulation of radiation-suppressed hematopoiesis have been tested in recent years, namely activation of adenosine receptors and inhibition of cyclooxygenases. Non-selective activation of adenosine receptors, induced by combined administration of dipyridamole, a drug preventing adenosine uptake and supporting thus its extracellular receptor-mediated action, and adenosine monophosphate, an adenosine prodrug, has been found to stimulate hematopoiesis when the drugs were given either pre- or post-irradiation. When synthetic adenosine receptor agonists selective for individual adenosine receptor subtypes were tested, stimulatory effects in myelosuppressed mice have been found after administration of IB-MECA, a selective adenosine A3 receptor agonist. Non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors, inhibiting both cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), indomethacin, diclofenac, or flurbiprofen, have been observed to act positively on radiation-perturbed hematopoiesis in sublethally irradiated mice. However, their undesirable gastrointestinal side effects have been found to negatively influence survival of lethally irradiated animals. Recently tested selective COX-2 inhibitor meloxicam, preserving protective action of COX-1-synthesized prostaglandins in the gastrointestinal tissues, has been observed to retain the hematopoiesis-stimulating effects of non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors and to improve the survival of animals exposed to lethal radiation doses. These findings bear evidence for the possibility to use selective adenosine A3 receptor agonists and selective COX-2 inhibitors in human practice for treatment of

  8. Radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubner, K.F.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation accidents and incidents continue to be of great interest and concern to the public. Issues such as the threat of nuclear war, the Chernobyl reactor accident, or reports of sporadic incidences of accidental radiation exposure keep this interest up and maintain a high level of fear among the public. In this climate of real concern and radiation phobia, physicians should not only be prepared to answer questions about acute or late effects of ionizing radiation, but also be able to participate in the initial assessment and management of individuals who have been exposed to ionizing radiation or contaminated with radioactive material. Some of the key facts about radiation injury and its medical treatment are discussed by the author

  9. Cosmic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capdevielle, J N

    1984-01-01

    First, the different instruments and techniques of cosmic particle detection are presented. Then the passage of the cosmic particles through the atmosphere is studied: electrons, photons, muons. The collective behavior of the different categories is also studied, the electromagnetic cascade is distinguished from the hadron cascade. Through the principal physical properties of the radiation and the medium, the ''mean'' aspects of the radiation are then successively dealt with out of the atmosphere, at different altitudes until the sea level, then at great depths. A chapter is devoted to cosmic radiation of more than 10,000 GeV, studied separately. Then solar radiation in universe is studied through their propagation in solar system and their origin. At last, the cosmic radiation effects are studied in environment (cosmic biophysics) and some applications of cosmic radiation are presented.

  10. Radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The risk of iatrogenic tumors with radiation therapy is so outweighed by the benefit of cure that estimates of risk have not been considered necessary. However, with the introduction of chemotherapy, combined therapy, and particle radiation therapy, the comparative risks should be examined. In the case of radiation, total dose, fractionation, dose rate, dose distribution, and radiation quality should be considered in the estimation of risk. The biological factors that must be considered include incidence of tumors, latent period, degree of malignancy, and multiplicity of tumors. The risk of radiation induction of tumors is influenced by the genotype, sex, and age of the patient, the tissues that will be exposed, and previous therapy. With chemotherapy the number of cells at risk is usually markedly higher than with radiation therapy. Clearly the problem of the estimation of comparative risks is complex. This paper presents the current views on the comparative risks and the importance of the various factors that influence the estimation of risk

  11. Hawking radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parentani, Renaud; Spindel, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Hawking radiation is the thermal radiation predicted to be spontaneously emitted by black holes. It arises from the steady conversion of quantum vacuum fluctuations into pairs of particles, one of which escaping at infinity while the other is trapped inside the black hole horizon. It is named after the physicist Stephen Hawking who derived its existence in 1974. This radiation reduces the mass of black holes and is therefore also known as black hole evaporation.

  12. Radiation meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, P H

    1990-05-30

    Measuring means comprising first and second silicon PIN diode detectors both being covered with a thin layer of conducting material and the second detector being additionally covered with a relatively thick layer of material, the thickness being chosen such that beta radiation dose rate can be measured in beta radiation fields of high or medium energy, and in the presence of X and gamma radiation. (author). 2 figs.

  13. Radiation regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braithwaite, J.; Grabosky, P.

    1985-01-01

    The five main areas of radiation regulation considered are radiation exposure in the mining of uranium and other minerals, exposure in the use of uranium in nuclear reactors, risks in the transport of radioactive materials and hazards associated with the disposal of used materials. In Australia these problems are regulated by mines departments, the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and radiation control branches in state health departments. Each of these instutional areas of regulation is examined

  14. Radiation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1973-07-01

    Research progress is reported on radiation chemistry of heavy elements that includes the following topics: radiation chemistry of plutonium in nitric acid solutions (spectrophotometric analysis and gamma radiolysis of Pu(IV) and Pu(VI) in nitric acid solution); EPR studies of intermediates formed in radiolytic reactions with aqueous medium; two-phase radiolysis and its effect on the distribution coefficient of plutonium; and radiation chemistry of nitric acid. (DHM)

  15. B.R.N.O. Contributions #38. Times of minima

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoňková, K.; Juryšek, J.; Lehký, M.; Šmelcer, L.; Trnka, J.; Mašek, Martin; Urbaník, M.; Auer, R.; Vrašťák, M.; Kučáková, Hana; Ruocco, N.; Magris, M.; Polák, J.; Brát, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 0160, DEC (2013), s. 1-3 ISSN 1801-5964 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 283783 - GLORIA Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : photometry * variable stars * CCD photometry * robotic telescope Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics http://var.astro.cz/oejv/issues/oejv0160.pdf

  16. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A NRPB leaflet in the 'At-a-Glance' series explains in a simple but scientifically accurate way what radiation is, the biological effects and the relative sensitivity of different parts of the human body. The leaflet then discusses radiation protection principles, radiation protection in the UK and finally the effectiveness of this radiation protection as judged by a breakdown of the total dose received by an average person in the UK, a heavy consumer of Cumbrian seafood, an average nuclear industry worker and an average person in Cornwall. (UK)

  17. Radiation medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This booklet has been produced by UKAEA and the Marie Curie Memorial Foundation to give some basic information about what radiation is and how it is used in day to day diagnosis and treatment. It will be of interest to people undergoing treatment, their relatives and friends, and anyone who wants to know more about this important area. After a brief historical introduction the booklet explains what radiation is, the natural and man-made sources of radiation, how it is produced and how X-rays are used in medical diagnosis and treatment. The radiation protection measures taken and safety standards followed are mentioned. (author)

  18. GRAVITATIONAL RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin SALTIK

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available According to classical electromagnetic theory, an accelerated charge or system of charges radiates electromagnetic waves. In a radio transmitter antenna charges are accelerated along the antenna and release electromagnetic waves, which is radiated at the velocity of light in the surrounding medium. All of the radio transmitters work on this principle today. In this study an analogy is established between the principles by which accelerated charge systems markes radiation and the accelerated mass system, and the systems cousing gravitational radiation are investigated.

  19. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farge, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation is produced by electrons accelerated near the velocity of light in storage rings, which are used for high energy Physics experiments. The radiation light exhibits a wide spread continuous spectrum ranging from 01 nanometre to radiofrequency. This radiation is characterized by high power (several kilowatts) and intense brightness. The paper recalls the emission laws and the distinctive properties of the radiation, and gives some of the numerous applications in research, such as molecular spectroscopy, X ray diffraction by heavy proteins and X ray microlithography in LVSI circuit making [fr

  20. Radiation and radiation protection; Strahlung und Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomaeus, Melanie (comp.)

    2017-04-15

    The publication of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz covers the following issues: (i) Human beings in natural and artificial radiation fields; (ii) ionizing radiation: radioactivity and radiation, radiation exposure and doses; measurement of ionizing radiation, natural radiation sources, artificial radiation sources, ionizing radiation effects on human beings, applied radiation protection, radiation exposure of the German population, radiation doses in comparison; (iii) non-ionizing radiation; low-frequency electric and magnetic fields, high-frequency electromagnetic fields, optical radiation; (iiii) glossary, (iv) units and conversion.

  1. Radiation myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlit, P.

    1987-01-01

    After a review of the world literature, the case histories of 43 patients with radiation myelopathy are analyzed. In 1 patient there was a radiation injury of the medulla oblongata, in 2, cervical, in 28, thoracic, and in 12, lumbosacral. In the medulla oblongata lesion an alternans syndrome resulted. The patients with cervical and thoracic radiation myelopathies presented with a Brown-Sequard syndrome, a spinalis anterior syndrome or a transversal syndrome with pyramidal and spinothalamic tract involvement as the most prominent signs. For this group the term 'pyramidal-spinothalamic radiation myelopathy' is proposed. In lumbosacral radiation lesions a pure anterior horn syndrome may lead to spinothalamic tract involvement and the development of a cauda conus syndrome. The clinical presentation of these cases suggests that the location of the radiation lesion is most likely the region of the conus medullaris. The most frequent initial symptom was dysesthesia; the patients complained of burning pain or a feeling of coldness. Usually the neurological deficits were progressive, in pyramidal-spinothalamic radiation myelopathy over 12 months in average, in lumbosacral radiation lesions up to 10 years. The latent period between the finish of radiation therapy and the first neurological signs was 8 months (median) in cervical and thoracic myelopathy and 33 months in lumbosacral lesions. For the entire group of 43 patients there was an inverse relationship between the radiation dose (ret) and the latent period. A positive relation could be demonstrated between the age of patients at the time of radiation therapy and the latent period. Patients simultaneously receiving cytostatic drugs presented after a longer latent period than the remaining group. (orig./MG)

  2. Concepts of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This seventh chapter presents the concepts and principles of safety and radiation protection, emergency situations; NORM and TENORM; radiation protection care; radiation protection plan; activities of the radiation protection service; practical rules of radiation protection and the radiation symbol

  3. Fenomén Les Misérables - Bídníci: Nejdéle uváděný muzikál na světě

    OpenAIRE

    Pacasová, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    7 Abstract: In my bachelor thesis I focus on several points of view within the musical phenomenon Les Miserables. I describe it's history in France, England and Czechoslovakia. I analyze final musical dramatization from novel's original. I compare original french version of the musical to the english version. I ask question why is this musical so successful. From director and scenic points of view I compare productions of GOJA Music Hall Theatre and Brno City Theatre. In short I Also focus on...

  4. Radiation exposure and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuck, F.; Scherer, E.

    1985-01-01

    The present volume is devoted to the radiation hazards and the protective measures which can be taken. It describes the current state of knowledge on the changes which exposure to ionizing rays and other forms of physical energy can induce in organs and tissues, in the functional units and systems of the organism. Special attention is paid to general cellular radiation biology and radiation pathology and to general questions of the biological effects of densely ionizing particle radiation, in order to achieve a better all-round understanding of the effects of radiation on the living organism. Aside from the overviews dealing with the effects of radiation on the abdominal organs, urinary tract, lungs, cerebral and nervous tissue, bones, and skin, the discussion continues with the lymphatic system, the bone marrow as a bloodforming organ, and the various phases of reaction in the reproductive organs, including damage and subsequent regeneration. A special section deals with environmental radiation hazards, including exposure to natural radiation and the dangers of working with radioactive substances, and examines radiation catastrophes from the medical point of view. Not only reactor accidents are covered, but also nuclear explosions, with exhaustive discussion of possible damage and treatment. The state of knowledge on chemical protection against radiation is reviewed in detail. Finally, there is thorough treatment of the mechanism of the substances used for protection against radiation damage in man and of experience concerning this subject to date. In the final section of the book the problems of combined radiotherapy are discussed. The improvement in the efficacy of tumor radiotherapy by means of heavy particles is elucidated, and the significance of the efficacy of tumor therapy using electron-affinitive substances is explained. There is also discussion of the simultaneous use of radiation and pharmaceuticals in the treatment of tumors. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Radiation signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGlynn, S.P.; Varma, M.N.

    1992-01-01

    A new concept for modelling radiation risk is proposed. This concept is based on the proposal that the spectrum of molecular lesions, which we dub ''the radiation signature'', can be used to identify the quality of the causal radiation. If the proposal concerning radiation signatures can be established then, in principle, both prospective and retrospective risk determination can be assessed on an individual basis. A major goal of biophysical modelling is to relate physical events such as ionization, excitation, etc. to the production of radiation carcinogenesis. A description of the physical events is provided by track structure. The track structure is determined by radiation quality, and it can be considered to be the ''physical signature'' of the radiation. Unfortunately, the uniqueness characteristics of this signature are dissipated in biological systems in ∼10 -9 s. Nonetheless, it is our contention that this physical disturbance of the biological system eventuates later, at ∼10 0 s, in molecular lesion spectra which also characterize the causal radiation. (author)

  6. Background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of background radiation, whether natural or caused by man's activities, are discussed. The known biological effects of radiation in causing cancers or genetic mutations are explained. The statement that there is a threshold below which there is no risk is examined critically. (U.K.)

  7. Ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    This is an update about the radiological monitoring in base nuclear installations. A departmental order of the 23. march 1999 (J.O.28. april, p.6309) determines the enabling rules by the Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations of person having at one's disposal the results with names of individual exposure of workers put through ionizing radiations. (N.C.)

  8. Radiation hematology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zherbin, E.A.; Chukhlovin, A.B.

    1989-01-01

    State-of-the-Art ofl radiation hematology and review of the problems now facing this brauch of radiobiology and nuclear medicine are presented. Distortion of division and maturation of hemopoiesis parent cells is considered as main factor of radiopathology for hematopoetic system. Problems of radiation injury and functional variation of hematopoetic microenvironment cell populations are discussed. 176 figs.; 23 figs.; 18 tabs

  9. Radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Radiation Oncology Division has had as its main objectives both to operate an academic training program and to carry out research on radiation therapy of cancer. Since fiscal year 1975, following a directive from ERDA, increased effort has been given to research. The research activities have been complemented by the training program, which has been oriented toward producing radiation oncologists, giving physicians short-term experience in radiation oncology, and teaching medical students about clinical cancer and its radiation therapy. The purpose of the research effort is to improve present modalities of radiation therapy of cancer. As in previous years, the Division has operated as the Radiation Oncology Program of the Department of Radiological Sciences of the University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine. It has provided radiation oncology support to patients at the University Hospital and to academic programs of the University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus. The patients, in turn, have provided the clinical basis for the educational and research projects of the Division. Funding has been primarily from PRNC (approx. 40%) and from National Cancer Institute grants channeled through the School of Medicine (approx. 60%). Special inter-institutional relationships with the San Juan Veterans Administration Hospital and the Metropolitan Hospital in San Juan have permitted inclusion of patients from these institutions in the Division's research projects. Medical physics and radiotherapy consultations have been provided to the Radiotherapy Department of the VA Hospital

  10. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nave, C.; Quinn, P.; Blake, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper on Synchrotron Radiation contains the appendix to the Daresbury Annual Report 1987/88. The appendix is mainly devoted to the scientific progress reports on the work at the Synchrotron Radiation Source in 1987/8. The parameters of the Experimental Stations and the index to the Scientific Reports are also included in the appendix. (U.K.)

  11. Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, M.

    2002-01-01

    Major achievements of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection Department in 2001 are described. The main areas for R and D of the department are enviromnental remediation, emergency planning, radiation protection research, low-level radioactvity measurements, safeguards and physics measurements, decision strategy research and policy support and social sciences in nuclear research. Main achievements for 2001 in these areas are reported

  12. Ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, C. A.; Grigoryev, Y. G.

    1975-01-01

    The biological effects of ionizing radiation encountered in space are considered. Biological experiments conducted in space and some experiences of astronauts during space flight are described. The effects of various levels of radiation exposure and the determination of permissible dosages are discussed.

  13. Radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, L.K.

    1991-01-01

    The book gives accounts of some social and environmental impacts of the developing radiation industries, including the experiences of affected communities and individuals. Its structure is based on a division which has been made between nuclear and non-nuclear radiation sources, because they create distinctly different problems for environmental protection and so for public health policy. The emissions from electronic and electrical installations - the non-nuclear radiations - are dealt with in Part I. Emissions from radioactive substances - the nuclear radiations - are dealt with in Part II. Part III is for readers who want more detailed information about scientific basis of radiation-related biological changes and their associated health effects. 75 refs., 9 tabs., 7 figs., ills

  14. Radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    In this contribution about carcinogenesis induced by ionizing radiation some radiation dose-response relationships are discussed. Curves are shown of the relation between cell survival and resp. low and high LET radiation. The difference between both curves can be ascribed to endogenous repair mechanisms in the cell. The relation between single-gen mutation frequency and the surviving fractions of irradiated cells indicates that these repairing mechanisms are not error free. Some examples of reverse dose-response relationships are presented in which decreasing values of dose-rate (LET) correspond with increasing radiation induced cell transformation. Finally some molecular aspects of radiation carcinogenesis are discussed. (H.W.). 22 refs.; 4 figs

  15. Radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoh, Masaru; Ishida, Yusei; Saeki, Mitsuaki

    1983-01-01

    The frequency of radiation sickness in 1,060 patients treated at our Department was 12.8 percent. It was frequent in patients with brain cancer (12 percent), whole spine cancer (47 percent), uterus cancer (28 percent), lung cancer (22 percent) and esophagus cancer (12 percent). Radiation sickness following X-irradiation was studied in its relation to patient's age, size of radiation fields, dosis and white blood cell count. However, we could not find any definite clinical feature relevant to occurrence. There are many theories published concerning the mechanism of radiation sickness. Clinical experiences have shown that radiation sickness cannot be explained by one theory alone but by several theories such as those based on psychology, stress or histamine. (author)

  16. Radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxier, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Data available on the biological effects of radiation on man are reviewed, with emphasis on dose response to low LET and high LET radiation sources, and the effects of dose rate. Existing guides for radiation protection were formulated largely on the basis of tumor induction in the bone of radium dial painters, but the ICRP/NCRP annual dose guides of 5 rem/yr are of the same general magnitude as the doses received in several parts of the world from the natural radiation environment. Because of the greater sensitivity of rapidly dividing cells and the assumption that radiation occupations would not begin before the age of eighteen, maximum exposure levels were set as 5 (N-18) rem/yr, where N is the exposed worker's age in years. However, in the case of the natural radiation environment, exposure commences, in a sense, with the exposure of the ovum of the individual's mother; and the ovum is formed during the fetal development of the mother. In occupational exposures, the professional health physicist has always practiced the as low as practical philosophy, and exposures have generally averaged far below the guidelines. The average annual exposure of the radiation worker in modern plants and laboratories is approximately equal to the average natural radiation environment exposure rate and far lower than the natural radiation environment in many parts of the world. There are numerous complications and uncertainties in quantifying radiation effects on humans, however, the greatest is that due to having to extrapolate from high dose levels at which effects have been measured and quantified, to low levels at which most exposures occur but at which no effects have been observed

  17. Radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Riessen, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Experience has shown that modem, fully enclosed, XRF and XRD units are generally safe. This experience may lead to complacency and ultimately a lowering of standards which may lead to accidents. Maintaining awareness of radiation safety issues is thus an important role for all radiation safety officers. With the ongoing progress in technology, a greater number of radiation workers are more likely to use a range of instruments/techniques - eg portable XRF, neutron beam analysis, and synchrotron radiation analysis. The source for each of these types of analyses is different and necessitates an understanding of the associated dangers as well as use of specific radiation badges. The trend of 'suitcase science' is resulting in scientists receiving doses from a range of instruments and facilities with no coordinated approach to obtain an integrated dose reading for an individual. This aspect of radiation safety needs urgent attention. Within Australia a divide is springing up between those who work on Commonwealth property and those who work on State property. For example a university staff member may operate irradiating equipment on a University campus and then go to a CSIRO laboratory to operate similar equipment. While at the University State regulations apply and while at CSIRO Commonwealth regulations apply. Does this individual require two badges? Is there a need to obtain two licences? The application of two sets of regulations causes unnecessary confusion and increases the workload of radiation safety officers. Radiation safety officers need to introduce risk management strategies to ensure that both existing and new procedures result in risk minimisation. A component of this strategy includes ongoing education and revising of regulations. AXAA may choose to contribute to both of these activities as a service to its members as well as raising the level of radiation safety for all radiation workers. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical

  18. Use of TL dosemeters for measuring doses of external gamma radiation in the vicinity of the Dukovany NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohera, M.; Fiala, E.; Valasek, J.

    1992-01-01

    The results of measurement of the photon dose equivalent from external gamma radiation in the surroundings of the Dukovany nuclear power plant are given for 20 sites in southern Moravia over the 1984-1990 period, i.e., one year before starting up the plant and 6 years of its operation. CaSO 4 :Dy TL dosemeters were used, applying filtration with 0.5 mm Pb and 0.2 mm Pb + 0.6 mm Sn. Since 1989, the towns along the borders with Austria (Znojmo, Vranov, Mikulov) have been included, along with the Brno, Trebic, Zakrany, Ivancice and Jaromerice sites, into the national monitoring TL dosimetric network. The elevated doses at some sites come from the bedrock and are not caused by the operation of the plant. The effect of the Chernobyl accident on the dosemeter response is also evaluated. Comparison of the data prior to the Dukovany plant start-up (1984) and during the operation (1985-1990) give evidence that the operation of the power plant did not bring about any increase in the values monitored. (Z.S.). 3 tabs., 8 figs., 9 refs

  19. Radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bader, J.L.; Glatstein, E.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation oncologist encounters the critically ill immunosuppressed patient in four settings. First, the newly diagnosed cancer patient presents for initial evaluation and treatment, with immunosuppression from the cancer itself, malnutrition, concomitant infectious disease, prior drug or alcohol abuse or other medical problems. Second, the previously treated cancer patient presents with metastatic or recurrent primary cancer causing local symptoms. Immune dysfunction in this setting may be due to prior chemotherapy and/or radiation as well as any of the original factors. Third, the patient previously treated with radiation presents with a life-threatening problem possibly due to complications of prior therapy. In this setting, the radiation oncologist is asked to evaluate the clinical problem and to suggest whether radiation might be causing part or all of the problem and what can be done to treat these sequelae of radiation. Fourth, the patient with a benign diagnosis (not cancer) is seen with a problem potentially emeliorated by radiation (e.g., kidney transplant rejection, preparation for transplant, or intractable rheumatoid arthritis). This chapter reviews these four issues and presents clinical and radiobiologic principles on which recommendations for therapy are based

  20. Radiation physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sang Hui

    1991-02-01

    This book deals with radiation physics, which introduces atomic theory and an atomic nucleus of materials, conception of an atom and materials, wave and particle, X ray generation and character, a radioactive element and change law, nature of radioactivity, neutron rays, fission, alpha collapse and beta collage and a neutrino collapse of artificial radioactivity such as collapse of artificial nucleus and artificial radioactivity and radiative capture, interaction with materials like interaction between a charged particle and materials and interaction among X-ray, r-ray and materials, radiation of quantity and unit and a charged particle accelerator.

