WorldWideScience

Sample records for radiation area monitors

  1. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S. C.; Grossman, R. F.; Mullen, A. A.; Potter, G. D.; Smith, D. D. [comps.

    1983-07-01

    A principal activity of the Offsite Radiological Safety Program is routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests. It is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. This report summarizes these activities for CY 1982.

  2. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J.; Dicey, B.B.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Sparks, A.R.; Fontana, C.A.; Carroll, L.D.; Phillips, W.G.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program.

  3. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J; Daigler, D.M.; Davis, M.G. [and others

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1993 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs); by biological monitoring of foodstuffs including animal tissues and food crops; and by measurement of radioactive material deposited in humans.

  4. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Hennessey, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (OREMP) conducted during 1997 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPAs), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling and analyzing milk, water, and air; by deploying and reading thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) to measure ambient gamma exposure rates with a sensitivity capable of detecting low level exposures not detected by other monitoring methods.

  5. Offsite environmental monitoring report; radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, Calendar Year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Huff, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs). No nuclear weapons testing was conducted in 1996 due to the continuing nuclear test moratorium. During this period, R and IE personnel maintained readiness capability to provide direct monitoring support if testing were to be resumed and ascertained compliance with applicable EPA, DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no airborne radioactivity from diffusion or resuspension detected by the various EPA monitoring networks surrounding the NTS. There was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater and no radiation exposure above natural background was received by the offsite population. All evaluated data were consistent with previous data history.

  6. Citizen radiation monitoring program for the TMI area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratta, A.J.; Gricar, B.G.; Jester, W.A.

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of the program was to develop a system for citizens to independently measure radiation levels in and around their communities. This report describes the process by which the Program was developed and operated. It also presents the methods used to select and train the citizens in making and interpreting the measurements. The test procedures used to select the equipment for the program are described as are the results of the testing. Finally, the actual monitoring results are discussed along with the citizens' reactions to the program.

  7. Web design and development for centralize area radiation monitoring system in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Yussup, Nolida; Haris, Mohd Fauzi; Soh @ Shaari, Syirrazie Che; Azman, Azraf; Razalim, Faizal Azrin B. Abdul; Yapp, Raymond; Hasim, Harzawardi; Aslan, Mohd Dzul Aiman

    2017-01-01

    One of the applications for radiation detector is area monitoring which is crucial for safety especially at a place where radiation source is involved. An environmental radiation monitoring system is a professional system that combines flexibility and ease of use for data collection and monitoring. Nowadays, with the growth of technology, devices and equipment can be connected to the network and Internet to enable online data acquisition. This technology enables data from the area monitoring devices to be transmitted to any place and location directly and faster. In Nuclear Malaysia, area radiation monitor devices are located at several selective locations such as laboratories and radiation facility. This system utilizes an Ethernet as a communication media for data acquisition of the area radiation levels from radiation detectors and stores the data at a server for recording and analysis. This paper discusses on the design and development of website that enable all user in Nuclear Malaysia to access and monitor the radiation level for each radiation detectors at real time online. The web design also included a query feature for history data from various locations online. The communication between the server's software and web server is discussed in detail in this paper.

  8. 105KE Basin Area Radiation Monitor System (ARMS) Acceptance Test Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KINKEL, C.C.

    1999-12-14

    This procedure is intended for the Area Radiation Monitoring System, ARMS, that is replacing the existing Programmable Input-Output Processing System, PIOPS, radiation monitoring system in the 105KE basin. The new system will be referred to as the 105KE ARMS, 105KE Area Radiation Monitoring System. This ATP will ensure calibration integrity of the 105KE radiation detector loops. Also, this ATP will test and document the display, printing, alarm output, alarm acknowledgement, upscale check, and security functions. This ATP test is to be performed after completion of the 105KE ARMS installation. The alarm outputs of the 105KE ARMS will be connected to the basin detector alarms, basin annunciator system, and security Alarm Monitoring System, AMS, located in the 200 area Central Alarm Station (CAS).

  9. 105KE Basin Area Radiation Monitor System (ARMS) Acceptance Test Procedure

    CERN Document Server

    Kinkel, C C

    1999-01-01

    This procedure is intended for the Area Radiation Monitoring System, ARMS, that is replacing the existing Programmable Input-Output Processing System, PIOPS, radiation monitoring system in the 105KE basin. The new system will be referred to as the 105KE ARMS, 105KE Area Radiation Monitoring System. This ATP will ensure calibration integrity of the 105KE radiation detector loops. Also, this ATP will test and document the display, printing, alarm output, alarm acknowledgement, upscale check, and security functions. This ATP test is to be performed after completion of the 105KE ARMS installation. The alarm outputs of the 105KE ARMS will be connected to the basin detector alarms, basin annunciator system, and security Alarm Monitoring System, AMS, located in the 200 area Central Alarm Station (CAS).

  10. The radiation monitoring system for the LHC experiments and experimental areas

    CERN Document Server

    Ilgner, C

    2004-01-01

    With the high energies stored in the beams of the LHC, special attention needs to be paid to accident scenarios involving beam losses which may have an impact on the installed experiments. Among others, an unsynchronized beam abort and a D1 magnet failure are considered serious cases. According to simulations, the CMS inner tracker in such accident scenarios can be damaged by instantaneous rates which are many orders of magnitude above normal conditions. Investigations of synthetic diamond as a beam condition monitor sensor, capable of generating a fast beam dump signal, will be presented. Furthermore, a system to monitor the radiation fields in the experimental areas is being developed. It must function in the radiation fields inside and around the experiments, over a large dynamic range. Several new active and passive sensors, such as RadFET, OSL (Optically Stimulated Luminescence) sensors, p-i-n diodes, Polymer-Alanine Dosimeters and TLDs (Thermoluminescent Dosimeters) are under investigation. Recent resul...

  11. Preliminary Study of Position-Sensitive Large-Area Radiation Portal Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chang Hwy; Kim, Hyunok; Moon, Myung Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jongyul [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Won; Lim, Yong Kon [Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    An RPM, which is a passive inspection method, is a system for monitoring the movement of radioactive materials at an airport, seaport, border, etc. To detect a γ-ray, an RPM using the plastic scintillator is generally used. The method of γ-ray detection using an RPM with a plastic scintillator is to measure lights generated by an incident γ-ray in the scintillator. Generally, a large-area RPM uses one or two photomultiplier tubes (PMT) for light collection. However, in this study, we developed a 4-ch RPM that can measure the radiation signal using 4 PMTs. The reason for using 4 PMTs is to calculate the position of the radiation source. In addition, we developed an electric device for acquisition of a 4-ch output signal at the same time. To estimate the performance of the developed RPM, we performed an RPM test using a {sup 60}Co γ-ray check source. In this study, we performed the development of a 4-ch RPM. The major function of the typical RPM is to measure the radiation. However, we developed a position-sensitive 4-ch RPM, which can be used to measure the location of the radiation source, as well as the radiation measurement, at the same time. In the future, we plan to develop an algorithm for a position detection of the radiation. In addition, an algorithm will be applied to an RPM.

  12. Online fault diagnostics and testing of area gamma radiation monitor using wireless network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Padi Srinivas; Kumar, R. Amudhu Ramesh; Mathews, M. Geo; Amarendra, G.

    2017-07-01

    Periodical surveillance, checking, testing, and calibration of the installed Area Gamma Radiation Monitors (AGRM) in the nuclear plants are mandatory. The functionality of AGRM counting electronics and Geiger-Muller (GM) tube is to be monitored periodically. The present paper describes the development of online electronic calibration and testing of the GM tube from the control room. Two electronic circuits were developed, one for AGRM electronic test and another for AGRM detector test. A dedicated radiation data acquisition system was developed using an open platform communication server and data acquisition software. The Modbus RTU protocol on ZigBee based wireless communication was used for online monitoring and testing. The AGRM electronic test helps to carry out the three-point electronic calibration and verification of accuracy. The AGRM detector test is used to verify the GM threshold voltage and the plateau slope of the GM tube in-situ. The real-time trend graphs generated during these tests clearly identified the state of health of AGRM electronics and GM tube on go/no-go basis. This method reduces the radiation exposures received by the maintenance crew and facilitates quick testing with minimum downtime of the instrument.

  13. RADIATION HYGIENIC MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT OF POPULATION DOSES IN RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED AREAS OF TULA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Chichura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal. The analyses of radiation hygienic monitoring conducted in Tula region territories affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident regarding cesium-137 and strontium- 90 in the local foodstuffs and the analyses of populational annual effective dose. The materials and methods. The survey was conducted in Tula Region since 1997 to 2015. Over that period, more than fifty thousand samples of the main foodstuffs from the post-Chernobyl contaminated area were analyzed. Simultaneously with that, the external gamma - radiation dose rate was measured in the fixed control points. The dynamics of cesium -137 and strontium-90 content in foodstuffs were assessed along with the maximum values of the mean annual effective doses to the population and the contribution of the collective dose from medical exposures into the structure of the annual effective collective dose to the population. The results. The amount of cesium-137 and strontium -90 in the local foodstuffs was identified. The external gamma- radiation dose rate values were found to be stable and not exceeding the natural fluctuations range typical for the middle latitudes of Russia’s European territory. The maximum mean annual effective dose to the population reflects the stable radiation situation and does not exceed the permissible value of 1 mSv. The contribution of the collective dose from medical exposures of the population has been continuously reducing as well as the average individual dose to the population per one medical treatment under the annual increase of the medical treatments quantities. The conclusion. There is no exceedance of the admissible levels of cesium-137 and strontium- 90 content in the local foodstuffs. The mean annual effective dose to the population has decreased which makes it possible to transfer the settlements affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident to normal life style. This is covered by the draft concept of the settlements’ transfer to normal life style.

  14. Environmental radiation monitoring plan for depleted uranium and beryllium areas, Yuma Proving Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1994-05-11

    This Environmental Radiation Monitoring Plan (ERM) discusses sampling soils, vegetation, and biota for depleted uranium (DU) and beryllium (Be) at Yuma Proving Ground (YPG). The existing ERM plan was used and modified to more adequately assess the potential of DU and Be migration through the YPG ecosystem. The potential pathways for DU and Be migration are discussed and include soil to vegetation, soil to animals, vegetation to animals, animals to animals, and animals to man. Sample collection will show DU deposition and will be used to estimate DU migration. The number of samples from each area varies and depends on if the firing range of interest is currently used for DU testing (GP 17A) or if the range is not used currently for DU testing (GP 20). Twenty to thirty-five individual mammals or lizards will be sampled from each transect. Air samples and samples of dust in the air fall will be collected in three locations in the active ranges. Thirty to forty-five sediment samples will be collected from different locations in the arroys near the impact areas. DU and Be sampling in the Hard Impact and Soft Impact areas changed only slightly from the existing ERM. The modifications are changes in sample locations, addition of two sediment transport locations, addition of vegetation samples, mammal samples, and air sampling from three to five positions on the impact areas. Analysis of samples for DU or total U by inductively-coupled mass spectroscopy (ICP/MS), cc spectroscopy, neutron activation analysis (NAA), and kinetic phosphorimetric analysis (KPA) are discussed, and analysis for Be by ICP/MS are recommended. Acquiring total U (no isotope data) from a large number of samples and analysis of those samples with relatively high total U concentrations results in fewer isotopic identifications but more information on U distribution. From previous studies, total U concentrations greater than about 3 times natural background are usually DU by isotopic confirmation.

  15. GAMMA-SPECTROMETER FOR WATER AREAS AND BOTTOM SEDIMENTS RADIATION MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Zhukouski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of continuous or periodic monitoring of water areas affected by radioactive contamination in the result of scheduled emissions in nuclear power plants or in the result of emergency situations in nuclear fuel cycle plants we need to develop measurement instruments with advanced mathematics and program support to assess the level of radioactive contamination with required accuracy. The aim of theoretical research was to optimize detection device construction, estimate spectrometer metrological parameters in given measurement geometries, and determine effective position of detection device in the process of in situ measurements. This device consists of spectrometric scintillation probe packed into sealed container (detection device based on NaI(T1 crystal of Ø 63 × 63 mm or Ø 63 × 160 mm size, cable reel with deep-sea cable and a tablet PC for data processing and displaying. The container withstands static hydraulic pressure up to 5 MPa and can be used for measurements at depths of 500 m maximum. Probe measures energy distribution of gammaradiation with energy from 70 keV to 3000 keV. The implemented three-dimensional system for detection device position and orientation determination allows automatic operation of the device (without operator for water areas or bottom sediment scanning. The spectrometer can output measurement results with threedimensional geographical coordinates as index maps of distribution with necessary resolution and accuracy. Monte Carlo models of spectrometer and controlled objects are developed in order to determine the detector response functions to given radionuclides in given measurement geometries without use of expensive standard measures of activity. Multifunction gamma-spectrometer for in situ radiation monitoring of water areas and bottom sediments was developed and constructed. In the result of theoretical researches the response functions have been calculated in the form of

  16. Audible radiation monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odell, D.M.C.

    1992-12-31

    This invention consists of a method and apparatus for monitoring ionizing radiation comprising radiation detectors in electrical connection with an isotopic analyzer and a device for producing chords to which each isotope is mapped so that the device produces a unique chord for each isotope. Preferably the chords are pleasing to the ear, except for chords representing unexpected isotopes, and are louder or softer depending on the level of radioactivity produced by each isotope, and musical instrument voices may be simulated in producing the chords as an aid to distinguishing similar-sounding chords. Because of the representation by chords, information regarding the level and composition of the radiation in an area can be conveyed to workers in that area more effectively and yet without distracting them.

  17. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service.

  18. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service.

  19. Advanced monitoring in mixed radiation area - AMIRA; Fortschrittliche Messmethode in gemischten Strahlenfeldern - AMIRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerkin, W.; Dielmann, R. [Saphymo GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    AMIRA is the result of a research project in cooperation with the Radiobiological Institute of the University of Munich, a workgroup of the Saarland University as well as Saphymo GmbH. An active, universally applicable dosimeter for use in radiation protection was developed which allows precise measurement of neutrons and photons in unknown mixed radiation areas. AMIRA uses a miniaturized tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) which simulates a tissue volume of 1{mu}m diameter. Use of a microdosimetric detector has the advantage that to each event of the energy deposition not only the portion for the dose but also the lineal energy, the microdosimetric analogon of the LET, can be determined. In this way each event can be allocated with the correct quality factor for the determination of the equivalent dose. The sensitivity of conventional measuring techniques often varies by a factor of 10. Measurement results of PTB, Braunschweig, and IRSN, Cadarache, France, verify an exceptionally high energy response over the entire measurement range. Although a separate detection for example of neutrons and photons is possible with this concept it is actually not necessary for radiation protection purposes. The now extended development of the measurement device is based on reduced size and weight, disposes of an economized MCA with more than four decades dynamic measurement range, suppresses microphonic effects. The software saves the LET spectrum, calculates and saves the total dose according to ICRP60 as well as the neutron/photon dose by LET separation. Due to the small, compact construction it could be achieved for the first time to make use of the TEPC technology for applications everywhere where there is occupational exposition. Examples are in aircrew dosimetry or in the complete spectrum of the nuclear fuel cycle for the determination of the personal dose and dose rate. (orig.)

  20. Radiation monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghina, Mauricio A.C.; Farias, Marcos S. de; Lacerda, Fabio de; Heimlich, Adino [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Design of a portable low-power multichannel analyzer with wireless connectivity for remote radiation monitoring, powered from a solar panel with a internal battery to be operated in field. The multichannel analyzer is based on a single microcontroller which performs the digital functions and an analog signal processing board for implementing a Gaussian shaper preamplifier, a Gaussian stretcher, sample and hold, pile-up rejector and a 10 bit ADC. Now this design is to be used with a NaI(Ti) scintillator detector. This multichannel analyzer is designed to be a part of radiation monitoring network. All of them are connected, by radio in a radius of 10 kilometers, to a supervisor computer that collects data from the network of multichannel analyzers and numerically display the latest radiation measurements or graphically display measurements over time for all multichannel analyzers. Like: dose rate, spectra and operational status. Software also supports remotely configuring operating parameters (such as radiation alarm level) for each monitor independently. (author)

  1. 区域辐射剂量监测系统的设计%The Design of Area Radiation Dose Monitoring System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖; 侯胜利; 曾卫华; 刘海生

    2011-01-01

    The area radiation dose monitoring system is used for monitoring the radiation levels of the important nuclear reactor area to ensure the safty of radiation in the nuclear reactor. The component and function of the monitoring system as well as its circuit design and software design are introduced. The design of parallel communication is emphasized.%区域辐射剂量监测系统用于日常监测核反应堆重点区域的辐射水平,保证核反应堆运行中的辐射安全.主要介绍了监测系统的组成和功能,系统的电路设计和软件设计,重点介绍了系统中并行通信的设计.

  2. MULTI-POINT RADIATION MONITOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, K; Donna Beals, D; Ken Odell, K; Robert Eakle, R; Russell Huffman, R; Larry Harpring, L

    2006-05-12

    A unique radiation monitor has been developed for performing wide-area field surveys for radiation sources. This device integrates the real-time output of multiple radiation detectors into a hand-held personal computer (e.g., a PDA) containing an intuitive graphical user interface. An independent hardware module supplies high voltage to the detectors and contains a rapid sampling system for transferring the detector count rates through an interface to the PDA. The imbedded firmware can be changed for various applications using a programmable memory card. As presently configured, the instrument contains a series of Geiger-Mueller (GM) tubes in a flexible detector string. This linear array of multiple sensors can be used by US Coast Guard and Customs container inspection personnel to measure radiation intensity in stacks of transport containers where physical access is impeded.

  3. Radiation monitoring around accelerator facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Shinichi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The present status of a network of radiation monitors (NORM) working at KEK is described in detail. NORM consists of there parts; stand-alone radiation monitors (SARM), local-monitoring stations (STATION) and a central data-handling system (CENTER). NORM has developed to a large-scaled monitoring system in which more than 250 SARMs are under operation for monitoring the radiation fields and radioactivities around accelerators in KEK. (author)

  4. A survey of monitoring and assay systems for release of metals from radiation controlled areas at LANL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruetzmacher, K. M. (Kathleen M.); MacArthur, D. W. (Duncan W.)

    2002-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), a recent effort in waste minimization has focused on scrap metal from radiological controlled areas (RCAs). In particular, scrap metal from RCAs needs to be dispositioned in a reasonable and cost effective manner. Recycling of DOE scrap metals from RCAs is currently under a self-imposed moratorium. Since recycling is not available and reuse is difficult, often metal waste from RCAs, which could otherwise be recycled, is disposed of as low-level waste. Estimates at LANL put the cost of low-level waste disposal at $550 to $4000 per cubic meter, depending on the type of waste and the disposal site. If the waste is mixed, the cost for treatment and disposal can be as high as $50,000 per cubic meter. Disposal of scrap metal as low-level waste uses up valuable space in the low-level waste disposal areas and requires transportation to the disposal site under Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations for low-level waste. In contrast, disposal as non-radioactive waste costs as little as $2 per cubic meter. While recycling is unavailable, disposing of the metal at an industrial waste site could be the best solution for this waste stream. A Green Is Clean (GIC) type verification program needs to be in place to provide the greatest assurance that the waste does not contain DOE added radioactivity. This paper is a review of available and emerging radiation monitoring and assay systems that could be used for scrap metal as part of the LANL GIC program.

  5. Air and radiation monitoring stations

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)582709

    2015-01-01

    CERN has around 100 monitoring stations on and around its sites. New radiation measuring stations, capable of detecting even lower levels of radiation, were installed in 2014. Two members of HE-SEE group (Safety Engineering and Environment group) in front of one of the new monitoring stations.

  6. [RADIATION HYGIENIC MONITORING AT THE AREA OF THE LOCATION OF THE FAR EASTERN CENTER FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT (FEC "DALRAO"--BRANCH OF FSUE "ROSRAO")].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, S M; Shandala, N K; Akhromeev, S V; Gimadova, T I; Seregin, V A; Titov, A V; Biryukova, N G

    2015-01-01

    Intensification ofactivities in the field of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive waste (RW) management in the Far East region of Russia assumes an increase of the environmental load on the territories adjacent to the enterprise and settlements. To ensure radiation safety during works on SNF and radioactive waste management in the standard mode of operation and during the rehabilitation works in the contaminated territories, there is need for the optimization of the existing system of radiation-hygienic monitoring, aimed at the implementation of complex dynamic observation of parameters of radiation-hygienic situation and radiation amount of the population living in the vicinity of the Far Eastern Center for Radioactive Waste Management (FEC "DALRAO"). To solve this problem there is required a significant amount of total and enough structured information on the character of the formation of the radiation situation, the potential ways of the spread of man-made pollution to the surrounding area, determining the radiation load on the population living in the vicinity of the object. In this paper there are presented the results of field studies of the radiation situation at the plant FEC "DALRAO", which were obtained during the course of expedition trips in 2009-2012.

  7. The LISA Pathfinder Radiation Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wass, P. J.; Araújo, H.; Boatella, C.; Chmeissani, M.; Hajdas, W.; Lobo, A.; Puigdengoles, C.; Sumner, T.

    2006-11-01

    We present the concept, design and testing of the radiation monitor for LISA Pathfinder. Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and solar energetic particles (SEPs) will cause charging of the LISA Pathfinder test masses producing unwanted disturbances which could be significant during a large solar eruption. A radiation monitor on board LISA Pathfinder, using silicon PIN diodes as particle detectors, will measure the particle flux responsible for charging. It will also be able to record spectral information to identify solar energetic particle events. The design of the monitor was supported by Monte Carlo simulations which allow detailed predictions of the radiation monitor performance. We present these predictions as well as the results of high-energy proton tests carried out at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland. The tests show good agreement with our simulations and confirm the capability of the radiation monitor to perform well in the space environment, meeting all science requirements.

  8. Radiation Monitoring Equipment Dosimeter Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Kenneth A.; Golightly, Michael J.; Quam, William

    1992-01-01

    Spacecraft crews risk exposure to relatively high levels of ionizing radiation. This radiation may come from charged particles trapped in the Earth's magnetic fields, charged particles released by solar flare activity, galactic cosmic radiation, energetic photons and neutrons generated by interaction of these primary radiations with spacecraft and crew, and man-made sources (e.g., nuclear power generators). As missions are directed to higher radiation level orbits, viz., higher altitudes and inclinations, longer durations, and increased flight frequency, radiation exposure could well become a major factor for crew stay time and career lengths. To more accurately define the radiological exposure and risk to the crew, real-time radiation monitoring instrumentation, which is capable of identifying and measuring the various radiation components, must be flown. This presentation describes a radiation dosimeter instrument which was successfully flown on the Space Shuttle, the RME-3.

  9. ERLN Radiation Focus Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Environmental Response Laboratory Network, the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) here provides your laboratory with access to radiation-specific laboratory guidance documents and training courses.

  10. ULTRA SECURE HIGH RELIABILITY WIRELESS RADIATION MONITOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordaro, J.; Shull, D.; Farrar, M.; Reeves, G.

    2011-08-03

    Radiation monitoring in nuclear facilities is essential to safe operation of the equipment as well as protecting personnel. In specific, typical air monitoring of radioactive gases or particulate involves complex systems of valves, pumps, piping and electronics. The challenge is to measure a representative sample in areas that are radioactively contaminated. Running cables and piping to these locations is very expensive due to the containment requirements. Penetration into and out of an airborne or containment area is complex and costly. The process rooms are built with thick rebar-enforced concrete walls with glove box containment chambers inside. Figure 1 shows high temperature radiation resistance cabling entering the top of a typical glove box. In some case, the entire processing area must be contained in a 'hot cell' where the only access into the chamber is via manipulators. An example is shown in Figure 2. A short range wireless network provides an ideal communication link for transmitting the data from the radiation sensor to a 'clean area', or area absent of any radiation fields or radioactive contamination. Radiation monitoring systems that protect personnel and equipment must meet stringent codes and standards due to the consequences of failure. At first glance a wired system would seem more desirable. Concerns with wireless communication include latency, jamming, spoofing, man in the middle attacks, and hacking. The Department of Energy's Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a prototype wireless radiation air monitoring system that address many of the concerns with wireless and allows quick deployment in radiation and contamination areas. It is stand alone and only requires a standard 120 VAC, 60 Hz power source. It is designed to be mounted or portable. The wireless link uses a National Security Agency (NSA) Suite B compliant wireless network from Fortress Technologies that is considered robust enough to be

  11. The Highly Miniaturised Radiation Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, E F; Daly, E; Guerrini, N; Gunes-Lasnet, S; Griffin, D; Marshall, A; Menicucci, A; Morse, T; Poyntz-Wright, O; Turchetta, R; Woodward, S

    2014-01-01

    We present the design and preliminary calibration results of a novel highly miniaturised particle radiation monitor (HMRM) for spacecraft use. The HMRM device comprises a telescopic configuration of active pixel sensors enclosed in a titanium shield, with an estimated total mass of 52 g and volume of 15 cm$^3$. The monitor is intended to provide real-time dosimetry and identification of energetic charged particles in fluxes of up to 10$^8$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ (omnidirectional). Achieving this capability with such a small instrument could open new prospects for radiation detection in space.

  12. Radiation monitoring in interventional cardiology: a requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, T.; Uruchurtu, E. S.

    2017-01-01

    The increasing of procedures using fluoroscopy in interventional cardiology procedures may increase medical and patients to levels of radiation that manifest in unintended outcomes. Such outcomes may include skin injury and cancer. The cardiologists and other staff members in interventional cardiology are usually working close to the area under examination and they receive the dose primarily from scattered radiation from the patient. Mexico does not have a formal policy for monitoring and recording the radiation dose delivered in hemodynamic establishments. Deterministic risk management can be improved by monitoring the radiation delivered from X-ray devices. The objective of this paper is to provide cardiologist, techniques, nurses, and all medical staff an information on DR levels, about X-ray risks and a simple a reliable method to control cumulative dose.

  13. Monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, J.B.C. [Radiation Safety Consultancy, Engadine, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    A brief overview is presented of methods of monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation together with reasons for such monitoring and maintaining dose histories of radiation occupationally exposed persons. The various Australian providers of external radiation monitoring services and the types of dosemeters they supply are briefly described together with some monitoring results. Biological monitoring methods, are used to determine internal radiation dose. Whole body monitors, used for this purpose are available at Australian Radiation Lab., ANSTO and a few hospitals. Brief mention is made of the Australian National Radiation Dose Register and its objectives. 8 refs., 9 tabs.

  14. Android Based Area Web Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanigoro, Bayu; Galih Salman, Afan; Moniaga, Jurike V.; Chandra, Eric; Rezky Chandra, Zein

    2014-03-01

    The research objective is to develop an application that can be used in the monitoring of an area by using a webcam. It aims to create a sense of security on the user's application because it can monitor an area using mobile phone anywhere. The results obtained in this study is to create an area with a webcam monitoring application that can be accessed anywhere as long as the monitoring results have internet access and can also be accessed through Android Based Mobile Phone.

  15. Android Based Area Web Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanigoro Bayu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to develop an application that can be used in the monitoring of an area by using a webcam. It aims to create a sense of security on the user's application because it can monitor an area using mobile phone anywhere. The results obtained in this study is to create an area with a webcam monitoring application that can be accessed anywhere as long as the monitoring results have internet access and can also be accessed through Android Based Mobile Phone.

  16. The L3 radiation monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlen, S.; Goldstein, J.; Marin, A.; Xu, J.; Zhou, B.; Capell, M.; Wu, S.

    1996-02-01

    A radiation monitoring system for the L3 experiment at the Large Electron Positron (LEP) collider is described. This system was installed in the L3 detector in April 1993. It provides information on the instantaneous and integrated radiation dose in the vicinity of the L3 silicon microvertex detector and time expansion chamber, and since April 1994 it has also provided trigger signals for the LEP beam dump in the case of large instantaneous dose rates in the L3 central tracking region.

  17. The development of wireless radiation dose monitoring using smart phone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Woo; Jeong, Gyo Seong; Lee, Yun Jong [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chong Yeal [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chai Wan [REMTECH, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Radiation workers at a nuclear facility or radiation working area should hold personal dosimeters. some types of dosimeters have functions to generate audible or visible alarms to radiation workers. However, such devices used in radiation fields these days have no functions to communicate with other equipment or the responsible personnel. our project aims at the development of a remote wireless radiation dose monitoring system that can be utilized to monitor the radiation dose for radiation workers and to notify the radiation protection manager of the dose information in real time. We use a commercial survey meter for personal radiation measurement and a smart phone for a mobile wireless communication tool and a Beacon for position detection of radiation workers using Blue tooth communication. In this report, the developed wireless dose monitoring of cellular phone is introduced.

  18. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daejeon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jae Shik; Noh, Hyung Ah [Daejon Radiation Monitoring Station, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    Systematic understanding of the distribution of environmental radioactivity and radiation level in Daejeon, including Chungchung area, in normal circumstance, and rapid detection of unusual variation of the radiation level in emergency situation thereby ensure public safety are the objectives of this project to be carried out. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring data obtained at Daejeon Radiation Monitoring Station in 2002. In conclusion, the natural environmental radiation level in Daejeon area has been preserved as usual and no significant artificial enhancement in environmental radioactivity was observed during the course of this survey and monitoring period.

  19. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daejeon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jae Shik; Noh, Hyung Ah [Daejon Radiation Monitoring Station, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Systematic understanding of the distribution of environmental radioactivity and radiation level in Daejeon, including Chungchung area, in normal circumstance, and rapid detection of unusual variation of the radiation level in emergency situation thereby ensure public safety are the objectives of this project to be carried out. This report summarizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring data obtained at Daejeon Radiation Monitoring Station in 2002. In conclusion, the natural environmental radiation level in Daejeon area has been preserved as usual and no significant artificial enhancement in environmental radioactivity was observed during the course of this survey and monitoring period.

  20. Use of a solar panel as a directionally sensitive large-area radiation monitor for direct and scattered x-rays and gamma-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Majid, S

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of a 25.4 X 91 cm solar cell panel used as an x-ray and gamma-ray radiation monitor are presented. Applications for monitoring the primary x-ray beam are described at different values of operating currents and voltages as well as for directional dependence of scattered radiation. Other applications in gamma-ray radiography are also given. The detector showed linear response to both x-ray and gamma-ray exposures. The equipment is rigid, easy to use, relatively inexpensive and requires no power supply or any complex electronic equipment.

  1. Comparison of radiation doses obtained for radiation monitoring of controlled areas with radiation doses obtained for personnel dosimetry in radiodiagnosis centers; Comparacion de dosis obtenidas por monitoreo en areas controladas con las obtenidas por dosimetria personal en centros de radiodiagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescano, Roberto; Caspani, Carlos [Ministerio de Salud y Medio Ambiente, Santa Fe (Argentina). Direccion General de Auditoria Medica. Radiofisica Sanitaria]|[Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe (Argentina). Faculdad de Bioquimica y Ciencias Biologicas. Escuela Superior de Sanidad

    2001-07-01

    In this paper we propose to search an indicator that shows, at an objective way, the quality of the radioprotection actions. The method is about to determine doses, measured in the work area, connecting them with the workload, and finally get the dose for the center. Them we make a comparison with the personal film dosimetry data. We discuss the final results, evaluating the radioprotection conditions in daily work. (author)

  2. Towards a novel modular architecture for CERN radiation monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Boukabache, Hamza; Ducos, Gael; Cardines, Nicola; Bellotta, Antonio; Toner, Ciarán; Perrin, Daniel; Forkel-Wirth, Doris

    2017-01-01

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) has the legal obligation to protect the public and the people working on its premises from any unjustified exposure to ionising radiation. In this context, radiation monitoring is one of the main concerns of the Radiation Protection Group. After 30 y of reliable service, the ARea CONtroller (ARCON) system is approaching the end of its lifecycle, which raises the need for new, more efficient radiation monitors with a high level of modularity to ensure better maintainability. Based on these two main principles, new detectors are currently being developed that will be capable of measuring very low dose rates down to 50 nSv h−1, whilst being able to measure radiation over an extensive range of 8 decades without any auto scaling. To reach these performances, CERN Radiation MOnitoring Electronics (CROME), the new generation of CERN radiation monitors, is based on the versatile architecture that includes new read-out electronics developed by the Instrumentation...

  3. CHARM Facility Test Area Radiation Field Description

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Specification document summarising the radiation field of the CHARM facility test area. This will act as a guide to any potential users of the facility as to what they can expect in terms of radiation, given in the form of radiation spectra information and fluence for each test position, along with general radiation maps for the test area and Montrac test location.

  4. Network-Oriented Radiation Monitoring System (NORMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmat Aryaeinejad; David F. Spencer

    2007-10-01

    We have developed a multi-functional pocket radiation monitoring system capable of detecting and storing gamma ray and neutron data and then sending the data through a wireless connection to a remote central facility upon request. The device has programmable alarm trigger levels that can be modified for specific applications. The device could be used as a stand-alone device or in conjunction with an array to cover a small or large area. The data is stored with a date/time stamp. The device may be remotely configured. Data can be transferred and viewed on a PDA via direct connection or wirelessly. Functional/bench tests have been completed successfully. The device detects low-level neutron and gamma sources within a shielded container in a radiation field of 10 uR/hr above the ambient background level.

  5. Radiation dose monitoring in the clinical routine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guberina, Nika [UK Essen (Germany). Radiology

    2017-04-15

    Here we describe the first clinical experiences regarding the use of an automated radiation dose management software to monitor the radiation dose of patients during routine examinations. Many software solutions for monitoring radiation dose have emerged in the last decade. The continuous progress in radiological techniques, new scan features, scanner generations and protocols are the primary challenge for radiation dose monitoring software systems. To simulate valid dose calculations, radiation dose monitoring systems have to follow current trends and stay constantly up-to-date. The dose management software is connected to all devices at our institute and conducts automatic data acquisition and radiation dose calculation. The system incorporates 18 virtual phantoms based on the Cristy phantom family, estimating doses in newborns to adults. Dose calculation relies on a Monte Carlo simulation engine. Our first practical experiences demonstrate that the software is capable of dose estimation in the clinical routine. Its implementation and use have some limitations that can be overcome. The software is promising and allows assessment of radiation doses, like organ and effective doses according to ICRP 60 and ICRP 103, patient radiation dose history and cumulative radiation doses. Furthermore, we are able to determine local diagnostic reference doses. The radiation dose monitoring software systems can facilitate networking between hospitals and radiological departments, thus refining radiation doses and implementing reference doses at substantially lower levels.

  6. Neutron area monitor with TLD pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman G, K. A.; Borja H, C. G.; Valero L, C.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: ing_karen_guzman@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10. Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    The response of a passive neutron area monitor with pairs of thermoluminescent dosimeters has been calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5. The response was calculated for one TLD 600 located at the center of a polyethylene cylinder, as moderator. When neutrons collide with the moderator lose their energy reaching the TLD with thermal energies where the ambient dose equivalent is calculated. The response was calculated for 47 monoenergetic neutron sources ranging from 1E(-9) to 20 MeV. Response was calculated using two irradiation geometries, one with an upper source and another with a lateral source. For both irradiation schemes the response was calculated with the TLDs in two positions, one parallel to the source and another perpendicular to the source. The advantage of this passive neutron monitor area is that can be used in locations with intense, pulsed and mixed radiation fields. (Author)

  7. Passive neutron area monitor with TLD pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman G, K. A.; Borja H, C. G.; Valero L, C.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    The response of a passive neutron area monitor with pairs of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) has been calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5. The response was calculated for one TLD 600 located at the center of a polyethylene moderator. The response was calculated for 47 monoenergetic neutron sources ranging from 1E(-9) to 20 MeV. Response was calculated using two irradiation geometries, one with an upper source and another with a lateral source. For both irradiation schemes the response was calculated with the TLD in two positions, one parallel to the source and another perpendicular to the source. The advantage of this passive neutron monitor area is that can be used in locations with intense, pulsed and mixed radiation fields like those in radiotherapy vault rooms with linear accelerators. (Author)

  8. Biological monitoring of radiation using indicator plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyoo; Chun, Ki Jung; Kim, Kook Chan; Kim, In Kyoo; Song, Heui Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Some clones of Tradescantia had dose response relationship involving somatic mutations such as appearance of pink, colorless or giant cell, and/or loss of reproductive integrity of stamen hair cells when exposed to radiation. Since Tradescantia could respond to radiation level as low as human being could be exposed to, it could play an important role as scientific tool of botanical tester for radiation. Especially TSH system can be easily applied to in situ monitoring of radiation by virtue of its excellent radiation indicator ship and simpleness in detection of mutations by radiation. 10 figs, 6 tabs, 19 refs. (Author).

  9. Wide area continuous offender monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshen, J. [Lucent Technologies (United States); Drake, G. [New Mexico Dept. of Corrections, Santa Fe, NM (United States); Spencer, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The corrections system in the U.S. is supervising over five million offenders. This number is rising fast and so are the direct and indirect costs to society. To improve supervision and reduce the cost of parole and probation, first generation home arrest systems were introduced in 1987. While these systems proved to be helpful to the corrections system, their scope is rather limited because they only cover an offender at a single location and provide only a partial time coverage. To correct the limitations of first-generation systems, second-generation wide area continuous electronic offender monitoring systems, designed to monitor the offender at all times and locations, are now on the drawing board. These systems use radio frequency location technology to track the position of offenders. The challenge for this technology is the development of reliable personal locator devices that are small, lightweight, with long operational battery life, and indoors/outdoors accuracy of 100 meters or less. At the center of a second-generation system is a database that specifies the offender`s home, workplace, commute, and time the offender should be found in each. The database could also define areas from which the offender is excluded. To test compliance, the system would compare the observed coordinates of the offender with the stored location for a given time interval. Database logfiles will also enable law enforcement to determine if a monitored offender was present at a crime scene and thus include or exclude the offender as a potential suspect.

  10. Novel Silicon Devices for Radiation Therapy Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruzzi, Mara, E-mail: mara.bruzzi@unifi.it

    2016-02-11

    Modern radiotherapy techniques pose specific constraints in radiation-monitoring and dosimetry due to the occurrence of small radiation fields with high dose gradients, variation in space and time of the dose rate, variation in space and time of the beam energy spectrum. Novel devices coping with these strict conditions are needed. This paper reviews the most advanced technologies developed with silicon-based materials for clinical radiotherapy. Novel Si diodes as Pt-doped Si, epitaxial Si as well as thin devices have optimized performance, their response being independent of the accumulated dose, thus ensuring radiation tolerance and no need of recalibration. Monolithic devices based on segmented Si detectors can be easily tailored to optimize spatial resolution in the large active areas required in clinical radiotherapy. In particular, a monolithic device based on epitaxial p-type silicon, characterized by high spatial resolution and ability to directly measure temporal variations in dose modulation proved to be best viable solution for pre-treatment verifications in IMRT fields.

  11. The development of remote wireless radiation dose monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin-woo [KAERI - Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongup-si (Korea, Republic of); Chonbuk National University, Jeonjoo-Si (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Kyu-hwan [KINS - Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon-Si (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-il [Chonbuk National University, Jeonjoo-Si (Korea, Republic of); Im, Chae-wan [REMTECH, Seoul-Si (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    Internet of things (IoT) technology has recently shown a large flow of IT trends in human life. In particular, our lives are now becoming integrated with a lot of items around the 'smart-phone' with IoT, including Bluetooth, Near Field Communication (NFC), Beacons, WiFi, and Global Positioning System (GPS). Our project focuses on the interconnection of radiation dosimetry and IoT technology. The radiation workers at a nuclear facility should hold personal dosimeters such as a Thermo-Luminescence Dosimeter (TLD), an Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dosimeter (OSL), pocket ionization chamber dosimeters, an Electronic Personal Dosimeter (EPD), or an alarm dosimeter on their body. Some of them have functions that generate audible or visible alarms to radiation workers in a real working area. However, such devices used in radiation fields these days have no functions for communicating with other areas or the responsible personnel in real time. In particular, when conducting a particular task in a high dose area, or a number of repair works within a radiation field, radiation dose monitoring is important for the health of the workers and the work efficiency. Our project aims at the development of a remote wireless radiation dose monitoring system (RWRD) that can be used to monitor the radiation dose in a nuclear facility for radiation workers and a radiation protection program In this project, a radiation dosimeter is the detection device for personal radiation dose, a smart phone is the mobile wireless communication tool, and, Beacon is the wireless starter for the detection, communication, and position of the worker using BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy). In this report, we report the design of the RWRD and a demonstration case in a real radiation field. (authors)

  12. Technical Basis Document for PFP Area Monitoring Dosimetry Program

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, J R

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the phantom dosimetry used for the PFP Area Monitoring program and establishes the basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP) area monitoring dosimetry program in accordance with the following requirements: Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 835, ''Occupational Radiation Protection'' Part 835.403; Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual (HSRCM-1), Part 514; HNF-PRO-382, Area Dosimetry Program; and PNL-MA-842, Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual.

  13. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Young Ho

    2000-02-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor are the follows: The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost some level compared with the past years. Gross {alpha}, {beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water sample were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul Research Reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by {gamma}-spectrometry. (author)

  14. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Young Ho; Lee, M.H. [and others

    1999-02-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul research reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul research reactor are the follows : The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with the past years. Gross {alpha}, {beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul research reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by {gamma}-spectrometry. (author). 3 refs., 50 tabs., 12 figs.

  15. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Chang Woo; Joo, Young Hyun [and others

    2005-04-01

    Environmental Radiation Monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment. radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor are the follows : The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with the past years. Gross {alpha} ,{beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul Research Reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by {gamma}-spectrometry.

  16. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Young Ho; Lee, M.H. [and others

    1999-02-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul research reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul research reactor are the follows : The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with the past years. Gross {alpha}, {beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul research reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by {gamma}-spectrometry. (author). 3 refs., 50 tabs., 12 figs.

  17. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Geun Sik and others

    2001-02-01

    Environmental Radiation Monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment. Radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor are the follows : The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with the past years. Gross {alpha}, {beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul Research Reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by {gamma}-spectrometry.

  18. Automated System of Area Radiation Measurement (ASARM); Sistema Automatizado de Medicion de Radiacion de Area (SAMRA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez G, J., E-mail: jaime.hernandez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The realized activities in nuclear facilities involve the determination of the presence of ionizing radiation fields in the workspaces. The instruments designed to detect and to measure these radiation fields provide useful information (specific type of radiation, intensity, etc.) to take the appropriate radiological protection measures, with the purpose of reducing to the minimum the workers exposition and the people in general. The radiological protection program of Reactor TRIGA Mark III contains the instructions and procedures to implement a periodic radiological monitoring, surveillance, rising of contamination levels, type and number of the instruments required for the radiological monitoring of areas and personal. The ana logical monitoring system model Rms II used to detect and measuring exposition speed and neutron radiation fields in several areas of the installation, provides the information in a logarithmic scale measurer of 4 or 5 decades located in a shelf where the previously mentioned measurement channels are centralized. Also inside the reactor monitoring system are two monitors of radioactive material concentration in the air: The particles continuous monitor and the gaseous effluents monitor which present the referred information of the diverse detectors through ana logical readers. These monitors when operating with an ana logical indication does not present the possibility to generate historical files electronically of each monitor previously mentioned neither to generate visual and audible indications of the alarms. This work presents the Automated System of Area Radiation Measurement which potentiated the functionality of the area monitors for gamma and neutron radiation, as well as of the particles continuous monitor and the gaseous effluents of reactor TRIGA Mark III, when being developed a computer system that captures in real time the information of all the monitors, generating this way an electronic binnacle, a visual and audible alarm

  19. The Juno Radiation Monitoring (RM) Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, H. N.; Alexander, J. W.; Adriani, A.

    2017-01-01

    The Radiation Monitoring Investigation of the Juno Mission will actively retrieve and analyze the noise signatures from penetrating radiation in the images of Juno’s star cameras and science instruments at Jupiter. The investigation’s objective is to profile Jupiter’s > 10-MeV electron environmen...

  20. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Monitoring Manual Volume 2, Radiation Monitoring and Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Aerial Measurement Systems

    2012-07-31

    The FRMAC Monitoring and Sampling Manual, Volume 2 provides standard operating procedures (SOPs) for field radiation monitoring and sample collection activities that are performed by the Monitoring group during a FRMAC response to a radiological emergency.

  1. Evaluation of area monitor response for neutrons in radiation field generated by a 15 MV clinic accelerator; Avaliacao da resposta dos monitores de area para neutrons em campo de radiacao gerado por um acelerador clinico de 15 MV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, Ana Paula

    2011-07-01

    The clinical importance and usage of linear accelerators in cancer treatment increased significantly in the last years. Coupled with this growth came the concern about the use of accelerators with energies over to 10 MeV which produce therapeutic beam contaminated with neutrons generated when high-energy photons interact with high-atomic-number materials such as tungsten and lead present in the accelerator itself. At these facilities, measurements of the ambient dose equivalent for neutrons present difficulties owing to the existence of a mixed radiation field and possible electromagnetic interference near the accelerator. The Neutron Laboratory of the IRD - Brazilian Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry, aiming to evaluate the survey meters performance at these facilities, initiated studies of instrumentation response in the presence of different neutron spectra. Neutrons sources with average energies ranging from 0.55 to 4.2 MeV, four different survey meters and one ionization chamber to obtain the ratio between the dose due to neutrons and gamma radiation were used in this work. The evaluation of these measurements, performed in a 15 MV linear accelerator room is presented. This work presents results that demonstrate the complexity and care needed to make neutrons measurements in radiotherapy treatment rooms containing high energy clinical accelerators. (author)

  2. CVD Diamonds in the BaBar Radiation Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Bruinsma, M; Edwards, A J; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Kirkby, D; Petersen, B A

    2006-01-01

    To prevent excessive radiation damage to its Silicon Vertex Tracker, the BaBar experiment at SLAC uses a radiation monitoring and protection system that triggers a beam abort whenever radiation levels are anomalously high. The existing system, which employs large area Si PIN diodes as radiation sensors, has become increasingly difficult to operate due to radiation damage. We have studied CVD diamond sensors as a potential alternative for these silicon sensors. Two diamond sensors have been routinely used since their installation in the Vertex Tracker in August 2002. The experience with these sensors and a variety of tests in the laboratory have shown CVD diamonds to be a viable solution for dosimetry in high radiation environments. However, our studies have also revealed surprising side-effects.

  3. Real Time Wide Area Radiation Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biafore, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). Within this project, we propose a novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance. The system is based on the integration of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit will include a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station which also uses a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system will also incorporate middleware and high level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information, and that will offer top level functionalities as management of users, mobile tags and environment data and alarms, database storage and management and a web-based graphical user interface. Effort will be spent to ensure that the software is modular and re-usable across as many architectural levels as possible. Finally, an expert system will continuously analyze the information from the radiation sensor and correlate it with historical data from the tag location in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. The system will be useful for many different scenarios, including such lost radioactive sources and radioactive contamination. It will be possible to deploy in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment. The sensing units will be highly portable thanks to their low size and low energy consumption. The complete system will be scalable in terms of complexity and cost and will offer very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system will allow for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a

  4. Radiation Monitoring System of 30 MeV Cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Woo; Hur, Min-Goo; Jeong, Gyosung; Kim, Jongil

    2017-09-01

    A state-of-the-art radiation monitoring system was implemented at KAERI for a 30-MeV cyclotron. This system consists of several types of radiation measuring systems for ambient dose equivalent rate measurements of outside photon and neutron areas as well as inside the cyclotron, and monitors the alpha and beta particulates released from a stack, as well as the results of worker contamination at the portal of the cyclotron. In addition, an automatic alarm system is also mounted if there are alarms in the measuring systems.

  5. Radiation safety assessment and development of environmental radiation monitoring technology

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, B H; Kim, S G

    2002-01-01

    The Periodic Safety Review(PSR) of the existing nuclear power plants is required every ten years according to the recently revised atomic energy acts. The PSR of Kori unit 1 and Wolsong unit 1 that have been operating more than ten years is ongoing to comply the regulations. This research project started to develop the techniques necessary for the PSR. The project developed the following four techniques at the first stage for the environmental assessment of the existing plants. 1) Establishment of the assessment technology for contamination and accumulation trends of radionuclides, 2) alarm point setting of environmental radiation monitoring system, 3) Development of Radiation Safety Evaluation Factor for Korean NPP, and 4) the evaluation of radiation monitoring system performance and set-up of alarm/warn set point. A dynamic compartment model to derive a relationship between the release rates of gas phase radionuclides and the concentrations in the environmental samples. The model was validated by comparing ...

  6. Chernobyl accident. [Radiation monitoring in UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1986-07-01

    A brief report is given of the implications for the UK from the radioactivity released during the Chernobyl accident. Results of radio-activity monitoring around the UK are given and the additional radiation doses to the UK population are evaluated.

  7. Review of Emittance and Stability Monitoring Using Synchrotron Radiation Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Holldack, K; Peatman, W B

    2001-01-01

    Different techniques of emittance and stability monitoring using bend magnet and undulator radiation will be reviewed. Besides imaging methods for emittance monitoring , the problem of XBPM's used for the measurement of the centre of mass position of the undulator beams will be treated in detail. The key feature of these monitors is a careful electron optical design to take account of gap dependent changes of the shape and photon energy of the undulator beam as well as spurious signals from dipoles and high heat load. The reason for the fact that these monitors work well on low energy machines like BESSY II but often fail due in high energy machines will be demonstrated by experimental results obtained on different types of BESSY II insertion devices such as undulators, wavelength shifters, multipole wigglers and electromagnetic undulators. Experimental results of global and local orbit monitoring and a proof of principle of a XBPM-based local feedback will be shown.

  8. Radiation-dominated area metric cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Schuller, Frederic P

    2007-01-01

    We provide further crucial support for a refined, area metric structure of spacetime. Based on the solution of conceptual issues, such as the consistent coupling of fermions and the covariant identification of radiation fields on area metric backgrounds, we show that the radiation-dominated epoch of area metric cosmology is equivalent to that epoch in standard Einstein cosmology. This ensures, in particular, successful nucleosynthesis. This surprising result complements the previously derived prediction of a small late-time acceleration of an area metric universe.

  9. Environmental Radiation Monitoring Around the Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Chang Woo

    2008-05-15

    Environmental Radiation Monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment. radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis on the sites of KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactors and their environments. The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by an ERM and the accumulated radiation dose by a TLD were almost same level compared with the previous years. The activity of gross {alpha} and gross {beta}, Tritium, Uraniu and Strontium in environmental samples showed a environmental level. The radioactivities of most {gamma}-radionuclides in air particulate, surface water and ground water were less than MDA except {sup 40}K or {sup 7}Be which are natural radionuclides. However, not only {sup 40}K or {sup 7}Be but also {sup 137}Cs were detected at the background level in surface soil, discharge sediment and fallout or pine needle.

  10. Robust Satellite Techniques for monitoring earth emitted radiation in the Japanese seismic area by using MTSAT observations in the TIR spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzano, Nicola; Filizzola, Carolina; Hattori, Katsumi; Lisi, Mariano; Paciello, Rossana; Pergola, Nicola; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2016-04-01

    Since eighties, the fluctuations of Earth's thermally emitted radiation, measured by satellite sensors operating in the thermal infrared (TIR) spectral range, have been associated with the complex process of preparation for major earthquakes. But, like other claimed earthquake precursors (seismological, physical, chemical, biological, etc.) they have been for long-time considered with some caution by scientific community. The lack of a rigorous definition of anomalous TIR signal fluctuations and the scarce attention paid to the possibility that other causes (e.g. meteorological) different from seismic activity could be responsible for the observed TIR variations were the main causes of such skepticism. Compared with previously proposed approaches the general change detection approach, named Robust Satellite Techniques (RST), showed good ability to discriminate anomalous TIR signals possibly associated to seismic activity, from the normal variability of TIR signal due to other causes. Thanks to its full exportability on different satellite packages, since 2001 RST has been implemented on TIR images acquired by polar (e.g. NOAA-AVHRR, EOS -MODIS) and geostationary (e.g. MSG-SEVIRI, NOAA-GOES/W, GMS-5/VISSR) satellite sensors, in order to verify the presence (or absence) of TIR anomalies in presence (absence) of earthquakes (with M>4) in different seismogenic areas around the world (e.g. Italy, Greece, Turkey, India, Taiwan, etc.). In this paper, the RST data analysis approach has been implemented on TIR satellite records collected over Japan by the geostationary satellite sensor MTSAT (Multifunctional Transport SATellites) and RETIRA (Robust Estimator of TIR Anomalies) index was used to identify Significant Sequences of TIR Anomalies (SSTAs) in a possible space-time relations with seismic events. Achieved results will be discussed in the perspective of a multi-parametric approach for a time-Dependent Assessment of Seismic Hazard (t-DASH).

  11. Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerke, H. (ed.) (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, NRPA (Norway)); Sigurdsson, T. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Geislavarnir Rikisins, GR (IS)); Meier Pedersen, K. (National Board of Health, Statens Institut for Straalebeskyttelse (SIS) (Denmark)); Grindborg, J.-E.; Persson, L. (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Straalsaekerhetsmyndigheten (SSM) (Sweden)); Siiskonen, T.; Hakanen, A.; Kosunen, A. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Saeteilyturvakeskus (STUK) (Finland))

    2012-01-15

    The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

  12. ESA Next Generation Radiation Monitor- NGRM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desorgher, Laurent

    Precise monitoring of the highly dynamic space radiation environment around Earth is crucial for spacecraft safety, as support of radiation belt models, solar particle flux models, and space radiation effects tools. The ESA sponsored SREM is measuring the Earth's radiation belts, solar particle flux, and cosmic ray background more than one decade onboard six different spacecrafts. Recently the development of the follower of SREM, the Next Generation Radiation Monitor (NGRM), has been started within an european consortium led by RUAG space, together with Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), ONERA, EREMS, and IDEAS. NGRM will measure protons from 2 MeV up to 200 MeV, electrons from 100 keV up to 7MeV, as well as LET spectrum of ions. Compared to SREM, NGRM will provide a much better energy resolution, will be smaller (<1L), lighter (<1kg) and consume less energy (<1W). In this paper we describe the design of the instrument, and present calibration tests and Monte Carlo analysis of the instrument.

  13. 2002 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. E. Townsend

    2003-06-01

    Environmental, subsidence, and meteorological monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)(refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater,meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada (BN) reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorological data indicate that 2002 was a dry year: rainfall totaled 26 mm (1.0 in) at the Area 3 RWMS and 38 mm (1.5 in) at the Area 5 RWMS. Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2002 rainfall infiltrated less than 30 cm (1 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. Special investigations conducted in 2002 included: a comparison between waste cover water contents measured by neutron probe and coring; and a comparison of four methods for measuring radon concentrations in air. All 2002 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing within expectations of the model and parameter assumptions for the facility Performance Assessments (PAs).

  14. Onion skin as a radiation monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Marc F.; McLaughlin, William L.

    The ESR spectra of the dry, outer skin of onion, red onion, garlic, and shallot were measured before and after irradiation. In all spectra only a single resonance (g = 2.00) was observed. The ESR signal intensity increased with absorbed dose, however, the radiation-induced signal decayed slowly with time. It was concluded that the outer skin of these foods are not suitable as a long-term postirradiation monitor.

  15. Real Time Radiation Monitoring Using Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing (Inventor); Wilkins, Richard T. (Inventor); Hanratty, James J. (Inventor); Lu, Yijiang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    System and method for monitoring receipt and estimating flux value, in real time, of incident radiation, using two or more nanostructures (NSs) and associated terminals to provide closed electrical paths and to measure one or more electrical property change values .DELTA.EPV, associated with irradiated NSs, during a sequence of irradiation time intervals. Effects of irradiation, without healing and with healing, of the NSs, are separately modeled for first order and second order healing. Change values.DELTA.EPV are related to flux, to cumulative dose received by NSs, and to radiation and healing effectivity parameters and/or.mu., associated with the NS material and to the flux. Flux and/or dose are estimated in real time, based on EPV change values, using measured .DELTA.EPV values. Threshold dose for specified changes of biological origin (usually undesired) can be estimated. Effects of time-dependent radiation flux are analyzed in pre-healing and healing regimes.

  16. Radiation-Triggered Surveillance for UF6 Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Michael M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This paper recommends the use of radiation detectors, singly or in sets, to trigger surveillance cameras. Ideally, the cameras will monitor cylinders transiting the process area as well as the process area itself. The general process area will be surveyed to record how many cylinders have been attached and detached to the process between inspections. Rad-triggered cameras can dramatically reduce the quantity of recorded images, because the movement of personnel and equipment not involving UF6 cylinders will not generate a surveillance review file.

