WorldWideScience

Sample records for radiation accident dosimetry

  1. Radiation accidents and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagstuen, E.; Theisen, H.; Henriksten, T.

    1982-12-01

    On September 2nd 1982 one of the employees of the gamma-irradiation facility at Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway entered the irradiation cell with a 65.7 kCi *sp60*Co- source in unshielded position. The victim received an unknown radiation dose and died after 13 days. Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy, the radiation dose in this accident was subsequently determined based on the production of longlived free radicals in nitroglycerol tablets borne by the operator during the accident. He used nitroglycerol for heart problems and free radical are easily formed and trapped in sugar which is the main component of the tablets. Calibration experiments were carried out and the dose given to the tablets during the accident was determined to 37.2 +- 0.5 Gy. The general use of free radicals for dose determinations is discussed. (Auth.)

  2. Personal dosimetry at the radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevoznikov, O.N.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Kanchenko, V.A.

    2007-01-01

    The radiation accidents of different types and the methods of the dosimetry used at the consequences liquidation are considered. The long-term experience of the population personal instrumental dosimetric control carrying out at the ChNPP accident consequences liquidation is widely covered in details. The concepts are stated out and the results are presented on the functioning of the created system for personal dose monitoring of the population of Ukraine irradiation. The use of the person radiation counters at the internal irradiation population and personal dose assessment is considered in details

  3. Henri Jammet Memorial lecture: The role of dosimetry in radiation accident response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricks, Robert C.; Joiner, Eugene; Toohey, Richard E.; Holloway, Elizabeth C.

    1997-01-01

    This document presents a lecture given on the role of dosimetry in radiation accident response, focusing accidents such as: Vinca, occurred on october 15, 1958, Goiania Cs-137, Hanford Am-241 and Juarez Co-60, Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Other accidents are reported as they are registered in the REAC/TS Registry

  4. Radiation accident dosimetry: TL properties of mobile phone screen glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassinet, C.; Pirault, N.; Baumann, M.; Clairand, I.

    2014-01-01

    Mobile phones are carried by a large part of the population and previous studies have shown that they may be able to function as individual fortuitous dosimeters in case of radiological accident. This study deals with thermoluminescence (TL) properties of mobile phone screen glass. The presence of a significant background signal which partially overlaps with the radiation-induced signal is a serious issue for dose reconstruction. A mechanical method to reduce this signal using a diamond grinding bit is presented. An over-response at low energy (∼50 keV) is observed for two investigated glasses. The results of a dose recovery test using a single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) procedure are discussed. - Highlights: • Mobile phone screen glass is a promising material for retrospective dosimetry. • The TL non-radiation induced background signal can be significantly reduced by a mechanical method. • A dose recovery test using an SAR procedure was successfully carried out for the investigated glass

  5. Nuclear accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The film presents statistical data on criticality accidents. It outlines past IAEA activities on criticality accident dosimetry and the technical documents that resulted from this work. The film furthermore illustrates an international comparison study on nuclear accident dosimetry conducted at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, United Kingdom

  6. Nuclear accident dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-12-31

    The film presents statistical data on criticality accidents. It outlines past IAEA activities on criticality accident dosimetry and the technical documents that resulted from this work. The film furthermore illustrates an international comparison study on nuclear accident dosimetry conducted at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, United Kingdom

  7. Cytogenetics for dosimetry in cases of radiation accidents and assessing the safety of irradiated food material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, A.T.; Kesavan, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    One of the many areas of research initiated by Swaminathan at the Botany Division of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi was radiation cytogenetics, which involves study of induced chromosomal aberrations. These studies had impact not only on elucidating basic mechanisms involved in the formation of chromosomal aberrations, but also several practical applications related to human health. In this review, we briefly summarize two applications, namely biological dosimetry following radiation accidents and safety of irradiated food material. (author)

  8. Study on the establishment of retrospective dosimetry system for nuclear radiation accident(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Jae Shik; Chai, Ha Seok; Lee, Jong Ok [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    This study was driven forward centering around physical techniques in retrospective dosimetry system for encountering nuclear radiation accident. The results obtained through this study are summarized as follow : the minimal facilities based on physical techniques should be assured at KINS for appropriate operation and establishment of retrospective accident dosimetry system, the necessary apparatus and man power for retrospective dose assessment by physical techniques might be operated flexibly, however, CL and TL/OSL readers should be equipped with the highest priority, a series of comparative examination of several physical techniques for retrospective dose assessment revealed that most of the irradiated materials around accident sites are usable for the dose assessment, if a priori study on the dosimetrical characteristics of those materials is preceded in accordance with the species of the collectable samples, the results of the study on the CL-dose response and radiation energy dependence of sugar and sorbitol, showed the nonlinearity in CL-dose relationship at the range of low dose(less than 5 Gy), and it led us to perform a study on the correction of the nonlinearity, and in the later study, CL output showed heavy dependence on radiation energy in the energy below around 100 keV and accordingly, a study on the correction for the energy dependence was also carried out, ve were able to obtain good results as a first attempt to carry out such corrections.

  9. Personnel Dosimetry for Radiation Accidents. Proceedings of a Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Accidents involving the exposure of persons to high levels of radiation have been few in number and meticulous precautions are taken in an effort to maintain this good record. When, however, such an accident does occur, a timely estimate of the dose received can be of considerable help to the physician in deciding whether a particular person requires medical treatment, and in selecting the most appropriate treatment. Individual dosimetry provides the physical basis for relating the observed effects to those in other accident cases, to other human data, and to data from animal experiments, thus providing an important aid to rational treatment and to the accumulation of a meaningful body of knowledge on the subject. It is most important therefore that, where there is a possibility of receiving high-level exposure, methods of personnel dosimetry should be available that would provide the dosimetric information most useful to the physician. Provision of good personnel dosimetry for accidental high-level exposure is in many cases an essential part of emergency planning because the information provided may influence emergency and rescue operations, and can lead to improved accident preparedness. Accordingly, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization jointly organized the Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation for the discussion of such methods and for a critical review of the procedures adopted in some of the radiation accidents that have already occurred. The meeting was attended by 179 participants from 34 countries and from five other international organizations. The papers presented and the ensuing discussions are published in these Proceedings. It is hoped that the Proceedings will be of help to those concerned with the organization and development of wide-range personnel monitoring systems, and with the interpretation of the results provided

  10. Retrospective individual dosimetry using luminescence and EPR after radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeksu, H.Y.; Wieser, A.; Ulanovsky, A.

    2007-01-01

    In areas where radiation dose monitoring has not been performed, it is essential to use material available in the environment be able to rapidly assess doses to individuals for immediate emergency medical care or for general estimation of the radiological consequences. It was shown that certain types of telephone cards containing microchips have the potential to be used as individual radiation dosimeters in emergency situations to detect doses over 250 mGy by luminescence measurements. In order to understand the dosimetric properties of chip cards, the components obtained from INFINIEON Company at various stages of production were used for luminescence measurements. It is found that the protecting layer used above the chips so called 'globe top' is the main source of radiation induced signal in chip cards. The globe top produced by INFINIEON at that stage is found to contain SiO2 and Epoxy. In order to improve the dosimetric properties of the chip cards, the raw material of the globe top is mixed with phosphorous material. The variation of the dose response and the detection limit with respect to the amount and the type of the phosphor added to the globe top is investigated using thermo luminescence (TL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Taking into account the rapid changes in chip card producing technology such as material properties, size of the globe top, a special-purpose software tool has been developed to calculate integral free-in-air kerma or organ dose for a given energy dose response of the card and irradiation conditions (photon fluence spectrum and irradiation geometry). It is also shown that adding phosphors powders such as Al2O3:C, LiF:Cu or BeO to SiO2/epoxy mixture of the globe top material, radiation detection limit of chip cards can be reduced as low as a few mGy but the presence of an initial signal in UV cured material as well as gradual increase of the signal are found to be the main limiting factors for detection of low doses

  11. Cytogenetic chromosomal aberration dosimetry method after radiation accidents and prognostic significance of stereotypically appearing chromosomal aberrations after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloennigen, K.A.

    1973-01-01

    The paper reports on a radiation accident involving an Iridium-192 rod of an activity of 7.8 Ci and a size of 2 x 2 x 2 mm 3 . The radiation source had remained in direct contact with the left hip and elbow of the examined person for a period of 45 minutes. On the points that had been directly exposed, physical values of 5,000 rad and 10,000 rad were measured while the whole-body dose was 100-200 rad and the gonad dose 300-400 rad. These values were confirmed by observations of the clinical course and haematological and andrological examinations. Chromosome analysis of lymphocytes produced values between 100 and 125 and thus a significant agreement with the values determined by physical methods. The findings suggest that the relatively simple and fast method of cytogenetic dosimetry provides a useful complementary method to physical dosimetry. (orig./AK) [de

  12. Criticality accidents in solution (CRAC and SILENE programmes) and complementary studies of accidents; radiation dosimetry in human organism during the CRAC programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbry, M.; Dousset, M.

    C.R.A.C. (CRiticality occurring ACcidentally) programme is intended to study experimentally the development of a criticality accident as it could occur when handling solutions of fissile material as well as the radiological consequences of such an accident. The fissile matter solutions have been chosen (a) for practical considerations of use and (b) because the probability of an accident occurring seems greater with this type of environment, as the known accidents have shown. The programme is twofold: study of accident physics: form of the evolution (peak, plateau, oscillations, boil up of solutions) the most probable maximum power, minimal power, flux and radiation spectra emitted, freed energy, associated effects, radiolysis, constraints, etc., study of radiological consequences: area dosimetry, individual dosimetry, radiobiological studies, etc. Additional criticality Accident experiments have been and continue to be made on the SILENE reactor in the following principal domains: determination of the emission rate of gaseous fission products and aerosols, area dosimetry and health dosimetry in the presence of shields around the core to vary the neutron and gamma components of the radiation field. Improvement in the knowledge of certain particular aspects of the power excursion, radiolysis gas and pressure wave, experiments of the ''boiling'' type [fr

  13. Review of the correlation between results of cytogenetic dosimetry from blood lymphocytes and EPR dosimetry from tooth enamel for victims of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvostunov, I.K.; Ivannikov, A.I.; Skvortsov, V.G.; Golub, E.V.; Nugis, V. Yu.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare dose estimates from electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry with teeth and cytogenetic dosimetry with blood lymphocytes for 30 victims of radiation accidents. The whole-body exposures estimated by tooth enamel EPR dosimetry were ranging from 0.01 to 9.3 Gy. Study group comprised victims exposed to acute and prolonged irradiation at high and low dose rate in different accidents. Blood samples were taken from each of them for cytogenetic analysis. Aberrations were scored and analysed according to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) guidelines for conventional and FISH analysis. Tooth samples were collected in dental clinics after they had been extracted during ordinary practice. EPR dosimetry was performed according to the IAEA protocol. EPR dosimetry showed good correlation with dosimetry based on chromosomal analysis. All estimations of cytogenetic dose below detection limit coincide with EPR dose estimates within the ranges of uncertainty. The differences between cytogenetic and EPR assays may occur in a case of previous unaccounted exposure, non-homogeneous irradiation and due to contribution to absorbed dose from neutron irradiation. (authors)

  14. Recommendations about criticality accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    The aims of criticality accident dosimetry and the characteristics peculiar to a critical burst being defined, the requirements to be fulfilled by a dosimetric system applied to this type of measurements are presented. The devices chosen by the C.E.A. Radiation Survey Divisions, simple and cheap, are described along with the main processes to be carried out in order to evaluate doses after an accident. The apparatus necessary for detector counting and the directions for use are presented in detail, allowing standardization of measurements. A set of linear formula enables to obtain, from these measurements, all required informations about neutron fluences and spectra, along with the suitable components of the dose at the irradiated people locations [fr

  15. Radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, M.W.; Thomas, B.; Conway, J.

    1977-01-01

    A dosemeter is described that is based on the TSCD principle (thermally stimulated current dosimetry). Basically this involves irradiating a responsive material and then heating it,whereby an electric current is produced. If the material is heated in an electric field the peak value of the thermally stimulated current or alternatively the total charge released by heating, can be related to the radiation dose received. The instrument described utilises a sheet coated with a thermoplastic polymer, such as a poly4-methylpent-l-ene. The polymer should have a softening point not lower than 150 0 C with an electrical resistivity of at least 10 16 chms/cm at 150 0 C. The polymer may also be PTFE. Heating should be in the range 150 0 C to 200 0 C and the electric field in the range 50 to 10,000V/mm. (U.K.)

  16. Researches and Applications of ESR Dosimetry for Radiation Accident Dose Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, K.; Guo, L.; Cong, J.B.; Sun, C.P.; Hu, J.M.; Zhou, Z.S.; Wang, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, X.; Shi, Y.M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work was to establish methods suitable for practical dose assessment of people involved in ionising radiation accidents. Some biological materials of the human body and materials possibly carried or worn by people were taken as detection samples. By using electron spin resonance (ESR) techniques, the basic dosimetric properties of selected materials were investigated in the range above the threshold dose of human acute haemopoietic radiation syndrome. The dosimetric properties involved included dose response properties of ESR signals, signal stabilities, distribution of background signals, the lowest detectable dose value, radiation conditions, environmental effects on the detecting process, etc. Several practical dose analytical indexes and detecting methods were set up. Some of them (bone, watch glass and tooth enamel) had also been successfully used in the dose assessment of people involved in three radiation accidents, including the Chernobyl reactor accident. This work further proves the important role of ESR techniques in radiation accident dose estimation. (author)

  17. Topics in radiation dosimetry radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    1972-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry, Supplement 1: Topics in Radiation Dosimetry covers instruments and techniques in dealing with special dosimetry problems. The book discusses thermoluminescence dosimetry in archeological dating; dosimetric applications of track etching; vacuum chambers of radiation measurement. The text also describes wall-less detectors in microdosimetry; dosimetry of low-energy X-rays; and the theory and general applicability of the gamma-ray theory of track effects to various systems. Dose equivalent determinations in neutron fields by means of moderator techniques; as well as developm

  18. Reconstructive dosimetry and radiation doses evaluation of members of the public due to radiological accident in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Camila Moreira Araujo de

    2016-01-01

    Radiological accidents have occurred mainly in the practices recognized as high risk radiological and classified by the IAEA as Categories 1 and 2, and highlighted the radiotherapy, industrial irradiators and industrial radiography. In Brazil, since there were five major cases in industrial radiography, which involved 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public, causing localized radiation lesions on the hands and fingers. One of these accidents will be the focus of this work. In this accident, a "1"9"2Ir radioactive source was exposed for more than 8 hours in the workplace inside a company, exposing radiation workers, individuals of the public and people from the surrounding facilities, including children of a school. The radioactive source was also handled by a security worker causing severe radiation injuries in the hand and fingers. In this paper, the most relevant and used techniques of reconstructive dosimetry internationally are presented. To estimate the radiation doses received by exposed individuals in various scenarios of radiological accident in focus, the following computer codes were used: Visual Monte Carlo Dose Calculation (VMC), Virtual Environment for Radiological and Nuclear Accidents Simulation (AVSAR) and RADPRO Calculator. Through these codes some radiation doses were estimated, such as, 33.90 Gy in security worker's finger, 4.47 mSv in children in the school and 55 to 160 mSv for workers in the company during the whole day work. It is intended that this work will contribute to the improvement of dose reconstruction methodology for radiological accidents, having then more realist radiation doses. (author)

  19. The use of the dicentric assay for biological dosimetry for radiation accidents in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjidekova, Valeria; Hristova, Rositsa; Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Atanasova, Petya; Popova, Ljubomira; Staynova, Albena

    2010-02-01

    This paper details the construction of a 137Cs gamma calibration curve that has been established for dicentric assay and the testing and validation of the curve through biological dosimetry in three situations of suspected workplace overexposure that arose accidentally or through negligence or lack of appropriate safety measures. The three situations were: (1) suspected 137Cs contamination in a factory air supply; (2) suspected exposure to an industrial 192Ir source; and (3) accidental exposure of construction workers to radiation from a 60Co radiotherapy source in a hospital medical physics department. From a total of 24 potentially-exposed subjects, only one worker was found to have a statistically significant dose (0.16 Gy, 95% confidence intervals 0.02-0.43 Gy). In all other cases, the main function of the biological dosimetry was to reassure the subjects that any dose received was low.

  20. Biological dose assessment by cytogenetic dosimetry in the Goianian radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, A.T.; Nascimento, A.C.H.; Bellido, P.

    1989-01-01

    During the recent Goianian radiation accident, 112 exposed or potentially exposed individuals were analyzed for the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and rings) in their lymphocytes, for estimation of the absorbed radiation dose. Of these, 29 subjects had dose estimates exceeding 0.5 Gy, 21 exceeded 1.0 Gy and eight exceeded 4.0 Gy. None of the estimates exceeded 7.0 Gy. (author)

  1. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both...... and sterilization dosimetry, optichromic dosimeters in the shape of small tubes for food processing, and ESR spectroscopy of alanine for reference dosimetry. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading...

  2. Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance of irradiated nails: challenges for a dosimetry in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannoni, Ricardo A.; Rodrigues Junior, Orlando

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize samples of human nails exposed to high doses of radiation, applying the technique of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). The objective is to establish a dose response study that allow determine the absorbed dose by exposed individuals in situations of radiological accidents, in a retrospective form. Samples of human nails were collected and afterward irradiated with gamma radiation, and received dose of 20 Gy. The EPR measurement performed on the samples, before irradiation, permitted the signal identification of the components associated with effects caused by the mechanical stress during the fingernail cutting, the so-called mechanically induced signal (MIS). After the irradiation, different species of free radicals were identified, the so-called radiation induced signal (RIS). (author)

  3. Dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.; Seda, J.; Trousil, J.

    1992-01-01

    The publication deals with a major field of ionizing radiation dosimetry, viz., integrating dosimetric methods, which are the basic means of operative dose determination. It is divided into the following sections: physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation; integrating dosimetric methods for low radiation doses (film dosimetry, nuclear emulsions, thermoluminescence, radiophotoluminescence, solid-state track detectors, integrating ionization dosemeters); dosimetry of high ionizing radiation doses (chemical dosimetric methods, dosemeters based on the coloring effect, activation detectors); additional methods applicable to integrating dosimetry (exoelectron emission, electron spin resonance, lyoluminescence, etc.); and calibration techniques for dosimetric instrumentation. (Z.S.). 422 refs

  4. Radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aymar A, J.; Medina G, H.

    1988-01-01

    Film is one of the most simple ways to detect radiation although for film as dosimeters a careful attention is required in many aspects, such as emulsion characteristics, film response capacity processing techniques and interpretation of the exposition. Surpassing these factors the film dosimeter is the most reliable

  5. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplavskij, K.K.; Smorodintseva, G.I.

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of a critical analysis of the available data on causes and consequences of radiation accidents (RA), a classification of RA by severity (five groups of accidents) according to biomedical consequences and categories of exposed personnel is proposed. A RA is defined and its main characteristics are described. Methods of RA prevention are proposed, as is a plan of specific measures to deal with RA in accordance with the proposed classification

  6. Biological dosimetry of irradiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, V.; Chambrette, V.; Le Roy, A.; Paillole, N.; Sorokine, I.; Voisin, P.