  1. Synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, C

    1974-01-01

    The production of synchrotron radiation as a by-product of circular high-energy electron (positron) accelerators or storage rings is briefly discussed. A listing of existing or planned synchrotron radiation laboratories is included. The following properties are discussed: spectrum, collimation, polarization, and intensity; a short comparison with other sources (lasers and X-ray tubes) is also given. The remainder of the paper describes the experimental installations at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) and DORIS storage rings, presents a few typical examples out of the fields of atomic, molecular, and solid-state spectroscopy, and finishes with an outlook on the use of synchrotron radiation in molecular biology. (21 refs).

  2. Ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passchier, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    This report is part two from the series 'Future explorations' of the Dutch Counsil for Public Health. It contains contributions on biological effects of radiation in which information is presented on research into the occurrence of cancer in patients treated with radiotherapy and irradiated laboratory animals, on the effects of prenatal irradiation, and on the possibile, only in laboratory-animal research demonstrated, effects of irradiation in offspring of irradiated parents. In other contributions, which put the 'link' between the radiology and the practical radiation hygienics, it appears that the increased scientific knowledge does not make it easier to design radiation-hygienic standards and rules. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  3. Radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    Most of the ionizing radiation that people are exposed to in day-to-day activities comes from natural, rather than manmade, sources. The health effects of radiation - both natural and artificial - are relatively well understood and can be effectively minimized through careful safety measures and practices. The IAEA, together with other international and expert organizations, is helping to promote and institute Basic Safety Standards on an international basis to ensure that radiation sources and radioactive materials are managed for both maximum safety and human benefit

  4. Synchrotron Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfour, F.I

    2000-01-01

    Synchrotron light is produced by electron accelerators combined with storage rings. This light is generated over a wide spectral region; from infra-red (IR) through the visible and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV), and into the X-ray region. For relativistic electrons (moving nearly with the speed of light), most radiation is concentrated in a small cone with an opening angle of 1/gamma(some 0.1 to 1 milliradian),where gamma is the electron energy in units of rest energy (typically 10 3 -10 4 ). In synchrotron radiation sources (storage rings) highly relativistic electrons are stored to travel along a circular path for many hours. Radiation is caused by transverse acceleration due to magnetic forces(bending magnets). The radiation is emitted in pulses of 10-20 picosecond, separated by some 2 nanosecond or longer separation

  5. Radiating confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, P.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation monitoring systems for operators handling radioactive wastes are described. These include a personnel monitoring system which is suitable for small groups (ie as few as 50) of personnel. The use of microelectronics enable facilities such as automatic personal dose recording with three accumulative registers and automatic reporting of exceeded dose limits. At a controlled entrance the user is identified with a personal identification number. Exit is then also monitored. The use of pocket dosimeters increase the flexibility of this system. In another system a 'rotary man lock' only allows exit from the radiation controlled zone when satisfactory radiation checks have been made. The radiation and security checks available with this system are described. A 'sack monitor' for low level wastes contained in plastic bags is illustrated. (U.K.)

  6. Radiation damage

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M; CERN. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    a) Radiation damage in organic materials. This series of lectures will give an overview of radiation effects on materials and components frequently used in accelerator engineering and experiments. Basic degradation phenomena will be presented for organic materials with comprehensive damage threshold doses for commonly used rubbers, thermoplastics, thermosets and composite materials. Some indications will be given for glass, scintillators and optical fibres. b) Radiation effects in semiconductor materials and devices. The major part of the time will be devoted to treat radiation effects in semiconductor sensors and the associated electronics, in particular displacement damage, interface and single event phenomena. Evaluation methods and practical aspects will be shown. Strategies will be developed for the survival of the materials under the expected environmental conditions of the LHC machine and detectors. I will describe profound revolution in our understanding of black holes and their relation to quantum me...

  7. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helliwell, J.R.; Walker, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed account of the research work associated with the Synchrotron Radiation Source at Daresbury Laboratory, United Kingdom, in 1984/85, is presented in the Appendix to the Laboratory's Annual Report. (U.K.)

  8. Radiation curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendrinsky, J.

    1987-04-01

    In the beginning of the seventies the two types of radiation sources applied in industrial processes, electron radiation and UV, had been given rather optimistic forecasts. While UV could succeed in the field of panel and film coating, electron radiation curing seems to gain success in quite new fields of manufacturing. The listing of the suggested applications of radiation curing and a comparison of both advantages and disadvantages of this technology are followed by a number of case studies emphasizing the features of these processes and giving some examplary calculations. The data used for the calculations should provide an easy calculation of individual manufacturing costs if special production parameters, investment or energy costs are employed. (Author)

  9. Infrared radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, C.E.; Ellis, R.J.; Murray, W.E.; Parr, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    All people are exposed to IR radiation from sunlight, artificial light and radiant heating. Exposures to IR are quantified by irradiance and radiant exposure to characterize biological effects on the skin and cornea. However, near-IR exposure to the retina requires knowledge of the radiance of the IR source. With most IR sources in everyday use the health risks are considered minimal; only in certain high radiant work environments are individuals exposed to excessive levels. The interaction of IR radiation with biological tissues is mainly thermal. IR radiation may augment the biological response to other agents. The major health hazards are thermal injury to the eye and skin, including corneal burns from far-IR, heat stress, and retinal and lenticular injury from near-IR radiation. 59 refs, 13 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Radiation enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and tobacco Almost all milk products Coffee, tea, chocolate, and sodas with caffeine Foods containing whole bran ... Call your provider if you are having radiation therapy or have had it in the past and ...

  11. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, M.W.; Lea, K.R.

    1982-01-01

    A report is given on the work involving the Synchrotron Radiation Division of the Daresbury Laboratory during the period January 1981 - March 1982. Development of the source, beamlines and experimental stations is described. Progress reports from individual investigators are presented which reveal the general diversity and interdisciplinary nature of the research which benefits from access to synchrotron radiation and the associated facilities. Information is given on the organisation of the Division and publications written by the staff are listed. (U.K.)

  12. Radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, B.B.; Murphy, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    In medicine, as in other fields of scientific endeavor, the development of advanced and specialized techniques has resulted in increased hazards for employees. However, by possessing both an appreciation of the proper use of factors that regulate radiation exposure around radiology equipment and a knowledge of the biologic effects of radiation, which can include possible genetic and somatic consequences, it is possible to maximize the usefulness of these valuable procedures while minimizing the risk to medical personnel involved with patient care

  13. Radiation shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, D.D.

    1979-01-01

    Details are given of a cylindrical electric penetration assembly for carrying instrumentation leads, used in monitoring the performance of a nuclear reactor, through the containment wall of the reactor. Effective yet economical shielding protection against both fast neutron and high-energy gamma radiation is provided. Adequate spacing within the assembly allows excessive heat to be efficiently dissipated and means of monitoring all potential radiation and gas leakage paths are provided. (UK)

  14. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1976-01-01

    The lecture is divided into five sections. The introduction deals with the physical and radiological terms, quantities and units. Then the basic principles of radiological protection are discussed. In the third section attention is paid to the biological effects of ionizing radiation. The fourth section deals with the objectives of practical radiological protection. Finally the emergency measures are discussed to be taken in radiation accidents. (HP) [de

  15. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, D.; Walker, R.P.; Durham, P.J.; Ridley, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on synchrotron radiation is the appendix to the Daresbury (United Kingdom) annual report, 1985/86. The bulk of the volume is made up of the progress reports for the work carried out during the year under review using the Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) at Daresbury. The Appendix also contains: the scientific programmes at the the SRS, progress on beamlines, instrumentation and computing developments, and activities connected with accelerator development. (U.K.)

  16. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  17. Radiation myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, D A [Derbyshire Royal Infirmary, Derby (UK)

    1979-10-01

    Following high-dose radiotherapy treatment of tumours, there is a risk of destructive radiation myelopathy developing a few months later as a result of spinal cord irradiation. The emphasis of the present article is on the mechanism of the development of radiation myelopathy. It is suggested that, in the irradiated segments, the normal endothelial cells lining the penetrating arteries and capillaries are replaced by abnormal cells during the latent period. Radiation-induced mutations or chromosomal aberrations are contained in these cells, thus provoking an immunological response. During the attempted rejection of these cells, protein-rich plasma filtrate is leaked into the artery walls and nervous tissue, causing the destructive myelopathy. The signs of paralysis of spinal cord function may be caused either by infarcts or by oedema of the white matter. Since both diagnosis and treatment are difficult, it is necessary to concentrate on prevention by, whenever possible, reducing radiation doses to below tolerance limits during radiotherapy. As regards radiotherapy in children, it is currently believed that there is little or no difference in radiation tolerance between the child and the adult nervous system. Some early benign forms of radiation myelopathy are also briefly discussed.

  18. Radiation myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    Following high-dose radiotherapy treatment of tumours, there is a risk of destructive radiation myelopathy developing a few months later as a result of spinal cord irradiation. The emphasis of the present article is on the mechanism of the development of radiation myelopathy. It is suggested that, in the irradiated segments, the normal endothelial cells lining the penetrating arteries and capillaries are replaced by abnormal cells during the latent period. Radiation-induced mutations or chromosomal aberrations are contained in these cells, thus provoking an immunological response. During the attempted rejection of these cells, protein-rich plasma filtrate is leaked into the artery walls and nervous tissue, causing the destructive myelopathy. The signs of paralysis of spinal cord function may be caused either by infarcts or by oedema of the white matter. Since both diagnosis and treatment are difficult, it is necessary to concentrate on prevention by, whenever possible, reducing radiation doses to below tolerance limits during radiotherapy. As regards radiotherapy in children, it is currently believed that there is little or no difference in radiation tolerance between the child and the adult nervous system. Some early benign forms of radiation myelopathy are also briefly discussed. (UK)

  19. Radiation injuries/ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gooden, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    This book was written to aid trial attorneys involved in radiation litigation. Radiologists and medical physicists will also find it helpful as they prepare for trial, either as a litigant or an expert witness. Two chapters present checklists to guide attorneys for both plaintiffs and defendants. Gooden titles these checklists Elements of Damages and Elements of Proof and leads the reader to conclusions about each of these. One section that will be particularly helpful to attorneys contains sample interrogatories associated with a case of alleged radiation exposure resulting in a late radiation injury. There are interrogatories for the plaintiff to ask the defendant and for the defendant to ask the plaintiff

  20. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer - brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  1. Radiofrequency radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, J.A.; Czerski, P.A.; Stuchly, M.A.; Mild, K.H.; Sheppard, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    High-level radiofrequency radiation is a source of thermal energy that carries all of the known implications of heating for biological systems, including burns, temporary and permanent changes in reproduction, cataracts, and death. In general, no changes in chromosomes, DNA or the reproductive potential of animals exposed to RF radiation have been reported in the absence of significant rises in temperature, though there are limited data on DNA and chromosomal changes at non-thermal levels. Human data are currently limited and do not provide adequate information about the relationship between prolonged low-level RF radiation exposure and increased mortality or morbidity, including cancer incidence. In epidemiological studies and clinical reports of RF effects in man, the problems of quantification are numerous and include uncertainties about ''dose'', health effects, latent periods, dose-response relationships, and interactions with other physical or chemical agents. 228 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After having recalled some fundamental notions and measurement units related to ionizing radiations, this document describes various aspects of natural and occupational exposures: exposure modes and sources, exposure levels, biological effects, health impacts. Then, it presents prevention principles aimed at, in an occupational context of use of radiation sources (nuclear industry excluded), reducing and managing these exposures: risk assessment, implementation of safety from the front end. Some practical cases illustrate the radiation protection approach. The legal and regulatory framework is presented: general notions, worker exposure, measures specific to some worker categories (pregnant and breast feeding women, young workers, temporary workers). A last part describes what is to be done in case of incident or accident (dissemination of radioactive substances from unsealed sources, anomaly occurring when using a generator or a sealed source, post-accident situation)

  3. Radiation sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.L.; Geronime, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation sensor and thermocouple, respectively, which can be used for reactor in-core instrumentation. The radiation sensor consists of an inconel conductor wire and rhodium emitter wire, the thermocouple of two intertwined alumel or chromel wires. Both are arranged in the center of a metal tube relative to which they are separated by an insulator made of SiO 2 fibers. This insulator is first introduced as a loose fabric between the radiation sensor and the thermocouple, respectively, and the metal tube and then compacted to a density of 35-73% of pure SiO 2 by drawing the tube. There is no need for soldering or welding. The insulation resistivity at room temperature ist between 10 14 and 10 15 ohms. (ORU) [de

  4. Tidal radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashhoon, B.

    1977-01-01

    The general theory of tides is developed within the framework of Einstein's theory of gravitation. It is based on the concept of Fermi frame and the associated notion of tidal frame along an open curve in spacetime. Following the previous work of the author an approximate scheme for the evaluation of tidal gravitational radiation is presented which is valid for weak gravitational fields. The emission of gravitational radiation from a body in the field of a black hole is discussed, and for some cases of astrophysical interest estimates are given for the contributions of radiation due to center-of-mass motion, purely tidal deformation, and the interference between the center of mass and tidal motions

  5. Cherenkov radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.

    1955-01-01

    When the radioactivity has been discovered, it was observed by researchers that different materials as mineral salts or solutions were emitting a weak light when submitted to radioactivity beams. At the beginning it has been thought that it was fluorescent light. In 1934, Cherenkov, a russian physicist, worked on the luminescence of uranyl salts solutions caused by gamma radiation and observed a very weak light was emitted by pure liquid. After further studies, he concluded that this phenomena was different from fluorescence. Since then, it has been called Cherenkov effect. This blue light emission is produced when charged particles are going through a transparent medium with an upper velocity than light velocity. This can happen only in medium with large refractive index as water or glass. It also presents its different properties discovered afterwards. The different applications of the Cherenkov radiation are discussed as counting techniques for radiation detectors or comic ray detectors. (M.P.)

  6. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotek, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation has had a revolutionary effect on a broad range of scientific studies, from physics, chemistry and metallurgy to biology, medicine and geoscience. The situation during the last decade has been one of very rapid growth, there is a great vitality to the field and a capability has been given to a very broad range of scientific disciplines which was undreamed of just a decade or so ago. Here we will discuss some of the properties of synchrotron radiation that makes it so interesting and something of the sources in existence today including the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The NSLS is one of the new facilities built specifically for synchrotron radiation research and the model that was developed there for involvement of the scientific community is a good one which provides some good lessons for these facilities and others

  7. Radiation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Akira

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes on how the condition of radiation level in the ring (storage ring) experimentation room changes corresponding to the operating stage of SOR-ring (synchrotron radiation storage ring), and does not describe on the present radiation control in the SOR facility. The operating stage of SOR is divided into the following five: (1) 307 MeV electron injection, (2) 307 MeV electron storage (used for SOR experiments), (3) energy increase from 307 to 380 MeV, (4) 380 MeV electron storage, (5) re-injection and completion of operation. Gamma and X ray levels are shown when electron beam is injected from the electron synchrotron to the SOR-ring. Two main causes of the high level are reported. Spatial dose rate in storing 307 MeV electrons in also illustrated. This is sufficiently lower than that at electron incidence. The measurement of radiation level at the time of energy increase from 307 to 380 MeV has just started. Since the radiation level in 380 MeV storage, measured at the points about 20 cm apart from the electron orbit, showed several mR/h, the level seems to be negligible at the points where experiments are carried out, 1 m away from the measurement points. The radiation level in electron reinjection and completion of operation may be large during a short period (a few Roentgen) like the time of energy increase. Therefore, the beam shall be re-injected or decreased after confirming that all experimenters have retreated into the predetermined place. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  8. Radiation toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.; Storer, J.B.; Ullrich, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Extensive studies on both human and experimental animal populations have provided information that allow radiation protection standards to be set with greater confidence than for most if not all other carcinogenic agents. Furthermore, both international and national advisory bodies are continually updating the risk estimates and the standards as new information is available. However, it is clear that models are needed that take into account the multistage nature of carcinogenesis. Studies in both ionizing and ultraviolet radiation carcinogenesis are more valuable to the general problem of elucidating the mechanisms involved in cancer than is indicated by the amount of work or support for this field of research

  9. Radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschel, R.E; Fisher, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The new insights and controversies concerning the radiobiological properties of malignant melanoma and how these relate to new clinical approaches are reviewed. The recent clinical experience with large individual fraction sizes is analyzed. The treatment of malignant melanoma in certain specialized sites is also described. An attempt is made to place in perspective the usefulness of radiation therapy in the treatment of this complex disease. Finally, certain new applications for radiation therapy both alone and in combustion with other treatment modalities are proposed that may ultimately prove appropriate for clinical trials

  10. Radiation physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation physics program is directed toward understanding the basic mechanism by which charged particles lose energy in traversing matter, and presenting this information in a way meaningful to the study of radiation dosimetry and biological damage. Measurements of the absolute cross sections for the ejection of electrons from ionization by fast charged particles, measurements of optical fluorescence from liquid systems, preliminary analyses of electron emission cross sections for proton bombardment of carbon foils, and nonexponential decay of fluorescence in both polar and nonpolar solutions are covered

  11. Radiation retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumbroso, L.; Desjardins, L.; Dendale, R.; Fourquet, A.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation retinopathy is a retinal micro-angiopathy, observed after irradiation of the eye. It can rarely lead to neo-vascular glaucoma and enucleation due to pain. It is due to a progressive retinal capillary then vascular occlusion. Total irradiation dose, dose fraction, and surface of the irradiated retina seem to be strong predictive factors for radiation retinopathy. Patients who underwent an irradiation near the eye (skull base tumors, nasal and paranasal tumors, or brain tumors) should be followed by periodic ophthalmologic examination to detect and treat when necessary the non perfusion areas. (authors)

  12. Radiation epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Lyman, J.T.; Alpen, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of latency periods on cancer risk estimation is under study in our laboratory. Insofar as cancer incidences and radiation doses are concerned, effort is made to ascertain these with the greatest reliability, although problems arise, particularly in attempts to reconstruct the events of exposure many years prevously. The matter of the long latent periods begs the important issue of how to project into the future the risk of cancer induced in individuals exposed at the present time, or depriving a projection model appropriate for predicting how induced cancers will express themselves in time following exposure. Two risk-projection models which are generally used by radiation epidemiologists are discussed

  13. Radiation toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.; Storer, J.B.; Ullrich, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The extensive studies on both human and experimental animal populations have provided information that allows radiation protection standards to be set with greater confidence than for most if not all other carcinogenic agents. Furthermore, both international and national advisory bodies are continually updating the risk estimates and the standards as new information is available. However, it is clear that we need models that take into account the multistage nature of carcinogenesis. Studies in both ionizing and ultraviolet radiation carcinogenesis are more valuable to the general problem of elucidating the mechanisms involved in cancer than is indicated by the amount of work or support for this field of research

  14. Radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swallow, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction (defines scope of article as dealing with the chemistry of reactive species, (e.g. excess electrons, excited states, free radicals and inorganic ions in unusual valency states) as studied using radiation with radiation chemistry in its traditional sense and with biological and industrial applications); gases; water and simple inorganic systems; aqueous metallo-organic compounds and metalloproteins; small organic molecules in aqueous solution; microheterogeneous systems; non-aqueous liquids and solutions; solids; biological macromolecules; synthetic polymers. (U.K.)

  15. Radiation shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, D.

    1979-01-01

    Shields for equipment in which ionising radiation is associated with high electrical gradients, for example X-ray tubes and particle accelerators, incorporate a radiation-absorbing metal, as such or as a compound, and are electrically non-conducting and can be placed in the high electrical gradient region of the equipment. Substances disclosed include dispersions of lead, tungsten, uranium or oxides of these in acrylics polyesters, PVC, ABS, polyamides, PTFE, epoxy resins, glass or ceramics. The material used may constitute an evacuable enclosure of the equipment or may be an external shield thereof. (U.K.)

  16. Cherenkov radiation; La radiation Cerenkov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    When the radioactivity has been discovered, it was observed by researchers that different materials as mineral salts or solutions were emitting a weak light when submitted to radioactivity beams. At the beginning it has been thought that it was fluorescent light. In 1934, Cherenkov, a russian physicist, worked on the luminescence of uranyl salts solutions caused by gamma radiation and observed a very weak light was emitted by pure liquid. After further studies, he concluded that this phenomena was different from fluorescence. Since then, it has been called Cherenkov effect. This blue light emission is produced when charged particles are going through a transparent medium with an upper velocity than light velocity. This can happen only in medium with large refractive index as water or glass. It also presents its different properties discovered afterwards. The different applications of the Cherenkov radiation are discussed as counting techniques for radiation detectors or comic ray detectors. (M.P.)

  17. Radiation dosage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finston, Roland [Health Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    1986-07-01

    Radiation dosage at Bikini Atoll is the result of current soil contamination, a relic of the nuclear weapons testing program of some 30 years ago. The principal contaminants today and some of their physical properties are listed: cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium -239, 240 and americium-241. Cobalt-60 contributes less than 1 to the dose and is not considered significant. A resident of the atoll would accumulate radiation dose (rem) in two ways -- by exposure to radiation emanating from the ground and vegetation, and by exposure to radiation released in the spontaneous decay of radionuclides that have entered his body during the ingestion of locally grown foods. The latter process would account for some 90% of the dose; cesium-137 would be responsible for 0 90% of it. Since BARC's method of estimating dosage differs in some respects from that employed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (Ref.1, LLNL 1982) we are presenting our method in detail. The differences have two sources. First, the numbers used by BARC for the daily ingestion of radionuclides via the diet are higher than LLNL's. Second, BARC's calculation of dose from radionuclide intake utilizes the ICRP system. The net result is that BARC doses are consistently higher than LLNL doses, and in this respect are more conservative.