  17. Response of a neutron monitor area with TLDs pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman G, K. A.; Borja H, C. G.; Valero L, C.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Gallego, E.; Lorente, A., E-mail: ing_karen_guzman@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    The response of a passive neutron monitor area has been calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5. The response was the amount of n({sup 6}Li, T){alpha} reactions occurring in a TLD-600 located at the center of a cylindrical polyethylene moderator. Fluence, (n, a) and H*(10) responses were calculated for 47 monoenergetic neutron sources. The H*(10) relative response was compared with responses of commercially available neutron monitors being alike. Due to {sup 6}Li cross section (n, {alpha}) reactions are mainly produced by thermal neutrons, however TLD-600 is sensitive to gamma-rays; to eliminate the signal due to photons monitor area was built to hold 2 pairs of TLD-600 and 2 pairs of TLD-700, thus from the difference between TLD-600 and TLD-700 readouts the net signal due to neutrons is obtained. The monitor area was calibrated at the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid using a {sup 241}AmBe neutron source; net TLD readout was compared with the H*(10) measured with a Bert hold Lb-6411. Performance of the neutron monitor area was determined through two independent experiments, in both cases the H*(10) was statistically equal to H*(10) measured with a Bert hold Lb-6411. Neutron monitor area with TLDs pairs can be used in working areas with intense, mixed and pulsed radiation fields. (Author)

  18. Monitoring System for ALICE Surface Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Demirbasci, Oguz

    2016-01-01

    I have been at CERN for 12 weeks within the scope of Summer Student Programme working on a monitoring system project for surface areas of the ALICE experiment during this period of time. The development and implementation of a monitoring system for environmental parameters in the accessible areas where a cheap hardware setup can be deployed were aim of this project. This report explains how it was developed by using Arduino, Raspberry PI, WinCC OA and DIM protocol.

  19. The environmental radiation monitoring system in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Salas Collantes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The system of environmental radiation monitoring established in Spain is composed of several networks with different objectives, a monitoring network in the vicinity of the facilities and several national networks financed and managed by public agencies. The operators of the facilities are responsible for the conduct of its Environmental Radiological Surveillance Program as directed by the CSN. Moreover, the Directorate General of Civil Defense and Emergencies has a Radioactivity Warning Network (RAR consisting of over 900 automatic stations measuring dose rate distributed nationwide. The Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring Network (Revira, managed by the CSN, is a nationwide network, consists of a Network of Sampling Stations (REM and a Network of Automatic Stations for continuous monitoring (REA. The autonomous communities of Valencia, Catalonia, Extremadura and the Basque Country have their own automated networks similar to that of the CSN. Revira provides information on the radioactivity in the air, soil, water (drinking, inland and sea and of food. The sampling and analysis programs are tailored to radiological recommendations laid down in the European Union Commission. The REM has the collaboration of laboratories in universities and the Centre for Energy, Environmental and Technological Research (CIEMAT for execution. The monitoring of inland and coastal waters is undertaken by the Centre for Studies and Experimentation of Public Works, Ministry of Public Works (CEDEX.

  20. The LISA Pathfinder DMU and Radiation Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canizares, P.; Chmeissani, M.; Conchillo, A.; Diaz–Aguiló, M.; García-Berro, E.; Gesa, L.; Gibert, F.; Grimani, C.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Mateos, I.; Nofrarias, M.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Sanjuán, J.; Sopuerta, Carlos F.; Araújo, H. M.; Wass, P.

    2011-05-01

    The LISA Pathfinder DMU (Data Management Unit) flight model was formally accepted by ESA and ASD on 11 February 2010, after all hardware and software tests had been successfully completed. The diagnostics items are scheduled to be delivered by the end of 2010. In this paper, we review the requirements and performance of this instrumentation, specially focusing on the Radiation Monitor and the DMU, as well as the status of their programmed use during mission operations, on which work is ongoing at the time of writing.

  1. The LISA Pathfinder DMU and Radiation Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canizares, P; Conchillo, A; Gesa, L; Lloro, I; Lobo, A; Mateos, I; Sopuerta, Carlos F [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai, CSIC, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5 parell, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Chmeissani, M [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies (IFAE), Edifici CN, UAB Campus, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Diaz-Aguilo, M; GarcIa-Berro, E; Gibert, F [Institut d' Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), Edifici Nexus, Gran Capita 2-4, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Grimani, C [Universita degli Studi di Urbino, MFI Department, Via Santa Chiara 27, 61029 Urbino, and INFN Florence (Italy); Nofrarias, M [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Callinstrasse 38, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Ramos-Castro, J [Departament d' Enginyeria Electronica, UPC, Campus Nord, Edifici C4, Jordi Girona 1-3, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Sanjuan, J [Department of Physics, University of Florida, NPB-22258 PO Box 118 440, Gainesville, FL 32611-8440 (United States); Araujo, H M; Wass, P, E-mail: lobo@ieec.fcr.es [High Energy Physics Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-07

    The LISA Pathfinder DMU (Data Management Unit) flight model was formally accepted by ESA and ASD on 11 February 2010, after all hardware and software tests had been successfully completed. The diagnostics items are scheduled to be delivered by the end of 2010. In this paper, we review the requirements and performance of this instrumentation, specially focusing on the Radiation Monitor and the DMU, as well as the status of their programmed use during mission operations, on which work is ongoing at the time of writing.

  2. Cryogenic semiconductor high-intensity radiation monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Palmieri, V G; Borer, K; Casagrande, L; Da Vià, C; Devine, S R H; Dezillie, B; Esposito, A; Granata, V; Hauler, F; Jungermann, L; Li, Z; Lourenço, C; Niinikoski, T O; O'Shea, V

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a novel technique to monitor high-intensity particle beams by means of a semiconductor detector. It consists of cooling a semiconductor detector down to cryogenic temperature to suppress the thermally generated leakage current and to precisely measure the integrated ionization signal. It will be shown that such a device provides very good linearity and a dynamic range wider than is possible with existing techniques. Moreover, thanks to the Lazarus effect, extreme radiation hardness can be achieved providing in turn absolute intensity measurements against precise calibration of the device at low beam flux.

  3. SOME RESULTS OF THE THIRD COMPLEX MULTIDISCIPLINARY EXPEDITION OF THE RUSSIAN GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY FOR MONITORING OF THE RADIATION SITUATION IN THE KURIL-KAMCHATKA AREA OF THE PACIFIC OCEAN, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Biblin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Third complex multidisciplinary expedition of the Russian Geographic Society for monitoring of the radiation situation in the Kuril-Kamchatka area of the Pacific Oceantook place in September – October 2014. The purposes of the expedition were monitoring of the radiation situation and assessment of the impact of the accident at the nuclear power plant “Fukushima-1”on radioactive contamination of the marine environment near the Russian coasts. This paper presents results on the activity measurements of the cesium and strontium radionuclides in the hydrobionts collected during the expedition in the Seas of Japan and Okhotsk. Nine samples of the sea hydrobionts including one species of invertebrates and four species of fish have been analysed. Determination of activity concentrations of radionuclides of cesium (separately 134Cs and 137Cs were carried out by the gammaspectrometry method using a high-resolution semiconductor detector. Activity concentrations of 90Sr were quantified with a radiochemical method. The activity concentrations of 90Sr and the total activity concentrations of both cesium radioisotopes for all the samples analyzed did not exceed 1 Bq kg–1 (wet weight. This value is much lower than the safe levels of 130 Bq kg–1 (radiocesium and 100 Bq kg–1 (radiostrontium for the fish consumption inRussia. The study demonstrates that theFukushima accident has no considerable impact on radioactive contamination of the selected species of hydrobiota in Russian waters of theJapanSea andOkhotskSea.

  4. 2016 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) within the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data include direct radiation exposure, as well as radiation from the air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2016 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports, developed by National Security Technologies, LLC Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show that tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. During 2016, precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS was 8% below average, and precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS was 8% above average. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than evaporation as measured from the bare-soil weighing lysimeter. Vadose zone monitoring on Area 5 and Area 3 RWMS cell covers shows no evidence of precipitation percolating through the covers

  5. Area monitor for neutrons with thin sheet of Au; Monitor de area para neutrones con laminilla de Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero L, C.; Guzman G, K. A.; Banuelos F, A.; Borja H, C. G.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Gallego, E.; Lorente, A., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    A passive area monitor for neutrons with an activation detector was designed and constructed to be used in sites where the radiation field is mixed, intense and pulsed, like happens in the radiotherapy rooms that use lineal accelerators of medical use or in enclosures with cyclotrons for PET, or where the field is mixed and intense as in the nuclear power plants. This equipment is useful for the exposition cases of the patients or workers that receive not counted radiation dose, generating harmful effects to the health, for what is necessary to take the pertinent measures for the radiological protection. The design of the area monitor was realized using the MCNP5 code, where was considered an activation detector and therefore thin sheets of Au-197 located in the moderator center were used. The moderator was designed as a polyethylene cylindrical to moderate the neutrons. The gold was used like detector for its high cross section and its physical and chemical characteristics. The response of the monitor is maxim for energies from 1 to 20 MeV, region where the flowing coefficients and dose are majors. Therefore, the designed and constructed monitor can be used in sites with high, mixed and pulsed radiation fields. (Author)

  6. Monitoring radiation use in cardiac fluoroscopy imaging procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Nathaniel T.; Steiner, Stefan H.; Smith, Ian R.; MacKay, R. Jock [Department of Statistics and Actuarial Sciences, Business and Industrial Statistics Research Group, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); St. Andrew' s Medical Institute, St. Andrew' s War Memorial Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland 4000 (Australia); Department of Statistics and Actuarial Sciences, Business and Industrial Statistics Research Group, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: Timely identification of systematic changes in radiation delivery of an imaging system can lead to a reduction in risk for the patients involved. However, existing quality assurance programs involving the routine testing of equipment performance using phantoms are limited in their ability to effectively carry out this task. To address this issue, the authors propose the implementation of an ongoing monitoring process that utilizes procedural data to identify unexpected large or small radiation exposures for individual patients, as well as to detect persistent changes in the radiation output of imaging platforms. Methods: Data used in this study were obtained from records routinely collected during procedures performed in the cardiac catheterization imaging facility at St. Andrew's War Memorial Hospital, Brisbane, Australia, over the period January 2008-March 2010. A two stage monitoring process employing individual and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts was developed and used to identify unexpectedly high or low radiation exposure levels for individual patients, as well as detect persistent changes in the radiation output delivered by the imaging systems. To increase sensitivity of the charts, we account for variation in dose area product (DAP) values due to other measured factors (patient weight, fluoroscopy time, and digital acquisition frame count) using multiple linear regression. Control charts are then constructed using the residual values from this linear regression. The proposed monitoring process was evaluated using simulation to model the performance of the process under known conditions. Results: Retrospective application of this technique to actual clinical data identified a number of cases in which the DAP result could be considered unexpected. Most of these, upon review, were attributed to data entry errors. The charts monitoring the overall system radiation output trends demonstrated changes in equipment

  7. RadNet (Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet, formerly Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS), is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air, precipitation,...

  8. Influence of the exposure time in the area monitors at radiodiagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyton, Fernando, E-mail: leyton.fernando@gmail.com [Faculty of Health and Odontology, Diego Portales University, Santiago, Chile and Study Center in Radiological Sciences (CECRAD), Tarapaca University, Arica (Chile); Navarro, Marcus; Macedo, Eric; Navarro, Valeria; Garcia, Igor; Pereira, Lara [Instituto Federal da Bahia (LABPROSAUD/IFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Laboratorio de Produtos para a Saude; Ferreira, Mario [Universidade do Estado da Bahia (UNEB), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Area monitoring ensures radiation exposure at an acceptable level, which must be lower than the legal limit. Experimental measurements were taken in a ionizing radiation calibration laboratory. The specified reference radiation to radiation protection N80 was used. Five area monitors were used. The ranges of dose rate inaccuracy measured in rate mode for times ≤ 2 and ≥ 3 s were from 10 to 48 % and from 1 to 15 %, respectively. The inaccuracy ranges measured in integrated mode for times ≤ 2 and ≥ 3 s were from 4 to 8 % and from 0 to 22 %, respectively. (author)

  9. Status of radiation detector and neutron monitor technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y K; Ha, J H; Han, S H; Hong, S B; Hwang, I K; Lee, W G; Moon, B S; Park, S H; Song, M H

    2002-01-01

    In this report, we describe the current states of the radiation detection technology, detectors for industrial application, and neutron monitors. We also survey the new technologies being applied to this field. The method to detect radiation is the measurement of the observable secondary effect from the interaction between incident radiation and detector material, such as ionization, excitation, fluorescence, and chemical reaction. The radiation detectors can be categorized into gas detectors, scintillation detectors, and semiconductor detectors according to major effects and main applications. This report contains the current status and operational principles of these detectors. The application fields of radiation detectors are industrial measurement system, in-core neutron monitor, medical radiation diagnostic device, nondestructive inspection device, environmental radiation monitoring, cosmic-ray measurement, security system, fundamental science experiment, and radiation measurement standardization. The st...

  10. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daegu area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, H. D.; Lee, S. Y. [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-15

    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal radiation level in Taegu and Kyungpook region, and to enhance our ability to prepare for the radiological emergency situation by establishing the radioactivity monitoring system in Taegu and Kyungpook region. Gross beta activities were measured and gamma radionuclides were analysed for the environmental samples of air-borned dust. precipitation. fallout and drinking water collected in Taegu radioactivity monitoring center. and gamma exposure rates were also measured. To establish the basic data base on the environmental radioactivity, gamma radionuclide analyses were carried out for the samples of soil, drinking water, grain, vegetable, milk, and fish which were obtained from 31 different areas, and the spatial gamma exposure rates from 61 different points were also measured in Taegu and Kyungpook region. In conclusion, it didn't appear any evidence for newly pollution of artificial radioactivity in Taegu and Kyungpook region.

  11. EICT Based Diagnostic Tool and Monitoring System for EMF Radiation to Sustain Environmental Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Parandham

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available the adverse effects of electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and communication towers on health issues are being well documented today. However, exact correlation between radiation of communication towers and their radiation levels, are not monitored. Aim of this paper is to study, analyze, apply networking and data mining technologies to develop an EICT based Diagnostic tool and Monitoring system for electromagnetic radiation levels into environment. This system is to network all mobile towers of each service provider as a single entity and then connect all service providers to a central monitoring agency online for continuous monitoring. Since very large numbers of mobile towers exist in India, each state can have its own regional network which is further networked with national central network. This can be enlarged to entire world for monitoring the EMF radiation levels near every mobile tower. For these regional national and international networks the connectivity is to be instituted by the respective service provider. In this paper an attempt is made to logically apply Data Mining and networking technologies to develop a central EICT based diagnostic tool and monitoring system for EMF radiation from each transmission tower. With this system regional, national and international agencies/authorities can monitor the EMF radiation at each and every transmission tower area continuously and verify them with exposure standards. It is proposed to display this information using Integrated Display System in front of monitoring authority at appropriate levels.

  12. Environmental radiation monitoring from the decommission of TRIGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Chang Woo

    2000-03-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring was carried out with measurement of environmental radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around TRIGA Research Reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around TRIGA Research Reactor are the follows: The average level of environmental radiation measured by potable ERM and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with thepast years. Gross {beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. but only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. (author)

  13. Nevada Test Site 2008 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-06-23

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2008 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities.

  14. Nevada Test Site 2001 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data, subsidence monitoring data, and meteorology monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada (BN) reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 2001 was an average rainfall year: rainfall totaled 150 mm (5.9 in) at the Area 3 RWMS and 120 mm (4.7 in) at the Area 5 RWMS. Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2001 rainfall infiltrated less than one meter (3 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. All 2001 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing within expectations of the model and parameter assumptions for the facility performance assessments.

  15. Neutron area monitor with passive detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero L, C.; Guzman G, K. A.; Borja H, C. G.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    Using Monte Carlo method the responses of a passive neutron monitor area has been calculated. To detect thermal neutrons the monitor has a gold foil that is located at the center of a polyethylene cylinder. Impinging neutrons are moderated by polyethylene nuclei reaching the gold foil with the energy to induce activation through the reaction {sup 197}Au(n, {gamma}) {sup 198}Au. The {sup 198}Au decays emitting 0.411 MeV gamma rays with a half life of 2.7 days. The induced activity is intended to be measured with a gamma-ray spectrometer with a 3'' {phi} x 3'' NaI(Tl) scintillator and the saturation activity is correlated to the ambient dose equivalent. The response was calculated for 47 monoenergetic neutron sources ranging from 1 x 10{sup -9} to 20 MeV. Calculated fluence response was compared with the response of neutron monitor area LB 6411. (Author)

  16. Wide-area continuous offender monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshen, Joseph; Drake, George; Spencer, Debra D.

    1997-02-01

    The corrections system in the U.S. is supervising over five million offenders. This number is rising fast and so are the direct and indirect costs to society. To improve supervision and reduce the cost of parole and probation, first generation home arrest systems were introduced in 1987. While these systems proved to be helpful to the corrections system, their scope is rather limited because they only cover an offender at a single location and provide only a partial time coverage. To correct the limitations of first- generation systems, second-generation wide area continuous electronic offender monitoring systems, designed to monitor the offender at all times and locations, are now on the drawing board. These systems use radio frequency location technology to track the position of offenders. The challenge for this technology is the development of reliable personal locator devices that are small, lightweight, with long operational battery life, and indoors/outdoors accuracy of 100 meters or less. At the center of a second-generation system is a database that specifies the offender's home, workplace, commute, and time the offender should be found in each. The database could also define areas from which the offender is excluded. To test compliance, the system would compare the observed coordinates of the offender with the stored location for a given time interval. Database logfiles will also enable law enforcement to determine if a monitored offender was present at a crime scene and thus include or exclude the offender as a potential suspect.

  17. [Emission of electromagnetic radiation from selected computer monitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyss, T

    1995-01-01

    The emission of electromagnetic fields from computer monitors was analysed. The data were compared with the permissible exposure level. EM radiation of chromatic monitors is higher than that of monochromatic ones. The radiation of magnetic fraction is insignificant. Both electric and magnetic fractions of EM radiation, 50 cm away from the monitor, are very low and do not exceed permissible values. It was observed that screen filters were effective in suppressing EM emission only at a short (up to 30 cm) distance from the monitor. At a distance of 50 cm they proved to be ineffective. Metallic-net filters were more effective than glass filters in suppressing EM radiation. It seems that EM fields generated by computer monitors are not harmful to computer operators if the distance is kept in safe limits.

  18. Upgrading of data acquisition software for centralized radiation monitoring system in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yussup, F.; Ibrahim, M. M.; Haris, M. F.; Soh, S. C.; Hasim, H.; Azman, A.; Razalim, F. A. A.; Yapp, R.; Ramli, A. A. M.

    2016-01-01

    With the growth of technology, many devices and equipments can be connected to the network and internet to enable online data acquisition for real-time data monitoring and control from monitoring devices located at remote sites. Centralized radiation monitoring system (CRMS) is a system that enables area radiation level at various locations in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia) to be monitored centrally by using a web browser. The Local Area Network (LAN) in Nuclear Malaysia is utilized in CRMS as a communication media for data acquisition of the area radiation levels from radiation detectors. The development of the system involves device configuration, wiring, network and hardware installation, software and web development. This paper describes the software upgrading on the system server that is responsible to acquire and record the area radiation readings from the detectors. The recorded readings are called in a web programming to be displayed on a website. Besides the main feature which is acquiring the area radiation levels in Nuclear Malaysia centrally, the upgrading involves new features such as uniform time interval for data recording and exporting, warning system and dose triggering.

  19. Upgrading of data acquisition software for centralized radiation monitoring system in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yussup, F., E-mail: nolida@nm.gov.my; Ibrahim, M. M., E-mail: maslina-i@nm.gov.my; Soh, S. C.; Hasim, H. [Instrumentation and Automation Centre, Technical Support Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang. Selangor (Malaysia); Haris, M. F. [Information Technology Centre, Technical Support Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang. Selangor (Malaysia); Azman, A. [Prototype and Development Centre, Technical Support Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang. Selangor (Malaysia); Razalim, F. A. A.; Yapp, R. [Health Physics Group, Radiation Safety and Health Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang. Selangor (Malaysia); Ramli, A. A. M. [Technical Support Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang. Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    With the growth of technology, many devices and equipments can be connected to the network and internet to enable online data acquisition for real-time data monitoring and control from monitoring devices located at remote sites. Centralized radiation monitoring system (CRMS) is a system that enables area radiation level at various locations in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia) to be monitored centrally by using a web browser. The Local Area Network (LAN) in Nuclear Malaysia is utilized in CRMS as a communication media for data acquisition of the area radiation levels from radiation detectors. The development of the system involves device configuration, wiring, network and hardware installation, software and web development. This paper describes the software upgrading on the system server that is responsible to acquire and record the area radiation readings from the detectors. The recorded readings are called in a web programming to be displayed on a website. Besides the main feature which is acquiring the area radiation levels in Nuclear Malaysia centrally, the upgrading involves new features such as uniform time interval for data recording and exporting, warning system and dose triggering.

  20. Design and development of a portable gamma radiation monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munir, M.; Khalid, M. [Health Physics Division, Directorate of Systems and Services, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Ahmad, N.; Sohail, S.; Naveed, R. A.; Rafiq, M. Q. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P. O. Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan)

    2009-07-15

    A portable gamma radiation monitor has been designed and developed. The monitor can be used effectively in the dose range from 0.07 to 500 mGy/h due to gamma rays of energy greater than 65 keV. The monitor overestimated radiation doses and the uncertainty in the measured dose rate has been found to be {<=}30%. The response of the monitor can be considered isotropic within an acceptable error of {+-}30%. Provision has also been added to use the monitor as an installed radiation monitor. In installed mode, it can be operated from a remote location up to 1 km and the timing history can be stored on a personal computer.

  1. Radiation tolerance assurance of technical equipment in the LHC radiation monitoring for technical equipment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnands, Thijs; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2005-01-01

    In contrast with other accelerators at CERN, a large amount of technical equipment will be located in the LHC tunnel, the underground areas and in the experimental caverns where they will be exposed to radiation. Nearly all this equipment makes, to a certain extent, use of commercial microelectronics which is extremely sensitive to radiation damage, both instantaneous damage and cumulative damage. Examples in the TS Department are the electronics for the position sensors of the low beta quadrupoles, the access system, the cooling and ventilation units, the electronics for the electrical distribution, the oxygen deficiency monitors and fire detection systems. The basic effects of radiation on electronic systems and components are well understood because similar problems with radiation are encountered in the aerospace and aviation industry. Since 1998, an efficient and original Radiation Tolerance Assurance approach for the LHC machine has been established. Its aim is to minimise the effects of radiation damage...

  2. B190 computer controlled radiation monitoring and safety interlock system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, D L; Fields, W F; Gittins, D E; Roberts, M L

    1998-08-01

    The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) in the Earth and Environmental Sciences Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operates two accelerators and is in the process of installing two new additional accelerators in support of a variety of basic and applied measurement programs. To monitor the radiation environment in the facility in which these accelerators are located and to terminate accelerator operations if predetermined radiation levels are exceeded, an updated computer controlled radiation monitoring system has been installed. This new system also monitors various machine safety interlocks and again terminates accelerator operations if machine interlocks are broken. This new system replaces an older system that was originally installed in 1988. This paper describes the updated B190 computer controlled radiation monitoring and safety interlock system.

  3. Monitoring of radiation exposure and registration of doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and working conditions and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently organizing it. In addition, instructions are given for reporting doses to the Dose Register of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Also the procedures are described for situations leading to exceptional exposures. (10 refs., 1 tab.).

  4. Development of Nuclide Recognizing Prompt Radiation Distribution Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uk Jae; Yoo, Dong Han; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The geographic data such as latitude, longitude and map image can be obtained by using GPS and digital map. Radiation data can be acquired by detector. Finally simultaneous visibility system can be operated by using CDMA. Existing radiation distribution monitoring system is based on random generated data. However the radiation distribution monitoring system is developed. It is based on real detected data. Connection between the detector and laptop which are located at a site place is operated by using Bluetooth. CDMA is used to simulate visibility system between laptop in a site place and server PC in the control office. Real map image is taken from digital map. Finally radiation distribution contour map on the real map image can be shown by using MATLAB. 5 figures appear which shows natural, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 131}I, artificial and total radiation dose rate. So this system can be used in everywhere to check the distribution of radiation with geographic information.

  5. Smarter radiation monitors for safeguards and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlau, P. E.; Pratt, J. C.; Markin, J. T.; Scurry, T., Jr.

    Versatile microprocessor systems permit more efficient, and more useful methods for monitoring nuclear materials. One such method is simple stepwise monitoring, which has variable alarm levels to expedite monitoring where extended monitoring periods are required. Another method, sequential probability ratio logic, tests data as it accumulates against two hypothesis - background, or background plus a transient diversion signal - and terminates monitoring as soon as a decision can be made that meets false alarm and detection confidence requirements. A third method, quntitative monitoring for personnel, calculates count ratios of high to low energy gamma ray regions to predict whether the material detected is a small quantity of bare material or a larger quantity of shielded material. Microprocessor system subprograms can assist in detector calibration and trouble shooting. Examples of subprograms are a variance analysis technique to set hias levels in plastic scintillators and a state of health routine for detecting malfunctions in digital circuit components.

  6. Radiation Target Area Sample Environmental Chamber (RTASEC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Payload Systems Inc. proposes the Radiation Target Area Sample Environmental Chamber (RTASEC) as an innovative approach enabling radiobiologists to investigate the...

  7. A novel mobile system for radiation detection and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biafore, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    A novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance has been developed within the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). The REWARD sensing units are small, mobile portable units with low energy consumption, which consist of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit is integrated by a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station as well as a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system also incorporates middleware and high-level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information. A central monitoring and decision support system has been designed to process the data from the sensing units and to compare them with historical record in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. A security framework ensures protection against unauthorized access to the network and data, ensuring the privacy of the communications and contributing to the overall robustness and reliability of the REWARD system. The REWARD system has been designed for many different scenarios such as nuclear terrorism threats, lost radioactive sources, radioactive contamination or nuclear accidents. It can be deployed in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment, but also inside public/private buildings or infrastructures. The complete system is scalable in terms of complexity and cost and offers very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system allows for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a basic, low cost system and increase the complexity based on their

  8. ATLAS Pixel Radiation Monitoring with HVPP4 System

    CERN Document Server

    Gorelov, Igor; Seidel, Sally; Toms, Konstantin

    2009-01-01

    In this talk we present the basis for the protocol for radiation monitoring of the ATLAS Pixel Sensors. The monitoring is based on a current measurement system, HVPP4. The status on the ATLAS HVPP4 system development is also presented.

  9. Gamma-radiation monitoring network at sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, Ch.; Schilling, G.; Gruettmueller, M.; Becker, K

    1999-04-01

    A stationary monitoring network to observe the sea for radioactive contaminations, using a newly constructed NaI-detector system, is described. The monitoring efficiency for total-{gamma} counting and {gamma}-spectrometry as well as a method suppressing the registration of natural radioactivity are discussed. On the basis of three accident scenarios with releases of radioactivity into the sea it is demonstrated that under sea conditions the limit of detection of this 'in situ' method is comparable to the regularly performed monitoring by radiochemical {sup 137}Cs analysis of seawater samples.

  10. A wire scanning type position monitor for an undulator radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Ando, Masami; Xia, Shaojian; Shiwaku, Hideaki

    1995-02-01

    A scanning wire position monitor for insertion devices was designed and installed in an x-ray undulator beam line. It consists of a graphite wire, a copper mesh for electric shielding, and a motor-driven linear guide. The wire of the monitor was tested under the undulator radiation thermal load. It has been found that the signal level of the monitor was proportional to the radiation power density on the wire. Even when the wire crossed the beam during the x-ray experiment, no detectable influence on the experiment was observed.

  11. The radiation-tolerant x-ray monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gott, Yu V; Stepanenko, M M

    2008-10-01

    A vacuum photoelectric detector (monitor) (VPD) designed for plasma tomography, megnetohydrodynamics monitoring, and imaging with the help of thermal x-ray radiation on the ITER facility is described. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that VPD has high sensitivity to thermal x rays and low sensitivity to hard gamma rays and neutrons. The results of tests of a prototype of this monitor on a (60)Co source of gamma rays, on nuclear reactor and its calibration using radiation from an x-ray tube, and tests of its serviceability on the T-10 facility are presented.

  12. Biological monitoring of radiation using indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Chun, Ki Jung; Lim, Yong Tak

    1998-06-01

    KAERI and INP(Poland) have been carried out parallel study and joint experiments on the major topics according to MOU about their cooperative project. The experimental materials were T-4430 clones. Main results of the cooperative project were made on {sup r}esponse of TSH mutation to low LET radiation, response of TSH mutation to neutrons, response of TSH to mixed irradiation with different radiations and synergism between radiation and environmental factors such as photo period and diurnal temperature difference. Both institutes have established wide variety of research techniques applicable to tradescantia study through the cooperation. These result of research can make the role of fundamental basis for the better relationship between Korea and Poland. (author). 46 refs., 11 tabs., 31 figs.

  13. Personal radiation monitoring and assessment of doses received by radiation workers (1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, N.D.

    1996-12-01

    Since late 1986, all persons monitored by the Australian Radiation Laboratory have been registered on a data base which maintains records of the doses received by each individual wearer. At present, the Service regularly monitors approximately 30,000 persons, which is roughly 90 percent of those monitored in Australia, and maintains dose histories of over 75,000 people. The skin dose for occupationally exposed workers can be measured by using one of the five types of monitor issued by the Service: Thermoluminescent Dosemeter (TLD monitor), Finger TLD 3, Neutron Monitor, Special TLD and Environmental monitor. The technical description of the monitors is provided along with the method for calculating the radiation dose. 5 refs., 7 tabs., 5 figs.

  14. Environmental radiation monitoring; Ueberwachung der Umweltradioaktivitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachmann, Markus

    2012-07-01

    The report includes the following chapters: Development of earth and cosmic radiation - natural radioactivity. Atomic weapon tests and medicine - artificial radioactivity. A disaster and its consequences. From the air to humans; lessons learned from Chernobyl - division of work during measurements. From potatoes to baby food - the routine measuring program. Preparedness for the case of emergency - the intensive program. Three question for Martin Riepenhausen.

  15. Position-sensitive radiation monitoring (surface contamination monitor). Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-06-01

    The Shonka Research Associates, Inc. Position-Sensitive Radiation Monitor both detects surface radiation and prepares electronic survey map/survey report of surveyed area automatically. The electronically recorded map can be downloaded to a personal computer for review and a map/report can be generated for inclusion in work packages. Switching from beta-gamma detection to alpha detection is relatively simple and entails moving a switch position to alpha and adjusting the voltage level to an alpha detection level. No field calibration is required when switching from beta-gamma to alpha detection. The system can be used for free-release surveys because it meets the federal detection level sensitivity limits requires for surface survey instrumentation. This technology is superior to traditionally-used floor contamination monitor (FCM) and hand-held survey instrumentation because it can precisely register locations of radioactivity and accurately correlate contamination levels to specific locations. Additionally, it can collect and store continuous radiological data in database format, which can be used to produce real-time imagery as well as automated graphics of survey data. Its flexible design can accommodate a variety of detectors. The cost of the innovative technology is 13% to 57% lower than traditional methods. This technology is suited for radiological surveys of flat surfaces at US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) sites or similar public or commercial sites.

  16. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Seoul area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Ki.; Chung, Ok Sun [Seoul Monitoring Station, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    The following results were obtained through the monitoring in 2000 at the Seoul monitoring station: gamma dose rate: 14.6 - 10.6 {mu}R/h, gross beta activity in airborne dust : 224 - 9.80 mBq/m{sup 3}, gross beta activity in precipitation dust : 50.0 - 5.68 MBq/km - 30 days ; gross beta activity in rain and snow : 1267 - 19.0 mBq/L, gross beta activity in tap water : 127 - 26.3 mBq/L. All the monitored variables remained in the corresponding normal ranges, which implies that there were no abnormal situations of environmental radiation in the Seoul region in 2000. Radioactivity contents in foodstuffs consumed in Seoul area were analyzed for use in assessment of population doses via dietary intakes. Natural isotopes {sup 40}K and {sup 7}Be constitute the major radioactivity and {sup 137}Cs is the only man-made isotope detected in some sample.

  17. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gangneung area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hwa; An, Mi Jung [Gangnung Regional Radiation Monitoring Station, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The objectives of the project are to get a systematic data for the distribution of environmental radioactivity levels in Gangnung provinces, and use them as a baseline data for the health of the peoples. To monitor the environmental radiation/radioactivity, gross beta activities and gamma exposure rate in the airborne-dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water were measured in Gangnung province during the period of January 1 - December 31, 2003. Waters from drinking water reservoirs, agricultural and marine products were sampled and measured by the HPGe(High Purity Ge)detector for the analysis from some selected areas to make sure of the effect of the fallout due to the atmospheric weapons test. The radioactivity in Kangnung was all about the past data.

  18. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gangneung area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hwa; An, Mi Jung [Gangnung Regional Radiation Monitoring Station, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    The objectives of the project are to get a systematic data for the distribution of environmental radioactivity levels in Gangnung provinces, and use them as a baseline data for the health of the peoples. To monitor the environmental radiation/radioactivity, gross beta activities and gamma exposure rate in the airborne-dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water were measured in Kangnung province during the period of January 1- December 31, 2002. Waters from drinking water reservoirs, agricultural and marine products were sampled and measured by the HPGe(High Purity Ge)detector for the analysis from some selected areas to make sure of the effect of the fallout due to the atmospheric weapons test. The radioactivity in Kangnung was all about the past data.

  19. Ionising radiation and risk of death from leukaemia and lymphoma in radiation-monitored workers (INWORKS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Bernd

    2015-07-01

    Since July 2015 the study ''ionising radiation and risk of death from leukaemia and lymphoma in radiation-monitored workers (INWORKS) - an international cohort study'' is available. INWORKS comprised data from 300.000 occupational exposed and dosimetric monitored persons from France, USA and UK. The contribution is a critical discussion of this study with respect to the conclusion of a strong evidence of positive associations between protracted low-dose irradiation exposure and leukemia.

  20. Gamma-ray and neutron area monitoring system of linear IFMIF prototype accelerator building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hiroki, E-mail: takahashi.hiroki@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Kojima, Toshiyuki; Narita, Takahiro; Tsutsumi, Kazuyoshi; Maebara, Sunao [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Sakaki, Hironao [JAEA, Kizugawa, Kyoto (Japan); Nishiyama, Koichi [IFMIF/EVEDA Project Team, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Area monitoring system and control system are needed for LIPAc radiation management. • To secure the radiation safety, these systems are linked with two kinds of data path. • Hardwired data paths are adopted to realize the fast transfer of interlock signals. • Dual LAN and shared memory are adopted to the reliable transfer of monitoring data. • Data transfers without unnecessary load are designed and configured for these systems. -- Abstract: The linear IFMIF prototype accelerator (LIPAc) produces deuteron beam with 1 MW power. Since huge number of neutrons occur from such a high power beam, therefore, it is important for the radiation management to design a high reliability area monitoring system for gamma-rays and neutrons. To obtain the valuable operation data of the high-power deuteron beam at LIPAc, it is important to link and record the beam operation data and the area monitoring data. We realize the reliable data transfer to provide the area monitoring data to the accelerator control system which needs a high reliability using the shared-memory data link method. This paper describes the area monitoring system in the LIPAc building and the data-link between this system and the LIPAc control system.

  1. Modeling radiation conditions in orbits of projected system of small satellites for radiation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasyuk, M. I.; Podzolko, M. V.; Kovtyukh, A. S.; Osedlo, V. I.; Tulupov, V. I.; Yashin, I. V.

    2016-11-01

    Calculated estimates are presented for the accumulated radiation doses behind the shields of various thicknesses in the orbits of projected at Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University system of small satellites for radiation monitoring. The results are analyzed and compared with the calculation data for other actively exploited near-Earth orbits.

  2. IEC standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytchev, M; Ambrosi, P; Behrens, R; Chiaro, P

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents IEC/SC 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation' and its standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation: IEC 61526 Ed. 3 for active personal dosemeters and IEC 62387-1 for passive integrating dosimetry systems. The transposition of these standards as CENELEC (European) standards is also discussed together with the collaboration between IEC/SC 45B and ISO/TC 85/SC 2.

  3. Research on environment monitoring of radiation emergency

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Y; Otani, N

    2003-01-01

    In a case of a nuclear accident at nuclear facilities, strong radiation such as g-rays and neutrons might radiate at a burst in the initial stage. For the establishment of dose estimation system for such accidents, the experiments were done using the He sup + sup 2 beam accelerated by Tandem in the W-MAST. The following results were obtained. 1) Neutron measurements using a rem counter yielded that dose equivalent was about 9.4 mSv/h at a position 100 cm from the Be target when the beam current of 15 MeV He sup 2 sup + was 0.8 mu A. Neutron measurement by means of Au and In foil activation method and by use of TLD element revealed that dose equivalents were to be 16-27 mu Sv/h for thermal neutron, and 30-41 mu Sv/h for sub-fast neutron (20 keV). Therefore, it was concluded that neutron field was mainly composed by fast neutron. 2) Linearity of the rem-counter out put vs neutron flux was valid under the condition that the count rate of the rem-counter was less than 10 kcps. 3) Computer simulation using NRESP c...

  4. Research on environment monitoring of radiation emergency

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Y

    2002-01-01

    In a case of a nuclear accident at nuclear facilities, radiation such as gamma-rays and neutrons might radiate at a burst in the initial stage. For the establishment of dose estimation system for such accidents, the experiments were carried out using the Tandem/Synchrotron accelerator. The following results were obtained: (1) Measurements of the gamma-ray emission using the NaI detector together with pile up rejection system revealed that the good signals without the pile up phenomena could be obtained in case of count rate less than 7 kc/s. On assumption that energy distribution function of the gamma-rays was proportional to be E exp(- E/T sub e sub f sub f), the effective temperature T sub e sub f sub f was estimated to be 0.8 - 0.9 MeV by use of non-linear least squares. (2) Doses of gamma-rays were measured using the TLD elements shielded by Pb sheets with various widths. The effective temperature T sub e sub f sub f estimated under the same experimental conditions described in (1) was 0.6-3 MeV. In an ac...

  5. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Jeju area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U, Zang Kual; Kang, Tae Woo; Park, Won Pyo [Jeju National Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The project is carried out to monitor the change of environmental radioactivity in Jeju, and to provide a systematic data for radiation monitoring and counter measurement at a radiological emergency situation. Also the survey of natural environmental radioactivities in the samples was conducted to make the reliable data base for evaluation of internal exposure and environmental contamination of radiation. This report contains the data of gamma exposure rates and radioactivities of airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water which were analyzed periodically by Jeju Regional Monitoring Station in 2002. Also it contains the data of natural radioactivity levels of food stuff such as agricultural and marine products, including drinking waters.

  6. Evaluating a radiation monitor for mixed-field environments based on SRAM technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiligiannis, G.; Dilillo, L.; Bosio, A.; Girard, P.; Pravossoudovitch, S.; Todri, A.; Virazel, A.; Mekki, J.; Brugger, M.; Wrobel, F.; Saigne, F.

    2014-05-01

    Instruments operating in particle accelerators and colliders are exposed to radiations that are composed of particles of different types and energies. Several of these instruments often embed devices that are not hardened against radiation effects. Thus, there is a strong need for monitoring the levels of radiation inside the mixed-field radiation areas, throughout different positions. Different metrics exist for measuring the radiation damage induced to electronic devices, such as the Total Ionizing Dose (TID), the Displacement Damage (DD) and of course the fluence of particles for estimating the error rates of the electronic devices among other applications. In this paper, we propose an SRAM based monitor, that is used to define the fluence of High Energy Hadrons (HEH) by detecting Single Event Upsets in the memory array. We evaluated the device by testing it inside the H4IRRAD area of CERN, a test area that reproduces the radiation conditions inside the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) tunnel and its shielded areas. By using stability estimation methods and presenting experimental data, we prove that this device is proper to be used for such a purpose.

  7. Data Quality Objectives Supporting the Environmental Direct Radiation Monitoring Program for the INL Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundell, J. F. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Magnuson, S. O. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scherbinske, P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Case, M. J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This document presents the development of the data quality objectives (DQOs) for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Environmental Direct Radiation Monitoring Program and follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) DQO process (EPA 2006). This document also develops and presents the logic to determine the specific number of direct radiation monitoring locations around INL facilities on the desert west of Idaho Falls and in Idaho Falls, at locations bordering the INL Site, and in the surrounding regional area. The selection logic follows the guidance from the Department of Energy (DOE) (2015) for environmental surveillance of DOE facilities.

  8. Nevada Test Site, 2006 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Hudson

    2007-06-30

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2006 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (U.S. Department of Energy, 2006; Warren and Grossman, 2007; National Security Technologies, LLC, 2007). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure levels around the RWMSs are at or below background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. There is no detectable man-made radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. Measurements at the Area 5 RWMS show that radon flux from waste covers is no higher than natural radon flux from undisturbed soil in Area 5. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. Precipitation during 2006 totaled 98.6 millimeters (mm) (3.9 inches [in.]) at the Area 3 RWMS and 80.7 mm (3.2 in.) at the Area 5 RWMS. Soil-gas tritium monitoring continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Moisture from precipitation at Area 5 remains at the bottom of the bare-soil weighing lysimeter, but this same moisture has been removed from the vegetated weighing lysimeter by evapotranspiration. Vadose zone data from the operational waste pit covers show that evaporation continues to slowly remove soil moisture that came from the heavy precipitation in the fall of 2004 and the spring of

  9. Field test of a post-closure radiation monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, S.E. [Babcock & Wilcox, Alliance, OH (United States); Christy, C.E. [Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States); Heath, R.E. [FERMCO, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The DOE is conducting remedial actions at many sites contaminated with radioactive materials. After closure of these sites, long-term subsurface monitoring is typically required by law. This monitoring is generally labor intensive and expensive using conventional sampling and analysis techniques. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has contracted with Babcock and Wilcox to develop a Long-Term Post-Closure Radiation Monitoring System (LPRMS) to reduce these monitoring costs. The system designed in Phase I of this development program monitors gamma radiation using a subsurface cesium iodide scintillator coupled to above-ground detection electronics using optical waveguide. The radiation probe can be installed to depths up to 50 meters using cone penetrometer techniques, and requires no downhole electrical power. Multiplexing, data logging and analysis are performed at a central location. A prototype LPRMS probe was built, and B&W and FERMCO field tested this monitoring probe at the Fernald Environmental Management Project in the fall of 1994 with funding from the DOE`s Office of Technology Development (EM-50) through METC. The system was used measure soil and water with known uranium contamination levels, both in drums and in situ depths up to 3 meters. For comparison purposes measurements were also performed using a more conventional survey probe with a sodium iodide scintillator directly butt-coupled to detection electronics.

  10. Radiation portal monitor system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Green, J. Andrew; Hogan, Gary E.; Makela, Mark F.; Priedhorsky, William C.; Saunders, Alexander; Schultz, Larry J.; Sossong, Michael J.

    2009-12-15

    A portal monitoring system has a cosmic ray charged particle tracker with a plurality of drift cells. The drift cells, which can be for example aluminum drift tubes, can be arranged at least above and below a volume to be scanned to thereby track incoming and outgoing charged particles, such as cosmic ray muons, whilst also detecting gamma rays. The system can selectively detect devices or materials, such as iron, lead, gold and/or tungsten, occupying the volume from multiple scattering of the charged particles passing through the volume and can also detect any radioactive sources occupying the volume from gamma rays emitted therefrom. If necessary, the drift tubes can be sealed to eliminate the need for a gas handling system. The system can be employed to inspect occupied vehicles at border crossings for nuclear threat objects.

  11. Development of a portable monitor for detecting gamma radiation and X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Neto, Paulo J. da [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN/NE-CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lira, Carlos A.B. de O., E-mail: cabol@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Oliveira, Arno H. de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    There are several ways to prevent individuals from receiving excessive or unnecessary doses of radiation, and area monitoring contributes to the radiation protection in the assessment whether these means are really efficient. The area monitoring is used to give an indication of radiation levels in certain locations. Using this method, one can estimate the dose received by staff occupying a particular area for a certain period of time. Hence, the purpose of this work was the construction of a portable monitor, consisting of an ionization chamber, with a volume of approximately 517 cc and built from tissue-equivalent material, and of its associated electronics. Radiation measurements of gamma and X-rays beams were then possible. The results showed a linear response of the monitor for different dose rates. The stability test of the response also showed a good reproducibility within {+-} 1%. A low energy dependence for energies between 16 - 200keV was observed, and complied well with the IEC 60846 standard. However, for the energy range 200 - 1250keV, the discrepancies to the IEC standard are considerable, so that the interposition of filters is necessary and may improve the energy response curve to within acceptable limits. (author)

  12. ULF radio monitoring network in a seismic area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toader, Victorin; Moldovan, Iren-Adelina; Ionescu, Constantin; Marmureanu, Alexandru

    2017-04-01

    ULF monitoring is a part of a multidisciplinary network (AeroSolSys) located in Vrancea (Curvature Carpathian Mountains). Four radio receivers (100 kHz - microwave) placed on faults in a high seismic area characterized by deep earthquakes detect fairly weak radio waves. The radio power is recorded in correlation with many other parameters related to near surface low atmosphere phenomena (seismicity, solar radiation, air ionization, electromagnetic activity, radon, CO2 concentration, atmospheric pressure, telluric currents, infrasound, seismo-acoustic emission, meteorological information). We follow variations in the earth's surface propagate radio waves avoiding reflection on ionosphere. For this reason the distance between stations is less than 60 km and the main source of emission is near (Bod broadcasting transmitter for long- and medium-wave radio, next to Brasov city). In the same time tectonic stress affects the radio propagation in air and it could generates ULF waves in ground (LAI coupling). To reduce the uncertainty is necessary to monitor a location for extended periods of time to outline local and seasonal fluctuations. Solar flares do not affect seismic activity but they produce disturbances in telecommunications networks and power grids. Our ULF monitoring correlated with two local magnetometers does not indicate this so far with our receivers. Our analysis was made during magnetic storms with Kp 7 and 8 according to NOAA satellites. To correlate the results we implemented an application that monitors the satellite EUTELSAT latency compared to WiMAX land communication in the same place. ULF band radio monitoring showed that our receiver is dependent on temperature and that it is necessary to introduce a band pass filter in data analysis. ULF data acquisition is performed by Kinemetrics and National Instruments digitizers with a sampling rate of 100 Hz in Miniseed format and then converted into text files with 1 Hz rate for analysis in very low

  13. Laser weld process monitoring and control using chromatic filtering of thermal radiation from a weld pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk; Baik, Sung Hoon; Chung, Chin Man

    2000-06-01

    The application of high power Nd: YAG lasers for precision welding in industry has been growing quite fast these days in diverse areas such as the automobile, the electronics and the aerospace industries. These diverse applications also require the new developments for the precise control and the reliable process monitoring. Due to the hostile environment in laser welding, a remote monitoring is required. The present development relates in general to weld process monitoring techniques, and more particularly to improved methods and apparatus for real-time monitoring of thermal radiation of a weld pool to monitor a size variation and a focus shift of the weld pool for weld process control, utilizing the chromatic aberration of focusing lens or lenses. The monitoring technique of the size variation and the focus shift of a weld pool is developed by using the chromatic filtering of the thermal radiation from a weld pool. The monitoring of weld pool size variation can also be used to monitor the weld depth in a laser welding. Furthermore, the monitoring of the size variation of a weld pool is independent of the focus shift of a weld pool and the monitoring of the focus shift of a weld pool is independent of the size variation of a weld pool.

  14. Quality assurance of environmental gamma radiation monitoring in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhec, M; Zorko, B; Mitić, D; Miljanić, S; Ranogajec-Komor, M

    2006-01-01

    Environmental gamma radiation monitoring established in Slovenia consists of a network of multifunctional gamma monitors (MFMs) based on pairs of Geiger-Müller counters and a network of measuring sites with high-sensitive thermoluminiscence dosemeters. The measuring points are evenly spread across Slovenia, located at the meteorological stations and more densely on additional locations around the Krsko NPP. The MFM network has a 2-fold function with one sensor used for the purpose of early warning system in near surroundings of the NPP and the other, more sensitive, for natural radiation monitoring. The paper summarises activities to establish quality assurance of the environmental gamma radiation measurements in Slovenia, with a critical view of the results in comparison with the international standards and recommendations. While the results of linearity and energy dependence tests were satisfying, on-field intercomparison showed that the inherent signal of one of the monitors (MFM) has to be taken into account in the range of environmental background radiation.

  15. Status of contamination monitoring in radiation activities of National Atomic Energy Agency (NAEA) in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhariyono, Gatot [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1997-06-01

    National Atomic Energy Agency (NAEA) or Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional (BATAN) is a non departmental governmental agency, headed by a Director General who is directly responsible to the President. Center for Standardization and Radiation Safety Research (CSRSR) is one of the research centers within the deputy for the assessment of nuclear science and technology of the NAEA. The main task of the CSRSR is to implement research and development program, development and services in the field of radiation safety, standardization, dosimetry, radiation health as well as the application of nuclear techniques in medicine, according to the policy confirmed by the director general of BATAN. Task of radiation protection division is to set up programs and to develop radiation protection, personal monitoring system and radiation level of the working areas and their surroundings as well as dose limitation system, to carry out technical up grading of radiation protection officials skill and to help coping with radiation accident. The key factor on contamination monitoring is to reduce human error and mechanical failures. These problems can be achieved to the highest degree by developing knowledge and skill of staffs via trainings or courses on contamination and decontamination, so that they are hoped to become trained and qualified staffs. (G.K.)

  16. NCRP Program Area Committee 2: Operational Radiation Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Eric M; Pryor, Kathryn H

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee 2 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements provides guidance for radiation safety in occupational settings in a variety of industries and activities. The Committee completed three reports in recent years covering recommendations for the development and administration of radiation safety programs for smaller educational institutions, requirements for self-assessment programs that improve radiation safety and identify and correct deficiencies, and a comprehensive process for effective investigation of radiological incidents. Ongoing work includes a report on sealed radioactive source controls and oversight of a report on radioactive nanomaterials focusing on gaps within current radiation safety programs. Future efforts may deal with operational radiation safety programs in fields such as the safe use of handheld and portable x-ray fluorescence analyzers, occupational airborne radioactive contamination, unsealed radioactive sources, or industrial accelerators.

  17. NCRP Program Area Committee 2: Operational Radiation Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryor, Kathryn H.; Goldin, Eric M.

    2016-02-29

    Program Area Committee 2 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements provides guidance for radiation safety in occupational settings in a variety of industries and activities. The committee completed three reports in recent years covering recommendations for the development and administration of radiation safety programs for smaller educational institutions, requirements for self-assessment programs that improve radiation safety and identify and correct deficiencies, and a comprehensive process for effective investigation of radiological incidents. Ongoing work includes a report on sealed radioactive source controls and oversight of a report on radioactive nanomaterials focusing on gaps within current radiation safety programs. Future efforts may deal with operational radiation safety programs in fields such as the safe use of handheld and portable X-Ray fluorescence analyzers, occupational airborne radioactive contamination, unsealed radioactive sources, or industrial accelerators.

  18. Development of NORM determination Algorithm for Radiation Portal Monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hwan; Kim, Ye Won; Yoo, Hyun Jun; Kim, Chan Kyu; Lee, Sang Heon; Cho, Gyu Seong [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, probability of distinguishing nuclide analysis is proposed by measuring compton energy spectrum of gamma ray with large-area PVT scintillator to solve fundamental problem. US coast guard (USCG) suggested the methods for which terrorism could be prevented to international maritime organization (IMO) and the bill in which container safety was assured was suggested by U.S customs officials. However, radiation portal monitors (RPMs) running at the airport and the harbor cannot distinguish special cargo material (SNM) from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NOMR) containing a small dose of radioisotope from nature. Consequently, cargo sorted out by RPM using polyvinyl-toluene (PVT) scintillator contains approximately 99% of NORM (such as cat litter, potash, tableware and etc.) Many research institutes are under way to reduce such a nuisance alarm. Tom Burr conducted pattern recognition methods with extracted 184 features (46 features from each of four panels) from 235 profiles out of 406 profiles representing gamma alarm. But this method is more like statistical analysis using the data of low and high gamma than practical nuclide analysis. So it has limitation to reduce nuisance alarm. Regarding to the experimental result for difference distances between the source and the scintillator using large-area PVT based plastic scintillator, the linearity was not secured when the distance is from 0cm to 20cm. It is expected that, for these cases, the scintillation areas in which photon is emitted were small. The distance between PMTs and these areas was too far to detect every emitted photon because the photons were attenuated by plastic scintillator. Because of this reason, energy spectra were shifted to relatively lower channel. While, no more spectrum shifting occurred for 50cm and 100cm. It is considered that the increase of the gamma source solid angle makes scintillation area larger and no more spectrum shifting occur. With this experiment, it was

  19. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations for the 600 Area facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-08-01

    This document determines the need for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans for Westinghouse Hanford Company's 600 Area facilities on the Hanford Site. The Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations were prepared in accordance with A Guide For Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans (WHC 1991). Five major Westinghouse Hanford Company facilities in the 600 Area were evaluated: the Purge Water Storage Facility, 212-N, -P, and -R Facilities, the 616 Facility, and the 213-J K Storage Vaults. Of the five major facilities evaluated in the 600 Area, none will require preparation of a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan.

  20. Nevada Test Site 2005 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Hudson, Cathy A. Wills

    2006-08-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2005 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (U.S. Department of Energy, 2005; Grossman, 2005; Bechtel Nevada, 2006). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure levels around the RWMSs are at or below background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. There is no detectable man-made radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. Measurements at the Area 5 RWMS show that radon flux from waste covers is no higher than natural radon flux from undisturbed soil in Area 5. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. Precipitation during 2005 totaled 219.1 millimeters (mm) (8.63 inches [in.]) at the Area 3 RWMS and 201.4 mm (7.93 in.) at the Area 5 RWMS. Soil-gas tritium monitoring continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Moisture from precipitation at Area 5 has percolated to the bottom of the bare-soil weighing lysimeter, but this same moisture has been removed from the vegetated weighing lysimeter by evapotranspiration. Vadose zone data from the operational waste pit covers show that precipitation from the fall of 2004 and the spring of 2005 infiltrated past the deepest sensors at 188 centimeters (6.2 feet) and remains in the pit cover

  1. Monitoring of environmental UV radiation by biological dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronto, G; Berces, A; Grof, P; Fekete, A; Kerekgyarto, T; Gaspar, S; Stick, C

    2000-01-01

    As a consequence of the stratospheric ozone layer depletion biological systems can be damaged due to increased UV-B radiation. The aim of biological dosimetry is to establish a quantitative basis for the risk assessment of the biosphere. DNA is the most important target molecule of biological systems having special sensitivity against short wavelength components of the environmental radiation. Biological dosimeters are usually simple organisms, or components of them, modeling the cellular DNA. Phage T7 and polycrystalline uracil biological dosimeters have been developed and used in our laboratory for monitoring the environmental radiation in different radiation conditions (from the polar to equatorial regions). Comparisons with Robertson-Berger (RB) meter data, as well as with model calculation data weighted by the corresponding spectral sensitivities of the dosimeters are presented. Suggestion is given how to determine the trend of the increase in the biological risk due to ozone depletion. c2001 COSPAR Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Large area radiation source for water and wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael T.; Lee, Seungwoo; Kloba, Anthony; Hellmer, Ronald; Kumar, Nalin; Eaton, Mark; Rambo, Charlotte; Pillai, Suresh

    2011-06-01

    There is a strong desire for processes that improve the safety of water supplies and that minimize disinfection byproducts. Stellarray is developing mercury-free next-generation x-ray and UV-C radiation sources in flat-panel and pipe form factors for water and wastewater treatment applications. These new radiation sources are designed to sterilize sludge and effluent, and to enable new treatment approaches to emerging environmental concerns such as the accumulation of estrogenic compounds in water. Our UV-C source, based on cathodoluminescent technology, differs significantly from traditional disinfection approaches using mercury arc lamps or UV LEDs. Our sources accelerate electrons across a vacuum gap, converting their energy into UV-C when striking a phosphor, or x-rays when striking a metallic anode target. Stellarray's large area radiation sources for wastewater treatment allow matching of the radiation source area to the sterilization target area for maximum coverage and improved efficiency.