    1994-01-01

    The biological dosimetry in radiation protection allows to evaluate the received dose by a potentially irradiated person from biological markers such chromosomal abnormalities. The technologies of Hybridization In Situ by Fluorescence (F.I.S.H) allow the detection of steady chromosomal aberrations of translocation type

  7. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of radiation accidents over a 50 year period shows that simple cases, where the initiating events were immediately recognised, the source identified and under control, the medical input confined to current handling, were exceptional. In many cases, the accidents were only diagnosed when some injuries presented by the victims suggested the radiological nature of the cause. After large-scale accidents, the situation becomes more complicated, either because of management or medical problems, or both. The review of selected accidents which resulted in severe consequences shows that most of them could have been avoided; lack of regulations, contempt for rules, human failure and insufficient training have been identified as frequent initiating parameters. In addition, the situation was worsened because of unpreparedness, insufficient planning, unadapted resources, and underestimation of psychosociological aspects. (author)

  8. Considerations regarding the implementation of EPR dosimetry for the population in the vicinity of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site based on experience from other radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvortsov, Valeriy; Ivannikov, Alexander; Tikunov, Dimitri; Stepanenko, Valeriy; Borysheva, Natalie; Orlenko, Sergey; Nalapko, Mikhail; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2006-01-01

    General aspects of applying the method of retrospective dose estimation by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of human tooth enamel (EPR dosimetry) to the population residing in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site are analyzed and summarized. The analysis is based on the results obtained during 20 years of investigations conducted in the Medical Radiological Research Center regarding the development and practical application of this method for wide-scale dosimetrical investigation of populations exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl accident and other radiation accidents. (author)

  9. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Boyd, A.W.; Chadwick, K.H.; McDonald, J.C.; Miller, A.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation processing is a relatively young industry with broad applications and considerable commercial success. Dosimetry provides an independent and effective way of developing and controlling many industrial processes. In the sterilization of medical devices and in food irradiation, where the radiation treatment impacts directly on public health, the measurements of dose provide the official means of regulating and approving its use. In this respect, dosimetry provides the operator with a means of characterizing the facility, of proving that products are treated within acceptable dose limits and of controlling the routine operation. This book presents an up-to-date review of the theory, data and measurement techniques for radiation processing dosimetry in a practical and useful way. It is hoped that this book will lead to improved measurement procedures, more accurate and precise dosimetry and a greater appreciation of the necessity of dosimetry for radiation processing. (author)

  10. Medical care of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Isamu

    1986-02-01

    This monograph, divided into six chapters, focuses on basic knowledge and medical strategies for radiation accidents. Chapters I to V deal with practice in emergency care for radiation exposure, covering 1) medical strategies for radiation accidents, 2) personnel dosimetry and monitoring, 3) nuclear facilities and their surrounding areas with the potential for creating radiation accidents, and emergency medical care for exposed persons, 4) emergency care procedures for radiation exposure and radioactive contamination, and 5) radiation hazards and their treatment. The last chapter provides some references. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Personal nuclear accident dosimetry at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.C.; Mohagheghi, A.H.; Burrows, R.

    1996-09-01

    DOE installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material to potentially constitute a critical mass, such that the excessive exposure of personnel to radiation from a nuclear accident is possible, are required to provide nuclear accident dosimetry services. This document describes the personal nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) used by SNL and prescribes methodologies to initially screen, and to process PNAD results. In addition, this report describes PNAD dosimetry results obtained during the Nuclear Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Study (NAD23), held during 12-16 June 1995, at Los Alamos National Laboratories. Biases for reported neutron doses ranged from -6% to +36% with an average bias of +12%

  12. Biological dosimetry of local radiation accidents of skin: possible cytological and biochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potten, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    Skin erythema or skin reaction is a highly dose-dependent change in skin appearance. A few gray can usually be detected in humans but higher doses are usually required for experimental rodents. The disadvantages are that the end-point is subjective and the response strongly influenced by numerous physical and biological factors. Changes in the levels of pigmentation can be detected in the epidermis and possibly the hair follicles but generally these only become apparent after chronic exposures. The skin appendages, particularly the hair follicles, could represent sensitive systems for detecting radiation exposures, but the cyclic behaviour of the hair follicles is difficult to control or determine in an accident. Acute cell death can be measured in the follicle germ and changes in the thickness and appearance of the hair are easily detected: in severe cases there is loss of hair (epilation). The number of dead cells per follicle section increased at a rate of 2.9/Gy and doses of about 0.2Gy can be easily detected. The width of the hair is reduced by about 7-8%/Gy and this change, which results in a dysplastic hair is believed to be the consequences of cell death in the follicles. (author)

  13. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Arne

    1986-01-01

    During the past few years significant advances have taken place in the different areas of dosimetry for radiation processing, mainly stimulated by the increased interest in radiation for food preservation, plastic processing and sterilization of medical products. Reference services both by international organizations (IAEA) and national laboratories have helped to improve the reliability of dose measurements. In this paper the special features of radiation processing dosimetry are discussed, several commonly used dosimeters are reviewed, and factors leading to traceable and reliable dosimetry are discussed. (author)

  14. Radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenger, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity

  15. Group: radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, L.V.E.

    1990-01-01

    The main activities of the radiation dosimetry group is described, including the calibration of instruments, sources and radioactive solutions and the determination of neutron flux; development, production and market dosimetric materials; development radiation sensor make the control of radiation dose received by IPEN workers; development new techniques for monitoring, etc. (C.G.C.)

  16. Solid state radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Important recent developments provide accurate, sensitive, and reliable radiation measurements by using solid state radiation dosimetry methods. A review of the basic phenomena, devices, practical limitations, and categories of solid state methods is presented. The primary focus is upon the general physics underlying radiation measurements with solid state devices

  17. Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics are two closely integrated programs whose joint purpose is to explore the connections between the primary physical events produced by radiation and their biological consequences in cellular systems. The radiation dosimetry program includes the theoretical description of primary events and their connection with the observable biological effects. This program also is concerned with the design and measurement of physical parameters used in theory or to support biological experiments. The radiation biophysics program tests and uses the theoretical developments for experimental design, and provides information for further theoretical development through experiments on cellular systems

  18. Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics are two closely integrated programs whose joint purpose is to explore the connections between the primary physical events produced by radiation and their biological consequences in cellular systems. The radiation dosimetry program includes the theoretical description of primary events and their connection with the observable biological effects. This program also is concerned with design and measurement of those physical parameters used in the theory or to support biological experiments. The radiation biophysics program tests and makes use of the theoretical developments for experimental design. Also, this program provides information for further theoretical development through experiments on cellular systems

  19. Retrospective accident dosimetry using trapped charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. L.; Chang, I.; Kim, B. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Dicentric chromosome aberrations technique scoring of aberrations in metaphases prepared from human lymphocytes is most commonly used. This is considered as a reliable technique because the sample is extracted from the individual human body itself. There are other techniques in biological dosimetry such as Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) using translocations, premature chromosome condensation (PCC) and micronucleus assay. However the minimum detectable doses (MDD) are relatively high and sample preparation time is also relatively longer. Therefore, there is limitation in use of these techniques for the purpose of triage in a short time in case of emergency situation relating large number of persons. Electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique is based on the signal from unpaired electrons such as free radicals in irradiated materials especially tooth enamel, however it has also limitation for the purpose of triage because of difficulty of sample taking and its high MDD. Recently as physical methods, thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique have been attracted due to its lower MDD and simplicity of sample preparation. Density of the trapped charges is generally proportional to the radiation dose absorbed and the intensity of emitting light is also proportional to the density of trapped charges, thus it can be applied to measure radiation dose retrospectively. In this presentation, TL and OSL techniques are going to introduced and discussed as physical methods for retrospective accident dosimetry using trapped charges especially in electronic component materials. As a tool for dose reconstruction for emergency situation, thermoluminescece and optically stimulated luminescence techniques which are based on trapped charges during exposure of material are introduced. These techniques have several advantages such as high sensitivity, fast evaluation and ease to sample collection over common biological dosimetry and EPR

  20. Nuclear medicine radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2010-01-01

    Complexities of the requirements for accurate radiation dosimetry evaluation in both diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine (including PET) have grown over the past decade. This is due primarily to four factors: growing consideration of accurate patient-specific treatment planning for radionuclide therapy as a means of improving the therapeutic benefit, development of more realistic anthropomorphic phantoms and their use in estimating radiation transport and dosimetry in patients, design and use of advanced Monte Carlo algorithms in calculating the above-mentioned radiation transport and

  1. Proceedings of the III international workshop 'Actual problems of dosimetry (15 years after the Chernobyl accident)'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milyutin, A.A.; Chudakov, V.A.; Berezhnoj, A.V.

    2001-10-01

    Materials grouped to three main issues: normative, metrological and technical support of dosimetric and radiometric control; biological dosimetry and markers of radiation effects; monitoring and reconstruction of radiation doses at radiation accidents

  2. WIPP radiation dosimetry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry is the process by which various measurement results and procedures are applied to quantify the radiation exposure of an individual. Accurate and precise determination of radiation dose is a key factor to the success of a radiation protection program. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a Department of Energy (DOE) facility designed for permanent repository of transuranic wastes in a 2000-foot-thick salt bed 2150 feet underground, has established a dosimetry program developed to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5480.11, ''Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers''; ANSI/ASME NQA-1, ''Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities''; DOE Order 5484.1, ''Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Information Reporting Requirements''; and other applicable regulations

  3. BiodosEPR-2006 Meeting: Acute dosimetry consensus committee recommendations on biodosimetry applications in events involving uses of radiation by terrorists and radiation accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, George A. [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Preparedness and Emergency Operations, 200 Independence Avenue, SW, Room 403B-1, Washington, DC 20201 (United States); Swartz, Harold M. [Dept. of Radiology and Physiology Dept., Dartmouth Medical School, HB 7785, Vail 702, Rubin 601, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Amundson, Sally A. [Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 W. 168th Street, VC11-215, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Blakely, William F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)], E-mail: blakely@afrri.usuhs.mil; Buddemeier, Brooke [Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC 20528 (United States); Gallez, Bernard [Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Unit and Lab. of Medicinal Chemistry and Radiopharmacy, Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Dainiak, Nicholas [Dept. of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, 267 Grant Street, Bridgeport, CT 06610 (United States); Goans, Ronald E. [MJW Corporation, 1422 Eagle Bend Drive, Clinton, TN 37716-4029 (United States); Hayes, Robert B. [Remote Sensing Lab., MS RSL-47, P.O. Box 98421, Las Vegas, NV 89193 (United States); Lowry, Patrick C. [Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS), Oak Ridge Associated Universities, P.O. Box 117, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117 (United States); Noska, Michael A. [Food and Drug Administration, FDA/CDRH, 1350 Piccard Drive, HFZ-240, Rockville, MD 20850 (United States); Okunieff, Paul [Dept. of Radiation Oncology (Box 647), Univ. of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Salner, Andrew L. [Helen and Harry Gray Cancer Center, Hartford Hospital, 80 Seymour Street, Hartford, CT 06102 (United States); Schauer, David A. [National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 400, Bethesda, MD 20814-3095 (United States)] (and others)

    2007-07-15

    In the aftermath of a radiological terrorism incident or mass-casualty radiation accident, first responders and receivers require prior guidance and pre-positioned resources for assessment, triage and medical management of affected individuals [NCRP, 2005. Key elements of preparing emergency responders for nuclear and radiological terrorism. NCRP Commentary No. 19, Bethesda, Maryland, USA]. Several recent articles [Dainiak, N., Waselenko, J.K., Armitage, J.O., MacVittie, T.J., Farese, A.M., 2003. The hematologist and radiation casualties. Hematology (Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program) 473-496; Waselenko, J.K., MacVittie, T.J., Blakely, W.F., Pesik, N., Wiley, A.L., Dickerson, W.E., Tsu, H., Confer, D.L., Coleman, C.N., Seed, T., Lowry, P., Armitage, J.O., Dainiak, N., Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group, 2004. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group. Ann. Intern. Med. 140(12), 1037-1051; Blakely, W.F., Salter, C.A., Prasanna, P.G., 2005. Early-response biological dosimetry-recommended countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism. Health Phys. 89(5), 494-504; Goans, R.E., Waselenko, J.K., 2005. Medical management of radiation casualties. Health Phys. 89(5), 505-512; Swartz, H.M., Iwasaki, A., Walczak, T., Demidenko, E., Salikhov, I., Lesniewski, P., Starewicz, P., Schauer, D., Romanyukha, A., 2005. Measurements of clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation using non-invasive in vivo EPR spectroscopy of teeth in situ. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 62, 293-299; . Acute radiation injury: contingency planning for triage, supportive care, and transplantation. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 12(6), 672-682], national [. Management of persons accidentally contaminated with radionuclides. NCRP Report No. 65, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; . Management of terrorist events involving radioactive material. NCRP Report No. 138, Bethesda, Maryland

  4. BiodosEPR-2006 Meeting: Acute dosimetry consensus committee recommendations on biodosimetry applications in events involving uses of radiation by terrorists and radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, George A.; Swartz, Harold M.; Amundson, Sally A.; Blakely, William F.; Buddemeier, Brooke; Gallez, Bernard; Dainiak, Nicholas; Goans, Ronald E.; Hayes, Robert B.; Lowry, Patrick C.; Noska, Michael A.; Okunieff, Paul; Salner, Andrew L.; Schauer, David A.

    2007-01-01

    In the aftermath of a radiological terrorism incident or mass-casualty radiation accident, first responders and receivers require prior guidance and pre-positioned resources for assessment, triage and medical management of affected individuals [NCRP, 2005. Key elements of preparing emergency responders for nuclear and radiological terrorism. NCRP Commentary No. 19, Bethesda, Maryland, USA]. Several recent articles [Dainiak, N., Waselenko, J.K., Armitage, J.O., MacVittie, T.J., Farese, A.M., 2003. The hematologist and radiation casualties. Hematology (Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program) 473-496; Waselenko, J.K., MacVittie, T.J., Blakely, W.F., Pesik, N., Wiley, A.L., Dickerson, W.E., Tsu, H., Confer, D.L., Coleman, C.N., Seed, T., Lowry, P., Armitage, J.O., Dainiak, N., Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group, 2004. Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group. Ann. Intern. Med. 140(12), 1037-1051; Blakely, W.F., Salter, C.A., Prasanna, P.G., 2005. Early-response biological dosimetry-recommended countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism. Health Phys. 89(5), 494-504; Goans, R.E., Waselenko, J.K., 2005. Medical management of radiation casualties. Health Phys. 89(5), 505-512; Swartz, H.M., Iwasaki, A., Walczak, T., Demidenko, E., Salikhov, I., Lesniewski, P., Starewicz, P., Schauer, D., Romanyukha, A., 2005. Measurements of clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation using non-invasive in vivo EPR spectroscopy of teeth in situ. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 62, 293-299; . Acute radiation injury: contingency planning for triage, supportive care, and transplantation. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 12(6), 672-682], national [. Management of persons accidentally contaminated with radionuclides. NCRP Report No. 65, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; . Management of terrorist events involving radioactive material. NCRP Report No. 138, Bethesda, Maryland

  5. Dosimetry problems when evaluating radiation effects on the personnel, restoration work participants, and human population due to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, Yu.V.; Osanov, D.P.; Gimadova, T.I.; Gus'kov, V.M.; Kruchkov, V.P.; Pavlov, D.A.; Shaks, A.I.

    1993-01-01

    System of radiation monitoring operations of the Chernobyl NPP personnel is described for the period from the date of accident up to present time as well as of persons worked in the Chernobyl NPP 30 km zone, servicemen, and human population. Unsatisfactory organization of radiation on monitoring is marked and causes of this fact are considered. 8 refs.; 3 figs

  6. Biological dosimetry in radiation accidents. Dose-response curve by chromosomal aberrations analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidekova, V.; Hristova, R.; Atanasova, P.; Popova, L.; Stainova, A.; Bulanova, M.; Georgieva, I.; Vukov, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to obtain a dose-response relationship for chromosomal aberrations induced in human lymphocytes after in vitro irradiation. Peripheral blood samples of 7 different donors were used. The blood irradiation was done with Cs137 gamma-rays at different doses: 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 Gy. Lymphocyte cultures were established and maintain for 48 hours at 37 0 C in CO 2 incubator for chromosomal aberration analysis. The dose response relationship has been established based on dysenteric and ring chromosomes yield. The relationship can be described by the following equation: Y = 0.0274D + 0.0251 D 2 , where (Y) = dysenteric and ring chromosomes yield, (D) = radiation dose obtained. EXCEL software was established for calculation of the received dose by using this equation, as a whole body equivalent dose acute irradiation

  7. Bayesian Methods for Radiation Detection and Dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Groer, Peter G

    2002-01-01

    We performed work in three areas: radiation detection, external and internal radiation dosimetry. In radiation detection we developed Bayesian techniques to estimate the net activity of high and low activity radioactive samples. These techniques have the advantage that the remaining uncertainty about the net activity is described by probability densities. Graphs of the densities show the uncertainty in pictorial form. Figure 1 below demonstrates this point. We applied stochastic processes for a method to obtain Bayesian estimates of 222Rn-daughter products from observed counting rates. In external radiation dosimetry we studied and developed Bayesian methods to estimate radiation doses to an individual with radiation induced chromosome aberrations. We analyzed chromosome aberrations after exposure to gammas and neutrons and developed a method for dose-estimation after criticality accidents. The research in internal radiation dosimetry focused on parameter estimation for compartmental models from observed comp...

  8. The dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    A continuation of the treatise The Dosimetry of Ionizing Radiation, Volume III builds upon the foundations of Volumes I and II and the tradition of the preceeding treatise Radiation Dosimetry. Volume III contains three comprehensive chapters on the applications of radiation dosimetry in particular research and medical settings, a chapter on unique and useful detectors, and two chapters on Monte Carlo techniques and their applications.

  9. Development of radiation biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil; Son, Young Sook; Kim, Soo Kwan; Jang, Won Suk; Le, Sun Joo; Jee, Young Heun; Jung, Woo Jung

    1999-04-01

    Up until now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline (triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the premature chromosome condensation assay and apoptotic fragment assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiation dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with conventional chromosome aberration assay and micronuclei assay

  10. Development of radiation biological dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil; Son, Young Sook; Kim, Soo Kwan; Jang, Won Suk; Le, Sun Joo; Jee, Young Heun; Jung, Woo Jung

    1999-04-01

    Up until now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline (triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the premature chromosome condensation assay and apoptotic fragment assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiation dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with conventional chromosome aberration assay and micronuclei assay.