  18. Radiation dosage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finston, Roland

    1986-01-01

    Radiation dosage at Bikini Atoll is the result of current soil contamination, a relic of the nuclear weapons testing program of some 30 years ago. The principal contaminants today and some of their physical properties are listed: cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium -239, 240 and americium-241. Cobalt-60 contributes less than 1 to the dose and is not considered significant. A resident of the atoll would accumulate radiation dose (rem) in two ways -- by exposure to radiation emanating from the ground and vegetation, and by exposure to radiation released in the spontaneous decay of radionuclides that have entered his body during the ingestion of locally grown foods. The latter process would account for some 90% of the dose; cesium-137 would be responsible for 0 90% of it. Since BARC's method of estimating dosage differs in some respects from that employed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (Ref.1, LLNL 1982) we are presenting our method in detail. The differences have two sources. First, the numbers used by BARC for the daily ingestion of radionuclides via the diet are higher than LLNL's. Second, BARC's calculation of dose from radionuclide intake utilizes the ICRP system. The net result is that BARC doses are consistently higher than LLNL doses, and in this respect are more conservative

  19. Radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aymar A, J.; Medina G, H.

    1988-01-01

    Film is one of the most simple ways to detect radiation although for film as dosimeters a careful attention is required in many aspects, such as emulsion characteristics, film response capacity processing techniques and interpretation of the exposition. Surpassing these factors the film dosimeter is the most reliable

  20. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenger, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity

  1. Radiation Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The conference was organized to evaluate the application directions of radiation technology in Vietnam and to utilize the Irradiation Centre in Hanoi with the Co-60 source of 110 kCi. The investigation and study of technico-economic feasibility for technology development to various items of food and non-food objects was reported. (N.H.A)

  2. Radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This sixth chapter presents the operational principles of the radiation detectors; detection using photographic emulsions; thermoluminescent detectors; gas detectors; scintillation detectors; liquid scintillation detectors; detectors using semiconductor materials; calibration of detectors; Bragg-Gray theory; measurement chain and uncertainties associated to measurements

  3. Radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Mod Ali

    2005-01-01

    This chapter covers the basic principle and application of radiation technology. The topic titled specific application discussed briefly the following subtopics: 1) Polymer modification - crosslinking, polymerisation, degradation, grafting; 2) Medical sterilisation; 3) Food irradiation; 4) Environmental protection - waste processing, pollutants treatment

  4. Radiation retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, R.G.; Withers, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    A letter to the editor discusses the effectiveness and risk of radiation treatment of Grave's ophthalmopathy. The authors are unable to document a single instance in which retinopathy can be attributed to therapy with a total dose of 2000 cGy when delivered in daily increments of 180 to 200 cGy

  5. Radiation enteropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farthmann, E.H. (Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)); Imdahl, A. (Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)); Eggstein, S. (Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany))

    1994-08-01

    The pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment of radiation damage to the gut are described. The progress of 90 patients operated on in the Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik Freiburg is retrospectively evaluated. Haemorrhage, vomiting, diarrhoea and, occasionally, perforation are the signs of acute radiation enteropathy, which appears weeks or months after radiotherapy. Expect for perforations, these can usually be treated conservatively. Chronic radiation enteropathy does not manifest itself until years after irradiation, with diarrhoea, obstruction and the development of fistulae. The acute ileus can often be relieved with decompression tubes. After localising the stenosis radiologically with a contrast medium, and improvement in the general condition, many cases require operative intervention. This usually consists of resection, the establishment of a bypass anastomosis or enterostomy. In 44% of the patients postoperative complications followed, with a mortality of 22%. The cause of the high complication rate is partly the poor general condition of the patient, and partly the radiation induced impairment in wound healing, which may lead to insufficiency of the anastomosis and the development of fistulae. (orig./MG)

  6. Counterbalanced radiation detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platz, W.

    1987-01-01

    A counterbalanced radiation detection system is described comprising: (a) a stand; (b) a first radiation detector; (c) a first radiation detector arm means for tiltably connecting the first radiation detector with the stand; (d) a second radiation detector; (e) a second radiation detector arm means for tiltably connecting the second radiation detector with the stand, whereby the tilting angles of the radiation detector arm means define a distance between the radiation detectors; and (f) a torque transforming means connected between the first and second radiation detector arm means for transforming the torque created by one of the radiation detectors in a sense opposed to the torque created by the other radiation detector

  7. Radiation effects and radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengfelder, E.; Forst, D.; Feist, H.; Pratzel, H.

    1988-01-01

    The book presents the facts and the principles of assessment and evaluation of biological radiation effects in general and also with particular reference to the reactor accident of Chernobyl, reviewing the consequences and the environmental situation on the basis of current national and international literature, including research work by the authors. The material compiled in this book is intended especially for physicians, but will also prove useful for persons working in the public health services, in administration, or other services taking care of people. The authors tried to find an easily comprehensible way of presenting and explaining the very complex processes and mechanisms of biological radiation effects and carcinogenesis, displaying the physical primary processes and the mechanisms of the molecular radiation effects up to the effects of low-level radiation, and present results of comparative epidemiologic studies. This section has been given considerable space, in proportion to its significance. It also contains literature references for further reading, offering more insight and knowledge of aspects of special subject fields. The authors also present less known results and data and discuss them against the background of well-known research results and approaches. Apart from the purpose of presenting comprehensive information, the authors intend to give an impact for further thinking about the problems, and helpful tools for independent decisions and action on the basis of improved insight and assessment, and in this context particularly point to the problems induced by the Chernobyl reactor accident. (orig./MG) With 8 maps in appendix [de

  8. Radiation preservation of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasito.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation preservation of maize was carried out. Radiation doses and sources, shielding materials, packaging materials, chemical radiation effects, biological radiation effects, were discussed. Experimental methods, samples and accessories were also presented. (SMN)

  9. Risk Factors: Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation of certain wavelengths, called ionizing radiation, has enough energy to damage DNA and cause cancer. Ionizing radiation includes radon, x-rays, gamma rays, and other forms of high-energy radiation.

  10. Radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    An important cause of deterioration in superconducting magnets intended for high-energy physics and fusion-reactor applications is radiation damage. The present chapter deals chiefly with the effects of electron, proton, gamma and neutron irradiation on the properties of stabilized Ti-Nb-base composite superconductors. The authors examine the particle-accelerator environment, electron irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor, proton irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor and its stabilizer, and deuteron irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor. A section discussing the fusion reactor environment in general is presented, and the two principal classes of fusion reactor based on the magnetic-confinement concept, namely the tokamak and the mirrormachine are examined. Also discussed is neutron irradiation of Cu/TiNb composite superconductors and critical current density of neutronirradiated Ti-Nb. Finally, radiation damage to stabilizer and insulating materials is described

  11. Radiation teratogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Although small head size and metal retardation (MR) were first recognized as teratogenic effects of ionizing radiation in the 1920s, new information continues to emerge about these effects. Early studies of the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors showed that small head size was induced by doses as low as 10-19 rad in air. The next steps are to relate the effects to the new (1985) dosimetry, and to seek lesser effects on the brain by new tests to detect such clinical deficits as inability to sequence ideas, comprehend complex syntax, or pay attention. Although an array of congenital anomalies has been induced by prenatal radiation exposures of animals, only small head size and MR have occured excessively in the human

  12. Radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Makoto; Sano, Masanori; Minakuchi, Naoki; Narisawa, Tomio; Takahashi, Toshio

    1981-01-01

    Radiation enteritis with severe complications including intestinal bleeding, fistula, and stenosis were treated surgically in 9 cases. These 9 cases included 7 cases of cancer of the uterine cervix and 2 single cases of seminoma and melanoma. The patients received 60 Co or Linac x-ray external irradiation with or without intracavitary irradiation by a radium needle. Radiation injury began with melena, vaginorectal fistula, and intestinal obstruction 3 to 18 months after irradiation. One patient with melena underwent colostomy and survived 2 years. One of the three patients with vaginorectal fistula who had colostomy survived 1.5 years. In intestinal obstruction, one patients had bypass operation and three patients had resection of the intestine and the other had both. Leakage was noted in one patient, but the others had favorable prognosis. (Ueda, J.)

  13. Radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    In view of the application of ionizing radiation to sterilize pharmaceutical products, and the particular advantages of using this mode of sterilization for powders for injection, which cannot be sterilized by more conventional methods, it is important to recognise the possibility of modification of radiation response of bacteria when in close contact with various drug powders. For this study, bacterial spores, which lend themselves to dessication, and which can be dried onto an inert powder matrix, were chosen as the test system. The results of this work indicate that the additives tested have a modest protective effect on the spores. However, when considering a bacterial inactivation for sterilization purposes of between six and ten orders of magnitude, that is, a desired sterility assurance level of an expected maximum probability of a product item being non-sterile of 10 -6 , then the slight protective effect observed in this study approaches insignificance

  14. Radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, W.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation detector for measuring e.g. a neutron flux consists of a central emitter, an insulating shell arranged around it, and a tube-shaped collector enclosing both. The emitter itself is composed of a great number of stranded, spiral wires of small diameter giving a defined flexibility to the detector. For emitter material Pt, Rh, V, Co, Ce, Os or Ta may be used. (DG) [de

  15. Radiation retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wara, W.M.; Irvine, A.R.; Neger, R.E.; Howes, E.L. Jr.; Phillips, T.L.

    1979-01-01

    The records were reviewed of all patients treated with irradiation to the eye at the University of California, San Francisco, between 1960 and 1975. Eight patients were identified who had developed radiation retinopathy 1 to 3 years postrirradiation. Lesions included retinal vascular occlusions, hemorrhages, microaneurysms, exudates, neovascularization, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachments, and optic atrophy with blindness. Four patients had received less than 5000 rad in 6 weeks to the retina, a dose usually considered within normal tissue tolerance

  16. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplavskij, K.K.; Smorodintseva, G.I.

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of a critical analysis of the available data on causes and consequences of radiation accidents (RA), a classification of RA by severity (five groups of accidents) according to biomedical consequences and categories of exposed personnel is proposed. A RA is defined and its main characteristics are described. Methods of RA prevention are proposed, as is a plan of specific measures to deal with RA in accordance with the proposed classification

  17. Ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The law covering ionising radiation in Luxembourg is summarised under the headings: introduction (the outline law of 25 March 1963, and the Grand-Ducal Decree of 8 February 1967); the control of establishments (the authorisation procedure; emergency measures, suspension and withdrawal of the authorisation; alterations to the establishment); the importation, distribution and transit of radioactive substances; the transport of radioactive substances; the protection and safety of the population as a whole; sanctions; international conventions. (U.K.)

  18. Radiation shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crookes, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    This patent application describes a shelter comprising a cavity for receiving life to be sheltered; a roof for covering at least a portion of said cavity, and at least one aqueous, protective barrier layer adapted to prevent transmission through said roof and into said cavity of at least a portion of radiation in a predetermined spectrum. The cavity walls may be impregnated with an oil suitable for dressing burns. (author)

  19. Space Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses three kinds of space radiation, cosmic rays, Van Allen Belts, and solar plasma. Cosmic rays are penetrating particles that we cannot see, hear or feel, which come from distant stars. Van Allen Belts, named after their discoverer are great belts of protons and electrons that the earth has captured in its magnetic trap. Solar plasma is a gaseous, electrically neutral mixture of positive and negative ions that the sun spews out from convulsed regions on its surface.

  20. Radiating paradise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuseler, H.

    1981-05-06

    Decades after the a-bomb experiments in the desert of Nevada, cases of illness occur more frequently: many former soldiers who had to observe the tests as spectators suffer from leukemia, skin and thyroid ulcers. Even worse are the late results of the nuclear weapon tests in the Pacific: on Bikini and Eniwetok, once paradise-like atolls, the death from radiation is waiting, an attempt to recultivate the bombed Bikini Atoll failed.

  1. Radiation dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, D.

    1980-01-01

    A radiation dosimeter is described, comprising a thermoluminescent phosphor incorporated in matrix of polyethersulphone. The dosimeter is preferably a thin film formed by spreading a suspension of a powdered phosphor in a solution of polyethersulphone onto a flat surface. The solvent for the polyethersulphone is a mixture of a n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and xylene in equal proportions. A thin, inert film of polyethersulphone can be cemented to one surface of the dosimeter so as to provide a skin dosimeter. (author)

  2. Radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohata, Shuichi; Takeuchi, Yoji

    1968-10-30

    Herein disclosed is an ionization chamber the airtightness of which can be readily tested. The ionization chamber is characterized in that a small amount of helium gas is filled in the chamber in combination with other ionization gases such as argon gas, xenon gas and the like. Helium leakage from the chamber is measured by a known helium gas sensor in a vacuum vessel. Hence the long term drift of the radiation detector sensitivity may be determined.

  3. Radiation hormesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao; Nemoto, Kazuyasu; Ishida, Kenzi; Misonoo, Jun; Suganuma, Hirotoshi; Ishi, Keiichirou; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    1990-01-01

    Greater attention has recently been drawn to the hormesis effect of radiations on living things. An agent is said to show hormesis when it gives a favorable physiological stimulation to living things and activated their biological functions if used in slight amounts, though it has an adverse effect on them if used in large amount. Recently many reports have been published which insist that radiations in a certain low dose range can have favorable biological effects, such as stimulation and activation, on living things including humans, animals and plants. Thus hormesis can be seen very widely in the biological field. The report first describes recent trends in research in this field, including the background behind the proposal of the radiation hormesis hypothesis, and major studies presented at the Oakland and Frankfurt Conferences. Then it outlines major research efforts that have been made at Denryoku Chuo Kenkyusho in Japan, focusing on animal tests (superoxidedismutase activity, thymidinekinase activity, etc.), immunological surveys, and plant tests. Discussion is also made concerning important issues and study subjects to be covered in future research. (N.K.)

  4. Radiation pager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.L.; Vadnais, K.G.

    1998-01-01

    Methods of interdicting nuclear materials to date have favored the use of large portal detectors at choke points, or hand carried instruments used by trained personnel for conducting spot searches. Although these methods are effective in some instances, it is often impractical to insert choke points at busy traffic areas, and it is not cost effective to maintain a force of skilled operators whose focus is nuclear interdiction. Recent technology developments are causing profound changes in the philosophy and methods employed for interdicting nuclear materials. Breakthrough advances in the miniaturization of detectors and low power electronics have made possible a new class of small gamma-ray radiation detectors, roughly the size of a message pager, with unprecedented sensitivity for their size. These instruments, named Radiation Pagers TM , are ideally suited for use by untrained individual law enforcement personnel and emergency responders in the course of their regular duties. New tactics that utilize a radiation detector worn by every officer are creating a moving curtain of detection with a significantly higher likelihood of locating illicit nuclear contraband. These individual detectors also provide each officer with a high level of confidence that they are not being unknowingly irradiated in the course of their work. (author)

  5. Ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, M.

    1989-01-01

    Although UV radiation can arise from a large number of man-made sources, the sun is the main source and both the general public and people working out of doors will be exposed to it. This natural background radiation and the variations in its magnitude must be taken into account when exposure limits are discussed. The full extent to which UV affects human well-being is difficult to quantify. Artificially produced UV has, however, been used in mines and cellars and in far northern latitudes as a supplement to combat functional impairment among people. Many of the observed effects, such as a decrease in the incidence of infectious diseases and in absenteeism, may be due to the bactericidal nature of the radiation. On the other hand, large doses of UV have an acute destructive effect on the skin and eye. Doses so low that they give rise only to normally acceptable or even desirable acute effects can, if repeated, induce changes resulting in late effects such as elastosis of the skin, keratosis and skin cancers. These effects will be of greater significance in people with lightly pigmented skin. 130 refs, 13 figs, 2 tabs

  6. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamalaksh Shenoy, K.

    2013-01-01

    Three main pillars underpin the IAEA's mission: Safety and Security - The IAEA helps countries to upgrade their infrastructure for nuclear and radiation safety and security, and to prepare for and respond to emergencies. Work is keyed to international conventions, the development of international standards and the application of these standards. The aim is to protect people and the environment from the harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Science and Technology - The IAEA is the world's focal point for mobilizing peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology for critical needs in developing countries. The work contributes to alleviating poverty, combating disease and pollution of the environment and to other goals of sustainable development. Safeguards and Verification - The IAEA is the nuclear inspectorate, with more than four decades of verification experience. Inspectors work to verify that nuclear material and activities are not diverted towards military purposes. Quantities and Units: Dose equivalent is the product of absorbed dose of radiation and quality factor (Q). For absorbed dose in rads, dose equivalent is in rems. If absorbed dose is in gray, the dose equivalent is in sievert. Quality factor is defined without reference to any particular biological end point. Quality factors are recommended by committees such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) or the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), based on experimental RBE values but with some judgment exercised. Effective Dose Equivalent: It is the sum of the weighted dose equivalents for all irradiated tissues, in which the weighting factors represent the different risks of each tissue to mortality from cancer and hereditary effects. Committed dose equivalent: It is the integral over 50 years of dose equivalent following the intake of a radionuclide. Collective effective dose equivalent: It is a quantity for a population and is

  7. Perspective of radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Manwei

    1987-01-01

    The area of the applications of radiation techniques is very wide. This paper only relates to the applications of radiation techniques in industries including radiation chemical industry, radiation processing of foods and environmental protection by radiation, but the nuclear instruments and the instrumentations of radiation are out-side of our study. (author)

  8. Radiation protection and radiation fear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czeizel, E.

    1982-01-01

    Some data are cited from Japanese statistics analyzing the genetic injuries stemming from the nuclear explosion in Hiroshima. It is shown that neither the number of the unsuccesful pregnancies nor the mortality of the born offsprings increased in those cases there the mother or the father had been exposed to 1-100 rad radiation. There was no significant difference in the chromosomal aberrations amoung the children of irradiated and control parents. (L.E.)

  9. Radiation biology and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wideroee, R.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation biology and radiation therapy can be compared with investigations in different layers of earth. Radiation biology works upwards from the elementary foundations, therapy works downwards with roots to secure and improve the clinical 'surface work'. The Ellis formula (Strandquist), which is a collection of clinical experience, is suited to form connections with radiobiology in the middle layers, and cooperation can give impulses for research. The structure and conditions of tumours and the complicated problems met with are discussed, based on the Carmel symposium of 1969. The oxygen problem in anoxic tumours is not yet solved. Experimental investigations of the effect itself give partly contradictory results. From a clinical viewpoint reoxygenation is of the utmost significance for obtaining control over the primary tumour, and advanced irradiation programmes will here give better results than the traditional ones. New chemicals, e.g. R 0 -07-0582, appear to reduce the OER value to 1.5, thereby making neutron therapy superfluous. Finally a problem from fundamental research is dealt with, wherein two hypotheses explaining the β-effect are described. The repair hypothesis gives a simple explanation but leaves many questions unanswered. The other hypothesis explains the β-effect as two neighbouring single breaks of the DNA molecule. It still presents difficulties, and is scarcely the correct explanation. (JIW)

  10. Radiation danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gergely, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    The author is a journalist and has written the book 4 weeks after the Chernobyl accident because 'the experts have failed in informing on the consequences of Chernobyl in a way to keep the insecurity in the population within tolerable limits'. It is aimed at the interested layman. First the events as seen through the Austria media and the measures taken by the authorities during the 4 weeks are reviewed. In the rest of the books there is elementary information on some aspects of radioactivity, reactors and radiation limits although 'the connection between radioactivity and health is very complex'. (G.Q.)

  11. Radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, A.; Leer, J.W.H.; Craandijk, M.; Feenstra, W.F.F.

    1990-01-01

    In a prospective inventory analysis of 169 irradiated patients concerning the incidence and course of Acute Radiation Sickness (fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting), it was found that 2/3 of the patients had these complaints. The complaints started during the first week of treatment and mostly even within a few hours after each radiotherapy session. All complaints were progressive during the radiotherapy course, but disappeared spontaneously within one week after completion of the treatment. The possible occurrence of these symptoms soon after the start of radiotherapy should be kept in mind, especially since they can be reduced by simple retimens. (author). 14 refs.; 2 tabs

  12. Radiation Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    persons having worked more than five years under conditions of low and medium microwave exposure. Three groups of leukocytot changes occur In persons...Medical Publis!Iers (0974) 189-195. 32. Baranski, S., P. Czer-,ki and S. Szinglgilski. Microwave effects on mitosis In vivo and in vitro. Genetica ...effect of 3-cm microwave radiation. Amer. J. Ph-ysiol. 20. (1961) 192- 194. 72. 0sipov2 Yu.A. The effect of VHF-HF under industrial conditions . Gig

  13. Radiation risks and radiation protection at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation exposure is an occupational hazard at CRNL. The predicted health effects of low levels of radiation are described and compared with other hazards of living. Data related to the health of radiation workers are also considered. Special attention is given to the expected effects of radiation on the unborn child. Measures taken to protect CRNL employees against undue occupational exposure to radiation are noted

  14. Ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawk, J.

    1986-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from the sun or artificial sources is reflected or transmitted at the surface of the skin, about 5% of normally incident rays being directly reflected. The transmitted fraction is scattered, photochemically absorbed or dissipated as heat within the skin, or passes from it to contribute to the variable total amount of reflected and transmitted radiation. The UVR absorbers in skin are not definitely known, but DNA is a definite target and probably lipoprotein membranes, RNA, proteins, mucopolysaccharides, elastin and collagen. Photochemical or free radical damage to absorber or nearby organelles leads to pharmacological, ultrastructural, histological and clinical changes. Most frequent DNA damage is pyrimidine dimer formation, apparently inhibiting cell function and replication. This is largely enzymatically repaired in man in the dark by excision repair, post-replication repair and possible other enzymatic mechanisms, and at least in some organisms by light-induced photoreactivation repair. UVR exposure causes well recognized acute and chronic clinical syndromes in man. These are discussed in this paper

  15. Radiating matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimen, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    The author describes the history and uses of radioactivity. The narration is completed by bibliographic notes on Otto Hahn with a number of so far unpublished letters and documents and on Leo Szilard, the most far-sighted among the nuclear researchers actively engaged during the war. The first part deals with the discovery of radioactivity and the discovery of uranium fission in 1938 with its military consequences, up to the short-lived euphoria on the 'atomic age' (Geneva conference 1955). This is followed by an account of natural radioactivity in our environment, a brief of useful information on radiation effects and radiation protection, and of typical applications of radioactive beams in science, engineering, and medicine. The final part is concerned with the most important instances of insight into nature triggered by the discovery of radioactivity: From cosmological to chemical evolution, from Democrit's atom theory to modern nuclear physics' particle zoo, from the contest of ideas between acausalists and determinists on what is commonly termed 'coincidence' to the limits of graphic views on nature. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Radiating matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimen, K.E.

    1990-01-01

    The author describes the history and uses of radioactivity. The narration is completed by bibliographic notes on Otto Hahn with a number of so far unpublished letters and documents and on Leo Szilard, the most far-sighted among the nuclear researchers actively engaged during the war. The first part deals with the discovery of radioactivity and the discovery of uranium fission in 1938 with its military consequences, up to the short-lived euphoria on the 'atomic age' (Geneva conference 1955). This is followed by an account of natural radioactivity in our environment, a brief of useful information on radiation effects and radiation protection, and of typical applications of radioactive beams in science, engineering, and medicine. The final part is concerned with the most important instances of insight into nature triggered by the discovery of radioactivity: From cosmological to chemical evolution, from Democrit's atom theory to modern nuclear physics' particle zoo, from the contest of ideas between acausalists and determinists on what is commonly termed 'coincidence' to the limits of graphic views on nature. (orig.) With 40 figs [de

  17. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattison, P.; Quinn, P.