  3. Protected areas system planning and monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, D.

    2003-01-01

    The Vth World Parks Congress to be held in Durban, South Africa, September 8-17, 2003 will evaluate progress in protected areas conservation and stipulate strategic policies for the coming decade. Most countries of the world have at least a collection of protected areas, and have signed the Conventi

  4. A Fire Detector for Monitoring Inaccessible Areas in Aircrafts Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — En'Urga Inc. will evaluate the feasibility of utilizing reflected, multi-wavelength, near infrared radiation for detecting fires in inaccessible areas within...

  5. Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglis, I. A.; Bourdarie, S.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Santolik, O.; Horne, R.; Mann, I.; Turner, D.

    2012-04-01

    We present the concept, objectives and expected impact of the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization) project, which is being implemented by a consortium of seven institutions (five European, one Canadian and one US) with support from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme. The MAARBLE project employs multi-spacecraft monitoring of the geospace environment, complemented by ground-based monitoring, in order to analyze and assess the physical mechanisms leading to radiation belt particle energization and loss. Particular attention is paid to the role of ULF/VLF waves. A database containing properties of the waves is being created and will be made available to the scientific community. Based on the wave database, a statistical model of the wave activity dependent on the level of geomagnetic activity, solar wind forcing, and magnetospheric region will be developed. Multi-spacecraft particle measurements will be incorporated into data assimilation tools, leading to new understanding of the causal relationships between ULF/VLF waves and radiation belt dynamics. Data assimilation techniques have been proven as a valuable tool in the field of radiation belts, able to guide 'the best' estimate of the state of a complex system. (The members of the MAARBLE team are: I. A. Daglis, S. Bourdarie, Y. Khotyaintsev, O. Santolik, R. Horne, I. Mann, D. Turner, A. Anastasiadis, V. Angelopoulos, G. Balasis, E. Chatzichristou, C. Cully, M. Georgiou, S. Glauert, B. Grison, I. Kolmasova, D. Lazaro, E. Macusova, V. Maget, C. Papadimitriou, G. Ropokis, I. Sandberg, M. Usanova.)

  6. TH-C-17A-09: Direct Visualization and Monitoring of Medical Radiation Beams in Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahimian, B; Ceballos, A; Turkcan, S; Kapp, D; Pratx, G [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy errors are rare but potentially catastrophic. Recent fatal incidents could have been avoided by utilizing real-time methods of monitoring delivery of radiation during treatment. However, few existing methods are practical enough to be used routinely. The study presents the first experimental demonstration of a novel non-perturbing method of monitoring radiation therapy through the phenomena of air scintillation. Methods: Monitoring of radiation delivery was devised by leveraging the phenomena of nitrogen excitation in air by ionizing radiation. The excitation induced weak luminescence in the 300–400 nm range, a process called air scintillation. An electron-multiplication charge-coupled device camera (f/0.95 lens; 440 nm shortpass) was set-up in a clinical treatment vault and was used to capture air scintillation images of kilovoltage and megavoltage beams. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to determine the correlation of radiation dose to air scintillation. Results: Megavoltage beams from a Varian Clinac 21EX and kilovoltage beams from an orthovoltage unit (50 kVp, 30 mA) were visualized with a relatively short exposure time (10 s). Cherenkov luminescence produced in a plastic transparent phantom did not interfere with detection of air scintillation. The image intensity displayed an inverse intensity falloff (r{sup 2} = 0.89) along the central axis and was proportional to dose rate (r{sup 2} = 0.9998). As beam energy increased, the divergence of the imaged beam decreased. Last, air scintillation was visualized during a simulated total skin irradiation electron treatment. Conclusion: Air scintillation can be clinically detected to monitor a radiation beam in an inexpensive and non-perturbing manner. This new method is advantageous in monitoring for gross delivery and uniquely capable of wide area in a single acquisition, such as the case for online verification of total body / skin / lymphoid irradiation treatments.

  7. New findings: a very high natural radiation area in Afra hot springs, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajlouni, Abdul-Wali; Abdelsalam, Manal; Abu-Haija, Osama; Joudeh, Bassam

    2009-01-01

    A high natural radiation zone was investigated for the first time in Afra hot springs of Jordan. The radiation levels were measured using a portable Geiger-Muller counter and an Na(Tl) detector. The measured absorbed dose rates in air ranged from 10 to 1800 nGy h(-1), suggesting that the concentration of natural radioactive materials is very high compared with their normal abundance in crustal rocks. A single high-radiation zone was also found in a nearby area where a gamma radiation dose rate of 4.0 mGy h(-1) was measured. On the basis of this measurement, the area was marked as a high-radiation zone. This region is far from tourist areas and not easily reached. No intervention measures are needed to protect people because the spa area is not well inhabited, having only daily visitors (average frequency of 10 days per year per individual). The dose received by workers in the spa area should be considered and the worker should be monitored by personal radiation dosimeters, such as thermoluminescent dosimeters.

  8. Anesthesia and monitoring during whole body radiation in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Nilsson, A; Hök, B

    1991-01-01

    During whole body radiation therapy of children, treatment may be done in places not equipped with acceptable scavenging systems for anesthetic gases and where clinical observation of the patient may be impossible. In order to solve this problem, the authors have used a total intravenous (IV) ane....... This anesthetic technique and the stethoscope have been used in seven children. The total IV anesthesia proved to be a useful method for children during whole body radiation. The modified stethoscope functioned very well and was a useful complement to the monitoring equipment....

  9. Anesthesia and monitoring during whole body radiation in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Nilsson, A; Hök, B

    1990-01-01

    During whole body radiation therapy of children, treatment may be done in places not equipped with acceptable scavenging systems for anesthetic gases and where clinical observation of the patient may be impossible. In order to solve this problem, the authors have used a total intravenous (IV) ane....... This anesthetic technique and the stethoscope have been used in seven children. The total IV anesthesia proved to be a useful method for children during whole body radiation. The modified stethoscope functioned very well and was a useful complement to the monitoring equipment....

  10. Wide Area Wind Field Monitoring Status & Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Marchant; Jed Simmons

    2011-09-30

    Volume-scanning elastic has been investigated as a means to derive 3D dynamic wind fields for characterization and monitoring of wind energy sites. An eye-safe volume-scanning lidar system was adapted for volume imaging of aerosol concentrations out to a range of 300m. Reformatting of the lidar data as dynamic volume images was successfully demonstrated. A practical method for deriving 3D wind fields from dynamic volume imagery was identified and demonstrated. However, the natural phenomenology was found to provide insufficient aerosol features for reliable wind sensing. The results of this study may be applicable to wind field measurement using injected aerosol tracers.

  11. Development of a Pedestrian Special Nuclear Material Radiation Monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Special nuclear material (SNM) monitor equipped at the exits of a protected SNM area can offer a rapid, effective means to search and prevent from unauthorized movement of SNM. In order to apply the detecting technique for SNM to nuclear field and improve the ability to nuclear material control, a pedestrian SNM monitor and a vehicle SNM monitor both with plastic scintillate detector will be developed during the years from 2001 to 2005. The overall design of the pedestrian SNM monitors, the design of relative electronics and control unit and relative mechanical design and machining has been performed in the year 2001. This equipment will be established by the end

  12. Application of the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor in a power radiation monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Gao; Jing, Yang; Si, Jiang; Debo, Wang

    2016-08-01

    A power radiation monitoring system based on thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensors is studied. This monitoring system consists of three modules: a data acquisition module, a data processing and display module, and a data sharing module. It can detect the power radiation in the environment and the date information can be processed and shared. The measured results show that the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor and the power radiation monitoring system both have a relatively good linearity. The sensitivity of the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor is about 0.101 mV/mW, and the sensitivity of the monitoring system is about 0.038 V/mW. The voltage gain of the monitoring system is about 380 times, which is relatively consistent with the theoretical value. In addition, the low-frequency and low-power module in the monitoring system is adopted in order to reduce the electromagnetic pollution and the power consumption, and this work will extend the application of the thermoelectric MEMS microwave power sensor in more areas. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11304158), the Province Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu (No. BK20140890), the Open Research Fund of the Key Laboratory of MEMS of Ministry of Education, Southeast University (No. 3206005302), and the Scientific Research Foundation of Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (Nos. NY213024, NY215139).

  13. Optimization of in-vivo monitoring program for radiation emergency response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Wi Ho; Kim, Jong Kyung [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In case of radiation emergencies, internal exposure monitoring for the members of public will be required to confirm internal contamination of each individual. In-vivo monitoring technique using portable gamma spectrometer can be easily applied for internal exposure monitoring in the vicinity of the on-site area. In this study, minimum detectable doses (MDDs) for '1'3'4Cs, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 131}I were calculated adjusting minimum detectable activities (MDAs) from 50 to 1,000 Bq to find out the optimal in-vivo counting condition. DCAL software was used to derive retention fraction of Cs and I isotopes in the whole body and thyroid, respectively. A minimum detectable level was determined to set committed effective dose of 0.1 mSv for emergency response. We found that MDDs at each MDA increased along with the elapsed time. 1,000 Bq for {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs, and 100 Bq for {sup 131}I were suggested as optimal MDAs to provide in-vivo monitoring service in case of radiation emergencies. In-vivo monitoring program for emergency response should be designed to achieve the optimal MDA suggested from the present work. We expect that a reduction of counting time compared with routine monitoring program can achieve the high throughput system in case of radiation emergencies.

  14. General Operational Procedure for Pedestrian Radiation Portal Monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belooussov, Andrei V. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-08

    This document outlines the basic conduct of operation (CONOPS) for a pedestrian radiation portal monitor (RPM), provided that the CONOPS is not facility or RPM specific and that it is based on a general understanding of a pedestrian RPM operation. The described CONOPS for a pedestrian RPM is defined by: (1) RPM design and operational characteristics, (2) type of pedestrian traffic, and (3) goal for RPM installation. Pedestrian RPMs normally are deployed for the continuous monitoring of individuals passing through point of control to detect the unauthorized traffic of radioactive/nuclear materials. RPMs generally are designed to detect gamma- and neutron-emitting materials.

  15. FPGA-based prototype of portable environmental radiation monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benahmed, A.; Elkarch, H. [CNESTEN -Centre National de l' Energie des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (Morocco)

    2015-07-01

    This new portable radiological environmental monitor consists of 2 main components, Gamma ionization chamber and a FPGA-based electronic enclosure linked to convivial software for treatment and analyzing. The HPIC ion chamber is the heart of this radiation measurement system and is running in range from 0 to 100 mR/h, so that the sensitivity at the output is 20 mV/μR/h, with a nearly flat energy response from 0,07 to 10 MEV. This paper presents a contribution for developing a new nuclear measurement data acquisition system based on Cyclone III FPGA Starter Kit ALTERA, and a user-friendly software to run real-time control and data processing. It was developed to substitute the older radiation monitor RSS-112 PIC installed in CNESTEN's Laboratory in order to improve some of its functionalities related to acquisition time and data memory capacity. As for the associated acquisition software, it was conceived under the virtual LabView platform from National Instrument, and offers a variety of system setup for radiation environmental monitoring. It gives choice to display both the statistical data and the dose rate. Statistical data shows a summary of current data, current time/date and dose integrator values, and the dose rate displays the current dose rate in large numbers for viewing from a distance as well as the date and time. The prototype version of this new instrument and its data processing software has been successfully tested and validated for viewing and monitoring the environmental radiation of Moroccan nuclear center. (authors)

  16. Development of advanced radiation monitors for pulsed neutron fields

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081895

    The need of radiation detectors capable of efficiently measuring in pulsed neutron fields is attracting widespread interest since the 60s. The efforts of the scientific community substantially increased in the last decade due to the increasing number of applications in which this radiation field is encountered. This is a major issue especially at particle accelerator facilities, where pulsed neutron fields are present because of beam losses at targets, collimators and beam dumps, and where the correct assessment of the intensity of the neutron fields is fundamental for radiation protection monitoring. LUPIN is a neutron detector that combines an innovative acquisition electronics based on logarithmic amplification of the collected current signal and a special technique used to derive the total number of detected neutron interactions, which has been specifically conceived to work in pulsed neutron fields. Due to its special working principle, it is capable of overcoming the typical saturation issues encountere...

  17. The definition analyses of radiation temperature measurement area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Tairan; Cheng Xiaofang; Zhong Maohua

    2008-01-01

    In the research of primary spectrum pyrometry, this paper discussed the definition problem of radiation tem-perature measurement area based on the measurement coordinates. For the linear spectrum emissivity model and im-proved monotonic spectrum emissivity model, the characteristics of radiation temperature measurement area restricted by the measurement coordinates were theoretically analyzed, through the investigations of the temperature and emissivity co-ordinate axes. Choosing the specific primary spectrum pyrometer as an example in applications, the theoretical area of radiation temperature measurement of this pyrometer was given and it was verified through blackbody experiments. The discussions of this paper will provide the necessary foundation for the theory research development of primary spectrum pyrometry and the realization of technical applications.

  18. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Jeju area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U, Zang Kual; Kang, Tae Woo [Jeju National Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    The project is carried out to monitor the change of environmental radioactivity in Jeju, and to provide a systematic data for radiation monitoring and counter measurement at a radiological emergency situation. Also the survey of natural environmental radioactivities in the samples was conducted to make the reliable data base for evaluation of internal exposure and environmental contamination of radiation. This report contains the data of gamma exposure rates and radioactivities of airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water which were analyzed periodically by Jeju Regional Monitoring Station in 2000. Also it contains the data of natural radioactivity levels of food stuff such as agricultural and marine products, including drinking waters. There was no significant difference in environmental radioactivities between 1999 and 2000.

  19. Monitoring Radiation Damage in the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Schorlemmer, André Lukas; Große-Knetter, Jörn; Rembser, Christoph; Di Girolamo, Beniamino

    2014-11-05

    Radiation hardness is one of the most important features of the ATLAS pixel detector in order to ensure a good performance and a long lifetime. Monitoring of radiation damage is crucial in order to assess and predict the expected performance of the detector. Key values for the assessment of radiation damage in silicon, such as the depletion voltage and depletion depth in the sensors, are measured on a regular basis during operations. This thesis summarises the monitoring program that is conducted in order to assess the impact of radiation damage and compares it to model predictions. In addition, the physics performance of the ATLAS detector highly depends on the amount of disabled modules in the ATLAS pixel detector. A worrying amount of module failures was observed during run I. Thus it was decided to recover repairable modules during the long shutdown (LS1) by extracting the pixel detector. The impact of the module repairs and module failures on the detector performance is analysed in this thesis.

  20. RADIATION MONITORING EXECUTED BY THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION SUBJECT TERRITORIES IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE RADIATION HYGIENIC PASSPORTISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Barkovsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the issues of radiation monitoring management, done by the Russian Federation subject territories for the assessment of population radiation safety conditions and filling the radiation hygienic passport of the territory. An algorithm of generalized assessment of the radiation monitoring done by the territories is proposed based on the considerations of the scope of measurements and necessity of getting of all foreseen by the territory radiation hygienic passport values. Comparative analysis of radiation monitoring according to the data from radiation hygienic passports dated by 2009 is done with the use of proposed algorithm. On the base of this assessment Russian Federation subject territories were selected, which radiation monitoring were considered as unsatisfactory and needs serious improvement.

  1. Ground-based monitoring of solar radiation in Moldova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aculinin, Alexandr; Smicov, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    Integrated measurements of solar radiation in Kishinev, Moldova have been started by Atmospheric Research Group (ARG) at the Institute of Applied Physics from 2003. Direct, diffuse and total components of solar and atmospheric long-wave radiation are measured by using of the radiometric complex at the ground-based solar radiation monitoring station. Measurements are fulfilled at the stationary and moving platforms equipped with the set of 9 broadband solar radiation sensors overlapping wavelength range from UV-B to IR. Detailed description of the station can be found at the site http://arg.phys.asm.md. Ground station is placed in an urban environment of Kishinev city (47.00N; 28.56E). Summary of observation data acquired at the station in the course of short-term period from 2004 to 2009 are presented below. Solar radiation measurements were fulfilled by using CM11(280-3000 nm) and CH1 sensors (Kipp&Zonen). In the course of a year maximum and minimum of monthly sums of total radiation was ~706.4 MJm-2 in June and ~82.1MJm-2 in December, respectively. Monthly sums of direct solar radiation (on horizontal plane) show the maximum and minimum values of the order ~456.9 MJm-2 in July and ~25.5MJm-2 in December, respectively. In an average, within a year should be marked the predominance of direct radiation over the scattered radiation, 51% and 49%, respectively. In the course of a year, the percentage contribution of the direct radiation into the total radiation is ~55-65% from May to September. In the remaining months, the percentage contribution decreases and takes the minimum value of ~ 28% in December. In an average, annual sum of total solar radiation is ~4679.9 MJm-2. For the period from April to September accounts for ~76% of the annual amount of total radiation. Annual sum of sunshine duration accounts for ~2149 hours, which is of ~ 48% from the possible sunshine duration. In an average, within a year maximum and minimum of sunshine duration is ~ 304 hours in

  2. Evaluating a radiation monitor for mixed-field environments based on SRAM technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tsiligiannis, G; Bosio, A; Girard, P; Pravossoudovitch, S; Todri, A; Virazel, A; Mekki, J; Brugger, M; Wrobel, F; Saigne, F

    2014-01-01

    Instruments operating in particle accelerators and colliders are exposed to radiations that are composed of particles of different types and energies. Several of these instruments often embed devices that are not hardened against radiation effects. Thus, there is a strong need for mon- itoring the levels of radiation inside the mixed-field radiation areas, throughout different positions. Different metrics exist for measuring the radiation damage induced to electronic devices, such as the Total Ionizing Dose (TID), the Displacement Damage (DD) and of course the fluence of parti- cles for estimating the error rates of the electronic devices among other applications. In this paper, we propose an SRAM based monitor, that is used to define the fluence of High Energy Hadrons (HEH) by detecting Single Event Upsets in the memory array. We evaluated the device by testing it inside the H4IRRAD area of CERN, a test area that reproduces the radiation conditions inside the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) tunnel and its shield...

  3. Glance traceability – Web system for equipment traceability and radiation monitoring for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos de Azevedo Evora, L H; Pommes, K; Galvão, K K; Maidantchik, C

    2010-01-01

    During the operation, maintenance, and dismantling periods of the ATLAS Experiment, the traceability of all detector equipment must be guaranteed for logistic and safety matters. The running of the Large Hadron Collider will expose the ATLAS detector to radiation. Therefore, CERN must follow specific regulations from both the French and Swiss authorities for equipment removal, transport, repair, and disposal. GLANCE Traceability, implemented in C++ and Java/Java3D, has been developed to fulfill the requirements. The system registers and associates each equipment part to either a functional position in the detector or a zone outside the underground area through a 3D graphical user interface. Radiation control of the equipment is performed using a radiation monitor connected to the system: the local background gets stored and the threshold is automatically calculated. The system classifies the equipment as non radioactive if its radiation dose does not exceed that limit value. History for both location traceabi...

  4. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 20: Radiation Monitoring Techniques (Radiochemical).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  5. INSTRUMENTATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING--Radiation--Vol3Pt1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1972-01-02

    A comprehensive survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring is being carried out by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory originally under a grant from the National Science Foundation and now by the Office of Health and Environmental Research of the Department of Energy. Instruments being investigated are those useful for measurements in Air Quality, Water Quality, Radiation, and Biomedicine related to environmental research and monitoring. Consideration is given to instruments and techniques presently in use and to those developed for other purposes but having possible applications to this work. The results of the survey are given as (a) descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, (b) critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and (c) recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Information is also given regarding the pollutants to be monitored: their characteristics and forms, their sources and pathways, their effects on the ecosystem, and the means of controlling them through process and regulatory controls.

  6. Observations from Juno's Radiation Monitoring Investigation during Juno's Early Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Heidi N.; Jorgensen, John L.; Adriani, Alberto; Mura, Alessandro; Connerney, John E. P.; Santos-Costa, Daniel; Bolton, Scott J.; Levin, Steven M.; Alexander, James W.; Adumitroaie, Virgil; Manor-Chapman, Emily A.; Daubar, Ingrid J.; Lee, Clifford; Benn, Mathias; Denver, Troelz; Sushkova, Julia; Cicchetti, Andrea; Noschese, Raffaella; Thorne, Richard M.

    2017-04-01

    Juno's Radiation Monitoring (RM) Investigation profiles Jupiter's >10-MeV electron environment throughout unexplored regions of the Jovian magnetosphere. RM's measurement approach involves active retrieval of the characteristic noise signatures from penetrating radiation in images obtained by Juno's heavily shielded star cameras and science instruments. Collaborative observation campaigns of "radiation image" collection and penetrating particle counts are conducted at targeted opportunities within the magnetosphere during each of Juno's perijove passes using the spacecraft Stellar Reference Unit, the Magnetic Field Investigation's Advanced Stellar Compass Imagers, and the JIRAM infrared imager. Simultaneous observations gathered from these very different instruments provide comparative spectral information due to substantial differences in instrument shielding. Juno's orbit provides a unique sampling of energetic particles within Jupiter's innermost radiation belts and polar regions. We present a survey of observations of the high energy radiation environment made by Juno's SRU and ASC star cameras and the JIRAM infrared imager during Juno's early perijove passes on August 27 and December 11, 2016; and February 2 and March 27, 2017. The JPL author's copyright for this publication is held by the California Institute of Technology. Government Sponsorship acknowledged.

  7. Nevada Test Site 2009 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Radioactive Waste

    2010-06-23

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2009 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NTS. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. All gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below the minimum detectable concentrations, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Radon flux from waste covers is well below regulatory limits. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 87.6 millimeters (mm) (3.45 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2009 is 43 percent below the average of 152.4 mm (6.00 in.), and the 62.7 mm (2.47 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2009 is 49 percent below the average of 122.5 mm (4.82 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05 continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than evaporation

  8. Radiation Response of Forward Biased Float Zone and Magnetic Czochralski Silicon Detectors of Different Geometry for 1-MeV Neutron Equivalent Fluence Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Mekki, J; Dusseau, Laurent; Roche, Nicolas Jean-Henri; Saigne, Frederic; Mekki, Julien; Glaser, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    Aiming at evaluating new options for radiation monitoring sensors in LHC/SLHC experiments, the radiation responses of FZ and MCz custom made silicon detectors of different geometry have been studied up to about 4 x 10(14) n(eq)/cm(2). The radiation response of the devices under investigation is discussed in terms of material type, thickness and active area influence.

  9. Nevada Test Site 2007 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2007 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2007a; 2008; Warren and Grossman, 2008). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are at background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. A single gamma spectroscopy measurement for cesium was slightly above the minimum detectable concentration, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Radon flux from waste covers is well below regulatory limits. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 136.8 millimeters (mm) (5.39 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2007 is 13 percent below the average of 158.1 mm (6.22 in.), and the 123.8 mm (4.87 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2007 is 6 percent below the average of 130.7 mm (5.15 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05U continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward movement percolation of precipitation more effectively

  10. Nevada National Security Site 2011 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-07-31

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2011 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are only slightly above detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. During the last 2 weeks of March 2011, gamma spectroscopy results for air particles showed measurable activities of iodine-131 (131I), cesium-134 (134Cs), and cesium-137 (137Cs). These results are attributed to the release of fission products from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi power plant in Japan. The remaining gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below minimum detectable concentrations. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. The 86.3 millimeters (mm) (3.40 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2011 is 44% below the average of 154.1 mm (6.07 in.), and the 64.8 mm

  11. Network-based real-time radiation monitoring system in Synchrotron Radiation Research Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, R J; Wang, J P; Chen, C R; Liu, J; Chang, F D; Jiang, S H

    2003-10-01

    The real-time radiation monitoring system (RMS) in the Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (SRRC) has been upgraded significantly during the past years. The new framework of the RMS is built on the popular network technology, including Ethernet hardware connections and Web-based software interfaces. It features virtually no distance limitations, flexible and scalable equipment connections, faster response time, remote diagnosis, easy maintenance, as well as many graphic user interface software tools. This paper briefly describes the radiation environment in SRRC and presents the system configuration, basic functions, and some operational results of this real-time RMS. Besides the control of radiation exposures, it has been demonstrated that a variety of valuable information or correlations could be extracted from the measured radiation levels delivered by the RMS, including the changes of operating conditions, beam loss pattern, radiation skyshine, and so on. The real-time RMS can be conveniently accessed either using the dedicated client program or World Wide Web interface. The address of the Web site is http:// www-rms.srrc.gov.tw.

  12. The LISA PathFinder DMU and Radiation Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Canizares, Priscilla; Diaz--Aguilo, Marc; Garcia-Berro, Enrique; Gesa, Lluis; Gibert, Ferran; Grimani, Catia; Lloro, Ivan; Lobo, Alberto; Mateos, Ignacio; Nofrarias, Miquel; Ramos-Castro, Juan; Sanjuan, Josep; Sopuerta, Carlos F

    2010-01-01

    The LISA PathFinder DMU (Data Management Unit) flight model was formally accepted by ESA and ASD on 11 February 2010, after all hardware and software tests had been successfully completed. The diagnostics items are scheduled to be delivered by the end of 2010. In this paper we review the requirements and performance of this instrumentation, specially focusing on the Radiation Monitor and the DMU, as well as the status of their programmed use during mission operations, on which work is ongoing at the time of writing.

  13. Visits by Nuclear-Powered Warships to Australian Ports: Report on Radiation Monitoring During 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    the Leader of the Radiation Monitoring Group is always a radiation protection officer of Ansto . 13. The marine environmental monitoring program is a...no radionuclide was detected that would be characteristic of the radioactive waste associated with NPW operations. Training 30. Ansto provided...and HMAS MORETON personnel were used to assist Ansto in impiementing the monitoring program. CONCLUSIONS 31. The program of radiation monitoring and

  14. Polymer-based triphenyl tetrazolium chloride films for ultraviolet radiation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebraheem, S.; Abdel-Fattah, A. A.; Said, F. I.; Ali, Z. I.

    2000-02-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation monitoring films were prepared from solutions of polymers (polyvinyl, alcohol, PVA, or polyvinyl butyral, PVB), containing triphenyl tetrazolium chloride dye (TTC). These films have a pronounced response to the main UV radiation spectral regions [UV-A (400-320 nm), UV-B (320-280 nm), and UV-C (280-180 nm)] showing different sensitivities. PVA/TTC film has its maximum sensitivity in the UV-A region, while PVB/TTC film has its maximum sensitivity in the UV-C region. Both films have almost the same sensitivity in the UV-B region. The radiation-induced colour change is analysed spectrophotometrically at the maximum of the visible absorption band peaking at 492 nm wavelength. The measurement uncertainty of estimating ultraviolet radiation energy incident per unit area on the films is found to be about 3.5% (1 σ). The study of the effect of radiance exposure, incident wavelength, and storage conditions have been carried out to characterise the use of these films for actinometric monitoring artificial ultraviolet radiation sources which are used for medical and industrial applications.

  15. Radiation monitoring handbook for visits by nuclear powered warships to Australian ports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, D.A

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to detail the Radiation Monitoring (RMG) roles and procedures, and to provide technical and background information useful to RMG personnel. It has been written on the assumption that all members of the RMG have had appropriate radiation safety (Health Physics) training. Separate standing procedures, for both routine and emergency activities, are required for each port. These are incorporated in Port Safety Plans and specify the routine monitoring requirements for individual berths or anchorages and the procedures to be followed after indication of a reactor accident to a nuclear powered warship. A Visit Operation Order, issued for each Nuclear Powered warships (NPW) visit, presents information specific to that visit. Routine monitoring is performed to confirm normal conditions. The objectives of emergency radiation monitoring are: to provide early detection of a reactor accident of sufficient severity to possibly cause a major release of fission products to the environment; to determine the nature and extent of any fission product release; to provide information to assist in evaluating the accident; to assess the need and extent of required countermeasures; and to determine when the release has terminated and when affected areas have returned to normal Prepared on behalf of the Visiting Ship Panel (Nuclear), Department of Defence; 11 refs., 11 tabs., 21 figs.

  16. Nevada National Security Site 2010 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2010 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2010a; 2010b; 2011). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. All gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below the minimum detectable concentrations, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 246.9 millimeters (mm) (9.72 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2010 is 56 percent above the average of 158.7 mm (6.25 in.), and the 190.4 mm (7.50 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2010 is 50 percent above the average of 126.7 mm (4.99 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05 continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than

  17. Testing of environmental radiation monitors using the Risø low-level radiation measurement stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    2000-01-01

    a simulation of a radioactive plume passing over the monitors during a certain time was made using a specially designed source set up in the field that was able to vary the air kerma rate from low activity Cs-137 sources additional to the natural air kerma rate. It is demonstrated that a typical environmental...... radiation detector can distinguish an increase of the ambient air kerma rate of less than 3%....

  18. A novel fast response and radiation-resistant scintillator detector for beam loss monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Y.; Tang, Z.; Li, C.; Li, X.; Shao, M.

    2017-07-01

    At high luminosity area, beam loss monitor with fast response and high radiation resistance is crucial for accelerator operation. In this article, we report the design and test results of a fast response and radiation-resistant scintillator detector as the beam loss monitor for high luminosity collider, especially at low energy region such as RFQ. The detector is consisted of a 2 cm× 2 cm× 0.5 cm LYSO crystal readout by a 6 mm × 6 mm Silicon photomultiplier. Test results from various radioactive sources show that the detector has good sensitivity to photons from tens of keV to several MeV with good linearity and energy resolution (23% for 60 keV γ-ray). For field test, two such detectors are installed outside of the vacuum chamber shell of an 800 MeV electron storage ring. The details of the test and results are introduced.

  19. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Daegu area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hee Dong; Cho, Yun Young; Lee, Hae Young [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal radiation level in Taegu and Kyungpook region, and to enhance our ability to prepare for the radiological emergency situation by establishing the radioactivity monitoring system in Taegu and Kyungpook region. In this report, we summarized a gamma exposure rates, a gross beta and gamma radionuclide activities for the environmental samples of airborned-dust. precipitation, fallout and tap water collected in Taegu radioactivity monitoring center, and a gamma radionuclide activities for the 28 grocery samples, such as tea, nut and mushroom, rice, chinese cabbage, wormwood and pine needles, soil and drinking water which were obtained from Taegu and Kyungpook region to establish the basic data base for estimating the internal exposure. In conclusion, it didn't appear any evidence for newly pollution of artificial radioactivity in Taegu and Kyungpook region.

  20. [Entomological monitoring of an area to assess Dirofilaria transmission risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganushkina, L A; Rakova, V M; Ivanova, I B; Supriaga, V G; Sergiev, V P

    2014-01-01

    As the basis for entomological monitoring, the authors first propose to investigate the structure of a season of D. repens invasion transmission in the carrier in relation to the ambient temperature, such as onset of a transmission season, terminaton of mosquito infection, the number of invasion circulations. A calculating procedure has been developed. It is shown that there is a need for entomological monitoring of each specific area irrespective of the latitude to study a risk for local dirofilariasis cases.

  1. Guidance on Monitoring of Gross Changes in Forest Area

    OpenAIRE

    Achard, Frederic; DeFries, Ruth; Herold, Martin; Mollicone, Danilo; Pandey, Devendra; Souza, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents the state of the art for data and approaches to be used for monitoring forest area changes at the national scale in tropical countries using remote sensing imagery. It includes approaches and data for monitoring both deforestation and forest degradation and for establishing historical reference scenarios. The chapter presents the minimum requirements to develop first order national deforestation databases, using typical and internationally accepted methods. There are ...

  2. Nevada National Security Site 2013 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, D. B.

    2014-08-19

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) within the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2013 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2013; 2014a; 2014b). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are close to detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. The 105.8 millimeters (mm) (4.17 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2013 is 30% below the average of 150.3 mm (5.92 in.), and the 117.5 mm (4.63 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2013 is 5% below the average of 123.6 mm (4.86 in.). Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents

  3. Nevada National Security Site 2012 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, David B.

    2013-09-10

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2012 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2012; 2013a; 2013b). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are only slightly above detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. The 133.9 millimeters (mm) (5.27 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2012 is 12% below the average of 153.0 mm (6.02 in.), and the 137.6 mm (5.42 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2012 is 11% below the average of 122.4 mm (4.82 in.). Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents

  4. Nevada National Security Site 2015 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Hudson, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2016-08-20

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) within the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data include direct radiation exposure, as well as radiation from the air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2015 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports developed by National Security Technologies, LLC. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show that tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. During 2015, precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS was 0.9% above average, and precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS was 25% above average. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than evaporation as measured from the bare-soil weighing lysimeter. The 1.8 inches of precipitation in September reached the lowest sensors at 180 cm on the Cell 5S and 5N covers, however the

  5. Comparative Measurements of Cosmic Radiation Monitors for Aircrew Exposure Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getley, I. L.; Bennett, L. G. I.; Boudreau, M. L.; Lewis, B. J.; Green, A. R.; Butler, A.; Takada, M.; Nakamura, T.

    Various commercially available electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) have recently been flown on numerous scheduled airline flights in order to determine their viability as small, convenient monitors to measure cosmic radiation at altitude. Often, frequent flyers or airline crew will acquire such dosimeters and report the readings from their flights, without due regard for the mixed radiation field at altitude, which is different from the intended fields on land. A sampling of EPDs has been compared to two types of spectrometers, which measure the total radiation spectrum. The "HAWK" tissue equivalent proportional counter is considered a reference instrument and measures the total dose equivalent H*(10). The Liulin-4N and 4SN linear energy transfer spectrometers each have a silicon semiconductor-based PIN diode detector which provides an absorbed dose, D, but have been further developed to provide H*(10). A Thermo Electron FH41B and B-10, and EPD-N2, and several personal dosimeters (Fuji NRY-21 and NRF-20, and RADOS DIS-100) were also flown.

  6. Comparative Measurements of Cosmic Radiation Monitors for Aircrew Exposure Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getley, I. L.; Bennett, L. G. I.; Boudreau, M. L.; Lewis, B. J.; Green, A. R.; Butler, A.; Takada, M.; Nakamura, T.

    Various commercially available electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) have recently been flown on numerous scheduled airline flights in order to determine their viability as small, convenient monitors to measure cosmic radiation at altitude. Often, frequent flyers or airline crew will acquire such dosimeters and report the readings from their flights, without due regard for the mixed radiation field at altitude, which is different from the intended fields on land. A sampling of EPDs has been compared to two types of spectrometers, which measure the total radiation spectrum. The “HAWK” tissue equivalent proportional counter is considered a reference instrument and measures the total dose equivalent H * (10). The Liulin-4N and 4SN linear energy transfer spectrometers each have a silicon semiconductor-based PIN diode detector which provides an absorbed dose, D, but have been further developed to provide H * (10). A Thermo Electron FH41B and B-10, and EPD-N2, and several personal dosimeters (Fuji NRY-21 and NRF-20, and RADOS DIS-100) were also flown.

  7. Radiation monitoring of the GEM muon detectors at CMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, L.; Iaydjiev, P.; Mitev, G.; Vankov, I.

    2016-09-01

    The higher energy and luminosity of future High Luminosity (HL) LHC, determines a significant increasing of the radiation background around the CMS subdetectors, and especially in the higher pseudorapidity region. Under such heavy conditions, the RPC (used in muon trigger) most probably could not operate effectively. GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) detectors have been identified as a suitable technology to operate in the high radiation environment in that region and test at CMS will start in 2016. A monitoring system to control the absorbed radiation dose by the GEM under test is developed. Two types of sensors are used in it: RadFETs for total absorbed dose and p-i-n diodes for particle (proton and neutron) detection. The basic detector unit, called RADMON, contains two sensors of each type and can be installed at each GEM detector. The system has a modular structure, permitting to increase easily the number of controlled RADMONs: one module controls up to 12 RADMONs, organized in three group of four and communicates outside by RS 485 and CANBUS interfaces.

  8. Study of Natural Background Radiation around Gurvanbulag Uranium Deposit Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkhbat, N.; Norov, N.; Bat-Erdene, B.; Khuukhenkhuu, G.; Otgooloi, B.

    2009-03-01

    In this work, we will show the study of natural background radiation level around the Gurvanbulag (GB) uranium deposit area in the eastern part of Mongolia. We collected environmental soil samples from 102 points around GB Uranium deposit. Collected samples were measured by HPGe gamma spectrometer at Nuclear Research Center, National University of Mongolia. The averaged activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, K-40, and Cs-137 were 37.1, 29, 939, and 17.7 Bq/kg, respectively.

  9. Individual Dose Monitor of External Radiation Personnel in IMP (1996~2001)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    For evaluating the individual annual effective dose of eternal radiation personnel in IMP, we monitored individual dose of external radiation personnel every year. The monitoring results are shown in Table 1, from which it is known from 1998 to 2001, we monitored 1099 workers, the mean annual effective dose is 0.13 mSv.

  10. Measurement of radioactivity in an elevated radiation background area of Western Ghats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manigandan P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of monitoring the exposure of the general public to natural radioactivity, the activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil samples in an elevated radiation background area of Western Ghats was determined using gamma-ray spectrometry. Average values of the activity concentration of radionuclides, outdoor terrestrial gamma dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent and radiation hazard indices from soil activity were estimated. The activity concentrations of 232Th and average outdoor terrestrial gamma dose rate were found to be higher than the world average, possibly affecting the Western Ghats environment in general. Therefore, radiological risks to the general population from ionizing radiation from the naturally occurring radionuclides in the soil are considered to be significant. How- ever, other radiological hazard indices were found to be within permissible limits.

  11. Calibration of the radiation monitor onboard Akebono using Geant4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Keiko; Takashima, Takeshi; Koi, Tatsumi; Nagai, Tsugunobu

    Natural high-energy electrons and protons (keV-MeV) in the space contaminate the data re-ciprocally. In order to calibrate the energy ranges and to remove data contamination on the radiation monitor (RDM) onboard the Japanese satellite, Akebono (EXOS-D), the detector is investigated using the Geant4 simulation toolkit of computational particle tracing. The semi-polar orbiting Akebono, launched in February 1989, is active now. This satellite has been observed the space environment at altitudes of several thousands km. The RDM instrument onboard Akebono monitors energetic particles in the Earth's radiation belt and gives important data accumulated for about two solar cycles. The data from RDM are for electrons in three energy channels of 0.3 MeV, protons in three energy channels of ¿ 30 MeV, and alpha particles in one energy channels of 15-45 MeV. The energy ranges are however based on information of about 20 years ago so that the data seem to include some errors actuary. In addition, these data include contamination of electrons and protons reciprocally. Actuary it is noticed that the electron data are contaminated by the solar protons but unknown quantitative amount of the contamination. Therefore we need data calibration in order to correct the energy ranges and to remove data contamination. The Geant4 simulation gives information of trajectories of incident and secondary particles whose are interacted with materials. We examine the RDM monitor using the Geant4 simulation. We find from the results that relativistic electrons of MeV behave quite complicatedly because of particle-material interaction in the instrument. The results indicate that efficiencies of detection and contamination are dependent on energy. This study compares the electron data from Akebono RDM with the simultaneous observation of CRRES and tries to lead the values of correction for each of the energy channels.

  12. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Seoul area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Ki; Chung, Ok Sun; Kim, Hong Suk [Seoul Monitoring Station, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    The following results were obtained through the environmental radiation monitoring in 2002 at the Seoul Monitoring Station: gamma exposure rate : 10.8 - 13.3 {mu}R/h, mean gross beta activity in airborne dust : 84.1 {+-} 46.2 mBq/m{sup 3}, mean gross beta activity in fallout dust : 11.9 {+-} 5.6 MBq/km{sup 2} - 30 days, meab gross beta activity in precipitation : 317 {+-} 465 mBq/L, mean gross beta activity in tap water : 71.2 {+-} 23.0 mBq/L. All the monitored variables remained in the corresponding normal ranges, which implies that there were no abnormal situations of environmental radiation in the Seoul-Gyunggi districts in 2002. Radioactivity contents in foodstuffs consumed in Seoul and Gyunggi districts were analyzed for use in assessment of population doses via dietary intakes. Samples include 16 foodstuffs (peanut, walnut, pine seeds, chessnut, acorn, sesame, perilla seeds, oak mushroom, meadow mushroom, velvet foot, oyster mushroom, instant coffee, green tea leaves, ginseng tea, rice and Chinese cabbage). Two indicator samples, pine needle and mug wort, were also included. Relatively higher concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, a man-made nuclide, were found in coffee and oak mushroom(0.554 and 0.480 Bq/kg, respectively). A few hundreds Bq/kg of {sup 40}K were found in most of the foodstuffs with higher concentrations in coffee and green tea leaves(786 and 574 Bq/kg, respectively)

  13. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Seoul area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Ki; Chung, Ok Sun; Kim, Hong Suk [Seoul Monitoring Station, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    The following results were obtained through the environmental radiation monitoring in 2002 at the Seoul Monitoring Station: gamma exposure rate : 10.8 - 13.3 {mu}R/h, mean gross beta activity in airborne dust : 84.1 {+-} 46.2 mBq/m{sup 3}, mean gross beta activity in fallout dust : 11.9 {+-} 5.6 MBq/km{sup 2} - 30 days, meab gross beta activity in precipitation : 317 {+-} 465 mBq/L, mean gross beta activity in tap water : 71.2 {+-} 23.0 mBq/L. All the monitored variables remained in the corresponding normal ranges, which implies that there were no abnormal situations of environmental radiation in the Seoul-Gyunggi districts in 2002. Radioactivity contents in foodstuffs consumed in Seoul and Gyunggi districts were analyzed for use in assessment of population doses via dietary intakes. Samples include 16 foodstuffs (peanut, walnut, pine seeds, chessnut, acorn, sesame, perilla seeds, oak mushroom, meadow mushroom, velvet foot, oyster mushroom, instant coffee, green tea leaves, ginseng tea, rice and Chinese cabbage). Two indicator samples, pine needle and mug wort, were also included. Relatively higher concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, a man-made nuclide, were found in coffee and oak mushroom(0.554 and 0.480 Bq/kg, respectively). A few hundreds Bq/kg of {sup 40}K were found in most of the foodstuffs with higher concentrations in coffee and green tea leaves(786 and 574 Bq/kg, respectively)

  14. Radiation and environmental monitoring at the nuclear legacy sites in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shandala, N.; Kiselev, S.; Titov, A.; Seregin, V.; Akhromeev, S.; Aladova, R.; Isaev, D. [SRC Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center (Russian Federation); Sneve, M. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    In 1960's, in the Northwest and Far East regions of Russia the technical bases of the Navy Fleet were built to maintain nuclear submarines by performing reloading of nuclear fuel, receiving and storing radioactive waste (RW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). In 2000, SevRAO enterprise in the northwest of Russia and DalRAO enterprise in the Far East were set up for the purposes of environmental remediation of the nuclear legacy sites. Regulatory supervision for radiation protection and safety at the nuclear legacy sites in Russian Far east and Northwest regions is one of regulatory functions of the Federal medical biological agency (FMBA of Russia). Improvement of the normative and regulatory basis has significant impact on effectiveness and efficiency of industrial projects aimed at reduction of nuclear and radiation hazard risk at the sites for the SNF and RW temporary storage (STS).To get unbiased comprehensive information on the current radiation conditions at the STSs and provide the effective response to changing radiation situation, the environmental radiation monitoring of the SevRAO and DalRAO facilities has been carried out during 2005-2013. The nature and peculiarity of the STS area radioactive contamination on the Kola Peninsula and in the Far East are the following: 1) high levels of radioactive contamination on the industrial site; 2) non-uniformity of the contamination distribution; 3) spread of contamination in the area of health protection zone. The following environmental components are contaminated: soil, vegetation, bottom sediments and seaweeds at the offshore sea waters. The dominant radionuclides are cesium-137 and strontium-90. At the facilities under inspection for the purpose of the dynamic control of the radiation situation the radio-ecological monitoring system was arranged. It presupposes regular radiometry inspections in-situ, their analysis and assessment of the radiation situation forecast in the course of the STS remediation main

  15. Conservation and monitoring of invertebrates in terrestrial protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melodie A. McGeoch

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Invertebrates constitute a substantial proportion of terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity and are critical to ecosystem function. However, their inclusion in biodiversity monitoring and conservation planning and management has lagged behind better-known, more widely appreciated taxa. Significant progress in invertebrate surveys, systematics and bioindication, both globally and locally, means that their use in biodiversity monitoring and conservation is becoming increasingly feasible. Here we outline challenges and solutions to the integration of invertebrates into biodiversity management objectives and monitoring in protected areas in South Africa. We show that such integration is relevant and possible, and assess the relative suitability of seven key taxa in this context. Finally, we outline a series of recommendations for mainstreaming invertebrates in conservation planning, surveys and monitoring in and around protected areas.Conservation implications: Invertebrates constitute a substantial and functionally significant component of terrestrial biodiversity and are valuable indicators of environmental condition. Although consideration of invertebrates has historically been neglected in conservation planning and management, substantial progress with surveys, systematics and bioindication means that it is now both feasible and advisable to incorporate them into protected area monitoring activities.

  16. The importance of geoprocessing tools in radiometric monitoring of large areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Danila Carrijo da Silva [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Pocos de Caldas; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da; Alberti, Heber Luiz Caponi; Guerrero, Eder Tadeu Zenun, E-mail: ncsilva@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: heber@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: edertzg@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Pocos de Caldas

    2011-07-01

    Throughout history, the natural tendency of men to physically characterize their different surroundings has played an important role on the evolution of societies. Today, that tendency combined to the development of computer technologies, has allowed the accelerated growth of the Geographical Information Systems, which permits the analysis and manipulation of spatial data from diverse sources, producing geo referenced databases. The gamma radiation, one of the main contributors of human exposure to natural radiation, is known for its high penetration energy. Today, the environmental gamma radiation is measured through radiometric tracking mobile units, allowing large scale samplings and precise assessments. As a geo processing case study, a radiometric monitoring work was conducted in the town of Aguas da Prata-SP using a tracking mobile system, composed by a scintillator detector, a GPS and a computer, all installed in a vehicle. The data made of collected points and their respective doses and geographical references were captured and stored in a computer software and then inserted and treated in a GIS environment. After a cartographic base was created using a digitalized map of Aguas da Prata, the sampled points were plotted and interpolated with the cartographic base, producing two maps that demonstrate the tracking route and the gamma radiation dose range throughout the monitored area. Geo processing tools have shown great efficiency in this study, allowing agile manipulation and management of a large quantity of data, thus promoting a spatial analysis of natural radiation levels in the studied region. (author)

  17. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, July--September 1993: Volume 13, No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1993-11-01

    This report provides the status and results of the NRC Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. It presents the radiation levels measured in the vicinity of NRC licensed facilities throughout the country for the third quarter of 1993.

  18. Analysis of the atmospheric upward radiation in low latitude area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiying; Wu, Zhensen; Lin, Leke; Lu, Changsheng

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing using THz wave has irreplaceable advantage comparing to the microwave and the infrared waves, and study on the THz remote sensing become more and more popular in recent years. The major applications of the remote sensing in THz wavelengths are the retrieval of the atmospheric parameters and the microphysical information of the ice cloud. The remote sensing of the atmosphere is based on the radiation of THz wave along the earth-space path of which the most significant part is the upward radiation of the atmosphere. The upward radiation of the atmosphere in sunny day in the low latitude area is computed and analyzed in this paper. The absorption of THz wave by the atmosphere is calculated using the formulations illustrated in the Recommendation ITU-R P.676 to save machine hour, the frequency range is then restricted below 1THz. The frequencies used for the retrieval of atmospheric parameters such as temperature and water content are usually a few hundred GHz, at the lower end of THz wavelengths, so this frequency range is sufficient. The radiation contribution of every atmospheric layer for typical frequencies such as absorption window frequencies and peak frequencies are analyzed. Results show that at frequencies which absorption is severe, information about lower atmosphere cannot reach the receiver onboard a satellite or other high platforms due to the strong absorption along the path.

  19. The integrated monitoring area Lheebroekerzand, Netherlands. Data of 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathijssen-Spiekman, E.A.M.; De Zwart, D.

    1995-09-01

    The results of the title monitoring programme are presented. The main objective of this paper is to compile and present the 1994 monitoring data which are obliged to be forwarded to the international database in Helsinki, Finland, by the end of September 1995. Additional non-obligatory data are also reported. It is explicitly not within the scope of this report to give a detailed analysis of causes and effects as may be concluded from correlation studies comprising longer time-series and spatial gradient. In 1994, the biological part of the integrated monitoring programme consisted of a regular inventory of birds, leafminers and butterflies in the monitoring area, as well as inventories of the aquatic macrofauna present in the moorland pool Kliplo and observations on the performance of pine trees. The chemical-physical part included meteorological variables like temperature, humidity, the amount of precipitation and irradiation, together with chemical analysis of air, precipitation, mosses, leaves, needles and pool water. Where possible, the series of data are described, interpreted and compared. The obligatory monitoring activities described in the ICP/IM-manual which are possible to be performed in the Dutch area, are carried out with exception of the programmes on trunk epiphytes, aerial green algae and soil water chemistry. Concerning progress and conclusiveness of the Netherlands contribution to the UN/ECE-IMP it can be stated that: more manpower is needed to continue the program; the development of the monitoring area is not yet completed and additions to the monitoring programme have to be performed; more sampling and analysis is needed to draw firm conclusions on the applicability of the data on leafminers and butterflies and other recent additions; more capacity is needed to pay adequate attention to the interpretation and evaluation of collected data. 7 figs., 5 tabs., 18 refs., 3 appendices

  20. Analysis on abnormal results of personal dose monitoring among radiation workers in Nanjing military area command from 2010-2011%2010-2011年南京军区放射工作人员个人剂量监测异常结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣曙; 杨龙; 陈乐如; 毛应华; 金慧英; 赵国良; 朱乐明

    2012-01-01

    目的 对2010-2011年南京军区放射工作人员个人剂量监测中数据异常的原因进行总结分析.方法 采用个人剂量计,对个人剂量监测结果进行统计分析.结果 2010-2011年期间,全区共计125人次个人剂量异常,其中从事介入治疗工作的占57.6%,从事放射诊断工作的仅占2.4%.大部分异常剂量在5mSv以下,且56.8%的剂量异常并非实际受照.导致剂量异常的原因主要有剂量计佩戴不规范(50.4%)、工作量大、接触射线时间长(37.6%),以及操作不规范(4.8%)等.结论 加强防护知识培训,加大监督执法力度,提高个人防护意识,保证数据真实可靠,是下一步工作的重点.%[Objective]To summarize and analyze the abnormal reasons of personal dose monitoring data among radiation workers in Nanjing military area command from 2010-2011. [Methods]By using personal dosimeter, the results of personal dose monitoring were analyzed statistically. [Results]During 2010-2011, a total of 12S person/times were detected for abnormal personal dose in Nanjing military area command. Among them, 57.6% were people worked in department of interventional therapy, and only 2.4% worked in department of radiological diagnosis. Most of abnormal doses were less than SmSv, and 56.8% of the abnormal doses were not caused by the actual exposure. The main reasons for abnormal doses included; the application of personal dosimeters was not standardized (SO. 4%), the workload was heavy and the exposure time was too long (37.6% ), as well as the operation was not standard (4.8%). [Conclusion]It is important to strengthen training of knowledge about radiation protection, enhance the intensity of law enforcement, improve the consciousness about personal radiation protection, and ensure that the data is reliable.

  1. The novel application of Benford's second order analysis for monitoring radiation output in interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournane, S; Sheehy, N; Cooke, J

    2014-06-01

    Benford's law is an empirical observation which predicts the expected frequency of digits in naturally occurring datasets spanning multiple orders of magnitude, with the law having been most successfully applied as an audit tool in accountancy. This study investigated the sensitivity of the technique in identifying system output changes using simulated changes in interventional radiology Dose-Area-Product (DAP) data, with any deviations from Benford's distribution identified using z-statistics. The radiation output for interventional radiology X-ray equipment is monitored annually during quality control testing; however, for a considerable portion of the year an increased output of the system, potentially caused by engineering adjustments or spontaneous system faults may go unnoticed, leading to a potential increase in the radiation dose to patients. In normal operation recorded examination radiation outputs vary over multiple orders of magnitude rendering the application of normal statistics ineffective for detecting systematic changes in the output. In this work, the annual DAP datasets complied with Benford's first order law for first, second and combinations of the first and second digits. Further, a continuous 'rolling' second order technique was devised for trending simulated changes over shorter timescales. This distribution analysis, the first employment of the method for radiation output trending, detected significant changes simulated on the original data, proving the technique useful in this case. The potential is demonstrated for implementation of this novel analysis for monitoring and identifying change in suitable datasets for the purpose of system process control.

  2. The World Radiation Monitoring Center of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network: Status 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driemel, Amelie; König-Langlo, Gert; Sieger, Rainer; Long, Charles N.

    2017-04-01

    The World Radiation Monitoring Center (WRMC) is the central archive of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN). The BSRN was initiated by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Working Group on Radiative Fluxes and began operations in 1992. One of its aims is to provide short and long-wave surface radiation fluxes of the best possible quality to support the research projects of the WCRP and other scientific projects. The high quality, uniform and consistent measurements of the BSRN network can be used to monitor the short- and long-wave radiative components and their changes with the best methods currently available, to validate and evaluate satellite-based estimates of the surface radiative fluxes, and to verify the results of global climate models. In 1992 the BSRN/WRMC started at ETH Zurich, Switzerland with 9 stations. Since 2007 the archive is hosted by the Alfred-Wegener-Institut (AWI) in Bremerhaven, Germany (http://www.bsrn.awi.de/) and comprises a network of currently 59 stations in contrasting climatic zones, covering a latitude range from 80°N to 90°S. Of the 59 stations, 23 offer the complete radiation budget (down- and upwelling short- and long-wave data). In addition to the ftp-service access instituted at ETH Zurich, the archive at AWI offers data access via PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science (https://www.pangaea.de). PANGAEA guarantees the long-term availability of its content through a commitment of the operating institutions. Within PANGAEA, the metadata of the stations are freely available. To access the data itself an account is required. If the scientist accepts to follow the data release guidelines of the archive (http://bsrn.awi.de/data/conditions-of-data-release/) he or she can get an account from amelie.driemel@awi.de. Currently, more than 9,400 station months (>780 years) are available for interested scientists (see also https://dataportals.pangaea.de/bsrn/?q=LR0100 for an overview on available data

  3. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Busan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Han Soeb; Jang, Young A [Busan Regional Monitoring Station, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Busan have been measured periodically in 2001 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Gamma nuclides in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been I monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Pusan, vegetables, fishes, shellfish, drinking water (total 33ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KlNS. We analysis gamma nuclide for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzing an gamma nuclide concentration in environmental samples in Pusan are fee of radiological contaminants.

  4. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gunsan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Ho; Ro, Jeong Suk [Kunsan Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-01-15

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Kunsan have been measured priodically in 2000 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Artificial radionuclide of {sup 137}Cs in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Jeon-buk, vegetables, fishes, shellfishes, drinking water (total 33ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma isotope for all. No significant Changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzig an artificial nuclide concentration in living environmental sample in Jeon-buk are I fee of radiological contaminants.

  5. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Gunsan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Ho; Ro, Jeong Suk [Kunsan Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Kunsan have been measured priodically in 2002 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Artificial radionuclide of {sup 137}Cs in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Jeon-buk, vegetables, fishes, shellfishes, drinking water (total 33ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma isotope for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzig an artificial nuclide concentration in living environmental sample in Jeon-buk are fee of radiological contaminants.

  6. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Busan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Han Soeb; Jang, Young A. [Busan Regional Monitoring Station, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Pusan have been measured periodically in 2003 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Gamma nuclides in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Busan foodstuffs, dust, drinking water (total 24ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma nuclide for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzing an gamma nuclide concentration in environmental samples in Pusan are fee of radiological contaminants.