  11. Foundations of ionizing radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisenko, O.N.; Pereslegin, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    Foundations of dosimetry in application to radiotherapy are presented. General characteristics of ionizing radiations and main characteristics of ionizing radiation sources, mostly used in radiotherapy, are given. Values and units for measuring ionizing radiation (activity of a radioactive substance, absorbed dose, exposure dose, integral dose and dose equivalent are considered. Different methods and instruments for ionizing radiation dosimetry are discussed. The attention is paid to the foundations of clinical dosimetry (representation of anatomo-topographic information, choice of radiation conditions, realization of radiation methods, corrections for a configuration and inhomogeneity of a patient's body, account of biological factors of radiation effects, instruments of dose field formation, control of irradiation procedure chosen)

  12. 100 years of solid state dosimetry and radiation protection dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The use of solid state detectors in radiation dosimetry has passed its 100th anniversary. The major applications of these detectors in radiation dosimetry have been in personal dosimetry, retrospective dosimetry, dating, medical dosimetry, the characterization of radiation fields, and also in microdosimetry and radiobiology research. In this introductory paper for the 15th International Conference, I shall speak of the history of solid state dosimetry and of the radiation measurement quantities that developed at the same time, mention some landmark developments in detectors and applications, speak a bit more about dosimetry and measurement quantities, and briefly look at the past and future

  13. Reconstructive dosimetry for cutaneous radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, C.M.A.; Lima, A.R.; Degenhardt, Ä.L.; Da Silva, F.C.A., E-mail: dasilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Valverde, N.J. [Fundacao Eletronuclear de Assistencia Medica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a relatively significant number of radiological accidents have occurred in recent years mainly because of the practices referred to as potentially high-risk activities, such as radiotherapy, large irradiators and industrial radiography, especially in gammagraphy assays. In some instances, severe injuries have occurred in exposed persons due to high radiation doses. In industrial radiography, 80 cases involving a total of 120 radiation workers, 110 members of the public including 12 deaths have been recorded up to 2014. Radiological accidents in industrial practices in Brazil have mainly resulted in development of cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) in hands and fingers. Brazilian data include 5 serious cases related to industrial gammagraphy, affecting 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public; however, none of them were fatal. Some methods of reconstructive dosimetry have been used to estimate the radiation dose to assist in prescribing medical treatment. The type and development of cutaneous manifestations in the exposed areas of a person is the first achievable gross dose estimation. This review article presents the state-of-the-art reconstructive dosimetry methods enabling estimation of local radiation doses and provides guidelines for medical handling of the exposed individuals. The review also presents the Chilean and Brazilian radiological accident cases to highlight the importance of reconstructive dosimetry. (author)

  14. Dosimetry of high energy radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sahare, P D

    2018-01-01

    High energy radiation is hazardous to living beings and a threat to mankind. The correct estimation of the high energy radiation is a must and a single technique may not be very successful. The process of estimating the dose (the absorbed energy that could cause damages) is called dosimetry. This book covers the basic technical knowledge in the field of radiation dosimetry. It also makes readers aware of the dangers and hazards of high energy radiation.

  15. Dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Reddy, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    The last few years have seen a significant increase in the use of ionising radiation in industrial processes and also international trade in irradiated products. With this, the demand for internationally accepted dosimetric techniques, accredited to international standards has also increased which is further stimulated by the emergence of ISO-9000 series of standards in industries. The present paper describes some of the important dosimetric techniques used in radiation processing, the role of IAEA in evolving internationally accepted standards and work carried out at the Defence Laboratories, Jodhpur in the development of a cheap, broad dose range and simple dosimeter for routine dosimetry. For this polyhydroxy alcohols viz., mannitol, sorbitol and inositol were studied using the spectrophotometric read out method. Out of the alcohols studied mannitol was found to be most promising covering a dose range of 0.01 kGy - 100 kGy. (author). 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  16. Nuclear accident dosimetry. Revision of emergency data sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafield, H.J.

    1976-09-01

    The Emergency Data Sheets on Nuclear Accident Dosimetry have been revealed following the publication of a three part manual on this subject (Delafield, Dennis and Gibson, AERE-R 7485/6/7, 1973). This memo provides an explanation of the action levels adopted for the initial segregation of irradiated persons following a criticality accident, by monitoring the activity of indium foils contained in personnel dosimeters and the induced body sodium activity. The data sheets are given as an Appendix. They provide basic information on; the segregation of irradiated persons, the estimation of radiation exposure, and the assessment of personnel γ-ray and neutron doses. (author)

  17. Criticality accident dosimetry with ESR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Errico, F; Fattibene, P; Onori, S; Pantaloni, M

    1996-01-01

    The suitability of the ESR alanine and sugar detectors for criticality accident dosimetry was experimentally investigated during an intercomparison of dosimetry techniques. Tests were performed irradiating detectors both free-in-air and on-phantom during controlled critcality excursions at the SILENE reactor in Valduc, France. Several grays of absorbed dose were imparted in neutron gamma-ray fields of various relative intensities and spectral distributions. Analysed results confirmed the potential of these systems which can immediately provide an acute dose assessment with an average underestimate of 30%in the various fields. This performance allows for the screening of severely exposed individuals and meets the IAEA recommendations on the early estimate of accident absorbed doses.

  18. Chemical dosimetry system for criticality accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljanić, Saveta; Ilijas, Boris

    2004-01-01

    Ruder Bosković Institute (RBI) criticality dosimetry system consists of a chemical dosimetry system for measuring the total (neutron + gamma) dose, and a thermoluminescent (TL) dosimetry system for a separate determination of the gamma ray component. The use of the chemical dosemeter solution chlorobenzene-ethanol-trimethylpentane (CET) is based on the radiolytic formation of hydrochloric acid, which protonates a pH indicator, thymolsulphonphthalein. The high molar absorptivity of its red form at 552 nm is responsible for a high sensitivity of the system: doses in the range 0.2-15 Gy can be measured. The dosemeter has been designed as a glass ampoule filled with the CET solution and inserted into a pen-shaped plastic holder. For dose determinations, a newly constructed optoelectronic reader has been used. The RBI team took part in the International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE Reactor, Valduc, June 2002, with the CET dosimetry system. For gamma ray dose determination TLD-700 TL detectors were used. The results obtained with CET dosemeter show very good agreement with the reference values.

  19. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Methods and equipment for analysis of biological materials; (3) A system of fixed nuclear accident... Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material to... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304...

  20. Bio-dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidekova, V.; Kristova, R.; Stainova, A.; Deleva, S.; Popova, L.; Georgieva, D.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: The impact of ionizing radiation in medical, occupational and accidental human exposure leads to adverse side effects such as increased mortality and carcinogenesis. Information about the level of absorbed dose is important for risk assessment and for implementation of appropriate therapy. In most cases of actual or suspected exposure to ionizing radiation biological dosimetry is the only way to assess the absorbed dose. What you will learn: In this work we discuss the methods for biodosimetry and technological developments in their application in various emergency situations. The application of biological dosimetry and assessment of the influence of external factors in the conduct of epidemiological studies of radiation effects in protracted low-dose ionizing radiation on humans is presented. Discussion: The results of cytogenetic analysis and biological evaluation of absorbed dose based on the analysis of dicentrics in peripheral blood lymphocytes of five people injured in a severe radiation accident in Bulgaria in 2011 are presented. The assessed individual doses of the injured persons are in the range of 1.2 to 5,2 Gy acute homogeneous irradiation and are in line with the estimates of international experts. Conclusion: An algorithm to conduct a biological assessment of the dose in limited radiation accidents and in large scale radiation accidents with large number irradiated or suspected for exposure persons is proposed

  1. Dosimetry systems for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Desrosiers, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    Dosimetry serves important functions in radiation processing, where large absorbed doses and dose rates from photon and electron sources have to be measured with reasonable accuracy. Proven dosimetry systems are widely used to perform radiation measurements in development of new processes, validation, qualification and verification (quality control) of established processes and archival documentation of day-to-day and plant-to-plant processing uniformity. Proper calibration and traceability of routine dosimetry systems to standards are crucial to the success of many large-volume radiation processes. Recent innovations and advances in performance of systems that enhance radiation measurement assurance and process diagnostics include dose-mapping media (new radiochromic film and solutions), optical waveguide systems for food irradiation, solid-state devices for real-time and passive dosimetry over wide dose-rate and dose ranges, and improved analytical instruments and data acquisition. (author)

  2. Bayesian Methods for Radiation Detection and Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter G. Groer

    2002-01-01

    We performed work in three areas: radiation detection, external and internal radiation dosimetry. In radiation detection we developed Bayesian techniques to estimate the net activity of high and low activity radioactive samples. These techniques have the advantage that the remaining uncertainty about the net activity is described by probability densities. Graphs of the densities show the uncertainty in pictorial form. Figure 1 below demonstrates this point. We applied stochastic processes for a method to obtain Bayesian estimates of 222Rn-daughter products from observed counting rates. In external radiation dosimetry we studied and developed Bayesian methods to estimate radiation doses to an individual with radiation induced chromosome aberrations. We analyzed chromosome aberrations after exposure to gammas and neutrons and developed a method for dose-estimation after criticality accidents. The research in internal radiation dosimetry focused on parameter estimation for compartmental models from observed compartmental activities. From the estimated probability densities of the model parameters we were able to derive the densities for compartmental activities for a two compartment catenary model at different times. We also calculated the average activities and their standard deviation for a simple two compartment model

  3. The program of international intercomparison of accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    The French institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN) has carried out in June 2002 an international intercomparison program for the testing of the physical and biological accident dosimetry techniques. The intercomparison is jointly organized by the IRSN and the OECD-NEA with the sustain of the European commission and the collaboration of the CEA centre of Valduc (France). About 30 countries have participated to this program. Each country has supplied its own dosimeters and biological samples which have been irradiated using the Silene reactor of CEA-Valduc or a 60 Co source. These experiments allow to test the new dosimetric techniques that have been developed since the previous intercomparison program (1993) and to confirm or improve the performances of older techniques. Aside from the intercomparison exercise, this report makes a status of the known radiological accidents and of the effects of high doses of ionizing radiations on human health (symptoms, therapeutics). It explains the phenomenology of criticality accidents, the prevention means, and the history of such accidents up to the Tokai-Mura one in 1999. Finally, the dosimetry of criticality is presented with its physical and biological techniques. (J.S.)

  4. Calorimetric dosimetry of reactor radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radak, B.; Markovic, V.; Draganic, I.

    1961-01-01

    Calorimetric dosimetry of reactor radiation is relatively new reactor dosimetry method and the number of relevant papers is rather small. Some difficulties in applying standard methods (chemical dosemeters, ionization chambers) exist because of the complexity of radiation. In general application of calorimetric dosemeters for measuring absorbed doses is most precise. In addition to adequate choice of calorimetric bodies there is a possibility of determining the yields of each component of the radiation mixture in the total absorbed dose. This paper contains a short review of the basic calorimetry methods and some results of measurements at the RA reactor in Vinca performed by isothermal calorimeter [sr

  5. International nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison: results of Czech participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.; Votockova, I.

    1996-01-01

    An international intercomparison scheme for criticality accident dosimetry systems took place at the SILENE reactor, Valduc, France in June 1993. The dosemeters were exposed both on phantoms and in free air to radiation from the reactor, both shielded by lead and bare. The results obtained during this event by Czech participants are presented and compared with the average values obtained by the complete group of participants and with the reference values. The systems used consisted mostly of Si-diodes and thermoluminescent detectors, some supporting measurements were performed with solid state nuclear track detectors and using the albedo principle. The agreement between the data sets is very good. 7 tabs., 13 refs

  6. Radiation, accidents, society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This book is meant to be used as a reference book for information officers at the event of a nuclear accident. The main part is edited in alphabetical order to facilitate use under stress. The book gives a short review of the health risks of radiation, and descriptions of accidents that have occured. The index words that have been chosen for the main part of the book have been selected due to experiences in connection with incidents and accidents. (L.E.)

  7. The principles of radioiodine dosimetry following a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonova, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    Based upon the experience of radioiodine dosimetry after the Chernobyl accident main principals of radioiodine measurements and dosimetry in thyroid glands of population in case of a radiation accident are discussed in the report. For the correct dose estimation following the radioiodine measurement in the thyroid one should know the ''history'' of radionuclide intake into the body of a contaminated person. So a measurement of radioiodine thyroid content should be accompanied by asking questions of investigated persons about, their life style and feeding after a nuclear incident. These data coincidently with data of radionuclides dynamic in the air and food (especially in milk products) are used for the development of radioiodine intake model and then for thyroid dose estimation. The influence of stable iodine prophylaxis and other countermeasures on values are discussed in dependence on the time of its using. Some methods of thyroid dose reconstruction used after the Chernobyl accident in Russia for a situation of thyroid radioiodine measurements lacking in a contaminated settlement are presented in the report. (author). 16 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  8. The principles of radioiodine dosimetry following a nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvonova, I A [Institute of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1996-08-01

    Based upon the experience of radioiodine dosimetry after the Chernobyl accident main principals of radioiodine measurements and dosimetry in thyroid glands of population in case of a radiation accident are discussed in the report. For the correct dose estimation following the radioiodine measurement in the thyroid one should know the ``history`` of radionuclide intake into the body of a contaminated person. So a measurement of radioiodine thyroid content should be accompanied by asking questions of investigated persons about, their life style and feeding after a nuclear incident. These data coincidently with data of radionuclides dynamic in the air and food (especially in milk products) are used for the development of radioiodine intake model and then for thyroid dose estimation. The influence of stable iodine prophylaxis and other countermeasures on values are discussed in dependence on the time of its using. Some methods of thyroid dose reconstruction used after the Chernobyl accident in Russia for a situation of thyroid radioiodine measurements lacking in a contaminated settlement are presented in the report. (author). 16 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs.

  9. Dosimetry; La dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Couteulx, I.; Apretna, D.; Beaugerie, M.F. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    Eight articles treat the dosimetry. Two articles evaluate the radiation doses in specific cases, dosimetry of patients in radiodiagnosis, three articles are devoted to detectors (neutrons and x and gamma radiations) and a computer code to build up the dosimetry of an accident due to an external exposure. (N.C.)

  10. Thermoluminescent measurement in space radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Mei; Qi Zhangnian; Li Xianggao; Huang Zengxin; Jia Xianghong; Wang Genliang

    1999-01-01

    The author introduced the space radiation environment and the application of thermoluminescent measurement in space radiation dosimetry. Space ionization radiation is charged particles radiation. Space radiation dosimetry was developed for protecting astronauts against space radiation. Thermoluminescent measurement is an excellent method used in the spaceship cabin. Also the authors mentioned the recent works here

  11. Personnel radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The book contains the 21 technical papers presented at the Technical Committee Meeting to Elaborate Procedures and Data for the Intercomparison of Personnel Dosimeters organizaed by the IAEA on 22-26 April 1985. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. A list of areas in which additional research and development work is needed and recommendations for an IAEA-sponsored intercomparison program on personnel dosimetry is also included

  12. Historical aspects of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Ricks, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation accidents are extremely rare events; however, the last two years have witnessed the largest radiation accidents in both the eastern and western hemispheres. It is the purpose of this chapter to review how radiation accidents are categorized, examine the temporal changes in frequency and severity, give illustrative examples of several types of radiation accidents, and finally, to describe the various registries for radiation accidents

  13. Dosimetry standards for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, H. IV

    1999-01-01

    For irradiation treatments to be reproducible in the laboratory and then in the commercial environment, and for products to have certified absorbed doses, standardized dosimetry techniques are needed. This need is being satisfied by standards being developed by experts from around the world under the auspices of Subcommittee E10.01 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). In the time period since it was formed in 1984, the subcommittee has grown to 150 members from 43 countries, representing a broad cross-section of industry, government and university interests. With cooperation from other international organizations, it has taken the combined part-time effort of all these people more than 13 years to complete 24 dosimetry standards. Four are specifically for food irradiation or agricultural applications, but the majority apply to all forms of gamma, x-ray, Bremsstrahlung and electron beam radiation processing, including dosimetry for sterilization of health care products and the radiation processing of fruits, vegetables, meats, spices, processed foods, plastics, inks, medical wastes and paper. An additional 6 standards are under development. Most of the standards provide exact procedures for using individual dosimetry systems or for characterizing various types of irradiation facilities, but one covers the selection and calibration of dosimetry systems, and another covers the treatment of uncertainties. Together, this set of standards covers essentially all aspects of dosimetry for radiation processing. The first 20 of these standards have been adopted in their present form by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), and will be published by ISO in 1999. (author)

  14. Metabolism in tooth enamel and reliability of retrospective EPR dosimetry connected with Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brik, A.; Radchuk, V.; Scherbina, O.; Matyash, M.; Gaver, O.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that the results of retrospective EPR dosimetry by tooth enamel are essentially determined by the fact that tooth enamel is the mineral of biological origin. The structure of tooth enamel, properties of radiation defects and the role of metabolism in tooth enamel are discussed. It is shown that at deep metamorphic modifications tooth enamel don't save information about its radiation history. The reliability and accuracy of retrospective EPR dosimetry are discussed. Because after Chernobyl accident have passed 10 years the application of tooth enamel for reconstruction of doses which are connected with Chernobyl accident need care and additional investigations

  15. Reconstructive dosimetry and radiation doses evaluation of members of the public due to radiological accident in industrial radiography; Dosimetria reconstrutiva e avaliacao de dose de individuos do publico devido a acidente radiologico em radiografia industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Camila Moreira Araujo de

    2016-07-01

    Radiological accidents have occurred mainly in the practices recognized as high risk radiological and classified by the IAEA as Categories 1 and 2, and highlighted the radiotherapy, industrial irradiators and industrial radiography. In Brazil, since there were five major cases in industrial radiography, which involved 7 radiation workers and 19 members of the public, causing localized radiation lesions on the hands and fingers. One of these accidents will be the focus of this work. In this accident, a {sup 192}Ir radioactive source was exposed for more than 8 hours in the workplace inside a company, exposing radiation workers, individuals of the public and people from the surrounding facilities, including children of a school. The radioactive source was also handled by a security worker causing severe radiation injuries in the hand and fingers. In this paper, the most relevant and used techniques of reconstructive dosimetry internationally are presented. To estimate the radiation doses received by exposed individuals in various scenarios of radiological accident in focus, the following computer codes were used: Visual Monte Carlo Dose Calculation (VMC), Virtual Environment for Radiological and Nuclear Accidents Simulation (AVSAR) and RADPRO Calculator. Through these codes some radiation doses were estimated, such as, 33.90 Gy in security worker's finger, 4.47 mSv in children in the school and 55 to 160 mSv for workers in the company during the whole day work. It is intended that this work will contribute to the improvement of dose reconstruction methodology for radiological accidents, having then more realist radiation doses. (author)

  16. Alpha alumina exoemissive and thermoluminescent properties. Application to the dosimetry of ionizing radiations in case of accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandri, M.F.

    1989-06-01

    This work consists of two parts. In the first part, a phenomenon of phototransfer in Thermostimulated Exoelectronic Emission (T.S.E.E.) is pointed out. Study of intrinsic T.S.E.E. of alpha alumina exposed to ultraviolet (U.V.) excitation of energy superior to 4 eV shows three T.S.E.E. peaks situated at 240, 325, 535 0 C (heating rate of 2 0 C.s -1 ). The phototransfer phenomenon is then characterized notably by the lowering of the U.V. excitation threshold to 3.5 eV and the increasing of T.S.E.E. response for U.V. energies between 3.5 and 6 eV. Discussion and interpretation of the results obtained are based on the perfect analogy with the phototransfer of Thermoluminescence (T.L.) observed on a similar type of alpha alumina. The second part describes the application of alpha alumina dosimetric properties to accidental irradiation dosimetry and cartography. The material is bound to a textile support to be used for clothes manufacturing for irradiation risking workers. T.S.E.E. and T.L. properties of the selected fabric have been studied. - T.S.E.E. response to a beta irradiation of strontium 90 covers the region [0.01 - 10 Gy], with a dispersion of ± 20%, a non significant thermic fading beyond 72 hours after irradiation and a very important optical fading; - the region in T.L. extends from 0.25 to 10 Gy with X irradiation (45 kV) and from 0.5 to 10 Gy with gamma irradiation of cobalt 60 and caesium 137; the dispersion is ± 20%, the thermic fading is weak and the optical fading is negligible in artificial light or does not vary any more after 5 days of sunlight exposition [fr

  17. Radiation dosimetry in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabin, M.G.; Tagesson, M.; Ljungberg, M.; Strand, S.E.; Thomas, S.R.