    1990-01-01

    This report details the activities in synchrotron radiation and related areas at Daresbury Laboratory during 1989/90. The number and scope of the scientific reports submitted by external users and in-house staff is a reflection of the large amount of scheduled beamtime and high operating efficiency achieved at the Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) during the past year. Over 4000 hours of user beam were available, equivalent to about 80% of the total scheduled time. Many of the reports collected here illustrate the increasing technical complexity of the experiments now being carried out at Daresbury. Provision of the appropriate technical and scientific infrastructure and support is a continuing challenge. The development of the Materials Science Laboratory together with the existing Biological Support Laboratory will extend the range of experiments which can be carried out on the SRS. This will particularly facilitate work in which the sample must be prepared or characterised immediately before or during an experiment. The year 1989/90 has also seen a substantial upgrade of several stations, especially in the area of x-ray optics. Many of the advantages of the High Brightness Lattice can only be exploited effectively with the use of focusing optics. As the performance of these stations improves, the range of experiments which are feasible on the SRS will be extended significantly. (author)

  18. Radiation. Protection. Health. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, Michael; Maringer, Franz Josef; Steurer, Andreas; Schwaiger, Martina; Timal, Guenter

    2015-01-01

    The topics of the meeting are the diagnostic and therapeutic application of ionizing radiations, the application of radiation in research, industry and engineering and radiation protection. The volume includes the following chapters: Radiation protection and society, radiation protection infrastructure, population and environment, metrology and measuring techniques, 1. Workshop on population and environment, NORM and radon, 2. Update: dose - extent of damage - limiting value definition, radiation protection for personnel (except medicine), radiation protection in medicine.

  19. Radiation protection medical care of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walt, H.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation protection medical care for radiation workers is part of the extensive programme protecting people against dangers emanating from the peaceful application of ionizing radiation. Thus it is a special field of occupational health care and emergency medicine in case of radiation accidents. It has proved helpful in preventing radiation damage as well as in early detection, treatment, after-care, and expert assessment. The medical checks include pre-employment and follow-up examinations, continued long-range medical care as well as specific monitoring of individuals and defined groups of workers. Three levels of action are involved: works medical officers specialized in radiation protection, the Institute of Medicine at the National Board for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection, and a network of clinical departments specialized in handling cases of acute radiation damage. An account is given of categories, types, and methods of examinations for radiation workers and operators. (author)

  20. Radiation protection in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOuld, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    A book on radiation protection in hospitals has been written to cater for readers with different backgrounds, training and needs by providing an elementary radiation physics text in Part I and an advanced, comprehensive Part II relating to specific medical applications of X-rays and of radioactivity. Part I includes information on basic radiation physics, radiation risk, radiation absorption and attenuation, radiation measurement, radiation shielding and classification of radiation workers. Part II includes information on radiation protection in external beam radiotherapy, interstitial source radiotherapy, intracavitary radiotherapy, radioactive iodine-131 radiotherapy, nuclear medicine diagnostics and diagnostic radiology. (U.K.)

  1. Radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, B.; Finkenzeller, J.; Kiiehn, G.; Lichtenberg, W.

    1984-01-01

    In an exemplary embodiment, a flat radiation beam is detected having a common electrode disposed parallel to the beam plane at one side and a common support with a series of individual conductors providing electrodes opposite successive portions of the common electrode and lying in a plane also parallel to the beam plane. The beam may be fan-shaped and the individual electrodes may be aligned with respective ray paths separated by uniform angular increments in the beam plane. The individual conductors and the connection thereof to the exterior of the detector housing may be formed on an insulator which can be folded into a T-shape for leading the supply conductors for alternate individual conductors toward terminals at opposite sides of the chamber

  2. Radiation biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Summaries of research projects conducted during 1978 and 1979 are presented. The overall thrust of the research is aimed at understanding the effects of radiation on organisms. Specific subject areas include: the effects of heavy-particle beam nuclear interactions in tissue on dosimetry; tracer studies with radioactive fragments of heavy-ion beams; the effects of heavy/ions on human kidney cells and Chinese hamster cells; the response of a rhabdomyosarcoma tumor system in rats to heavy-ion beams; the use of heavy charged particles in radiotherapy of human cancer; heavy-ion radiography; the biological effects of high magnetic fields; central nervous system neurotoxicity; and biophysical studies on cell membranes

  3. Radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, M.W.; Thomas, B.; Conway, J.

    1977-01-01

    A dosemeter is described that is based on the TSCD principle (thermally stimulated current dosimetry). Basically this involves irradiating a responsive material and then heating it,whereby an electric current is produced. If the material is heated in an electric field the peak value of the thermally stimulated current or alternatively the total charge released by heating, can be related to the radiation dose received. The instrument described utilises a sheet coated with a thermoplastic polymer, such as a poly4-methylpent-l-ene. The polymer should have a softening point not lower than 150 0 C with an electrical resistivity of at least 10 16 chms/cm at 150 0 C. The polymer may also be PTFE. Heating should be in the range 150 0 C to 200 0 C and the electric field in the range 50 to 10,000V/mm. (U.K.)

  4. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of radiation accidents over a 50 year period shows that simple cases, where the initiating events were immediately recognised, the source identified and under control, the medical input confined to current handling, were exceptional. In many cases, the accidents were only diagnosed when some injuries presented by the victims suggested the radiological nature of the cause. After large-scale accidents, the situation becomes more complicated, either because of management or medical problems, or both. The review of selected accidents which resulted in severe consequences shows that most of them could have been avoided; lack of regulations, contempt for rules, human failure and insufficient training have been identified as frequent initiating parameters. In addition, the situation was worsened because of unpreparedness, insufficient planning, unadapted resources, and underestimation of psychosociological aspects. (author)

  5. Radiation effects at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanger, P.A.; Danby, G.T.

    1975-01-01

    Shielding, radiation damage, and radiation heating at the planned ISABELLE storage rings were considered. Radiation shielding studies were reviewed and were found to be adequate for present day dosage limits. Radiation damage could be encountered in some extreme cases, but is not expected to limit the performance of the superconducting magnets. Experiments to study the effect of radiation heating on actual magnets are recommended

  6. Precautions against radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    In this chapter the characteristics of ionizing and non-ionizing radiations likely to cause hazards in a chemical laboratory are considered. Quantities and units of radiation are described. The general principles of radiation protection, precautions against radiation hazards, ICRP standards and recommendations and the legislation relating to the control of radiation hazards in the UK are discussed. (U.K.)

  7. Environmental radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The types of ionizing radiations from the atomic nucleus are explained, such as the beams alpha, beta and gamma. The definitions of spectrometry and nuclear traces have been included.The study presents two researches realized in Costa Rica on the radioactive nuclear and artificial elements in the environment. The first shown is the analysis of coastal sediments where explains which are radioactive artificial isotopes and the pollution that occurs in food, coastal sediments, fertilizers, the soil, the water and the air. Within the analysis techniques are the gamma spectrometry, alpha spectrometry and nuclear strokes. Among the conclusions of this initial investigation is shown that at Punta Leona descendants of Uranium and Thorium present lower concentrations in relation to the gulf and its variations are not important. In the following study the radon gas is analyzed in the human environment where is determined that it is the second generator that causes cancer in lungs after the tobacco. This work indicates that the doses come from natural and artificial sources of radiation for the public are a whole of 2.7 mSv/year, information provided by the UNSCEAR, 2000. The radon gas is inert and radioactive of atomic number 86, includes 23 isotopes and 3 natural isotopes. The radon is everywhere, as are houses and buildings, in Costa Rica it is located in old homes with little ventilation. It describes the equipment used for the detection of radon gas in the environment. Within the conclusions radon gas is concentrated in confined spaces which can be harmful to health. It is determined that enough ventilation in places of high concentrations of radon is important. Finally it is recommended to monitor the sites where can be detected high concentrations of radon and that they have important influx of people [es

  8. Environmental radioactivity in Slovakia/Czechoslovakia in 1961 to 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csupka, S.; Carach, J.; Petrasova, M.

    1978-01-01

    The results are given of environmental monitoring of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in Slovakia between 1961 to 1975. Samples of radioactive fallout, milk and water were taken monthly, samples of forage, cereals and vegetables were taken in the ripening stage, and samples of foodstuffs were taken in shops. The following amounts of samples were used for the analyses: 100 g of soil, 100 g of dry forage, 100 g of dry cereals, 3 kg of fresh fruit and vegetables, 2 l of water, 1 l of milk, 2 kg of fresh meat, and flour and flour products amounting to 2 kg. The samples were dried, burned and mineralized for 24 hours with HCl. After removal of interfering elements, ie., Fe, 140 Ba, 140 La, rare earths, phosphates and 90 Y, the 90 Sr activity was determined by the yttrium method. The yttrium chemical yield was 90%. 137 Cs beta activity was determined after precipitation from a solution in the form of cesium nickel ferrocyanide and after removal of oxalates, alkali elements and rare earth elements. Chemical yield was 60 to 70%. An anticoincidence low-level beta counter by Philips was used in activity measurement. The detection efficiency was 22% for 90 Sr- 90 Y and 17% for 137 Cs. The relative mean square error of the measurement was lower than 15% for 90 Y and 10% for 137 Cs. The measurement results are classified in five parts, viz., radioactivity in fallout, in soils, in water, in plants, and in food. (J.P.)

  9. Future prospects of nuclear power plant simulators in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panek, J.

    1983-01-01

    The article is devoted to the innovation of the WWER-440 simulator which is being updated because of the obsolete design of the RPP 16 S system whose production has been discontinued. The innovation will replace the greater part of the computer system. Technical requirements and software of the new computer are described. The innovation will proceed in three stages: the acquisition of hardware, modification and complementation of mathematical models and the development of software. No innovation will be made in interface unit DASIO-600 which is conceptually new and has been practically proven. This is also true of the reactor instrumentation simulation which is based on the modular microprocessor system SM 50-40 and meets all requirements. The development of the WWER-1000 simulator has been approved. The development and construction of the simulator proceeds in the following stages: functional specification of the simulator, mathematical model, project of unit control room, assembly and debugging of the computer system, processing of user programs, production and activation of the unit control room and assembly, activation and adjustment of the whole simulator. (B.S.)

  10. [Medical cybernetics in Czechoslovakia--the first steps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünsch, Z

    1998-09-01

    During fifties there were at most few tens of persons in this country who believed in the future of computers and cybernetics. One group of such enthusiasts, headed by Antonín Svoboda, was working at a construction of the first Czech computer SAPO. The other group tried to analyse, anticipate, and prepare in advance various applications for the new systemic conceptions and for the information processing machines. Members of both groups met for discussions which opened prospects to the future and influenced many of other activities for a long time. At the early sixties, the Czechoslovak Cybernetic Society was established at the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences and in 1962 the Main Problem Committee for the Medical Cybernetics was founded at the Department of Health. It coordinated majority of the research programmes in the medical cybernetics and informatics. In 1967-1969 the Committee prepared an extensive project of a medical information system (ZIS), but its accomplishment was finally blocked by the then authorities. However, interests for that topics kept growing and the new working places equipped with available computer technology were formed at the health and clinical centres. The first tentative lectures in medical cybernetics and biocybernetics at our faculty were introduced into the students curricula in the late sixties. Thematically, medical cybernetics subsequently differentiated into the medical informatics, simulations of biological and medical systems, and the biosignal analysis. The growing interest enabled to hold conferences since the middle of seventies, some of which were held periodically, sometimes with international participation. It is not possible in brevity to include the whole spectrum to those goal-directed activities nor to appraise adequately their future significance.

  11. Spalled, aerodynamically modified moldavite from Slavice, Moravia, Czechoslovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, E.C.T.

    1964-01-01

    A Czechoslovakian tektite or moldavite shows clear, indirect evidence of aerodynamic ablation. This large tektite has the shape of a teardrop, with a strongly convex, deeply corroded, but clearly identifiable front and a planoconvex, relatively smooth, posterior surface. In spite of much erosion and corrosion, demarcation of the posterior and the anterior part of the specimen (the keel) is clearly preserved locally. This specimen provides the first tangible evidence that moldavites entered the atmosphere cold, probably at a velocity exceeding 5 kilometers per second; the result was selective heating of the anterior face and perhaps ablation during the second melting. This provides evidence of the extraterrestial origin of moldavites.

  12. Economic Transformation in Democratic Czechoslovakia (1990–1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Baka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of the implementation of economic reforms in the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, which took place in the aftermath of the Velvet Revolution, from 1990 to 1992. The author examines the positive and negative effects of economic transformation in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic. Particular attention is paid to influence of siting of the defense industry in the growth of unemployment in Slovakia. The article also touches upon the issue of privatization process, defined its main elements and stages. It is spoken in detail about illegal machinations, which are primarily engaged in by privatization investment funds. According to the article, Czechoslovakian politicians and economists agreed on a scenario of rapid market reforms, and Czech part of the federation was been better prepare for this step. Much attention is given to the problem of restitution of property that was nationalized in the period of communism. The researcher concludes that the economic transformation have contributed to the collapse of the federal state of Czechs and Slovaks.

  13. Meteorological safeguarding of nuclear power plant operation in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rak, J.; Skulec, S.

    1976-01-01

    A meteorological tower 200 m high has to be built for meteorological control of the operation of the A-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice. This meteorological station will measure the physical properties of the lower layers of the atmosphere, carry out experimental verifications of the models of air pollution, investigate the effects of waste heat and waste water from the nuclear power plant on the microclimate, provide the theoretical processing of measured data with the aim of selecting the most favourable model for conditions prevailing in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, perform basic research of the physical properties of the ground and boundary layers of the atmosphere and the coordination of state-wide plans in the field of securing the operation of nuclear power plants with regard to meteorology. (Z.M.)

  14. Arbovirological survey in Silica plateau area, Roznava District, Czechoslovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubálek, Z; Cerný, V; Mittermayer, T; Kilík, J; Halouzka, J; Juricová, Z; Kuhn, I; Bárdos, V

    1986-01-01

    The serosurveys conducted in the Silica plateau area of the Slovak karst region revealed the presence of specific neutralizing antibody against tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus in 18% of local inhabitants (33 examined, mostly goats and sheep farmers), 54% of goats (26 examined), 18% of sheep (120 examined) and 13% of cattle (60 examined), against Lipovník (LIP) virus in 30% of inhabitants, 88% of goats, 55% of sheep and 45% of cattle, and against Bhanja (BHA) virus in 27% of inhabitants, 46% of goats, 29% of sheep and 23% of cattle. The results of hemagglutination-inhibition tests with TBE and BHA antigens were analogous. A detailed analysis of these serologic data points to a recent enhancement of the circulation of LIP and BHA viruses and to a very low TBE virus activity in this natural focus of arboviral infections. The immunological surveys of the 32 former "Roznava disease" patients, conducted 25 years after an extensive epidemic of a TBE virus infection that originated in Roznava in 1951, revealed the presence of neutralizing (and also hemagglutination-inhibiting) antibodies against TBE virus in as many as 78% of cases. Antibodies against LIP and BHA viruses were also detectable in the sera of 16% and 9%, respectively, of these individuals. Populations of the ectoparasites examined for the presence of arbovirus comprised 231 Ixodes ricinus, 806 Dermacentor marginatus and 204 Haemaphysalis punctata ticks and 117 specimens of the louse-flies Melophagus ovinus. Two strains of arbivirus that were antigenically related to Lipovník and Tribec viruses belonging to a group of Kemerovo viruses were isolated from male and female I. ricinus ticks collected from cattle.

  15. Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation activities in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirsky, P.; Karpeta, C.; Rubek, J.

    1990-01-01

    After giving a survey of the Czechoslovak nuclear power plants a description of I and C systems of the operating plants is presented together with a brief outlook for future developments to be implemented at plants which are under construction. Special attention is paid to the adopted techniques for power distribution investigation and control in the WWER 1000 reactor core in the case of load changes. Basic futures of the in-core measurement systems are outlined. Measures implemented in the I and C systems of the operating units to improve their performance are described. Information on the country's approach to NPP personnel training and training aids usage as well as information on development work in the area of surveillance and monitoring systems completes the paper. (author). 9 refs, 1 tab

  16. Radiation protection principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Bahari

    2007-01-01

    The presentation outlines the aspects of radiation protection principles. It discussed the following subjects; radiation hazards and risk, the objectives of radiation protection, three principles of the system - justification of practice, optimization of protection and safety, dose limit

  17. Radiation protection; Proteccion Radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ures Pantazi, M [Universidad de la Republica, Facultad de Quimica (Uruguay)

    1994-12-31

    This work define procedures and controls about ionizing radiations. Between some definitions it found the following topics: radiation dose, risk, biological effects, international radioprotection bodies, workers exposure, accidental exposure, emergencies and radiation protection.

  18. Radiation Exposure and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Adopted: June 2010 Updated: June 2017 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Radiation Exposure and ... radiation and pregnancy can be found on the Health Physics Society " Ask the Experts" Web site. she should ...

  19. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1986-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios; biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios); biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (U.K.)

  1. Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Learn about the types of radiation, why side effects happen, which ones you might have, and more.

  2. Radiation modification of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Industrial and radiation chemical processes of material modification based on cross-linking of polymers as a result of radiation are considered. Among them are production of cables and rods with irradiated modified insulation, production of hardened and thermo-shrinkaging polymer products (films, tubes, fashioned products), production of radiation cross-linked polyethylene foam, technology of radiation vulcanization of elastomers. Attention is paid to radiation plants on the basis of γ-sources and electron acceleratos as well as to radiation conditions

  3. Radiation and radiation effects; Strahlung und Strahlenwirkung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumaier, S. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Strahlenschutz; Janssen, H. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany). Abt. Ionisierende Strahlung

    2006-12-15

    The average dose incurred by the German population is about 4 millisievert p.a., about half of which results from natural radiation sources. The second half is caused nearly completely by medical applications. Only a very small fraction of the annual dose results from technical applications. This special issue of PTB focuses on the measuring problems relating to natural radiation sources and technical applications of ionizing radiation. The current contribution also outlines some important aspects of radiation exposure from medical applications. (orig.)

  4. Foam radiators for transition radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyatin, V.; Dolgoshein, B.; Gavrilenko, I.; Potekhin, M.; Romaniouk, A.; Sosnovtsev, V.

    1993-01-01

    A wide variety of foam radiators, potentially useful in the design of a transition radiation detector, the possible particle identification tool in collider experiments, have been tested in the beam. Various characteristics of these radiators are compared, and the conclusion is reached that certain brands of polyethylene foam are best suited for use in the detector. Comparison is made with a 'traditional' radiator, which is a periodic structure of plastic foils. (orig.)

  5. Radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Keiichi; Miyoshi, Makoto; Jinguu, Ken-ichi

    1982-01-01

    Of the cases of lung cancer in which radiation therapy was given between 1961 and November 1981, 399 cases for which histological type was confirmed, and irradiated as follows were reviewed. The cases of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma irradiated with more than 5,000 rad or more, those of undifferentiated carcinoma irradiated with 3,000 rad or more, and those irradiated pre- and post-operatively with 3,000 rad or more. The actual 5 year survival rate for stages I, II, III and IV were 29.6, 9.3, 7.5 and 1.9% respectively, and the survival rate tended to be better for adenocarcinoma than squamous cell carcinoma at stages I, II and III, but not different at stage IV. There was no difference between large cell, small cell and squamous cell carcinomas. Irradiation with 200 rad every other day or 150 rad daily was better than that with 200 rad, and daily irradiation with 150 rad was used since 1976. The therapy of stage III small cell carcinoma at the age of up to 80 years was improved with the combination of anticancer agents, maintenance therapy and immunotherapy, but these combined therapies were not significantly effective for the cancers with other histological types or at other stages. Although there was no significant difference in statistics for resectable cases, clinically, the results were experienced to be better after resection, and surgery was done in combination as much as possible. (Kaihara, S.)