  7. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Busan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Han Soeb; Jang, Young A [Busan Regional Monitoring Station, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    At Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station in Busan have been measured periodically in 2002 gross beta activities in the airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water and gamma exposure rates. Gamma nuclides in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation have also been monitored at the station. As a part of environmental radiation/radioactivity distribution survey around Pusan foodstuffs, dust, drinking water (total 24ea) samples were taken from sampling sites which were selected by KINS. We analysis gamma nuclide for all. No significant changes from the previous survey have been found in both beta activities and gamma exposure rates. As the results of analyzing an gamma nuclide concentration in environmental samples in Pusan are fee of radiological contaminants.

  8. Angular and energy dependence of radiation protection monitors to the quantity ambient dose equivalent for gamma radiation;Dependencia angular e energetica de monitores de radioprotecao para medidas de equivalente de dose ambiental para radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonato, Fernanda B.C.; Carvalho, Valdir S.; Diniz, Raphael E.; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In Brazil, most of the equipment used for monitoring area is just used in the quantities exposure and absorbed dose, with the need of adjustment to the ambient dose equivalent, H{sup *}(10). In this work, 19 Geiger-Mueller detectors and 7 ionization chambers were calibrated in the Calibration Laboratory of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares, IPEN. The energy dependence of these radiation detectors was studied for gamma radiation ({sup 137}Cs e {sup 60}Co) and the angular dependence, for {sup 137}Cs radiation. (author)

  9. PRD3000: A novel Personnel Radiation Detector with Radiation Exposure Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallu-Labruyere, A.; Micou, C.; Schulcz, F.; Fellinger, J. [Mirion Technologies - MGPI SA (France)

    2015-07-01

    PRD3000{sup TM} is a novel Personal Radiation Detector (PRD) with personnel radiation dose exposure monitoring. It is intended for First Responders, Law Enforcement, Customs Inspectors protecting critical infrastructures for detecting unexpected radioactive sources, who also need real time Hp(10) dose equivalent information. Traditional PRD devices use scintillator materials instrumented through either a photomultiplier tube or a photodiode photodetector. While the former is bulky and sensitive to magnetic fields, the latter has to compromise radiation sensitivity and energy threshold given its current noise per unit of photo-detection surface. Recently, solid state photodetectors (SiPM), based on arrays of Geiger operated diodes, have emerged as a scalable digital photodetector for photon counting. Their strong breakdown voltage temperature dependence (on the order of tens of milli-volts per K) has however limited their use for portable instruments where strong temperature gradients can be experienced, and limited power is available to temperature stabilize. The PRD3000 is based on the industry standard DMC3000 active dosimeter that complies with IEC 61526 Ed. 3 and ANSI 42.20 for direct reading personal dose equivalent meters and active personnel radiation monitors. An extension module is based on a CsI(Tl) scintillator readout by a temperature compensated SiPM. Preliminary nuclear tests combined with a measured continuous operation in excess of 240 hours from a single AAA battery cell indicate that the PRD3000 complies with the IEC 62401 Ed.2 and ANSI 42.32 without sacrificing battery life time. We present a summary of the device test results, starting with performance stability over a temperature range of - 20 deg. C to 50 deg. C, false alarm rates and dynamic response time. (authors)

  10. Moscow State University near-Earth radiation monitoring satellite system: current status and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasyuk, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    Radiation measurements using instruments have been designed and manufacturing in the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University and installed onboard different satellites,i.e. LEO -"Meteor", ISS, GPS - GLONASS, GEO - "Electro" are presented as a basis of radiation monitoring system for control of radiation condition with a goal for to decrease radiation risk of spacecraft's damage on different orbits. Development of this system including radiation measurements onboard "Lomonosov"(LEO) satellite will be presented as well together with future project of multispacecraft LEO system for radiation monitoring.

  11. Wide-area monitoring of interconnected power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Messina, Arturo Román

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a compact yet comprehensive treatment of advanced data-driven signal processing techniques for the analysis and characterization of both ambient power system data and transient oscillations resulting from major disturbances. Inspired by recent developments in multi-sensor data fusion, multi-temporal data assimilation techniques for power system monitoring are proposed and tested in the context of modern wide-area monitoring system architectures. Recent advances in understanding and modeling nonlinear, time-varying power system processes are reviewed and factors affecting the

  12. NRC TLD direct radiation monitoring network: Progress report, July--September 1997. Volume 17, Number 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1998-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network is operated by the NRC in cooperation with participating states to provide continuous measurement of the ambient radiation levels around licensed NRC facilities, primarily power reactors. Ambient radiation levels result from naturally occurring radionuclides present in the soil, cosmic radiation constantly bombarding the earth from outer space, and the contribution, if any, from the monitored facilities and other man-made sources. The Network is intended to measure radiation levels during routine facility operations and to establish background radiation levels used to assess the radiological impact of an unusual condition, such as an accident. This report presents the radiation levels measured around all facilities in the Network for the third quarter of 1996. A complete listing of the site facilities monitored is included. In some instances, two power reactor facilities are monitored by the same set of dosimeters (e.g., Kewaunee and Point Beach).

  13. Moisture Monitoring at Area G, Technical Area 54, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2016 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitt, Daniel Glenn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Birdsell, Kay Hanson [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jennings, Terry L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-17

    Hydrological characterization and moisture monitoring activities provide data required for evaluating the transport of subsurface contaminants in the unsaturated and saturated zones beneath Area G, and for the Area G Performance Assessment and Composite Analysis. These activities have been ongoing at Area G, Technical Area 54 of the Los Alamos National Laboratory since waste disposal operations began in 1957. This report summarizes the hydrological characterization and moisture monitoring activities conducted at Area G. It includes moisture monitoring data collected from 1986 through 2016 from numerous boreholes and access tubes with neutron moisture meters, as well as data collected by automated dataloggers for water content measurement sensors installed in a waste disposal pit cover, and buried beneath the floor of a waste disposal pit. This report is an update of a nearly identical report by Levitt et al., (2015) that summarized data collected through early 2015; this report includes additional moisture monitoring data collected at Pit 31 and the Pit 38 extension through December, 2016. It also includes information from the Jennings and French (2009) moisture monitoring report and includes all data from Jennings and French (2009) and the Draft 2010 Addendum moisture monitoring report (Jennings and French, 2010). For the 2015 version of this report, all neutron logging data, including neutron probe calibrations, were investigated for quality and pedigree. Some data were recalculated using more defensible calibration data. Therefore, some water content profiles are different from those in the Jennings and French (2009) report. All of that information is repeated in this report for completeness. Monitoring and characterization data generally indicate that some areas of the Area G vadose zone are consistent with undisturbed conditions, with water contents of less than five percent by volume in the top two layers of the Bandelier tuff at Area G. These data also

  14. Measurements and simulations of the BLM response to a radiation field inside the CERF target area

    CERN Document Server

    Lebbos, E; Dehning, B; Effinger, E; Ferrari, A; Kramer, D; Nordt, A; Roeed, K; Roesler, S; Sapinski, M; Vlachoudis, V; CERN. Geneva. EN Department

    2010-01-01

    The CERN-EU high-energy reference field (CERF) facility is installed in one of the secondary beam lines (H6) of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), in the North Experimental Area at CERN. This facility is used as a reference for testing, inter-comparing and calibrating passive and active instruments. In May 2009, the SPS provided a mixed hadron beam (protons, pions and kaons) during a few days, in order to perform several measurements with different devices such as the Radiation Protection Monitor used for residual dose rates due to Induced Radioactivity in the LHC (PMI), the Secondary Emission Monitor used for high beam losses (SEM), the Radiation Monitor for electronics (RadMon), and the Beam Loss Monitor for the LHC (BLM). This report focuses on the measurements of the BLM response during this year’s operation at CERF. The measurements evaluate the sensitivity of the BLM signal to the particle energy spectrum, with special attention to the contribution coming from thermal neutrons. For this purpose, meas...

  15. Measurements and simulations of the BLM response to a radiation field inside the CERF target area

    CERN Document Server

    Lebbos, E; Dehning, B; Effinger, E; Ferrari, A; Kramer, D; Nordt, A; Roeed, K; Roesler, S; Sapinski, M; Vlachoudis, V

    2010-01-01

    The CERN-EU high-energy reference field (CERF) facility is installed in one of the secondary beam lines (H6) of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), in the North Experimental Area at CERN. This facility is used as a reference for testing, inter-comparing and calibrating passive and active instruments. In May 2009, the SPS provided a mixed hadron beam (protons, pions and kaons) during a few days, in order to perform several measurements with different devices such as the Radiation Protection Monitor used for residual dose rates due to Induced Radioactivity in the LHC (PMI), the Secondary Emission Monitor used for high beam losses (SEM), the Radiation Monitor for electronics (RadMon), and the Beam Loss Monitor for the LHC (BLM). This report focuses on the measurements of the BLM response during this year’s operation at CERF. The measurements evaluate the sensitivity of the BLM signal to the particle energy spectrum, with special attention to the contribution coming from thermal neutrons. For this purpose, meas...

  16. Study of response of radiation monitors for environmental dose equivalent measurements; Estudo da resposta de monitores de radiacao para medidas de equivalente de dose ambiental H*(10)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Macilene N.; Khoury, H.J. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2005-07-01

    The environmental dose equivalent H * (10), is the magnitude recommended by ICRU 39 for environmental monitoring in fields of radiation of photons. Most of the equipment used for area monitoring, only quantifies the magnitudes exposure or dose not being designed to this new magnitude. In Brazil, particularly, is not yet regulated the use of H * (10). However, with the revision of the standard 3.01 it will necessary the use of monitors that allow the achievement of measures according to H * (10). The transition for using new magnitudes will be a slow process and the contribution that the laboratories of metrology of ionizing radiation in the country can give is, at first, promote and create the habit of using the unit Sievert (Sv) in the calibration of the instruments, and that is the unit recommended for H * (10). In a second step, the tests for determining the response of the instruments for H * (10) should be made and this is the harder step, taking into account the large number of area monitors around the country. These tests will provide information about the limitations of the instrument to the new magnitude, that is, the range where the instrument will have the best performance in quantification of new magnitude. This paper evaluates the performance for H * (10), with the variation of energy and angle of incidence of radiation, of three of the most used monitors in the country.

  17. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Seoul area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Ki; Kim, Hong Suk [Seoul Monitoring Station, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The following results were obtained through the environmental radiation monitoring in 2003 at the Seoul monitoring station : gamma exposure rate : 10.8 - 13.3 {mu}R/h, mean gross beta activity in airborne dust : 4.31 {+-} 2.01 mBq/m{sup 3} (after 48 hours), mean gross beta activity in fallout dust : 11.5 {+-} 4.3 MBq/km{sup 2} - 30 days, meab gross beta activity in precipitation : 230 {+-} 246 mBq/L, mean gross beta activity in tap water : 69.3 {+-} 15.7 mBq/L. All the monitored variables remained in the corresponding normal ranges, which implies that there were no abnormal situations of environmental radiation in the Seoul district in 2003. Radioactivity contents in foodstuffs consumed in Seoul and northern part of Gyunggi district were analyzed for use in assessment of population doses via dietary intakes. Samples include 16 foodstuffs(peanut, walnut, pine seeds, chessnut, acorn, sesame, perilla seeds, oak mushroom, meadow mushroom, velvet foot, oyster mushroom, instant coffee, green tea leaves, ginseng tea, rice and Chinese cabbage). Two indicator samples, pine needle and mugwort, were also included. Relatively higher concentrations of {sup l37}Cs, a man-made nuclide, were found in coffee and oak mushroom(0.733 and 0.339 Bq/kg{center_dot}fresh, respectively). A few hundreds Bq/kg{center_dot}fresh of {sup 40}K were found in most of the foodstuffs with higher concentrations in coffee and green tea leaves (1300 and 579 Bq/kg{center_dot}fresh, respectively)

  18. Sentinel areas: a monitoring strategy in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Maria da Glória

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Available techniques for monitoring the health situation have proven insufficient, thus leading to a discussion of the need for their improvement based on new data collection strategies allowing for data use by local health systems. This article presents the methodological basis for a strategy to monitor health problems utilizing demarcated intra-urban spaces called "sentinel areas" to collect fundamental social, economic, behavioral, and biological data for public health that allow for a closer approach to the reality of complex social spaces. The authors present an experience that is being developed in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, to evaluate the epidemiological impact of an environmental sanitation program. They discuss selection criteria for the areas and the potential uses of this strategy allowing for the rapid utilization of epidemiological resources by health services and the timely application of the results to reorient and enhance health intervention practices.

  19. Landslide Monitoring with ALOS/PALSAR data in Mountain Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X.; Qi, H.; Yu, B.

    2015-12-01

    InSAR is a relatively new technique with a high potential in earth observation, which has made great success in monitoring urban areas deformation. At present, although there are a considerable number of applications in the complicated mountain areas, it is hard to obtain sufficiently high-density stable point targets in these regions. So scientists have been trying to solve this bottleneck problem and improve accuracy in mountain areas. In this work, we present the landslide measurement result in complicated topographic region using ALOS/PALSAR data. The test area is selected around highlands of the boundary between China and India. We choose 13 scenes of ALOS/PALSAR images from May 2007 to February 2011. The main landforms in this experimental region are bare rock and soil, ice and snow, the vegetation in the alpine area. Due to the lithology of the strata and the undulations extent of the terrain, it is prone to cause landslides in the event of rainfall, earthquakes, snow melt or human activities. The traditional PS algorithm has a higher requirement for a long time series data collection, especially in low-coherence area of vegetation cover. As the collected data and stable points are relatively less in this experimental area, we plan to study the time series InSAR analysis coherence model and error model, and extend its application to the extra-urban regions. The approach has been carried out to increase the density of stable points, which are mainly distributed on the top of mountain and ridge areas. And using the 13 images we find several subsidence areas by this technique. The result shows that the top of mountain is relatively stable and the suspected landslide areas are mainly along the ridge, which is in accordance with the actual situation. Then the mechanism and stability analysis of landslide is discussed. Meanwhile, some other measurement data in experimental area is available for cross validation, such as optical data and TerraSAR-X data. And a

  20. Overview of the Existing Forest Area Changes Monitoring Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Achard, Frederic; DeFries, Ruth; Pandey, Devendra; Souza, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the existing forest area changes monitoring systems at the national scale in tropical countries using remote sensing imagery. Section 3.2.2 describes national case studies: the Brazilian system which produces annual estimates of deforestation in the legal Amazon, the Indian National biannual forest cover assessment, an example of a sampling approach in the Congo basin and an example of wall-to-wall approach in Cameroon.

  1. 1998 Comprehensive TNX Area Annual Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-06-02

    Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride. The Interim Action T-1 Air Stripper System began operation on September 16, 1996. A comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. The Interim Action is meeting its objectives and is capable of continuing to do so until the final groundwater remedial action is in place.

  2. Radioactivity in the groundwater of a high background radiation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, E I; Kinsara, A A

    2014-11-01

    Natural radioactivity was measured in groundwater samples collected from 37 wells scattered in an inhabited area of high natural background radiation, in a purpose of radiation protection. The study area is adjacent to Aja heights of granitic composition in Hail province, Saudi Arabia. Initial screening for gross α and gross β activities showed levels exceeded the national regulation limits set out for gross α and gross β activities in drinking water. The gross α activity ranged from 0.17 to 5.41 Bq L(-)(1) with an average value of 2.15 Bq L(-)(1), whereas gross β activity ranged from 0.48 to 5.16 Bq L(-)(1), with an average value of 2.60 Bq L(-)(1). The detail analyses indicated that the groundwater of this province is contaminated with uranium and radium ((226)Ra and (228)Ra). The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra and (228)Ra were 0.40, 0.77, 0.29 and 0.46 Bq L(-)(1), respectively. The higher uranium content was found in the samples of granitic aquifers, whereas the higher radium content was found in the samples of sandstone aquifers. Based on the obtained results, mechanism of leaching of the predominant radionuclides has been discussed in detail.

  3. L-Area Reactor - 1993 annual - groundwater monitoring report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    Groundwater was sampled and analyzed during 1993 from wells monitoring the water table at the following locations in L Area: the L-Area Acid/Caustic Basin (four LAC wells), L-Area Research Wells in the southern portion of the area (outside the fence; three LAW wells), the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin (four LCO wells), the L-Area Disassembly Basin (two LDB wells), the L-Area Burning/Rubble Pit (four LRP wells), and the L-Area Seepage Basin (four LSB wells). During 1993, tetrachloroethylene was detected above its drinking water standard (DWS) in the LAC, LAW, LCO, and LDB well series. Lead exceeded its 50 {mu}g/L standard in the LAW, LDB, and LRP series, and tritium was above its DWS in the LAW, LCO, and LSB series. Apparently anomalous elevated levels of the common laboratory contaminant bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate were reported during first quarter in one well each in the LAC series and LCO series, and during third quarter in a different LCO well. Extensive radionuclide analyses were performed during 1993 in the LAC, LAW, and LCO well series. No radionuclides other than tritium were reported above DWS or Flag 2 criteria.

  4. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, October--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1996. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 74 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network progress report, October--December 1994. Volume 14, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1994. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program.

  6. Nailfold Capillaroscopic Monitoring as Preventive Medicine in Subjects Exposed to Ionising Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennarola, R.; Perdereau, B.; Trenta, G.; Cosset, J. M.

    2004-07-01

    Capillaroscopy consists of in vivo observation of microvessels using special microscopes with a short focal length. Normally, when looking at the nail fold, where capillaroscopy is commonly used, the capillaries ares arranged like hairpins, lined up in parallel or obliquely to the field of vision in three or four layers above the subpapillary venous network, approximately 20 loops per mm''2. Ionising radiation can badly damage the skin and underlying tissues. The capillary network is among the first structures to show an effect. Moderate doses of radiation cause damage endothelial cells with hypertrophy or hyperplasia of endothelial cells, which can block capillaries while having little effect on larger vessels. Occlusion of capillaries impedes blood flow no only in nearby tissue but also in areas farther away. Capillaroscopic examination of the nail fold is irreplaceable in the field of radioprotection especially in cases of exposure of the hands. Nailfold capillaroscopic monitoring lets us observe the degree to which qualitative and quantitative alterations of the capillaries are a function of the evolution of the lesion. Therefore, for biological monitoring of subjects exposed to radiation the authors propose to use this microvascular quantitative analysis of the nailfold region. Experience, matured over many years by our team, highlights the relation between the sum of repeated exposure and the importance of tissue alterations evidenced by microcirculation. (Author) 9 refs.

  7. Radiation protection, radioactive waste management and site monitoring at the nuclear scientific experimental and educational centre IRT-Sofia at INRNE-BAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenov, Al; Stankov, D; Nonova, Tz; Krezhov, K

    2014-11-01

    This article identifies important components and describes the safe practices in implementing radiation protection and radioactive waste management programmes, and in their optimisation at the Nuclear Scientific Experimental and Educational Centre with research reactor IRT at INRNE-BAS. It covers the instrumentation and personal protective equipment and organisational issues related to the continuous site monitoring. The reactor is under major reconstruction and the measures applied to radiation monitoring of environment and working area focused on restricting the radiation exposure of the staff as well as compliance with international good practices related to the environmental and public radiation safety requirements are also addressed.

  8. Tsunamis hazard assessment and monitoring for the Back Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partheniu, Raluca; Ionescu, Constantin; Constantin, Angela; Moldovan, Iren; Diaconescu, Mihail; Marmureanu, Alexandru; Radulian, Mircea; Toader, Victorin

    2016-04-01

    NIEP has improved lately its researches regarding tsunamis in the Black Sea. As part of the routine earthquake and tsunami monitoring activity, the first tsunami early-warning system in the Black Sea has been implemented in 2013 and is active during these last years. In order to monitor the seismic activity of the Black Sea, NIEP is using a total number of 114 real time stations and 2 seismic arrays, 18 of the stations being located in Dobrogea area, area situated in the vicinity of the Romanian Black Sea shore line. Moreover, there is a data exchange with the Black Sea surrounding countries involving the acquisition of real-time data for 17 stations from Bulgaria, Turkey, Georgia and Ukraine. This improves the capability of the Romanian Seismic Network to monitor and more accurately locate the earthquakes occurred in the Black Sea area. For tsunamis monitoring and warning, a number of 6 sea level monitoring stations, 1 infrasound barometer, 3 offshore marine buoys and 7 GPS/GNSS stations are installed in different locations along and near the Romanian shore line. In the framework of ASTARTE project, few objectives regarding the seismic hazard and tsunami waves height assessment for the Black Sea were accomplished. The seismic hazard estimation was based on statistical studies of the seismic sources and their characteristics, compiled using different seismic catalogues. Two probabilistic methods were used for the evaluation of the seismic hazard, the Cornell method, based on the Gutenberg Richter distribution parameters, and Gumbel method, based on extremes statistic. The results show maximum values of possible magnitudes and their recurrence periods, for each seismic source. Using the Tsunami Analysis Tool (TAT) software, a set of tsunami modelling scenarios have been generated for Shabla area, the seismic source that could mostly affect the Romanian shore. These simulations are structured in a database, in order to set maximum possible tsunami waves that could be

  9. The integrated monitoring area Lheebroekerzand the Netherlands. Data of 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathijssen-Spiekman, E.A.M.

    1996-09-01

    The results of the title monitoring programme are presented. The main objective of this paper is to compile and present the 1995 monitoring data which are obliged to be forwarded to the international database in Helsinki, Finland, by the end of September 1996. Additional non-obligatory data are also reported. It is explicitly not within the scope of this report to give a detailed analysis of causes and effects as may be concluded from correlation studies comprising longer time-series and spatial gradient. In 1995, the biological part of the integrated monitoring programme consisted of a regular inventory of birds, leafminers and butterflies in the monitoring area, as well as inventories of the aquatic macrofauna present in the moorland pool Kliplo and observations on the performance of pine trees. The chemical-physical part included meteorological variables like temperature, humidity, the amount of precipitation and irradiation, together with chemical analysis of air, precipitation, leaves, needles and pool water. Where possible, the series of data are described and compared with data of previous years. The obligatory monitoring activities described in the ICP/IM-manual which are possible to be performed in the Dutch area, are carried out with exception of the programmes on trunk epiphytes, aerial green algae and soil water chemistry. Also in 1995, the capacity was lacking to develop these programmes. The improvement which has been carried out in 1995 is increasing the number of rainwater-collectors for bulk- and throughfall deposition from 4 to 5. Due to lack of manpower the running programmes were barely continued. 7 figs., 17 tabs., 23 refs., 3 appendices

  10. Environmental monitoring in peat bog areas by change detection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Ulrich; Mildes, Wiebke

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing image analysis systems and geographic information systems (GIS) show great promise for the integration of a wide variety of spatial information supporting tasks such as urban and regional planning, natural resource management, agricultural studies and topographic or thematic mapping. Current and future remote sensing programs are based on a variety of sensors that will provide timely and repetitive multisensor earth observation on a global scale. GIS offer efficient tools for handling, manipulating, analyzing and presenting spatial data that are required for sensible decision making in various areas. The Environmental Monitoring project may serve as a convincing example of the operational use of integrated GIS/remote sensing technologies. The overall goal of the project is to assess the capabilities of satellite remote sensing for the analysis of land use changes, especially in moor areas. These areas are recognized as areas crucial to the mission of the Department of Environment and, therefore, to be placed under an extended level of protection. It is of critical importance, however, to have accurate and current information about the ecological and economic state of these sensitive areas. In selected pasture and moor areas, methods for multisensor data fusion have being developed and tested. The results of this testing show which techniques are useful for pasture and moor monitoring at an operational level. A hierarchical method is used for extracting bog land classes with respect to the environmental protection goals. A highly accurate classification of the following classes was accomplished: deciduous- and mixed forest, coniferous forest, water, very wet areas, meadowland/farmland with vegetation, meadowland/farmland with partly vegetation, meadowland/ farmland without vegetation, peat quarrying with maximum of 50% vegetation, de- and regeneration stages. In addition, a change detection analysis is performed in comparison with the existing

  11. Radiation monitoring and beam dump system of the OPAL silicon microvertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    Braibant, S

    1997-01-01

    The OPAL microvertex silicon detector radiation monitoring and beam dump system is described. This system was designed and implemented in order to measure the radiation dose received at every beam crossing and to induce a fast beam dump if the radiation dose exceeds a given threshold.

  12. A phase-space beam position monitor for synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samadi, Nazanin, E-mail: nazanin.samadi@usask.ca [University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Bassey, Bassey; Martinson, Mercedes [University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Belev, George; Dallin, Les; Jong, Mark de [Canadian Light Source, 44 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Chapman, Dean [University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2015-06-25

    A system has been developed to measure the vertical position and angle of the electron beam at a single location from a synchrotron source. The system uses a monochromator tuned to the absorption edge of a contrast material and has a sensitivity comparable with other beam position monitors. The stability of the photon beam position on synchrotron beamlines is critical for most if not all synchrotron radiation experiments. The position of the beam at the experiment or optical element location is set by the position and angle of the electron beam source as it traverses the magnetic field of the bend-magnet or insertion device. Thus an ideal photon beam monitor would be able to simultaneously measure the photon beam’s position and angle, and thus infer the electron beam’s position in phase space. X-ray diffraction is commonly used to prepare monochromatic beams on X-ray beamlines usually in the form of a double-crystal monochromator. Diffraction couples the photon wavelength or energy to the incident angle on the lattice planes within the crystal. The beam from such a monochromator will contain a spread of energies due to the vertical divergence of the photon beam from the source. This range of energies can easily cover the absorption edge of a filter element such as iodine at 33.17 keV. A vertical profile measurement of the photon beam footprint with and without the filter can be used to determine the vertical centroid position and angle of the photon beam. In the measurements described here an imaging detector is used to measure these vertical profiles with an iodine filter that horizontally covers part of the monochromatic beam. The goal was to investigate the use of a combined monochromator, filter and detector as a phase-space beam position monitor. The system was tested for sensitivity to position and angle under a number of synchrotron operating conditions, such as normal operations and special operating modes where the photon beam is intentionally altered

  13. Radiation Tolerance of Cryogenic Beam Loss Monitor Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kurfuerst, C; Bartosik, M; Dehning, B; Eisel, T; Sapinski, M; Eremin, V; Verbitskaya, E; Fabjan, C; Griesmayer, E

    2013-01-01

    At the triplet magnets, close to the interaction regions of the LHC, the current Beam Loss Monitoring system is sensitive to the particle showers resulting from the collision of the two beams. For the future, with beams of higher energy and intensity resulting in higher luminosity, distinguishing between these interaction products and possible quench-provoking beam losses from the primary proton beams will be challenging. Investigations are therefore underway to optimise the system by locating the beam loss detectors as close as possible to the superconducting coils of the triplet magnets. This means putting detectors inside the cold mass in superfluid helium at 1.9 K. Previous tests have shown that solid state diamond and silicon detectors as well as liquid helium ionisation chambers are promising candidates. This paper will address the final open question of their radiation resistance for 20 years of nominal LHC operation, by reporting on the results from high irradiation beam tests carried out at CERN in a...

  14. Review of Legislation and Regulatory Framework in Ukraine with Regard to Environmental Radiation Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldammer, Wolfgang; Batandjieva, Borislava (Private Consultants (Ukraine)); Nasvit, Oleg (National Security and Defence Council of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine)); German, Olga (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    The aim of this review is to compare the current legal basis and regulatory framework in Ukraine to the relevant international safety requirements and to identify shortcomings, such as deficiencies and internal contradictions. However, no assessment of its practical implementation is made beyond the aspects related to environmental radiation monitoring. The report focuses on 13 areas present in the in the Ukrainian legislation and regulatory framework: R-1 Radiation monitoring R-2 Definition of responsibilities R-3 Normal situations R-4 Emergencies R-5 Long-term monitoring R-6 Intervention in cases of lasting exposure R-7 Use of monitoring data R-8 Record keeping R-9 Reporting to the regulatory authority R-10 Public information R-11 Human and financial resources R-12 Transboundary aspects R-13 Quality assurance. For each topic a description of the current situation and an evaluation is carried out. Ranking is then supplied supported by its evaluation. In brief these categories are: A: The national legal and regulatory documents are harmonised in substance with the international safety requirements; B: Substantial differences exist between the national and international requirements which should be addressed with the view to harmonise the legislation; C: Substantial deficiencies exist in the legal and/or regulatory bases which results in no or at least partial compliance with international safety requirements. P: In addition practical issues are also provided to indicates where practical implementation of the legislation and regulatory basis is not adequate in all respects. This report then presents main observations and conclusions of the review. On this basis, the report derives general suggestions for improvement of the legal and regulatory bases. These should be considered by the Ukrainian Government and the regulatory authorities within an action plan to improve the legal basis for radiological monitoring of the environment and to facilitate its implementation

  15. Community radiation monitoring program. Annual report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, E.N.

    1994-08-01

    The Community Radiation Monitoring Program (CRMP) is a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Desert Research Institute (DRI), a division of the University and Community College System of Nevada, and the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the University of Utah (UUNEL). The thirteenth year of this program began in the fall of 1992, and the work continues as an integral part of the DOE--sponsored long-term offsite radiological monitoring effort that has been conducted by EPA and its predecessors since the inception of nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The CRMP began by enhancing and centralizing environmental monitoring and sampling equipment at 15 communities in the then-existing EPA monitoring network around the NTS, and has since expanded to 19 locations in Nevada, Utah, and California. The primary objectives of this program are still to increase the understanding by the people who live in the area surrounding the NTS of the activities for which DOE is responsible, to enhance the performance of radiological sampling and monitoring, and to inform all concerned of the results of these efforts. One of the primary methods used to improve the communication link with the people in the potentially impacted area has been the hiring and training of local citizens as Station Managers and program representatives in those selected communities in the offsite area. These mangers, active science teachers wherever possible, have succeeded through their training, experience, community standing, and effort in becoming a very visible, able, and valuable asset in this link.

  16. Community Radiation Monitoring Program. Annual report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, E.N.

    1993-05-01

    The Community Radiation Monitoring Program (CRMP) is a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE); the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); the Desert Research Institute (DRI), a division of the University and Community College System of Nevada and the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the University of Utah (UNEL). The twelfth year of the program began in the fall of 1991, and the work continues as an integral part of the DOE-sponsored long-term offsite radiological monitoring effort that has been conducted by EPA and its predecessors since the inception of nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The program began as an outgrowth of activities that occurred during the Three Mile Island incident in 1979. The local interest and public participation that took place there were thought to be transferrable to the situation at the NTS, so, with adaptations, that methodology was implemented for this program. The CRMP began by enhancing and centralizing environmental monitoring and sampling equipment at 15 communities in the existing EPA monitoring network, and has since expanded to 19 locations in Nevada, Utah and California. The primary objectives of this program are still to increase the understanding by the people who live in the area surrounding the NTS of the activities for which DOE is responsible, to enhance the performance of radiological sampling and monitoring, and to inform all concerned of the results of these efforts. One of the primary methods used to improve the communication link with people in the potentially impacted area has been the hiring and training of local citizens as station managers and program representatives in those selected communities in the offsite area. These managers, active science teachers wherever possible, have succeeded, through their training, experience, community standing, and effort, in becoming a very visible, able and valuable asset in this link.

  17. Hybrid methodology for hourly global radiation forecasting in Mediterranean area

    CERN Document Server

    Voyant, Cyril; Paoli, Christophe; Nivet, Marie Laure

    2012-01-01

    The renewable energies prediction and particularly global radiation forecasting is a challenge studied by a growing number of research teams. This paper proposes an original technique to model the insolation time series based on combining Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Auto-Regressive and Moving Average (ARMA) model. While ANN by its non-linear nature is effective to predict cloudy days, ARMA techniques are more dedicated to sunny days without cloud occurrences. Thus, three hybrids models are suggested: the first proposes simply to use ARMA for 6 months in spring and summer and to use an optimized ANN for the other part of the year; the second model is equivalent to the first but with a seasonal learning; the last model depends on the error occurred the previous hour. These models were used to forecast the hourly global radiation for five places in Mediterranean area. The forecasting performance was compared among several models: the 3 above mentioned models, the best ANN and ARMA for each location. In t...

  18. Using ACIS on the Chandra X-ray Observatory as a particle radiation monitor II

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, C E; Bautz, M W; O'Dell, S L

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer is an instrument on the Chandra X-ray Observatory. CCDs are vulnerable to radiation damage, particularly by soft protons in the radiation belts and solar storms. The Chandra team has implemented procedures to protect ACIS during high-radiation events including autonomous protection triggered by an on-board radiation monitor. Elevated temperatures have reduced the effectiveness of the on-board monitor. The ACIS team has developed an algorithm which uses data from the CCDs themselves to detect periods of high radiation and a flight software patch to apply this algorithm is currently active on-board the instrument. In this paper, we explore the ACIS response to particle radiation through comparisons to a number of external measures of the radiation environment. We hope to better understand the efficiency of the algorithm as a function of the flux and spectrum of the particles and the time-profile of the radiation event.

  19. Adaptive Multichannel Radiation Sensors for Plant Parameter Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhauer, Hannes; Remmler, Paul; Schuhmann, Gudrun; Lausch, Angela; Merbach, Ines; Assing, Martin; Mollenhauer, Olaf; Dietrich, Peter; Bumberger, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Nutrients such as nitrogen are playing a key role in the plant life cycle. They are much needed for chlorophyll production and other plant cell components. Therefore, the crop yield is strongly affected by plant nutrient status. Due to the spatial and temporal variability of soil characteristics or swaying agricultural inputs the plant development varies within a field. Thus, the determination of these fluctuations in the plant development is valuable for a detection of stress conditions and optimization of fertilisation due to its high environmental and economic impact. Plant parameters play crucial roles in plant growth estimation and prediction since they are used as indicators of plant performance. Especially indices derived out of remote sensing techniques provide quantitative information about agricultural crops instantaneously, and above all, non-destructively. Due to the specific absorption of certain plant pigments, a characteristic spectral signature can be seen in the visible and IR part of the electromagnetic spectrum, known as narrow-band peaks. In an analogous manner, the presence and concentration of different nutrients cause a characteristic spectral signature. To this end, an adequate remote sensing monitoring concept is needed, considering heterogeneity and dynamic of the plant population and economical aspects. This work will present the development and field investigations of an inexpensive multichannel radiation sensor to observe the incoming and reflected specific parts or rather distinct wavelengths of the solar light spectrum on the crop and facilitate the determination of different plant indices. Based on the selected sensor wavelengths, the sensing device allows the detection of specific parameters, e.g. plant vitality, chlorophyll content or nitrogen content. Besides the improvement of the sensor characteristic, the simple wavelength adaption, and the price-performance ratio, the achievement of appropriate energy efficiency as well as a

  20. Natural background. gamma. radiation exposure in the metropolitan area of the valley of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, M.F.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of the natural background radiation have been made at numerous places throughout the world. Very little work in this field has been done in developing countries. In Mexico the natural radiation to which the population is exposed has not been assessed. This dissertation represents a pioneer study in this environmental area. The radiation exposure which occupants within buildings receive as a result of naturally occurring radionuclides present in construction materials is the principal focus. Data were collected between August 1979 and November 1980. Continuous monitoring was done with TLDs placed on site for periods of 3 to 6 months. The instrumentation used for real-time measurements was a portable NaI (TI) scintillation detector. In addition, radiometric measurements were performed on construction materials commonly used in Mexican homes. Based on TLD readings taken within 75 dwellings, the typical indoor exposure for a resident of the study area is 9.2 ..mu..Rh/sup -1/. The average reading of the 152 indoor scintillometer surveys was 9.5 ..mu..Rh/sup -1/, the outdoor reading 7.5 ..mu..Rh/sup -1/. Results of one-way and multiway analyses of the exposure data to determine the effect due to building materials type, geologic subsoil, age of dwelling, and elevation are also presented. The results of 152 indoor scintillometer surveys are described.

  1. Community Radiation Monitoring Program; Annual report, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, E.N.; McArthur, R.D.

    1992-06-01

    The Community Radiation Monitoring Program is a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Desert Research Institute (DRI), a division of the University and Community College System of Nevada, and the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the University of Utah (U of U). This eleventh year of the program began in the summer of 1991 and the work continues as an integral part of the DOE-sponsored long-term offsite radiological monitoring effort that has been conducted by EPA and its predecessors since the inception of nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The primary objectives of this program are still to increase the understanding by the people who live in the area surrounding the NTS of the activities for which the DOE is responsible, to enhance the performance of radiological sampling and monitoring, and to inform all concerned of the results of those efforts. One of the primary methods used to improve the communication link with the potentially impacted area has been the hiring and training of local citizens as Managers and program representatives in 19 communities adjacent to and downwind from the NTS. These Managers, active science teachers wherever possible, have succeeded, through their training, experience, community standing, and effort, in becoming a very visible, able and valuable asset in this link.

  2. Vision 20/20: Positron emission tomography in radiation therapy planning, delivery, and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parodi, Katia, E-mail: Katia.parodi@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Faculty of Physics, Department of Medical Physics, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Munich 85748 (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly considered as an effective imaging method to support several stages of radiation therapy. The combined usage of functional and morphological imaging in state-of-the-art PET/CT scanners is rapidly emerging to support the treatment planning process in terms of improved tumor delineation, and to assess the tumor response in follow-up investigations after or even during the course of fractionated therapy. Moreover, active research is being pursued on new tracers capable of providing different insights into tumor function, in order to identify areas of the planning volume which may require additional dosage for improved probability of tumor control. In this respect, major progresses in the next years will likely concern the development and clinical investigation of novel tracers and image processing techniques for reliable thresholding and segmentation, of treatment planning and beam delivery approaches integrating the PET imaging information, as well as improved multimodal clinical instrumentation such as PET/MR. But especially in the rapidly emerging case of ion beam therapy, the usage of PET is not only limited to the imaging of external tracers injected to the patient. In fact, a minor amount of positron emitters is formed in nuclear fragmentation reactions between the impinging ions and the tissue, bearing useful information for confirmation of the delivered treatment during or after therapeutic irradiation. Different implementations of unconventional PET imaging for therapy monitoring are currently being investigated clinically, and major ongoing research aims at new dedicated detector technologies and at challenging applications such as real-time imaging and time-resolved in vivo verification of motion compensated beam delivery. This paper provides an overview of the different areas of application of PET in radiation oncology and discusses the most promising perspectives in the years to come for radiation therapy

  3. Locating air quality monitoring station using wind impact area diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, K V; Verma, P; Devotta, S

    2008-10-01

    In this study a new methodology is suggested to approximate the impact area downwind of an air pollution source, where air quality monitoring can be carried out to capture the maximum pollutant concentration. Hourly wind speed for a given month is grouped in to different wind speed ranges and the distance of pollutant travel is approximated from the average wind speed of that wind speed range. Since change in wind direction causes the impact distance to rotate, its rotation is approximated by the SD of wind direction change. Using this approach, area or region down wind of a source is determined and plotted. The pattern of monthly change of wind is better represented by the new type of diagram as compared to the wind rose diagram.

  4. MONITORING OF LARGE INSTABLE AREAS: system reliability and new tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandro, G.; Mucciarelli, M.; Pellicani, R.; Spilotro, G.

    2009-04-01

    The monitoring of unstable or potentially unstable areas is a necessary operation every time you can not remove the conditions of risk and apply to mitigation measures. In Italian Apennine regions there are many urban or extra-urban areas affected by instability, for which it is impracticable to remove hazard conditions, because of size and cost problems. The technological evolution exportable to the field of land instability monitoring is particularly lively and allows the use of warning systems unthinkable just few years ago. However, the monitoring of unstable or potentially unstable areas requires a very great knowledge of the specific problems, without which the reliability of the system may be dangerously overestimated. The movement may arise, indeed, in areas not covered by instrumentation, or covered with vegetation that prevents the acquisition of both reflected signals in the multi-beam laser techniques and radar signals. Environmental conditions (wind, concentrated sources of light, temperature changes, presence of animals) may also invalidate the accuracy of the measures, by introducing modulations or disturbance at a level well above the threshold of alarm signal, leading consequently to raise the values of the warning threshold. The Authors have gained long experience with the observation and monitoring of some large landslides in the Southern Apennine (Aliano, Buoninventre, Calciano, Carlantino, etc.) and unstable areas also at regional scale. One of the most important experiences is about the case of landslides of extensive areas, where unstable and stables zones coexist along transverse and longitudinal axis. In many of these cases you need the accurate control of the movement at selected points to evaluate the trend of displacement velocity, which can be achieved by means of a single-beam laser. The control of these movements, however, does not provide information on stress pattern into the stable areas. Among the sensitive precursors, acoustic

  5. The Beam Profile Monitoring System for the IRRAD Proton Facility at the CERN PS East Area

    CERN Document Server

    Gkotse, Blerina; Matli, Emanuele; Ravotti, Federico; Gan, Kock Kiam; Kagan, Harris; Smith, Shane; Warner, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    In High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments, devices are frequently required to withstand a certain radiation level. As a result, detectors and electronics must be irradiated to determine their level of radiation tolerance. To perform these irradiations, CERN built a new irradiation facility in the East Area at the Proton Synchrotron (PS) accelerator. At this facility, named IRRAD, a high-intensity 24 GeV/c proton beam is used. During irradiation, it is necessary to monitor the intensity and the transverse profile of the proton beam. The Beam Profile Monitor (BPM) for IRRAD uses 39-channel pixel detectors to monitor the beam position. These pixel detectors are constructed using thin foil copper pads positioned on a flex circuit. When protons pass through the copper pads, they induce a measurable current. To measure this current and determine the total flux of protons passing through the thin foil copper detectors, a new data acquisition system was designed as well as a new database and on-line display system. In...

  6. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Chuncheon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Ki.; Hwang, Sang Kyu [Chuncheon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    Gross beta radioactivities in airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water, and gamma exposure rates have been monitored periodically in 2000 at Chunchon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station. The concentrations of radioactive nuclide of {sup 7}Be and {sup 137}Cs on airborne dust, and {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs on fallout, precipitation have been analyzed monthly. The {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 226}Ra etc. concentrations in the 23 foodstuffs(potato, sweet potato, bean sprout, onion, pumpkin, spinach, welsh onion, radish leaves, red pepper, garlic, lettuce, apple, persimmon, orange, pear, grape, mackerel, Alaska pollack, hairtail, squid oyster, baby clam, mussed) and 5 tap water sampled in Youngsoe area of Kangwon-do have also been measured. No significant changes from the previous years have been found in gross beta radioactivities in environmental samples and gamma exposure rates. The concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, and {sup 137}Cs nuclide in the foodstuffs sampled in Youngseo area are less(or slightly higher in some cases) than the MDA value, except {sup 40}K nuclide. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 226}Ra nuclide in tap water are less(or is slightly higher in one sample) than the MDA value.

  7. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Chuncheon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Moon Hoe.; Hwang, Sang Gyu [Chuncheon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Gross beta radioactivities in airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water, and gamma exposure rates have been monitored periodically in 2003 at Chunchon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station. The concentrations of radioactive nuclide of {sup 7}Be and {sup 137} Cs on airborne dust, and {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs on fallout, precipitation have been analyzed monthly. The {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs etc. concentrations in the 22 foodstuffs(peanut, chestnut, walnut, pine nut acorn, oak mushroom, western mushroom, winter mushroom, oyster mushroom, coffee, green tea, ginseng tea, soils, cereals, vegetable, indicator plant) and 10 tap water sampled in Youngseo area of Kangwon-do have also been measured. No significant changes from the previous years have been found in gross beta radioactivities in environmental samples and gamma exposure rates. The concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, and {sup 137}Cs nuclide in the foodstuffs sampled in Youngseo area are less(or slightly higher in some cases) than the MDA values, except {sup 40}K nuclide. All the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs nuclides in the water are less than the MDA values.

  8. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Chuncheon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Ki.; Hwang, Sang Kyu [Chuncheon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    Gross beta radioactivities in airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water, and gamma exposure rates have been monitored periodically in 2001 at Chunchon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station. The concentrations of radioactive nuclide of {sup 7}Be and {sup 137}Cs on airborne dust, and {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs on fallout, precipitation have been analyzed monthly. The {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 226}Ra etc. concentrations in the 23 foodstuffs(potato, sweet potato, bean sprout, onion, pumpkin, spinach, welsh onion, radish leaves, red pepper, garlic, lettuce, apple, persimmon, orange, pear, grape, mackerel, Alaska pollack, hairtail, squid oyster, baby clam, mussel) and 5 tap water sampled in Youngseo area of Kangwon-do have also been measured. No significant changes from the previous years have been found in gross beta radioactivities in environmental samples and gamma exposure rates. The concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, and {sup 137}Cs nuclide in the foodstuffs sampled in Youngseo area are less(or slightly higher in some cases) than the MDA values, except {sup 40}K nuclide. All the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 226}Ra nuclides in the water are less than the MDA values.

  9. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Chuncheon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Moon Hoe.; Hwang, Sang Gyu [Chuncheon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    Gross beta radioactivities in airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water, and gamma exposure rates have been monitored periodically in 2002 at Chunchon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station. The concentrations of radioactive nuclide of {sup 7}Be and {sup 137}Cs on airborne dust, and {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs on fallout, precipitation have been analyzed monthly. The {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, {sup 137}Cs etc. concentrations in the 19 foodstuffs(peanut, chestnut, walnut, pine nut acorn, oak mushroom, western mushroom, winter mushroom, oyster mushroom, coffee, green tea, ginseng tea, soils, cereals, vegetable, indicator plant) and 5 tap water sampled in Youngseo area of Kangwon-do have also been measured. No significant changes from the previous years have been found in gross beta radioactivities in environmental samples and gamma exposure rates. The concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 40}K, and {sup 137}Cs nuclide in the foodstuffs sampled in Youngseo area are less(or slightly higher in some cases) than the MDA values, except {sup 40}K nuclide. All the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs nuclides in the water are less than the MDA values.

  10. Monitoring of increased natural occuring radiation exposure; Arbeitsplatzueberwachung bei erhoehter natuerlicher Strahlenexposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guhr, Andreas [ALTRAC Radon-Messtechnik, Berlin (Germany); Leissring, Nick [Bergtechnisches Ingenieurbuero GEOPRAX, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The radiation exposure due to natural occurring sources is a special challenge for the health and safety protection at workplaces. The monitoring of the radon exposure of employees in mines, radon-spa and in water works is regulated by prescription of radiation protection. The relevant compounds of the radiation exposure are the inhalation of radon and radon daughter products; terrestrial irradiation; ingestion of radioactive contaminated materials and the inhalation of contaminated dust. The monitoring of the radiation workers is realized essentially by measurements by radiation safety officer of the performing company, by an external engineering firm as well as by control measurements of experts of local authorities. The experiences in the practice have shown that in the field of operational radiation protection only a combination of personal- and operational dosimetry is suitable to avoid health hazards by work in fields with increased natural occurring radiation exposures.

  11. Landslide monitoring in the Atlantic Highlands area, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Pamela A.; Ashland, Francis X.; Fiore, Alex R.

    2017-08-25

    Shallow and deep-seated landslides have occurred episodically on the steep coastal bluffs of the Atlantic Highlands area (Boroughs of Atlantic Highlands and Highlands) in New Jersey. The oldest documented deep-seated landslide occurred in April 1782 and significantly changed the morphology of the bluff. However, recent landslides have been mostly shallow in nature and have occurred during large storms with exceptionally heavy rainfall. These shallow landslides have resulted in considerable damage to residential property and local infrastructure and threatened human safety.The recent shallow landslides in the area (locations modified from New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection) consist primarily of slumps and flows of earth and debris within areas of historical landslides or on slopes modified by human activities. Such landslides are typically triggered by increases in shallow soil moisture and pore-water pressure caused by sustained and intense rainfall associated with spring nor’easters and late summer–fall tropical cyclones. However, the critical relation between rainfall, soil-moisture conditions, and landslide movement has not been fully defined. The U.S. Geological Survey is currently monitoring hillslopes within the Atlantic Highlands area to better understand the hydrologic and meteorological conditions associated with shallow landslide initiation.

  12. [Experimental research on the electromagnetic radiation immunity of a kind of portable monitor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jun; Xiao, Dongping; Jian, Xin

    2010-11-01

    The paper is focused on a kind of portable monitor that is widely used in military hospitals. In order to study the electromagnetic radiation immunity of the monitor, the experiments of electromagnetic radiation caused by radio frequency continuous wave in reverberation chamber and by ultra wide band (UWB) electromagnetic pulse have been done. The study results show that UWB electromagnetic pulse interferes observably the operating state of the monitor. It should be paid high attention to take protective measures. The monitor tested has some electromagnetic immunity ability for radio frequency continuous wave radiation. The frequent abnormal phenomena are baseline drift and waveform distortion. The electromagnetic sensitivity of the monitor is related to the frequency of interference source. The monitor tested is most sensitive to the frequency of 390 MHz.

  13. Energy technology monitoring - New areas and in-depth investigations; Technologie-Monitoring - Weitere Bereiche - Vertiefungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigassi, R.; Eicher, H. [Dr. Eicher und Pauli AG, Liestal (Switzerland); Steiner, P.; Ott, W. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that examined long-term trends in the energy technology area in order to provide information that is to form the basis for political action and the distribution of energy research funding in Switzerland. Energy-technology areas examined include variable-speed electrical drives, ventilation systems for low-energy-consumption buildings, membrane technology and the use of plastics in lightweight automobiles. Examples are quoted and the current state of the appropriate technologies and market aspects are examined. Also, the potential and future developments in the areas listed are looked at. The consequences for energy policy and future developments in the technology-monitoring area are considered.

  14. Ambient monitoring of asbestos in selected Italian living areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Alessandro F; Mangano, Dario; Gualtieri, Magdalena Lassinantti; Ricchi, Anna; Foresti, Elisabetta; Lesci, Giorgio; Roveri, Norberto; Mariotti, Mauro; Pecchini, Giovanni

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents the results of an intensive monitoring activity of the particulate, fall-out and soil of selected living areas in Italy with the aim to detect the asbestos concentration in air and subsequent risk of exposure for the population in ambient living environments, and to assess the nature of the other mineral phases composing the particulate matrix. Some areas were sorted out because of the presence of asbestos containing materials on site whereas others were used as blank spots in the attempt to detect the background environmental concentration of asbestos in air. Because the concentration of asbestos in ambient environments is presumably very low, and it is well known that conventional low-medium flow sampling systems with filters of small diameter (25mm) may collect only a very small fraction of particulate over a short period, for the first time here, an intense monitoring activity was conducted with a high flow sampling system. The high flow system requires the use of large cellulose filters with the advantage that, increasing the amount of collected dust, the probability to collect asbestos fibers increases. Both the protocol of monitoring and analysis are novel and prompted by the need to increase the sensitivity towards the small number of expected fibers. With this goal, the collection of fall-out samples (the particulate falling into a collector filled with distilled water during the monitoring shift) and soil samples was also accomplished. The analytical protocol of the matrix particulate included preliminary X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), optical microscopy and quantitative electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Correlations with climatic trends and PM10 concentration data were also attempted. The surprising outcome of this work is that, despite the nature of the investigated site, the amount of dispersed asbestos fibers is very low and invariably lower than the theoretical method detection limits of the SEM and TEM techniques for

  15. Implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system in the Bragin district in Belarus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouail, P.; Bataille, C. [Centre d' etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Katlabai, T. [Sprout of Life, Krasnoye (Belarus)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents results from one of the projects developed within the general framework of the international Programme 'CORE' (Cooperation for Rehabilitation in Belarus). The overall objective of the programme is to make sustainable improvements to the living conditions of the inhabitants of the territories affected by the Chernobyl disaster. The CORE Programme is currently developed in four contaminated districts of Belarus (Bragin, Cherchersk, Slavgorod and Stolyn) in the following four areas: economic and social development; health care and surveillance; education and culture; and radiological quality. The project that is presented here refers specifically to the field of 'radiological quality' and will last until the end of 2008. The project named 'implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system' was launched in April 2004 in the Bragin district, which is one of the most contaminated areas in Belarus. It is located in the very South East of the country and is adjacent to the 30 km exclusion zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (zone with caesium 137 soil contamination above 1480 kBq/m{sup 2}). Since the accident, the number of people living in the district has declined by 56%. Today, 17000 persons, including 3000 children, live there in mostly rural areas where {sup 137}Cs levels in soil are between 185 and 555 kBq/m{sup 2}. The project aims at diffusing a practical radiation protection culture, among the population, and especially among children, through the development of a radiation monitoring system handled by the local professionals and the population. The adopted approach is mainly based on the experience of the ETHOS Project implemented in Belarus between 1996 and 2001. Indeed the ETHOS Project revealed that an efficient monitoring system and the involvement of the local population and professionals in the day-to-day management of the radioactive contamination of their environment are key elements in

  16. Implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system in the Bragin district in Belarus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouail, P.; Bataille, C. [Centre d' etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Katlabai, T. [Sprout of Life, Krasnoye (Belarus)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents results from one of the projects developed within the general framework of the international Programme 'CORE' (Cooperation for Rehabilitation in Belarus). The overall objective of the programme is to make sustainable improvements to the living conditions of the inhabitants of the territories affected by the Chernobyl disaster. The CORE Programme is currently developed in four contaminated districts of Belarus (Bragin, Cherchersk, Slavgorod and Stolyn) in the following four areas: economic and social development; health care and surveillance; education and culture; and radiological quality. The project that is presented here refers specifically to the field of 'radiological quality' and will last until the end of 2008. The project named 'implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system' was launched in April 2004 in the Bragin district, which is one of the most contaminated areas in Belarus. It is located in the very South East of the country and is adjacent to the 30 km exclusion zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (zone with caesium 137 soil contamination above 1480 kBq/m{sup 2}). Since the accident, the number of people living in the district has declined by 56%. Today, 17000 persons, including 3000 children, live there in mostly rural areas where {sup 137}Cs levels in soil are between 185 and 555 kBq/m{sup 2}. The project aims at diffusing a practical radiation protection culture, among the population, and especially among children, through the development of a radiation monitoring system handled by the local professionals and the population. The adopted approach is mainly based on the experience of the ETHOS Project implemented in Belarus between 1996 and 2001. Indeed the ETHOS Project revealed that an efficient monitoring system and the involvement of the local population and professionals in the day-to-day management of the radioactive contamination of their environment are key elements in

  17. Evaluation of the calibration uncertainty of gamma radiation monitors using a {sup 137}Cs source; Avaliacao da incerteza de calibracao de monitores de radiacao gama com uma fonte de {sup 137}Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Elisabeth; Leite, Sandro Passos; David, Mariano Gazineu; Estrada, Carlos Frederico Alves; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de, E-mail: beth.fernandes56@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ/LCR), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas

    2014-07-01

    This study shows all the relevant components to the calculation of the calibration uncertainty of gamma radiation area monitors performed by the Lab. Ciencias Radiologicas of UERJ . The uncertainty components will be related with their respective estimated values, details about the uncertainty components calculations of positioning and field homogeneity will be shown. There were obtained the values of 3,8 % and 5,8 % to the expanded uncertainty (k=2) for the dosimetry and for the area monitors calibration, respectively. (author)

  18. Environmental monitoring in emergency situations. On the measurements of environmental gamma rays and radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriuchi, Shigeru [Nuclear Safety Technology Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    This report describes the present situations, the previously developed technique and the future problems on the monitoring of environmental radiation at emergency. The present maintenance conditions of surveying systems for environmental radiation monitoring and measuring apparatuses for low-level radiation in an environment are extremely satisfactory in Japan. With the accident of TMI-2 reactor in U.S.A. the studies on monitoring and assessment systems for environmental radiation at emergency have been extensively progressed as a priority subject for environmental safety research. Here, an aerial radiological survey and assessment system, which is a block diagram example for aerial survey system developed by JAERI was presented. Also an observation pattern of {sup 41}Ar plume {gamma}-ray at a site under the lee several hundred meters apart from the source was obtained. It was found that there remain many problems to be taken into consideration to practically perform environmental monitoring. (M.N.)

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION MONITORING IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - HISTORY AND RESULTS 25 YEARS AFTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes results of the radiation environmental monitoring performed in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) during the period following the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. This article presents a brief overview of five comprehensive reports generated under Contract No. DE-AC09-96SR18500 (Washington Savannah River Company LLC, Subcontract No. AC55559N, SOW No. ON8778) and summarizes characteristics of the ChEZ and its post-accident status and the history of development of the radiation monitoring research in the ChEZ is described. This article addresses characteristics of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ, its major goals and objectives, and changes of these goals and objectives in the course of time, depending on the tasks associated with the phase of mitigation of the ChNPP accident consequences. The results of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ during the last 25 years are also provided.