    1999-01-01

    Radionuclides are used in nuclear medicine in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. A knowledge of the radiation dose received by different organs in the body is essential to an evaluation of the risks and benefits of any procedure. In this paper, current methods for internal dosimetry are reviewed, as they are applied in nuclear medicine. Particularly, the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) system for dosimetry is explained, and many of its published resources discussed. Available models representing individuals of different age and gender, including those representing the pregnant woman are described; current trends in establishing models for individual patients are also evaluated. The proper design of kinetic studies for establishing radiation doses for radiopharmaceuticals is discussed. An overview of how to use information obtained in a dosimetry study, including that of the effective dose equivalent (ICRP 30) and effective dose (ICRP 60), is given. Current trends and issues in internal dosimetry, including the calculation of patient-specific doses and in the use of small scale and microdosimetry techniques, are also reviewed

  18. Care of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renz, K.

    1983-01-01

    The small probability of a serious radiation accident happening dispenses neither the plants where radiation exposure occurs nor the employers' liability insurance associations from their obligation to make provision for such cases. On the other hand, the efforts involved in such preventive measures must be kept within reasonable limits. As a result of these considerations a concept for taking care of radiation accidents was developed that is based on already existing institutions. The most attention was demanded by questions of organization, logistics, communication and information. The syndrome appearing after acute whole-body irradiation is known. This syndrome in its different stages and the relative therapeutic measures form the basis for the organization of the care of radiation accidents. (orig./MG) [de

  19. 11. International conference on solid radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krylova, I.V.

    1996-01-01

    The main problems discussed during the international conference on solid radiation dosimetry which took place in June 1995 in Budapest are briefly considered. These are the basic physical processes, materials applied for dosimetry, special techniques, personnel monitoring, monitoring of environmental effects, large-dose dosimetry, clinic dosimetry, track detector used for dosimetry, dosimetry in archaeology and geology, equipment and technique for dosimetric measurements. The special attention was paid to superlinearity in the TLD-100 (LiF, Mg, Ti) response function when determining doses of gamma radiation, heavy charged particles, low-energy particle fluxes in particular. New theoretical models were considered

  20. Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H. [eds.

    1991-10-01

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database.

  1. Review of retrospective dosimetry techniques for external ionising radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsbury, E. A.; Bakhanova, E.; Barquinero, J. F.; Brai, M.; Chumak, V.; Correcher, V.; Darroudi, F.; Fattibene, P.; Gruel, G.; Guclu, I.; Horn, S.; Jaworska, A.; Kulka, U.; Lindholm, C.; Lloyd, D.; Longo, A.; Marrale, M.; Monteiro Gil, O.; Oestreicher, U.; Pajic, J.; Rakic, B.; Romm, H.; Trompier, F.; Veronese, I.; Voisin, P.; Vral, A.; Whitehouse, C. A.; Wieser, A.; Woda, C.; Wojcik, A.; Rothkamm, K.

    2011-01-01

    The current focus on networking and mutual assistance in the management of radiation accidents or incidents has demonstrated the importance of a joined-up approach in physical and biological dosimetry. To this end, the European Radiation Dosimetry Working Group 10 on 'Retrospective Dosimetry' has been set up by individuals from a wide range of disciplines across Europe. Here, established and emerging dosimetry methods are reviewed, which can be used immediately and retrospectively following external ionising radiation exposure. Endpoints and assays include dicentrics, translocations, premature chromosome condensation, micronuclei, somatic mutations, gene expression, electron paramagnetic resonance, thermoluminescence, optically stimulated luminescence, neutron activation, haematology, protein biomarkers and analytical dose reconstruction. Individual characteristics of these techniques, their limitations and potential for further development are reviewed, and their usefulness in specific exposure scenarios is discussed. Whilst no single technique fulfils the criteria of an ideal dosemeter, an integrated approach using multiple techniques tailored to the exposure scenario can cover most requirements. (authors)

  2. Proceedings of the third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Casson, W.H.

    1991-10-01

    The Third Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 21--24, 1991, at the Sheraton Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection, and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To meet these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical session included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, accident dosimetry, regulations and standards, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. Individual reports are processed separately on the database

  3. Techniques for radiation measurements: Micro-dosimetry and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waker, A. J.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental Micro-dosimetry is concerned with the determination of radiation quality and how this can be specified in terms of the distribution of energy deposition arising from the interaction of a radiation field with a particular target site. This paper discusses various techniques that have been developed to measure radiation energy deposition over the three orders of magnitude of site-size; nano-meter, micrometer and millimetre, which radiation biology suggests is required to fully account for radiation quality. Inevitably, much of the discussion will concern the use of tissue-equivalent proportional counters and variants of this device, but other technologies that have been studied, or are under development, for their potential in experimental Micro-dosimetry are also covered. Through an examination of some of the quantities used in radiation metrology and dosimetry the natural link with Micro-dosimetric techniques will be shown and the particular benefits of using Micro-dosimetric methods for dosimetry illustrated. (authors)

  4. DRDC Ottawa Participation in the SILENE Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison Exercise. June 10-21, 2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prud'homme-Lalonde, L

    2002-01-01

    .... The SILENE International Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison Exercise at Valduc, France in June 2002 coincided with DRDC Ottawa work designed to refine its proposed criticality dosimetry system...

  5. Radiation protection dosimetry and calibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhavere, Ph.

    2007-01-01

    At the SCK-CEN different specialised services are delivered for a whole range of external and internal customers in the radiation protection area. For the expertise group of radiation protection dosimetry and calibrations, these services are organized in four different laboratories: dosimetry, anthropogammametry, nuclear calibrations and non-nuclear calibrations. The services are given by a dedicated technical staff who has experience in the handling of routine and specialised cases. The scientific research that is performed by the expertise group makes sure that state-of-the-art techniques are being used, and that constant improvements and developments are implemented. Quality Assurance is an important aspect for the different services, and accreditation according national and international standards is achieved for all laboratories

  6. Radiation accident in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheatley, J.

    1994-01-01

    In November 1992 a Vietnamese research physicist was working with a microtron accelerator when he received a radiation overexposure that required the subsequent amputation of his right hand. A team from the International Atomic Energy Agency visited Hanoi in March 1993 to carry out an investigation. It was concluded that the accident occurred primarily because of a lack of safety systems, although the lack of both written procedures and training in basic radiation safety were also major contributors. (author)

  7. Radiation Protection Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, H.M.; Schnuer, K.

    1992-01-01

    The contributions presented during the seminar provided clear evidence that radiation protection of the patient plays an increasingly important role for manufacturers of radiological equipment and for regulatory bodies, as well as for radiologists, doctors and assistants. The proceedings of this seminar reflect the activities and work in the field of radiation protection of the patient and initiate further action in order to harmonize dosimetric measurements and calculations, to ameliorate education and training, to improve the technical standards of the equipment and to give a push to a more effective use of ionising radiation in the medical sector

  8. Fifteenth nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison study: August 14--22, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, C.S.

    1979-05-01

    The fifteenth in the continuing series of Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison Studies was held August 14--22, 1978 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The Health Physics Research Reactor, operated in the pulse mode, served as the radiation source. Using different shielding configurations, nuclear accidents with three different neutron and gamma spectra were simulated. Participants from 19 organizations, the most in the history of the studies, exposed dosimeters set up as area monitors as well as dosimeters mounted on phantoms for personnel monitoring. Although many participants performed accurate measurements, the composite dose results, in the majority of cases, failed to meet established nuclear criticality accident dosimetry guidelines which suggest accuracies of +- 25% for neutron dose and +- 20% for gamma dose. This indicates that many participants need to improve their dosimetry systems, their analytical techniques, or both

  9. Techniques of radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahesk, K.

    1985-01-01

    A text and reference with an interdisciplinary approach to physics, atomic energy, radiochemistry, and radiobiology. Chapters examine basic principles, experimental techniques, the methodology of dose experiments, and applications. Treats 14 different dosimetric techniques, including ionization chamber, thermoluminescence, and lyoluminescence. Considers the conceptual aspects and characteristic features of radiation

  10. Space Radiation Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deme, S.

    2003-01-01

    Although partly protected from galactic and solar cosmic radiation by the Earth's magnetosphere in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) astronauts exposure levels during long-term missions (90 days to 180 days) by far exceed with exposures of up to more than 100 mSv the annual exposure limits set for workers in the nuclear industry, but are still below the yearly exposure limits of 500 mSv for NASA astronauts. During solar particle events the short-term limits (300 mSv) may be approached or even exceeded. In the interplanetary space, outside the Earth's magnetic field even relatively benign Solar Particle Events (SPEs) can produce 1 Sv skin-absorbed doses. Although new rocket technologies could reduce astronauts' total exposure to space radiation during a human Mars mission, the time required for the mission, which is now in the order of years. Therefore mission planners will need to consider a variety of countermeasures for the crew members including physical protection (e.g. shelters), active protection (e.g. magnetic protection), pharmacological protection, local protection (extra protection for critical areas of the body) etc. With full knowledge of these facts, accurate personal dose measurement will become increasingly important during human missions to Mars. The new dose limits for radiation workers correspond to excess lifetime risk of 3% (NCRP) and 4% (ICRP). While astronauts accept the whole variety of flight risks they are taking in mission, there is concern about risks that may occur later in life. A risk no greater than the risk of radiation workers would be acceptable. (author)

  11. Radiation accident/disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kida, Yoshiko; Hirohashi, Nobuyuki; Tanigawa, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Described are the course of medical measures following Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) Accident after the quake and tsunami (Mar. 11, 2011) and the future task for radiation accident/disaster. By the first hydrogen explosion in FNPP (Mar. 12), evacuation of residents within 20 km zone was instructed, and the primary base for measures of nuclear disaster (Off-site Center) 5 km afar from FNPP had to work as a front base because of damage of communicating ways, of saving of injured persons and of elevation of dose. On Mar. 13, the medical arrangement council consisting from stuff of Fukushima Medical University (FMU), National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Safety Research Association and Prefectural officers was setup in residents' hall of Fukushima City, and worked for correspondence to persons injured or exposed, where communication about radiation and between related organizations was still poor. The Off-site Center's head section moved to Prefectural Office on Mar. 15 as headquarters. Early in the period, all residents evacuated from the 20 km zone, and in-hospital patients and nursed elderly were transported with vehicles, >50 persons of whom reportedly died mainly by their base diseases. The nation system of medicare for emergent exposure had consisted from the network of the primary to third facilities; there were 5 facilities in the Prefecture, 3 of which were localized at 4-9 km distance from FNPP and closed early after the Accident; and the secondary facility of FMU became responsible to all exposed persons. There was no death of workers of FNPP. Medical stuff also measured the ambient dose at various places near FNPP, having had risk of exposure. At the Accident, the important system of command, control and communication was found fragile and measures hereafter should be planned on assumption of the worst scenario of complete damage of the infrastructure and communication. It is desirable for Disaster Medical Assistance Team which

  12. Detectors for radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1979-09-01

    For our purposes in this review, we note the following points: (1) for charged particle detection, these counters can be filled with any noble gas-quenching gas mixture that produces satisfactory electrical signals; (2) neutron counters, in which the neutrons are detected by their interaction with the specific filling of the chamber to yield an ionizing particle, require special gas mixtures containing /sup 3/He or BF/sub 3/, an alternative approach is to coat the inner surface of the cathode with a boron or lithium compound; (3) proportional counters are used if there is any need to discriminate between different types of radiation incident on the chamber by the magnitude of the ionizing energy retained within the sensitive volume of the counter; (4) proportional counters can operate at higher speeds than Geiger counters, typically up to 10/sup 7/ cts/sec versus less than 10/sup 5//sec for the Geiger counters; and (5) Geiger counters produce very large uniform pulses which can be scaled by very simple electronics, hence, they are often used in survey meters and other portable monitoring instruments.

  13. Computational methods in several fields of radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paretzke, Herwig G.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Radiation dosimetry has to cope with a wide spectrum of applications and requirements in time and size. The ubiquitous presence of various radiation fields or radionuclides in the human home, working, urban or agricultural environment can lead to various dosimetric tasks starting from radioecology, retrospective and predictive dosimetry, personal dosimetry, up to measurements of radionuclide concentrations in environmental and food product and, finally in persons and their excreta. In all these fields measurements and computational models for the interpretation or understanding of observations are employed explicitly or implicitly. In this lecture some examples of own computational models will be given from the various dosimetric fields, including a) Radioecology (e.g. with the code systems based on ECOSYS, which was developed far before the Chernobyl reactor accident, and tested thoroughly afterwards), b) Internal dosimetry (improved metabolism models based on our own data), c) External dosimetry (with the new ICRU-ICRP-Voxelphantom developed by our lab), d) Radiation therapy (with GEANT IV as applied to mixed reactor radiation incident on individualized voxel phantoms), e) Some aspects of nanodosimetric track structure computations (not dealt with in the other presentation of this author). Finally, some general remarks will be made on the high explicit or implicit importance of computational models in radiation protection and other research field dealing with large systems, as well as on good scientific practices which should generally be followed when developing and applying such computational models

  14. Radiation Litigation and Internal Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation Litigation refers to those lawsuits filed by individuals who claim to have been injured by some past exposure to ionizing radiation. Law classifies these cases as personal injury or tort cases. However, they are a new breed of such cases and the law is presently struggling with whether these cases can be resolved using the traditional methods of legal analysis or whether new forms of analysis, such as probability of causation, need to be applied. There are no absolutely certain rules concerning how these particular lawsuits will be tried and analyzed. The United States presently is defending cases filed by approximately 7000 plaintiffs. The private nuclear industry is defending cases filed by over 2000 plaintiffs. While not all of these cases will actually be tried on their merits, at least some will and internal dosimetry will play a very important part in many of these trials

  15. International Intercomparison Exercise for Nuclear Accident Dosimetry at the DAF Using GODIVA-IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, David [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hudson, Becka [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Program operated under the direction of Dr. Jerry McKamy completed the first NNSA Nuclear Accident Dosimetry exercise on May 27, 2016. Participants in the exercise were from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), Savanah River Site (SRS), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), US Navy, the Atomic Weapons Establishment (United Kingdom) under the auspices of JOWOG 30, and the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (France) by special invitation and NCSP memorandum of understanding. This exercise was the culmination of a series of Integral Experiment Requests (IER) that included the establishment of the Nuclear Criticality Experimental Research Center, (NCERC) the startup of the Godiva Reactor (IER-194), the establishment of a the Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Laboratory (NAD LAB) in Mercury, NV, and the determination of reference dosimetry values for the mixed neutron and photon radiation field of Godiva within NCERC.

  16. Rational system of radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, K.; Tada, J.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation doses are the most important subject to the sciences relating to the effects of ionizing radiation on matter. Since any science at all must stand on the quantitative description of causality, uses of physical quantities as the measures are indispensable. The current system of radiation dosimetry is built on the fundamental dose of the absorbed dose, which is defined as the 'energy imparted' density, and for practical convenience various weighted absorbed doses are introduced as subsidiary. However, it has been pointed out that these quantities lack adequacy inherently as a measure of causes, in addition to the insufficiency of the specification of the concept. Firstly, separation of the quantities of radiation field and of the dose is not possible, since both quantities are deeply related to the same microscopic constituents, i.e., electrons. Secondly, the value of the absorbed dose cannot be fixed at the moment of irradiation. Since the absorbed dose is a quantity of interaction product of radiation and matter, the values of the dose cannot be fixed instantaneously. Thirdly, it is not easy to envision the physical entity of the quantity from the definition. The form of existence of the 'imparted' energy is not clear in the current definition. These defects can not be removed as long as an interaction product is adopted as the dose quantity. In this paper, the authors present a prescription to solve these problems. (author)

  17. 1983 international intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimetry systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaja, R.E.; Greene, R.T.; Sims, C.S.

    1985-04-01

    An international intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimetry systems was conducted during September 12-16, 1983, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using the Health Physics Research Reactor operated in the pulse mode to simulate criticality accidents. This study marked the twentieth in a series of annual accident dosimetry intercomparisons conducted at ORNL. Participants from ten organizations attended this intercomparison and measured neutron and gamma doses at area monitoring stations and on phantoms for three different shield conditions. Results of this study indicate that foil activation techniques are the most popular and accurate method of determining accident-level neutron doses at area monitoring stations. For personnel monitoring, foil activation, blood sodium activation, and thermoluminescent (TL) methods are all capable of providing accurate dose estimates in a variety of radiation fields. All participants in this study used TLD's to determine gamma doses with very good results on the average. Chemical dosemeters were also shown to be capable of yielding accurate estimates of total neutron plus gamma doses in a variety of radiation fields. While 83% of all neutron measurements satisfied regulatory standards relative to reference values, only 39% of all gamma results satisfied corresponding guidelines for gamma measurements. These results indicate that continued improvement in accident dosimetry evaluation and measurement techniques is needed

  18. Research Laboratory of Mixed Radiation Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    determined as a product H = D·Q of the absorbed dose, D, and radiation quality factor, Q, both determined by the recombination chamber. The chambers can be used for determination of dose equivalents of any external radiation, therefore also in neutron and neutron-gamma fields. REFERENCE NEUTRON FIELDS Standard neutron fields, traceable to primary standard laboratory (NPL, Great Britain) were established at the Institute of Atomic Energy almost ten years ago. The fields are formed by calibrated sources of 252 Cf and 241 Am-Be. Additionally, spherical filters made of iron or paraffin can be used for modification of the neutron spectrum and gamma component of absorbed dose. The fields are used mostly for research work but they also serve as only one in Poland facility suitable for calibration of neutron dose meters used in radiation protection. Maintenance of the fields includes some periodic measurements of the dosimetric parameters, improvements of the measuring methods and international intercomparisons. RESEARCH ON INTERNAL DOSIMETRY - Two research projects were carried out in 2001-evaluation of the data on intake of radiocesium after the Chernobyl accident and research on calibration of thyroid counter with regard to depth of thyroid gland. The second of the projects can be applied not only for radiation protection but also for improvement of measurements of iodine uptake in thyroid after diagnostic administration of 131 I. (author)

  19. Requirements for the approval of dosimetry services under the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985: Pt. 1: External radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Guidance for dosimetry services on the requirements for approval by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is provided in three parts. This part sets out the procedures and criteria that will be used by HSE in the assessment of dosimetry services seeking approval in relation to external radiations (including accidents). (author)

  20. Advanced materials in radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Bruzzi, M; Nava, F; Pini, S; Russo, S

    2002-01-01

    High band-gap semiconductor materials can represent good alternatives to silicon in relative dosimetry. Schottky diodes made with epitaxial n-type 4 H SiC and Chemical Vapor Deposited diamond films with ohmic contacts have been exposed to a sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma-source, 20 MeV electrons and 6 MV X photons from a linear accelerator to test the current response in on-line configuration in the dose range 0.1-10 Gy. The released charge as a function of the dose and the radiation-induced current as a function of the dose-rate are found to be linear. No priming effects have been observed using epitaxial SiC, due to the low density of lattice defects present in this material.