  6. Radiating water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, J.; Harle, N.; Heijkers, H.; Schoene, S.

    1987-04-01

    From a nuclear power plant in operation radioactivity is continuously effusing into the environment, through the chimney, cooling waters and the loss of solid waste. In this account attention is concentrated on tritium which enters, in the form of gas and tritiated water from nuclear power plants under 'normal' operation, the aquatic environment and which, because it can not be purified from the water and because its effluences in surface waters are larger than those of other radioactive waste products, forms the largest threat for the drinking-water supply. In ch. 1 the health risks of tritium are outlined. In particular the genetic risks are insufficiently known until now. In ch. 2 the amount of tritium effluences are estimated, which appears to be many times higher than was generally accepted until now. What does this imply for the Dutch surface waters? In ch. 3 the question of the source term is discussed and in ch. 4 the source term is translated into the effects upon the aquatic environment and especially upon the drinking-water supply. In ch. 5 advisements for policies are formulated. The policy of the Dutch government until now is viewed and nuclear power is judged on the base of three starting points of radiation policy. Therein the demands are included which are inevitable in order to protect the Dutch aquatic environment from a too large radioactivity burden. 91 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  7. Radiation physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    As in other technologically based field, progress in medical imaging occurs both by ''breakthroughs,'' such as completely new concepts, and by evolutionary advances, such as incremental improvements in existing technology. Both types of advances are of fundamental importance to the field. The new kinestatic charge detection technique, which represents a fundamentally new concept in image recording, qualifies as a ''breakthrough.'' This and several other articles describe new approaches to digital radiography, focusing in particular on the formidable problems of trying to match the excellent image recording and display capabilities of x-ray film. An example of an incremental improvement is a new design for x-ray tube filaments. The modified filament design can provide a significant reduction in focal-spot size, without loss of tube-loading capacity. Because spatial resolution is limited in many practical situations by focal-spot blurring, this incremental improvement in the design of an existing piece of hardware is as important a contribution to improving image quality as a new type of digital detector with a two-fold improvement in spatial resolution. The author has included a few articles dealing with practical issues in radiation protection and quality assurance of x-ray imaging systems

  8. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddon, E.A.; Reid, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Work at the Daresbury SRS has of necessity been interrupted this year (1991/92) due to the incorporation of Wiggler II. However, considerable beamtime was awarded before the shutdown and the major part of this appendix is concerned with the progress reports of the research undertaken then. The reports have been organised under the following broad headings: Molecular Science (19 papers), Surface and Materials Science (169 papers), Biological Science (85 papers), Instrumental and Technique Developments (13 papers) and Accelerator Physics (3 papers). It is hoped that in time the number of contributions on accelerator physics will grow to reflect the in-house activity on, for example, accelerator improvement and design. The research reports are preceded by the Annual Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Facilities Committee, which outlines the research highlights identified by that Committee (also included are details of the current membership of the SRFC and the chairmen of the Beamtime Allocation Panels). Following the reports are the specifications for the beamlines and stations. This year Section 3 contains 289 reports (nearly 100 more than last year) and the number of publications, generated by scientists and engineers who have used or are associated with Daresbury Laboratory facilities, has topped 500 for the first time. (author)

  9. Applying radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.; Uecker, R.L.; Muckerheide, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    The invention discloses a method and apparatus for applying radiation by producing X-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity and directing them to a desired location. Radiant energy is directed from a laser onto a target to produce such X-rays at the target, which is so positioned adjacent to the desired location as to emit the X-rays toward the desired location; or such X-rays are produced in a region away from the desired location, and are channeled to the desired location. The radiant energy directing means may be shaped (as with bends; adjustable, if desired) to circumvent any obstruction between the laser and the target. Similarly, the X-ray channeling means may be shaped (as with fixed or adjustable bends) to circumvent any obstruction between the region where the X-rays are produced and the desired location. For producing a radiograph in a living organism the X-rays are provided in a short pulse to avoid any blurring of the radiograph from movement of or in the organism. For altering tissue in a living organism the selected spectrum and intensity are such as to affect substantially the tissue in a preselected volume without injuring nearby tissue. Typically, the selected spectrum comprises the range of about 0.1 to 100 keV, and the intensity is selected to provide about 100 to 1000 rads at the desired location. The X-rays may be produced by stimulated emission thereof, typically in a single direction

  10. Counterbalanced radiation detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platz, W.

    1986-01-01

    A counterbalanced radiation detection device is described which consists of: (a) a base; (b) a radiation detector having a known weight; (c) means connected with the radiation detector and the base for positioning the radiation detector in different heights with respect to the base; (d) electronic component means movably mounted on the base for counterbalancing the weight of the radiation detector; (e) means connected with the electronic component means and the radiation detector positioning means for positioning the electronic component means in different heights with respect to the base opposite to the heights of the radiation detector; (f) means connected with the radiation detector and the base for shifting the radiation detector horizontally with respect to the base; and (g) means connected with the electronic component means and the radiation detector shifting means for shifting the electronic component means horizontally with respect to the base in opposite direction to shifting of the radiation detector

  11. The world of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Myeong Jae

    2000-12-01

    This book deals with the world of radiation with the first meeting discovery of the rays, meeting between radiation and human body, illusion and truth of radiation and philosophy of management for radiation. These are the titles of the stories ; predictor, unforgettable Hiroshima, nude photo, radiation and radioactivity, living in the radiation, people make radiation, too, mysteries in human body, gene, DNA and cell, when radiation meets human body, the first victim in the atomic accident in Japan. The fact of Chernobyl accident, is radiation in the plutonium fatal? body without brain and a deformed calf, management on radiation in the nuclear power plant, ideal and reality is really radiation dangerous? and the good news.

  12. Operational radiation protection and radiation protection training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.

    1989-01-01

    The radiation protection system in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) is reviewed. The competent authority (the SAAS) and its systems of licensing and supervision are described. Discussion covers the role of the Radiation Protection Officer, the types of radiation monitoring, medical surveillance programs and the classification of workers and work areas. Unusual occurrences in the GDR, 1963-1976, are presented and the occupational radiation protection problems at some specific types of workplaces are discussed. The GDR's system of training in radiation protection and nuclear safety is described. 5 figs., 18 tabs

  13. Foundations of radiation physics and radiation protection. 5. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieger, Hanno

    2017-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Types of radiation and radiation fields, the atomic structure, radioactive decays, decay law, natural and artificial radioactivity, interactions of ionizing photon radiation, attenuation of neutral-particle beams, interactions of neutron radiation, interactions of charged particles, ionization and energy transfer, radiation doses, radiation protection phantoms, foundations of the radiation biology of cells, effects and risks of ionizing radiation, radiation expositions of men with ionizing radiation, radiation protection law, practical radiation protection against ionizing radiations, radiation eposures in medical radiology. (HSI)

  14. Radiation biology and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    For protection purposes, the biological effects of radiation are separated into stochastic effects (cancer, hereditary effects) presumed to be unicellular in origin, and tissue reactions due to injury in populations of cells. The latter are deterministic effects, renamed ‘tissue reactions’ in the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection because of the increasing evidence of the ability to modify responses after irradiation. Tissue reactions become manifest either early or late after doses above a threshold dose, which is the basis for recommended dose limits for avoiding such effects. Latency time before manifestation is related to cell turnover rates, and tissue proliferative and structural organisation. Threshold doses have been defined for practical purposes at 1% incidence of an effect. In general, threshold doses are lower for longer follow-up times because of the slow progression of injury before manifestation. Radiosensitive individuals in the population may contribute to low threshold doses, and in the future, threshold doses may be increased by the use of various biological response modifiers post irradiation for reducing injury. Threshold doses would be expected to be higher for fractionated or protracted doses, unless doses below the threshold dose only cause single-hit-type events that are not modified by repair/recovery phenomena, or if different mechanisms of injury are involved at low and high doses.

  15. Working safely with ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    A small leaflet provides information on working safely with ionizing radiation. Topics covered include the types of radiation, radiological units, external radiation, contamination and internal radiation, methods of protection form radiation, radiation monitors, protective clothing for contamination, personal dosemeters, radiation dose limits for classified workers and finally the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985. (UK)

  16. Gravitation radiation observations

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, E. N.

    2017-01-01

    The notion of gravitational radiation begins with electromagnetic radiation. In 1887 Heinrich Hertz, working in one room, generated and received electromagnetic radiation. Maxwell's equations describe the electromagnetic field. The quanta of electromagnetic radiation are spin 1 photons. They are fundamental to atomic physics and quantum electrodynamics.

  17. Radiation protection to firemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, E.S. de.

    1985-01-01

    The basic Knowledge about ionizing radiation oriented for firemen, are presented. The mainly damage and effects caused by radiation exposure as well as the method of radiation protection are described in simple words. The action to be taken in case of fire involving radiation such as vehicles transporting radioactive materials are emphasized. (author)

  18. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koggl, D.; Dedenkov, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    All nowadays problems of radio biology are considered: types of ionizing radiations, their interaction with material; damage of molecular structures and their reparation; reaction of cells and their recovery from radiation damage; reaction of the whole organism and its separate systems. Particular attention is given to the problems of radiation carcinogenesis and radiation hazard for man

  19. Physics of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    This chapter discusses the following topics: concept of atom and elements; molecules and compounds; basic principles of radiation; types of radiations; radioactivity, unit of radioactivity, specific activity, radioactive decay, ionisation and ions, interaction of radiation with matters, modes of interaction: photoelectric absorption: Compton scattering, pair-production; attenuation of x and gamma radiation; build-up factors

  20. Radiation detection and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    Introductory material covers radiation sources, radiation interactions, general properties of radiation detectors, and counting statistics and error prediction. This is followed by detailed sections on gas-filled detectors, scintillation counters, semiconductor detectors, neutron detectors and spectroscopy, detector electronics and pulse processing, and miscellaneous radiation detectors and applications

  1. Detection of Terahertz Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for detecting terahertz radiation, a camera device, and a method for detecting terahertz radiation.......The present invention relates to a system for detecting terahertz radiation, a camera device, and a method for detecting terahertz radiation....

  2. Radiation treatment of foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, T.; Huebner, G.

    1990-10-01

    In addition to fundamental demands on radiation and safety engineering of irradiation facilities, the necessity arises to optimize irradiation conditions by using facilities to capacity and thus reducing irradiation costs. The following subjects are dealt with in detail: rehabilitation of a pilot plant for radiation treatment of onions; examination of radiation resistance of components and equipment parts of food irradiation facilities; chemical dosimetry; relative measurement of the intensity of radioactive sources; thermo- and chemiluminescence to prove irradiation of foodstuffs; radiation induced sprout inhibition of potatoes; laboratory tests of delayed maturation of tomatoes; radiation treatment of strawberries; radiation treatment of forage; radiation induced sprout inhibition of acid-treated onions; radiation treatment of starch and potatoe products; radiation treatment of cosmetics; the universal radiation source UNI 88/26 for gamma irradiation facilities; microbiological aspects of food irradiation, and introduction of chicken irradiation on an industrial scale. (BBR) [de

  3. Introduction to radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uma Devi, P.; Satish Rao, B.S.; Nagarathnam, A.

    2000-01-01

    This book is arranged in a logical sequence, starting from radiation physics and radiation chemistry, followed by molecular, subcellular and cellular effects and going on to the level of organism. Topics covered include applied radiobiology like modifiers of radiosensitivity, predictive assay, health physics, human genetics and radiopharmaceuticals. The topics covered are : 1. Radiation Physics, 2. Detection and Measurement of Radiation, 3. Radiation Chemistry, 4. DNA Damage and Repair, 5. Chromosomal Aberrations and Gene Mutations, 6. Cellular Radiobiology 7. Acute Radiation Effects, 8. Delayed Effects of Radiation, 9. Biological Basis of Radiotherapy, 10. Chemical Modifiers of Radiosensitivity, 11. Hyperthermia, 12. High LET Radiations in Cancer, Therapy, 13. Predictive Assays, 14. Radiation Effects on Embryos, 15. Human Radiation Genetics, 16. Radiolabelled Compounds in Biology and Medicine and 17. Radiological Health

  4. Chemical and radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugo, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The paper is a discussion of radiation injuries and the treatment thereof. Radiation injuries are mainly caused as a result of nuclear leaks or nuclear bomb explosions. Such an explosion is usually accompanied by a light flash, noise, heat radiation and nuclear radiation which can all caurse various types of injuries. The general effect of radioactive radiation is discussed. The seriousness of the situation where the whole body was exposed to nuclear radiation, depends on the total radiation dose received and varies from person to person. The progress of radiation sickness is described. Mention is also made of long term radiation effects. The emergency treatment of the injured before specialised aid is available, is discussed. The primary aim of treatment is to save life and to prevent further injuries and complications. Injured people must be removed as far as possible from the point of maximum radiation. Attention must also be given to decontamination

  5. Preparative radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drawe, H.

    1978-01-01

    Preparative synthesis of compounds with the aid of radiation chemistry is increasingly used in laboratories as well as on a technical scale. A large number of new compounds has been produced with the methods of radiation chemistry. With the increasing number of available radiation sources, also the number of synthesis metods in radiation chemistry has increased. This paper can only briefly mention the many possible ways of synthesis in radiation chemistry. (orig./HK) [de

  6. Radiation amorphization of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neklyudov, I.M.; Chernyaeva, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    The results of experimental and theoretical research on radiation amorphization are presented in this analytical review. Mechanism and driving forces of radiation amorphization are described, kinetic and thermodynamic conditions of amorphization are formulated. Compositional criteria of radiation amorphization are presented, that allow to predict irradiation behaviour of materials, their tendency to radiation amorphization. Mechanism of transition from crystalline state to amorphous state are considered depending on dose, temperature, structure of primary radiation damage and flux level. (author). 134 refs., 4 tab., 25 fig

  7. Radiation protection forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, W.

    2010-01-01

    The National Director of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and Radiation Protection of Uruguay in the first forum for radiation protection set out the following themes: activity of regulatory body, radiation safety, physical security, safeguards, legal framework, committed substantive program, use of radiation, risks and benefits, major sources of radiation, the national regulatory framework, national inventory of sources, inspections, licensing, import and export of sources control , radioactive transport, materials safety, agreements, information and teaching, radiological emergencies and prompt response.

  8. Radiation protection instrument 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Radiation Protection Instrument, 1993 (Legislative Instrument 1559) prescribes the powers and functions of the Radiation Protection Board established under the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission by the Atomic Energy Commission (Amendment) Law, 1993 (P.N.D.C. Law 308). Also included in the Legislative Instrument are schedules on control and use of ionising radiation and radiation sources as well as procedures for notification, licensing and inspection of ionising radiation facilities. (EAA)

  9. Radiation and toxix materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, V.V.; Belkin, V.I.; Davydov, B.I.; Kustov, V.V.; Ushakov, I.B.

    1986-01-01

    General radiobiological concepts in aviation medicine related to the biological effect of ionizing radiation on flying factors are presented. Principles of standartization, permissible doses, general principles of radiation protection and prophylaxis of aviation personnel are described. Characteristics of radio emission, microwaves, procedure of their measurements are given. Pathophysiology of electromagnetic radiation is presented. Problems on radiation protection, technical and organization problems on electromagnetic radiation protection, as well as technology in aviation are discussed

  10. Wireless radiation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Vincent E.; Howell, Jr, Layton N.; Mee, David K.; Kress, Reid L.

    2016-08-09

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting radiation. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a radiation sensitive material coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The radiation sensitive material is operable to change a tensile stress of the ferromagnetic metal upon exposure to radiation. The radiation is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the changes in the tensile stress.

  11. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1991-05-01

    Research at the Radiological Research Laboratory is a blend of physics, chemistry, and biology, involving research at the basic level with the admixture of a small proportion of pragmatic or applied research in support of radiation protection and/or radiotherapy. Current research topics include: oncogenic transformation assays, mutation studies involving interactions between radiation and environmental contaminants, isolation, characterization and sequencing of a human repair gene, characterization of a dominant transforming gene found in C3H 10T1/2 cells, characterize ab initio the interaction of DNA and radiation, refine estimates of the radiation quality factor Q, a new mechanistic model of oncogenesis showing the role of long-term low dose medium LET radiation, and time dependent modeling of radiation induced chromosome damage and subsequent repair or misrepair

  12. Radiation versus radiation: nuclear energy in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.; Anderer, J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper seeks to provide a proper perspective on radiation exposures from nuclear energy. Instead of comparing these exposures with other pollutants, natural and man-made, it assesses the radiation doses that result from the human environment and from the entire fuel cycle associated with nuclear generated electricity. It explores radiation versus radiation, not only in terms of absolute levels but, more importantly, of the enormous variability characterizing many radiation sources. The quantitative findings and their implications are meant to contribute to a balanced understanding of the radiological impact of nuclear energy, and so to help to bridge the information gap that is perceived to exist on this issue. The 1988 Unscear report and its seven scientific annexes provide an authoritative and dispassionate factual basis for examining radiation levels from all sources, natural and man-made. It is the main source for this paper. (author)

  13. From radiation chemistry to radiation engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballantine, D.S.

    1976-01-01

    During the past 25 years there has been a steady recognition that radiation in the form of electrons or gamma rays can offer positive advantages as a processing technology. Underlying this process industry, and largely responsible for its success, are significant contributions from the field of basic and applied radiation chemistry. In this paper it is attempted to relate fundamental radiation chemistry studies directly to the practical engineering applications

  14. Staff radiation exposure in radiation diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakimova, N.U.; Malisheva, E.Yu.; Shosafarova, Sh.G.

    2010-01-01

    Present article is devoted to staff radiation exposure in radiation diagnostics. Data on staff radiation exposure obtained during 2005-2008 years was analyzed. It was found that average individual doses of staff of various occupations in Dushanbe city for 2008 year are at 0.29-2.16 mSv range. They are higher than the average health indicators but lower than maximum permissible dose. It was defined that paramedical personnel receives the highest doses among the various categories of staff.

  15. Radiation protection guidelines for radiation emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessard, E.T.; Meinhold, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    The system of dose limitation and present guidance for emergency workers and guidance for intervention on behalf of the public are discussed. There are three elements for the system of dose limitation: justification, optimization and dose limits. The first element is basically a political process in this country. Justification is based on a risk-benefit analysis, and justification of the use of radioactive materials or radiation is generally not within the authority of radiation protection managers. Radiation protection managers typically assess detriments or harm caused by radiation exposure and have very little expertise in assessing the benefits of a particular practice involving nuclear material

  16. Hazards of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis form the main risks to health from exposure to low levels of radiation. There is scant data on somatic and genetic risks at environmental and occupational levels of radiation exposure. The available data on radiation induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis are for high doses and high dose rates of radiation. Risk assessments for low level radiation are obtained using these data, assuming a linear dose-response relationship. During uranium mining the chief source of radiation hazard is inhalation of radon daughters. The correlation between radon daughter exposure and the increased incidence of lung cancer has been well documented. For radiation exposures at and below occupational limits, the associated risk of radiation induced cancers and genetic abnormalities is small and should not lead to a detectable increase over naturally occurring rates

  17. New Finnish radiation law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niittyla, A.

    1992-01-01

    The new Finnish Radiation Act will enter into force on 1.1.1992. The Act aims to protect man's health against the harmful effects of radiation. The Act applies to the utilization of ionising radiation and natural radiation as well as non-ionising radiation. It emphasises the fact that a licensed organization or entrepreneur carrying out a practice which causes radiation exposure is responsible for the safety of the activity. The organization or entrepreneur in question is also obliged to take care of radioactive waste. The provisions of the Radiation Act which apply to monitoring of worker exposure are also applied to the use of nuclear energy. Activities involving the use of radiation and the use of nuclear energy are regulated by one authority, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. (author)

  18. Environmental radiation and exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    Compared to 1977 the exposure to radiation of the population of the Federal Republic of Germany from both natural and artificial radiation sources has not greatly charged. The amin part of exposure to natural radiation is caused by environmental radiation and by the absorption of naturally radioactive substances into the body. Artificial exposure to radiation of the population is essentially caused by the use of ionizing rays and radioactive substances in medicine. When radioactive materials are released from nuclear facilities the exposure to radiation of the population is only very slightly increased. The real exposure to radiation of individual people can even in the worst affected places, have been at most fractions of a millirem. The exposure to radiation in the worst afected places in the area of a hard-coal power station is higher than that coming from a nuclear power station of the same capacity. The summation of all contributions to the exposure of radiation by nuclear facilities to the population led in 1978 in the Federal Republic of Germany to a genetically significant dose of clearly less than 1 millerem per year. The medium-ranged exposure to radiation by external radiation effects through professional work was in 1978 at 80 millirems. No difference to 1977. The contribution of radionuclide from the fallout coming from nuclear-weapon tests and which has been deposited in the soil, to the whole-body dose for 1978 applies the same as the genetically significant dose of the population with less than 1 millirem. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Photodetector of ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorogan, V.; Branzari, V.; Vieru, T.; Manole, M.; Canter, V.

    2000-01-01

    The invention relates to photodetectors on base of semiconductors of ultraviolet radiation and may be used in optoelectronic system for determining the intensity and the dose of ultraviolet radiation emitted by the Sun or other sources. Summary of the invention consists in the fact that in the photodetector of ultraviolet radiation the superficial potential barrier is divided into two identical elements, electrically isolated each of the other, one of them being covered with a layer of transparent material for visible and infrared radiation and absorption the ultra violet radiation. The technical result consists in mutual compensation of visible and infrared components of the radiation spectrum

  20. Radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Nobuyoshi; Fujimoto, Toshiaki; Nagama, Hideyo

    2007-01-01

    A positive outlook toward nuclear power plants and a higher level of technologies for using radiation in the medical field are trends that are spreading throughout the world, and as a consequence, demand is increasing for equipment and systems that measure and control radiation. Equipment ranging from radiation detection and measurement devices to computer-based radiation management systems will be set up in overseas. Products that depend on overseas specifications based on IEC and other international standards are being developed. Fuji Electric is advancing the overseas deployment of radiation monitoring systems by adopting measures that will ensure the reliability and traceability of radiation equipment. (author)

  1. Radiation protection in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda Cuadros, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation protection in Bolivia has gone through a number of stages. Initially, in the 1970s, the focus was mainly on the analysis of environmental sources resulting from the nuclear tests carried out by France in the Pacific Ocean. Subsequently, the focus switched somewhat to radiation protection in connection with the mining of uranium and in the area of public health. During the third stage, radiation protection in other areas became important as the use of radiation sources was introduced. Finally, during the present -- fourth -- stage, radiation protection regulations are being introduced and mechanisms for the control of radiation sources are being established. (author)

  2. Radiation Control Regulation 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Regulation (No. 434-1993) was made in pursuance of the Radiation Control Act 1990 and replaces the Active Substances Regulations 1959 repealed by the Act. It entered into force on 1 September 1993. The Regulation specifies that the technical radiation protection definitions have the same meaning as in the 1990 recommendations. The Regulation provides for the licensing of persons to use radioactive substances and radiation apparatus. It prescribes activities which may only be carried out by an accredited radiation expert and regulates the use of radiation apparatus and radioactive substances as well as the disposal and transport of radiation apparatus and radioactive substances. (NEA)

  3. Personnel ionizing radiation dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A dosimeter and method for use by personnel working in an area of mixed ionizing radiation fields for measuring and/or determining the effective energy of x- and gamma radiation; beta, x-, and gamma radiation dose equivalent to the surface of the body; beta, x-, and gamma radiation dose equivalent at a depth in the body; the presence of slow neutron, fast neutron dose equivalent; and orientation of the person wearing the dosimeter to the source of radiation is disclosed. Optionally integrated into this device and method are improved means for determining neutron energy spectrum and absorbed dose from fission gamma and neutron radiation resulting from accidental criticality

  4. Focus radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebermann, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    The publication of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz on radiation protection covers the following issues: (i) exposure from natural sources: health hazard due to radon, radiation protection in residential homes, radon in Germany, natural raw materials in industrial processes; (ii) clearance of radioactive wastes: clearance in the frame of nuclear power plant dismantling, the situation in Germany and Europe; (iii) emergency management: principles of radiation protection, fictive sequence of accident events; (iiii) other actual radiation protection topics: more limits - more protection? radiation protection in medicine, occupational radiation protection.

  5. Introduction to radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    This lecture will present time-dependent radiation transport where the radiation is coupled to a static medium, i.e., the material is not in motion. In reality, radiation exerts a pressure on the materials it propagates through and will accelerate the material in the direction of the radiation flow. This fully coupled problem with radiation transport and materials in motion is referred to as radiation-hydrodynamics (or in a shorthand notation: rad-hydro) and is beyond the scope of this lecture

  6. Introduction to radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyskens, Ch.J.

    1978-08-01

    This document is to introduce personnel who come into contact with any radiological activities to different aspects of radiation hygiene. The basic theory of radiation physics is given and units and dose equivalents are discussed. The biological effects of ionizing radiations are described and risk analysis is introduced. The various sources of radiation to which the population is exposed are outlined. Saftey standards and legislation regarding radiation hygiene are described and the various methods and instruments for measuring radiation are given. Dosimetry and safety precautions and measures are finally discussed. (C.F.)

  7. The technique on handling radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This book describes measurement of radiation and handling radiation. The first part deals with measurement of radiation. The contents of this part are characteristic on measurement technique of radiation, radiation detector, measurement of energy spectrum, measurement of radioactivity, measurement for a level of radiation and county's statistics on radiation. The second parts explains handling radiation with treating of sealed radioisotope, treating unsealed source and radiation shield.