  20. Monitoring of Soil Remediation Process in the Metal Mining Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Ko, Myoung-Soo; Han, Hyeop-jo; Lee, Sang-Ho; Na, So-Young

    2016-04-01

    Stabilization using proper additives is an effective soil remediation technique to reduce As mobility in soil. Several researches have reported that Fe-containing materials such as amorphous Fe-oxides, goethite and hematite were effective in As immobilization and therefore acid mine drainage sludge (AMDS) may be potential material for As immobilization. The AMDS is the by-product from electrochemical treatment of acid mine drainage and mainly contains Fe-oxide. The Chungyang area in Korea is located in the vicinity of the huge abandoned Au-Ag Gubong mine which was closed in the 1970s. Large amounts of mine tailings have been remained without proper treatment and the mobilization of mine tailings can be manly occurred during the summer heavy rainfall season. Soil contamination from this mobilization may become an urgent issue because it can cause the contamination of groundwater and crop plants in sequence. In order to reduce the mobilization of the mine tailings, the pilot scale study of in-situ stabilization using AMDS was applied after the batch and column experiments in the lab. For the monitoring of stabilization process, we used to determine the As concentration in crop plants grown on the field site but it is not easily applicable because of time and cost. Therefore, we may need simple monitoring technique to measure the mobility or leachability which can be comparable with As concentration in crop plants. We compared several extraction methods to suggest the representative single extraction method for the monitoring of soil stabilization efficiency. Several selected extraction methods were examined and Mehlich 3 extraction method using the mixture of NH4F, EDTA, NH4NO3, CH3COOH and HNO3 was selected as the best predictor of the leachability or mobility of As in the soil remediation process.

  1. Long term continuous radon monitoring in a seismically active area

    CERN Document Server

    Piersanti, A; Galli, G

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a long term, continuous radon monitoring experiment started in April 2010 in a seismically active area, affected during the 2010-2013 data acquisition time window by an intense micro seismic activity and by several small seismic events. We employed both correlation and cross-correlation analyses in order to investigate possible relationship existing between the collected radon data, seismic events and meteorological parameters. Our results do not support the feasibility of a robust one-to-one association between the small magnitude earthquakes characterizing the local seismic activity and single radon measurement anomalies, but evidence significant correlation patterns between the spatio-temporal variations of seismic moment release and soil radon emanations, the latter being anyway dominantly modulated by meteorological parameters variations.

  2. Geodetic Monitoring System Operating On Neapolitan Volcanic Area (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingue, F.; Ov-Geodesy Team

    The Neapolitan volcanic area is located in the southern sector of the Campanian Plain Graben including three volcanic active structures (Somma-Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei and Ischia). The Somma-Vesuvius complex, placed East of Naples, is a strato-volcano composed by a more ancient apparatus (Mt. Somma) and a younger cone (Mt. Vesu- vius) developed inside Somma caldera. Since last eruption (1944) it is in a quiescent state characterised by a low level seismicity and deformation activity. The Campi Fle- grei, located West of Naples, are a volcanic field inside an older caldera rim. The last eruption, occurred in the 1538, built up the Mt. Nuovo cone. The Campi Flegrei are subject to a slow vertical deformation, called bradyseism. In the 1970-1972 and 1982-1984 they have been affected by two intense episodes of ground upheaval (ac- companied by an intense seismic activity)0, followed by a subsidence phase, slower than uplift and still active. Though such phenomenon has not been followed by erup- tive events, it caused serious damages, emphasizing the high volcanic risk of the phle- grean caldera. The Ischia island, located SW of Naples, has been characterised by a volcanic activity both explosive and effusive, occurred mainly in the last 50,000 years. These events modelled the topography producing fault systems and structures delim- iting the Mt. Epomeo resurgent block. The last eruption has occurred on 1302. After, the dynamics of the island has been characterised by seismic activity (the strongest earthquake occurred on 1883) and by a meaningful subsidence, on the S and NW sec- tors of the island. The concentration of such many active volcanoes in an area with a dense urbanization (about 1,500,000 inhabitants live) needs systematic and contin- uous monitoring of the dynamics. These information are necessary in order to char- acterise eruptive precursors useful for modelling the volcanoes behaviour. Insofar, the entire volcanic Neapolitan area, characterised by a

  3. Visits by Nuclear-Powered Warships to Australian Ports: Report on Radiation Monitoring During 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Groups which consist of members from the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation ( ANSTO ), the Health and Environmental authorities of...different ports; however, the Leader of the Radiation Monitoring Group is always a radiation protection officer from ANSTO . 13. The marine environmental

  4. Visits by Nuclear Powered Warships to Australian Ports. Report on Radiation Monitoring During 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Technology Organisation ( ANSTO ), the Health and Environmental authorities of the host State or Territory and the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) undertake the...always a radiation protection officer from ANSTO . 13. The marine environmental monitoring program is a joint undertaking by the Australian Radiation

  5. Status of the OPAL microvertex detector and new radiation monitoring and beam dump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Sijbrand de

    1998-11-01

    The status of the OPAL Phase III microvertex detector is discussed briefly. This is followed by a more detailed description of the OPAL microvertex detector radiation monitoring and beam dump system. This system measures AC currents induced by radiation on each passing of the beams in silicon diodes mounted close to the microvertex detector front-end electronics. Examples are shown for incidents leading to a beam dump trigger. The integrated radiation dose is also discussed.

  6. Optical Real-Time Space Radiation Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Real-time dosimetry is needed to provide immediate feedback, so astronauts can minimize their exposure to ionizing radiation during periods of high solar activity....

  7. Echelon approach to areas of concern in synoptic regional monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wayne; Patil, Ganapati P.; Joly, Kyle

    1997-01-01

    Echelons provide an objective approach to prospecting for areas of potential concern in synoptic regional monitoring of a surface variable. Echelons can be regarded informally as stacked hill forms. The strategy is to identify regions of the surface which are elevated relative to surroundings (Relative ELEVATIONS or RELEVATIONS). These are areas which would continue to expand as islands with receding (virtual) floodwaters. Levels where islands would merge are critical elevations which delimit echelons in the vertical dimension. Families of echelons consist of surface sectors constituting separate islands for deeper waters that merge as water level declines. Pits which would hold water are disregarded in such a progression, but a complementary analysis of pits is obtained using the surface as a virtual mould to cast a counter-surface (bathymetric analysis). An echelon tree is a family tree of echelons with peaks as terminals and the lowest level as root. An echelon tree thus provides a dendrogram representation of surface topology which enables graph theoretic analysis and comparison of surface structures. Echelon top view maps show echelon cover sectors on the base plane. An echelon table summarizes characteristics of echelons as instances or cases of hill form surface structure. Determination of echelons requires only ordinal strength for the surface variable, and is thus appropriate for environmental indices as well as measurements. Since echelons are inherent in a surface rather than perceptual, they provide a basis for computer-intelligent understanding of surfaces. Echelons are given for broad-scale mammalian species richness in Pennsylvania.

  8. 1997 Comprehensive TNX Area Annual Groundwater and Effectiveness Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1998-04-01

    Shallow groundwater beneath the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and carbon tetrachloride. In November 1994, an Interim Record of Decision (IROD) was agreed to and signed by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the South Carolina Department of Health {ampersand} Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The Interim Record of Decision requires the installation of a hybrid groundwater corrective action (HGCA) to stabilize the plume of groundwater contamination and remove CVOCs dissolved in the groundwater. The hybrid groundwater corrective action included a recovery well network, purge water management facility, air stripper, and an airlift recirculation well. The recirculation well was dropped pursuant to a test that indicated it to be ineffective at the TNX Area. Consequently, the groundwater corrective action was changed from a hybrid to a single action, pump-and-treat approach. The Interim Action (IA) T-1 air stripper system began operation on September 16, 1996. a comprehensive groundwater monitoring program was initiated to measure the effectiveness of the system. As of December 31, 1997, the system has treated 32 million gallons of contaminated groundwater removed 32 pounds of TCE. The recovery well network created a `capture zone` that stabilized the plume of contaminated groundwater.

  9. Monitoring millimeter wave stray radiation during ECRH operation at ASDEX Upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to imperfection of the single path absorption, ECRH at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG is always accompanied by stray radiation in the vacuum vessel. New ECRH scenarios with O2 and X3 heating schemes extend the operational space, but they have also the potential to increase the level of stray radiation. There are hazards for invessel components. Damage on electric cables has already been encountered. It is therefore necessary to monitor and control the ECRH with respect to the stray radiation level. At AUG a system of Sniffer antennas equipped with microwave detection diodes is installed. The system is part of the ECRH interlock circuit. We notice, however, that during plasma operation the variations of the Sniffer antenna signal are very large. In laboratory measurements we see variations of up to 20 dB in the directional sensitivity and we conclude that an interference pattern is formed inside the copper sphere of the antenna. When ECRH is in plasma operation at AUG, the plasma is acting as a phase and mode mixer for the millimeter waves and thus the interference pattern inside the sphere changes with the characteristic time of the plasma dynamics. In order to overcome the difficulty of a calibrated measurement of the average stray radiation level, we installed bolometer and pyroelectric detectors, which intrinsically average over interference structures due to their large active area. The bolometer provides a robust calibration but with moderate temporal resolution. The pyroelectric detector provides high sensitivity and a good temporal resolution, but it raises issues of possible signal drifts in long pulses.

  10. Nonintercepting electron beam size monitor using optical diffraction radiation interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cianchi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of diffraction radiation (DR, emitted when a charged particle beam passes through a rectangular slit, has been proposed and successfully tested as a nonintercepting diagnostic of high brightness beams. However, some problems related to the control of the particle trajectory through the slit still remain. If an additional slit is placed in front of the first one, at a distance shorter than the radiation formation length, interference between the forward diffraction radiation from the upstream slit and the backward diffraction radiation from the downstream slit can be observed. In this paper we report the first experimental observation of this effect, which we call here optical diffraction radiation interference (ODRI. If the two slits have different dimensions and are not aligned on the same axis, the properties of the ODRI pattern can be effectively used for nonintercepting beam diagnostics, especially for the unambiguously determination of the beam size. Indeed, the advantage of ODRI compared with a single aperture DR screen is due to the reduction of synchrotron radiation background, the increase of sensitivity for transverse beam dimensions, and the possibility to separate effects caused by the beam size and by beam offset within the slit.

  11. Assessment of indoor radiation dose received by the residents of natural high background radiation areas of coastal villages of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deva Jayanthi, D., E-mail: d.devajayanthi@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Women' s Christian College, Nagercoil 629001 (India); Maniyan, C.G. [Environmental Assessment Division, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India); Perumal, S. [Department of Physics and Research Centre, S.T.Hindu College, Nagercoil 629002 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Radiation exposure and effective dose received through two routes of exposure, viz. external and internal, via inhalation, by residents of 10 villages belonging to Natural High Background Radiation Areas (NHBRA) of coastal regions of Kanyakumari District and Tamil Nadu in India were studied. While the indoor gamma radiation levels were monitored using Thermo Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), the indoor radon and thoron gas concentrations were measured using twin chamber dosimeters employing Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs, LR-115-II). The average total annual effective dose was estimated and found to be varying from 2.59 to 8.76 mSv. -- Highlights: {yields} The effective dose received by the villages of Natural High Background Area (NHBRA) such as Enayam, Midalam and Mel Midalam is high when compared with other study areas. {yields} The high dose indicates higher concentration of radioactive nuclides like Thorium and Uranium in the soil. {yields} As radiation is harmful to human life, the external and internal doses can be reduced by removing the monazite content present in the soil by mineral separation. {yields} Contribution from vegetables, fruits, fish and other non vegetarian items are also being examined. {yields} These results along with other socio-economic factors can throw considerable light on the epidemiological impacts due to low levels of chronic exposure.

  12. Emergency monitoring strategy and radiation measurements document of the NKS project emergency management and radiation monitoring in nuclear and radiological accidents (EMARAD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, J. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) (Finland)

    2006-04-15

    This report is one of the deliverables of the NKS Project Emergency management and radiation monitoring in nuclear and radiological accidents (EMARAD) (20022005). The project and the overall results are briefly described in the NKS publication 'Emergency Management and Radiation Monitoring in Nuclear and Radiological Accidents. Summary Report on the NKS Project EMARAD' (NKS-137, April 2006). In a nuclear or radiological emergency, all radiation measurements must be performed efficiently and the results interpreted correctly in order to provide the decision-makers with adequate data needed in analysing the situation and carrying out countermeasures. Managing measurements in different situations in a proper way requires the existence of pre-prepared emergency monitoring strategies. Preparing a comprehensive yet versatile strategy is not an easy task to perform because there are lots of different factors that have to be taken into account. The primary objective of this study was to discuss the general problematics concerning emergency monitoring strategies and to describe a few important features of an efficient emergency monitoring system as well as factors affecting measurement activities in practise. Some information concerning the current situation in the Nordic countries has also been included. (au)

  13. Emergency monitoring strategy and radiation measurements document of the NKS project emergency management and radiation monitoring in nuclear and radiological accidents (EMARAD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, J. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) (Finland)

    2006-04-15

    This report is one of the deliverables of the NKS Project Emergency management and radiation monitoring in nuclear and radiological accidents (EMARAD) (20022005). The project and the overall results are briefly described in the NKS publication 'Emergency Management and Radiation Monitoring in Nuclear and Radiological Accidents. Summary Report on the NKS Project EMARAD' (NKS-137, April 2006). In a nuclear or radiological emergency, all radiation measurements must be performed efficiently and the results interpreted correctly in order to provide the decision-makers with adequate data needed in analysing the situation and carrying out countermeasures. Managing measurements in different situations in a proper way requires the existence of pre-prepared emergency monitoring strategies. Preparing a comprehensive yet versatile strategy is not an easy task to perform because there are lots of different factors that have to be taken into account. The primary objective of this study was to discuss the general problematics concerning emergency monitoring strategies and to describe a few important features of an efficient emergency monitoring system as well as factors affecting measurement activities in practise. Some information concerning the current situation in the Nordic countries has also been included. (au)

  14. Environmental Radiation Monitoring During Visits of Nuclear Powered Warships to Australian Ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    through the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation ( ANSTO ), is to ensure that an appropriately qualified officer is available for each...monitoring equipment, * Radiation Monitoring Handbook for Visits by Nuclear Powered Warships to Australian Ports, ANSTO , 1985 L.ai 6 c. communication

  15. Controlling and monitoring exposure to radiation from medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Above a certain threshold dose, ionising radiation invariably provokes harmful effects such as burns, nausea and aplasia. Their severity increases with the dose received. There is no known threshold dose below which long-term harmful effects, such as cancer and genetic defects, do not occur. Ionising radiation comes from both natural and man-made sources. Worldwide, medical exposure accounts for 98% of the dose received from man-made sources. In France, the average dose per person received from diagnostic radiological examinations increased by more than 50% between 2002 and 2007. This increase was due to more frequent use of computed tomography (CT) and diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. The internationally defined individual dose limits for the general population do not apply to the medical uses of ionising radiation, but medical exposure must comply with the principles of radiation protection: the examination must be justified and the dose optimised. In France, shortcomings are observed in the application of these principles. In 2012, the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) received 345 reports of "significant radiation protection incidents" affecting patients: 75% involving external beam radiotherapy, 15% involving nuclear medicine, 6% involving CT scans, and 4% involving radiology. In 2011, reference levels were established for the doses received by children during CT imaging and nuclear medicine procedures. When deciding whether to order a diagnostic procedure using ionising radiation, the harm-benefit balance of both the procedure and the chosen technique must be taken into account. When two procedures have the same performance, the technique that exposes the patient to the lowest dose of radiation should be chosen.

  16. Pollen and spores as a passive monitor of ultraviolet radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraser, W.T.; Lomax, B.H.; Jardine, P.E.; Gosling, W.D.; Sephton, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Sporopollenin is the primary component of the outer walls of pollen and spores. The chemical composition of sporopollenin is responsive to levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure, via a concomitant change in the concentration of phenolic compounds. This relationship offers the possibility of

  17. DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) Data Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nimi; Hagemeyer, Derek

    2012-05-05

    This slide show presents the 2011 draft data for DOE occupational radiation exposure.Clarification is given on Reporting Data regarding: reporting Total Organ Dose (TOD); reporting Total Skin Dose (TSD), and Total Extremity Dose (TExD) ; and Special individuals reporting.

  18. Response of radiation monitoring labels to gamma rays and electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahim, F. Abdel; Miller, Arne; McLaughlin, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    , and differences in dose rate and radiation type (gamma rays and electron beams) were made on 15 kinds of labels. The results show that, for many types of indicators, diverse effects may give misleading conclusions unless countermeasures are taken. For example, some of the most commonly used labels, which contain...

  19. Survey monitoring of environmental radioactivity in Chuncheon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Ki.; Hwang, Sang Kyu [Chuncheon Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-15

    In 1997, the gross average beta activities measured at Chunchon Regional Monitoring Station are 145.55 {+-} 261.40 mBq/m{sup 3} in airborne after 5 hours, 10.05 {+-} 15.65 mBq/m{sup 3} in airborne after 48 hours, 16.90 {+-} 2.94 MBq/km{sup 2} in fallout for 30 days, 79.5 {+-} 142.7 mBq/L in precipitation, and 34.7 {+-} 24.6 mBq/L in tap water. The gamma exposure rate at the same station is 13.10 {+-} 3.93 {mu}R/h. We find no significant changes in these measurements from the past data, and the artificial radionuclide of {sup 137} Cs in airborne dust, fallout and precipitation are found to be less than the M.D.A. values. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K in the soil sampled at 32 sites throughout Yongseo area in Kangwon-do are in the range between 6.59 {+-} 0.47 Bq/kg.dry to 55.54 {+-} 1.58 Bq/kg.dry and 358.3 {+-} 10.3 Bq/kg.dry to 1157.0 {+-} 22.8 Bq/kg.dry, respectively. The gamma exposure rates at 61 sites in Yongseo area are in the range between 12.03 {+-} 0.63 {mu}R/h to 36.74 {+-} 1.06 {mu}R/h with the average value of 17.03 {+-} 3.98 {mu}R/h. Radioactivities in chinese cabbages sampled at 5 different regions in Yongseo area of Kangwon-do are found to be less than M.D.A. value for {sup 137}Cs and 63.60 - 1.03 Bq/kg for {sup 40}K. The data for rice is currently being analysed, and we expect to get the final results for the rice by the time of publishing this report. The radioactivities in dairy and fish product in Yongseo area are found to be that the average concentrations of {sup 137}Cs are in the range of < M.D.A - 0.03 {+-} 0.01 Bq/L in milk product sampled at 3 different regions in Yongseo area and 0.05 {+-} 0.01 - 0.17 {+-} 0.02 Bq/kg in fishes(hair-tail, marckel and Alaska pollack, etc.) sampled in Chunchon city, and the {sup 40}K concentrations are 36.48 {+-} 0.63 - 44.45 {+-} 0.77 Bq/L in the milk samples and 16.26 {+-} 0.34 - 99.44 {+-} 1.60 Bq/kg in the fish samples.

  20. Monitoring of Human Exposure to Radiation With the Binucleated Lymphocyte Micronucleus Assay 

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEJI-LINANG; JINHAI-YAN; 等

    2000-01-01

    The micronuclei(MN) of peripheral blood lymphocytes from radiation-exposed people were monitroed with the binucleated lymphocyte micronucleus assay(CBMN),MN rates in people with radiation-disease,radiation exposed and a control group were 12.57%,4.20%and 3.26%,respectively.The MN rate of patients with radiation-disease was significantly higher than those of other groups(P0.05),Meanwhile,chromosome aberrations(CA) of 3 groups were determined.The results were similar to those seen while the MN assay,CA rates were 2.06%,0.93%,and 0.69%,respectively,CA rate of the radiation-disease group was significantly higher than that of other groups(P0.05),The study indicates that the CBMN assay is a rapid,sensitive and accurate method which can be used to monitor a large population exposed to radiation.

  1. Radiation Internal Monitoring by In Vivo Scanning in Operation Tomodachi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    and energy of the radiation to cause stochastic effects (e.g. cancer). Equivalent Dose HT = �, The equivalent dose to a tissue or organ...prolonged excretion, resulting in a thyroid dose a little larger than normal. On the contrary, hyperthyroid adults exhibit a shorter iodine half-time in the...shown in Table 18. Uncertainty was introduced by using the clean human phantom concept because people vary in size causing different shielding

  2. Range monitoring proton therapy by means of secondary radiation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Espallardo, I.; Gillam, J. E.; Garcia Ortega, P.; Cabello, J.; Oliver, J.; Llosa, G.; Trovato, M.; Solaz, C.; Lacasta, C.; Rafecas, M.

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this work is to study the ability of the open ring PET geometries with TOF and of the proposed Compton Camera for assessing range shifts below 5 mm. All this work is part of the ENVISION project which is directed towards on-line dose monitoring in hadron therapy. (Author)

  3. SYSTEM OF RADIATION HYGIENIC MONITORING AND RADIATION HYGIENIC PASSPORTIZATION WITHIN THE TERRITORY OF THE ROSTOV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Soloviev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents interaction of the Administration of Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being in the Rostov region and the other Authorities executing radiation control within the territory of the region, as well as with other institutions responsible for supervising of facilities operating with ionizing irradiation sources. Brief characterization of environmental radiation contamination (water, soil, foodstuffs, characterization of facilities operating in the field of ionizing irradiation sources within the region territory, population exposure doses due to the artificial radiation sources (personnel of group A, medical exposure is being presented.

  4. Survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring: major update. Volume 3. Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    This is the third volume of a four-volume (seven-part) series, the culmination of a comprehensive survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Consideration is given to instruments and techniques presently in use and to those developed for other purposes but having possible applications to radiation monitoring. The results of the survey are given as descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Information is also given regarding the pollutants to be monitored, their characteristics and forms, their sources and pathways, their effects on the ecosystem, and the means of controlling them through process and regulatory controls. The discussion is presented under sections entitled radiation sources; instrumentation: by type of radiation or instrument type; and, instrumentation for specific radionuclides. (JGB)

  5. High background radiation areas of Ram sar in Iran: evaluation of DNA damage by alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoomi, J.R. [Biophysics Department, College of Sciences, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, Sh. [Radiation Molecular Genetic Laboratory, National Radiation Protection Department (NRPD), Iranian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (INRA), P.O. Box 14155-4494, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amini, M. [Faculty of Pharmacy, Azad University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghiassi-Nejad, M. [Biophysics Department, College of Sciences, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: ghiassi@mailcity.com

    2006-07-01

    The hot springs in special areas in Ram sar, a northern coastal town in Iran, contain {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn. The natural radiation effects, radiosensitivity or adaptive responses, on the inhabitants of high natural radiation in Ram sar were studied. The single cell gel electrophoresis was used to monitor DNA damages. Three groups of volunteers were selected, one from high natural background radiation areas as the case group and two from normal background radiation areas as controls (control 1 and control 2). The latter one had the similar living situation to case group while the other (control 2) had different living situation from the other groups. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMNCs) were separated and irradiated by {sup 6}Co source at five different gamma doses. It was found that the spontaneous level of DNA damage and the induced DNA damage in all challenging doses in case group was considerably higher than control groups (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the repair rate in those volunteers, who received less than 10.2 mSv/y was significantly more than the control groups. In the contrary, individuals who live in homes with more than 10.2 mSv/y had incomplete repair. Additionally the plasma and urinary levels of vitamin C were measured spectrophotometrically. Although the concentration of vitamin C of plasma was equal in case and control 1 groups, the urinary level of vitamin C was found to be lower in the case group.

  6. Megagray Dosimetry (or Monitoring of Very Large Radiation Doses)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Uribe, R.M.; Miller, Arne

    1983-01-01

    A number of suitably calibrated plastic and dyed films and solid-state systems can provide mapping of very intense radiation fields with high spatial resolution and reasonable limits of uncertainty of absorbed dose assessment. Although most systems of this type suffer from rate dependence...... and temperature dependence of response when irradiated with charged particle beams at high dose rates, a few are stable, easily calibrated, and capable of faithful imaging of detailed dose profiles, even at doses up to 106 Gy and dose rates up to 108 Gy·s−1. Candidates include certain undyed plastic films (e...

  7. Response of radiation monitoring labels to gamma rays and electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahim, F. Abdel; Miller, Arne; McLaughlin, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    dyes that indicate changes of pH due to release of halogen from halogenated substrates, have limited shelf life and must be protected from extreme environmental conditions. Some also show a marked rate dependence of response. Readings of color reflection optical densities on labels or long paper strips......Many kinds of coated or impregnated reflecting papers change color or become colored by large radiation doses. Such papers or “labels” do not generally supply dosimetry information, but may give useful inventory information, namely a visual indication of whether or not an industrial product...

  8. On the role of radiation monitors on board LISA Pathfinder and future space interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimani, C.; Boatella, C.; Chmeissani, M.; Fabi, M.; Finetti, N.; Laurenza, M.; Lobo, A.; Mateos, I.; Storini, M.

    2012-05-01

    LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) and its precursor mission LISA Pathfinder (LISA-PF) will carry particle monitors for noise diagnostics. It was proposed to build and place radiation detectors on board the ASTROD missions as well. We present here a study of the solar energetic particle (SEP) events that the LISA-PF radiation monitors are able to detect above the galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) background predicted at the time of the mission data taking in 2015. In order to optimize the correlation between radiation monitor measurements and gravitational sensor test-mass charging, the energy threshold for particles traversing both detectors should be approximately the same. In LISA-PF, the radiation monitor particle energy cut-off was conservatively set at 75 MeV per nucleon (MeV/n) for protons and ion normal incidence, while the minimum energy of the same particles reaching the test masses is 100 MeV/n. We find that SEP events detectable on LISA-PF are characterized by peak fluxes and fluences at energies >75 MeV/n larger than about 45%, on average, with respect to those at energies >100 MeV/n. We conclude that for an accurate correlation between radiation monitor count rates and test-mass charging, it is mandatory to benefit from absolute flux measurements of both galactic and high-energy solar particles provided by experiments carrying magnetic spectrometers in space at the time of LISA-PF (PAMELA, AMS). On the other hand, the role of the radiation detectors on board LISA-PF is crucial allowing for SEP event onset and dynamics monitoring.

  9. EXPERIENCE OF RADIATION-HYGIENIC MONITORING MANAGEMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF RADIATION SITUATION IN THE BRYANSK REGION TERRITORY AFTER 25 YEARS SINCE THE DAY OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Trapeznikova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly presents the experience of the radiation-hygienic monitoring system creation in the territory contaminated with the radionuclides due to the Chernobyl accident and application of the radiation hygienic monitoring data for the assessment of protective measures efficiency. Radiation situation data for the territory of the Bryansk region after 25 years of Chernobyl accident and dynamics of the population average annual effective exposure dose are being presented.

  10. Transition in occupational radiation exposure monitoring methods in diagnostic and interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnroth, Nadja; Hirvonen-Kari, Mirja; Timonen, Marjut; Savolainen, Sauli; Kortesniemi, Mika

    2012-08-01

    Radiation exposure monitoring is a traditional keystone of occupational radiation safety measures in medical imaging. The aim of this study was to review the data on occupational exposures in a large central university hospital radiology organisation and propose changes in the radiation worker categories and methods of exposure monitoring. An additional objective was to evaluate the development of electronic personal dosimeters and their potential in the digitised radiology environment. The personal equivalent dose of 267 radiation workers (116 radiologists and 151 radiographers) was monitored using personal dosimeters during the years 2006-2010. Accumulated exposure monitoring results exceeding the registration threshold were observed in the personal dosimeters of 73 workers (59 radiologists' doses ranged from 0.1 to 45.1 mSv; 14 radiographers' doses ranged from 0.1 to 1.3 mSv). The accumulated personal equivalent doses are generally very small, only a few angiography radiologists have doses >10 mSv per 5 y. The typical effective doses are dosimeters. An active real-time dosimetry system is warranted to support radiation protection strategy where optimisation aspects, including improving working methods, are essential.

  11. A system for monitoring the radiation effects of a proton linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skorkin, V. M., E-mail: skorkin@inr.ru; Belyanski, K. L.; Skorkin, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The system for real-time monitoring of radioactivity of a high-current proton linear accelerator detects secondary neutron emission from proton beam losses in transport channels and measures the activity of radionuclides in gas and aerosol emissions and the radiation background in the environment affected by a linear accelerator. The data provided by gamma, beta, and neutron detectors are transferred over a computer network to the central server. The system allows one to monitor proton beam losses, the activity of gas and aerosol emissions, and the radiation emission level of a linear accelerator in operation.

  12. EVOLUTION OF THE IEC AND EN STANDARDS FOR INDIVIDUAL MONITORING OF IONISING RADIATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytchev, M; Behrens, R; Ambrosi, P; Radev, R; Chiaro, P

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the evolution of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the European standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation issued, respectively, from the committees IEC/Sub Committee 45B and European Committee for Electro-technical Standardization/Technical Committee 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation'. Standards for passive individual photon and beta dosimetry systems as well as those for active individual monitors are discussed. A neutron ambient dose equivalent (rate) meter standard and a technical report concerning the determination of uncertainty in measurement are also covered. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Kalman filtration of radiation monitoring data from atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drews, M.; Lauritzen, B.; Madsen, H.;

    2004-01-01

    A Kalman filter method using off-site radiation monitoring data is proposed as a tool for on-line estimation of the source term for short-range atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials. The method is based on the Gaussian plume model, in which the plume parameters including the source term...... exhibit a ‘random walk’ process. The embedded parameters of the Kalman filter are determined through maximum-likelihood estimation making the filter essentially free of external parameters. The method is tested using both real and simulated radiation monitoring data. For simulated data, the method...

  14. Frequency and quality of radiation monitoring of construction workers at two gaseous diffusion plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Eula; Ringen, Knut; Dement, John; Cameron, Wilfrid; McGowan, William; Welch, Laura; Quinn, Patricia

    2006-09-01

    Construction workers were and are considered temporary workers at many construction sites. Since World War II, large numbers of construction workers were employed at U.S. Department of Energy nuclear weapons sites for periods ranging from a few days to over 30 years. These workers performed tasks during new construction and maintenance, repair, renovation, and demolition of existing facilities. Such tasks may involve emergency situations, and may entail opportunities for significant radiation exposures. This paper provides data from interviews with more than 750 construction workers at two gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) at Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio regarding radiation monitoring practices. The aim was to determine the extent to which workers believed they were monitored during tasks involving potential radiation exposures. The adequacy of monitoring practices is important for two reasons: (a) Protecting workers from exposures: Construction workers were employed by sub-contractors, and may frequently been excluded from safety and health programs provided to permanent employees; and (b) Supporting claims for compensation: The Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act (EEOICPA) requires dose reconstruction of radiation exposures for most workers who file a claim regarding cancer. The use of monitoring data for radiation to qualify a worker means that there should be valid and complete monitoring during the work time at the various nuclear plants or workers may be unfairly denied compensation. The worker interviews from Paducah and Portsmouth were considered especially useful because these sites were designated as Special Exposure Cohorts (SECs) and the workers did not have to have a dose reconstruction to qualify for compensation for most cancers. Therefore, their responses were less likely to be affected by compensation concerns. Interview questions included asking for information regarding whether monitoring was performed, how

  15. Research on Monitoring Area Division of Quality Grade Changes in County Cultivated Land and Technology of Deploying Monitoring Point

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei; WEI; Lijun; LIAO; Jianxin; YU

    2013-01-01

    It is an important means in management of improving both the quality and quantity of cultivated land to monitor grade changes in cultivated land quality. How to deploy monitoring network system and its point reasonably and roundly are the key to the technology of monitoring grade changes in cultivated land quality by monitoring grade changes in cultivated land quality dynamically in order to obtain the information to the index of cultivated land quality and its changes based on the existing achievements of farmland classification and grading. Spatial analysis method is used to demarcate monitoring area and deploy monitoring point according to ARCGIS,of which the result can meet the demand for monitoring grade changes in cultivated land.

  16. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Holzheimer, Clous

    2014-09-01

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS's) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS's. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS).

  17. The status and prospective of environmental radiation monitoring stations in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S. [National Center for Radiation Protection, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, 11442 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Holzheimer, Clous [ENVINET GmbH, Environmental Radiation Detection, Hans-Pinsel-Straße 4, 85540 Haar (Munich) (Germany)

    2014-09-30

    The use of nuclear technology requires an environmental monitoring program to ensure the safety of the environment, and to protect people from the hazards of radioactive materials, and nuclear accidents. Nuclear accidents are unique, for they incur effects that surpass international frontiers, and can even have a long lasting impact on Earth. Such was the case of the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine on April 6, 1986. For that purpose, international and national efforts come together to observe for any nuclear or radioactive accident. Many states, including Saudi Arabia which oversees the operation of the National Radiation, Environmental and Early Monitoring Stations, The Radiation Monitoring Stations(RMS’s) are currently scattered across 35 cities in the country,. These locations are evaluated based on various technological criteria such as border cities, cities of high population density, wind direction, etc. For new nuclear power plants hovering around, it is strongly recommended to increase the number of radiation monitoring stations to warn against any threat that may arise from a nuclear leak or accident and to improve the performance of the existing RMS’s. SARA (Spectroscopic Monitoring Station for air) should be implemented due to the high sensitivity to artificial radiation, automatic isotope identification, free of maintenance, and fully independent due to solar power supply (incl. battery backup) and wireless communication (GPRS)

  18. Radiation monitoring and beam dump system of the OPAL silicon microvertex detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biebel, O.; Braibant, S.; de Jong, S. J.; Hammarström, R.; Hilgers, R.; Honma, A. K.; Jovanovic, P.; Lauber, J. A.; Neal, H. A.

    1998-02-01

    The radiation monitoring and beam dump system of the OPAL silicon microvertex detector is described. This system was designed and implemented to measure the radiation dose over time scales varying from a millisecond to a year, and to induce a fast beam dump if the radiation exceeds a given threshold in dose and in dose rate within a very small time interval. The system uses reverse-biased silicon diodes as sensitive elements and good stability is achieved by AC coupling of the amplifiers to the sensors.

  19. Monitoring system for testing the radiation hardness of a KINTEX-7 FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojocariu, L. N.; Placinta, V. M.; Dumitru, L.

    2016-03-01

    A much more efficient Ring Imaging Cherenkov sub-detector system will be rebuilt in the second long shutdown of Large Hadron Collider for the LHCb experiment. Radiation-hard electronic components together with Commercial Off-The-Shelf ones will be used in the new Cherenkov photon detection system architecture. An irradiation program was foreseen to determine the radiation tolerance for the new electronic devices, including a Field Programmable Gate Array from KINTEX-7 family of XILINX. An automated test bench for online monitoring of the XC7K70T KINTEX-7 device operation in radiation conditions was designed and implemented by the LHCb Romanian group.

  20. Pollen and spores as a passive monitor of ultraviolet radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Toby Fraser

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sporopollenin is the primary component of the outer walls of pollen and spores. The chemical composition of sporopollenin is responsive to levels of ultraviolet (UV radiation exposure, via a concomitant change in the concentration of phenolic compounds. This relationship offers the possibility of using fossil pollen and spore chemistry as a novel proxy for past UV flux. Phenolic compounds in sporopollenin can be quantified using Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy. The high potential for preservation of pollen and spores in the geologic record, and the conservative nature of sporopollenin chemistry across the land plant phylogeny, means that this new proxy has the potential to reconstruct UV flux over much longer timescales than has previously been possible. This new tool has important implications for understanding the relationship between UV flux, solar insolation and climate in the past, as well as providing a possible means of assessing paleoaltitude, and ozone thickness.

  1. Monitoring of the atmospheric ozone layer and natural ultraviolet radiation: Annual report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendby, T.M.; Myhre, C.L.; Stebel, K.; Edvardsen, K; Orsolini, Y.; Dahlback, A.

    2012-07-01

    This is an annual report describing the activities and main results of the monitoring programme: Monitoring of the atmospheric ozone layer and natural ultraviolet radiation for 2011. 2011 was a year with generally low ozone values above Norway. A clear decrease in the ozone layer above Norway during the period 1979-1997 stopped after 1998 and the ozone layer above Norway seems now to have stabilized.(Author)

  2. Visits by Nuclear Powered Warships to Australian Ports; Report on Radiation Monitoring During 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    is undertaken by groups made up from the Australian Nuclear Science and Technical Organisation ( ANSTO ). the health and environmental authorities of...Monitoring Group is always a radiation protection officer of the ANSTO . 13. The marine environmental monitoring program is a joint undertaking by the...Centre and was manned continuously for the period of the visit. TRAINING 14. A refresher course was conducted in January by ANSTO staff for an RAN

  3. Development of an alpha/beta/gamma detector for radiation monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Hatazawa, Jun

    2011-11-01

    For radiation monitoring at the site of nuclear power plant accidents such as Fukushima Daiichi, radiation detectors not only for gamma photons but also for alpha and beta particles are needed because some nuclear fission products emit beta particles and gamma photons and some nuclear fuels contain plutonium that emits alpha particles. We developed a radiation detector that can simultaneously monitor alpha and beta particles and gamma photons for radiation monitoring. The detector consists of three-layered scintillators optically coupled to each other and coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The first layer, which is made of a thin plastic scintillator (decay time: 2.4 ns), detects alpha particles. The second layer, which is made of a thin Gd(2)SiO(5) (GSO) scintillator with 1.5 mol.% Ce (decay time: 35 ns), detects beta particles. The third layer made of a thin GSO scintillator with 0.4 mol.% Ce (decay time: 70 ns) detects gamma photons. By using pulse shape discrimination, the count rates of these layers can be separated. With individual irradiation of alpha and beta particles and gamma photons, the count rate of the first layer represented the alpha particles, the second layer represented the beta particles, and the third layer represented the gamma photons. Even with simultaneous irradiation of the alpha and beta particles and the gamma photons, these three types of radiation can be individually monitored using correction for the gamma detection efficiency of the second and third layers. Our developed alpha, beta, and gamma detector is simple and will be useful for radiation monitoring, especially at nuclear power plant accident sites or other applications where the simultaneous measurements of alpha and beta particles and gamma photons are required. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  4. Testing of environmental radiation monitors using the Risø low-level radiation measurement stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    2000-01-01

    To harmonise the measurement of environmental dose rates from photon radiation within the EU countries. an EU sponsored intercomparison of environmental dose rate meters used for early warning of nuclear accidents was performed in June 1999. The intercomparison was organised by the EURADOS......, Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany) and the Riso National Laboratory (Denmark). This paper describes the free-field irradiation facilities at Rise and some details of the field intercomparison experiments performed at the Riso Natural Environmental Radiation Measurement Station during 3rd and 4th...... June, 1999. The chief aims of such experiments are to allow the participants to check their home calibrations of their detectors and to compare the responses of the individual environmental radiation measurement systems used in the different EU member states and making a link between the different...

  5. Radiation health consequences for astronauts: mechanisms, monitoring and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyfakh, E.

    During space flights crews are exposed chronically to uneven irradiation of enhanced bioefficiency following with significant elevation for chromosomal aberrations as minimum. To protect in space rationally monitoring and preventing of health radiogenic individual primary consequences for astronauts are of high importance. Majority of Chernobyl-touched population has some common etiologic radiogenic mechanisms and radioloads with astronauts ones during long-term missions and former is able to be used well as the close ground-level model. Primary radiogenic deviations. Two radiogenic pathologies as lipoperoxic ( LP ) stress with coupled deficits for essential bioantioxidants ( BAO ) were typical for chronic low-dose Chernobyl-touched contingents. When BAO expenditure had led to their subnormal levels, radiogenic free radical chain -b ranched LP processes occurred in vivo hyperbolically. Catabolites and their free radicals of the abnormal LP cascade are known to be toxic, mutagenic / carcinogenic and teratogenic factors as such, as they are for retinol and tocopherol deficiencies. Both coupled pathogenic factors interrelated synergistically. Simultaneous dysbalances for LP and / or BAO systems were evaluated as the cause and markers for metabolic disregulations. Human LP stress was proved to be the most radiosensible known marker to mo nitor least invasively of blood microsamples in a ground lab via the developed PC Program. But for capsule conditions the best approach is assumed to be LP monitoring via skin ultraweak green-blue chemiluminescence ( CL ) caused by recombination of peroxyl radicals. CL from surfaces of organs was embedded first ( E. Neyfakh, 1964 - 71 ) to reflect their internal LP velocities in vivo and it is the non-invasive on-line simple method of the highest sensitivity, supplying with data transmissible to the ground directly. Related deviations. a) Radiogenic hypermutagenesis: LP catabolites and their free radicals are responsible for direct DNA

  6. Evaluation of emplacement sensors for detecting radiation and volatile organic compounds and for long-term monitoring access tubes for the BWCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, D.L.; Averill, R.H.

    1997-10-01

    This document evaluates sensors for detecting contaminants in the excavated waste generated by the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS). The Barrier Placement Machine (BPM) removes spoils from under a landfill or plume and places it on a conveyor belt on the left and right sides of the BPM. The spoils will travel down the conveyor belts past assay monitors and be deposited on top of the site being worked. The belts are 5 ft wide and transport approximately 15 ft3 /minute of spoils. This corresponds to a 10 ft per hour BPM advance rate. With a 2 in. spoils height the belt speed would be 3.6 in. per second. The spoils being removed are expected to be {open_quotes}clean{close_quotes} (no radiation or volatile organics above background levels). To ensure that the equipment is not digging through a contaminated area, assay equipment will monitor the spoils for mg radiation and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The radiation monitors will check for gross radiation indication. Upon detection of radiation levels above a predetermined setpoint, further evaluation will be performed to determine the isotopes present and their quantity. This will require hand held monitors and a remote monitoring station. Simultaneously, VOC monitors will monitor for predetermined volatile/semi-volatile organic compounds. A Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) monitor is recommended for this operation. Specific site requirements and regulations will determine setpoints and operation scenarios. If VOCs are detected, the data will be collected and recorded. A flat panel display will be mounted in the BPM operator`s cab showing the radio nuclide and VOC monitoring data. As the BPM advances, a 3-in. diameter PVC tube will be placed on the bottom of the barrier slot in front of the 12 to 16-in. containment barrier being emplaced.

  7. Annihilation Radiation Gauge for Relative Density and Multiphase Fluid Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the multi-phase flow parameters are important for the petroleum industry, specifically during the transport in pipelines and network related to exploitation’s wells. Crude oil flow is studied by Monte Carlo simulation and experimentally to determine transient liquid phase in a laboratory system. Relative density and fluid phase time variation is monitored employing a fast nuclear data acquisition setup that includes two large volume BaF2 scintillator detectors coupled to an electronic chain and data display in a LabView® environment. Fluid parameters are determined by the difference in count rate of coincidence pulses. The operational characteristics of the equipment indicate that 2 % deviation in the CCR corresponds to a variation, on average, of 20 % in the fraction of liquid of the multiphase fluid.

  8. New instruments for plant area and personnel monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammage, R. B.; Hawthorne, A. R.; Vo-Dinh, T.; Schuresko, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    Advances in portable monitoring instruments and simple luminescence techniques for analyzing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNAs) are reported. A small, derivative ultra-violet absorption spectrometer is suitable for multipollutant real-time monitoring of several mono- and bicyclic aromatic vapors. A non-compound selective fluorescence spill spotter and lightpipe luminoscope are active instruments for measuring general surface and skin contamination, respectively. A small passive integrating filter paper exposure device that responds to PNA vapors such a pyrene is a very promising and recent development. Synchronous luminescence and room temperature phosphoresence are two attractive and simple to use analytical methodologies for the rapid assaying of major PNA compounds. Their potential for analyzing the cyclohexane extract of particulate matter, or incorporation into a device for the continuous monitoring of select PNAs in aerosols in near-real-time, are discussed.

  9. Patient Health Monitoring Using Wireless Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Myat Thwe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays remote patient health monitoring using wireless technology plays very vigorous role in a society. Wireless technology helps monitoring of physiological parameters like body temperature heart rate respiration blood pressure and ECG. The main aim of this paper is to propose a wireless sensor network system in which both heart rate and body temperature ofmultiplepatients can monitor on PC at the same time via RF network. The proposed prototype system includes two sensor nodes and receiver node base station. The sensor nodes are able to transmit data to receiver using wireless nRF transceiver module.The nRF transceiver module is used to transfer the data from microcontroller to PC and a graphical user interface GUI is developed to display the measured data and save to database. This system can provide very cheaper easier and quick respondent history of patient.

  10. Cytogenetic monitoring of nuclear workers occupationally exposed to ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gricienė, B; Slapšytė, G; Mierauskienė, J

    2014-06-01

    Chromosome aberration (CA) analysis using Giemsa techniques was performed in blood lymphocytes of 84 nuclear workers with cumulative doses of 1-632 mSv during employment periods of 1-25 y. The control group comprised 82 healthy male donors. An estimated CA frequency in the total radiation-exposed group was significantly higher when compared with the controls (2.27 vs. 1.76 CA/100 cells, p 0.05). However, significant increase in the total CA frequency was determined in workers with additional internal exposure (2.54 CA/100 cells, p < 0.05) and those with registered neutron doses (2.95 CA/100 cells, p < 0.01). No correlation was found between CA frequency and occupational exposure dose. Borderline significant correlation was found between duration of employment and total CA (r = 0.218, p = 0.046, Fig. 2) and chromosome-type aberration (r = 0.265, p = 0.015) frequency.

  11. Nuclear Track Detectors for Environmental Studies and Radiation Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzoor, S. [Department of Physics of the University of Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); PRD, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: manzoor@bo.infn.it; Balestra, S.; Cozzi, M.; Errico, M.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M. [Department of Physics of the University of Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Kumar, A. [Department of Physics of the University of Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Dept. of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Eng. and Tech., Longowal 148 106 India (India); Margiotta, A.; Medinaceli, E.; Patrizii, L. [Department of Physics of the University of Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Popa, V. [Department of Physics of the University of Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Institute of Space Sciences, Bucharest R-77125 (Romania); Qureshi, I.E. [PRD, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Islamabad (Pakistan); Togo, V. [Department of Physics of the University of Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    Several improvements were made for Nuclear Track Detectors (NTDs) used for environmental studies and for particle searches. A new method was used to determine the bulk etch rate of CR39 and Makrofol NTDs. It is based on the simultaneous measurement of the diameter and of the height of etch-pit cones caused by relativistic heavy ions (158 A GeV Pb{sup 82+} and In{sup 49+} ions) and their fragments. The use of alcohol in the etching solution improves the surface quality of NTDs and it raises their thresholds. The detectors were used for the determination of nuclear fragmentation cross sections of Iron and Silicon ions of 1.0 and 0.41 GeV/nucleon. These measurements are important for the determination of doses in hadrontherapy and for doses received by astronauts. The detectors were also used in the search of massive particles in the cosmic radiation, for the determination of the mass spectrum of cosmic rays and for the evaluation of Po{sup 210}{alpha}-decay and of natural radon concentrations.

  12. Accuracy of soil water content estimates from gamma radiation monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jie; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Reemt Bogena, Heye; Vereecken, Harry

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial gamma radiation is known to be sensitive to soil water content, and could be promising for soil water content determination because of the availability of continental-scale gamma radiation monitoring networks. However, the accuracy of soil water content estimates that can be obtained from this type of data is currently unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of soil water content estimates from measured time series of gamma radiation. For this, four gamma radiation monitoring stations were each equipped with four soil water content sensors at 5 and 15 cm depth to provide reference soil water content measurements. The contributions of terrestrial radiation and secondary cosmic radiation were separated from the total amount of measured gamma radiation by assuming that the long-term contribution of secondary cosmic radiation was constant, and that variations were related to changes in air pressure and incoming neutrons. In addition, precipitation effects related to atmospheric washout of radon progenies to the ground that cause an increase of gamma radiation were considered by excluding time periods with precipitation and time periods less than three hours after precipitation. The estimated terrestrial gamma radiation was related to soil water content using an exponential function with two fit parameters. For daily soil water content estimates, the goodness of fit ranged from R2= 0.21 to 0.48 and the RMSE ranged from 0.048 to 0.117 m3m-3. The accuracy of the soil water content estimates improved considerably when a weekly resolution was used (RMSE ranged from 0.029 to 0.084 m3m-3). Overall, these results indicate that gamma radiation monitoring data can be used to obtain useful soil water content information. The remaining differences between measured and estimated soil water content can at least partly be explained by the fact that the terrestrial gamma radiation is strongly determined by the upper few centimeters of the soil

  13. Operating a Microwave Radiation Detection Monitor. Module 10. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on operating a microwave radiation detection monitor. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) testing the…

  14. Preliminary results of radiation monitoring near uranium mines in Namibia EJOLT Project (DRAFT version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chareyron, Bruno

    2012-04-05

    As a part of the EJOLT (Environmental Justice Organizations Liability and Trade) project, EARTHLIFE Namibia and CRIIRAD (Commission for Independent Research and Information about Radiation) have organised visits in areas located in the vicinity of uranium mines in Namibia In the course of an on site mission carried out between September 22 and October 2 2011, scientists from the CRIIRAD laboratory took radiation measurements in situ, and collected 14 samples of top soil, 13 samples of surface sediments of the Swakop, Gawib and Khan rivers, 11 underground water samples in the alluvium of Swakop, and Khan rivers and tap water from Arandis city, and one sample of asparagus. Solid samples have been analysed at the CRIIRAD laboratory in France (measurements performed by HpGe gamma spectrometry) and water samples have been monitored for main chemicals by LDA 26 laboratory in France and for radium 226 and radon 222 at the CRIIRAD laboratory. Some of the preliminary findings are summarised in this report: 1 - The dose rate measured by CRIIRAD on the parking of Roessing mine is about 6 times above natural background value (0.9 {mu}Sv/h compared to 0.15 {mu}Sv/h); 2 - The management of waste rock dumps needs to be improved: Some waste rocks are dumped on the banks of Khan river (at the intersection with Dome Gorge) without fencing and confinement. The radiological impact of this activity has to be studied in detail but preliminary measurements show various impacts on the environment; 3 - The finest fraction of the radioactive tailings dumped on Roessing tailings dam is blown away by the wind and contaminates the surrounding environment; 4 - The high uranium concentration in underground water collected downstream Roessing uranium mine in the Khan river and Swakop river alluvium raises the question of the origin of this uranium

  15. BANip: Enabling Remote Healthcare Monitoring with Body Area Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokovski, Nikolay; Halteren, van Aart; Widya, Ing; Guelfi, Nicolas; Astesiano, Egidio; Reggio, Gianna

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a Java service platform for mobile healthcare that enables remote health monitoring using 2.5/3G public wireless networks. The platform complies with todayrsquos healthcare delivery models, in particular it incorporates some functionality of a healthcare call center, a healthport

  16. BANip: Enabling Remote Healthcare Monitoring with Body Area Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokovski, N.T.; van Halteren, Aart; Widya, I.A.; Guelfi, Nicolas; Astesiano, Egidio; Reggio, Gianna

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a Java service platform for mobile healthcare that enables remote health monitoring using 2.5/3G public wireless networks. The platform complies with todayrsquos healthcare delivery models, in particular it incorporates some functionality of a healthcare call center, a healthport

  17. Belle-II VXD radiation monitoring and beam abort with sCVD diamond sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, T.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C.; Kandra, J.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnička, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rao, K. K.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sandilya, S.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thalmeier, R.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, Lorenzo; Volpi, M.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.

    2016-07-01

    The Belle-II VerteX Detector (VXD) has been designed to improve the performances with respect to Belle and to cope with an unprecedented luminosity of 8 ×1035cm-2s-1 achievable by the SuperKEKB. Special care is needed to monitor both the radiation dose accumulated throughout the life of the experiment and the instantaneous radiation rate, in order to be able to promptly react to sudden spikes for the purpose of protecting the detectors. A radiation monitoring and beam abort system based on single-crystal diamond sensors is now under an active development for the VXD. The sensors will be placed in several key positions in the vicinity of the interaction region. The severe space limitations require a challenging remote readout of the sensors.

  18. Protocol of specific health monitoring: ionizing radiation, 11 years later; Protocolo de vigilancia sanitaria especifica: radiaciones ionizantes, 11 anos despues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillejo Puertas, F. M.

    2016-08-01

    Since the approval on November 11{sup t}h 2003 of the Protocol of Specific Health Monitoring for Workers Exposed to Ionizing Radiation a study has been carried out to discover its effectiveness. These areas were examined: the daily practice od accupational medicine and, in particular, its specific task in the application of the different clinical/labour criteria for workers exposed to ionizing radiation or at risk of radioactive contamination; the degree of its uses as well as the updates and improvements. For that purpose, a descriptive bibliographic revision has been used for the last 11 years. The results revealed the lack of updates of the Protocol as well as the few usable objective criteria, when the clinical/labour aptitudes are reflected upon. (Author)

  19. A diagram for defined solar radiation absorbed per unit area of flat plate solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekin, Y.; Altuntop, N. [Erciyes University, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Turkey); Cengel, Y.A. [Nevada Reno University, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, NV (United States); Cengel, Y.A. [Nevada University, Dept. Mechanical Engineering, Reno, NV (United States)

    2000-07-01

    In Erciyes University, the Solar House (28.75 m{sup 2}) is heated from the floor by using flat plate liquid solar collectors. Required solar radiation for heating and heat losses are calculated. In this work, the required calculations for Erciyes Solar House were generalized and required calculation were done to evaluate absorbed solar radiation per unit surface of the flat plate liquid collector. At the end, three generalized diagrams for nine different months are obtained using obtained numerical values. The goal of preparing diagrams is to determine absorbed solar radiation per unit surface area of flat plate liquid collector at any instant at any latitude, In this work, the diagram is explained by means of sample calculations for November. This diagram was prepared to find out absorbed solar radiation per unit area of black surface collector by means obtained equations. With this diagram, all instant solar radiation can be evaluated in 19 steps. (authors)

  20. Qualification of the radiation environment in the TCC2 experimental test area.

    CERN Document Server

    Fynbo, C A

    2000-01-01

    This report qualifies the radiation environment to be found in the area behind the beam dump in the TCC2 experimental hall where tests are being performed on the radiation hardness and sensitivity to Single Event Upsets of electronics to be installed near the LHC machine. A comparison is made with the radiation environment expected for the LHC, and we conclude that the environment found in the test area matches that of LHC such that tests performed here will provide a valid simulation of electronics performance under LHC running conditions.

  1. NCRP Program Area Committee 5: Environmental Radiation and Radioactive Waste Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shih-Yew; Napier, Bruce A.

    2016-02-18

    The Program Area Committee 5 (PAC 5) of the National Council on Radiation protection and Measurements (NCRP) focuses its activities on environmental radiation and radioactive waste issues. The committee completed a number of reports in the subject areas, and specifically the most recent NCRP Report 175 (Decision Making for Late-Phase Recovery from Major Nuclear or Radiological Incidents). Historically PAC 5 addressed the emerging issues of the nation that pertain to radioactivity or radiation in the environment, or the radioactive waste issues due either to the natural origins or to the manmade activities

  2. NCRP Program Area Committee 5: Environmental Radiation and Radioactive Waste Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S Y; Napier, Bruce

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee 5 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) focuses its activities on environmental radiation and radioactive waste issues. The Committee completed a number of reports in these subject areas, most recently NCRP Report No. 175, Decision Making for Late-Phase Recovery from Major Nuclear or Radiological Incidents. Historically this Committee addressed emerging issues of the nation pertaining to radioactivity or radiation in the environment or radioactive waste issues due either to natural origins or to manmade activities.

  3. Micro Penning Trap for Continuous Magnetic Field Monitoring in High Radiation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Javiera; Bollen, Georg; Gulyuz, Kerim; Ringle, Ryan; Bado, Philippe; Dugan, Mark; Lebit Team; Translume Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    As new facilities for rare isotope beams, like FRIB at MSU, are constructed, there is a need for new instrumentation to monitor magnetic fields in beam magnets that can withstand the higher radiation level. Currently NMR probes, the instruments used extensively to monitor magnetic fields, do not have a long lifespans in radiation-high environments. Therefore, a radiation-hard replacement is needed. We propose to use Penning trap mass spectrometry techniques to make high precision magnetic field measurements. Our Penning microtrap will be radiation resistant as all of the vital electronics will be at a safe distance from the radiation. The trap itself is made from materials not subject to radiation damage. Penning trap mass spectrometers can determine the magnetic field by measuring the cyclotron frequency of an ion with a known mass and charge. This principle is used on the Low Energy Beam Ion Trap (LEBIT) minitrap at NSCL which is the foundation for the microtrap. We have partnered with Translume, who specialize in glass micro-fabrication, to develop a microtrap in fused-silica glass. A microtrap is finished and ready for testing at NSCL with all of the electronic and hardware components setup. DOE Phase II SBIR Award No. DE-SC0011313, NSF Award Number 1062410 REU in Physics, NSF under Grant No. PHY-1102511.