  1. Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance of irradiated nails: challenges for a dosimetry in radiation accidents; Ressonancia Paramagnetica Eletronica de unhas irradiadas: desafios para uma dosimetria em acidentes radiologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannoni, Ricardo A., E-mail: giannoni@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rodrigues Junior, Orlando [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize samples of human nails exposed to high doses of radiation, applying the technique of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). The objective is to establish a dose response study that allow determine the absorbed dose by exposed individuals in situations of radiological accidents, in a retrospective form. Samples of human nails were collected and afterward irradiated with gamma radiation, and received dose of 20 Gy. The EPR measurement performed on the samples, before irradiation, permitted the signal identification of the components associated with effects caused by the mechanical stress during the fingernail cutting, the so-called mechanically induced signal (MIS). After the irradiation, different species of free radicals were identified, the so-called radiation induced signal (RIS). (author)

  2. Ionizing radiations, detection, dosimetry, spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, D.

    1997-10-01

    A few works in French language are devoted to the detection of radiations. The purpose of this book is to fill a gap.The five first chapters are devoted to the properties of ionizing radiations (x rays, gamma rays, leptons, hadrons, nuclei) and to their interactions with matter. The way of classification of detectors is delicate and is studied in the chapter six. In the chapter seven are studied the statistics laws for counting and the spectrometry of particles is treated. The chapters eight to thirteen study the problems of ionization: charges transport in a gas, ionization chambers (theory of Boag), counters and proportional chambers, counters with 'streamers', chambers with derive, spark detectors, ionization chambers in liquid medium, Geiger-Mueller counters. The use of a luminous signal is the object of the chapters 14 to 16: conversion of a luminous signal in an electric signal, scintillators, use of the Cerenkov radiation. Then, we find the neutron detection with the chapter seventeen and the dosimetry of particles in the chapter eighteen. This book does not pretend to answer to specialists questions but can be useful to physicians, engineers or physics teachers. (N.C.)

  3. VIII. national symposium on radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    The publication contains abstracts of 107 contributions, dealing mainly with general problems of radiation dosimetry and with its practical applications, particularly in nuclear power industry and in medicine. (Z.M.)

  4. OSL and TL of Resistors of Mobile Phones for Retrospective Accident Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. L.; Pradhan, A. S.; Chang, I.; Kim, B. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) of ubiquitous materials continue to draw wider attention for individual dosimetry in nuclear and radiation accidents. Use of ubiquitous objects for radiation dosimetry is preferred because the affected persons in such unexpected events are usually not covered by personal dosimetry services and do not carry personal dosimeters. Often accident sites do not have area monitoring system in place. As the main concern of the dosimetry is health effects, a quick distinction of level of exposures of the affected persons for the required medical care becomes important in all accidents involving radiation. Both in large scale nuclear accidents such Fukushima, Chernobyl or Hiroshima and Nagasaki where large population around the accident site get exposed to radiation (evacuation is based on doses) and in smaller but panicky events, such as misuse of radiological exposure device (RED), radiological dispersive device (RDD: 'Dirty Bomb'), improvised nuclear device (IND) and deliberate dispersal of radioactive contaminants, a need for an ubiquitous personal dosimeter is well recognized. As biological dosimetry systems are yet to become viable for measurements of doses with required accuracy and speed, use of physical dosimeters is often explored. Among the various types of physical dosimetry systems, use of TL and OSL by processing common material such as bricks or tiles and measuring the doses cumulated for long periods of time has already become an accepted tool for large scale nuclear accidents such as Hiroshima and Nagasaki or Chernobyl involving higher doses. In the other potential cases of unexpected situations where the doses encountered could be much lower (even to escape the range of remotely installed area monitors), the need to measure even the low doses in shortest possible time becomes important. It is often realized that in such situations, the main problem could become the panic at the

  5. OSL and TL of Resistors of Mobile Phones for Retrospective Accident Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. L.; Pradhan, A. S.; Chang, I.; Kim, B. H.

    2012-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) of ubiquitous materials continue to draw wider attention for individual dosimetry in nuclear and radiation accidents. Use of ubiquitous objects for radiation dosimetry is preferred because the affected persons in such unexpected events are usually not covered by personal dosimetry services and do not carry personal dosimeters. Often accident sites do not have area monitoring system in place. As the main concern of the dosimetry is health effects, a quick distinction of level of exposures of the affected persons for the required medical care becomes important in all accidents involving radiation. Both in large scale nuclear accidents such Fukushima, Chernobyl or Hiroshima and Nagasaki where large population around the accident site get exposed to radiation (evacuation is based on doses) and in smaller but panicky events, such as misuse of radiological exposure device (RED), radiological dispersive device (RDD: 'Dirty Bomb'), improvised nuclear device (IND) and deliberate dispersal of radioactive contaminants, a need for an ubiquitous personal dosimeter is well recognized. As biological dosimetry systems are yet to become viable for measurements of doses with required accuracy and speed, use of physical dosimeters is often explored. Among the various types of physical dosimetry systems, use of TL and OSL by processing common material such as bricks or tiles and measuring the doses cumulated for long periods of time has already become an accepted tool for large scale nuclear accidents such as Hiroshima and Nagasaki or Chernobyl involving higher doses. In the other potential cases of unexpected situations where the doses encountered could be much lower (even to escape the range of remotely installed area monitors), the need to measure even the low doses in shortest possible time becomes important. It is often realized that in such situations, the main problem could become the panic at the work place

  6. Introduction to radiological physics and radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Attix, Frank Herbert

    2004-01-01

    A straightforward presentation of the broad concepts underlying radiological physics and radiation dosimetry for the graduate-level student. Covers photon and neutron attenuation, radiation and charged particle equilibrium, interactions of photons and charged particles with matter, radiotherapy dosimetry, as well as photographic, calorimetric, chemical, and thermoluminescence dosimetry. Includes many new derivations, such as Kramers X-ray spectrum, as well as topics that have not been thoroughly analyzed in other texts, such as broad-beam attenuation and geometrics, and the reciprocity theorem

  7. The program of international intercomparison of accident dosimetry; Le programme d'intercomparaison internationale de dosimetrie d'accident 10-12 juin 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    The French institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN) has carried out in June 2002 an international intercomparison program for the testing of the physical and biological accident dosimetry techniques. The intercomparison is jointly organized by the IRSN and the OECD-NEA with the sustain of the European commission and the collaboration of the CEA centre of Valduc (France). About 30 countries have participated to this program. Each country has supplied its own dosimeters and biological samples which have been irradiated using the Silene reactor of CEA-Valduc or a {sup 60}Co source. These experiments allow to test the new dosimetric techniques that have been developed since the previous intercomparison program (1993) and to confirm or improve the performances of older techniques. Aside from the intercomparison exercise, this report makes a status of the known radiological accidents and of the effects of high doses of ionizing radiations on human health (symptoms, therapeutics). It explains the phenomenology of criticality accidents, the prevention means, and the history of such accidents up to the Tokai-Mura one in 1999. Finally, the dosimetry of criticality is presented with its physical and biological techniques. (J.S.)

  8. Nuclear accident dosimetry, Report on the Third IAEA intercomparison experiment at Vinca, Yugoslavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-15

    The objective of this report is to present the results of the third IAEA intercomparison experiment held at the Boris Kidric Institute, Vinca, in May 1973. These experiments were a part of multi laboratory intercomparison programme sponsored by the IAEA for evaluation of nuclear accident dosimetry systems that ought to provide adequate information in the event of criticality accidents. This report deals with the data concerning the Third intercomparison experiments in which the RB reactor at Vinca was used as a source of mixed radiation.

  9. Research and innovation in radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, A.

    1999-01-01

    In this article some relevant lines of research in radiation dosimetry are presented. In some of them innovative approaches have been recently proposed in recent years. In others innovation is still to come as it is necessary in view of the insufficiency of the actual methods and techniques. mention is made to Thermoluminescence Dosimetry an to the improvement produced by new computational methods for the analysis of the usually complex TL signals. A solid state dosimetric technique recently proposed, Optically Stimulated Luminescence, OSL, is briefly presented. This technique promises advantages over TLD for personal and environmental dosimetry. The necessity of improving the measurement characteristics of neutron personal dosemeters is commented, making reference to some very recent developments. The situation of the dosimetry in connection with radiobiology research is overviewed, commenting the controversy on the adequacy and utility of the quality absorbed dose for these activities. Finally the special problematic of internal dosimetry is discussed. (Author) 25 refs

  10. Patient treatment in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanum, G.; Bruland, Oe.S.; Hjelle, D.; Reitan, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    Accidental human injury due to ionizing radiation is rare. Industrial accidents are comparatively the most common. Life saving procedures should always have priority to any concern about radiation injury or contamination. The personal risks for emergency medial personnel is negligible when simple measures are taken. Repeated clinical examinations and blood lymphocyte counts should be performed on all patients with suspected radiation injury to allow a diagnosis. The radiation syndrome develops within days or weeks depending on total radiation dose, dose rate and dose distribution. Damage to the bone marrow and gut are the most important. Local radiation injuries to the hands are common in industrial accidents. The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority should always be called when a potential ionizing radiation accident takes place within Norway

  11. Neutron personal dosimetry in criticality accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, E.S. da; Mauricio, C.L.P.

    1996-01-01

    In the present work an innovating method is proposed to estimate the absorbed dose received by individuals irradiated with neutrons in an accident, even in the case that the victim is not using any kind of neutron dosemeter. The method combines direct measurements of 24 Na and 32 P activated in the human body. The calculation method was developed using data taken from previously published papers and experimental measurements. Other irradiations results in different neutron spectra prove the validity of the method here proposed. Using a whole body counter to measure 24 Na activity, it is possible to evaluate neutron absorbed doses in the order of 140 μ Gy of very soft (thermal) spectra. For fast neutron fields, the lower limit for neutron dose detection increases, but the present method continues to be very useful in accidents, with higher neutron doses. (author)

  12. Using soils for accident dosimetry: a preliminary study using optically stimulated luminescence from quartz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fujita, Hiroki; Jain, Mayank; Murray, Andrew S.

    2011-01-01

    . The objective was to assess the potential of SAROSL dosimetry using soils for retrospective assessment of a radiation accident. Variation in dose with depth was also measured. The SAR data showed good reproducibility and dose recovery, and there was no evidence of fading of the quartz signal based on “delayed......” dose recovery experiments. The minimum detection limit (MDL) dose was about 0.1Gy. The dose dependence was measured using both the above SAR OSL protocol as well as a SAR thermoluminescence (TL, violet emission) protocol. The background doses were generally in the range of the MDL to several Gy......, and no clear trend in dose depth profile was observed. From these results, we conclude that SAR OSL dosimetry using natural quartz extracted from soil could be used to evaluate the dose of an accident....

  13. Medical aspects of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerschmidt, O.

    1990-01-01

    Reactor accidents and nuclear bomb explosions are compared including the release of radioactivity in an accident, results of risk studies, emergency measures of nuclear power plants, and evacuation of the population. The medical aspects refer to the prophylaxies of the thyroid gland, contamination and decontamination of body surfaces, recommendations of the ICRP, radiation injury after total body exposure and medical problems after a reactor accident. (DG)

  14. Accuracy Requirements in Medical Radiation Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreo, P.

    2011-01-01

    The need for adopting unambiguous terminology on 'accuracy in medical radiation dosimetry' which is consistent with international recommendations for metrology is emphasized. Uncertainties attainable, or the need for improving their estimates, are analysed for the fields of radiotherapy, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine dosimetry. This review centres on uncertainties related to the first step of the dosimetry chain in the three fields, which in all cases involves the use of a detector calibrated by a standards laboratory to determine absorbed dose, air kerma or activity under reference conditions in a clinical environment. (author)

  15. On the radiation dosimetry in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doke, Tadayoshi

    2005-01-01

    The radiation dosimetry in space is considerably different from that on the earth surface, because, on the earth surface, the quality factor for radiation is roughly given for its energy but, in space, it is defined as a continuous function of LET. Thus, the contribution to the dose equivalent from heavy charged particles included in galactic cosmic rays is more than 50%, because of their high LET values. To evaluate such dose equivalent within an uncertainty of 30%, we must determine the true LET distribution. This paper describes the essence of such a new radiation dosimetry in space. (author)

  16. Dosimetry and process control for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mod Ali, N.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Accurate radiation dosimetry can provide quality assurance in radiation processing. Considerable relevant experiences in dosimetry by the SSDL-MINT has necessitate the development of methods making measurement at gamma plant traceable to the national standard. It involves the establishment of proper calibration procedure and selection of appropriate transfer system/technique to assure adequate traceability to a primary radiation standard. The effort forms the basis for irradiation process control, the legal approval of the process by the public health authorities (medical product sterilization and food preservation) and the safety and acceptance of the product

  17. Judicial autopsy of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses issues regarding the judicial autopsy of radiation accidents. In the litigation which follows a radiation accident, a claimant calls on the legal system to adjudicate a dispute. Scientific questions are thrust upon the court. The legal system (through attorneys for the parties) then invites scientists to assist the court in resolving such questions. The invitation, however, does not allow the scientist to bring along his full kit. Experimentation, such as repeating the accident with dosimeters to gather more accurate data, is generally not allowed. Also, the scientist must give up his practice of choosing which questions he will pursue

  18. New materials for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madatov, R.S.; Necefov, A.I.; Qabulov, I.A.; Seferova, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The utilization of nuclear energy and beginning the production of radioactive nuclides are the reasons for radiation safety problems actualization. As a result of this, a new specific peculiar properties such as environmental, psychological, biological and etc. that are originated due to radioactive irradiation have been observed. Dosimetric equipment is used with the purpose of environmental protection, radiation detection, radiation safety assessment and distribution of information. The principle of operation of this equipment is based on the ionization effect. However, the equipment is differed one from another by the registration method. The main imperfections of dosimetric equipment are a narrowness of irradiation range as well as small values of energy sensitivity and stability. Taking into account of all above-stated imperfections, the obtaining of a new radiation-resistant materials and production of modern dosimetric detectors on their basis are one of the actual problems in dosimetry. At present the detectors on the basis of semiconductor materials such as Ge, Si, CdTe, CdS and etc. are widespread. Their principle of operation is also based on the ionization process, but the mechanism of its is differ from gas detectors. It is connected with that the carrier mobility for electrons in semiconductors is varied from 1400 up to 4000 cm 2 /(V·sec), and for holes from 400 up to 2000 cm 2 /(V·sec). It provides high level of detection for detectors on the basis of semiconductors. Initial conductivity of semiconductors differs one from another and it restricts the efficiency of detectors. The investigations on two directions have been carried out by this reason. The first direction is the increasing of radiation resistance of existing materials. The second direction is the obtaining of a new materials with high radiation resistance. It is known that the laminated materials on the basis of tellurium, for instance TeInS 2 are high sensitivity to X-radiation

  19. Medical radiation dosimetry with radiochromic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butson, M.J.; Cancer Services, NSW; Cheung, T.; Yu, P.K.N.; Metcalfe, P.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Photon, electron and proton radiation are used extensively for medical purposes in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Dosimetry of these radiation sources can be performed with radiochromic films, devices that have the ability to produce a permanent visible colour change upon irradiation. Within the last ten years, the use of radiochromic films has expanded rapidly in the medical world due to commercial products becoming more readily available, higher sensitivity films and technology advances in imaging which have allowed scientists to use two-dimensional dosimetry more accurately and inexpensively. Radiochromic film dosimeters are now available in formats, which have accurate dose measurement ranges from less than 1 Gy up to many kGy. A relatively energy independent dose response combined with automatic development of radiochromic film products has made these detectors most useful in medical radiation dosimetry. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  20. Individual Dosimetry for High Energy Radiation Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.

    1999-01-01

    The exposure of individuals on board aircraft increased interest in individual dosimetry in high energy radiation fields. These fields, both in the case of cosmic rays as primary radiation and at high energy particle accelerators are complex, with a large diversity of particle types, their energies, and linear energy transfer (LET). Several already existing individual dosemeters have been tested in such fields. For the component with high LET (mostly neutrons) etched track detectors were tested with and without fissile radiators, nuclear emulsions, bubble detectors for both types available and an albedo dosemeter. Individual dosimetry for the low LET component has been performed with thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs), photographic film dosemeters and two types of electronic individual dosemeters. It was found that individual dosimetry for the low LET component was satisfactory with the dosemeters tested. As far as the high LET component is concerned, there are problems with both the sensitivity and the energy response. (author)

  1. Survey of international personnel radiation dosimetry programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaja, R.E.

    1985-04-01

    In September of 1983, a mail survey was conducted to determine the status of external personnel gamma and neutron radiation dosimetry programs at international agencies. A total of 130 agencies participated in this study including military, regulatory, university, hospital, laboratory, and utility facilities. Information concerning basic dosimeter types, calibration sources, calibration phantoms, corrections to dosimeter responses, evaluating agencies, dose equivalent reporting conventions, ranges of typical or expected dose equivalents, and degree of satisfaction with existing systems was obtained for the gamma and neutron personnel monitoring programs at responding agencies. Results of this survey indicate that to provide the best possible occupational radiation monitoring programs and to improve dosimetry accuracy in performance studies, facility dosimetrists, regulatory and standards agencies, and research laboratories must act within their areas of responsibility to become familiar with their radiation monitoring systems, establish common reporting guidelines and performance standards, and provide opportunities for dosimetry testing and evaluation. 14 references, 10 tables

  2. Role of dosimetry in radiation processing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Kishor

    2001-01-01

    Today, radiation processing is a growing technology offering potential technological advantages as well as enhanced safety and economy. It is expanding on two fronts: the variety of applications is exploding as well as the sources of radiation. And with that comes the necessary advances in dosimetry. However, the success of the technology still depends on the assertion that the irradiated products are reliable and safe, whether they are health care products or cables and wires. And this is best assured through quality assurance programmes. The key element in QA in radiation processing is a well-characterised, reliable dosimetry that is traceable to the international measurement system. Traceability is the foundation for international acceptance of the irradiated products; and with international trade of irradiated products on the rise, it becomes absolutely critical. It is thus vital that the industry recognises this pivotal position of good dosimetry and the role a national standards laboratory plays in that connection. (author)

  3. Twenty-first nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison study, August 6-10, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaja, R.E.; Ragan, G.E.; Sims, C.S.