  8. Radiation protection in radionuclide investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction; radiation and radioactivity; alpha particles; beta particles; neutrons; electromagnetic radiation; units of radioactivity and radiation; biological effects of radiation; the philosophy of radiation protection (ALARA principle); practical aspects of radiation protection; work with unsealed radiation sources; radionuclide studies in experimental animals; radiation safety during clinical investigations; legislative control of radiation work; radioactive waste disposal; emergency procedures; conclusion. (U.K.)

  9. Space radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shiqing; Yan Heping

    1995-01-01

    The authors briefly discusses the radiation environment in near-earth space and it's influences on material, and electronic devices using in space airship, also, the research developments in space radiation effects are introduced

  10. Radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper deals with: Objectives and basic concepts of radiation protection, basic radiobiological considerations, the ICRP system of dose limitation and with operational radiation protection (limits, reference levels, occupational exposure). (RW)

  11. Prostate radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000399.htm Prostate radiation - discharge To use the sharing features on ... keeping or getting an erection may occur after prostate radiation therapy. You may not notice this problem ...

  12. Versatile radiation gaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    The attributes of computerized versatile radiation gaging systems are described. The gages are used to measure plating thicknesses and material characteristics that can be determined from radiation attenuation and/or x-ray fluorescence measurements

  13. Radiation camera exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martone, R.J.; Yarsawich, M.; Wolczek, W.

    1976-01-01

    A system and method for governing the exposure of an image generated by a radiation camera to an image sensing camera is disclosed. The exposure is terminated in response to the accumulation of a predetermined quantity of radiation, defining a radiation density, occurring in a predetermined area. An index is produced which represents the value of that quantity of radiation whose accumulation causes the exposure termination. The value of the predetermined radiation quantity represented by the index is sensed so that the radiation camera image intensity can be calibrated to compensate for changes in exposure amounts due to desired variations in radiation density of the exposure, to maintain the detectability of the image by the image sensing camera notwithstanding such variations. Provision is also made for calibrating the image intensity in accordance with the sensitivity of the image sensing camera, and for locating the index for maintaining its detectability and causing the proper centering of the radiation camera image

  14. Industrial processing with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.

    1976-01-01

    The use of large isotopic radiation sources and accelerators in industry is reviewed. The advantages of various sources of ionizing radiation are indicated, and the development and present status of radiation technology are briefly described. Attention is given to the role played by radiation processing in the cross-linking of polymers as applied to cable insulation, artificial limbs and packaging materials, as well as for improving natural rubber. In addition, attention is given to radiation as a possible means of synthesizing polymers, of hardening non-conventional coatings and of manufacturing polymer-wood composites, thereby improving the properties of softwoods. The possibility of improving natural fibres by means of radiation is discussed, and attention is given to the important role already played by radiation in the sterilization of medical products. Finally, reference is made to the role which radiation can play in reducing food spoilage, as well as in making sewage sludge suitable for agricultural purposes [af

  15. Radiation effects in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the radiation environment in space that astronauts are likely to be exposed to. Emphasis is on proton and HZE particle effects. Recommendations for radiation protection guidelines are presented

  16. Radiation exposure management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation exposure management includes administrative control, education and training, monitoring and dose assessments and planning of work and radiation protection. The information and discussion given in the paper are based on experiences in Sweden mainly from nuclear power installations. (Author)

  17. Working with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This simple booklet is written primarily to supply information about radiation, its potential dangers and radiation protection, to those working for, or considering taking up employment with, British Nuclear Fuels plc. (U.K.)

  18. Radiation processing in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo

    2001-01-01

    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  19. Radiation and the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunster, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    The biological effects of ionizing radiation are summarized. The principles and practice of radiation protection, as applied to human populations, are described with reference to the ICRP recommendations for 'justification, optimization and dose limits'. (U.K.)

  20. Radiation processing in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Economic scale of radiation application in the field of industry, agriculture and medicine in Japan in 1997 was investigated to compare its economic impacts with that of nuclear energy industry. Total production value of radiation application accounted for 54% of nuclear industry including nuclear energy industry and radiation applications in three fields above. Industrial radiation applications were further divided into five groups, namely nondestructive test, RI instruments, radiation facilities, radiation processing and ion beam processing. More than 70% of the total production value was brought about by ion beam processing for use with IC and semiconductors. Future economic prospect of radiation processing of polymers, for example cross-linking, EB curing, graft polymerization and degradation, is reviewed. Particular attention was paid to radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and also to degradation of natural polymers. (S. Ohno)

  1. Diagnostic radiation risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, T [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (UK)

    1980-04-01

    A brief discussion on diagnostic radiation risks is given. First some fundamental facts on the concepts and units of radiation measurement are clarified. Medical diagnostic radiation doses are also compared to the radiation doses received annually by man from natural background radiation. The controversy concerning the '10-day rule' in X-raying women of child-bearing age is discussed; it would appear that the risk of malformation in an unborn child due to X-radiation is very much less than the natural level of risk of malformation. The differences in the radiographic techniques and thus the different X-ray doses needed to make adequate X-ray images of different parts of the body are considered. The radiation burden of nuclear medicine investigations compared to X-ray procedures is also discussed. Finally, the problems of using volunteers in radiation research are aired.

  2. Radiation education in school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishido, Teruko; Higashijima, Emiko; Hisajima, Michihiro

    2005-01-01

    Part of goals of general education of physics is to provide students for basic knowledge on radiation. This includes understanding of both its risks and benefits. Students should know how to protect and defence from radiation but they should not overwhelm the risk of radiation. Sometimes, students think that atomic power is so terrible and frightening that they keep away from use of atomic power. Basic knowledge about risks of radiation will reduce the excessive reaction or anxiety coming from radiation. It also makes people understand other possible risks and benefits of radiation accompanied by modern scientific technologies such as nuclear technologies. We believe that the radiation education is an essential requisite for the peaceful usage of nuclear energy and radiation technology for the future. (author)

  3. Radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, J.

    1983-11-01

    Topics covered include biological radiation effects, radiation protection principles, recommendations of the ICRP and the National Health and Medical Research Council, and dose limits for individuals, particularly the limit applied to the inhalation of radon daughters

  4. Ionizing radiation in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandl, J.; Petr, I.

    1988-01-01

    The basic terms are explained such as the atom, radioactivity, nuclear reaction, interaction of ionizing radiation with matter, etc. The basic dosimetric variables and units and properties of radionuclides and ionizing radiation are given. Natural and artificial sources of ionizing radiation are discussed with regard to the environment and the propagation and migration of radionuclides is described in the environment to man. The impact is explained of ionizing radiation on the cell and the somatic and genetic effects of radiation on man are outlined. Attention is devoted to protection against ionizing radiation and to radiation limits, also to the detection, dosimetry and monitoring of ionizing radiation in the environment. (M.D.). 92 figs., 40 tabs. 74 refs

  5. Hendee's radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pawlicki, Todd; Starkschall, George

    2016-01-01

    The publication of this fourth edition, more than ten years on from the publication of Radiation Therapy Physics third edition, provides a comprehensive and valuable update to the educational offerings in this field. Led by a new team of highly esteemed authors, building on Dr Hendee’s tradition, Hendee’s Radiation Therapy Physics offers a succinctly written, fully modernised update. Radiation physics has undergone many changes in the past ten years: intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has become a routine method of radiation treatment delivery, digital imaging has replaced film-screen imaging for localization and verification, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is frequently used, in many centers proton therapy has become a viable mode of radiation therapy, new approaches have been introduced to radiation therapy quality assurance and safety that focus more on process analysis rather than specific performance testing, and the explosion in patient-and machine-related data has necessitated an ...

  6. Environmental Radiation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) is an electronic and print journal compiled and distributed quarterly by the Office of Radiation and Indoor Air's National Air and...

  7. Radiation effects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to understand and combat potential radiation damage problems in semiconductor devices and circuits. Written by international experts, this book explains the effects of radiation on semiconductor devices, radiation detectors, and electronic devices and components. These contributors explore emerging applications, detector technologies, circuit design techniques, new materials, and innovative system approaches. The text focuses on how the technology is being used rather than the mathematical foundations behind it. It covers CMOS radiation-tolerant circuit implementations, CMOS pr

  8. Synchrotron radiation facilities

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Particularly in the past few years, interest in using the synchrotron radiation emanating from high energy, circular electron machines has grown considerably. In our February issue we included an article on the synchrotron radiation facility at Frascati. This month we are spreading the net wider — saying something about the properties of the radiation, listing the centres where synchrotron radiation facilities exist, adding a brief description of three of them and mentioning areas of physics in which the facilities are used.

  9. Radiation safety at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefert, M [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1995-09-01

    CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, operates proton accelerators up to an energy of 450 GeV and an electron-positron storage ring in the 50 GeV energy range for fundamental high-energy particle physics. A strong radiation protection group assures the radiation safety of these machines both during their operation and in periods of maintenance and repair. Particular radiation problems in an accelerator laboratory are presented and recent developments in radiation protection at CERN discussed. (author)

  10. External radiation surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site

  11. External radiation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  12. Heart and radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Martins Júnior

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRATC The heart exposition to ionizing radiation may produce lesions in cardiac structures, acute (in most of cases benign and reversible, or months and even years later. There is a direct relationship of severity of lesions with radiation doses. The clinical picture receives a new denomination: radiation induced cardiopathy. The more frequent use of radiation in diagnosis and therapeutics increases the importance of their knowledge and especially their prevention.

  13. Manual of Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, D.J.; Granier, R.; Boisserie, G.

    1992-01-01

    This manual explains the principles and practice of radiation protection for those whose work in research, in the field of medicine or in the industry requires the use of radiation sources. It provides the information radiation users need to protect themselves and others and to understand and comply with international recommendations, regulations and legislation regarding the use of radionuclides and radiation machines. It is designed to teach a wide audience of doctors, biologists, research scientists, technicians, engineers, students and others

  14. Nonionizing radiation and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    While a great deal of work has been done by international bodies to establish permissible levels for ionizing radiation, much less attention has been paid to the nonionizing forms of radiation and their possible health effects. Taking into account that equipment producing such radiation is now widely used both in the house and in industry, the paper presents the possible health effects of ultraviolet, visible, laser, infrared and microwave radiation, of electric and magnetic fields and of the ultrasound waves

  15. Radiation resistant modified polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojarski, J.; Zimek, Z.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation technology for production of radiation resistant polypropylene for medical use has been presented. The method consists in radiation induced copolymerization of polypropylene with ethylene and addition of small amount of copolymer of polyethylene and vinyl acetate. The material of proposed composition has a very good mechanical properties and elevated radiation resistivity decided on possibility of radiosterilization of products made of this material and designed for medical use. 3 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  17. Radiation safety in aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    The guide presents the requirements governing radiation safety of aircrews exposed to cosmic radiation and monitoring of such exposure. It applies to enterprises engaged in aviation under a Finnish operating licence and to Finnish military aviation at altitudes exceeding 8,000 metres. The radiation exposure of aircrews at altitudes of less than 8,000 metres is so minimal that no special measures are generally required to investigate or limit exposure to radiation

  18. Synchrotron-radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    The use of radiation from synchrotron sources has started a renaissance in materials, physics, chemistry, and biology. Synchrotron radiation has advantages over conventional x rays in that its source brightness is a thousand times greater throughout a continuous energy spectrum, and resonances are produced with specific electron energy levels. Two major synchrotron radiation sources are operated by DOE: the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at SLAC, and the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven

  19. Ultraviolet radiation and immunosuppression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, G M

    2009-11-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a complete carcinogen. The effects of UV radiation are mediated via direct damage to cellular DNA in the skin and suppression of image surveillance mechanisms. In the context of organ transplantation, addiction of drugs which suppress the immune system add greatly to the carcinogenicity of UV radiation. This review considers the mechanisms of such effects.

  20. Advances in radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lett, J.T.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    The classical period of radiation biology is coming to a close. Such change always occurs at a time when the ideas and concepts that promoted the burgeoning of an infant science are no longer adequate. This volume covers a number of areas in which new ideas and research are playing a vital role, including cellular radiation sensitivity, radioactive waste disposal, and space radiation biology

  1. Quark radiation from LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Like any other electrically charged particles, quarks should give out electromagnetic radiation (photons) when they vibrate. One of the physics results from CERN's LEP collider is the first clear observation of this quark radiation from electron-positron collisions. At lower energies this radiation could only be inferred

  2. Biological implications of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1977-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: effects of diagnostic and therapeutic radiation on dividing cells, DNA, and blood cells; radiation sickness in relation to dose; early and late effects of radiation; effects of low dose irradiation; dose-effect curves; radioinduction of tumors in animals; and incidence of cancer in children following in utero exposure to diagnostic x rays

  3. Radiation flux measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corte, E.; Maitra, P.

    1977-01-01

    A radiation flux measuring device is described which employs a differential pair of transistors, the output of which is maintained constant, connected to a radiation detector. Means connected to the differential pair produce a signal representing the log of the a-c component of the radiation detector, thereby providing a signal representing the true root mean square logarithmic output. 3 claims, 2 figures

  4. Radiation in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The report presents facts about radiation, its origin and risks. It is stated that the natural radiation is dependent on the bedrock. Various control methods and ways to reduce high radiation levels are described. The information is based upon present-day knowledge of the inconvenience about radon. (G.B.)

  5. Radiation biology. Chapter 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wondergem, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Radiation biology (radiobiology) is the study of the action of ionizing radiations on living matter. This chapter gives an overview of the biological effects of ionizing radiation and discusses the physical, chemical and biological variables that affect dose response at the cellular, tissue and whole body levels at doses and dose rates relevant to diagnostic radiology.

  6. Radiation protection seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Seminar, was organized by the Argentina Association of Biology and Nuclear Medicine, and Bacon Laboratory, the 20 june 2012, in the Buenos Aires city of Argentina. In this event were presented some papers on the following topics: methods of decontamination, radiation protection of patients; concepts of radiation protection and dosimetry.

  7. Radiation and medicine: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.; Singh, H.

    1984-01-01

    A brief historical review is given of the development of the various nuclear medicine techniques which have been evolved since the discovery of X-rays and radioactivity. The role of various disciplines, such as radiobiology, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and computers in the application of radiation in medicine is discussed. (U.K.)

  8. Quark radiation from LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, Susan

    1992-04-15

    Like any other electrically charged particles, quarks should give out electromagnetic radiation (photons) when they vibrate. One of the physics results from CERN's LEP collider is the first clear observation of this quark radiation from electron-positron collisions. At lower energies this radiation could only be inferred.

  9. (Mis)Understanding Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, Stephen Bruce [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-10

    This set of slides discusses radiation and fears concerning it at a non-technical level. Included are some misconceptions and practical consequences resulting from these. The concept of radiation hormesis is explained. The author concludes that a number of significant societal benefits are being foregone because of overly cautious concerns about low-level radiation.

  10. Group: radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, L.V.E.

    1990-01-01

    The main activities of the radiation dosimetry group is described, including the calibration of instruments, sources and radioactive solutions and the determination of neutron flux; development, production and market dosimetric materials; development radiation sensor make the control of radiation dose received by IPEN workers; development new techniques for monitoring, etc. (C.G.C.)

  11. Solid state radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Important recent developments provide accurate, sensitive, and reliable radiation measurements by using solid state radiation dosimetry methods. A review of the basic phenomena, devices, practical limitations, and categories of solid state methods is presented. The primary focus is upon the general physics underlying radiation measurements with solid state devices

  12. Injury by ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    In view of the vast amount of effort devoted to the study of radiation injury during the past century, it may be concluded that the effects of radiation are better understood than those of any other physical or chemical agent. To this extent, it is useful to review our experience with radiation in addressing health problems associated with other environmental agents

  13. Polymerization by radiation. Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, M.; Fernandez Miranda, J.

    1997-01-01

    Achieved results of the research work done in the field of radiation polymerization are summarized. Developing new chromatographic matrices, the radiation grafting of Glycidyl methacrylate on the surface of Low Density Polyethylene beads was studied. The dependence of both, the grafted degree and width of the grafted layer, with the radiation dose applied, is presented

  14. Radiation borehole logging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wylie, A.; Mathew, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method of obtaining an indication of the diameter of a borehole is described. The method comprises subjecting the walls of the borehole to monoenergetic gamma radiation and making measurements of the intensity of gamma radiation backscattered from the walls. The energy of the radiation is sufficiently high for the shape to be substantially independent of the density and composition of the borehole walls

  15. Radiation bioengineering; Bioinzynieria radiacyjna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosiak, J M [Politechnika Lodzka, Lodz (Poland). Inst. Techniki Radiacynej

    1997-10-01

    Radiation processing for modification of different properties of materials being designed for medical use have been described. Especially the polymers as very often used for medical equipment production have been modified by radiation. The different medical applications of biomaterials based on radiation modified polymers have been presented. 13 refs.

  16. Spacecraft radiator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Grant A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A spacecraft radiator system designed to provide structural support to the spacecraft. Structural support is provided by the geometric "crescent" form of the panels of the spacecraft radiator. This integration of radiator and structural support provides spacecraft with a semi-monocoque design.

  17. Interaction of hyperthermia and radiation: radiation quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loshek, D.D.; Orr, J.S.; Solomonidis, E.

    1981-01-01

    Cell-survival data were collected to determine the survival response of asynchronous CHO cells subject to radiation and hyperthermia. The irradiation was at room temperature 100 minutes before exposure to hyperthermia at 42 0 C. The survival response to the combination of these two agents is expressed by means of a survival surface, a three-dimensional concept relating cell survival to heat dose and radiation dose. The survival surface could be approximately described by a survival model comprising three components of cell killing: the unperturbed radiation component, the unperturbed hyperthermia component and the interaction component. The dependence of the radiation component and the interaction component on radiation quality were investigated by irradiating with either 60 Co γ rays, 250 kV X rays or 14.7 MeV neutrons. An analysis suggests that the interaction component and the radiation component exhibit similar dependencies on radiation quality both for the deposition of damage and the repair or accumulation of that damage. (U.K.)

  18. Radiation exposure and radiation hazards of human population. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1982-01-01

    The present Part I provides a survey on the various sources of natural and artificial radiation exposure of human population. Furthermore, biological radiation effects and radiation damages are surveyed. In an appendix, radiation types, radiation doses, and radiation dose units are explained. (orig./GSCH) [de

  19. Topics in radiation dosimetry radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    1972-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry, Supplement 1: Topics in Radiation Dosimetry covers instruments and techniques in dealing with special dosimetry problems. The book discusses thermoluminescence dosimetry in archeological dating; dosimetric applications of track etching; vacuum chambers of radiation measurement. The text also describes wall-less detectors in microdosimetry; dosimetry of low-energy X-rays; and the theory and general applicability of the gamma-ray theory of track effects to various systems. Dose equivalent determinations in neutron fields by means of moderator techniques; as well as developm

  20. Radiation protection in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, E.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Fry, R.J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space.

  1. Hormesis with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckey, T.D.

    1982-01-01

    This article reviews a book which summarizes and classifies more than 1250 references to experimental work with low-level radiation between 1898 and 1977; explains that the detailed material is presented in tabular form with type of radiation as the primary classification and type of organism and date of report as subclassifications; notes that an incredible variety of effects are specified for flora and fauna; praises the summaries of background radiation and of overall radiation-dose effects to a variety of organisms; and emphasizes the importance of information dealing with the public perception of radiation and its effects

  2. Prostaglandis and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romantsev, E.F.; Blokhina, V.D.; Zhulanova, Z.I.; Koshcheenko, I.N.; Nikol'skij, A.V.; Filippovich, I.V.

    1984-01-01

    It was established that some biochemical distortions in the brain of animals, subjected to superlethal doses of ionizing radiation don't develope; the starting mechanisms of a radiation damage can be fundamentally another, as compared to the medullar and intestinal forms of radiation sickness. It enables to assume that observed changes in activity of prostaglandin-synthetase system during irradiation by 250 Gr dose are based on earlier formed changes in membrane permeability and distortion of receptor cell activity. Investigations of the effect of radiation damage modificators give additional information when studying the primary biochemical processes, initiating radiation sickness

  3. Radiation protection in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elamin, O.I.; Hajmusa, E.A.; Shaddad, I.A.

    2001-01-01

    The regulatory framework as established by the Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC) Act, promulgated in 1996, is described in the report. Three levels of responsibility in meeting radiation protection requirements are established: the Board, the Radiation Protection Technical Committee as the competent authority in the field of radiation protection, and the SAEC Department of Radiation Protection and Environmental Monitoring as the implementing technical body. The report also refers to environmental activities, patient doses in diagnostic radiology, the management of disused sources, emergency preparedness and orphan sources, and the national training activities in the radiation protection field. (author)

  4. Regularities of radiation heredity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skakov, M.K.; Melikhov, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    One analyzed regularities of radiation heredity in metals and alloys. One made conclusion about thermodynamically irreversible changes in structure of materials under irradiation. One offers possible ways of heredity transmittance of radiation effects at high-temperature transformations in the materials. Phenomenon of radiation heredity may be turned to practical use to control structure of liquid metal and, respectively, structure of ingot via preliminary radiation treatment of charge. Concentration microheterogeneities in material defect structure induced by preliminary irradiation represent the genetic factor of radiation heredity [ru

  5. Synchrotron radiation at Trieste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-06-15

    The fast developing field of synchrotron radiation has its origins in the mastery of storage rings in high energy physics and is a prime example of spinoff from pure science. Intense electromagnetic radiation streams off when beams of high energy electrons are bent or shaken. This synchrotron radiation was once an annoying waste of energy in particle storage rings, but now the wheel has turned full circle, with dedicated machines supplying this radiation for a wide range of science. The astonishing growth rate in this field was highlighted at an International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation, held at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy from 7-11 April.

  6. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service.