  4. Monitoring of Solar Radiation Intensity using Wireless Sensor Network for Plant Growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, B.; Fadli, F.; Andayani, U.; Harahap, LA; Fahmi, F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract— Plant growth is highly depending on the sunlight, if the consumption of sunlight is enough, it will grow well. The plant will be green because of its chlorophyll and it can perform photosynthesis at maximum; but if the plants get less sunlight, it will make the plants be yellowing. Radiation is electromagnetic waves that are good for plants, so-called visible light. In the electromagnetic wave spectrum the best wavelength range from 400-700 nm for the plant. A monitoring of sun intensity is needed in order to obtain sufficient solar radiation consumption and provide notification if there is a high radiation. In this study, several sensors and devices were combined such as photosynthetic solar radiation sensors, GSM / GPRS and waspmote as a main board or a microcontroller. The test was carried out on at least three occasions; the system has a stable radiation in the morning with an average of 505.51 micrometers. IN this study, we have successfully developed a monitoring tools for solar radiation intensity applied on plant growth by using wireless sensor network.

  5. The Austrian radiation monitoring network ARAD - best practice and added value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olefs, Marc; Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Obleitner, Friedrich; Bichler, Christoph; Foelsche, Ulrich; Pietsch, Helga; Rieder, Harald E.; Weihs, Philipp; Geyer, Florian; Haiden, Thomas; Schöner, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The Austrian RADiation monitoring network (ARAD) has been established to advance the national climate monitoring and to support satellite retrieval, atmospheric modeling and the development of solar energy techniques. Measurements cover the downward solar and thermal infrared radiation using instruments according to Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) standards. A unique feature of ARAD is its vertical dimension of five stations, covering an altitude range between about 200 m a.s.l (Vienna) and 3100 m a.s.l. (BSRN site Sonnblick). The paper outlines the aims and scopes of ARAD, its measurement and calibration standards, methods, strategies and station locations. ARAD network operation uses innovative data processing for quality assurance and quality control, utilizing manual and automated control algorithms. A combined uncertainty estimate for the broadband shortwave radiation fluxes at all five ARAD stations, using the methodology specified by the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement indicates that relative accuracies range from 1.5 to 2.9 % for large signals (global, direct: 1000 W m-2, diffuse: 500 W m-2) and from 1.7 to 23 % (or 0.9 to 11.5 W m-2) for small signals (50 W m-2) (expanded uncertainties corresponding to the 95 % confidence level). If the directional response error of the pyranometers and the temperature response of the instruments and the data acquisition system (DAQ) are corrected, this expanded uncertainty reduces to 1.4 to 2.8 % for large signals and to 1.7 to 5.2 % (or 0.9-2.6 W m-2) for small signals. Thus, for large signals of global and diffuse radiation, BSRN target accuracies are met or nearly met (missed by less than 0.2 percentage points, pps) for 70 % of the ARAD measurements after this correction. For small signals of direct radiation, BSRN targets are achieved at two sites and nearly met (also missed by less than 0.2 pps) at the other sites. For small signals of global and diffuse radiation, targets are achieved

  6. Monitoring hemlock crown health in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Montgomery; Bradley Onken; Richard A. Evans; Richard A. Evans

    2005-01-01

    Decline of the health of hemlocks in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area was noticeable in the southern areas of the park by 1992. The following year, a series of plots were established to monitor hemlock health and the abundance of hemlock woolly adelgid. This poster examines only the health rating of the hemlocks in the monitoring plots.

  7. NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Volume 15, No. 4: Quarterly progress report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struckmeyer, R.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1995. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program.

  8. Scientific goals achievable with radiation monitor measurements on board gravitational wave interferometers in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimani, C.; Boatella, C.; Chmeissani, M.; Fabi, M.; Finetti, N.; Lobo, A.; Mateos, I.

    2012-06-01

    Cosmic rays and energetic solar particles constitute one of the most important sources of noise for future gravitational wave detectors in space. Radiation monitors were designed for the LISA Pathfinder (LISA-PF) mission. Similar devices were proposed to be placed on board LISA and ASTROD. These detectors are needed to monitor the flux of energetic particles penetrating mission spacecraft and inertial sensors. However, in addition to this primary use, radiation monitors on board space interferometers will carry out the first multipoint observation of solar energetic particles (SEPs) at small and large heliolongitude intervals and at very different distances from Earth with minor normalization errors. We illustrate the scientific goals that can be achieved in solar physics and space weather studies with these detectors. A comparison with present and future missions devoted to solar physics is presented.

  9. Study of LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL detectors for individual monitoring for weakly penetrating radiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P.

    1993-01-01

    The results are described of a study of three commercially available LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL materials aiming at using this phosphor for individual monitoring for weakly penetrating radiations. Due to the high radiation sensitivity of the material it is suitable for application as thin detectors which...... are necessary for monitoring weakly penetrating radiations. Furthermore, the good energy response characteristics of the material for exposure to photons makes it also attractive for monitoring strongly penetrating radiations. Results are given on glow curve analyses of the LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL phosphor and data...

  10. Large area radiation detectors based on II VI thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo-Lopez, Manuel

    2015-03-01

    The development of low temperature device technologies that have enabled flexible displays also present opportunities for flexible electronics and flexible integrated systems. Of particular interest are possible applications in flexible, low metal content, sensor systems for unattended ground sensors, smart medical bandages, electronic ID tags for geo-location, conformal antennas, neutron/gamma-ray/x-ray detectors, etc. In this talk, our efforts to develop novel CMOS integration schemes, circuits, memory, sensors as well as novel contacts, dielectrics and semiconductors for flexible electronics are presented. In particular, in this presentation we discuss fundamental materials properties including crystalline structure, interfacial reactions, doping, etc. defining performance and reliability of II-VI-based radiation sensors. We investigate the optimal thickness of a semiconductor diode for thin-film solid state thermal neutron detectors. Besides II-VI materials, we also evaluated several diode materials, Si, CdTe,GaAs, C (diamond), and ZnO, and two neutron converter materials,10B and 6LiF. We determine the minimum semiconductor thickness needed to achieve maximum neutron detection efficiency. By keeping the semiconductor thickness to a minimum, gamma rejection is kept as high as possible. In this way, we optimize detector performance for different thin-film semiconductor materials.

  11. Fourth IRMF comparison of calibrations of portable gamma-ray dose- rate monitors 2001-2002 Ionising radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, V E

    2002-01-01

    The Ionising Radiations Metrology Forum (IRMF) organised a fourth comparison of calibrations of gamma-ray dose-rate monitors in which fifteen establishments in the UK participated. The exercise involved the circulation of three gamma-ray monitors for calibration in the fields produced using sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs, sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am and sup 6 sup 0 Co. The instruments used were an Electra with MC 20 probe, a Mini-Instruments Mini-rad 1000 and a Siemens electronic personal dosemeter Mk 2 (EPD). The responses relative to 'true' dose equivalent rate were calculated by the individual participants and submitted to the for analysis along with details of the facilities and fields employed. Details of the estimated uncertainties were also reported. The results are compared and demonstrate generally satisfactory agreement between the participating establishments. However, the participants' treatment of uncertainties needs improvement and demonstrates a need for guidance in this area.

  12. Earthquake Monitoring and Study in the Jingpohu Volcano Cluster Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhi; Duan Yonghong; Xu Zhaofan; Yuan Qinxi; Yang Jian; Zhou Xuesong

    2008-01-01

    Seismicity in the Jingpohu volcanic area was investigated based on the seismic data recorded by the mobile seismic network consisting of 14 stations equipped with 24-bit broad-band 3- component seismographs around Crater Forest. Results show that there appears certain seismicity in Jingpohu and its adjacent areas with a low activity level and most of the recorded earthquakes are the volcanic-tectonic ones. The results of location indicate a dominant focal depth of 10km - 30km, most of the earthquakes are smaller than ML>2.0, and are concentrated in the area of "Crater Forest" and on the Dunhua-Mishan fault which runs through the volcanic area. At station No.2, which has better observation conditions, two types of events, likely associated to volcanism, were recorded; their waveform characteristics are somewhat similar to that of the long-period volcanic event and the volcanic tremor, but with different feature of frequencies.

  13. Application of a wrist dosimeter prototype for radiation monitoring ({sup 153}Sm) during a therapeutic procedure simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecatti, S G P [Fundacentro, Ministerio do Trabalho e Emprego, Rua Capote Valente, 710, 05409-002, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Guimaraes, M I C C [Centro de Medicina Nuclear, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Travessa da Rua Dr. Ovidio Pires de Campos s/n, 05403-010, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Caldas, L V E [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Avenida Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: scecatti@fundacentro.gov.br, E-mail: ines@hcnet.usp.br, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br

    2009-12-01

    Gamma and beta radiation emitting radiopharmaceuticals are handled in nuclear medicine services, and in many cases there is only individual monitoring of gamma radiation. In this paper, the results obtained using a wrist dosimeter prototype (CaSO{sub 4}:Dy+Teflon pellets) show that the doses for workers occupationally exposed to beta radiation from {sup 153}Sm are not negligible. It is important that this dose is evaluated, and it has to be taken into consideration in the individual monitoring system.

  14. Gamma radiation monitoring at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA), Graciosa Island ARM facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Susana; Miranda, Pedro; Azevedo, Eduardo B.; Nitschke, Kim

    2016-04-01

    Continuous monitoring of gamma radiation is often performed in nuclear facilities and industrial environments as a way to control the ambient radioactivity and give warning of potential accidents. However, gamma radiation is also ubiquitous in the natural environment. The main sources are i) cosmic radiation from space, including secondary radiation from the interaction with atoms in the atmosphere, ii) terrestrial sources from mineral grains in soils and rocks, particularly Potassium (K-40), Uranium (U-238) and Thorium (Th-232) and their decay products (e.g. Radium, Ra-226) , and iii) airborne Radon gas (Rn-222), which is the dominant source of natural environmental radioactivity. The temporal variability of this natural radiation background needs to be well understood and quantified in order to discriminate non-natural sources of radiation in the environment and artificial radionuclides contamination. To this end, continuous gamma radiation monitoring is being performed at the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) facility located in the Graciosa island (Azores, 39N; 28W), a fixed site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement programme (ARM), established and supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of America with the collaboration of the local government and University of the Azores. The site is unique for the study of the natural radioactivity background on one hand due to the remote oceanic geographical location, in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean and clear of direct continental influence, and on the other hand because of the comprehensive dataset of atmospheric parameters that is available for enhancing the interpretation of the radiation measurements, as a result of the vast array of very detailed and high-quality atmospheric measurements performed at the ARM-ENA facility. Gamma radiation in the range 475 KeV to 3000 KeV is measured continuously with a 3" x 3" NaI(Tl) scintillator. The campaign started started in May 2015, with gamma

  15. Design and Fabrication of an Integrated Circuit for Monitoring UV Radiation for Health Physics Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazififard, Mohammad; Faghihi, Reyhaneh [Kashan Univ., Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Champiri, Afshin Mahmoudieh [Shahid Chamran Univ., Ahwaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Norov, Enkhbat [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Kune Y. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A particularly important term in the clinical photobiology is the standard erythemal dose (SED), which is a measure of the erythemal effectiveness of a UV exposure. However, both the quality and quantity of the UV radiation are important factors for the UV monitoring. This paper aims to introduce and investigate a UV radiation meter in order to establish its applicability for non-ionizing radiation detection. The ultraviolet (UV) radiation is part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The biological effects of UV radiation vary enormously with wavelength and for this reason the UV spectrum is further divided into three regions: UVA, UVB, and UVC. There is increasing evidence that long wave UV radiation plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of photo-dermatoses such as polymorphous light eruption as well as photo-aging. UVA, UVB, and UVC can all damage collagen fibers and, therefore, accelerate aging of the skin. Both UVA and UVB destroy vitamin A in the skin, which may cause further damage. The quantities of the UV radiation are generally expressed using the radiometric terminology.

  16. Operational control of radiation conditions in Space Monitoring Data Center of Moscow State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalegaev, Vladimir; Shugay, Yulia; Bobrovnikov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Nikolay; Barinova, Vera; Myagkova, Irina; Panasyuk, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    Space Monitoring Data Center (SMDC) of Moscow State University provides mission support for Russian satellites and give operational analysis of radiation conditions in space. SMDC Web-sites (http://smdc.sinp.msu.ru/ and http://swx.sinp.msu.ru/) give access to current data on the level of solar activity, geomagnetic and radiation state of Earth's magnetosphere and heliosphere in near-real time. For data analysis the models of space environment factors working online have been implemented. Interactive services allow one to retrieve and analyze data at a given time moment. Forecasting applications including solar wind parameters, geomagnetic and radiation condition forecasts have been developed. Radiation dose and SEE rate control are of particular importance in practical satellite operation. Satellites are always under the influence of high-energy particle fluxes during their orbital flight. The three main sources of particle fluxes: the Earth's radiation belts, the galactic cosmic rays, and the solar energetic particles (SEP), are taken into account by SMDC operational services to estimate the radiation dose caused by high-energy particles to a satellite at LEO orbits. ISO 15039 and AP8/AE8 physical models are used to estimate effects of galactic cosmic rays and radiation belt particle fluxes. Data of geosynchronous satellites (GOES or Electro-L1) allow to reconstruct the SEP fluxes spectra at a given low Earth orbit taking into account the geomagnetic cut-off depending on geomagnetic activity level.

  17. Radionuclide identification algorithm for organic scintillator-based radiation portal monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paff, Marc Gerrit; Di Fulvio, Angela; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2017-03-01

    We have developed an algorithm for on-the-fly radionuclide identification for radiation portal monitors using organic scintillation detectors. The algorithm was demonstrated on experimental data acquired with our pedestrian portal monitor on moving special nuclear material and industrial sources at a purpose-built radiation portal monitor testing facility. The experimental data also included common medical isotopes. The algorithm takes the power spectral density of the cumulative distribution function of the measured pulse height distributions and matches these to reference spectra using a spectral angle mapper. F-score analysis showed that the new algorithm exhibited significant performance improvements over previously implemented radionuclide identification algorithms for organic scintillators. Reliable on-the-fly radionuclide identification would help portal monitor operators more effectively screen out the hundreds of thousands of nuisance alarms they encounter annually due to recent nuclear-medicine patients and cargo containing naturally occurring radioactive material. Portal monitor operators could instead focus on the rare but potentially high impact incidents of nuclear and radiological material smuggling detection for which portal monitors are intended.

  18. Environmental radiation monitoring of low-level wastes by the State of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conklin, A.W.; Mooney, R.R.; Erickson, J.L. [Dept. of Health, Olympia, WA (United States). Div. of Radiation Protection

    1989-11-01

    The Washington State Department of Health, as the state`s regulatory agency for radiation, monitors several forms of low-level radioactive wastes. The monitoring is done to assess the potential impact on the environment and on public health. The emphasis of the monitoring program is placed on the solid and liquid wastes from defense activities on the Hanford Reservation, commercial wastes at the site located on leased land at Hanford and uranium mill tailings in Northeastern Washington. Although not classified as low-level waste, monitoring is also periodically conducted at selected landfills and sewage treatment facilities and other licensees, where radioactive wastes are known or suspected to be present. Environmental pathways associated with waste disposal are monitored independently, and/or in conjunction with the waste site operators to verify their results and evaluate their programs. The Department also participates in many site investigations conducted by site operators and other agencies, and conducts it`s own special investigations when deemed necessary. Past investigations and special projects have included allegations of adverse environmental impact of I-129, uranium in ground water, impacts of wastes on the agricultural industry, radioactivity in seeps into the Columbia River from waste sites, identifying lost waste sites at Hanford, differentiating groundwater contamination from defense versus commercial sources, and radioactivity in municipal landfills and sewers. The state`s environmental radiation monitoring program has identified and verified a number of environmental problems associated with radioactive waste disposal, but has, to date, identified no adverse offsite impacts to public health.

  19. Evaluation of High Level Environmental Background Radiation Areas and its Variation in Ramsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyeb Allahverdi Pourfallah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation from natural sources is a continuing and inescapable feature of life on earth. For most individuals, this exposure exceeds that from all man-made sources combined. Materials and Methods In this study, the annual effective dose in high level environmental background radiation areas (HLEBRAs of northern city of Ramsar in Iran was determined. For dosimetry, a gamma radiation dosimeter was used. Measurements were performed in more than 90 points in five districts with HLEBR around and near hot springs. Results In some areas, the annual effective dose from outdoor external gamma radiation in HLEBRAs (30 mSv/y exceeded the annual effective dose limit for radiation workers. Our results are evident that the population dose from normal background radiation in HLEBRAs is 200 times higher than corresponding values in Ramsar sea shore. To estimate the cosmic ray contribution, dose measurements were performed on the sea surface one km off the sea shore. Conclusion The observed differences over locations and measured doses between this study and the others revealed the dynamic nature of this phenomenon, and necessitate performing the periodic studies in these areas. Moreover, cytogenetic and immunologic researches for studying the long term effects of these high level environmental radiations on the residents of these HLEBRAs are necessary.

  20. Standard guide for application of radiation monitors to the control and physical security of special nuclear material

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This guide briefly describes the state-of-the-art of radiation monitors for detecting special nuclear material (SNM) (see 3.1.11) in order to establish the context in which to write performance standards for the monitors. This guide extracts information from technical documentation to provide information for selecting, calibrating, testing, and operating such radiation monitors when they are used for the control and protection of SNM. This guide offers an unobtrusive means of searching pedestrians, packages, and motor vehicles for concealed SNM as one part of a nuclear material control or security plan for nuclear materials. The radiation monitors can provide an efficient, sensitive, and reliable means of detecting the theft of small quantities of SNM while maintaining a low likelihood of nuisance alarms. 1.2 Dependable operation of SNM radiation monitors rests on selecting appropriate monitors for the task, operating them in a hospitable environment, and conducting an effective program to test, calibrat...

  1. AA, radiation shielding curtain along the target area

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    At the far left is the beam tube for the high-intensity proton beam from the 26 GeV PS. The tube ends in a thin window and the proton beam continues in air through a hole in the shielding blocks (see also 8010308), behind which the target (see 7905091, 7905094)was located. After the target followed the magnetic horn, focusing the antiprotons, and the first part of the injection line with a proton dump. The antiprotons, deflected by a magnet, left the target area through another shielding wall, to make their way to the AA ring. Laterally, this sequence of components was shielded with movable, suspended, concrete blocks: the "curtain". Balasz Szeless, who had constructed it, is standing at its side.

  2. The Austrian radiation monitoring network ARAD - best practice and added value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olefs, Marc; Baumgartner, Dietmar; Obleitner, Friedrich; Bichler, Christoph; Foelsche, Ulrich; Pietsch, Helga; Rieder, Harald; Weihs, Philipp; Geyer, Florian; Haiden, Thomas; Schöner, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The Austrian RADiation monitoring network (ARAD) has been established to advance the national climate monitoring and to support satellite retrieval, atmospheric modelling and solar energy techniques development. Measurements cover the downwelling solar and thermal infrared radiation using instruments according to Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) standards. A unique feature of ARAD is its vertical dimension of five stations, covering an air column between about 200 m a.s.l. (Vienna) and 3100 m a.s.l. (BSRN site Sonnblick). The contribution outlines the aims and scopes of ARAD, its measurement and calibration standards, methods, strategies and station locations. ARAD network operation uses innovative data processing for quality assurance and quality control, applying manual and automated control algorithms. A combined uncertainty estimate for the broadband shortwave radiation fluxes at all five ARAD stations indicates that accuracies range from 1.5 to 23 %. If a directional response error of the pyranometers and the temperature response of the instruments and the data acquisition system (DAQ) is corrected, this expanded uncertainty reduces to 1.4 to 5.2 %. Thus, for large signals (global: 1000 W m-2, diffuse: 500 W m-2) BSRN target accuracies are met or closely met for 70 % of valid measurements at the ARAD stations after this correction. For small signals (50 W m-2), the targets are not achieved as a result of uncertainties associated with the DAQ or the instrument sensitivities. Additional accuracy gains can be achieved in future by additional measurements and corrections. However, for the measurement of direct solar radiation improved instrument accuracy is needed. ARAD could serve as a powerful example for establishing state-of-the-art radiation monitoring at the national level with a multiple-purpose approach. Instrumentation, guidelines and tools (such as the data quality control) developed within ARAD are best practices which could be adopted in other

  3. Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from GSM Mobile Phones Decreases the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Smj; Gholampour, M; Haghani, M; Mortazavi, G; Mortazavi, Ar

    2014-09-01

    Mobile phones are two-way radios that emit electromagnetic radiation in microwave range. As the number of mobile phone users has reached 6 billion, the bioeffects of exposure to mobile phone radiation and mobile phone electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment have received more attention, globally. As self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes control, home blood glucose testing kits are very popular. The main goal of this study was to investigate if radiofrequency radiation emitted from a common GSM mobile phone can alter the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Forty five female nondiabetic students aged 17-20 years old participated in this study. For Control-EMF group (30 students), blood glucose concentration for each individual was measured in presence and absence of radiofrequency radiation emitted by a common GSM mobile phone (HTC touch, Diamond 2) while the phone was ringing. For Control- Repeat group (15 students), two repeated measurements were performed for each participant in the absence of electromagnetic fields. The magnitude of the changes between glucose levels in two repeated measurements (|ΔC|) in Control-Repeat group was 1.07 ± 0.88 mg/dl while this magnitude for Control-EMF group was 7.53 ± 4.76 mg/dl (P < 0.001, two-tailed test). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors.

  4. Monitoring Land Subsidence over Mining Areas with Sentinel-1 Differential SAR Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirek, Katarzna

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents possibilities for monitoring man- made surface deformation on example of two areas (Fig. 1): Upper Silesian Coal Basin and Lubelskie Coal Basin (Poland). Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images acquired by Sentinel-1A satellite are utilized in subsidence studies. Satellite radar interferometry technique (InSAR) was used to detecting and monitoring subsidence. There are clearly visible on obtained interferograms subsidence troughs as a distinctive concentric fringes. This study is a part of initiated the SSUMMO project (Surface Subsidence Multidisciplinary Monitoring). The project will provide multidisciplinary monitoring of mining areas and it will prepare the methodology and research software for continuous observation of the impact of exploitation on surface.

  5. Summary report of working group 5: Beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, Mike; /Fermilab; Kim, Ki-Yong; /Maryland U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities and presentations of Working Group 5 of the Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held at Annapolis, Maryland in June 2010. Working Group 5 touched on a broad range of topics in the fields of beam and radiation generation and their monitoring and control. These topics were not comprehensively covered in this Workshop, but rather the Working Group concentrated on specific new developments and recent investigations. The Working Group divided its sessions into four broad categories: cathodes and electron guns, radiation generation, beam diagnostics, and beam control and dynamics. This summary is divided into the same structure.

  6. A Monitor and Control System for the Synchrotron Radiation Beam Lines at DAΦNE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Three synchrotron radiation beam lines have been built on DAΦNE,the Frascati electron-positron accelerator.It is Possible to monitor and control all the elements on the beam lines using a modular network distributed I/O system by National Instrunments (FieldPoint) with Bridge VIEW/Lab VIEW programs,Two of these beam lines have radiation safety problems solved by two independent and redundant systems,using mechanical switches ,and S7-200 PLC's by Siemens.In this article our solution will be described in details.

  7. Marine environmental radioactivity monitoring by ''in-situ'' {gamma}-radiation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, C.; Becker, K. [Bundesamt fuer Seeschiffahrt und Hydrographie, Hamburg (Germany); Schilling, G.; Gruettmueller, M. [Bundesamt fuer Seeschiffahrt und Hydrographie, Rostock (Germany)

    2000-08-01

    A monitoring system to observe continuously the artificial part of {gamma}-radiation in the sea by valuation of the {gamma}-energy measured is described. By discrimination against the natural part of {gamma}-radiation, a limit of detection is obtained for contaminations originating from nuclear accidents which is comparable to the detection limit of common chemical analysis methods for tracer nuclides. In addition, the type of radioactive source involved can be identified by {gamma}-spectra taken simultaneously. The measuring system and its application in practice are described. (orig.)

  8. Summary report of working group 5: Beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control

    CERN Document Server

    Church, Mike; 10.1063/1.3520295

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities and presentations of Working Group 5 of the Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held at Annapolis, Maryland in June 2010. Working Group 5 touched on a broad range of topics in the fields of beam and radiation generation and their monitoring and control. These topics were not comprehensively covered in this Workshop, but rather the Working Group concentrated on specific new developments and recent investigations. The Working Group divided its sessions into four broad categories: cathodes and electron guns, radiation generation, beam diagnostics, and beam control and dynamics. This summary is divided into the same structure.

  9. Application of MODIS-Derived Active Fire Radiative Energy to Fire Disaster and Smoke Pollution Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Hao, Wei Min; Habib, Shahid

    2004-01-01

    The radiative energy emitted by large fires and the corresponding smoke aerosol loading are simultaneously measured from the MODIS sensor from both the Terra and Aqua satellites. Quantitative relationships between the rates of emission of fire radiative energy and smoke are being developed for different fire-prone regions of the globe. Preliminary results are presented. When fully developed, the system will enable the use of MODIS direct broadcast fire data for near real-time monitoring of fire strength and smoke emission as well as forecasting of fire progression and smoke dispersion, several hours to a few days in advance.

  10. The Thirty Years’ Results of Radiation Hygienic Monitoring of Tula Region territories contaminated due to the Chernobyl NPP accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Boldyreva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50% of Tula Region areas were contaminated after the Chernobyl NPP accident. The article provides the thirty years’ results of radiation hygienic monitoring of the Chernobyl accidental fallout - affected areas in Tula Region. The radiation situation is assessed at the initial accidental period and at the current stage. The initial levels of gamma - radiation dose intensity (up to 35 mcSv/hr are identified for the period of the “iodine” hazard along with the tabular data on the dose intensity relative stabilization by the beginning of August 1986 due to iodine-131 decay. The information is presented regarding iodine-131 tentative maximum permissible level exceedance in the dairy products of the two most contaminated regional areas - Plavskoye and Arsenievskoye. The article also provides the laboratory data on the total beta - activity in the foodstuffs in 1986-1987 and cesium-137 maximum permissible level exceedence in 1986. The radionuclide maximum permissible level exceedances in foodstuffs were registered only in 1986 due to the plants surface contamination whereas in the forest mushrooms those exceedances were repeatedly found until 2004. The black earths and grey forest soils had a benign impact upon the intensity of the radionuclide transfer into plants which resulted in the formation of internal radiation doses.At the current stage, the content of cesium-137 and strontium- 90 in the foodstuffs can only be quantified by a radiochemical method. The table covers all the districts within the boundaries of radiation contaminated zones. The radiochemical studies indicate the main dose - forming products. The article contains the table of internal and external radiation doses of the population in Plavsk town over 1986-1990 and displays the factors impacting population’s internal and external exposure. The Chernobyl - affected exposure dose of the population is mostly attributed to the external radiation and, for over twenty years, it

  11. Effects of two dust storms on solar radiation in the Beijing-Tianjin area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, M.; Chen, Z.; Huang, R.; Wang, Q.; Arimoto, R.; Parungo, F.; Lenschow, D.; Okada, K.; Wu, P. [National Research Center for Marine Environm, Forecasts, Beijing (Taiwan, Province of China)]|[Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI (United States)]|[NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States)]|[National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)]|[Meteorological Research Inst., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) albedo data obtained from the NOAA-11 satellite and chemical data for aerosol particle samples collected in Beijing were intepreted together with meteorological data to study the radiative effects of Asian dust. Compared with the clea-sky background, the albedo values for the Beijing area during two dust storms in April 1993 increased by 20 to 125%; the direct solar radiation flux at the surface decreased; and the scattered radiation flux at the surface increased. The total solar radiation flux at the ground during the two dust storms decreased by 40% and 10% respectively. Furthermore, the extent of the changes was related to the strength of the dust storms. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of using satellite data to study the radiative forcing of dust storms.

  12. Monitoring of Landslide Areas with the Use of Contemporary Methods of Measuring and Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypczak, Izabela; Kogut, Janusz; Kokoszka, Wanda; Zientek, Dawid

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, there is an increase of landslide risk observed, which is associated with intensive anthropogenic activities and extreme weather conditions. Appropriate monitoring and proper development of measurements resulting as maps of areas at risk of landslides enables us to estimate the risk in the social and economic aspect. Landslide monitoring in the framework of SOPO project is performed by several methods of measurements: monitoring of surface (GNSS measurement and laser scanning), monitoring in-deepth (inclinometer measurements) and monitoring of the hydrological changes and precipitation (measuring changes in water-table and rainfall).

  13. Monitoring of Landslide Areas with the Use of Contemporary Methods of Measuring and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypczak Izabela

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there is an increase of landslide risk observed, which is associated with intensive anthropogenic activities and extreme weather conditions. Appropriate monitoring and proper development of measurements resulting as maps of areas at risk of landslides enables us to estimate the risk in the social and economic aspect. Landslide monitoring in the framework of SOPO project is performed by several methods of measurements: monitoring of surface (GNSS measurement and laser scanning, monitoring in-deepth (inclinometer measurements and monitoring of the hydrological changes and precipitation (measuring changes in water-table and rainfall.

  14. Automated high-volume aerosol sampling station for environmental radiation monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toivonen, H.; Honkamaa, T.; Ilander, T.; Leppaenen, A.; Nikkinen, M.; Poellaenen, R.; Ylaetalo, S

    1998-07-01

    An automated high-volume aerosol sampling station, known as CINDERELLA.STUK, for environmental radiation monitoring has been developed by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Finland. The sample is collected on a glass fibre filter (attached into a cassette), the airflow through the filter is 800 m{sup 3}/h at maximum. During the sampling, the filter is continuously monitored with Na(I) scintillation detectors. After the sampling, the large filter is automatically cut into 15 pieces that form a small sample and after ageing, the pile of filter pieces is moved onto an HPGe detector. These actions are performed automatically by a robot. The system is operated at a duty cycle of 1 d sampling, 1 d decay and 1 d counting. Minimum detectable concentrations of radionuclides in air are typically 1Ae10 x 10{sup -6} Bq/m{sup 3}. The station is equipped with various sensors to reveal unauthorized admittance. These sensors can be monitored remotely in real time via Internet or telephone lines. The processes and operation of the station are monitored and partly controlled by computer. The present approach fulfils the requirements of CTBTO for aerosol monitoring. The concept suits well for nuclear material safeguards, too 10 refs.

  15. Overview of non-intercepting beam-size monitoring with optical diffraction radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lumpkin, Alex H

    2012-01-01

    The initial demonstrations over the last several years of the use of optical diffraction radiation (ODR) as non-intercepting electron-beam-parameter monitors are reviewed. Developments in both far-field imaging and near-field imaging are addressed for ODR generated by a metal plane with a slit aperture, a single metal plane, and two-plane interferences. Polarization effects and sensitivities to beam size, divergence, and position will be discussed as well as a proposed path towards monitoring 10-micron beam sizes at 25 GeV.

  16. Overview of nonintercepting beam-size monitoring with optical diffraction radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, Alex H.; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    The initial demonstrations over the last several years of the use of optical diffraction radiation (ODR) as nonintercepting electron-beam-parameter monitors are reviewed. Developments in both far-field imaging and near-field imaging are addressed for ODR generated by a metal plane with a slit aperture, a single metal plane, and two-plane interferences. Polarization effects and sensitivities to beam size, divergence, and position will be discussed as well as a proposed path towards monitoring 10-micron beam sizes at 25 GeV.

  17. Use of radiation detectors in remote monitoring for containment and surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupree, S.A.; Ross, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bonino, A. [Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Lucero, R.; Hasimoto, Yu [PNC Oarai Engineering Center, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Radiation detectors have been included in several remote monitoring field trial systems to date. The present study considers detectors at Embalse, Argentina, and Oarai, Japan. At Embalse four gamma detectors have been operating in the instrumentation tubes of spent fuel storage silos for up to three years. Except for minor fluctuations, three of the detectors have operated normally. One of the detectors appears never to have operated correctly. At Oarai two gamma detectors have been monitoring a spent-fuel transfer hatch for over 18 months. These detectors have operated normally throughout the period, although one shows occasional noise spikes.

  18. Monitoring of electron bunch length by using Terahertz coherent transition radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaolu; Yan, Lixin; Du, Yingchao; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Zheng; Wang, Dong; Zheng, Lianmin; Tian, Qili; Huang, Wenhui; Tang, Chuanxiang

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, ultrashort bunch length monitoring was demonstrated based on Terahertz (THz) coherent transition radiation (CTR) in Tsinghua Thomson scattering X-ray (TTX) source. The radiation produced by electron bunch is split into three paths: one of them is used to detect the total energy, while the other two paths are filtered with different THz band-pass filters before detection. The bunch length variation can be obtained by calculating the ratio between the filtered energy and the total energy. The bunch is compressed by a chicane and via changing the current of chicane, the ratio of filtered energy and total energy changed correspondingly. It is a simple supplemental approach to monitor the bunch length during beam conditioning and facility operation. Bunch arrival-time jitter and nonlinear effects in chicane are observed in the experiment during the measurement of filtered energy and total energy.

  19. Crustaceous lichens sensitive monitor of caesium-137 radiation level in terrestrial environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Chunguang; Zhao Ye; Zhang Jing; Xu Cuihua

    2005-01-01

    The activity of caesium-137 (Bq/kg) in the crustaceous lichens and other samples was determined to prove the feasibility that crustaceous lichens work as a sensitive biology monitor to record the caesium-137 (Bq/kg) radiation levels of terrestrial environment. The measurements were performed with GEM series HPGe (high-purity Germanium) coaxial detector system (ADCAM -100) made by EC & GORTEC Company in USA. It was found that the activity of caesium-137 (Bq/kg) in the crustaceous lichens was one order of magnitude higher than that found in surface soil,and was over three orders of magnitude higher than those found in the familiar biological samples. These results proved that crustaceous lichens may be one of the most sensitive biological monitors about the remote transmission and environmental radiation levels of caesium-137.

  20. Proposal for the award of an industrial support contract for radiation monitoring services for LEP dismantling

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This document concerns the award of an Industrial Service contract for radiation monitoring services for LEP dismantling. Following a market survey carried out among 34 firms in nine Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2769/SL/LEP) was sent on 13 March 2000 to seven firms and three consortia in five Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received six tenders from three firms and three consortia in four Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium ISS MULTISERVICE (CH), NFI (SE) and ISS GEBÄUDESERVICE (DE), the lowest technically qualified bidder, for radiation monitoring services for LEP dismantling for a total amount of 990 792 Swiss francs, not subject to revision. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: CH-59%, DE-26%, SE-15%.

  1. Electrical impedance spectroscopy as electrical biopsy for monitoring radiation sequelae of intestine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Pei-Ju; Huang, Eng-Yen; Cheng, Kuo-Sheng; Huang, Yu-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Electrical impedance is one of the most frequently used parameters for characterizing material properties. The resistive and capacitive characteristics of tissue may be revealed by electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) as electrical biopsy. This technique could be used to monitor the sequelae after irradiation. In this study, rat intestinal tissues after irradiation were assessed by EIS system based on commercially available integrated circuits. The EIS results were fitted to a resistor-capacitor circuit model to determine the electrical properties of the tissue. The variations in the electrical characteristics of the tissue were compared to radiation injury score (RIS) by morphological and histological findings. The electrical properties, based on receiver operation curve (ROC) analysis, strongly reflected the histological changes with excellent diagnosis performance. The results of this study suggest that electrical biopsy reflects histological changes after irradiation. This approach may significantly augment the evaluation of tissue after irradiation. It could provide rapid results for decision making in monitoring radiation sequelae prospectively.

  2. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy as Electrical Biopsy for Monitoring Radiation Sequelae of Intestine in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ju Chao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical impedance is one of the most frequently used parameters for characterizing material properties. The resistive and capacitive characteristics of tissue may be revealed by electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS as electrical biopsy. This technique could be used to monitor the sequelae after irradiation. In this study, rat intestinal tissues after irradiation were assessed by EIS system based on commercially available integrated circuits. The EIS results were fitted to a resistor-capacitor circuit model to determine the electrical properties of the tissue. The variations in the electrical characteristics of the tissue were compared to radiation injury score (RIS by morphological and histological findings. The electrical properties, based on receiver operation curve (ROC analysis, strongly reflected the histological changes with excellent diagnosis performance. The results of this study suggest that electrical biopsy reflects histological changes after irradiation. This approach may significantly augment the evaluation of tissue after irradiation. It could provide rapid results for decision making in monitoring radiation sequelae prospectively.

  3. TNX area groundwater monitoring report. 1996 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    During 1996, samples from selected wells of well cluster P 26 and the TBG, TIR, TNX, TRW, XSB, and YSB well series at the TNX Area of the Savannah River Plant were analyzed for selected heavy metals, indicator parameters, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Sixteen parameters exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS). Trichloroethylene exceeded the final PDWS most frequently. Antimony, arsenic beryllium, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chromium, copper, dichloromethane, gross alpha, lead, mercury, nitrate, nitrate-nitrite, tetrachloroethylene, or trichloroethylene were evaluated in one or more wells during the year. Groundwater flow directions and rates in the Unconfined Aquifer were similar from quarter to quarter during the year.

  4. Portable system for periodical verification of area monitors for neutrons; Sistema portatil para verificacao periodica de monitores de area para neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luciane de R.; Leite, Sandro Passos; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu, E-mail: rluciane@ird.gov.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Energia Nuclear; Patrao, Karla C. de Souza; Fonseca, Evaldo S. da; Pereira, Walsan W., E-mail: karla@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI). Lab. de Neutrons

    2009-07-01

    The Neutrons Laboratory develops a project viewing the construction of a portable test system for verification of functioning conditions of neutron area monitors. This device will allow to the users the verification of the calibration maintenance of his instruments at the use installations, avoiding the use of an inadequate equipment related to his answer to the neutron beam response

  5. Nonlinear Ultrasonic Techniques to Monitor Radiation Damage in RPV and Internal Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Laurence [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kim, Jin-Yeon [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Qu, Jisnmin [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wall, Joe [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-11-02

    The objective of this research is to demonstrate that nonlinear ultrasonics (NLU) can be used to directly and quantitatively measure the remaining life in radiation damaged reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and internal components. Specific damage types to be monitored are irradiation embrittlement and irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). Our vision is to develop a technique that allows operators to assess damage by making a limited number of NLU measurements in strategically selected critical reactor components during regularly scheduled outages. This measured data can then be used to determine the current condition of these key components, from which remaining useful life can be predicted. Methods to unambiguously characterize radiation related damage in reactor internals and RPVs remain elusive. NLU technology has demonstrated great potential to be used as a material sensor – a sensor that can continuously monitor a material’s damage state. The physical effect being monitored by NLU is the generation of higher harmonic frequencies in an initially monochromatic ultrasonic wave. The degree of nonlinearity is quantified with the acoustic nonlinearity parameter, β, which is an absolute, measurable material constant. Recent research has demonstrated that nonlinear ultrasound can be used to characterize material state and changes in microscale characteristics such as internal stress states, precipitate formation and dislocation densities. Radiation damage reduces the fracture toughness of RPV steels and internals, and can leave them susceptible to IASCC, which may in turn limit the lifetimes of some operating reactors. The ability to characterize radiation damage in the RPV and internals will enable nuclear operators to set operation time thresholds for vessels and prescribe and schedule replacement activities for core internals. Such a capability will allow a more clear definition of reactor safety margins. The research consists of three tasks: (1

  6. A Radiation-Triggered Surveillance System for UF6 Cylinder Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Michael M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Myjak, Mitchell J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-23

    This report provides background information and representative scenarios for testing a prototype radiation-triggered surveillance system at an operating facility that handles uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders. The safeguards objective is to trigger cameras using radiation, or radiation and motion, rather than motion alone, to reduce significantly the number of image files generated by a motion-triggered system. The authors recommend the use of radiation-triggered surveillance at all facilities where cylinder paths are heavily traversed by personnel. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has begun using surveillance cameras in the feed and withdrawal areas of gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). The cameras generate imagery using elapsed time or motion, but this creates problems in areas occupied 24/7 by personnel. Either motion-or-interval-based triggering generates thousands of review files over the course of a month. Since inspectors must review the files to verify operator material-flow-declarations, a plethora of files significantly extends the review process. The primary advantage of radiation-triggered surveillance is the opportunity to obtain full-time cylinder throughput verification versus what presently amounts to part-time verification. Cost savings should be substantial, as the IAEA presently uses frequent unannounced inspections to verify cylinder-throughput declarations. The use of radiation-triggered surveillance allows the IAEA to implement less frequent unannounced inspections for the purpose of flow verification, but its principal advantage is significantly shorter and more effective inspector video reviews.

  7. Monitoring late radiation damage in normal muscle tissue with electrical impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, Kendra Sunshine

    During radiation treatment for cancer, normal tissue will be exposed to radiation and it is the response of this tissue and the risk of complications that limits the prescribed dose and the efficacy of treatment. The response to radiation exposure is dose, time and tissue-type dependent and has been studied extensively in animal and human systems. However, there remains significant heterogeneity among individuals. Systematic and quantitative monitoring of tissue response with electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) might providing insight into early warning signs of late effects which could be used to alter the course of therapy on an individual patient basis. The implementation of EIS in three clinically relevant radiation settings is described. A kilovolt unit (orthovoltage, x-ray), a linear accelerator (x-ray), and an implantable radionuclide source (high dose rate, iridium-192 seed) were employed for the irradiation of muscle in the hind leg of rats. Doses of 70 Gy, 90 Gy, and 150 Gy were delivered with orthovoltage, nominal doses of 70 and 90 Gy which translate to doses of approximately 50 and 63 Gy at a 5mm distance from the center were employed with the linear accelerator, and doses of 26 and 52 Gy, at 5mm, were employed with the HDR system. The responses were monitored from 1--4 months post-irradiation. In all cases, EIS was capable of detecting a dose and time response, suggesting that EIS may indeed have a role to play in three of the most common irradiation procedures.

  8. Radiation monitoring for the HTTR rise-to-power test (1) and (2)'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, Takashi; Yoshino, Toshiaki; Yasu, Katsuji; Ashikagaya, Yoshinobu; Kikuchi, Toshiki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    2001-02-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) is the first high temperature gas-cooled research reactor in Japan. This reactor is a helium-gas-cooled and graphite-moderated reactor with a thermal output of 30 MW. The rated operation temperature of the outlet coolant is 850degC. (During high temperature test operation, this reaches 950degC). The first criticality of the HTTR was attained in November 1998. The single loaded, parallel loaded operation with a thermal output of 9 MW (called the HTTR Rise-to-Power Test (1)) was completed between September 16, 1999 and July 8, 2000. The single loaded, parallel loaded continuous operation with a thermal output of 20 MW (called the HTTR Rise-to-Power Test (2)) has also been carried out, but it was shutdown at the halfway stage by a single from the reactor, when the thermal output was 16.5 MW and the reactor outlet coolant temperature was 500degC. This report describes the radiation monitoring carried out during the HTTR Rise-to-Power Tests (1) and (2)'. The data measured by the various radiation monitors is also reported. These data will be used for the estimation of radiation levels (such as the radiation dose equivalent rate, the radioactive concentration in effluents, etc.) for the next HTTR Rise-to-Power Test, and for periodic inspections. (author)

  9. Assessment groundwater monitoring plan for single shell tank waste management area B-BX-BY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caggiano, J.A.

    1996-09-27

    Single Shell Tank Waste Management Area B-BX-BY has been placed into groundwater quality assessment monitoring under interim-status regulations. This document presents background and an assessment groundwater monitoring plan to evaluate any impacts of risks/spills from these Single Shell Tanks in WMA B-BX-BY on groundwater quality.

  10. Monitoring of traffic noise in an urban area using a wireless sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, P.W.; Basten, T.G.H.; Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Graafland, F.

    2014-01-01

    Developments in systems for monitoring environmental noise have made it possible to monitor the acoustic situation within large urban areas. The developments in hardware size and costs, combined with the developments in wireless communication allow to deploy networks with many acoustic sensors witho

  11. The monitoring results of electromagnetic radiation of 110-kV high-voltage lines in one urban location in Chongqing P.R. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qi-Zhong; Chen, Yu; Fu, Ting-Ting; Ding, Li; Han, Ling-Li; Li, Jian-Chao

    2012-03-01

    To understand electromagnetic radiation field strength and its influencing factors of certain 110-kV high-voltage lines in one urban area of Chongqing by measuring 110-kV high-voltage line's electromagnetic radiation level. According to the methodology as determined by the National Hygienic Standards, we selected certain adjacent residential buildings, high-voltage lines along a specific street and selected different distances around its vertical projection point as monitoring points. The levels of electromagnetic radiations were measured respectively. In this investigation within the frequency of 5-1,000 Hz both the electric field strength and magnetic field strength of each monitoring sites were lower than the public exposure standards as determined by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. However, the electrical field strength on the roof adjacent to the high-voltage lines was significantly higher than that as measured on the other floors in the same buildings (p electromagnetic radiation measurements of different monitoring points, under the same high-voltage lines, showed the location which is nearer the high-voltage line maintain a consistently higher level of radiation than the more distant locations (p Electromagnetic radiation generated by high-voltage lines decreases proportionally to the distance from the lines. The buildings can to some extent shield (or absorb) the electric fields generated by high-voltage lines nearby. The electromagnetic radiation intensity near high-voltage lines may be mitigated or intensified by the manner in which the high-voltage lines are set up, and it merits attention for the potential impact on human health.

  12. High-current CW beam profile monitors using transition radiation at CEBAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piot, P.; Denard, J.-C.; Adderley, P.; Capek, K.; Feldl, E.

    1997-01-01

    One way of measuring the profile of CEBAF's low-emittance, high-power beam is to use the optical transition radiation (OTR) emitted from a thin foil surface when the electron beam passes through it. We present the design of a monitor using the forward OTR emitted from a 0.25-μm carbon foil. We believe that the monitor will resolve three main issues: i) whether the maximum temperature of the foil stays below the melting point, ii) whether the beam loss remains below 0.5%, in order not to trigger the machine protection system, and iii) whether the monitor resolution (unlike that of synchrotron radiation monitors) is better than the product λγ. It seems that the most serious limitation for CEBAF is the beam loss due to beam scattering. We present results from Keil's theory and simulations from the computer code GEANT as well as measurements with aluminum foils with a 45-MeV electron beam. We also present a measurement of a 3.2-GeV beam profile that is much smaller than λγ, supporting Rule and Fiorito's calculations of the OTR resolution limit due to diffraction.

  13. Radionuclides and radiation indices of high background radiation area in Chavara-Neendakara placer deposits (Kerala, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Thomas Derin

    Full Text Available The present paper describes a detailed study on the distribution of radionuclides along Chavara - Neendakara placer deposit, a high background radiation area (HBRA along the Southwest coast of India (Kerala. Judged from our studies using HPGe gamma spectrometric detector, it becomes evident that Uranium ((238U, Thorium ((232Th and Potassium ((40K are the major sources for radioactivity prevailing in the area. Our statistical analyses reveal the existence of a high positive correlation between (238U and (232Th, implicating that the levels of these elements are interdependent. Our SEM-EDAX analyses reveal that titanium (Ti and zircon (Zr are the major trace elements in the sand samples, followed by aluminum, copper, iron, ruthenium, magnesium, calcium, sulphur and lead. This is first of its kind report on the radiation hazard indices on this placer deposit. The average absorbed dose rates (9795 nGy h(-1 computed from the present study is comparable with the top-ranking HBRAs in the world, thus offering the Chavara-Neendakara placer the second position, after Brazil; pertinently, this value is much higher than the World average. The perceptibly high absorbed gamma dose rates, entrained with the high annual external effective dose rates (AEED and average annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE values existing in this HBRA, encourage us to suggest for a candid assessment of the impact of the background radiation, if any, on the organisms that inhabit along this placer deposit. Future research could effectively address the issue of the possible impact of natural radiation on the biota inhabiting this HBRA.

  14. Development and Optimisation of the SPS and LHC beam diagnostics based on Synchrotron Radiation monitors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081364; Roncarolo, Federico

    Measuring the beam transverse emittance is fundamental in every accelerator, in particular for colliders, where its precise determination is essential to maximize the luminosity and thus the performance of the colliding beams.
 Synchrotron Radiation (SR) is a versatile tool for non-destructive beam diagnostics, since its characteristics are closely related to those of the source beam. At CERN, being the only available diagnostics at high beam intensity and energy, SR monitors are exploited as the proton beam size monitor of the two higher energy machines, the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The thesis work documented in this report focused on the design, development, characterization and optimization of these beam size monitors. Such studies were based on a comprehensive set of theoretical calculations, numerical simulations and experiments. A powerful simulation tool has been developed combining conventional softwares for SR simulation and optics design, thus allowing t...

  15. Continuous electromagnetic radiation monitoring in the environment: analysis of the results in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassas, Athanasios; Boursianis, Achilles; Samaras, Theodoros; Sahalos, John N

    2012-09-01

    Non-ionising radiation-monitoring networks were initiated as a result of the public concerns about the potential health effects from telecommunication emissions. In the present study, the data acquired from such networks in Greece are used to assess the changes in the outdoor electromagnetic environment with respect to location and time. The study shows that there is a statistically significant difference between the urban (median electric field: 1.1 V m(-1)) and the rural (median electric field: 0.3 V m(-1)) installations of monitoring units and also shows that there is a median diurnal variation (daily maximum to minimum) of 20.2 and 33.8 % for the broadcasting and mobile telecommunication emissions, respectively. Moreover, there is a difference in the electric field between daytime and night, but not between morning and afternoon. The results are in line with previously published data from spot measurements, monitoring networks and personal exposimeter studies performed in several European countries.

  16. NCRP Program Area Committee 7: Radiation Education, Risk Communication, Outreach, and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, S M; Locke, P A

    2016-02-01

    Recognizing the central importance of effective communication, education, and policy across all of the domains of radiation safety and radiation protection, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) established a new committee in 2013. Program Area Committee 7 (PAC 7) was created to develop projects and provide guidance on "Radiation Education, Risk Communication, Outreach, and Policy." After identifying individuals with relevant expertise who were willing to serve, the Committee held its inaugural meeting in 2014. In 2015, the Committee increased its membership and began carrying out an expanded program of activities. One area of activity has involved providing input and feedback on risk communication issues to NCRP and other agencies. Another area of work has involved liaising with other NCRP committees (e.g., Council Committee 1 and PAC 3) to help incorporate psychosocial and risk communication issues into projects. Future efforts of NCRP's newest PAC are expected to include the development of authoritative reports and commentaries dealing with critical issues and challenges in radiation risk communication, education, and policy.

  17. Experience of wireless local area network in a radiation oncology department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Abhijit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a wireless local area network (LAN between different types of users (Radiation Oncologists, Radiological Physicists, Radiation Technologists, etc for efficient patient data management and to made easy the availability of information (chair side to improve the quality of patient care in Radiation Oncology department. We have used mobile workstations (Laptops and stationary workstations, all equipped with wireless-fidelity (Wi-Fi access. Wireless standard 802.11g (as recommended by Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ has been used. The wireless networking was configured with the Service Set Identifier (SSID, Media Access Control (MAC address filtering, and Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP network securities. We are successfully using this wireless network in sharing the indigenously developed patient information management software. The proper selection of the hardware and the software combined with a secure wireless LAN setup will lead to a more efficient and productive radiation oncology department.

  18. Estimation of daily global solar radiation as a function of routine meteorological data in Mediterranean areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Francisco Javier; Yebra, María Lorenzo

    2016-08-01

    Solar radiation is the main responsible of many processes of the biophysical environment. Temperature changes, snow melt dynamics, carbon sequestration, evaporation from soils, plants, and open water bodies are explained by the amount of radiation received in a surface. Lack of direct observations and insufficient record length limit the ability to use global solar radiation information for resource use management and planning. Based on the general equation of Bristow and Campbell, we propose a modification that allows us to better represent atmospheric transmissivity as a function of routine meteorological variables and improve estimates of global solar radiation in Mediterranean and semi arid areas. The improved Bristow-Campbell model (IBC) is easy to use in any location where measurements of temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity are available, and present a simple solution that can be used as proxy for relative humidity in case that variable is not been measured.

  19. Radiations: large scale monitoring in Japan; Radiations: suivi a grande echelle au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linton, M.; Khalatbari, A.

    2011-10-15

    As the consequences of radioactive leaks on their health are a matter of concern for Japanese people, a large scale epidemiological study has been launched by the Fukushima medical university. It concerns the two millions inhabitants of the Fukushima Prefecture. On the national level and with the support of public funds, medical care and follow-up, as well as systematic controls are foreseen, notably to check the thyroid of 360.000 young people less than 18 year old and of 20.000 pregnant women in the Fukushima Prefecture. Some measurements have already been performed on young children. Despite the sometimes rather low measures, and because they know that some parts of the area are at least as much contaminated as it was the case around Chernobyl, some people are reluctant to go back home

  20. Citizen Monitoring during Hazards: The Case of Fukushima Radiation after the 2011 Japanese Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultquist, C.; Cervone, G.

    2015-12-01

    Citizen-led movements producing scientific environmental information are increasingly common during hazards. After the Japanese earthquake-triggered tsunami in 2011, the government produced airborne remote sensing data of the radiation levels after the Fukushima nuclear reactor failures. Advances in technology enabled citizens to monitor radiation by innovative mobile devices built from components bought on the Internet. The citizen-led Safecast project measured on-ground levels of radiation in the Fukushima prefecture which total 14 million entries to date in Japan. This non-authoritative citizen science collection recorded radiation levels at specific coordinates and times is available online, yet the reliability and validity of the data had not been assessed. The nuclear incident provided a case for assessment with comparable dimensions of citizen science and authoritative data. To perform a comparison of the datasets, standardization was required. The sensors were calibrated scientifically but collected using different units of measure. Radiation decays over time so temporal interpolation was necessary for comparison of measurements as being the same time frame. Finally, the GPS located points were selected within the overlapping spatial extent of 500 meters. This study spatially analyzes and statistically compares citizen-volunteered and government-generated radiation data. Quantitative measures are used to assess the similarity and difference in the datasets. Radiation measurements from the same geographic extents show similar spatial variations which suggests that citizen science data can be comparable with government-generated measurements. Validation of Safecast demonstrates that we can infer scientific data from unstructured and not vested data. Citizen science can provide real-time data for situational awareness which is crucial for decision making during disasters. This project provides a methodology for comparing datasets of radiological measurements

  1. Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This document presents the Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Based on the results of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) and on subsequent discussions with regulators, a decision was made to defer implementing source control remedial measures at the WAG. The alternative selected to address the risks associated with WAG 6 involves maintenance of site access controls prevent public exposure to on-site contaminants, continued monitoring of contaminant releases determine if source control measures are required, and development of technologies that could support the final remediation of WAG 6. Although active source control measures are not being implemented at WAG 6, environmental monitoring is necessary to ensure that any potential changes in contaminant release from the WAG are identified early enough to take appropriate action. Two types of environmental monitoring will be conducted: baseline monitoring and annual routine monitoring. The baseline monitoring will be conducted to establish the baseline contaminant release conditions at the WAG, confirm the site-related chemicals of concern (COCs), and gather data to confirm the site hydrologic model. The baseline monitoring is expected to begin in 1994 and last for 12--18 months. The annual routine monitoring will consist of continued sampling and analyses of COCs to determine off-WAG contaminant flux and risk, identify mills in releases, and confirm the primary contributors to risk. The annual routine monitoring will continue for {approximately} 4 years after completion of the baseline monitoring.

  2. Envitonmental monitoring and radiation protection in Škocjan Caves, Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec Gerjeviè, V.; Jovanovič, P.