    1985-05-01

    The twenty-first in a series of nuclear accident dosimetry (NAD) intercomparison (NAD) studies was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Dosimetry Applications Research Facility during August 6-10, 1984. The Health Physics Research Reactor operated in the pulse mode was used to simulate three criticality accidents with different radiation fields. Participants from five organizations measured neutron doses between 0.53 and 4.36 Gy and gamma doses between 0.19 and 1.01 Gy at area monitoring stations and on phantoms. About 75% of all neutron dose estimates based on foil activation, hair activation, simulated blood sodium activation, and thermoluminescent methods were within +-25% of reference values. Approximately 86% of all gamma results measured using thermoluminescent (TLD-700 or CaSO 4 ) systems were within +-20% of reference doses which represents a significant improvement over previous studies. Improvements observed in the ability of intercomparison participants to estimate neutron and gamma doses under criticality accident conditions can be partly attributed to experience in previous NAD studies which have provided practical tests of dosimetry systems, enabled participants to improve evaluation methods, and standardized dose reporting conventions. 16 refs., 15 tabs

  4. Reconstructive dosimetry of radiological accidents - a brazilian case study of industrial gammagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Francisco Cesar Augusto da; Hunt, John G.; Ramalho, Adriana; Pinto, Livia M.F. Amalfi

    2001-01-01

    In may 2000, an operator of industrial gammagraphy, during a work of maintenance of a cobalt source irradiator, suffered a radiological accident which caused serious consequences for its left hand. Specialists who work in the Group of Overexposure Analysis (GADE/IRD/CNEN), began the reconstructive dosimetry for estimate the radiation dose. The objective was to determine the real dose received by the operator and to make possible the medical evaluation and to prescribe the medical procedures for the involved victim's treatment. This work presents the reconstructive dosimetry done by theoretical, experimental and computation methods for determining the radiation doses of the operator. Related to the computation method a program was used for external dose calculation based on Monte Carlo's Method and a human body simulator composed by voxels. It is also showed values of the effective and equivalent doses that caused serious lesions in the operator's hand. (author)

  5. Reconstructive dosimetry of radiological accidents - study of a brazilian case of industrial gamma radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Francisco Cesar Augusto da; Hunt, John G.; Ramalho, Adriana; Pinto, Livia M.F. Amalfi

    2002-01-01

    On May 2000, an industrial gamma radiography operator, during a maintenance work of a 60 Co irradiator, has suffered a radiological accident with severe consequences to the left hand. The experts of the High Doses Analysis Group (GADE/IRD/CNEN) initiated the reconstructive dosimetry for the radiation dose estimation, in order to determine the real dose received by the operator, and to help the medical evaluation for prescribing the medical procedures for treatment of the involved victim. This paper presents the reconstructive dosimetry performed through the determination of the radiation doses of the operator, based on theoretical, experimental and computational methods. For the computer methods, a program for the calculation of external doses were used, based on the Monte Carlo method, and a human body simulator composed by voxels. The values of effective and equivalent doses are also presented which has caused severe lesions on the operator hand

  6. External dosimetry - Applications to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faussot, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Dosimetry is the essential component of radiation protection. It allows to determine by calculation and measurement the absorbed dose value, i.e. the energy amounts deposited in matter by ionizing radiations. It deals also with the irradiation effects on living organisms and with their biological consequences. This reference book gathers all the necessary information to understand and master the external dosimetry and the metrology of ionizing radiations, from the effects of radiations to the calibration of radiation protection devices. The first part is devoted to physical dosimetry and allows to obtain in a rigorous manner the mathematical formalisms leading to the absorbed dose for different ionizing radiation fields. The second part presents the biological effects of ionizing radiations on living matter and the determination of a set of specific radiation protection concepts and data to express the 'risk' to develop a radio-induced cancer. The third part deals with the metrology of ionizing radiations through the standardized study of the methods used for the calibration of radiation protection equipments. Some practical exercises with their corrections are proposed at the end of each chapter

  7. EPR dosimetry teeth in past and future accidents: A prospective look at a retrospective method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskell, E.; Kenner, G.; Hayes, R. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Center for Applied Dosimetry; Chumak, V.; Shalom, S. [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1997-03-01

    Accurate assessments of doses received by individuals exposed to radiation from nuclear accidents and incidents such as those at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Nevada test site, Cheliabinsk and Mayak are required for epidemiological studies seeking to establish relationships between radiation dose and health effects. One method of retrospective dosimetry which allows for measurement of cumulative gamma ray doses received by exposed individuals is electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) of tooth enamel. Tooth enamel stores and retains, indefinitely, information on absorbed radiation dose. And teeth are available in every population as a result of dental extraction for medical reasons including periodontal disease and impacted wisdom teeth. In the case of children, deciduous teeth, which are shed between the ages of 7 and 13, can be a very important dosimetric source if documented collection is implemented shortly following an accident.

  8. EPR dosimetry teeth in past and future accidents: A prospective look at a retrospective method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskell, E.; Kenner, G.; Hayes, R.

    1997-01-01

    Accurate assessments of doses received by individuals exposed to radiation from nuclear accidents and incidents such as those at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Nevada test site, Cheliabinsk and Mayak are required for epidemiological studies seeking to establish relationships between radiation dose and health effects. One method of retrospective dosimetry which allows for measurement of cumulative gamma ray doses received by exposed individuals is electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) of tooth enamel. Tooth enamel stores and retains, indefinitely, information on absorbed radiation dose. And teeth are available in every population as a result of dental extraction for medical reasons including periodontal disease and impacted wisdom teeth. In the case of children, deciduous teeth, which are shed between the ages of 7 and 13, can be a very important dosimetric source if documented collection is implemented shortly following an accident

  9. EPR dosimetry of teeth in past and future accidents. A prospective look at a retrospective method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskell, E.; Kenner, G.; Hayes, R. [Center for Applied Dosimetry, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Chumak, V.; Shalom, S.

    1996-12-31

    Accurate assessments of doses received by individuals exposed to radiation from nuclear accidents and incidents such as those at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Nevada test site, Chelyabinsk and Mayak are required for epidemiological studies seeking to establish relationships between radiation dose and health effects. One method of retrospective dosimetry which allows for measurement of cumulative gamma ray doses received by exposed individuals is electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) of tooth enamel. Tooth enamel stores and retains, indefinitely, information on absorbed radiation dose; and teeth are available in every population as a result of dental extraction for medical reasons including periodontal disease and impacted wisdom teeth. In the case of children, deciduous teeth, which are shed between the ages of 7 and 13, can be a very important dosimetric source if documented collection is implemented shortly following an accident. (author)

  10. Third conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This conference has been designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To partly fulfill these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection has been prepared. General topics include external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, instruments, regulations and standards, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. This publication provides a summary of the technical program and a collection of abstracts of the oral presentations

  11. Radiation dosimetry activities in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Mijnheer, B.J.

    1986-07-01

    The Netherlands Commission for Radiation Dosimetry (NCS) was officially established on 3 September 1982 with the aim of promoting the appropriate use of dosimetry of ionizing radiation both for scientific research and practical applications. The present report provides a compilation of the dosimetry acitivities and expertise available in the Netherlands, based on the replies to a questionnaire mailed under the auspices of the NCS and might suffer from some incompleteness in specific details. The addresses of the Dutch groups with the names of the scientists are given. Individual scientists, not connected with a scientific group, hospital or organization have not been included in this list. Also the names of commercial firms producing dosimetric systems have been omitted. (Auth.)

  12. A second simulated criticality accident dosimetry experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, N

    1973-01-01

    This experiment was undertaken to facilitate training in criticality dose assessment by UKAEA and BNFL establishments with potential criticality hazards. Personal dosemeters, coins, samples of hair, etc. supplied by the seven participating establishments were attached to a man-phantom filled with a solution of sodium nitrate (simulating 'body-sodium'), and exposed to a burst of radiation from the AWRE pulsed reactor VIPER. The neutron and photon doses were each several hundred rads. Participants made two sets of dose assessments. The first, made solely from the evidence of their routine dosemeters the activation of body-sodium and standard monitoring data, simulated the initial dose assessment that would be made before the circumstances of a real incident were established. The second was made when the position and orientation of the phantom relative to the reactor and the shielding (20 cm of copper) between the reactor core and the phantom were disclosed. Neutron and photon dose assessments for comparison wit...

  13. Dosimetry control for radiation processing - basic requirements and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, M.; Tsrunchev, Ts.

    2004-01-01

    A brief review of the basic international codes and standards for dosimetry control for radiation processing (high doses dosimetry), setting up a dosimetry control for radiation processing and metrology control of the dosimetry system is made. The present state of dosimetry control for food processing and the Bulgarian long experience in food irradiation (three irradiation facilities are operational at these moment) are presented. The absence of neither national standard for high doses nor accredited laboratory for calibration and audit of radiation processing dosimetry systems is also discussed

  14. Electron paramagnetic resonance biophysical radiation dosimetry with tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Rao F.H.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis deals with the advancements made in the field of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) for biophysical dosimetry with tooth enamel for accident, emergency, and retrospective radiation dose reconstruction. A methodology has been developed to measure retrospective radiation exposures in human tooth enamel. This entails novel sample preparation procedures with minimum mechanical treatment to reduce the preparation induced uncertainties, establish optimum measurement conditions inside the EPR cavity, post-process the measured spectrum with functional simulation of dosimetric and other interfering signals, and reconstruct dose. By using this technique, retrospective gamma exposures as low as 80±30 mGy have been successfully deciphered. The notion of dose modifier was introduced in EPR biodosimetry for low dose measurements. It has been demonstrated that by using the modified zero added dose (MZAD) technique for low radiation exposures, doses in 100 mGy ranges can be easily reconstructed in teeth that were previously thought useless for EPR dosimetry. Also, the use of a dose modifier makes robust dose reconstruction possible for higher radiation exposures. The EPR dosimetry technique was also developed for tooth samples extracted from rodents, which represent small tooth sizing. EPR doses in the molars, extracted from the mice irradiated with whole body exposures, were reassessed and shown to be correct within the experimental uncertainty. The sensitivity of human tooth enamel for neutron irradiation, obtained from the 3 MV McMaster K.N. Van de Graaff accelerator, was also studied. For the first time this work has shown that the neutron sensitivity of the tooth enamel is approximately 1/10th of the equivalent gamma sensitivity. Parametric studies for neutron dose rate and neutron energy within the available range of the accelerator, showed no impact on the sensitivity of the tooth enamel. Therefore, tooth enamel can be used as a dosimeter for both neutrons

  15. Radiation dosimetry and standards at the austrian dosimetry laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner, A.

    1984-10-01

    The Austrian Dosimetry Laboratory, established and operated in cooperation between the Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf and the Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (Bundesamt and Eich- und Vermessungswesen) maintains the national primary standards for radiation dosimetry. Furthermore its tasks include routine calibration of dosemeters and dosimetric research. The irradiation facilities of the laboratory comprise three X-ray machines covering the voltage range from 5 kV to 420 kV constant potential, a 60 Co teletherapy unit, a circular exposure system for routine batch calibration of personnel dosemeters with four gamma ray sources ( 60 Co and 137 Cs) and a reference source system with six gamma ray sources ( 60 Co and 137 Cs). In addition a set of calibrated beta ray sources are provided ( 147 Pm, 204 Tl and 90 Sr). The dosimetric equipment consists of three free-air parallelplate ionization chambers serving as primary standards of exposure for the X-ray energy region, graphite cavity chambers with measured volume as primary standards for the gamma radiation of 137 Cs and 60 Co as well as different secondary standard ionization chambers covering the dose rate range from the natural background level up to the level of modern therapy accelerators. In addition for high energy photon and electron radiation a graphite calorimeter is provided as primary standard of absorbed dose. The principle experimental set-ups for the practical use of the standards are presented and the procedures for the calibration of the different types of dosemeters are described. (Author)

  16. Occupational Radiation Protection in Severe Accident Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    As an early response to the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident, the Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) Bureau decided to focus on the following issues as an initial response of the joint program after having direct communications with the Japanese official participants in April 2011: - Management of high radiation area worker doses: It has been decided to make available the experience and information from the Chernobyl accident in terms of how emergency worker / responder doses were legally and practically managed, - Personal protective equipment for highly-contaminated areas: It was agreed to collect information about the types of personnel protective equipment and other equipment (e.g. air bottles, respirators, air-hoods or plastic suits, etc.), as well as high-radiation area worker dosimetry use (e.g. type, number and placement of dosimetry) for different types of emergency and high-radiation work situations. Detailed information was collected on dose criteria which are used for emergency workers /responders and their basis, dose management criteria for high dose/dose rate areas, protective equipment which is recommended for emergency workers / responders, recommended individual monitoring procedures, and any special requirement for assessment from the ISOE participating nuclear utilities and regulatory authorities and made available for Japanese utilities. With this positive response of the ISOE official participants and interest in the situation in Fukushima, the Expert Group on Occupational Radiation Protection in Severe Accident Management (EG-SAM) was established by the ISOE Management Board in May 2011. The overall objective of the EG-SAM is to contribute to occupational exposure management (providing a view on management of high radiation area worker doses) within the Fukushima plant boundary with the ISOE participants and to develop a state-of-the-art ISOE report on best radiation protection management practices for proper radiation

  17. Dosimetry and control of radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Eight invited papers on the general theme of 'Dosimetry and Control of Radiation Processing', presented at a one day symposium held at the National Physical Laboratory, are collected together in this document. Seven of the papers are selected and indexed separately. (author)

  18. EPR-dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Mariia; Vakhnin, Dmitrii; Tyshchenko, Igor

    2017-09-01

    This article discusses the problems that arise during the radiation sterilization of medical products. It is propose the solution based on alanine EPR-dosimetry. The parameters of spectrometer and methods of absorbed dose calculation are given. In addition, the problems that arise during heavy particles irradiation are investigated.

  19. Applied physics of external radiation exposure dosimetry and radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Antoni, Rodolphe

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the interaction of living matter with photons, neutrons, charged particles, electrons and ions. The authors are specialists in the field of radiation protection. The book synthesizes many years of experiments with external radiation exposure in the fields of dosimetry and radiation shielding in medical, industrial and research fields. It presents the basic physical concepts including dosimetry and offers a number of tools to be used by students, engineers and technicians to assess the radiological risk and the means to avoid them by calculating the appropriate shields. The theory of radiation interaction in matter is presented together with empirical formulas and abacus. Numerous numerical applications are treated to illustrate the different topics. The state of the art in radiation protection and dosimetry is presented in detail, especially in the field of simulation codes for external exposure to radiation, medical projects and advanced research. Moreover, important data spread in differ...

  20. Role of cytogenetic techniques in biological dosimetry of absorbed radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B.S.

    2016-01-01

    In most of the radiation accidents, physical dosimetric information is rarely available. Further, most of the accidental exposures are non-uniform involving either partial body or localized exposure to significant doses. In such situations, physical dosimetry does not provide reliable dose estimate. It has now been realized that biological dosimetric techniques can play an important role in the assessment of absorbed dose. In recent years, a number of biological indicators of radiation have been identified. These include the kinetics of onset and persistence of prodromal syndromes (radiation sickness), cytogenetic changes in peripheral blood lymphocytes, hematological changes, biochemical indicators, ESR spectroscopy of biological samples, induction of gene mutations in red blood cells, cytogenetic and physiological changes in skin and neurophysiological changes. In general, dosimetric information is derived by a combination of several different methods, as they have potential to serve as prognostic indicators. The role of cytogenetic techniques in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) as biological indicators of absorbed radiation is reviewed here

  1. The handling of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The symposium was attended by 204 participants from 39 countries and 5 international organizations. Forty-two papers were presented in 8 sessions. The purpose of the meeting was to foster an exchange of experiences gained in establishing and exercising plans for mitigating the effects of radiation accidents and in the handling of actual accident situations. Only a small number of accidents were reported at the symposium, and this reflects the very high standards of safety that has been achieved by the nuclear industry. No accidents of radiological significance were reported to have occurred at commercial nuclear power plants. Of the accidents reported, industrial radiography continues to be the area in which most of the radiation accidents occur. The experience gained in the reported accident situations served to confirm the crucial importance of the prompt availability of medical and radiological services, particularly in the case of uptake of radioactive material, and emphasized the importance of detailed investigation into the causes of the accident in order to improve preventative measures. One of the principal themes of the symposium involved emergency procedures related to nuclear power plant accidents, and several papers defining the scope, progression and consequences of design base accidents for both thermal and fast reactor systems were presented. These were complemented by papers defining the resultant protection requirements that should be satisfied in the establishment of plans designed to mitigate the effects of the postulated accident situations. Several papers were presented describing existing emergency organizational arrangements relating both to specific nuclear power plants and to comprehensive national schemes, and a particularly informative session was devoted to the topic of training of personnel in the practical conduct of emergency arrangements. The general feeling of the participants was one of studied confidence in the competence and

  2. Radiation dosimetry in radiotherapy with internal emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabin, Michael G.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. Radiation dosimetry radionuclides are currently being labeled to various biological agents used in internal emitter radiotherapy. This talk will review the various technologies and types of radiolabel in current use, with focus on the characterization of the radiation dose to the various important tissues of the body. Methods for obtaining data, developing kinetic models, and calculating radiation doses will be reviewed. Monoclonal antibodies are currently being labeled with both alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in attempts to find effective agents against cancer. Several radionuclides are also being used as bone pain palliation agents. These agents must be studied in clinical trials to determine the biokinetics and radiation dosimetry prior to approval for general use. In such studies, it is important to ensure the collection of the appropriate kinds of data and to collect the data at appropriate time intervals. The uptake and retention of activity in all significant source organs and in excreta be measured periodically (with at least 2 data points phase of uptake or clearance). Then, correct dosimetry methods must be applied - the best available methods for characterizing the radionuclide kinetic and for estimating the dosimetry in the various organs of the body especially the marrow, should be used. Attempts are also under way to develop methods for estimating true patient-specific dosimetry. Cellular and animal studies are also. Valuable in evaluating the efficacy of the agents in shrinking or eliminating tumors; some results from such studies will also be discussed. The estimation of radiation doses to patients in therapy with internal emitters involves several complex phases of analysis. Careful attention to detail and the use of the best available methods are essential to the protection of the patient and a successful outcome

  3. Developments in physical dosimetry and radiation protection; Entwicklungen in der physikalischen Dosimetrie im Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiebich, Martin [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, Giessen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz

    2017-07-01

    In the frame of physical dosimetry new dose units have been defined: the depth personal dose (equivalent dose in 10 mm depth) and the surface personal dose (equivalent dose in 0.07 mm depth). Physical dosimetry is applied for the determination of occupational radiation exposure, the radiation protected area control, the estimation of radiation exposure of patients during radiotherapy, for quality assurance and in research projects and optimization challenges. Developments have appeared with respect to punctual measuring chambers, eye lens dosimetry, OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) dosimetry, real-time dosimetry and Monte Carlo methods. New detection limits of about 1 micro Gy were reached.