  7. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service

  8. Radiation protection in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakely, E.A.; Fry, R.J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space

  9. Radiation signal processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, M.; Knoll, G.; Strange, D.

    1980-01-01

    An improved signal processing system for radiation imaging apparatus comprises: a radiation transducer producing transducer signals proportional to apparent spatial coordinates of detected radiation events; means for storing true spatial coordinates corresponding to a plurality of predetermined apparent spatial coordinates relative to selected detected radiation events said means for storing responsive to said transducer signal and producing an output signal representative of said true spatial coordinates; and means for interpolating the true spatial coordinates of the detected radiation events located intermediate the stored true spatial coordinates, said means for interpolating communicating with said means for storing

  10. Mental models of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kiyoko

    2005-01-01

    Laymen and experts participated in interviews designed to reveal their 'mental models' of the processes potentially causing the miscommunications between experts and the public. We analyzed their responses in terms of an 'expert model' circumscribing scientifically relevant information. From results, there are gaps even between experts. Experts on internal exposure focused mainly on artificial radiation and high level of radiation. Experts on radiation biology focused on medical radiation, level of risk, environmental radiation, and hot springs. Experts on dosimetric performance focused on atomic power generation and needs of radiological protection. It means that even experts, they have interests only on their own specialized field. (author)

  11. Radiation in daily life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Rodriguez, P.

    1999-01-01

    The medical community benefits on a daily basis from the ionizing radiations used in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. The doses received in the medical field are only a small fraction of the total radiation received in a year. This bibliographic review has several objectives. The first one is to present the different components of natural radiation (background radiation). Secondly, it will introduce many consumer products that contain radioactive sources and expose our bodies. Third, arguments to diminish the radiation phobia will be presented and finally an easy to understand dosimetric magnitude will be introduced for the physician, the technologist and the patient. (author) [es

  12. Radiation and DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riabchenko, N I

    1979-01-01

    Consideration is given to the effects of ionizing radiation on the structure of DNA. Physical and chemical methods of determining radiation damage to the primary (polynucleotide chain and nitrogenous base) and secondary (helical) structure of DNA are discussed, and the effects of ionizing radiation on deoxyribonucleoprotein complexes are considered. The radiolysis of DNA in vitro and in bacterial and mammalian cells is examined and cellular mechanisms for the repair of radiation-damaged DNA are considered, taking into account single-strand and double-strand breaks, gamma-radiation damage and deoxyribonucleoprotein-membrane complex damage. Postradiation DNA degradation in bacteria and lymphatic cells is also discussed.

  13. Synchrotron radiation at Trieste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The fast developing field of synchrotron radiation has its origins in the mastery of storage rings in high energy physics and is a prime example of spinoff from pure science. Intense electromagnetic radiation streams off when beams of high energy electrons are bent or shaken. This synchrotron radiation was once an annoying waste of energy in particle storage rings, but now the wheel has turned full circle, with dedicated machines supplying this radiation for a wide range of science. The astonishing growth rate in this field was highlighted at an International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation, held at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy from 7-11 April

  14. Biological improvement of radiation resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, K J; Lee, Y K; Kim, J S; Kim, J K; Lee, S J

    2000-08-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of gene action related to the radiation resistance in microorganisms could be essentially helpful for the development of radiation protectants and hormeric effects of low dose radiation. This book described isolation of radiation-resistant microorganisms, induction of radiation-resistant and functionally improved mutants by gamma-ray radiation, cloning and analysis of the radiation resistance related genes and analysis of the expressed proteins of the radiation resistant related genes.

  15. Biological improvement of radiation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, K. J.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.

    2000-08-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of gene action related to the radiation resistance in microorganisms could be essentially helpful for the development of radiation protectants and hormeric effects of low dose radiation. This book described isolation of radiation-resistant microorganisms, induction of radiation-resistant and functionally improved mutants by gamma-ray radiation, cloning and analysis of the radiation resistance related genes and analysis of the expressed proteins of the radiation resistant related genes

  16. No 592 - Radiation Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Act will enter into force on 1 January 1992. The scope of the Act is extensive as, in addition to ionizing radiation, it will also apply to activities involving exposure to natural radiation and non-ionizing radiation. Its purpose is to prevent and restrict harmful effects to health resulting from radiation. The basic principles of the Act are that the practice involving radiation should be justified; radiation protection should be optimized; and radiation doses should be as low as reasonably achievable. Licensed organisations using radiation will be responsible for the safety of the activity involving exposure to radiation and for having available the appropriate expertise to this effect. The required so-called safety licence provides the regulatory control to ensure that radiation is used sensibly, that the equipment and shields are technically acceptable and the operating personnel is competent, and that the radioactive waste is dealt with appropriately. The Radiation Act will also apply to nuclear activities within the scope of the 1987 Nuclear Energy Act [fr

  17. The Radiation Protection Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1989-01-01

    The new Radiation Protection Act (1988:220) entered into force in Sweden on July 1st, 1988. This book presents the Act as well as certain regulations connected to it. As previously, the main responsibility for public radiation protection will rest with one central radiation protection authority. According to the 1988 Act, the general obligations with regard to radiation protection will place a greater responsibility than in the past on persons carrying out activities involving radiation. Under the act, it is possible to adjust the licensing and supervisory procedures to the level of danger of the radiation source and the need for adequate competence, etc. The Act recognises standardised approval procedures combined with technical regulations for areas where the risks are well known. The Act contains several rules providing for more effective supervision. The supervising authority may in particular decide on the necessary regulations and prohibitions for each individual case. The possibilities of using penal provisions have been extended and a rule on the mandatory execution of orders has been introduced. The Ordinance on Radiation Protection (1988:293) designates the National Institute of Radiation Protection (SSI) as the central authority referred to in the Radiation Protection Act. The book also gives a historic review of radiation protection laws in Sweden, lists regulations issued by SSI and presents explanations of radiation effects and international norms in the area. (author)

  18. Space radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, H.B.

    1998-01-01

    Coupled with the increasing concern over trapped radiation effects on microelectronics, the availability of new data, long term changes in the Earth's magnetic field, and observed variations in the trapped radiation fluxes have generated the need for better, more comprehensive tools for modeling and predicting the Earth's trapped radiation environment and its effects on space systems. The objective of this report is to describe the current status of those efforts and review methods for attacking the issues associated with modeling the trapped radiation environment in a systematic, practical fashion. The ultimate goal will be to point the way to increasingly better methods of testing, designing, and flying reliable microelectronic systems in the Earth's radiation environment. The review will include a description of the principal models of the trapped radiation environment currently available--the AE8 and AP8 models. Recent results rom radiation experiments on spacecraft such as CRRES, SAMPEX, and CLEMENTINE will then be described. (author)

  19. Synchrotron radiation from protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutt, S.K.

    1992-12-01

    Synchrotron radiation from protons, though described by the same equations as the radiation from electrons, exhibits a number of interesting features on account of the parameters reached in praxis. In this presentation, we shall point out some of the features relating to (i) normal synchrotron radiation from dipoles in proton machines such as the High Energy Booster and the Superconducting Super Collider; (ii) synchrotron radiation from short dipoles, and its application to light monitors for proton machines, and (iii) synchrotron radiation from undulators in the limit when, the deflection parameter is much smaller than unity. The material for this presentation is taken largely from the work of Hofmann, Coisson, Bossart, and their collaborators, and from a paper by Kim. We shall emphasize the qualitative aspects of synchrotron radiation in the cases mentioned above, making, when possible, simple arguments for estimating the spectral and angular properties of the radiation. Detailed analyses can be found in the literature

  20. Radiation and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali; Noriah Jamal

    1996-01-01

    Radiation consists of ionizing radiation (IR) and non-ionizing radiation (NIR). Apart from naturally occuring sources, these types of radiation are widely used in Malaysia and can easily be found in Malaysia environment. IR is widely used in industry, medicine and research; while NIR is widely used in industry, medicine, telecommunication, defence, entertainment and research. Recent studies indicate that these radiations are potentially harmful to human beings, in particular the chronic late effects. Based on this understanding, in 1986 (beginning IRPA RM5) Nuclear Energy Unit (NEU) had initiated a number of research projects which primary aims are to gather baseline informations and later to make assessments on the health impact of workers and the population. The projects started off by looking at problems associated with ionizing radiation and these were extended in late 1993, to include non-ionizing radiation

  1. Radiation and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd Ali, Mohd Yusof; Jamal, Noriah [Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1997-12-31

    Radiation consists of ionizing radiation (IR) and non-ionizing radiation (NIR). Apart from naturally occuring sources, these types of radiation are widely used in Malaysia and can easily be found in Malaysia environment. IR is widely used in industry, medicine and research; while NIR is widely used in industry, medicine, telecommunication, defence, entertainment and research. Recent studies indicate that these radiations are potentially harmful to human beings, in particular the chronic late effects. Based on this understanding, in 1986 (beginning IRPA RM5) Nuclear Energy Unit (NEU) had initiated a number of research projects which primary aims are to gather baseline informations and later to make assessments on the health impact of workers and the population. The projects started off by looking at problems associated with ionizing radiation and these were extended in late 1993, to include non-ionizing radiation.

  2. Radiation-activated sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nirschl, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    A sensing system is described for use in a remote location which detects electromagnetic radiation energy, the system being self-activating, turning itself automatically on and off, as a function of radiation intensity across the detector. In essence, when no radiation is present across the detector, the system will consume no power, the switches and MOSFET discriminator being essentially in an ''off'' position. Radiation across the detector provides a current to an input capacitance which when charged turns on the switch and the MOSFET discriminator. A switch driver produces an output pulse showing the presence of radiation; the system then shuts off awaiting the next radiation input. Since the sensor system uses virtually no power unless radiation is present, it is ideally suited for use in remote environments where battery power and size is a predominant consideration. 2 claims, 3 drawing figures

  3. Thermal radiation heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, John R; Mengüç, M Pinar

    2011-01-01

    Providing a comprehensive overview of the radiative behavior and properties of materials, the fifth edition of this classic textbook describes the physics of radiative heat transfer, development of relevant analysis methods, and associated mathematical and numerical techniques. Retaining the salient features and fundamental coverage that have made it popular, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, Fifth Edition has been carefully streamlined to omit superfluous material, yet enhanced to update information with extensive references. Includes four new chapters on Inverse Methods, Electromagnetic Theory, Scattering and Absorption by Particles, and Near-Field Radiative Transfer Keeping pace with significant developments, this book begins by addressing the radiative properties of blackbody and opaque materials, and how they are predicted using electromagnetic theory and obtained through measurements. It discusses radiative exchange in enclosures without any radiating medium between the surfaces-and where heat conduction...

  4. Training in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, F.

    1998-01-01

    Persons who are exposed to ionizing radiation at their workplace have to be trained in radiation protection. According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance the person with responsibility in radiation protection has to guarantee that the training is performed twice a year. Our training material was created especially for the persons defined in the Radiation Protection Ordinance and the X-ray Ordinance. It enables persons who teach (generally the radiation protection officer) to perform the training without tedious study and preparation of the documents. Our material is not just another textbook for radiation protection but rather a folder with colour transparencies and explanatory texts which make a difference in volume and price in comparison to other existing materials. (orig.) [de

  5. Environmental radiation data, 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Toshi; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Saito, Kimiaki; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1989-10-01

    The Environmental Radiation Physics Laboratory has conducted a large number of background radiation surveys in these years, aiming at the analysis of characteristics and behaviour of environmental radiation, the development of measurement techniques and instruments of environmental radiation, and the evaluation of environmental radiation dose. The environmental radiation data obtained by these surveys are useful for broad purposes as actual survey data. Therefore, it is desirable to make the recording media and the FORMAT of these data available for usual computers. In the light of this circumstance, these data were rearranged and recompiled systematically to meet the demand. This report mentions about the data obtained by the background radiation surveys in and around Tokyo performed during 1982 - 1988 using portable instruments, as well as the information necessary for the data handling. (author)

  6. Living with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tymen, G.

    1999-01-01

    This editorial article discusses the various forms of radiation that we live with. In particular, the general public's lack of knowledge on the subject is mentioned and the concentration of the media on radiation accidents and emissions is looked at critically. The various forms of radiation - ionising and non-ionising - are briefly discussed. Natural ionising radiation sources and in particular radon are described and the increasing proportion of doses attributed to cosmic radiation met in high-flying aircraft and radiation doses resulting from medical examination and treatment are discussed. Non-ionising radiation such as electromagnetic fields generated by power lines, mobile telephones and kitchen equipment and their implications on health are also looked at

  7. Radiation and Homeostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugahara, T.; Nikaido, O.; Niwa, O.

    2002-01-01

    These proceedings aim to promote the understanding of the health hazard of radiation at low dose range and to construct a more solid basis for radiation safety policy. Radiation hazard has been the central issue of investigation in the field of radiation research. The two major approaches are mechanistic analysis by laboratory investigation and phenomenological analysis of radiation-exposed population as represented by epidemiology. In an increasingly safety-conscious society, the extremely low level risk associated with low dose of radiation has become an important issue. In this area, the phenomenological approach has a limit. DNA damage is the primary and direct cause of the risk. Tremendous progress has been made recently in the basic understanding of radiation effects on cells and tissues and the importance of damage response rather than damage itself. This challenges the classical linear non-threshold hypothesis

  8. Americans' Average Radiation Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body

  9. What is ''ionizing radiation''?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschurlovits, M.

    1997-01-01

    The scientific background of radiation protection and hence ''ionizing radiation'' is undergoing substantial regress since a century. Radiations as we are concerned with are from the beginning defined based upon their effects rather than upon the physical origin and their properties. This might be one of the reasons why the definition of the term ''ionizing radiation'' in radiation protection is still weak from an up to date point of view in texts as well as in international and national standards. The general meaning is unambiguous, but a numerical value depends on a number of conditions and the purpose. Hence, a clear statement on a numerical value of the energy threshold beyond a radiation has to be considered as ''ionizing'' is still missing. The existing definitions are, therefore, either correct but very general or theoretical and hence not applicable. This paper reviews existing definitions and suggests some issues to be taken into account for possible improvement of the definition of ''ionizing radiation''. (author)

  10. Radiation shielding plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Torakichi; Sugawara, Takeo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the weight and stabilize the configuration of a radiation shielding plate which is used in close contact with an object to be irradiated with radiation rays. Constitution: The radiation shielding plate comprises a substrate made of lead glass and a metallic lead coating on the surface of the substrate by means of plating, vapor deposition or the like. Apertures for permeating radiation rays are formed to the radiation shielding plate. Since the shielding plate is based on a lead glass plate, a sufficient mechanical strength can be obtained with a thinner structure as compared with the conventional plate made of metallic lead. Accordingly, if the shielding plate is disposed on a soft object to be irradiated with radiation rays, the object and the plate itself less deform to obtain a radiation irradiation pattern with distinct edges. (Moriyama, K.)

  11. Solar radiation over India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, A; Rangarajan, S

    1982-01-01

    Solar radiation data, on horizontal and sloped surfaces, are provided derived from other meteorological parameters at 145 stations covering all major climatic zones of the country. Two methods were used to compute solar radiation, one using regression techniques to derive radiation from sunshine and cloudiness, the other from extra-terrestrial radiation, allowing for its depletion by absorption and scattering in the atmosphere. The methods of calculating the daily global radiation tilt factor using an anisotropic model for diffuse solar radiation are described. The results of statistical analysis of global solar radiation data recorded at 16 stations are presented. Appendices contain an extensive bibliograpny, sun path diagrams for latitudes 6/sup 0/N to 36/sup 0/N, and tables for the calculation of Local Apparent Time from Indian Standard Time.

  12. Radiation protection - thirty years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper is discussed some questions in the field of Radiation Protection as like: historical prologue of radiations discovery and it's systematics; radiation and radiation protection; ALARA principle and 'de minimis' approach; radiation risks and dose limits and radiation and chemicals a risk comparison (author)

  13. Radiation protection - thirty years after

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninkovic, M M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1989-07-01

    In this paper is discussed some questions in the field of Radiation Protection as like: historical prologue of radiations discovery and it's systematics; radiation and radiation protection; ALARA principle and 'de minimis' approach; radiation risks and dose limits and radiation and chemicals a risk comparison (author)

  14. Radiation safety audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadadunna, K.P.I.K.; Mod Ali, Noriah

    2008-01-01

    Audit has been seen as one of the effective methods to ensure harmonization in radiation protection. A radiation safety audit is a formal safety performance examination of existing or future work activities by an independent team. Regular audit will assist the management in its mission to maintain the facilities environment that is inherently safe for its employees. The audits review the adequacy of facilities for the type of use, training, and competency of workers, supervision by authorized users, availability of survey instruments, security of radioactive materials, minimization of personnel exposure to radiation, safety equipment, and the required record keeping. All approved areas of use are included in these periodic audits. Any deficiency found in the audit shall be corrected as soon as possible after they are reported. Radiation safety audit is a proactive approach to improve radiation safety practices and identify and prevent any potential radiation accident. It is an excellent tool to identify potential problem to radiation users and to assure that safety measures to eliminate or reduce the problems are fully considered. Radiation safety audit will help to develop safety culture of the facility. It is intended to be the cornerstone of a safety program designed to aid the facility, staff and management in maintaining a safe environment in which activities are carried out. The initiative of this work is to evaluate the need of having a proper audit as one of the mechanism to manage the safety using ionizing radiation. This study is focused on the need of having a proper radiation safety audit to identify deviations and deficiencies of radiation protection programmes. It will be based on studies conducted on several institutes/radiation facilities in Malaysia in 2006. Steps will then be formulated towards strengthening radiation safety through proper audit. This will result in a better working situation and confidence in the radiation protection community

  15. Perception of radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The health risks of radiation have been carefully studied and are relatively well understood in comparison with other risks to the human environment. Public perception of these risks often is distorted, due in part to lack of familiarity with the actual risk levels involved. There is a need for dissemination to the public of accurate information on radiation risks as well as to patients and volunteer subjects for studies involving radiation exposures. Often such information can be presented meaningfully by comparing the risks of radiation exposure with other, more familiar risks. Natural background radiation is a universally present and generally accepted source of risk, and thus serves as one reference against which to compare the risks of other radiation exposures. Natural background radiation averages about 100 mrem/yr, but much higher levels are encountered in some parts of the US (400 mrem/yr) and worldwide (2000 mrem/yr). These variations are due primarily to differences in cosmic ray intensity with altitude and in terrestrial radiation originating from soil and rocks. Radiation risks also may be compared with the risks of other human activities, both voluntary and involuntary. The former are useful for comparisons with the risks of voluntary radiation exposures such as occupational exposure and participation in medical or research procedures involving radiation. Involuntary radiation exposure, such as might result from the transportation and disposal of radioactive waste, poses a more complicated issue. Comparisons of such exposures to natural background radiation levels and their variations are helpful. Two other concepts that have been proposed for assessing the relative risk of low-level radiation exposure are de minimus risk and probability of causation. 28 references

  16. Radiation microbiology relevant to radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallentire, A.

    1979-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: typical background studies involving laboratory models (measurement of radiation responses of different organisms, alone or on or in products; isolation of radiation resistant organisms from products and product environments; measurement of levels of preirradiation microbial contamination ('bioburden')); supplementary studies involving naturally occurring microbial contaminants (unit medical products; microbiological quality assurance; products in bulk; animal diet study). (U.K.)

  17. Radiation: boon or bane?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Mankind has been exposed to radiation ever since the very first stage of its evolutionary development. Radiation is one of the greatest discoveries of mankind. Radiation has turned out to be a razor-sharp double-edged sword. In earlier days, it worried no one, because nobody knew about it. The correct application of radiation, be it in any field, have made lives better. Radiation in reality, a boon as well as a curse. Radiation is important but it is time we have to decide where to draw the line. For example, the match stick by itself is just a harmless object. One can use it to light a lamp or light a fire for cooking. In the hands of a mother lighting the lamp or the cooking fire, it becomes beneficial. The same match stick in the hands of a small careless child could prove to be fatal. The increased use of radiation has created fear in the minds of people regarding its possible adverse effects on living systems. Radiation is highly dangerous if not used with caution. This fear is heightened by nuclear fallouts, nuclear accidents and of high levels of natural background radiation in geographical areas in a number of countries. Terrorists may take advantage of technology and may produce nuclear weapons, which is a great risk for entire world. There are numerous reports about increasing health hazards like headache, sleep disorders, lack of concentration, infertility, memory loss, cardiovascular problems, cancer etc. which arises due to over exposure of radiation. Apart from human race, radiation affects other animals and overall environment. Although it has adverse effects on living beings but it cannot be denied that today radiation is a common and valuable tool in medicine, agriculture, research and industry. Radiation has contributed to significant improvements in fields of communications technology and energy. Radiation has proved to be an excellent source in terms of amount of energy production with generation of minimal waste. Even though it produces small

  18. New radiation warning sign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac Kenzie, C.; Mason, C.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radiation accidents involving orphan radioactive sources have happened as a result of people not recognizing the radiation trefoil symbol or from being illiterate and not understanding a warning statement on the radiation source. The trefoil symbol has no inherent meaning to people that have not been instructed in its use. A new radiation warning sign, to supplement the existing trefoil symbol, has been developed to address these issues. Human Factors experts, United Nations member states, and members of the international community of radiation protection professionals were consulted for input on the design of a new radiation warning sign that would clearly convey the message of 'Danger- Run Away- Stay Away' when in close proximity to a dangerous source of radiation. Cultural differences of perception on various warning symbols were taken into consideration and arrays of possible signs were developed. The signs were initially tested in international children for identification with the desired message and response. Based on these test results and further input from radiation protection professionals, five warning signs were identified as the most successful in conveying the desired message and response. These five signs were tested internationally in eleven countries by a professional survey company to determine the best sign for this purpose. The conclusion of the international testing is presented. The new radiation warning sign is currently a draft ISO standard under committee review. The design of the propose d radiation warning sign and the proposed implementation strategy outlined in the draft ISO standard is presented. (authors)

  19. Pulsed radiation decay logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.R. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    There are provided new and improved well logging processes and systems wherein the detection of secondary radiation is accomplished during a plurality of time windows in a manner to accurately characterize the decay rate of the secondary radiation. The system comprises a well logging tool having a primary pulsed radiation source which emits repetitive time-spaced bursts of primary radiation and detector means for detecting secondary radiation resulting from the primary radiation and producing output signals in response to the detected radiation. A plurality of measuring channels are provided, each of which produces a count rate function representative of signals received from the detector means during successive time windows occurring between the primary radiation bursts. The logging system further comprises means responsive to the measuring channels for producing a plurality of functions representative of the ratios of the radiation count rates measured during adjacent pairs of the time windows. Comparator means function to compare the ratio functions and select at least one of the ratio functions to generate a signal representative of the decay rate of the secondary radiation

  20. Radiation doses to Finns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantalainen, L.

    1996-01-01

    The estimated annual radiation doses to Finns have been reduced in the recent years without any change in the actual radiation environment. This is because the radiation types have been changed. The risk factors will probably be changed again in the future, because recent studies show discrepancies in the neutron dosimetry concerning the city of Hiroshima. Neutron dosimetry discrepancy has been found between the predicted and estimated neutron radiation. The prediction of neutron radiation is calculated by Monte Carlo simulations, which have also been used when designing recommendations for the limits of radiation doses (ICRP60). Estimation of the neutron radiation is made on the basis of measured neutron activation of materials in the city. The estimated neutron dose beyond 1 km is two to ten, or more, times as high as the predicted dose. This discrepancy is important, because the most relevant distances with respect to radiation risk evaluation are between 1 and 2 km. Because of this discrepancy, the present radiation risk factors for gamma and neutron radiation, which rely on the Monte Carlo calculations, are false, too. The recommendations of ICRP60 have been adopted in a few countries, including Finland, and they affect the planned common limits of the EU. It is questionable whether happiness is increased by adopting false limits, even if they are common. (orig.) (2 figs., 1 tab.)