    2012-04-01

    Škocjan Caves were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1986, due to their exceptional significance for cultural and natural heritage. Park Škocjan Caves is located in South Eastern part of Slovenia. It was established with aim of conserving and protecting exceptional geomorphological, geological and hydrological outstanding features, rare and endangered plant and animal species, paleontological and archaeological sites, ethnological and architectural characteristics and cultural landscape and for the purpose of ensuring opportunities for suitable development, by the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 1996. Park Škocjan Caves established monitoring that includes caves microclimate parameters: humidity, CO2, wind flow and radon concentration and daughter products. The approach in managing the working place with natural background radiation is complex. Monitoring of Radon has been functioning for more than ten years now. Presentation will show the dynamic observed in the different parts of the caves, related to radon daughter products and other microclimatic data. Relation of background radiation to carrying capacity will be explained. Implementing the Slovene legislation in the field of radiation protection, we are obligated to perform special measurements in the caves and also having our guides and workers in the caves regularly examined according to established procedure. The medical exams are performed at Institution of Occupational Safety, Ljubljana in order to monitor the influence of Radon to the workers in the cave. The equivalent dose for each employed person is also established on regular basis and it is part of medical survey of workers in the caves. A system of education of the staff working in the caves in the field of radiation protection will be presented as well.

  3. Measurement of environmental radiation exposure rates from Vernita, Hanford Reach, and Richland area shores. Addendum 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, A.T.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental radiation exposure rate measurements are taken on and around the Hanford Site for Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. In 1992, environmental radiation exposure rate measurements were taken from shoreline and island areas ranging from Vernita, along the Hanford Reach, down to the Richland Pumphouse. Measurements were taken primarily at locations known or expected to have elevated exposure rates as determined by examination of aerial photographs depicting radiation exposure measurements. Results from the 1992 survey indicated radiation exposure rates taken from the Hanford Reach area were elevated in comparison to the measurements taken from the Vernita area with ranges of 8 to 28 {mu}R/hr and 4 to 11 {mu}R/hr, respectively. In January 1994, additional shoreline radiation exposure rate measurements were taken from the Vernita, Hanford Reach, and Richland areas to determine the relationship of radiation exposure rates along the Richland area shores when compared to Vernita and Hanford Reach area exposure rates (measurements along the Richland area were not collected during the 1992 survey). This report discusses the 1994 results and is an addendum to the report that discussed the 1992 survey. An analysis of variance indicated a significant location interaction at a p-value of 0.0014. To determine differences between paried locations a post-hoc comparison of location means was performed on log transformed data using the Scheff{acute e}`s F-test. This test indicated a significant difference between Hanford Reach and Richland area means with a mean difference of 0.075 /{mu}R/hr and a p-value of 0.0014. No significant difference was found between Hanford Reach and Vernita area means: The mean difference was 0.031 {mu}R/hr and the p-value was 0.3138. No significant difference was found between Vernita and Richland area means with a mean difference of 0.044 {mu}R/hr and a p-value of 0.1155.

  4. Radiation risk assessment in professionals working in dental radiology area using buccal micronucleus cytome assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadatullah, Syed; Dawasaz, Ali Azhar; Luqman, Master; Assiry, Ali A; Almeshari, Ahmed A; Togoo, Rafi Ahmad

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of micronuclei (MN) in buccal mucosal cells of professionals working in radiology area to determine the risk of stochastic effects of radiation. All the professionals and students working in King Khalid University - College of Dentistry radiology area were included in the Risk Group (RG = 27). The Control Group (CG = 27) comprised of healthy individual matching the gender and age of the RG. Buccal mucosal scraping from all the 54 subjects of RG and CG were stained with Papanicolaou stain and observed under oil immersion lens (×100) for the presence of micronuclei (MN) in the exfoliated epithelial cells. There was no significant difference between the incidence of MN in RG and CG (p = >0.05) using t-test. Routine radiation protection protocol does minimize the risk of radiation induced cytotoxicity, however, screening of professionals should be carried out at regular intervals.

  5. Gadolinium-doped water cerenkov-based neutron and high energy gamma-ray detector and radiation portal monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazeley, Steven A; Svoboda, Robert C; Bernstein, Adam; Bowden, Nathaniel

    2013-02-12

    A water Cerenkov-based neutron and high energy gamma ray detector and radiation portal monitoring system using water doped with a Gadolinium (Gd)-based compound as the Cerenkov radiator. An optically opaque enclosure is provided surrounding a detection chamber filled with the Cerenkov radiator, and photomultipliers are optically connected to the detect Cerenkov radiation generated by the Cerenkov radiator from incident high energy gamma rays or gamma rays induced by neutron capture on the Gd of incident neutrons from a fission source. The PMT signals are then used to determine time correlations indicative of neutron multiplicity events characteristic of a fission source.

  6. Radiation Effects on the On-line Monitoring System of a Hadrontherapy Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolkazem Ansarinejad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Today, there is a growing interest in the use of hadrontherapy as an advanced radiotherapy technique. Hadrontherapy is considered a promising tool for cancer treatment, given its high radiobiological effectiveness and high accuracy of dose deposition due to the physical properties of hadrons. However, new radiation modalities of dose delivery and on-line beam monitoring play crucial roles in a successful treatment. In hadrontherapy, through interactions between the primary beam and patient’s tissue, secondary neutrons are produced. Materials and Methods This study, by using FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations, assessed the level of secondary neutron radiation, produced during patient treatment. In addition,  the evaluation included secondary neutron radiation, which was produced while hitting the on-line detectors of beam delivery system by the Italian National Center for Hadrontherapy (CNAO. This study assessed the effects of secondary neutron radiation on an electronics rack (including a data acquisition system, a power supply, and a gas system and a nozzle, where two monitoring boxes (each one consisting of two or three parallel plate ionization chambers were installed. Results The resulting neutron energy spectra and radiation doses were used to determine the life performance and the probability of damage to these devices. Findings showed that by using carbon ions of 400 MeV/u, the fluence rate of secondary neutrons will be approximately 3.4×1010 n/cm2 in a year. Conclusion This value is lower than the experimental threshold, which is responsible for less than 1% of changes in electrical characteristics, and would cause no single event upsets.

  7. RADIU-226 CONTENT IN SOIL OF THE HIGH NATURAL BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA OF RAMSAR (IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Khademi

    1978-11-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a high natural radiation area in the northern part of Iran (Ramsar is proved. Ra 226 in soil is measured. The results are: minimum 23.5 pCi/g and maximum 999 pCi/g soil. Environmental radioactivity is from 0.1 to 5 mr/h.

  8. A method to determine the input-output balances for nitrogen applied to the Lheebroekerzand integrated monitoring area (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.M.C.

    1997-01-01

    The International Cooperative Programme on Integrated Monitoring on Air Pollution Effects (ICP/IM) monitors chemical and biological indicators at the level of catchment areas. The Dutch monitoring area is located at Lheebroekerzand (Province of Drenthe). Since this area is not a catchment, an altern

  9. Radiative and climate effects of stratospheric sulfur geoengineering using seasonally varying injection areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Anton; Korhonen, Hannele; Romakkaniemi, Sami; Kokkola, Harri

    2017-06-01

    Stratospheric sulfur injections have often been suggested as a cost-effective geoengineering method to prevent or slow down global warming. In geoengineering studies, these injections are commonly targeted to the Equator, where the yearly mean intensity of the solar radiation is the highest and from where the aerosols disperse globally due to the Brewer-Dobson Circulation. However, compensating for greenhouse gas-induced zonal warming by reducing solar radiation would require a relatively larger radiative forcing to the mid- and high latitudes and a lower forcing to the low latitudes than what is achieved by continuous equatorial injections. In this study we employ alternative aerosol injection scenarios to investigate if the resulting radiative forcing can be targeted to be zonally more uniform without decreasing the global the mean radiative forcing of stratospheric sulfur geoengineering. We used a global aerosol-climate model together with an Earth system model to study the radiative and climate effects of stratospheric sulfur injection scenarios with different injection areas. According to our simulations, varying the SO2 injection area seasonally would result in a similar global mean cooling effect as injecting SO2 to the Equator, but with a more uniform zonal distribution of shortwave radiative forcing. Compared to the case of equatorial injections, in the seasonally varying injection scenario where the maximum sulfur production from injected SO2 followed the maximum of solar radiation, the shortwave radiative forcing decreased by 27 % over the Equator (the latitudes between 20° N and 20° S) and increased by 15 % over higher latitudes. Compared to the continuous injections to the Equator, in summer months the radiative forcing was increased by 17 and 14 % and in winter months decreased by 14 and 16 % in Northern and Southern hemispheres, respectively. However, these forcings do not translate into as large changes in temperatures. The changes in forcing

  10. Radiative and climate effects of stratospheric sulfur geoengineering using seasonally varying injection areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Laakso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stratospheric sulfur injections have often been suggested as a cost-effective geoengineering method to prevent or slow down global warming. In geoengineering studies, these injections are commonly targeted to the Equator, where the yearly mean intensity of the solar radiation is the highest and from where the aerosols disperse globally due to the Brewer–Dobson Circulation. However, compensating for greenhouse gas-induced zonal warming by reducing solar radiation would require a relatively larger radiative forcing to the mid- and high latitudes and a lower forcing to the low latitudes than what is achieved by continuous equatorial injections. In this study we employ alternative aerosol injection scenarios to investigate if the resulting radiative forcing can be targeted to be zonally more uniform without decreasing the global the mean radiative forcing of stratospheric sulfur geoengineering. We used a global aerosol–climate model together with an Earth system model to study the radiative and climate effects of stratospheric sulfur injection scenarios with different injection areas. According to our simulations, varying the SO2 injection area seasonally would result in a similar global mean cooling effect as injecting SO2 to the Equator, but with a more uniform zonal distribution of shortwave radiative forcing. Compared to the case of equatorial injections, in the seasonally varying injection scenario where the maximum sulfur production from injected SO2 followed the maximum of solar radiation, the shortwave radiative forcing decreased by 27 % over the Equator (the latitudes between 20° N and 20° S and increased by 15 % over higher latitudes. Compared to the continuous injections to the Equator, in summer months the radiative forcing was increased by 17 and 14 % and in winter months decreased by 14 and 16 % in Northern and Southern hemispheres, respectively. However, these forcings do not translate into as large changes in

  11. Induction of gene expression as a monitor of exposure to ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, S A; Bittner, M; Meltzer, P; Trent, J; Fornace, A J

    2001-11-01

    The complex molecular responses to genotoxic stress are mediated by a variety of regulatory pathways. The transcription factor TP53 plays a central role in the cellular response to DNA-damaging agents such as ionizing radiation, but other pathways also play important roles. In addition, differences in radiation quality, such as the exposure to high-LET radiation that occurs during space travel, may influence the pattern of responses. The premise is developed that stress gene responses can be employed as molecular markers for radiation exposure using a combination of informatics and functional genomics approaches. Published studies from our laboratory have already demonstrated such transcriptional responses with doses of gamma rays as low as 2 cGy, and in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) irradiated ex vivo with doses as low as 20 cGy. We have also found several genes elevated in vivo 24 h after whole-body irradiation of mice with 20 cGy. Such studies should provide insight into the molecular responses to physiologically relevant doses, which cannot necessarily be extrapolated from high-dose studies. In addition, ongoing experiments are identifying large numbers of potential biomarkers using microarray hybridization and various irradiation protocols including expression at different times after exposure to low- and high-LET radiation. Computation-intensive informatics analysis methods are also being developed for management of the complex gene expression profiles resulting from these experiments. With further development of these approaches, it may be feasible to monitor changes in gene expression after low-dose radiation exposure and other physiological stresses that may be encountered during manned space flight, such as the planned mission to Mars.

  12. GdBr3: CE in a glass wafer as a nuclear radiation monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhitao; Rosson, Robert; Barta, M Brooke; Nadler, Jason; Wagner, Brent; Kahn, Bernd

    2013-05-01

    A glass wafer that contains cerium-activated gadolinium-based scintillator has been tested as a nuclear radiation monitor. The detector is prepared by mixing powdered gadolinium and cerium (3+) bromides with alumina, silica, and lithium fluoride, melting the mixture at 1,400°C, and then quenching and annealing the glass. The resulting clear glass matrix emits stimulated blue light that can be collected by a conventional photomultiplier tube. Spectral analysis of radionuclides with this detector shows the energy peaks for alpha particles, the energy continuum for beta particles, the Compton continuum and full-energy peaks for gamma rays, and an energy continuum with specific reaction-product peaks for neutrons. Energy resolution for the 5.5-MeV alpha particle and 0.662-MeV gamma-ray peaks is about 20%. This resolution, although threefold poorer than for single-crystal NaI(Tl) scintillators, contributes to radionuclide identification and quantification. Application of this detector to radiation monitoring is proposed, as well as approaches for improving light collection and energy resolution that will facilitate radionuclide identification and monitoring, especially for alpha particles, beta particles, and low-energy gamma rays.

  13. Strategies for the fusion of satellite fire radiative power with burned area data for fire radiative energy derivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschetti, Luigi; Roy, David P.

    2009-10-01

    Instantaneous estimates of the power released by a fire (Fire Radiative Power, FRP) are available with satellite active fire detection products. Integrating FRP in time provides an estimate of the total energy released (Fire Radiative Energy, FRE), which can be converted into burned biomass estimates needed by the atmospheric emissions modeling community. While straightforward in theory, the integration of FRP in time and space is affected by temporal and spatial undersampling imposed by the satellite sensing and orbit geometry, clouds, and active fire product omission errors. Combination of active fire FRP estimates with independently derived burned area maps provides the potential for improved and spatially explicit estimates of FRE and biomass burned. In the present work, strategies for the temporal interpolation of FRP data and for the spatial extrapolation of FRE across the burn are proposed and, as a study case, applied to an extensive grassland fire that burned for 40 days in northern Australia. The fusion of FRP estimates derived from MODIS Terra and Aqua active fire detections with the MODIS burned area product is considered, although other polar orbiting and geostationary satellite fire products could be used. Intercomparison of FRE estimated over the MODIS mapped burned area using Terra, Aqua, and Terra-Aqua combined FRP data highlights the sensitivity of FRE estimation to satellite sampling. Despite this sensitivity, FRE biomass burned estimates derived from MODIS burned area and Terra and Aqua FRP data are within 30% of regional literature estimates, suggesting that this fusion approach is a fruitful avenue for future research and validation.

  14. Levels of thoron and progeny in high background radiation area of southeastern coast of Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramola, R C; Gusain, G S; Rautela, B S; Sagar, D V; Prasad, G; Shahoo, S K; Ishikawa, T; Omori, Y; Janik, M; Sorimachi, A; Tokonami, S

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to radon, (222)Rn, is assumed to be the most significant source of natural radiation to human beings in most cases. It is thought that radon and its progeny are major factors that cause cancer. The presence of thoron, (220)Rn, was often neglected because it was considered that the quantity of thoron in the environment is less than that of radon. However, recent studies have shown that a high thoron concentration was found in some regions and the exposure to (220)Rn and its progeny can equal or several time exceed that of (220)Rn and its progeny. The results of thoron and its progeny measurements in the houses of high background radiation area (HBRA) of the southeastern coast of Odisha, India presented here. This area is one of the high background radiation areas in India with a large deposit of monazite sand which is the probable source of thoron. Both active and passive methods were employed for the measurement of thoron and its progeny in cement, brick and mud houses in the study area. Thoron concentration was measured using RAD-7 and Raduet. A CR-39 track detector was employed for the measurement of environmental thoron progeny, both in active and passive modes. Thoron and its progeny concentrations were found to be comparatively high in the area. A comparison between the results obtained with various techniques is presented in this paper.

  15. Monitoring of radiation exposure. Annual report 2000; Saeteilyn kaeyttoe ja muu saeteilytoiminta. Vuosiraportti 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantanen, E. [ed.

    2001-03-01

    At the end of 2000, there were 1,779 valid safety licenses in Finland for the use of radiation. In addition, there were 2,038 responsible parties for dental x-ray diagnostics. The registry Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) listed 13,754 radiation sources and 270 radionuclide laboratories. In the year 2000 360 inspections were made concerning the safety licences and 53 concerning dental x-ray diagnostics. The import of radioactive substances amounted to 175,836 GBq and export to 74,420 GBq. Short-lived radionuclides produced in Finland amounted to 55,527 GBq. In the year 2000 there were 10,846 workers monitored for radiation exposure at 1,171 work sites. Of these employees, 27% received an annual dose exceeding the recording level. The annual effective dose limit was not exceeded. The total dose recorded in the dose registry(sum of the individual dosemeter readings) was 6.5 Sv in 2000.

  16. Real-time fibre optic radiation dosimeters for nuclear environment monitoring around thermonuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A. Fernandez; Brichard, B. [SCK .CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); O' Keeffe, S.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Lewis, E. [Electronic and Computer Engineering Department, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Vaille, J.-R.; Dusseau, L. [CEM2-Universite Montpellier II, cc083 place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France); Jackson, D.A. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Kent, Kent CT2 7NR (United Kingdom); Ravotti, F.; Glaser, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN, TS-LEA-RAD/PH-DT2-SD, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); El-Rabii, H. [Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique, ENSMA/CNRS, 1 av. Clement Ader, 86961 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France)], E-mail: afernand@sckcen.be

    2008-01-15

    The ability of fibre optic sensors to operate in hazardous nuclear environments and their intrinsic immunity to electro-magnetic interference make fibre optic sensing a very promising technology for the future ITER thermonuclear fusion reactor. In this paper, we evaluate fibre optic sensing technology for monitoring radiation dose in the vicinity of ITER during its operation and during the maintenance periods. First, the performance of an OSL dosimeter interrogated remotely using radiation tolerant optical fibres is evaluated both for real-time and integrating measurements for doses exceeding 100 Gy. We demonstrate its satisfactory operation in a mixed gamma neutron field. Second, we discuss the successful calibration of a new scintillating fibre optic radiation probe based on CsI(TI) crystals for operation in the dose-rate range 0.3-3000 mGy/h. The CsI(TI) crystal scintillator is mounted at the end of a 10-m long multimode fibre transceiver link to allow for remote deployment. The probes can detect and measure gamma dose rates ranging from 1 to 1000 mGy/h. Finally, we investigate the possible use of commercially available PMMA plastic optical fibres as on-line dosimeters up to 34 kGy. The dose measurement is derived from the radiation-induced attenuation in the optical fibre itself. A novel interrogation scheme based on a ratiometric technique is proposed for real-time dosimetry.

  17. H-Area, K-Area, and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application sites groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    During first quarter 1995, samples from monitoring wells at the K-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (KSS wells) and Par Pond Sewage Sludge Application Site (PSS wells) were analyzed for constituents required by SCDHEC Construction Permit 13,173. H-Area Sewage Sludge Application Site (HSS wells) samples were analyzed for constituents required by SCDHEC Construction Permit 12,076. All samples are also analyzed as requested for other constituents as part of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Groundwater Monitoring Program. Annual analyses for other constituents, primarily metals, also are required by the permits. The only constituent that exceeded the SCDHEC final Primary Drinking Water Standard in any well was lead which was found in wells HSS 3D and PSS 3D. Aluminum and iron were above Flag 2 criteria in one or more wells in the three sites during first quarter 1995.

  18. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SR Bivins; GA Stoetzel

    1999-06-17

    In January 1993, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The purpose of the program was to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the RCM, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-1997 confirmed that personnel dosimetry was not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program. A total of 97 area thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed in PNNL facilities during calendar year 1998. The TLDs were exchanged and analyzed quarterly. All routine area monitoring TLD results were less than 50 mrem annually after correcting for worker occupancy. The results support the conclusion that personnel dosimeters are not necessary for staff, declared pregnant workers, minors, or members of the public in these monitored areas.

  19. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2000-09-19

    In January 1993, PNNL established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the DOE Radiological Control Manual. This program was to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the DOE Standard Radiological Control, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to 1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually and 2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-1998 confirmed that personnel dosimetry was not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program. A total of 123 area thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed in PNNL facilities during calendar year 1999. The TLDs were exchanged and analyzed quarterly. All routine area monitoring TLD results were less than 50 mrem annually after correcting for worker occupancy. The results support the conclusion that personnel dosimeters are not necessary for staff, declared pregnant workers, minors, or members of the public in these monitored areas.

  20. Area monitoring dosimeter program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivins, S R; Stoetzel, G A

    1997-06-01

    In January 1993, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The purpose of the program was to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a) (1)-(3) and Article 511.1 of the RCM, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993, 1994, and 1995 confirmed that personnel dosimetry was not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program. A total of 108 area TLDs were placed in PNNL facilities during CY 1996. The TLDs were exchanged and analyzed quarterly. All routine area monitoring TLD results were less than 50 mrem annually after correcting for worker occupancy. The results support the conclusion that personnel dosimeters are not necessary for staff, declared pregnant workers, minors, or members of the public in these monitored areas.

  1. Area monitoring dosimeter program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivins, S.R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    In January 1993, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The purpose of the program was to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a) (1)--(3) and Article 511.1 of the RCM, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years (CY) 1993--1996 confirmed that personnel dosimetry was not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program. A total of 93 area thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed in PNNL facilities during CY 1997. The TLDs were exchanged and analyzed quarterly. All routine area monitoring TLD results were less than 50 mrem annually after correcting for worker occupancy. The results support the conclusions that personnel dosimeters are not necessary for staff, declared pregnant workers, minors, or members of the public in these monitored areas.

  2. Plastic optical fibre sensor for in-vivo radiation monitoring during brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woulfe, P.; Sullivan, F. J.; Lewis, E.; O'Keeffe, S.

    2015-09-01

    An optical fibre sensor is presented for applications in real-time in-vivo monitoring of the radiation dose a cancer patient receives during seed implantation in Brachytherapy. The sensor is based on radioluminescence whereby radiation sensitive scintillation material is embedded in the core of a 1mm plastic optical fibre. Three scintillation materials are investigated: thallium-doped caesium iodide (CsI:Tl), terbium-doped gadolinium oxysulphide (Gd2O2S:Tb) and europium-doped lanthanum oxysulphide (La2O2S:Eu). Terbium-doped gadolinium oxysulphide was identified as being the most suitable scintillator and further testing demonstrates its measureable response to different activities of Iodine-125, the radio-active source commonly used in Brachytherapy for treating prostate cancer.

  3. Thin silicon strip detectors for beam monitoring in Micro-beam Radiation Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Povoli, Marco; Bravin, Alberto; Cornelius, Iwan; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Fournier, Pauline; Hansen, Thor-Erik; Kok, Angela; Lerch, Michael; Monakhov, Edouard; Morse, John; Petasecca, Marco; Requardt, Herwig; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Röhrich, Dieter; Sandaker, Heidi; Salomé, Murielle; Stugu, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) is an emerging cancer treatment that is currently being developed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France. This technique uses a highly collimated and fractionated X-ray beam array with extremely high dose rate and very small divergence, to benefit from the dose-volume effect, thus sparing healthy tissue. In case of any beam anomalies and system malfunctions, special safety measures must be installed, such as an emergency safety shutter that requires continuous monitoring of the beam intensity profile. Within the 3DMiMic project, a novel silicon strip detector that can tackle the special features of MRT, such as the extremely high spatial resolution and dose rate, has been developed to be part of the safety shutter system. The first prototypes have been successfully fabricated, and experiments aimed to demonstrate their suitability for this unique application have been performed. Design, fabrication and the experimental results as well as any...

  4. Detailed Resolution Studies of the Synchrotron Radiation Profile Monitor for the HERA Electron Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Kube, G; Wittenburg, K

    2005-01-01

    The precise determination of the beam emittance is essential for the understanding of the luminosity in colliding beam experiments as the ones at the e-p storage ring HERA at DESY. For the measurement of the electron beam emittance a monitor is used which is based on the direct imaging of visible synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet. In order to reduce the thermal heating of the light extracting beryllium mirror it is moved away from the beam axis in vertical direction. While the resolution of profile measurements by synchrotron radiation is already strictly limited by fundamental effects, the observation in off-axis geometry modifies the intensity distribution additionally leading to an increased contribution of the diffraction limited resolution. In order to describe the resolution broadening effects detailed calculations have been performed with the computer code SRW. Taking into account the calculated corrections the deduced beam emittances are in good agreement with independent measurements from a...

  5. ACOUSTIC RADIATION ENERGY AT A VARIATION OF THE COMPOSITE MECHANICAL DESTRUCTION AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii Filonenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The technological parameters of composite materials machining and also cutting tool state determine deforming and destruction of their surface layers conditions. Change of this conditions results to appearance of miscellaneous defects, loss of quality and produced items reliability. Therefore, optimization, control, diagnosis and monitoring of composite materials machining technological parameters are directed on obtaining the items given quality. For the solution of these problems tasks carry out researches of technological processes with usage of different methods. One of such methods is the acoustic emission method. Methods: The simulation and analysis of acoustic radiation energy parameters is carried out at change of composite material machining depth for prevailing mechanical destruction its surface layer. Results: We showed that to composite material machining the acoustic radiation energy has continuous nature. The ascending of composite material machining depth results to increase of acoustic emission statistical energy parameters. The regularity of acoustic emission energy parameters change are obtained and described. Is showed, that acoustic radiation most sensing parameter is the acoustic emission signals energy average level dispersion. Discussion: The outcomes researches demonstrate regularity influencing of composite material machining depth on acoustic emission energy parameters. Thus the analysis of acoustic emission signals energy average level dispersion can be used at mining methods of diagnostic, monitoring and control of composite materials machining technological parameters.

  6. Acute radiation effects on cutaneous microvasculature: evaluation with a laser Doppler perfusion monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amols, H.I.; Goffman, T.E.; Komaki, R.; Cox, J.D.

    1988-11-01

    Laser Doppler perfusion monitoring is a noninvasive technique for measuring blood flow in epidermal microvasculature that makes use of the frequency shift of light reflected from red blood cells. Measurements in patients undergoing radiation therapy show increases in blood flow of ten to 25 times baseline at doses above 50 Gy, and increases are observed with doses as low as 2 Gy. Follow-up measurements show rapid decreases in flow levels after completion of therapy, but levels remain elevated even at 1 year.

  7. Development of a synchrotron radiation beam monitor for the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarpelli, Andrea [Univ. of Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear integrable optics applied to beam dynamics may mitigate multi-particle instabilities, but proof of principle experiments have never been carried out. The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) is an electron and proton storage ring currently being built at Fermilab, which addresses tests of nonlinear lattice elements in a real machine in addition to experiments on optical stochastic cooling and on the single-electron wave function. These experiments require an outstanding control over the lattice parameters, achievable with fast and precise beam monitoring systems. This work describes the steps for designing and building a beam monitor for IOTA based on synchrotron radiation, able to measure intensity, position and transverse cross-section beam.

  8. Long-term Monitoring Plan for the Central Nevada Test Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Ahmed E

    2004-01-01

    This report discusses the long-term monitoring strategy developed for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), where the Faultless underground nuclear test was conducted. It includes a thorough literature review of monitoring well network design. A multi-staged approach for development of the long-term monitoring well network for CNTA is proposed, incorporating a number of issues, including uncertainty of the subsurface environment, cost, selection of well locations, etc. The first stage is to use hydrogeologic expertise combined with model simulations and probability based approaches to select the first set of monitoring wells. The second stage will be based on an optimum design methodology that uses a suitable statistical approach, combined with an optimization approach, to augment the initial set of wells and develop the final long-term monitoring network.

  9. Radiation dosimetry measurements with real time radiation monitoring device (RRMD)-II in Space Shuttle STS-79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, T; Doke, T; Hayashi, T; Kikuchi, J; Hasebe, N; Kashiwagi, T; Takashima, T; Takahashi, K; Nakano, T; Nagaoka, S; Takahashi, S; Yamanaka, H; Yamaguchi, K; Badhwar, G D

    1997-12-01

    The real-time measurement of radiation environment was made with an improved real-time radiation monitoring device (RRMD)-II onboard Space Shuttle STS-79 (S/MM#4: 4th Shuttle MIR Mission, at an inclination angle of 51.6 degrees and an altitude of 250-400km) for 199 h during 17-25 September, 1996. The observation of the detector covered the linear energy transfer (LET) range of 3.5-6000 keV/micrometer. The Shuttle orbital profile in this mission was equivalent to that of the currently planned Space Station, and provided an opportunity to investigate variations in count rate and dose equivalent rate depending on altitude, longitude, and latitude in detail. Particle count rate and dose equivalent rate were mapped geographically during the mission. Based on the map of count rate, an analysis was made by dividing whole region into three regions: South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region, high latitude region and other regions. The averaged absorbed dose rate during the mission was 39.3 microGy/day for a LET range of 3.5-6000 keV/micrometer. The corresponding average dose equivalent rates during the mission are estimated to be 293 microSv/day with quality factors from International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)-Pub. 60 and 270 microSv/day with quality factors from ICRP-Pub. 26. The effective quality factors for ICRP-Pub. 60 and 26 are 7.45 and 6.88, respectively. From the present data for particles of LET > 3.5keV/micrometer, we conclude that the average dose equivalent rate is dominated by the contribution of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles. The dose-detector depth dependence was also investigated.

  10. Emergency Management and Radiation Moni-toring in Nuclear and Radiological Accidents. Summary Report on the NKS Project EMARAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, J. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) (Finland)

    2006-04-15

    In order to manage various nuclear or radiological emergencies the authorities must have pre-prepared plans. The purpose of the NKS project EMARAD (Emergency Management and Radiation Monitoring in Nuclear and Radiological Accidents) was to produce and gather various data and information that could be useful in drawing up emergency plans and radiation monitoring strategies. One of the specific objectives of the project was to establish a www site that would contain various radiation-threat and radiation-monitoring related data and documents and that could be accessed by all Nordic countries. Other important objectives were discussing various factors affecting measurements in an emergency, efficient use of communication technology and disseminating relevant information on such topics as urban dispersion and illicit use of radiation. The web server is hosted by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) of Finland. The data stored include pre-calculated consequence data for nuclear power plant accidents as well as documents and presentations describing e.g. general features of monitoring strategies, the testing of the British urban dispersion model UDM and the scenarios and aspects related to malicious use of radiation sources and radioactive material. As regards the last item mentioned, a special workshop dealing with the subject was arranged in Sweden in 2005 within the framework of the project. (au)

  11. The use of a wireless sensor network to monitor the spectrum in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malon, Krzysztof; Skokowski, Paweł; Łopatka, Jerzy

    2017-04-01

    Wireless sensor networks are a tool increasingly used to monitor various environmental parameters. They can also be used for monitoring the electromagnetic spectrum. Wireless sensors, due to their small size, typically have simplified radio receivers with reduced sensitivity and use small antennas. As a result, their effective performance area is similarly limited. This is especially important in urban areas where there are various kinds of adverse propagation phenomena related to area coverage. The aim of the article is to present the phenomena in the wireless sensor networks and propose criteria and methods to optimize their deployment to ensure maximizing the probability of detection of emissions, minimization of unmonitored areas and to provide the necessary hardware redundancy in the priority areas.

  12. The Performance Assessment of the Detector for the Portable Environmental Radiation Distribution Monitoring System with Rapid Nuclide Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uk Jae; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The environment radiation distribution monitoring system measures the radiation using a portable detector and display the overall radiation distribution. Bluetooth and RS-232 communications are used for constructing monitoring system. However RS-232 serial communication is known to be more stable than Bluetooth and also it can use the detector's raw data which will be used for getting the activity of each artificial nuclide. In the present study, the detection and communication performance of the developed detector with RS-232 method is assessed by using standard sources for the real application to the urban or rural environment. Assessment of the detector for the portable environmental radiation distribution monitoring system with rapid nuclide recognition was carried out. It was understood that the raw data of detector could be effectively treated by using RS-232 method and the measurement showed a good agreement with the calculation within the relative error of 0.4 % in maximum.

  13. A Supervised Approach to Delineate Built-Up Areas for Monitoring and Analysis of Settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Harig

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring urban growth and measuring urban sprawl is essential for improving urban planning and development. In this paper, we introduce a supervised approach for the delineation of urban areas using commonly available topographic data and commercial GIS software. The method uses a supervised parameter optimization approach along with buffer-based quality measuring method. The approach was developed, tested and evaluated in terms of possible usage in monitoring built-up areas in spatial science at a very fine-grained level. Results show that built-up area boundaries can be delineated automatically with higher quality compared to the settlement boundaries actually used. The approach has been applied to 166 settlement bodies in Germany. The study shows a very efficient way of extracting settlement boundaries from topographic data and maps and contributes to the quantification and monitoring of urban sprawl. Moreover, the findings from this study can potentially guide policy makers and urban planners from other countries.

  14. INNOVATIVE REMEDIATION AND MONITORING SYSTEM INSIDE AN AREA USED FOR PAPER SLUDGE RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Marroni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An innovative bioremediation technology and strategy were applied to a former-quarry area in Imola (BO – Italy concerned by an incorrect environmental restoration of paper sludge, with subsequent uncontrolled biogas production and migration to the adjacent area. An Emergency Plan was implemented by the isolation of the buried sludge area and a characterization project was performed to define an appropriate permanently safe recovery. An innovative biological in situ treatment, avoiding paper sludge removal, was adopted; it was based on the use of tailored compost and enzymes to reduce methane production and concentration. This was integrated by specific monitoring piezometers for both biogas (CH4, CO2 and oxygen monthly measurements, and also the application of a respirometric technique application to buried sludge for assessing its stabilisation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This communication describes the strategy used, the treatment and monitoring system and the results of 3 years field pilot application. Monitoring work is still in progress.

  15. A large-area strain sensing technology for monitoring fatigue cracks in steel bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangxiong; Li, Jian; Collins, William; Bennett, Caroline; Laflamme, Simon; Jo, Hongki

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a novel large-area strain sensing technology for monitoring fatigue cracks in steel bridges. The technology is based on a soft elastomeric capacitor (SEC), which serves as a flexible and large-area strain gauge. Previous experiments have verified the SEC’s capability to monitor low-cycle fatigue cracks experiencing large plastic deformation and large crack opening. Here an investigation into further extending the SEC’s capability for long-term monitoring of fatigue cracks in steel bridges subject to traffic loading, which experience smaller crack openings. It is proposed that the peak-to-peak amplitude (pk-pk amplitude) of the sensor’s capacitance measurement as the indicator of crack growth to achieve robustness against capacitance drift during long-term monitoring. Then a robust crack monitoring algorithm is developed to reliably identify the level of pk-pk amplitudes through frequency analysis, from which a crack growth index (CGI) is obtained for monitoring fatigue crack growth under various loading conditions. To generate representative fatigue cracks in a laboratory, loading protocols were designed based on constant ranges of stress intensity to limit plastic deformations at the crack tip. A series of small-scale fatigue tests were performed under the designed loading protocols with various stress intensity ratios. Test results under the realistic fatigue crack conditions demonstrated the proposed crack monitoring algorithm can generate robust CGIs which are positively correlated with crack lengths and independent from loading conditions.

  16. Development of an area monitor for neutrons using solid state nuclear track detector; Desenvolvimento de um monitor de area para neutrons utilizando detector solido de tracos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, G.S.

    1994-12-31

    An area monitor for neutrons composed of the solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) Makrofol DE, together with a (n,{alpha}) converter, in the center of a 25 cm diameter polyethylene sphere, is developed. The optimal electrochemical etching conditions for the detection of thermal neutrons by the Makrofol DE using the BN converter are studied, leading to the choice of 55 min, at 30{sup 0} C, under a 44,2 kV.cm{sup -1} electric field with oscillation frequency of 2,0 khz. The response of this system to thermal neutrons, in the optimal conditions, is of 2,76(10)x 10{sup -3} tr/n. Changing from the BN converter to a 2,73(3)g compressed boric acid tablet this value lowers to 3,88(17)x 10{sup -4} tr/n. The performance of the whole monitor in the detection of fast neutrons is examined using the BN converter and neutrons from a {sup 241} Am Be source, with a response of 4,4(2)x 10{sup 3} tr.mSv{sup -1}.cm{sup -2} and operational limits between 7(3){mu}Sv and 5,6(2)mSv. The result of the monitoring of the control room of the IPEN Cyclotron accelerator are also presented as a final test for the viability of the practical use of the monitor. (author). 34 refs, 15 figs, 6 tabs, 1 app.

  17. A Decision Support System for Plant Optimization in Urban Areas with Diversified Solar Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyi Wei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sunshine is an important factor which limits the choice of urban plant species, especially in environments with high-density buildings. In practice, plant selection and configuration is a key step of landscape architecture, which has relied on an experience-based qualitative approach. However, the rationality and efficiency of this need to be improved. To maintain the diversity of plant species and to ensure their ecological adaptability (solar radiation in the context of sustainable development, we developed the Urban Plants Decision Support System (UP-DSS for assisting plant selection in urban areas with diversified solar radiation. Our methodology mainly consists of the solar radiation model and calibration, the urban plant database, and information retrieval model. The structure of UP-DSS is also presented at the end of the methodology section, which is based on the platform of Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Microsoft Excel. An application of UP-DSS is demonstrated in a residential area of Wuhan, China. The results show that UP-DSS can provide a very scientific and stable tool for the adaptive planning of shade-tolerant plants and photoperiod-sensitive plants, meanwhile, it also provides a specific plant species and the appropriate types of plant community for user decision-making according to different sunshine radiation conditions and the designer’s preferences.

  18. In situ quantitative determination of transuranic elements in areas of high-level gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Wogman, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    A technique is described for passive neutron monitoring of transuranic elements. The method provides quantitative determinations of transuranic element concentrations in a variety of field situations where no other measurement method is possible. The technique can measure concentrations of transuranic oxides as low as 8 nCi/cm/sup 3/ and is capable of operating in gamma radiation fields up to megarads per hour. Information on chemical and isotopic composition can also be obtained from the data. Several successful applications of the technique are discussed.

  19. Evaluation of the radiation field and shielding assessment of the experimental area of HIE-ISOLDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanets, Y; Bernardes, A P; Dorsival, A; Gonçalves, I F; Kadi, Y; di Maria, S; Vaz, P; Vlachoudis, V; Vollaire, J

    2014-10-01

    The ISOLDE facility at CERN is one of the first facilities in the world dedicated to the production of the radioactive ion beams (RIB) and during all its working time underwent several upgrades. The goal of the latest proposed upgrade, 'The High Intensity and Energy ISOLDE' (HIE-ISOLDE), is to provide a higher performance facility in order to approximate it to the level of the next generation ISOL facilities, like EURISOL. The HIE-ISOLDE aims to improve significantly the quality of the produced RIB and for this reason the increasing of the primary beam power is one of the main objectives of the project. An increase in the nominal beam current (from 2 to 6 μA proton beam intensity) and energy (from 1.4 GeV to 2 GeV) of the primary proton beam will be possible due to the upgrade of CERN's accelerator infrastructure. The current upgrade means reassessment of the radiation protection and the radiation safety of the facility. However, an evaluation of the existing shielding configuration and access restrictions to the experimental and supply areas must be carried out. Monte Carlo calculations were performed in order to evaluate the radiation protection of the facility as well as radiation shielding assessment and design. The FLUKA-Monte Carlo code was used in this study to calculate the ambient dose rate distribution and particle fluxes in the most important areas, such as the experimental hall of the facility. The results indicate a significant increase in the ambient dose equivalent rate in some areas of the experimental hall when an upgrade configuration of the primary proton beam is considered. Special attention is required for the shielding of the target area once it is the main and very intensive radiation source, especially under the upgrade conditions. In this study, the access points to the beam extraction and beam maintenance areas, such as the mass separator rooms and the high voltage room, are identified as the most sensitive for the experimental hall from

  20. High-resolution texture imaging with hard synchrotron radiation in the moving area detector technique

    CERN Document Server

    Wcislak, L; Klein, H; Garbe, U; Schneider, J R

    2003-01-01

    The orientation distribution of crystallites in polycrystalline materials (called texture) is usually measured by polycrystal X-ray diffraction by 'step-scanning' the sample in angular intervals in the order of 1 deg. This technique is not suited to fully exploit the low angular divergence of hard synchrotron radiation in the order of 'milliradian'. Hence, step-scanning was replaced by a continuous 'sweeping' technique using a continuously shifted area detector. In order to avoid overlapping from different reflections (hkl) a Bragg-angle slit was introduced. The 'moving-detector' technique can be applied to obtain images of orientation as well as of location distributions of crystallites in polycrystalline samples. It is suitable for imaging continuous 'orientation density' distribution functions as well as of 'grain-resolved' textures. The excellent features of high-energy synchrotron radiation combined with the moving area detector technique will be illustrated with several examples including very sharp def...

  1. Analysis of the mortality among Cogema workers monitored for external radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz-Flamant, C.; Hitz, M.; Samson, E.; Rogel, A.; Telle-Lamberton, M.; Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Caer, S.; Quesne, B. [Cogema, Coordination Medicale, 78 - Velizy-Villacoublay (France)

    2006-07-01

    The present study follows 9287 Cogema workers exposed to low level of ionizing radiation from the beginning of employment to the end of 1994. This paper presents analyses of the mortality of Cogema workers monitored for external radiation exposure and the relation between their mortality and their cumulative external radiation dose. Workers were followed up for an average of 13 years. The percentage of subjects lost to follow up was less than 1%. during the follow-up period, 441 deaths occurred. The mean cumulative dose among the whole cohort was 19.4 mSv. As expected, the mortality of the cohort was lower than that of the French national population. The healthy worker effect is often observed in other nuclear workers studies. Part of the healthy worker effect is explained by a proportion of unemployed persons in general population, with a higher mortality rate. All causes S.M.R. increased with calendar period and duration of employment. this increase was not significant for all cancers S.M.R. by duration of employment. This could illustrate the decrease of the initial selection at employment with time. A significant increase in risk was observed for all cancers excluding leukemia mortality with increase of radiation dose in the 15-country study. Significant excess of leukemia by cumulative radiation exposure was observed in the 3-country study and was borderline significant in the 15-country study and in the UK National register for radiation workers study. A positive trend, not statistically significant, by level of external doses was observed in our study for all cancers and leukemia excluding chronic lymphatic leukemia mortality, but the analyses lack of statistical power. A significant trend was observed only for non-Hodgkin lymphoma death, but considering the large number of statistic tests computed, this result must be carefully interpreted. A borderline significant trend was observed for lung cancer death, a significant increase risk of lung cancer death

  2. Organic liquid scintillation detector shape and volume impact on radiation portal monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paff, Marc G.; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2016-07-01

    We have developed and tested a radiation portal monitor using organic liquid scintillation detectors. In order to optimize our system designs, neutron measurements were carried out with three organic liquid scintillation detectors of different shapes and sizes, along with a 3He radiation portal monitor (RPM) as a reference. The three liquids tested were a 7.62 cm diameter by 7.62 cm length cylindrical active volume organic liquid scintillation detector, a 12.7 cm diameter by 12.7 cm length cylindrical active volume organic liquid scintillation detector, and a 25 cm by 25 cm by 10 cm "paddle" shaped organic liquid scintillation detector. Background and Cf-252 neutron measurements were recorded to allow for a comparison of neutron intrinsic efficiencies as well as receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves between detectors. The 12.7 cm diameter cylindrical active volume organic liquid scintillation detector exhibited the highest intrinsic neutron efficiency (54%) of all three liquid scintillators. An ROC curve analysis for a heavily moderated Cf-252 measurement showed that using the 12.7 cm diameter by 12.7 cm length cylindrical active volume Eljen EJ309 organic liquid scintillation detector would result in the fewest needed detector units in order to achieve a near 100% positive neutron alarm rate while maintaining a better than 1 in 10,000 false alarm rate on natural neutron background. A small number of organic liquid scintillation detectors could therefore be a valid alternative to 3He in some RPM applications.

  3. The Performance of the Beam Conditions and Radiation Monitoring System of CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Dabrowski, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The Beam Conditions and Radiation Monitoring System (BRM), is installed in CMS to protect the CMS detector from high beam losses and to provide feedback to the LHC and CMS on the beam conditions. The primary detector sub-systems are based on either single crystal diamond sensors (BCM1F) for particle counting with nanosecond resolution or on polycrystalline diamonds (BCM2; BCM1L) for integrated signal current measurements. Beam scintillation counters (BSC) are also used during low luminosity running. The detectors have radiation hard front-end electronics and are read out independently of the CMS central data acquisition and are online whenever there is beam in the LHC machine. The various sub-systems exploit different time resolutions and position locations to be able to monitor the beam induced backgrounds and the flux of particles produced during collisions. This paper describes the CMS BRM system and the complementary aspects of the installed BRM sub-detectors to measure both single particle count rates a...

  4. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Utrok Atoll (2003-2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Tibon, S; Chee, L

    2006-01-17

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands (Figure 1). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance programs are helping meet

  5. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2006-06-21

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to (1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and (2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2005 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program

  6. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2002-07-08

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a) (1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to 1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and 2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2001 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program.

  7. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2007-07-19

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a)(1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the PNNL Radiological Control Program Description, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to 1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and 2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2005 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program.

  8. Area Monitoring Dosimeter Program for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Results for CY 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivins, Steven R.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.

    2001-07-05

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) established an area monitoring dosimeter program in accordance with Article 514 of the Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual (RCM) in January 1993. This program is to minimize the number of areas requiring issuance of personnel dosimeters and to demonstrate that doses outside Radiological Buffer Areas are negligible. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 835.402 (a) (1)-(4) and Article 511.1 of the DOE Standard Radiological Control, personnel dosimetry shall be provided to 1) radiological workers who are likely to receive at least 100 mrem annually, and 2) declared pregnant workers, minors, and members of the public who are likely to receive at least 50 mrem annually. Program results for calendar years 1993-2000 confirm that personnel dosimetry is not needed for individuals located in areas monitored by the program.

  9. Evaluation of DNA damage in the root cells of Allium cepa seeds growing in soil of high background radiation areas of Ramsar - Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saghirzadeh, M. [Department of Basic Science, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gharaati, M.R. [Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, Sh. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Radiation Applications Research School, Tehran 11365-3486 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: smohammadi@aeoi.org.ir; Ghiassi-Nejad, M. [Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Plants are unique in their ability to serve as in situ monitors for environmental genotoxins. We have used the alkaline comet assay for detecting induced DNA damage in Allium cepa to estimate the impact of high levels of natural radiation in the soils of inhabited zones of Ramsar. The average specific activity of natural radionuclides measured in the soil samples for {sup 226}Ra was 12,766 Bq kg{sup -1} whereas in the control soils was in the range of 34-60 Bq kg{sup -1}. A positive strong significant correlation of the DNA damage in nuclei of the root cells of A. cepa seeds germinated in the soil of high background radiation areas with {sup 226}Ra specific activity of the soil samples was observed. The results showed high genotoxicity of radioactively contaminated soils. Also the linear increase in the DNA damage indicates that activation of repair enzymes is not triggered by exposure to radiation in HBRA.

  10. FMC-based Neutron and Gamma Radiation Monitoring Module for xTCA Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kozak, T; Napieralski, A

    2012-01-01

    The machines used in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments, such as accelerators or tokamaks, are sources of gamma and neutron radiation fields. The radiation has a negative influence on electronics and can lead to the incorrect functioning of complex control and diagnostic system designed for HEP machines. Therefore, in most cases the electronic equipments is installed in radiation-safe areas, but in some cases this rule is omitted to decrease costs of the project. The European X-ray Free Electron Laser (E-XFEL), being under construction at DESY research center, is a good example. The E-XFEL uses single tunnel and part of the electronic system will be installed next to main beam pipe and exposed to radiation. The modern Advanced/Micro Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA/μTCA) standards are foreseen as a base for control and diagnostic system for this new project. These flexible standards provide high reliability, availability and usability for the system which can be decreased by negative influe...

  11. Disentangling leaf area and environmental effects on the response of the net ecosystem CO2 exchange to diffuse radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Hammerle, Albin; Haslwanter, Alois; Bahn, Michael; Tappeiner, Ulrike; Cernusca, Alexander

    2008-08-01

    There is an ongoing discussion about why the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of some ecosystems is less sensitive to diffuse radiation than others and about the role other environmental factors play in determining the response of NEE to diffuse radiation. Using a six-year data set from a temperate mountain grassland in Austria we show that differences between ecosystems may be reconciled based on their green area index (GAI; square meter green plant area per square meter ground area) - the sensitivity to diffuse radiation increasing with GAI. Our data suggest diffuse radiation to have a negligible influence on NEE below a GAI of 2 m(2) m(-2). Changes in air/soil temperature and air humidity concurrent with the fraction of diffuse radiation were found to amplify the sensitivity of the investigated temperate mountain grassland ecosystem to diffuse radiation.

  12. Landslide monitoring at hillside residential area using GPS static and inclinometer techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Z.; Wan Aziz, W. A.; Anuar, A.

    2012-04-01

    Landslide is one of prominent geohazards that continuously affecting the tropical countries including Malaysia. Frequent occurrences of landslides at hillslopes during the heavy rainy periods have resulted in public fear for the safety of their life and properties. For the past 25 years, many landslides have occurrences have been reported in Klang Valley especially at the hilly terrain residential areas. A landslide monitoring scheme is therefore very crucial and should be carried out continuously. Various studies have been conducted to monitor landslide activities such as conventional geotechnical and geodetic techniques. Each of these techniques has its own advantages and limitations. Therefore, this study focuses on the effectiveness of the combination approach of GPS technology and inclinometer techniques for landslide monitoring. The study area is located at residential area Section 5, Wangsa Maju, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The inclinometer instrument has been placed at five (5) selected monitoring points and three (3) epochs of inclinometer measurements were made. At the same time, the GPS observations have also been carried out for three (3) epochs separately using GPS static techniques. This GPS network consists of four (4) control points and eleven (11) monitoring points. The GPS observations data were validated, processed and adjusted using two (2) adjustment software namely Trimble Geomatic Office (TGO) version 1.6, and GPS Adjustment and Deformation Analysis (GADA). The results have shown that the GPS technique can be implemented with inclinometer technique to detect horizontal displacements up to +/- 30 mm and vertical displacements less than +/- 50 mm.

  13. A low-cost sensing system for cooperative air quality monitoring in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienza, Simone; Galli, Andrea; Anastasi, Giuseppe; Bruschi, Paolo

    2015-05-26

    Air quality in urban areas is a very important topic as it closely affects the health of citizens. Recent studies highlight that the exposure to polluted air can increase the incidence of diseases and deteriorate the quality of life. Hence, it is necessary to develop tools for real-time air quality monitoring, so as to allow appropriate and timely decisions. In this paper, we present uSense, a low-cost cooperative monitoring tool that allows knowing, in real-time, the concentrations of polluting gases in various areas of the city. Specifically, users monitor the areas of their interest by deploying low-cost and low-power sensor nodes. In addition, they can share the collected data following a social networking approach. uSense has been tested through an in-field experimentation performed in different areas of a city. The obtained results are in line with those provided by the local environmental control authority and show that uSense can be profitably used for air quality monitoring.

  14. A Low-Cost Sensing System for Cooperative Air Quality Monitoring in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Brienza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Air quality in urban areas is a very important topic as it closely affects the health of citizens. Recent studies highlight that the exposure to polluted air can increase the incidence of diseases and deteriorate the quality of life. Hence, it is necessary to develop tools for real-time air quality monitoring, so as to allow appropriate and timely decisions. In this paper, we present uSense, a low-cost cooperative monitoring tool that allows knowing, in real-time, the concentrations of polluting gases in various areas of the city. Specifically, users monitor the areas of their interest by deploying low-cost and low-power sensor nodes. In addition, they can share the collected data following a social networking approach. uSense has been tested through an in-field experimentation performed in different areas of a city. The obtained results are in line with those provided by the local environmental control authority and show that uSense can be profitably used for air quality monitoring.

  15. Wide area monitoring, protection and control systems the enabler for smarter grids

    CERN Document Server

    Vaccaro, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    This book is designed to give electrical and electronic engineers involved in the design, operation and maintenance of electrical power networks, the knowledge and skills necessary to deploy synchronised measurement technology (SMT) in Wide Area Monitoring, Protection And Control (WAMPAC) applications.

  16. [2011 after-service customer satisfaction survey of monitoring devices in Shanghai area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Li, Bin; Qian, Jianguo; Cao, Shaoping; He, Dehua; Zheng, Yunxin

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Shanghai Medical Equipment Management Quality Control Center launched the fifth after-sale service satisfaction survey for medical devices in Shanghai area. There are 8 classes medical devices involving in the survey. This paper demonstrates the investigation results of monitoring devices which are from different manufacturers.

  17. Monitoring ash (Fraxinus spp.) decline and emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) symptoms in infested areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Knight; Britton P. Flash; Rachel H. Kappler; Joel A. Throckmorton; Bernadette Grafton; Charles E. Flower

    2014-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (A. planipennis) (EAB) has had a devastating effect on ash (Fraxinus) species since its introduction to North America and has resulted in altered ecological processes across the area of infestation. Monitoring is an important tool for understanding and managing the impact of this threat, and the use of common...

  18. A Study on the Estimation Method of Risk Based Area for Jetty Safety Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong-Wook Nam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the importance of safety-monitoring systems was highlighted by the unprecedented collision between a ship and a jetty in Yeosu. Accordingly, in this study, we introduce the concept of risk based area and develop a methodology for a jetty safety-monitoring system. By calculating the risk based areas for a ship and a jetty, the risk of collision was evaluated. To calculate the risk based areas, we employed an automatic identification system for the ship, stopping-distance equations, and the regulation velocity near the jetty. In this paper, we suggest a risk calculation method for jetty safety monitoring that can determine the collision probability in real time and predict collisions using the amount of overlap between the two calculated risk based areas. A test was conducted at a jetty control center at GS Caltex, and the effectiveness of the proposed risk calculation method was verified. The method is currently applied to the jetty-monitoring system at GS Caltex in Yeosu for the prevention of collisions.

  19. Tourism Development in the Dutch Wadden Area : Spatial-Temporal Characteristics and Monitoring Needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, Frans J; Broersma, Lourens; Daams, Michiel N; Hoekstra, H; Werner, Gelijn

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a spatial and temporal analysis of tourism in the Dutch Wadden area and identifies policy dilemmas and monitoring needs. The analysis is temporal because historical, current and future aspects of tourism development are addressed; it is spatial because the spatial differentiaton

  20. Revised ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 300 area process trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, R.; Aaberg, R.L.; Bates, D.J.; Carlile, J.V.M.; Freshley, M.D.; Liikala, T.L.; Mitchell, P.J.; Olsen, K.B.; Rieger, J.T.