  4. Radiation dosimetry for medical management in nuclear/radiological disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    Medical Management of radiation exposed victims depends on the amount of radiation doses received in their body and individual organs. The severity of radiation sickness; and early/late biological effects of radiation can be judged on the basis of absorbed dose level of the exposed individual. Radiation Dosimetry is a scientific technique for estimating radiation doses in material and living being. It is an important task for managing radiation effects/injuries to the living being in case of radiological accidents/disasters. In such scenario occupational radiation workers as well as public in general may be exposed with ionizing radiations such as; gamma, alpha, beta and neutron. Radiation dosimetric equipment's are available for occupational radiation workers, however, public in general may not have any dosimetry system with them. Therefore, absorbed dose estimation to the public on individual basis is a challenge to the society. The ambient environment materials in close proximity to the exposed individual may be analyzed using scientific techniques to estimate their personal radiation doses. The blood sample from exposed individual can be examined in laboratory using citometry techniques for dose estimation, however these techniques are very time consuming and may not be suitable for quick radiation management. The other human biological material such as; tooth, hair, and bone etc., can be examined using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectrometry techniques. This technique is very efficient and capable in measuring radiation doses of the order of 20-30 mGy in very less time typically 2-3 min. In reality, this technique is costly affair and available mostly in developed countries. Thermoluminescence (TL) technique is very versatile and cost effective for routine personal dose estimation, This technique has been found suitable for measuring TL in many accidentally exposed environmental materials. The radiation exposed natural environmental materials, such as

  5. Bayesian methods for chromosome dosimetry following a criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brame, R.S.; Groer, P.G.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation doses received during a criticality accident will be from a combination of fission spectrum neutrons and gamma rays. It is desirable to estimate the total dose, as well as the neutron and gamma doses. Present methods for dose estimation with chromosome aberrations after a criticality accident use point estimates of the neutron to gamma dose ratio obtained from personnel dosemeters and/or accident reconstruction calculations. In this paper a Bayesian approach to dose estimation with chromosome aberrations is developed that allows the uncertainty of the dose ratio to be considered. Posterior probability densities for the total and the neutron and gamma doses were derived. (author)

  6. Dosimetry systems for radiation processing in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Naoyuki

    1995-01-01

    The present situation of dosimetry systems for radiation processing industry in Japan is reviewed. For gamma-rays irradiation the parallel-plate ionization chamber in TRCRE, JAERI has been placed as a reference standard dosimeter for processing-level dose. Various solid and liquid chemical dosimeters are used as routine dosimeters for gamma processing industries. Alanine dosimeters is used for the irradiation purpose which needs precise dosimetry. For electron-beam irradiation the electron current density meter and the total absorption calorimeter of TRCRE are used for the calibration of routine dosimeters. Plastic film dosimeters, such as cellulose triacetate and radiochromic dye are used as routine dosimeters for electron processing industries. When the official traceability systems for processing-level dosimetry now under investigation is completed, the ionization chamber of TRCRE is expected to have a role of the primary standard dosimeter and the specified alanine dosimeter will be nominated for the secondary or reference standard dosimeter. (author)

  7. Radiation dosimetry for the space shuttle program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.L.; Richmond, R.G.; Cash, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation measurements aboard the Space Shuttle are made to record crew doses for medical records, to verify analytical shielding calculations used in dose predictions and to provide dosimetry support for radiation sensitive payloads and experiments. Low cost systems utilizing thermoluminescent dosimeters, nuclear track detectors and activation foils have been developed to fulfill these requirements. Emphasis has been placed on mission planning and dose prediction. As a result, crew doses both inside the orbiter and during extra-vehicular activities have been reasonable low. Brief descriptions of the space radiation environment, dose prediction models, and radiation measurement systems are provided, along with a summary of the results for the first fourteen Shuttle flights

  8. Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of ionizing radiation dosimetry is the measurement of the physical and biological consequences of exposure to radiation. As these consequences are proportional to the local absorption of energy, the dosimetry of ionizing radiation is based on the measurement of this quantity. Owing to the size of the effects of ionizing radiation on materials in all of these area, dosimetry plays an essential role in the prevention and the control of radiation exposure. Its use is of great importance in two areas in particular where the employment of ionizing radiation relates to human health: radiation protection, and medical applications. Dosimetry is different for various reasons: owing to the diversity of the physical characteristics produced by different kinds of radiation according to their nature (X- and γ-photons, electrons, neutrons,...), their energy (from several keV to several MeV), the orders of magnitude of the doses being estimated (a factor of about 10 5 between diagnostic and therapeutic applications); and the temporal and spatial variation of the biological parameters entering into the calculations. On the practical level, dosimetry poses two distinct yet closely related problems: the determination of the absorbed dose received by a subject exposed to radiation from a source external to his body (external dosimetry); and the determination of the absorbed dose received by a subject owing to the presence within his body of some radioactive substance (internal dosimetry)

  9. Criticality accident dosimetry systems: an international intercomparison at the SILENE reactor in 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Médioni, R; Asselineau, B; Verrey, B; Trompier, F; Itié, C; Texier, C; Muller, H; Pelcot, G; Clairand, I; Jacquet, X; Pochat, J L

    2004-01-01

    In criticality accident dosimetry and more generally for high dose measurements, special techniques are used to measure separately the gamma ray and neutron components of the dose. To improve these techniques and to check their dosimetry systems (physical and/or biological), a total of 60 laboratories from 29 countries (America, Europe, Asia) participated in an international intercomparaison, which took place in France from 9 to 21 June 2002, at the SILENE reactor in Valduc and at a pure gamma source in Fontenay-aux-Roses. This intercomparison was jointly organised by the IRSN and the CEA with the help of the NEA/OCDE and was partly supported by the European Communities. This paper describes the aim of this intercomparison, the techniques used by the participants and the two radiation sources and their characteristics. The experimental arrangements of the dosemeters for the irradiations in free air or on phantoms are given. Then the dosimetric quantities measured and reported by the participants are summarised, analysed and compared with the reference values. The present paper concerns only the physical dosimetry and essentially experiments performed on the SILENE facility. The results obtained with the biological dosimetry are published in two other papers of this issue.

  10. MOSFET dosimetry on modern radiation oncology modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    The development of MOSFET dosimetry is presented with an emphasis on the development of a scanning MOSFET dosimetry system for modern radiation oncology modalities. Fundamental aspects of MOSFETs in relation to their use as dosemeters are briefly discussed. The performance of MOSFET dosemeters in conformal radiotherapy, hadron therapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy and microbeam radiation therapy is compared with other dosimetric techniques. In particular the application of MOSFET dosemeters in the characterisation and quality assurance of the steep dose gradients associated with the penumbra of some modern radiation oncology modalities is investigated. A new in vivo, on-line, scanning MOSFET read out system is also presented. The system has the ability to read out multiple MOSFET dosemeters with excellent spatial resolution and temperature stability and minimal slow border trapping effects. (author)

  11. Radiation accident in Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheatley, J.

    1998-01-01

    In November 1992 a Vietnamese research physicist was working with a microtron accelerator when he received a radiation overexposure that required the subsequent amputation of his right hand. A team from the International Atomic Energy Agency visited Hanoi in March 1993 to carry out an investigation. It was concluded that the accident occurred primarily due to a lack of safety systems although the lack of both written procedures and training in basic radiation safety were also major contributors. (author)

  12. Medical management of radiation accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-12-31

    The film gives advice on actions to be taken in case of a radiation accident. It addresses involving external irradiation of the whole and partial body, very localized exposure, uptake of radioiodine, inhalation of transuranium elements and a wound of a finger. The film is intended to illustrate the Agency`s Safety Series No. 47 entitled ``Manual on Early Medical Treatment of Possible Radiation Injury`` published in 1978

  13. Planned Procedures for Fast Determination of Radiation Levels and Personnel Dosimetry in Connection with Radiological Accidents; Methodes de Dosimetrie Rapide du Personnel en Cas d'Accident Radiologique; 041f 041b 0410 041d 0414 ; Servicio Organizado de Determinacion Rapida de los Niveles de Radiacion y de Dosimetria del Personal en Caso de Accidente Radiologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edvardsson, K. -A.; Wahlberg, T. [AB Atomenergi, Studsvik (Sweden)

    1965-06-15

    AB Atomenergi, Sweden, has an emergency organization which starts to function as soon as an alarm indicates that an extraordinary situation with considerable radiation hazards has occurred. This organization is operating from a headquarters where equipment is stored and different types of internal and external communications are available. As to determination of exposures, it is desirable both to obtain rough preliminary values for external and internal exposure rates as soon as possible and to get fairly accurate values for the exposure of each individual involved in the accident within reasonable time. Dose reconnaissance patrols make rapid surveys of the site to get a general estimate of the risks. These patrols start out immediately after the alarm equipped with portable instruments and go by car along fixed routes on the site. Practical tests have shown that results from these patrols reach the headquarters within 10 to 15 minutes after the alarm and make it possible to get a good picture of radiation levels inside and outside different buildings. The portable equipment includes air sampling equipment with very short sampling time working on the principle of the air ejector. Individual external doses are evaluated on the basis of film exposures, criticality dosimeter activation and analyses of hair and blood activity. Internal contamination is determined by whole-body counting and radiometric analyses of excreta. In order to determine the radiation fields created by an accident a number of fixed control points are equipped with different types of dosimeters which also are evaluated as soon as possible after the hypothetical accident. (author) [French] L'AB Atomenergi de Suede possede un dispositif de secours commande par un signal d'alarme qui se declenche des qu'un incident comportant un danger radiologique se produit. Ce service depend d'un poste central ou le materiel est rassemble et qui dispose de plusieurs moyens de communication avec l'interieur et l

  14. Radiation processing dosimetry - past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, W.L.

    1999-01-01

    Since the two United Nations Conferences were held in Geneva in 1955 and 1958 on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy and the concurrent foundation of the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1957, the IAEA has fostered high-dose dosimetry and its applications. This field is represented in industrial radiation processing, agricultural programmes, and therapeutic and preventative medicine. Such dosimetry is needed specifically for pest and quarantine control and in the processing of medical products, pharmaceuticals, blood products, foodstuffs, solid, liquid and gaseous wastes, and a variety of useful commodities, e.g. polymers, composites, natural rubber and elastomers, packaging, electronic, and automotive components, as well as in radiotherapy. Improvements and innovations of dosimetry materials and analytical systems and software continue to be important goals for these applications. Some of the recent advances in high-dose dosimetry include tetrazolium salts and substituted polydiacetylene as radiochromic media, on-line real-time as well as integrating semiconductor and diamond-detector monitors, quantitative label dosimeters, photofluorescent sensors for broad dose range applications, and improved and simplified parametric and computational codes for imaging and simulating 3D radiation dose distributions in model products. The use of certain solid-state devices, e.g. optical quality LiF, at low (down to 4K) and high (up to 500 K) temperatures, is of interest for materials testing. There have also been notable developments in experimental dose mapping procedures, e.g. 2D and 3D dose distribution analyses by flat-bed optical scanners and software applied to radiochromic and photofluorescent images. In addition, less expensive EPR spectrometers and new EPR dosimetry materials and high-resolution semiconductor diode arrays, charge injection devices, and photostimulated storage phosphors have been introduced. (author)

  15. Thyroid dosimetry after the Chernobyl accident and thyroid cancer in iodine deficient areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szybinski, Z [Jagiellonian Univ., Cracow (Poland). Dept. of Endocrinology

    1996-08-01

    Of the radionuclides generated from 235-U and 239-Pu in a core of the nuclear reactor, radioiodines particularly 131-I, is the most significant in view of its huge quantities, easy dispersion and cumulation in the human thyroid in case of a nuclear accident. After nuclear accident in Chernobyl 20-50 million Ci of 131-I was released. Depending on the dose absorbed to the thyroid, 131-I can cause a late appearance of a thyroid nodule or cancer and/or thyroid destruction leading to hypothyroidism. Thyroid irradiation may origin from two sources: external cumulative radiation mainly of gamma type and internal related to 131-I cumulation. So far most information on the risk factors of the thyroid cancer due to is related to from external radiation, but there is no scientific basis to believe that internal radiation cannot induce the thyroid cancer. Thyroid dosimetry after Chernobyl accident in near and far field is essential for calculation of the thyroid cancer risk coefficient due to radiation. 1 tab.

  16. Radiation, cancer risk, and the new dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    This letter discusses revision of risk estimates in the light of the new dosimetry (DS86) and concludes that direct observation is more to be relied on than the extrapolation from A-bomb survivors' experience. X-ray treatment for ankylosing spondylitis, cervical cancer data, and figures observed from 50,000 workers occupationally exposed to radiation are used as examples. (U.K.)

  17. Radiation dosimetry and spectrometry with superheated emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Errico, Francesco

    2001-01-01

    Detectors based on emulsions of overexpanded halocarbon droplets in tissue equivalent aqueous gels or soft polymers, known as 'superheated drop detectors' or 'bubble (damage) detectors', have been used in radiation detection, dosimetry and spectrometry for over two decades. Recent technological advances have led to the introduction of several instruments for individual and area monitoring: passive integrating meters based on the optical or volumetric registration of the bubbles, and active counters detecting bubble nucleations acoustically. These advances in the instrumentation have been matched by the progress made in the production of stable and well-specified emulsions of superheated droplets. A variety of halocarbons are employed in the formulation of the detectors, and this permits a wide range of applications. In particular, halocarbons with a moderate degree of superheat, i.e. a relatively small difference between their operating temperature and boiling point, can be used in neutron dosimetry and spectrometry since they are only nucleated by energetic heavy ions such as those produced by fast neutrons. More recently, halocarbons with an elevated degree of superheat have been utilised to produce emulsions that nucleate with much smaller energy deposition and detect low linear energy transfer radiations, such as photons and electrons. This paper reviews the detector physics of superheated emulsions and their applications in radiation measurements, particularly in neutron dosimetry and spectrometry

  18. Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, G S; Ritchie, R H; Sanders, F W; Reinhardt, P W; Auxier, J A; Wagner, E B; Callihan, A D; Morgan, K Z [Health Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1962-03-15

    The methods of dosimetry used for investigation of the doses received by the individuals exposed in the Yugoslav accident were essentially those used in connection with the Oak Ridge Y-12 accident. An outline of the general scheme is as follows: When fast neutrons enter the human body, most of these are moderated to thermal energy and a small fraction of these are captured by a (n, gamma) process in Na sup 2 sup 3 , giving rise to Na sup 2 sup 4 , which by virtue of its emission of high-energy gamma rays with a half life of 14.8 h, is easily detected. It has been shown that the probability of capture, making Na sup 2 sup 4 , is not a strong function of the energy of the fast neutrons and that the probability of capture for neutrons is higher in the fast region than in the thermal region. Thus, the uniform distribution of Na sup 2 sup 3 in the human body provides an excellent means of normalizing the neutron exposure of an individual. in particular, for a given neutron energy spectrum the fast neutron dose is proportional to the ratio Na sup 2 sup 4 /Na sup 2 sup 3 in the body or in the blood system. This method of normalization is quite important in the dosimetry of radiation accidents since no assumptions need be made about the exact location of an individual at the time of the energy release. The importance of this fact can be made clear by reference to the Y-12 accident where it was shown by calculation of the neutron dose based on the known number of fissions and the stated location of the individual that one of the surviving individuals would have received a dose several times the lethal value. To accomplish the measurements described, the zero power R sub B reactor was operated in two ranges of power level, 'low' power and 'high 'power. Neutron leakage spectrum was obtained by multigroup approximation of the Boltzmann transport equation. Prompt gamma rays from fission products, from capture in the moderator and fuel cladding as well as in tank walls are given

  19. Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, G S; Ritchie, R H; Sanders, F W; Reinhardt, P W; Auxier, J A; Wagner, E B; Callihan, A D; Morgan, K Z [Health Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1962-03-01

    The methods of dosimetry used for investigation of the doses received by the individuals exposed in the Yugoslav accident were essentially those used in connection with the Oak Ridge Y-12 accident. An outline of the general scheme is as follows: When fast neutrons enter the human body, most of these are moderated to thermal energy and a small fraction of these are captured by a (n, {gamma}) process in Na{sup 23}, giving rise to Na{sup 24}, which by virtue of its emission of high-energy gamma rays with a half life of 14.8 h, is easily detected. It has been shown that the probability of capture, making Na{sup 24}, is not a strong function of the energy of the fast neutrons and that the probability of capture for neutrons is higher in the fast region than in the thermal region. Thus, the uniform distribution of Na{sup 23} in the human body provides an excellent means of normalizing the neutron exposure of an individual. in particular, for a given neutron energy spectrum the fast neutron dose is proportional to the ratio Na{sup 24}/Na{sup 23} in the body or in the blood system. This method of normalization is quite important in the dosimetry of radiation accidents since no assumptions need be made about the exact location of an individual at the time of the energy release. The importance of this fact can be made clear by reference to the Y-12 accident where it was shown by calculation of the neutron dose based on the known number of fissions and the stated location of the individual that one of the surviving individuals would have received a dose several times the lethal value. To accomplish the measurements described, the zero power R{sub B} reactor was operated in two ranges of power level, 'low' power and 'high 'power. Neutron leakage spectrum was obtained by multigroup approximation of the Boltzman transport equation. Prompt gamma rays from fission products, from capture in the moderator and fuel cladding as well as in tank walls are given. A summary of the 4{pi

  20. Dosimetry for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, D.T.; McAulay, I.R.; Schrewe, U.J.

    1997-01-01

    Aircraft crew and frequent flyers are exposed to elevated levels of cosmic radiation of galactic and solar origin and secondary radiation produced in the atmosphere, aircraft structure, etc. This has been recognised for some time and estimates of the exposure of aircraft crew have been made previously and included in, for example, UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation) publications. The recent increased interest has been brought about by several factors - the consideration that the relative biological effectiveness of the neutron component was being underestimated; the trend towards higher cruising altitudes for subsonic commercial aircraft and business jet aircraft; and most importantly, the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in Publication 60, and the revision of the Euratom Basic Safety Standards Directive (BSS). In 1992, the European Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) established a Working Group to consider the exposure to cosmic radiation of aircraft crew, and the scientific and technical problems associated with radiation protection dosimetry for this occupational group. The Working Group was composed of fifteen scientists (plus a corresponding member) involved in this field of study and with knowledge of radiation measurement at aviation altitudes. This paper is based on the findings of this Working Group. (author)

  1. Environmental dosimetry and radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    Specific assessment of the potential effects on wild organisms of increased radiation exposure arising from the authorized disposal of radioactive wastes to the environment requires two interrelated sets of information. First, an estimate is required of the incremental radiation exposure; and second, dose rate-response relationships are necessary to predict the potential impact of the estimated incremental exposure. Each of these aspects will be discussed in detail. (author)

  2. Psychological factors of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartsev, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    With reference to world, internal and personal experience, an attempt is made to reveal psychological mechanisms determining the attitude of a person to ionizing radiation using for this purpose the conceptions of mental stress and psychological adaptation. On the example of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, in the light of the above conceptions, the paper describes psychic reactions of the personnel of the nuclear power plant and other groups of people to the heavy radiation accident. For improvement of the activity for liquidation of the accident after-effects it is suggested to use the system of psychophysiological support of the rescue units, including psychophysiological training and support, as well as functional rehabilitation of specialists. 11 refs

  3. Improvement of dose determination using glass display of mobile phones for accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discher, M.; Woda, C.; Fiedler, I.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that mobile phones can be used as suitable emergency dosimeters in case of an accidental radiation overexposure. Glass samples extracted from displays of mobile phones are sensitive to ionizing radiation and can be measured using the thermoluminescence (TL) method. A non-radiation induced background signal (so-called zero dose signal) was observed which overlaps with the radiation induced signal and consequently limits the minimum detectable dose. Investigations of several glasses from different displays showed that it is possible to reduce the zero dose signal up to 90% by etching the glass surface with concentrated hydrofluoric acid. With this approach a reduction of the detection limit of a factor of four, corresponding to approximately 80 mGy, was achieved. Dosimetric properties of etched samples are presented and developed protocols validated by dose recovery tests under realistic conditions. With the improvements in sample preparation the proposed method of dose determination is a competitive alternative to OSL/TL measurements of electronic components and chip cards and provides a useful option for retrospective accident dosimetry. -- Highlights: ► Glass displays from mobile phones have good potential for emergency dosimetry. ► The background signal can be reduced by etching glass samples with hydrofluoric acid. ► The minimum detectable dose can be lowered to approximately 80 mGy