  1. Canada: Living with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Canadians are exposed daily to a variety of naturally occurring radiation. Heat and light from the sun, are familiar examples. Radium and uranium are naturally occurring materials which have been found to emit radiation and so have been called radioactive. There are also various types of artificially produced forms of radiation that are employed routinely in modern living, such as radio and television waves and microwaves. X-rays, another common type of radiation, are widely used in medicine as are some man-made radioactive substances. These emit radiation just like naturally occurring radioactive materials. Surveys have shown that many people have a poor understanding of the risks associated with the activities of modern living. Exposure to ionizing radiation from radioactive materials is also considered by many persons to have a high risk, This booklet attempts to inform the readers about ionizing radiation, its uses and the risks associated with it, and to put these risks in perspective with the risks of other activities and practices. A range of topics from medical uses of radiation to emergency planning, from biological effects of radiation to nuclear power, each topic is explained to relate radiation to our everyday lives. 44 figs

  2. Canada: Living with radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Canadians are exposed daily to a variety of naturally occurring radiation. Heat and light from the sun, are familiar examples. Radium and uranium are naturally occurring materials which have been found to emit radiation and so have been called radioactive. There are also various types of artificially produced forms of radiation that are employed routinely in modern living, such as radio and television waves and microwaves. X-rays, another common type of radiation, are widely used in medicine as are some man-made radioactive substances. These emit radiation just like naturally occurring radioactive materials. Surveys have shown that many people have a poor understanding of the risks associated with the activities of modern living. Exposure to ionizing radiation from radioactive materials is also considered by many persons to have a high risk, This booklet attempts to inform the readers about ionizing radiation, its uses and the risks associated with it, and to put these risks in perspective with the risks of other activities and practices. A range of topics from medical uses of radiation to emergency planning, from biological effects of radiation to nuclear power, each topic is explained to relate radiation to our everyday lives. 44 figs.

  3. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. K.; Park, S. H.; Lee, W. G.; Ha, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    In 1945, Van Heerden measured α, β and γ radiations with the cooled AgCl crystal. It was the first radiation measurement using the compound semiconductor detector. Since then the compound semiconductor has been extensively studied as radiation detector. Generally the radiation detector can be divided into the gas detector, the scintillator and the semiconductor detector. The semiconductor detector has good points comparing to other radiation detectors. Since the density of the semiconductor detector is higher than that of the gas detector, the semiconductor detector can be made with the compact size to measure the high energy radiation. In the scintillator, the radiation is measured with the two-step process. That is, the radiation is converted into the photons, which are changed into electrons by a photo-detector, inside the scintillator. However in the semiconductor radiation detector, the radiation is measured only with the one-step process. The electron-hole pairs are generated from the radiation interaction inside the semiconductor detector, and these electrons and charged ions are directly collected to get the signal. The energy resolution of the semiconductor detector is generally better than that of the scintillator. At present, the commonly used semiconductors as the radiation detector are Si and Ge. However, these semiconductor detectors have weak points. That is, one needs thick material to measure the high energy radiation because of the relatively low atomic number of the composite material. In Ge case, the dark current of the detector is large at room temperature because of the small band-gap energy. Recently the compound semiconductor detectors have been extensively studied to overcome these problems. In this paper, we will briefly summarize the recent research topics about the compound semiconductor detector. We will introduce the research activities of our group, too

  4. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1993-05-01

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood ''biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons

  5. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1993-05-01

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

  6. Radiation processes in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Tucker, Wallace H

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this book is twofold: to provide a brief, simple introduction to the theory of radiation and its application in astrophysics and to serve as a reference manual for researchers. The first part of the book consists of a discussion of the basic formulas and concepts that underlie the classical and quantum descriptions of radiation processes. The rest of the book is concerned with applications. The spirit of the discussion is to present simple derivations that will provide some insight into the basic physics involved and then to state the exact results in a form useful for applications. The reader is referred to the original literature and to reviews for rigorous derivations.The wide range of topics covered is illustrated by the following table of contents: Basic Formulas for Classical Radiation Processes; Basic Formulas for Quantum Radiation Processes; Cyclotron and Synchrotron Radiation; Electron Scattering; Bremsstrahlung and Collision Losses; Radiative Recombination; The Photoelectric Effect; a...

  7. What is radiation curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinstle, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation curing is a highly interdisciplinary and sophisticated field. Successful interplay between chemists and engineers of various disciplines is required. Throughout the research-development-applications cycle, two disciplines for which hybridization is extremely important are radiation chemistry and polymer chemistry. The molecular level effects caused by absorbed radiation depend strongly on the type and intensity of the radiation. Efficient utilization of the radiation to effect desired transformations in a monomer and/or polymer system, and maximization of final properties, depend on well-planned polymer synthesis and system formulation. The elementary basis of these two disciplines and the manner in which they necessarily coalesce in the field of radiation curing are reviewed

  8. Foundations of radiation hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalas, D.; Mihalas, B. W.

    This book is the result of an attempt, over the past few years, to gather the basic tools required to do research on radiating flows in astrophysics. The microphysics of gases is discussed, taking into account the equation of state of a perfect gas, the first and second law of thermodynamics, the thermal properties of a perfect gas, the distribution function and Boltzmann's equation, the collision integral, the Maxwellian velocity distribution, Boltzmann's H-theorem, the time of relaxation, and aspects of classical statistical mechanics. Other subjects explored are related to the dynamics of ideal fluids, the dynamics of viscous and heat-conducting fluids, relativistic fluid flow, waves, shocks, winds, radiation and radiative transfer, the equations of radiation hydrodynamics, and radiating flows. Attention is given to small-amplitude disturbances, nonlinear flows, the interaction of radiation and matter, the solution of the transfer equation, acoustic waves, acoustic-gravity waves, basic concepts of special relativity, and equations of motion and energy.

  9. Environmental radiation data, 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Toshi; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Saito, Kimiaki; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1993-06-01

    The Environmental Physics Laboratory has conducted a large number of background radiation surveys in these years, aiming at the analysis of characteristics and behaviour of environmental radiation, the development of measurement techniques and instruments of environmental radiation, and the evaluation of environmental radiation dose. As the environmental radiation data obtained by these surveys are useful for broad purposes as actual survey data, it is desirable to arrange these data systematically and to open them to the other scientist. For that, it is necessary to make the recording media and the FORMAT of these data available for usual computers. In the light of this circumstance, these data were rearranged and recompiled systematically to meet the demand. This report mentions about the data obtained by the background radiation surveys in and around Tokyo performed during 1991 - 1993 using portable instruments, as well as the information necessary for the data handling. (author)

  10. Radiation Protection. Chapter 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, D. [Ninewells Hospital, Dundee (United Kingdom); Collins, L. T. [Westmead Hospital, Sydney (Australia); Le Heron, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Chapter 21, in describing basic radiation biology and radiation effects, demonstrates the need to have a system of radiation protection that allows the many beneficial uses of radiation to be realized while ensuring detrimental radiation effects are either prevented or minimized. This can be achieved with the twin objectives of preventing the occurrence of deterministic effects and of limiting the probability of stochastic effects to a level that is considered acceptable. In a radiology facility, consideration needs to be given to the patient, the staff involved in performing the radiological procedures, members of the public and other staff that may be in the radiology facility, carers and comforters of patients undergoing procedures, and persons who may be undergoing a radiological procedure as part of a biomedical research project. This chapter discusses how the objectives given above are fulfilled through a system of radiation protection and how such a system should be applied practically in a radiology facility.

  11. Radiation hazards underestimated. Or?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckow, J.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation protection claims that its regulations, policies and approaches are based on scientific evidence. If due to progress in science and technology new knowledge is added, it must be given to whether or not the existing radiation protection implementing is still appropriate or whether or not modifications need to be made. However, radiation protection is not just a matter of science. Continuity, consensus, accountability, public perception, communication and social acceptance play an important role in radiation protection as well. Thus, as new scientific evidence should be taken into account, not only the adequate implementation of radiation protection has to be discussed, but also their impact on the public perception and acceptance. It is one major challenge for all who are involved in radiation protection, to find an appropriate balance between these two aspects. (orig.)

  12. The flying radiation case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, J.H.; Bowers, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Los Alamos foil implosion program has the goal of producing an intense, high-energy density x-ray source by converting the energy of a magnetically imploded plasma into radiation and material energy. One of the methods for converting the plasma energy into thermal energy and radiation and utilizing it for experiments is called the flying radiation case (FRC). In this paper the authors shall model the FRC and provide a physical description of the processes involved. An analytic model of a planar FRC in the hydrodynamic approximation is used to describe the assembly and shock heating of a central cushion by a conducting liner driver. The results are also used to benchmark a hydrodynamics code for modeling an FRC. They then use a radiation-hydrodynamics computational model to explore the effects of radiation production and transport when a gold plasma assembles on a CH cushion. Results are presented for the structure and evolution of the radiation hohlraum

  13. Health of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1979-11-01

    Radiation workers are healthier than the average person in the general population and appear to be as healthy as workers in other ΣsafeΣ industries. It is, however, assumed that there is no safe dose of radiation and that any exposure to radiation will cause a small increase in the incidence of cancer, this increase being directly proportional to the total radiation dose. On the basis of the risk estimates given by ICRP, radiation exposures up to 1 rem per year for 47 years are predicted to cause fewer work-related deaths than expected for the average worker in Canadian industry. Radiation exposures of 5 rem per year from age 18 to 65 would result in predicted risk which is about four times higher than that for most workers in Canada and might increase the chances of death before age 75 to nearly the same level as for the average member of the general public. (auth)

  14. Radiation protection zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Radiation being not visible, the zoning of an area containing radioactive sources is important in terms of safety. Concerning radiation protection, 2 work zones are defined by regulations: the monitored zone and the controlled zone. The ministerial order of 15 may 2006 settles the frontier between the 2 zones in terms of radiation dose rates, the rules for access and the safety standards in both zones. Radioprotection rules and the name of the person responsible for radiation protection must be displayed. The frontier between the 2 zones must be materialized and marked with adequate equipment (specific danger signs and tapes). Both zones are submitted to selective entrance, the access for the controlled zone is limited because of the radiation risk and of the necessity of confining radioactive contamination while the limitation of the access to the monitored zone is due to radiation risk only. (A.C.)

  15. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The stages of processes leading to radiation damage are studied, as well as, the direct and indirect mechanics of its production. The radiation effects on nucleic acid and protein macro moleculas are treated. The physical and chemical factors that modify radiosensibility are analysed, in particular the oxygen effects, the sensibilization by analogues of nitrogen bases, post-effects, chemical protection and inherent cell factors. Consideration is given to restoration processes by excision of injured fragments, the bloching of the excision restoration processes, the restoration of lesions caused by ionizing radiations and to the restoration by genetic recombination. Referring to somatic effects of radiation, the early ones and the acute syndrome of radiation are discussed. The difference of radiosensibility observed in mammalian cells and main observable alterations in tissues and organs are commented. Referring to delayed radiation effects, carcinogeneses, alterations of life span, effects on growth and development, as well as localized effects, are also discussed [pt

  16. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  17. Reusable radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanselow, D.L.; Ersfeld, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    An integrating, reusable device for monitoring exposure to actinic radiation is disclosed. The device comprises a substrate having deposited thereon at least one photochromic aziridine compound which is sealed in an oxygen barrier to stabilize the color developed by the aziridine compound in response to actinic radiation. The device includes a spectral response shaping filter to transmit only actinic radiation of the type being monitored. A color standard is also provided with which to compare the color developed by the aziridine compound

  18. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D.

    1997-10-01

    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program

  19. Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramotnev, D. K.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    Nanofocusing of electromagnetic radiation, that is, reducing the cross sections of propagating optical modes far beyond the diffraction limit in dielectric media, can be achieved in tapered metal-dielectric waveguides that support surface plasmon-polariton modes. Although the main principles...... radiation on the nanoscale. Here, we present the underlying physical principles of radiation nanofocusing in metallic nanostructures, overview recent progress and major developments, and consider future directions and potential applications of this subfield of nano-optics....

  20. Radiation protection housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, A

    1975-04-10

    The radiation protection housing consists of a foot rim with castor swivel wheels, a tubular frame tapering off at the top, and a crown. In the upper part of the tubular frame a lead glass window is permanently installed. The sides are covered with radiation attenuating curtains of leaded rubber. The housing has the shape of a truncated pyramid which can be dismantled into its constituent parts. It is used for protection from radiation encountered in X-ray facilities in dental radiology.

  1. Registration of radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    In Finland the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) is maintaining the register (called Dose Register) of the radiation exposure of occupationally exposed workers in order to ensure compliance with the principles of optimisation and individual protection. The guide contains a description of the Dose Register and specifies the responsibilities of the party running a radiation practice to report the relevant information to the Dose Register

  2. Radiation Studies, Vol.10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadareishvili, K.; Tsitskishvili, M.; Chankseliani, Z.; Gelashvili, K.; Mtskhoetadze, A.; Oniani, T.; Todua, F.; Vepkhoadze, N.; Zaalishvili, T.

    2002-01-01

    'Radiation studies' - is a periodical edition of Scientific Research Center of Radiobiology and Radiation Ecology of Georgian Academy of Sciences, Problem Council of Radiobiology of Georgian Academy of Sciences and Georgian Academy of Ecological Sciences. The 10th volume of 'Radiation studies' reflects activities of above-mentioned institutions during previous two years and contains 26 articles, from which 17 are within the scope of INIS

  3. Canada's radiation scandal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    In July 1990, Greenpeace distributed a 16-page treatise entitled 'Canada's Radiation Scandal' to a wide audience. The bottom line of the Greenpeace critique was that 'Canada's radiation limits are among the worst in the developed world'. This is a commentary on the Greenpeace pamphlet from the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), the body that sets and enforces radiation standards covering the use of nuclear energy in Canadian industry, science and medicine

  4. Immunoassay in radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubik, V.M.

    1987-01-01

    Methods for estimation of nonspecific protection factors, T- and B-immunity system factors, which application is advisable when solving problems of radiation hygiene are described. Data on changes in immunity under chronic low dose irradiation of external and internl radiation by incorporated radiomechides are genralized and analysed. Combined action of ionizing radiation and factors of nonradiation nature is described. 120 refs.; 11 figs.; 33 tabs

  5. Man and radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, L.

    1982-01-01

    The book describes the effects of ionizing radiation on man in a simple, popular, detailed and generally valid manner and gives a comprehensive picture of the concepts, elements, principles of function, and perspectives of medical radiobiology. Radiobiology in general is explained, and its application in research on the causes of radiolesions and radiation diseases as well as a radiotherapy and radiation protection is discussed in popular form. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Ionizing radiation in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, K.; Ginkel, G. van; Leun, K. van der; Muller, H.; Oude Elferink, J.; Vesseur, A.

    1985-10-01

    This booklet dels with the risks of the use of ionizing radiation for people working in a hospital. It is subdivided in three parts. Part 1 treats the properties of ionizing radiation in general. In part 2 the various applications are discussed of ionizing radiation in hospitals. Part 3 indicates how a not completely safe situation may be improved. (H.W.). 14 figs.; 4 tabs

  7. Radiation hardening coating material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, W.H.; Prucnal, P.J.; DeMajistre, Robert.

    1977-01-01

    This invention concerns a radiation hardening coating material. First a resin is prepared by reaction of bisphenol diglycidylic ether with acrylic or methacrylic acids. Then the reactive solvent is prepared by reaction of acrylic or methacrylic acids with epichlorhydrine or epibromhydrine. Then a solution consisting of the resin dissolved in the reactive solvent is prepared. A substrate (wood, paper, polyesters, polyamines etc.) is coated with this composition and exposed to ionizing radiations (electron beams) or ultraviolet radiations [fr

  8. RTP Radiation Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfred, S.L.; Mohd Fairus Abdul Farid; Ahmad Nabil Abdul Rahim; Nurhayati Ramli

    2015-01-01

    Radiation Monitoring System aiming to limiting dose exposed to personnel to the lowest level referring to the concept of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable). Atomic Energy Licensing (Basic Safety Radiation Protection) Regulation 2010 (Act 304) is a baseline to control employee and public radiation protection program and guideline, as well as to meet the requirement of the Occupational Safety and Health 1994 (Act 514). (author)

  9. Chemical effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philips, G.O.

    1986-01-01

    Ionizing radiations initiate chemical changes in materials because of the high energy of their quanta. In water, highly reactive free radicals are produced which can initiate secondary changes of solutes, and in chemical of biological molecules in contact with the water. Free radicals can also be directly produced in irradiated medical products. Their fate can be identified and the molecular basis of radiation inactivation clarified. Methods have now been developed to protect and minimise such radiation damage. (author)

  10. Intracranial interstitial radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, D.; Rittenmeyer, H.; Hitchon, P.

    1986-01-01

    Primary malignant brain tumors are fatal, with 90% of patients having these tumors dying within two years following diagnosis. Cranial interstitial radiation therapy, a technique under investigation to control these tumors, involves implantation of radioactive iodine 125 seeds into the tumor bed by stereotaxic technique. The interstitial radiation technique, monitoring of radiation, and nursing care of patients are discussed. Case histories are presented, along with discussion of results attained using this therapy, and its future

  11. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both...... and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading...

  12. Radiodiagnosis and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, H.

    1990-01-01

    The book is intended for readers in professions where X-rays are applied to man. It presents the information and knowledge about this type of radiation required for an adequate handling of the equipment and application of the radiation to man. The book comprehensively discusses the radiophysical aspects and technical aspects such as equipment, imaging media, and their processing. Further chapters deal with available means and methods for radiation protection and with the legal requirements defined for this purpose. (orig.) [de

  13. Radiation chemistry in development and research of radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Rui

    2010-01-01

    During the establishment and development of radiation biology, radiation chemistry acts like bridge which units the spatial and temporal insight coming from radiation physics with radiation biology. The theory, model, and methodology of radiation chemistry play an important role in promoting research and development of radiation biology. Following research development of radiation biology effects towards systems radiation biology the illustration and exploration both diversity of biological responses and complex process of biological effect occurring remain to need the theory, model, and methodology come from radiation chemistry. (authors)

  14. Workplace photon radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.H.; Bartlett, D.T.; Ambrosi, P.

    1999-01-01

    The knowledge of workplace radiation fields is essential for measures in radiation protection. Information about the energy and directional distribution of the incident photon radiation was obtained by several devices developed by the National Radiation Protection Board, United Kingdom, by the Statens Stralskyddsinstitut, Sweden, together with EURADOS and by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany. The devices are described and some results obtained at workplaces in nuclear industry, medicine and science in the photon energy range from 20 keV to 7 MeV are given. (author)

  15. The natural radiation background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggleby, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The components of the natural background radiation and their variations are described. Cosmic radiation is a major contributor to the external dose to the human body whilst naturally-occurring radionuclides of primordial and cosmogenic origin contribute to both the external and internal doses, with the primordial radionuclides being the major contributor in both cases. Man has continually modified the radiation dose to which he has been subjected. The two traditional methods of measuring background radiation, ionisation chamber measurements and scintillation counting, are looked at and the prospect of using thermoluminescent dosimetry is considered

  16. Charms of radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inokuti, Mitio

    2005-01-01

    Most of my professional efforts over nearly five decades have been devoted to radiation research, that is, studies of the physical, chemical, and biological actions of high-energy radiation on matter. (By the term high-energy radiation'' I mean here x rays, γ rays, neutrons, and charged particles of high enough energies to produce ionization in manner. I exclude visible light, infrared waves, microwaves, and sound waves.) Charms of radiation research lie in its interdisciplinary character, although my training was in basic physics, the scope of my interest has gradually increased to cover many other areas, to my deep satisfaction. High-energy radiation is an important component of the universe, and of our environment. It often provides an effective avenue for characterizing matter and understanding its behavior. Near Earth's surface this radiation is normally present in exceptionally low quantity, and yet it plays a significant role in some atmospheric phenomena such as auroras, and also in the evolution of life. The recent advent of various devices for producing high-energy radiation has opened up the possibility of many applications, including medical and industrial uses. I have worked on some aspects of those uses. At every opportunity to address a broad audience I try to convey a sense of intellectual fun, together with some of the elements of the basic science involved. A goal of radiation education might be to make the word radiation'' as common and familiar as words such as ''fire'' and electricity'' through increased usage. (author)

  17. Radiation Calibration Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omondi, C.

    2017-01-01

    KEBS Radiation Dosimetry mandate are: Custodian of Kenya Standards on Ionizing radiation, Ensure traceability to International System (SI ) and Calibration radiation equipment. RAF 8/040 on Radioisotope applications for troubleshooting and optimizing industrial process established Radiotracer Laboratory objective is to introduce and implement radiotracer technique for problem solving of industrial challenges. Gamma ray scanning technique applied is to Locate blockages, Locate liquid in vapor lines, Locate areas of lost refractory or lining in a pipe and Measure flowing densities. Equipment used for diagnostic and radiation protection must be calibrated to ensure Accuracy and Traceability

  18. Radiation hormesis in plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Byung Hun; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    2000-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as subsequent high doses of radiation or Phytophthora blight of pepper could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with different dose of {gamma}-ray. (author)

  19. NEW RADIATION RESISTANT GREASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DasGupta, Sharda; Slobodian, J. T.

    1962-11-20

    New radiation resistant greases were prepared from commercially available greases by carrying out radioinduced reactions with styrene. The radiation tolerances of the products were 250-1000 fold more than the starting materials and any product of similar properties now available. The various properties of the new products initially and after exposure to large radiation doses were in no case inferior to the original greases and in some respects improvements were observed. Radiation tolerance of commercial greases could be enhanced by the addition of polystyrene to form a physical mixture rather than copolymers. The reaction mechanisms involved at all stages were studied using infrared spectroscopic techniques. (P.C.H.)

  20. Radiation chemical synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagoretz, P.A.; Poluetkov, V.A.; Shostenko, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    The authors consider processes in radiation chemical synthesis which are being developed in various scientific-research organizations. The important advantages of radiation chlorination, viz. the lower temperature compared with the thermal method and the absence of dehydrochlorination products are discussed. The authors examine the liquid-phase chlorination of trifluorochloroethyltrichloromethyl ether to obtain the pentachloro-contining ether, trifluorodichloroethyltrichloromethyl ether. The authors discuss radiation synthesis processes that have be used formulated kinetic equations on which models have been based. It is concluded that the possibilities of preparative (micro- and low-tonnage) radiation synthesis are promising