    1988-09-01

    This document contains ground-water monitoring plans for process-water disposal trenches located on the Hanford Site. These trenches, designated the 300 Area Process Trenches, have been used since 1973 for disposal of water that contains small quantities of both chemicals and radionuclides. The ground-water monitoring plans contained herein represent revision and expansion of an effort initiated in June 1985. At that time, a facility-specific monitoring program was implemented at the 300 Area Process Trenches as part of a regulatory compliance effort for hazardous chemicals being conducted on the Hanford Site. This monitoring program was based on the ground-water monitoring requirements for interim-status facilities, which are those facilities that do not yet have final permits, but are authorized to continue interim operations while engaged in the permitting process. The applicable monitoring requirements are described in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 265.90 of the federal regulations, and in WAC 173-303-400 of Washington State's regulations (Washington State Department of Ecology 1986). The program implemented for the process trenches was designed to be an alternate program, which is required instead of the standard detection program when a facility is known or suspected to have contaminated the ground water in the uppermost aquifer. The plans for the program, contained in a document prepared by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) in 1985, called for monthly sampling of 14 of the 37 existing monitoring wells at the 300 Area plus the installation and sampling of 2 new wells. 27 refs., 25 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Top of Atmosphere Radiation MVIRI/SEVIRI Data Record within the Climate Monitoring SAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, Manon; Clerbaux, Nicolas; Ipe, Alessandro; Tornow, Florian; Hollmann, Rainer; Baudrez, Edward; Velazquez Blazquez, Almudena; Moreels, Johan; Trentmann, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    The CM SAF Top of Atmosphere (TOA) Radiation MVIRI/SEVIRI Data Record provides a homogeneous satellite-based climatology of the TOA Reflected Solar (TRS) and Emitted Thermal (TET) radiation in all-sky conditions. The continuous monitoring of these two components of the Earth Radiation Budget is of prime importance to study climate variability and change. The Meteosat Visible and InfraRed Imager (MVIRI - from 1983 until 2004) and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI - from 2004 onward) on board the Meteosat First and Second Generation satellites are combined to generate a long Thematic Climate Data Record (TCDR). Combining MVIRI and SEVIRI allows an unprecedented temporal (30 minutes / 15 minutes) and spatial (2.5 km / 3 km) resolution compared to the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) products. This is a step forward as it helps to increase the knowledge of the diurnal cycle and the small-scale spatial variations of radiation. The MVIRI/SEVIRI Data Record covers a 32 years time period from 1 February 1983 to 30 April 2015. The TOA radiation products are provided as daily mean, monthly mean and monthly averages of the hourly integrated values (diurnal cycle). To ensure consistency with other CM SAF products, the data is provided on a regular grid at a spatial resolution of 0.05 degrees (i.e. about 5.5 km) and covers the region between +/- 70° longitude and +/- 70° latitude. Validation of the MVIRI/SEVIRI Data Record has been performed by intercomparison with several references such as the CERES products (EBAF, SYN1deg-Day and SYN1deg-M3Hour), the HIRS OLR Climate Data Record (Daily and Monthly), the reconstructed ERBS WFOV-CERES (or DEEP-C) dataset and the ISCCP FD products. CERES is considered as the best reference from March 2000 onward. The quality of the early part of the Data Record is verified against the other references. In general, the stability of all the TOA radiation products is estimated to be better than 4 W.m-2

  2. Visible-light beam size monitors using synchrotron radiation at CESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.T., E-mail: sw565@cornell.edu [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Science and Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Rubin, D.L.; Conway, J.; Palmer, M.; Hartill, D. [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Science and Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Campbell, R.; Holtzapple, R. [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    A beam profile monitor utilizing visible synchrotron radiation (SR) from a bending magnet has been designed and installed in Cornell Electron-Positron Storage Ring (CESR). The monitor employs a double-slit interferometer to measure both the horizontal and vertical beam sizes over a wide range of beam currents. By varying the separation of the slits, beam sizes ranging from 50 to 500 μm can be measured with a resolution of approximately 5 μm. To measure larger beam size (>500 μm), direct imaging can be employed by rotating the double slits away from SR beam path. By imaging the π-polarized component of SR, a small vertical beam size (∼70 μm) was measured during an undulator test run in CESR, which was consistent with the interferometer measurement. To measure the bunch length, a beam splitter is inserted to direct a fraction of light into a streak camera setup. This beam size monitor measures the transverse and longitudinal beam sizes simultaneously, which is successfully used for intrabeam scattering studies. Detailed error analysis is discussed.

  3. Monitoring system for a synthesizer at SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility and obtained results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Y., E-mail: ykawashima@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, PS, Bldg. 817, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Ego, H. [JASRI/SPring-8, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hara, M. [RIKEN, 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ohashi, Y.; Ohshima, T.; Takao, M.; Takashima, T. [JASRI/SPring-8, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2013-02-11

    Beam orbit distortion in all dispersive sections was observed in the SPring-8 storage ring during beam commissioning. In order to confirm the stability of the radio frequency (RF) synthesizer, a monitoring system was developed. The system consists of a frequency counter referenced to a global positioning system (GPS) receiver. With this system, the output of the synthesizer, which uses an external 10 MHz-Rubidium atomic clock with the time accuracy of Δt/t=10{sup −12}, is correctly monitored with 11 digits absolute accuracy, verifying that the synthesizer works well. Measurement of the circumference of the SPring-8 storage ring reveals the effect of tidal forces and seasonal temperature variations on beam orbit. To maintain the center axis of photon radiation in experimental beam lines, a beam energy correction is carried out. The frequency of the RF synthesizer is changed every 5 min with 10-digit accuracy. This corresponds to an energy accuracy of ΔE/E=1.16×10{sup −6}. The monitoring system for the synthesizer and obtained results are described.

  4. Biosensors for Real-Time Monitoring of Radiation-Induced Biologic Effects in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, James R.; Balogh, Lajos; Majoros, Istvan; Keszler, Balazs; Myc, Andrzej; Kukowska-Latallo, Jolanta; Norris, Theodore; delaiglesia, Felix; Beeson, Nicholas W. (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    This work seeks to develop cellular biosensors based on dendritic polymers. Nanoscale polymer structures less than 20 nm in diameter will be used as the basis of the biosensors. The structures will be designed to target into specific cells of an astronaut and be able to monitor health issues such as exposure to radiation. Multiple components can be assembled on the polymers including target directors, analytical devices (such as molecular probes), and reporting agents. The reporting will be accomplished through fluorescence signal monitoring, with the use of multispectral analysis for signal interpretation. These nanosensors could facilitate the success and increase the safety of extended space flight. The design and assembly of these devices has been pioneered at the Center for Biologic Nanotechnology in the University of Michigan. This period, synthesis of the test-bed biosensors continued. Studies were performed on the candidate fluorescent dyes to determine which might be suitable for the biosensor under development. Development continued on producing an artificial capillary bed as a tool for the use in the production of the fluorescence signal monitor. Work was also done on the in vitro multispectral analysis system, which uses the robotic microscope.

  5. Design of ecoregional monitoring in conservation areas of high-latitude ecosystems under contemporary climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, Erik A.; Woodward, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Land ownership in Alaska includes a mosaic of federally managed units. Within its agency’s context, each unit has its own management strategy, authority, and resources of conservation concern, many of which are migratory animals. Though some units are geographically isolated, many are nevertheless linked by paths of abiotic and biotic flows, such as rivers, air masses, flyways, and terrestrial and aquatic migration routes. Furthermore, individual land units exist within the context of a larger landscape pattern of shifting conditions, requiring managers to understand at larger spatial scales the status and trends in the synchrony and spatial concurrence of species and associated suitable habitats. Results of these changes will determine the ability of Alaska lands to continue to: provide habitat for local and migratory species; absorb species whose ranges are shifting northward; and experience mitigation or exacerbation of climate change through positive and negative atmospheric feedbacks. We discuss the geographic and statutory contexts that influence development of ecological monitoring; argue for the inclusion of significant amounts of broad-scale monitoring; discuss the importance of defining clear programmatic and monitoring objectives; and draw from lessons learned from existing long-term, broad-scale monitoring programs to apply to the specific contexts relevant to high-latitude protected areas such as those in Alaska. Such areas are distinguished by their: marked seasonality; relatively large magnitudes of contemporary change in climatic parameters; and relative inaccessibility due to broad spatial extent, very low (or zero) road density, and steep and glaciated areas. For ecological monitoring to effectively support management decisions in high-latitude areas such as Alaska, a monitoring program ideally would be structured to address the actual spatial and temporal scales of relevant processes, rather than the artificial boundaries of individual land

  6. Interim Status Groundwater Monitoring Plan for Low-Level Waste Management Areas 1 to 4, RCRA Facilities, Hanford,Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P Evan

    2004-10-25

    This document describes the monitoring plan to meet the requirements for interim status groundwater monitoring at Hanford Site low-level waste burial grounds as specified by 40 CFR 265, incorporated by reference in WAC 173-303-400. The monitoring will take place at four separate low-level waste management areas in the 200-West and 200-East Areas, in the central part of the site. This plan replaces the previous monitoring plan.

  7. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Enewetak Atoll (2002-2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Johannes, K; Henry, D

    2006-01-17

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands including Enewetak Island (Figure 1) (Bell et al., 2002). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental

  8. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Rongelap Atoll (2002-2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Arelong, E; Langinbelik, S

    2006-01-17

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands including Rongelap Atoll (Figure 1). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance

  9. Monitoring the expansion of built-up areas in Seberang Perai region, Penang State, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samat, N.

    2014-02-01

    Rapid urbanization has caused land use transformation and encroachment of built environment into arable agriculture land. Uncontrolled expansion could bring negative impacts to society, space and the environment. Therefore, information on expansion and future spatial pattern of built-up areas would be useful for planners and decision makers in formulating policies towards managing and planning for sustainable urban development. This study demonstrates the usage of Geographic Information System in monitoring the expansion of built-up area in Seberang Perai region, Penang State, Malaysia. Built-up area has increased by approximately 20% between 1990 and 2001 and further increased by 12% between 2001 and 2007. New development is expected to continue encroach into existing open space and agriculture area since those are the only available land in this study area. The information on statistics of the expansion of built-up area and future spatial pattern of urban expansion were useful in planning and managing urban spatial growth.

  10. Assessment of radiation exposure around abandoned uranium mining area of Stara planina Mt., Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanić Milan N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to estimate the health and radiation hazard due to external irradiation from terrestrial radionuclides in the Stara planina Mt. region, which is important because of past uranium mining activities on the mountain. Soil samples were collected inside the flotation processing facilities, their surroundings and more distant locations, i.e. from areas considered certainly affected, potentially affected, and unaffected by former mining and uranium ore processing activities. The radiological and health risk assessments were done by calculating the six main parameters, based on the activity concentration of 238U, 232Th, and 40K in soil samples as determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Increased values of the risk parameters were observed only for sites where uranium ore was processed, while the location surrounding these compounds showed values that are usual for this mountain or slightly above them. Calculations of the risk parameters for the background area showed no radiation risk for the local and seasonal population. The presence of U and Th was detected in all water samples from creeks surrounding the facilities, but only in the water from the facility drainage pipe did their concentration exceed the limits given for the uranium content in drinking water. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study fall within the range of values in similar studies conducted worldwide and are below the values which can cause a significant radiation hazard. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43009 i br. III41005

  11. Analysis of Benefits and Pitfalls of Satellite SAR for Coastal Area Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunziata, F.; Buono, A.; Mgliaccio, M.; Li, X.; Wei, Y.

    2016-08-01

    This study aims at describing the outcomes of the Dragon-3 project no. 10689. The undertaken activities deal with coastal area monitoring and they include sea pollution and coastline extraction. The key remote sensing tool is the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) that provides fine resolution images of the microwave reflectivity of the observed scene. However, the interpretation of SAR images is not at all straightforward and all the above-mentioned coastal area applications cannot be easily addressed using single-polarization SAR. Hence, the main outcome of this project is investigating the capability of multi-polarization SAR measurements to generate added-vale product in the frame of coastal area management.

  12. Study of monitoring mining subsidence in coal mining area by D-InSAR technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Liang; LI Wen-jie; TAN Yang

    2008-01-01

    Along with the increasing demand for coal and the great importance attached to mine safety, gaining the information of mine surface distortion timely has already become an urgent need to guarantee the safety of mine production. D-InSAR technology is a new measure which can provide the information of surface distortion in mining areas at centi-meter level through the processing of SAR image gained from radar satellite. In addition, this technology has the advantage of monitoring large areas with no weather limit. Intro-duced the basic principle and data processing steps of D-InSAR systematically and ac-quired the differential interferometry based on case study data. The advantages of D-InSAR and it's usability in monitoring mining subsidence in coal mining areas were proved.

  13. Study of monitoring mining subsidence in coal mining area by D-InSAR technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Liang; LI Wen-jie; TAN Yang

    2008-01-01

    Along with the increasing demand for coal and the great importance attached to mine safety,gaining the information of mine surface distortion timely has already become an urgent need to guarantee the safety of mine production.D-InSAR technology is a new measure which can provide the information of surface distortion in mining areas at centimeter level through the processing of SAR image gained from radar satellite.In addition,this technology has the advantage of monitoring large areas with no weather limit.Introduced the basic principle and data processing steps of D-InSAR systematically and acquired the differential interferometry based on case study data.The advantages of D-InSAR and it's usability in monitoring mining subsidence in coal mining areas were proved.

  14. 3D-Printed Disposable Wireless Sensors with Integrated Microelectronics for Large Area Environmental Monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2017-05-19

    Large area environmental monitoring can play a crucial role in dealing with crisis situations. However, it is challenging as implementing a fixed sensor network infrastructure over large remote area is economically unfeasible. This work proposes disposable, compact, dispersible 3D-printed wireless sensor nodes with integrated microelectronics which can be dispersed in the environment and work in conjunction with few fixed nodes for large area monitoring applications. As a proof of concept, the wireless sensing of temperature, humidity, and H2S levels are shown which are important for two critical environmental conditions namely forest fires and industrial leaks. These inkjet-printed sensors and an antenna are realized on the walls of a 3D-printed cubic package which encloses the microelectronics developed on a 3D-printed circuit board. Hence, 3D printing and inkjet printing are uniquely combined in order to realize a low-cost, fully integrated wireless sensor node.

  15. Design on Intelligent Node of Gamma Radiation Monitor%γ辐射监测智能节点设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余松科; 方方; 林宇; 林业

    2015-01-01

    Gamma rays has short wavelength,high energy, strong penetrating power and easy to cause damage to human body, destroy the physical function,and gamma rays has widely used in agriculture,medical treatment, scientific research,so the gamma measurement is particularly important.In order to improve the gamma monito-ring data processing,management, monitoring system extensibility,according to research the principle of gamma measurement,designed the gamma radiation monitoring intelligent node based on ZigBee.The node to be able to monitor gamma radiation levels and transmit relative data to the monitoring center by monitoring network,by this node,the radiation monitoring can finish work intelligently and operating through network .%为了提高γ监测数据的处理、管理能力、监测系统的可扩展性,根据γ测量原理,设计了基于ZigBee的γ辐射监测智能节点。该节点能够自行监测γ辐射水平并将相关数据通过监测网络传送到监测中心,一定程度上实现辐射监测的智能化、网络化。

  16. Monitoring of a steep rockfall area experiencing fast displacements in Kåfjord, Northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiås Majala, Gudrun; Harald Blikra, Lars; Skrede, Ingrid; Kristensen, Lene

    2016-04-01

    An unstable rockfall area in Kåfjord, Northern Norway, was recognized during periodic monitoring campaigns in July and early September 2015. The LiSALab ground based Interferometric Synthethic Aperture Radar (GB InSAR) from Ellegi were used. A relatively sharply defined steep area of 1200 m2 (6.000 - 12.000 m3) was documented to be in movement. Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) was at this point performing mitigation work in terms of an embarkment within the rockfall run-out area. The monitoring system was reinstalled and adjusted to perform continuous monitoring with an early-warning aim. The section for rockslide management in NVE was responsible for the monitoring and the warning to the municipality and Police. The displacements increased from about 1 mm/day in July to 3 cm/day in mid September. People were evalcuated due to increased velocities the 16th of September. The displacements continued to increase in several stages, and with a distinct accelleration the 2nd of October. The velocity peaked in a short window to more than 200 cm/day, and it ended with a partly frontal and sideway collapse of the unstable area. However, large parts of the area stabilized again, and the run-out lengths from the small rockfalls were limited. The GB InSAR system operated exceptionally well during the event, and were able to follow continuously the displacements during the accelleration stage until collapse as the processing time window was frequently adjusted to the changes in velocity. We were also able to follow inidividual rockfalls from the images - primarily as the rockfall impact points on the slope below showed up clearly on the radar images. The area continued to stabilize due to falling temperatures, and the mitigation work were finished during the fall. The displacements seem to be correlated to the increasing temperatures in late summer and precipitation events.

  17. Using ISERV and Commercial Satellite Imagery to Assess and Monitor Recovery Efforts in Urban Damaged Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jordan R.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Burks, Jason E.; McGrath, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Short-term Prediction, Research, and Transition (SPoRT) Center uses a wide array of satellites to monitor and assess the impacts of natural disasters, with support from NASA's Applied Sciences Program. One of the newest sensors SPoRT is utilizing in these activities is the International Space Station (ISS) SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System (ISERV) instrument. ISERV provides a unique view of the areas impacted and will play a big role in monitoring the recovery these areas. High-resolution commercial satellite data is also used to monitor urban areas that have been impacted by natural disasters. SPoRT is developing techniques to measure the extent of these disasters and to monitor recovery. Several of these techniques include semi-automatic feature detection and change as well as developing an experimental damage assessment based upon the visible damage observed by the satellites. Furthermore, throughout these activities SPoRT hopes to provide additional data to the NOAA National Weather Service Damage Assessment Toolkit, which will help to supplement those activities being performed in the field.

  18. Adaptive response of blood lymphocytes of inhabitants residing in high background radiation areas of ramsar- micronuclei, apoptosis and comet assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Shahla; Taghavi-Dehaghani, Mahnaz; Gharaati, Mohammad R; Masoomi, Reza; Ghiassi-Nejad, Mehdi

    2006-11-01

    The hot springs in certain areas of Ramsar contain (226)Ra and (222)Rn. The effects of natural radiation on the inhabitants of these areas and the inhabitant's radiosensitivity or adaptive responses were studied. One group of volunteers from areas with high natural background radiation and another group from areas with normal background radiation were chosen as the case and control group respectively. The frequency of micronuclei, apoptosis, and DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were measured following gamma irradiation (4 Gy). The incidence of micronuclei in the case group was significantly lower than that in the control group while their frequency of apoptosis was higher (P sites, the individuals in the case group are more sensitive and susceptible to DNA damage. The results of micronuclei, apoptosis and repair studies suggest that an adaptive response might be induced in people residing in areas with high background radiation.

  19. Indicators and protocols for monitoring impacts of formal and informal trails in protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.; Leung, Yu-Fai

    2011-01-01

    Trails are a common recreation infrastructure in protected areas and their conditions affect the quality of natural resources and visitor experiences. Various trail impact indicators and assessment protocols have been developed in support of monitoring programs, which are often used for management decision-making or as part of visitor capacity management frameworks. This paper reviews common indicators and assessment protocols for three types of trails, surfaced formal trails, unsurfaced formal trails, and informal (visitor-created) trails. Monitoring methods and selected data from three U.S. National Park Service units are presented to illustrate some common trail impact indicators and assessment options.

  20. A radiation belt monitor for the High Energy Transient Experiment Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, D. H.; Wenzel, K. W.; Petrasso, R. D.; Prigozhin, G. Y.; Doty, J.; Ricker, G.

    1993-01-01

    A Radiation Belt Monitor (RBM) sensitive to protons and electrons with energy approximately greater than 0.5 MeV has been designed for the High Energy Transient Experiment (HETE) satellite in order to: first, control the on-off configuration of the experiments (i.e. those susceptible to proton damage); and second, to indicate the presence of proton and/or electron events that could masquerade as legitimate high energy photon events. One of the two RBM channels has an enhanced sensitivity to electrons. Each channel of the RBM, based on a PIN silicon diode, requires a typical power of 6 milliwatts. Tests have been performed with protons with energies from approximately 0.1 to 2.5 MeV (generated by a Cockcroft-Walton linear accelerator via the d(d,p)t reaction), and with electrons with energies up to 1 MeV (from a 1.0 microcurie Bi-207 source).

  1. Optimising the neutron environment of Radiation Portal Monitors: a computational optimisation study

    CERN Document Server

    Gilbert, Mark R; Packer, Lee W

    2015-01-01

    Efficient and reliable detection of radiological or nuclear threats is a crucial part of national and international efforts to prevent terrorist activities. Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs), which are deployed worldwide, are intended to interdict smuggled fissile material by detecting emissions of neutrons and gamma rays. However, considering the range and variety of threat sources, vehicular and shielding scenarios, and that only a small signature is present, it is important that the design of the RPMs allows these signatures to be accurately differentiated from the environmental background. Using Monte-Carlo neutron-transport simulations of a model helium-3 detector system we have conducted a parameter study to identify the optimum combination of detector shielding and collimation that maximises the sensitivity of RPMs. These structures, which could be simply and cost-effectively added to existing RPMs, can improve the detector response by more than a factor of two relative to an unmodified, bare design. Fu...

  2. Radiation damage study on diamond sensors of the ALICE Beam Condition Monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    Vai, Ilaria

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE Beam Monitoring System has been developed with the aim of detecting beam failures that can affect the experimental region. It is composed of synthetic diamonds as detector, a material that is particularly adapt to harsh radiation environment. However some sensors have shown an increase in the noise in the last year of operation. For this reason, I have developed a station to study the working parameters of the diamond sensors used in this system, in order to check their conditions. I've found an increase of the dark current of almost all the sensors and, in particular, the sensors of the system BCM-A seem to have suffered a greater damage than the others.

  3. Monitoring And Recording Data For Solar Radiation Temperature And Charging Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung Bhone Myint

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A data logger based on 8051 microcontroller has been implemented in this project to measure the solar radiation temperature and charging current. Development of a low-cost data logger can easily be made and easily be used to convert the analog signal of physical parameters of various test or other purposes of engineering. By using a suitable program code it can be used to read the value digitally with a PC. Our aim is to provide with a module and a software package when installed in a computer one can remotely acquire and monitor several numbers of the same or different types of signals sequentially at a time. Signals obtained from various sensors have been effectively conditioned. Now interfacing these signals using ADC with the Bluetooth module port of a computer satisfies the very goal of data acquisition. Proposed system provides better performance and has low cost versatile portable.

  4. Electromagnetic Coupling Between High Intensity LHC Beams and the Synchrotron Radiation Monitor Light Extraction System

    CERN Document Server

    Andreazza, W; Bravin, E; Caspers, F; Garlasch`e, M; Gras, J; Goldblatt, A; Lefevre, T; Jones, R; Metral, E; Nosych, A; Roncarolo_, F; Salvant, B; Trad, G; Veness, R; Vollinger, C; Wendt, M

    2013-01-01

    The CERN LHC is equipped with two Synchrotron Radiation Monitor (BSRT) systems used to characterise transverse and longitudinal beam distributions. Since the end of the 2011 LHC run the light extraction system, based on a retractable mirror, has suffered deformation and mechanical failure that is correlated to the increase in beam intensity. Temperature probes have associated these observations to a strong heating of the mirror support with a dependence on the longitudinal bunch length and shape, indicating the origin as electromagnetic coupling between the beam and the structure. This paper combines all this information with the aim of characterising and improving the system in view of its upgrade during the current LHC shutdown. Beam-based observations are presented along with electromagnetic and thermomechanical simulations and complemented by laboratory measurements, including the study of the RF properties of different mirror bulk and coating materials.

  5. Remote and terrestrial ground monitoring techniques integration for hazard assessment in mountain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinellato, Giulia; Kenner, Robert; Iasio, Christian; Mair, Volkmar; Mosna, David; Mulas, Marco; Phillips, Marcia; Strada, Claudia; Zischg, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    In high mountain regions the choice of appropriate sites for infrastructure such as roads, railways, cable cars or hydropower dams is often very limited. In parallel, the increasing demand for supply infrastructure in the Alps induces a continuous transformation of the territory. The new role played by the precautionary monitoring in the risk governance becomes fundamental and may overcome the modeling of future events, which represented so far the predominant approach to these sort of issues. Furthermore the consequence of considering methodologies alternative to those more exclusive allow to reduce costs and increasing the frequency of measurements, updating continuously the cognitive framework of existing hazard condition in most susceptible territories. The scale factor of the observed area and the multiple purpose of such regional ordinary surveys make it convenient to adopt Radar Satellite-based systems, but they need to be integrated with terrestrial systems for validation and eventual early warning purposes. Significant progress over the past decade in Remote Sensing (RS), Proximal Sensing and integration-based sensor networks systems now provide technologies, that allow to implement monitoring systems for ordinary surveys of extensive areas or regions, which are affected by active natural processes and slope instability. The Interreg project SloMove aims to provide solutions for such challenges and focuses on using remote sensing monitoring techniques for the monitoring of mass movements in two test sites, in South Tyrol (Italy) and in Grisons Canton (Switzerland). The topics faced in this project concern mass movements and slope deformation monitoring techniques, focusing mainly on the integration of multi-temporal interferometry, new generation of terrestrial technologies for differential digital terrain model elaboration provided by laser scanner (TLS), and GNSS-based topographic surveys, which are used not only for validation purpose, but also for

  6. Organic liquid scintillation detector shape and volume impact on radiation portal monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paff, Marc G.; Clarke, Shaun D.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2016-07-21

    We have developed and tested a radiation portal monitor using organic liquid scintillation detectors. In order to optimize our system designs, neutron measurements were carried out with three organic liquid scintillation detectors of different shapes and sizes, along with a {sup 3}He radiation portal monitor (RPM) as a reference. The three liquids tested were a 7.62 cm diameter by 7.62 cm length cylindrical active volume organic liquid scintillation detector, a 12.7 cm diameter by 12.7 cm length cylindrical active volume organic liquid scintillation detector, and a 25 cm by 25 cm by 10 cm “paddle” shaped organic liquid scintillation detector. Background and Cf-252 neutron measurements were recorded to allow for a comparison of neutron intrinsic efficiencies as well as receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves between detectors. The 12.7 cm diameter cylindrical active volume organic liquid scintillation detector exhibited the highest intrinsic neutron efficiency (54%) of all three liquid scintillators. An ROC curve analysis for a heavily moderated Cf-252 measurement showed that using the 12.7 cm diameter by 12.7 cm length cylindrical active volume Eljen EJ309 organic liquid scintillation detector would result in the fewest needed detector units in order to achieve a near 100% positive neutron alarm rate while maintaining a better than 1 in 10,000 false alarm rate on natural neutron background. A small number of organic liquid scintillation detectors could therefore be a valid alternative to {sup 3}He in some RPM applications.

  7. Development and Performance Characteristics of Personal Gamma Spectrometer for Radiation Monitoring Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Min; Joo, Koan Sik

    2016-06-21

    In this study, a personal gamma (γ) spectrometer was developed for use in applications in various fields, such as homeland security and environmental radiation monitoring systems. The prototype consisted of a 3 × 3 × 20 mm³ Ce-doped Gd-Al-Ga-garnet (Ce:GAGG) crystal that was coupled to a Si photomultiplier (SiPM) to measure γ radiation. The γ spectrometer could be accessed remotely via a mobile device. At room temperature, the implemented Ce:GAGG-SiPM spectrometer achieved energy resolutions of 13.5%, 6.9%, 5.8%, and 2.3% for (133)Ba at 0.356 MeV, (22)Na at 0.511 MeV, (137)Cs at 0.662 MeV, and (60)Co at 1.33 MeV, respectively. It consumed only about 2.7 W of power, had a mass of just 340 g (including the battery), and measured only 5.0 × 7.0 cm².

  8. Development and Performance Characteristics of Personal Gamma Spectrometer for Radiation Monitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Min Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a personal gamma (γ spectrometer was developed for use in applications in various fields, such as homeland security and environmental radiation monitoring systems. The prototype consisted of a 3 × 3 × 20 mm3 Ce-doped Gd–Al–Ga–garnet (Ce:GAGG crystal that was coupled to a Si photomultiplier (SiPM to measure γ radiation. The γ spectrometer could be accessed remotely via a mobile device. At room temperature, the implemented Ce:GAGG-SiPM spectrometer achieved energy resolutions of 13.5%, 6.9%, 5.8%, and 2.3% for 133Ba at 0.356 MeV, 22Na at 0.511 MeV, 137Cs at 0.662 MeV, and 60Co at 1.33 MeV, respectively. It consumed only about 2.7 W of power, had a mass of just 340 g (including the battery, and measured only 5.0 × 7.0 cm2.

  9. Thin silicon strip detectors for beam monitoring in Micro-beam Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povoli, M.; Alagoz, E.; Bravin, A.; Cornelius, I.; Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Fournier, P.; Hansen, T. E.; Kok, A.; Lerch, M.; Monakhov, E.; Morse, J.; Petasecca, M.; Requardt, H.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Röhrich, D.; Sandaker, H.; Salomé, M.; Stugu, B.

    2015-11-01

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) is an emerging cancer treatment that is currently being developed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France. This technique uses a highly collimated and fractionated X-ray beam array with extremely high dose rate and very small divergence, to benefit from the dose-volume effect, thus sparing healthy tissue. In case of any beam anomalies and system malfunctions, special safety measures must be installed, such as an emergency safety shutter that requires continuous monitoring of the beam intensity profile. Within the 3DMiMic project, a novel silicon strip detector that can tackle the special features of MRT, such as the extremely high spatial resolution and dose rate, has been developed to be part of the safety shutter system. The first prototypes have been successfully fabricated, and experiments aimed to demonstrate their suitability for this unique application have been performed. Design, fabrication and the experimental results as well as any identified inadequacies for future optimisation are reported and discussed in this paper.

  10. Development and performance characteristics of personal gamma spectrometer for radiation monitoring applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye Min; Kim, Jeong Ho; Park, Chan Jong; Joo, Koan Sik [University of Myongji, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The direct detection method uses a semiconductor device that generates an electrical signal immediately, with no intermediate stage, through gamma-ray absorption. The indirect detection method is a scintillation detection system, in which a photoelectric device detects photons having wavelengths in the visible region, which are produced through interactions between gamma-rays and the scintillator, as electrical signals. HPGe, CdZnTe, CdTe, and HgI2 are primarily used in semiconductor devices employing the direct detection method. These materials are preferred in gamma-ray spectrometry analysis because of their excellent energy resolution compared to that of the scintillator detector. However, the maintenance of materials with this composition is relatively expensive compared to that of scintillator crystals, and reduction in sensitivity and resolution as a result of radiation damage within a highly irradiated environment can prove problematic. Currently, compound semiconductor materials are more expensive than scintillator crystals. The compactness, low-voltage supply, and high resolution of the developed prototype are very useful features as regards its application in a variety of fields, such as homeland security (HLS) and environmental radiation monitoring systems (ERMS)

  11. New Advanced Source Identification Algorithm (ASIA-NEW) for radiation monitors with plastic detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stavrov, Andrei; Yamamoto, Eugene [Rapiscan Systems, Inc., 14000 Mead Street, Longmont, CO, 80504 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Radiation Portal Monitors (RPM) with plastic detectors represent the main instruments used for primary border (customs) radiation control. RPM are widely used because they are simple, reliable, relatively inexpensive and have a high sensitivity. However, experience using the RPM in various countries has revealed the systems have some grave shortcomings. There is a dramatic decrease of the probability of detection of radioactive sources under high suppression of the natural gamma background (radiation control of heavy cargoes, containers and, especially, trains). NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) existing in objects under control trigger the so-called 'nuisance alarms', requiring a secondary inspection for source verification. At a number of sites, the rate of such alarms is so high it significantly complicates the work of customs and border officers. This paper presents a brief description of new variant of algorithm ASIA-New (New Advanced Source Identification Algorithm), which was developed by the authors and based on some experimental test results. It also demonstrates results of different tests and the capability of a new system to overcome the shortcomings stated above. New electronics and ASIA-New enables RPM to detect radioactive sources under a high background suppression (tested at 15-30%) and to verify the detected NORM (KCl) and the artificial isotopes (Co-57, Ba-133 and other). New variant of ASIA is based on physical principles and does not require a lot of special tests to attain statistical data for its parameters. That is why this system can be easily installed into any RPM with plastic detectors. This algorithm was tested for 1,395 passages of different transports (cars, trucks and trailers) without radioactive sources. It also was tested for 4,015 passages of these transports with radioactive sources of different activity (Co-57, Ba-133, Cs-137, Co-60, Ra-226, Th-232) and these sources masked by NORM (K-40) as well

  12. Validity of satellite measurements used for the monitoring of UV radiation risk on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jégou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to test the validity of ultraviolet index (UVI satellite products and UVI model simulations for general public information, intercomparison involving three satellite instruments (SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME-2, the Chemistry and Transport Model, Modélisation de la Chimie Atmosphérique Grande Echelle (MOCAGE, and ground-based instruments was performed in 2008 and 2009. The intercomparison highlighted a systematic high bias of ~1 UVI in the OMI clear-sky products compared to the SCIAMACHY and TUV model clear-sky products. The OMI and GOME-2 all-sky products are close to the ground-based observations with a low 6 % positive bias, comparable to the results found during the satellite validation campaigns. This result shows that OMI and GOME-2 all-sky products are well appropriate to evaluate the UV-risk on health. The study has pointed out the difficulty to take into account either in the retrieval algorithms or in the models, the large spatial and temporal cloud modification effect on UV radiation. This factor is crucial to provide good quality UV information. OMI and GOME-2 show a realistic UV variability as a function of the cloud cover. Nevertheless these satellite products do not sufficiently take into account the radiation reflected by clouds. MOCAGE numerical forecasts show good results during periods with low cloud covers, but are actually not adequate for overcast conditions; this is why Météo-France currently uses human-expertised cloudiness (rather than direct outputs from Numerical Prediction Models together with MOCAGE clear-sky UV indices for its operational forecasts. From now on, the UV monitoring could be done using free satellite products (OMI, GOME-2 and operational forecast for general public by using modelling, as long as cloud forecasts and the parametrisation of the impact of cloudiness on UV radiation are adequate.

  13. Using UAV-Based Systems to Monitor Air Pollution in Areas with Poor Accessibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Alvear

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution monitoring has recently become an issue of utmost importance in our society. Despite the fact that crowdsensing approaches could be an adequate solution for urban areas, they cannot be implemented in rural environments. Instead, deploying a fleet of UAVs could be considered an acceptable alternative. Embracing this approach, this paper proposes the use of UAVs equipped with off-the-shelf sensors to perform air pollution monitoring tasks. These UAVs are guided by our proposed Pollution-driven UAV Control (PdUC algorithm, which is based on a chemotaxis metaheuristic and a local particle swarm optimization strategy. Together, they allow automatically performing the monitoring of a specified area using UAVs. Experimental results show that, when using PdUC, an implicit priority guides the construction of pollution maps by focusing on areas where the pollutants’ concentration is higher. This way, accurate maps can be constructed in a faster manner when compared to other strategies. The PdUC scheme is compared against various standard mobility models through simulation, showing that it achieves better performance. In particular, it is able to find the most polluted areas with more accuracy and provides a higher coverage within the time bounds defined by the UAV flight time.

  14. Towards a Long-Term Strategy for Voluntary-Based Internal Radiation Contamination Monitoring: A Population-Level Analysis of Monitoring Prevalence and Factors Associated with Monitoring Participation Behavior in Fukushima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shuhei; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Ozaki, Akihiko; Murakami, Michio; Hodgson, Susan; Blangiardo, Marta; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Morita, Tomohiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2017-04-09

    Following Japan's 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident, we assessed voluntary-based monitoring behavior in Minamisoma City-located 10-40 km from the Fukushima nuclear plant-to inform future monitoring strategies. The monitoring in Minamisoma included occasional free of charge internal-radiation-exposure measurements. Out of around 70,000 individuals residing in the city before the incident, a total of 45,788 residents (female: 52.1%) aged ≥21 were evaluated. The monitoring prevalence in 2011-2012 was only 30.2%, and this decreased to 17.9% in 2013-2014. Regression analyses were performed to estimate factors associated with the monitoring prevalence and participation behavior. The results show that, in comparison with the age cohort of 21-30 years, the cohort of 71-80 and ≥81 years demonstrated significantly lower monitoring prevalence; female residents had higher monitoring prevalence than male residents; those who were living in evacuation zones at the time of the incident had higher monitoring prevalence than those who lived outside any of the evacuation zones; for those living outside Fukushima and neighboring Prefectures post-incident monitoring prevalence decreased significantly in 2013-2014. Our findings inform the discussion on the concepts of radiation risk perception and accessibility to monitoring and societal decision-making regarding the maintenance of the monitoring program with low monitoring prevalence. We also stress the possibility that the monitoring can work both to check that internal contamination levels are within acceptable limits, and as a risk communication tool, alleviating individuals' concern and anxiety over radiation contamination.

  15. Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility groundwater monitoring report. 1996 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility is located in the Separations Area, north of H and S Areas, at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The facility permanently disposes of low-level radioactive waste. The facility blends low-level radioactive salt solution with cement, slag, and flyash to form a nonhazardous cementitious waste that is pumped to aboveground disposal vaults. Z Area began these operations in June 1990. Samples from the ZBG wells at the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility are analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Industrial Solid Waste Permit {number_sign}025500-1603 (formerly IWP-217). During second quarter 1996, lead was reported above the SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standard in one well. No other constituents were reported above SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standards for final Primary Drinking Water Standards during first, second, or third quarters 1996. Antimony was detected above SRS flagging criteria during third quarter 1996. In the past, tritium has been detected sporadically in the ZBG wells at levels similar to those detected before Z Area began radioactive operations.

  16. Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area: Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA)--Programmatic, Technical, and Regulatory Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Martin, Wayne J.

    2001-07-23

    Natural attenuation processes are commonly used for remediation of contaminated sites. A variety of natural processes occur without human intervention at all sites to varying rates and degrees of effectiveness to attenuate (decrease) the mass, toxicity, mobility, volume, or concentration of organic and inorganic contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface water systems. The objective of this review is to identify potential technical investments to be incorporated in the Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area Strategic Plan for monitored natural attenuation. When implemented, the technical investments will help evaluate and implement monitored natural attenuation as a remediation option at DOE sites. The outcome of this review is a set of conclusions and general recommendations regarding research needs, programmatic guidance, and stakeholder issues pertaining to monitored natural attenuation for the DOE complex.

  17. 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 located in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended February 2008) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof of concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 447 that were conducted at the site during 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by LM for the PSA

  18. Water levels in continuously monitored wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1985--88

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckey, R.R.; Lobmeyer, D.H.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1993-07-01

    Water levels have been monitored hourly in 15 wells completed in 23 depth intervals in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada. Water levels were monitored using pressure transducers and were recorded by data loggers. The pressure transducers were periodically calibrated by raising and lowering them in the wells. The water levels were normally measured at approximately the same time that the transducers were calibrated. Where the transducer output appeared reasonable, it was converted to water levels using the calibrations and manual water- level measurements. The amount of transducer output that was converted to water levels ranged from zero for several intervals to about 98 percent for one interval. Fourteen of the wells were completed in Tertiary volcanic rocks and one well was completed in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Each well monitored from one to four depth intervals. Water-level fluctuation caused by barometric pressure changes and earth tides were observed.

  19. 2010 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-02-01

    This report presents the 2010 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended March 2010) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes the results from the groundwater monitoring program during fiscal year 2010.

  20. 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site during fiscal year 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA.

  1. Site-specific landslide assessment in Alpine area using a reliable integrated monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Saverio; Di Matteo, Lucio; Kieffer, Daniel Scott

    2016-04-01

    Rockfalls are one of major cause of landslide fatalities around the world. The present work discusses the reliability of integrated monitoring of displacements in a rockfall within the Alpine region (Salzburg Land - Austria), taking into account also the effect of the ongoing climate change. Due to the unpredictability of the frequency and magnitude, that threatens human lives and infrastructure, frequently it is necessary to implement an efficient monitoring system. For this reason, during the last decades, integrated monitoring systems of unstable slopes were widely developed and used (e.g., extensometers, cameras, remote sensing, etc.). In this framework, Remote Sensing techniques, such as GBInSAR technique (Groung-Based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar), have emerged as efficient and powerful tools for deformation monitoring. GBInSAR measurements can be useful to achieve an early warning system using surface deformation parameters as ground displacement or inverse velocity (for semi-empirical forecasting methods). In order to check the reliability of GBInSAR and to monitor the evolution of landslide, it is very important to integrate different techniques. Indeed, a multi-instrumental approach is essential to investigate movements both in surface and in depth and the use of different monitoring techniques allows to perform a cross analysis of the data and to minimize errors, to check the data quality and to improve the monitoring system. During 2013, an intense and complete monitoring campaign has been conducted on the Ingelsberg landslide. By analyzing both historical temperature series (HISTALP) recorded during the last century and those from local weather stations, temperature values (Autumn-Winter, Winter and Spring) are clearly increased in Bad Hofgastein area as well as in Alpine region. As consequence, in the last decades the rockfall events have been shifted from spring to summer due to warmer winters. It is interesting to point out that

  2. Biosensors for Real-Time Monitoring of Radiation-Induced Biologic Effects in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, James R., Jr.; Balogh, Lajos; Majoros, Istvan; Keszler, Balazs; Myc, Andrzej; Kukowska-Latallo, Jolanta; Norris, Theodore; delaIglesia, Felix; Beeson, Nicholas W. (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    This proposal seeks to develop cellular biosensors based on dendritic polymers. Nanoscale polymer structures less than 20 nm in diameter will be used as the basis of the sensor/actuators. The structures will be designed to target into specific cells of an astronaut and be able to monitor health issues such as the exposure to radiation or infectious agents. Multiple components can be assembled on the polymers including target directors, analytical devices (such as molecular probes), magnetic particles and metals, and imaging agents. The design and assembly of these devices has been pioneered at the Center for Biologic Nanotechnology in the University of Michigan. These molecules would also be able to administer therapeutics in response to the needs of the astronaut, and act as actuators to remotely manipulate an astronaut as necessary to ensure their safety. The reporting will be accomplished either through fluorescence signal monitoring, with the use of multispectral analysis for signal interpretation, or through functional MRI. These nanosensors coupled to NEMS devices could facilitate the success and increase the safety of extended space flight.

  3. Remote Operating Monitoring Of Spatial Stability Magnets On A Kurchatov Source Of Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Barkovsky, E V; Martynenko, V V; Novikov, V A; Udin, L I

    2004-01-01

    During operation of the accelerator because of a nonuniform warm -up of the ring base and constructions of installation there are angular and linear displacements of bending and focusing magnets of a Big Accelerator Ring (BR) of a Kurchatov Source of Synchrotron Radiation. With the purpose of remote operating monitoring of a spatial position of elements BR was used anglemetrical control and measuring system with digital and analog registration in a real time mode. The results of the first stage of a monitoring BR have shown high informativity of the given instrumental - methodical means. The basic radiants of cyclical thermoelastic alternating strains are detected; the amplitudes of angular and linear displacements of magnets from different internal factors evaluated during operation of the accelerator. Is established, that the maximum radial angular and linear displacements of magnets are watched in 3,5-4 day after switching on of installation and achieve in max 30-35 seconds of an arc or 120-150 microns in ...

  4. A multi-disciplinary approach for the structural monitoring of Cultural Heritages in a seismic area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Musacchio, Massimo; Guerra, Ignazio; Porco, Giacinto; Stramondo, Salvatore; Casula, Giuseppe; Caserta, Arrigo; Speranza, Fabio; Doumaz, Fawzi; Giovanna Bianchi, Maria; Luzi, Guido; Ilaria Pannaccione Apa, Maria; Montuori, Antonio; Gaudiosi, Iolanda; Vecchio, Antonio; Gervasi, Anna; Bonali, Elena; Romano, Dolores; Falcone, Sergio; La Piana, Carmelo

    2014-05-01

    In the recent years, the concepts of seismic risk vulnerability and structural health monitoring have become very important topics in the field of both structural and civil engineering for the identification of appropriate risk indicators and risk assessment methodologies in Cultural Heritages monitoring. The latter, which includes objects, building and sites with historical, architectural and/or engineering relevance, concerns the management, the preservation and the maintenance of the heritages within their surrounding environmental context, in response to climate changes and natural hazards (e.g. seismic, volcanic, landslides and flooding hazards). Within such a framework, the complexity and the great number of variables to be considered require a multi-disciplinary approach including strategies, methodologies and tools able to provide an effective monitoring of Cultural Heritages form both scientific and operational viewpoints. Based on this rationale, in this study, an advanced, technological and operationally-oriented approach is presented and tested, which enables measuring and monitoring Cultural Heritage conservation state and geophysical/geological setting of the area, in order to mitigate the seismic risk of the historical public goods at different spatial scales*. The integration between classical geophysical methods with new emerging sensing techniques enables a multi-depth, multi-resolution, and multi-scale monitoring in both space and time. An integrated system of methodologies, instrumentation and data-processing approaches for non-destructive Cultural Heritage investigations is proposed, which concerns, in detail, the analysis of seismogenetic sources, the geological-geotechnical setting of the area and site seismic effects evaluation, proximal remote sensing techniques (e.g. terrestrial laser scanner, ground-based radar systems, thermal cameras), high-resolution aerial and satellite-based remote sensing methodologies (e.g. aeromagnetic surveys

  5. Study of the characteristics of neutron monitor area applied to the evaluation of dose rates in a 15 MeV radiotherapy accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Candido M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: candido_1998@yahoo.com; Patrao, Karla C.S.; Pereira, Walsan W.; Fonseca, Evaldo S.; Giannoni, Ricardo A. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Neutrons]. E-mails: karla@ird.gov.br; walsan@ird.gov.br; Batista, Delano V.S. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Fisica Medica]. E-mail: delano@inca.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    Currently, in Radiotherapy, the use of linear accelerators is becoming each time more common. From Radiation Protection point of view, these instruments represent an advance in relation to the cobalt and caesium irradiators, mainly due to absence of the radioactive material. On the other hand, accelerators with the energies superior to 10 MeV produce contamination of the therapeutic beam with the presence of neutrons generated in the interaction of high-energy photons with high atomic number materials from the own irradiator. The present work carries through measurements in a linear accelerator of 15 MeV using three neutron area monitors for a comparison of the response of these instruments, evaluating its adequacy to this measurement. Characteristics of use and operation associates to parameters such as: monitor dead time, monitor gamma rejection, and calibration results are also analyzed in this study. (author)

  6. Waste assaying and radiation monitoring equipment at the waste management centre of NPP Leningrad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šokčić-Kostić Marina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The waste accumulated in the past at the Nuclear Power Plant Leningrad has to be sorted and packed in an optimal way. In the area of waste treatment and management, the completeness and quality of direct monitoring are of the outmost importance for the validity of, and confidence in, both practicable waste management options and calculations of radiological impacts. Special monitoring systems are needed for this purpose. Consistent with the scale of work during the waste treatment procedures and the complexity of the plant data have to be collected from characteristic parts in various treatment stages. To combine all the information, a tracking procedure is needed during the waste treatment process to characterize the waste for interim and/or final disposal. RWE NUKEM GmbH has developed special customer-tailored systems which fulfill the specifications required by plant operation and by the authorities.

  7. Design of a geothermal monitoring network in a coastal area and the evaluation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohan Shim, Byoung; Lee, Chulwoo; Park, Chanhee

    2016-04-01

    In Seockmodo Island (area of 48.2 km2) located at the northwest of South Korea, a renewable energy development project to install photovoltaic 136 kW and geothermal 516.3 kW is initiated. Since the 1990s, more than 20 deep geothermal wells for hot springs, greenhouse and aquaculture have been developed along coastal areas. The outflow water of each site has the pumping capacity between 300 and 4,800 m3/day with the salinity higher than 20,000 mg/l, and the maximum temperature shows 70 ?C. Because of the required additional well drillings, the increased discharge rate can cause serious seawater intrusion into freshwater aquifers, which supply groundwater for drinking and living purposes from 210 wells. In order to manage the situation, advanced management skills are required to maintain the balance between geothermal energy development and water resources protection. We designed real-time monitoring networks with monitoring stations for the sustainable monitoring of the temperature and salinity. Construction of borehole temperature monitoring for deep and shallow aquifer consists with the installation of automated temperature logging system and cellular telemetry for real-time data acquisition. The DTS (distributed temperature sensing) system and fiber optic cables will be installed for the logging system, which has enough temperature resolution and accuracy. The spatial distribution and the monitoring points can be determined by geological and hydrological situations associated with the locations of current use and planned facilities. The evaluation of the temperature and salinity variation will be conducted by the web-based monitoring system. The evaluation system will be helpful to manage the balance between the hot water development and the fresh water resources conservation.

  8. RCRA Groundwater Monitoring Plan for Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area C at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, Duane G.; Narbutovskih, Susan M.

    2001-01-01

    This document describes the groundwater monitoring plan for Waste Management Area C located in the 200 East Area of the DOE Hanford Site. This plan is required under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA).

  9. Radiometric mapping of Goiania urban area: natural and artificial radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Nivaldo C.; Dias, Danila C.S.; Guerrero, Eder T. Z.; Alberti, Heber L.C., E-mail: ncsilva@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: danilacdias@gmail.com, E-mail: edertzg@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: heber@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Santos, Eliane E.; Pimenta, Lucinei R.; Costa, Heliana F., E-mail: esantos@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: lucinei@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: heliana@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In the city of Goiania it is common to observe in some social groups, such as medical society, academy and communication (media), the association between cancer incidence and the 1987's Goiania radiological accident. Moreover, data of Population-Base Cancer Register published in 2010 by INCA (Instituto Nacional do Cancer), reveals that Goiania figures among the three cities where the major increases in cancer incidence were observed. Therefore, this project aims to provide a dose rate database over Goiania's road network aiming to: 1) assess the level radiation dose to which the population is exposed and 1) provide technical support for social communication of Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy. The monitoring was accomplished by using a mobile system (EBERLINE FHT 1376) which includes a 5-liter plastic scintillator detector coupled with a GPS (Global Positioning System) and a portable computer. This system allowed the recording of both the geographical coordinates and the dose rate of each single point. Using a NBR (Natural Background Rejection) the system is able to discriminate between natural and artificial radiation. After the field campaign, the raw data were then treated in a Geographical Information System (GIS) using the ArcGis software in order to produce dose maps. Therefore, this paper will present the results of the current stage of this research encompassing the monitoring of streets located on seven regions Goiania - divided in for administrative purposes. It is important to point out that more than 175175 individual data were collected with results ranging from 13 to 490 nSv/h. (author)

  10. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR), Version 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains gridded daily Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) derived from the NOAA Climate Data...

  11. Uncooled Radiation Hard Large Area SiC X-ray and EUV Detectors and 2D Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project seeks to design, fabricate, characterize and commercialize large area, uncooled and radiative hard 4H-SiC EUV ? soft X-ray detectors capable of ultra...

  12. FARMLAND AND URBAN AREA DYNAMICS MONITORING IN CHINA USING REMOTE SENSING AND SPATIAL STATISTICS METHODOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With the need in the global change research project for the land -use/land-cover change information, most international and regional research organization or groups have put amounts of efforts to improve of the dynamics monitoring and database updating techniques. With the pressure on nature environment from increasing population and decreasing farmland becoming significant more and more in China, the farmland urban dynamics in historical and current times, even the change trends in the future, should be monitored and analyzed serving for regional and national social, economic and environmental sustainable development in the long future. Based on spatial and temporal series of land -use/land-cover database resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences designed a sampling framework for monitoring farmland and urban area dynamics in regional and national level. In order to test the accuracy of the sampling schema for national and regional level, we took two provinces area into overall covered change detecting process with TM images data through being interpreted by digitalization on the screen. The result shows that our stratified random sampling schema is suitable for monitoring land -use/land-cover change at national and regional level with quick response, high accuracy and low expenses. The land-use/land-cover change (LUCC) information can update the LUTEA database for global change research during certain period so that the forecasting process and evaluating analysis on land resources and environment under human and natural driving force will get essential data and produce valuable conclusions.

  13. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report: First quarter 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C.Y.

    1992-06-01

    During first quarter 1992, samples from the seven KAC monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin of Savannah River Plant were analyzed for herbicides, indicator parameters, major ions, pesticides, radionuclides, turbidity, volatile organic compounds, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) flagging criteria and turbidity standards during the quarter are discussed in this report. No constituent exceeded the PDWS in the KAC wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin during first quarter 1992. Total organic halogens exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in wells KAC 6, and 7, and iron exceeded the Flag 2 criterion in well KAC 6. Well KAC 2 was the only well in the KAC well series to exceed the SRS turbidity standard.

  14. K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin groundwater monitoring report. Second quarter 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    During second quarter 1994, samples from the KAC-monitoring wells at the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were collected and analyzed for herbicides/pesticides, indicator parameters, metals, nitrate, radionuclide indicators, and other constituents. Monitoring results that exceeded the final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS), other Savannah River Site (SRS) Flag 2 criteria, of the SRS turbidity standard are provided in this report. No constituents exceeded the final PDWS in the KAC wells. Aluminum, iron, and specific conductance exceeded other SRS flagging criteria in one or more of the downgradient wells. Total organic halogens was elevated in upgradient well KAC 3. Groundwater flow direction and rate in the water table beneath the K-Area Acid/Caustic Basin were similar to past quarters.

  15. Best management practices plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This Best Management Practices (BMP) Plan has been developed as part of the environmental monitoring program at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. The BMP Plan describes the requirements for personnel training, spill prevention and control, environmental compliance, and sediment/erosion control as they relate to environmental monitoring activities and installation of Monitoring Station 4 at WAG 6.

  16. Ecological and human impact assessment in the legacy enhanced and naturally occurring radiation areas - human and ecological impact assessment in the legacy enhanced and naturally occurring radiation areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Centre for Environmental radioactivity CERAD, P.O. Box 5003, 1430 Aas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The Fen Complex in Norway is an area well-known with its specific magmatic bedrock rich in thorium (Th), iron (Fe), niobium (Nb) and rare earth elements (REE). During several past centuries, intensive mining was conducted at sites in the area, giving rise to enhanced radioactivity levels. Previous human health studies demonstrated exposure doses among the highest in Europe. In the current work, contamination status with respect to radionuclides ({sup 232}Th, uranium ({sup 238}U)) and trace elements (arsenic (As), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb)) and possible impact on humans and biota were investigated at legacy NORM and undisturbed surrounding NOR rich sites in the Fen Complex area. Significantly heterogeneous radionuclides ({sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, and daughters) distribution was found in soil at both legacy NORM and undisturbed NOR rich sites. Thorium activity concentration levels exceeded screening levels for radioactive waste material given by Norwegian Pollution Control Act. Based on sequential extraction results, mobility of {sup 232}Th and trace elements were low, although higher at legacy NORM than at undisturbed NOR rich sites. Uranium was present at considerable levels (up to 50 %) in pH and redox sensitive soil fraction, as well as bound to soil organic compounds. However, no further transport towards biggest water source Norsjoe Lake was observed, as concentration levels of all investigated elements in water samples were extremely low. Long-term surveys of outdoor terrestrial gamma dose rates, thoron ({sup 220}Rn) and radon ({sup 222}Rn) concentrations in the air demonstrated elevated values (up to 9.2 μGy/h, 5000 Bq/m{sup 3} and 200 Bq/m{sup 3}, respectively) with significant seasonal variation. Calculated annual exposure doses to humans due to outdoor exposure could exceed 10 mSv, i.e., be higher than 1 mSv dose constraint given by ICRP. Roughly summarized with previously published data on indoor doses for Fen village population, total annual exposure

  17. Modeling of ultrasonic and terahertz radiations in defective tiles for condition monitoring of thermal protection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri Rahani, Ehsan

    Condition based monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) is necessary for safe operations of space shuttles when quick turn-around time is desired. In the current research Terahertz radiation (T-ray) has been used to detect mechanical and heat induced damages in TPS tiles. Voids and cracks inside the foam tile are denoted as mechanical damage while property changes due to long and short term exposures of tiles to high heat are denoted as heat induced damage. Ultrasonic waves cannot detect cracks and voids inside the tile because the tile material (silica foam) has high attenuation for ultrasonic energy. Instead, electromagnetic terahertz radiation can easily penetrate into the foam material and detect the internal voids although this electromagnetic radiation finds it difficult to detect delaminations between the foam tile and the substrate plate. Thus these two technologies are complementary to each other for TPS inspection. Ultrasonic and T-ray field modeling in free and mounted tiles with different types of mechanical and thermal damages has been the focus of this research. Shortcomings and limitations of FEM method in modeling 3D problems especially at high-frequencies has been discussed and a newly developed semi-analytical technique called Distributed Point Source Method (DPSM) has been used for this purpose. A FORTRAN code called DPSM3D has been developed to model both ultrasonic and electromagnetic problems using the conventional DPSM method. This code is designed in a general form capable of modeling a variety of geometries. DPSM has been extended from ultrasonic applications to electromagnetic to model THz Gaussian beams, multilayered dielectrics and Gaussian beam-scatterer interaction problems. Since the conventional DPSM has some drawbacks, to overcome it two modification methods called G-DPSM and ESM have been proposed. The conventional DPSM in the past was only capable of solving time harmonic (frequency domain) problems. Time history was

  18. Estimating Cleanup Times Associated With Combining Source-Area Remediation With Monitored Natural Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    by the U.S. Government in 1941 to store and dispose of military explosives . In 2000, the military mission in this area ceased causing the site to...at are primarily due to the discharge of water containing TCE, hydraulic fluid and ethylene glycol, along with the steam -cleaning operation of...downgradient monitoring wells (KBA-13A and USGS- 5) in the pretreatment plume, the range in the estimated composite retardation factor for total

  19. Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, J.L. Jr. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Samples from the ZBG wells at the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility are analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Industrial Solid Waste Permit {number_sign}025500-1603 (formerly IWP-217). No constituents were reported above SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standards or final Primary Drinking Water Standards during first or third quareters 1997. No constituents were detected above SRS flagging criteria during first or third quarters 1997.

  20. Defensive Rekeying Strategies for Physical-Layer-Monitored Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsey, Benjamin; Mullins, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Part 2: Control Systems Security; International audience; ZigBee networks are integrating rapidly into critical infrastructures such as the smart grid and public health