  4. Radiation protection experience in Yugoslavia from the Vinca accident to nowadays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.M

    2000-01-01

    This Paper is the expression of the author opinion about development of radiation protection in Yugoslavia from its beginning forty years ago, which might affect its status in the foreseeable future at the first decades of the 21st century. It focuses on key events in this field starting from the Vinca Accident, which happened in the October 1958, to nowadays. Shortly reviewed some of key events are: Vinca Accident; Foundation of the Radiation Protection Laboratory in the Vinca Institute; International Vinca Dosimetry Experiment; First National Symposium and foundation of the Yugoslav Radiation Protection Association; International Intercomparison Experiment on Nuclear Accident Dosimetry and, International Summer Schools and Symposium on Radiation Protection organized in Yugoslavia. Finally, some specific experimental data obtained during and after Chernobyl Accident up to nowadays in radiation protection action in Yugoslavia are presented also. (author)

  5. Radiation protection dosimetry - From amateur to professional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfinch, E. P.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation Protection Dosimetry was founded in 1981 and there has been a close link between the journal and the solid state dosimetry series of conferences from 1983 to the present day. The background to and the creation and development of the journal is described, having started as one volume of four issues per year in 1981 rising to six volumes in 1994. During the period of development there have been considerable advances in all forms of technology, requiring continued attention to the introduction of this new technology. Some of the changes in the world of publishing over the past 25 y are quite dramatic. Whilst simplistic approaches have been adequate within a small publishing house for a considerable time, further progressive technology changes that are required in the future mean that the necessary resources are only realistically available to large publishers. The journal thus moved to Oxford Univ. Press at the beginning of 2004. It will celebrate its 25. year in 2005. (authors)

  6. Development of radiation biological dosimetry and treatment of radiation-induced damaged tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil

    2000-04-01

    Util now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline(triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the apoptotic fragment assay, PCC, comet assay, and micronucleus assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiated dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with chromosome dosimetry and micronucleus assay

  7. Development of radiation biological dosimetry and treatment of radiation-induced damaged tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Yun Sil [and others

    2000-04-01

    Util now, only a few methods have been developed for radiation biological dosimetry such as conventional chromosome aberration and micronucleus in peripheral blood cell. However, because these methods not only can be estimated by the expert, but also have a little limitation due to need high technique and many times in the case of radiation accident, it is very difficult to evaluate the absorbed dose of victims. Therefore, we should develop effective, easy, simple and rapid biodosimetry and its guideline(triage) to be able to be treated the victims as fast as possible. We established the apoptotic fragment assay, PCC, comet assay, and micronucleus assay which was the significant relationship between dose and cell damages to evaluate the irradiated dose as correct and rapid as possible using lymphocytes and crypt cells, and compared with chromosome dosimetry and micronucleus assay.

  8. radiation dosimetry in cases of normal and emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsi, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    The use of radioactive materials in various fields of medicine, industry, agriculture and researches has been increasing steadily during the last few decades. A lot of radiation sources, radiopharmaceuticals, labeled compounds and other radioactive materials are sold and used throughout the world each year. Historically, accidents have occurred during the production, transport and use of radioactive materials. If an accident does occur, it is necessary to cope with it as soon as possible in order to control radiological human exposures and contamination of the environment and to restore normal conditions. Examination of individuals that deal with radioactive isotopes should be carried out in cases of nuclear medicine units, and in other applications including radiotherapy unit and gamma irradiation facility. Identification of the feasibility and efficiency of the counting detectors of internal and external radiation dosimetry, and preparedness in normal and emergency situations are included in the present work. Furthermore, this study also deals with the use of thermoluminescent dosimeters for radiation dose estimation for applications of gamma irradiation, and cobalt-60 treatment unit. Hence, operator dose can be estimated in case of malfunction or stuck of the radioactive source. Three methods were used to measure the radiation dose: (1) TL dosimeters with Harshaw (TLD- 4000) reader were used for measurement of external exposures. (2) FASTSCAN and (3) ACUUSCAN II whole body counters were used for measurement of internal exposures.

  9. Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezende, D.A.O. de

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental units of dosimetry are defined, such as exposure rate, absorbed dose and equivalent dose. A table is given of relative biological effectiveness values for the different types of radiation. The relation between the roentgen and rad units is calculated and the concepts of physical half-life, biological half-life and effective half-life are discussed. Referring to internal dosimetry, a mathematical treatment is given to β particle-and γ radiation dosimetry. The absorbed dose is calculated and a practical example is given of the calculation of the exposure and of the dose rate for a gama source [pt

  10. OSL properties of three commonly available salt brands in India for its use in accident dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. K.; Menon, S. N.; Kadam, S. Y.; Koul, D. K.; Datta, D.

    2018-03-01

    Thermally stimulated luminescence (TL) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) characterization of three commonly available salt brands in India were undertaken for their application in accident dosimetry. The investigations showed that the luminescence properties differed to some extent with that reported in literature. Dosimetric properties of these salt samples showed that these can be useful in accident dosimetry. Based on the sensitization and fading behaviour of the samples a Single Aliquot Regenerative (SAR) protocol has been proposed for dose estimation.

  11. Radiation Dosimetry Management: Quality Assurance and Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perle, S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In a litigation-prone society, it is prudent for any business to evaluate its potential exposure to legal action, initiated by either an employee or a member of the general public. This potential is exacerbated when the phobia of radiation exposure and radioactive materials is interjected into the equation. This phobia is fuelled by the perceived risks of radiation exposure, be they fact or fantasy. With the current cancer incidence rate being approximately 1 in every 2.5 individuals (for all types of cancer), it is imperative that all facilities take a proactive look at their business vulnerability. When radiation exposure is the issue, records documentation is a critical factor, and a significant amount of effort should be expended to implement a comprehensive records management system. A comprehensive Radiation Dosimetry Management Program is essential if a business is going to mitigate any regulatory or legal intervention. This lecture will address appropriate Records Quality Assurance, and, the appropriate requirements for investigations of dosimetry results. (author)

  12. Cytogenetic dosimetry in suspected cases of ionizing radiation occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, Adriana T.; Costa, Maria Lucia P.; Oliveira, Monica S.; Silva, Francisco Cesar A. da

    2001-01-01

    Cytogenetic dosimetry is very useful in routine as well as in serious accident situations in which exposed individuals do not wear physical dosimeters. Since 1984, the technique of cytogenetic dosimetry has been used as a routine in our laboratory at IRD/CNEN to complement the data of physical dosimetry. In the period from 1984 to 2000, 138 cases of occupational overexposure of individual dosimeters were investigated by us. In total, only in 36 of the 138 cases investigated the overexposure was confirmed by cytogenetic dosimetry. The data indicates a total confirmation index of just 26% of the suspected cases.(author)

  13. Dosimetry as an integral part of radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1999-01-01

    Different connections between high-dose dosimetry and radiation processing are discussed. Radiation processing cannot be performed without proper dosimetry. Accurate high dose and high dose rate dosimetry exhibits several aspects: first of all it is the preservation of the quality of the product, then fulfillment of legal aspects and last but not the least the safety of processing. Further, seldom discussed topics are as follow: dosimetric problems occurring with double-side EB irradiations, discussed in connection with the deposition of electric charge during electron beam irradiation. Although dosimetry for basic research and for medical purposes are treated here only shortly, some conclusions reached from these fields are considered in dosimetry for radiation processing. High-dose dosimetry of radiation has become a separate field, with many papers published every year, but applied dosimetric projects are usually initiated by a necessity of particular application. (author)

  14. Proton-beam radiation therapy dosimetry standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gall, K.P.

    1995-01-01

    Beams of protons have been used for radiation therapy applications for over 40 years. In the last decade the number of facilities treating patients and the total number of patients being treated has begun go grow rapidly. Due to the limited and experimental nature of the early programs, dosimetry protocols tended to be locally defined. With the publication of the AAPM Task Group 20 report open-quotes Protocol for Dosimetry of Heavy Charged Particlesclose quotes and the open-quotes European Code of Practice for Proton-Beam Dosimetryclose quotes the practice of determining dose in proton-beam therapy was somewhat unified. The ICRU has also recently commissioned a report on recommendations for proton-beam dosimetry. There have been three main methods of determining proton dose; the Faraday cup technique, the ionization chamber technique, and the calorimeter technique. For practical reasons the ionization chamber technique has become the most widely used. However, due to large errors in basic parameters (e.g., W-value) is also has a large uncertainty for absolute dose. It has been proposed that the development of water calorimeter absorbed dose standards would reduce the uncertainty in absolute proton dose as well as the relative dose between megavoltage X-ray beams and proton beams. The advantages and disadvantages are discussed

  15. Role of secondary standard dosimetry laboratory in radiation protection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Sohaila; Ali, Noriah Mohd.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The radiation dosimetry program is an important element of operational radiation protection. Dosimetry data enable workers and radiation protection professionals to evaluate and control work practices to eliminate unnecessary exposure to ionizing radiation. The usefulness of the data produced however depends on its quality and traceability. The emphasis of the global dosimetry program is focused through the IAEA/WHO network of secondary standard dosimetry laboratories (SSDLs), which aims for the determination of SI quantities through proper traceable calibration of radiation protection equipment. The responsibility of SSDL-NUCLEAR MALAYSIA to guarantee a reliable dosimetry service, which is traceable to international standards, is elucidated. It acts as the basis for harmonized occupational radiation monitoring in Malaysia.

  16. Implications of radiation risk for practical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Radiobiological experiments with animals and cells have led to an expectation that the risks of cancer and hereditary effects are reduced at low doses and low dose rates of low LET radiation. Risk estimates derived from human exposures at high doses and dose rates usually contain an allowance for low dose effects in comparison with high dose effects, but no allowance may have been made for low dose rate effects. Although there are reasons for thinking that leukaemia risks may possibly have been underestimated, the total cancer risk assumed by ICRP for occupational exposures is reasonably realistic. For practical dosimetry the primary dose concepts and limits have to be translated into secondary quantities that are capable of practical realisation and measurement, and which will provide a stable and robust system of metrology. If the ICRP risk assumptions are approximately correct, it is extremely unlikely that epidemiological studies of occupational exposures will detect the influence of radiation. Elaboration of dosimetry and dose recording for epidemiological purposes is therefore unjustified except possibly in relation to differences between high and low LET radiations. (author)

  17. The handling of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, H.F.; Orchard, H.C.; Walker, C.W.

    1977-04-01

    Some of the more interesting and important contributions to a recent International Symposium on the Handling of Radiation Accidents are discussed and personal comments on many of the papers presented are included. The principal conclusion of the Symposium was that although the nuclear industry has an excellent safety record, there is no room for complacency. Continuing attention to emergency planning and exercising are essential in order to maintain this position. A full list of the papers presented at the Symposium is included as an Appendix. (author)

  18. Dosimetry and Shielding of X and Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oncescu, M.; Panaitescu, I.

    1992-01-01

    This book covers the following problems: 1. X and Gamma radiations, 2. Interaction of X-ray and gamma radiations with matter, 3. Interaction of electrons with matter, 4. Principles and basic concepts of dosimetry, 5. Ionization dosimetry, 6. Calorimetric chemical and photographic dosimetry, 7. Solid state dosimetry, 8. Computation of dosimetric quantities, 9. Dosimetry in radiation protection, 10. Shielding of X and gamma radiations. The authors, well-known Romanian experts in Radiation Physics and Engineering, gave an up-dated, complete and readable account of this subject matter. The analyses of physical principles and concepts, of materials and instruments and of computational methods and applications are all well balanced to meat the needs of a broad readership

  19. Collection of abstracts. 6. national symposium on radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    Abstracts are given of the total of 137 papers presented at the symposium. The papers discussed radiation dosimetry methods, dosemeters and detectors, the metrology and calibration of radiation sources, calibration standards, and radioactivity monitoring. (J.P.)

  20. Dosimetry of low-energy beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, J.

    1996-08-01

    Useful techniques and procedures for determination of absorbed doses from exposure in a low-energy β radiation field were studied and evaluated in this project. The four different techniques included were β spectrometry, extrapolation chamber dosimetry, Monte Carlo (MC) calculations, and exoelectron dosimetry. As a typical low-energy β radiation field a moderated spectrum from a 14 C source (E β , max =156 keV) was chosen for the study. The measured response of a Si(Li) detector to photons (bremsstrahlung) showed fine agreement with the MC calculated photon response, whereas the difference between measured and MC calculated responses to electrons indicates an additional dead layer thickness of about 12 μm in the Si(Li) detector. The depth-dose profiles measured with extrapolation chambers at two laboratories agreed very well, and it was confirmed that the fitting procedure previously reported for 147 Pm depth-dose profiles is also suitable for β radiation from 14 C. An increasing difference between measured and MC calculated dose rates for increasing absorber thickness was found, which is explained by limitations of the EGS4 code for transport of very low-energy electrons (below 10-20 keV). Finally a study of the thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) response of BeO thin film dosemeters to β radiation for radiation fields with maximum β energies ranging from 67 keV to 2.27 MeV is reported. For maximum β energies below approximately 500 keV, a decrease in the response amounting to about 20% was observed. It is thus concluded that a β dose higher than about 10 μGy can be measured with these dosemeters to within 0 to -20% independently of the βenergy for E β , max values down to 67 keV. (au) 12 tabs., 38 ills., 71 refs

  1. Radiation dosimetry in nuclear medicine - recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, E.L.R.; Wood, N.R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper reviews developments in radiation dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine over the past few years. The practical scope of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee's Schema for dose determination has been extended by the development of more realistic mathematical models of the human body, together with the improvement in basic physical data used in dose calculations. Apart from the use of the Adult Human Phantom as the basis for dose determination, models have been developed for the estimation of doses to children and to the developing foetus. The Schema has been extended to permit calculations of the dose to dynamic organs, particularly the bladder. The principle of Monte Carlo photon history simulation, which forms the basis of much of the MIRD Schema's published data, has been used at the Australian Atomic Energy Commission for the determination of complete photon dose distributions. These are more meaningful in many cases than the average doses determined by the absorbed fraction method. (author)

  2. Beta-particle dosimetry in radiation synovectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.S.; Barnes, C.L.; Spitzer, A.I.; Sledge, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    Beta-particle dosimetry of various radionuclides used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis was estimated using Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation coupled with experiments using reactor-produced radionuclides and radiachromic film dosimeters inserted into joint phantoms and the knees of cadavers. Results are presented as absorbed dose factors (cGy-cm 2 /MBq-s) versus depth in a mathematical model of the rheumatoid joint which includes regions of bone, articular cartilage, joint capsule, and tissue (synovium) found in all synovial joints. The factors can be used to estimate absorbed dose and dose rate distributions in treated joints. In particular, guidance is provided for those interested in (a) a given radionuclide's therapeutic range, (b) the amount of radioactivity to administer on a case-by-case basis, (c) the expected therapeutic dose to synovium, and (d) the radiation dose imparted to other, nontarget components in the joint, including bone and articular cartilage. (orig.). With 6 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Radiation protection and dosimetry: basis. 9. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauhata, Luiz; Salati, Ivan; Di Prinzio, Renato; Di Prinzio, Antonieta R.

    2013-11-01

    A revised book 'Radiation Protection and Dosimetry: Fundamentals , prepared to meet the training courses offered by the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria - IRD, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil and people interested in the subject, is presented. Concepts have been updated, especially the chapter on Radiological Magnitudes, due to upgrade of Standard CNEN-NN-3.01-Basic Guidelines on Radiological Protection, published in the Diario Oficial da Uniao on September 1, 2011. A chapter related to Waste Management, another on the Transport of Radioactive Materials and three annexes on: Standards of CNEN, Ionizing Radiation and Personnel Legislation and Determination of shields in Radiotherapy were included. Were also added several tables for use in radiological protection, to facilitate consultation

  4. Progress in high-dose radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettinger, K.V.; Nam, J.W.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Chadwick, K.H.

    1981-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a deluge of new high-dose dosimetry techniques and expanded applications of methods developed earlier. Many of the principal systems are calibrated by means of calorimetry, although production of heat is not always the final radiation effect of interest. Reference systems also include a number of chemical dose meters: ferrous sulphate, ferrous-cupric sulphate, and ceric sulphate acidic aqueous solutions. Requirements for stable and reliable transfer dose meters have led to further developments of several important high-dose systems: amino acids and saccharides analysed by ESR or lyoluminescence, thermoluminescent materials, radiochromic dyes and plastics, ceric-cerous solutions analysed by potentiometry, and ethanol-chlorobenzene solutions analysed by high-frequency oscillometry. A number of other prospective dose meters are also treated in this review. In addition, an IAEA programme of high-dose standardization and intercomparison for industrial radiation processing is described. (author)

  5. Quality control through dosimetry at a contract radiation processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.; Roediger, A.H.A.

    1985-01-01

    Reliable dosimetry procedures constitute a very important part of process control and quality assurance at a contract gamma radiation processing facility that caters for a large variety of different radiation applications. The choice, calibration and routine intercalibration of the dosimetry systems employed form the basis of a sound dosimetry policy in radiation processing. With the dosimetric procedures established, detailed dosimetric mapping of the irradiator upon commissioning (and whenever source modifications take place) is carried out to determine the radiation processing characteristics and peformance of the plant. Having established the irradiator parameters, routine dosimetry procedures, being part of the overall quality control measures, are employed. In addition to routine dosimetry, independent monitoring of routine dosimetry is performed on a bi-monthly basis and the results indicate a variation of better than 3%. On an annaul basis the dosimetry systems are intercalibrated through at least one primary standard dosimetry laboratory and to date a variation of better than 5% has been experienced. The company also participates in the Pilot Dose Assurance Service of the International Atomic Energy Agency, using the alanine/ESR dosimetry system. Routine calibration of the instrumentation employed is carried out on a regular basis. Detailed permanent records are compiled on all dosimetric and instrumentation calibrations, and the routine dosimetry employed at the plant. Certificates indicating the measured absorbed radiation doses are issued on request and in many cases are used for the dosimetric release of sterilized medical and pharmaceutical products. These procedures, used by Iso-Ster at its industrial gamma radiation facility, as well as the experience built up over a number of years using radiation dosimetry for process control and quality assurance are discussed. (author)

  6. High sensitive radiation detector for radiology dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, M.; Malano, F. [Instituto de Fisica Enrique Gaviola, Oficina 102 FaMAF - UNC, Av. Luis Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Molina, W.; Vedelago, J., E-mail: valente@famac.unc.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Investigaciones e Instrumentacion en Fisica Aplicada a la Medicina e Imagenes por Rayos X, Laboratorio 448 FaMAF - UNC, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2014-08-15

    Fricke solution has a wide range of applications as radiation detector and dosimetry. It is particularly appreciated in terms of relevant comparative advantages, like tissue equivalence when prepared in aqueous media like gel matrix, continuous mapping capability, dose rate recorded and incident direction independence as well as linear dose response. This work presents the development and characterization of a novel Fricke gel system, based on modified chemical compositions making possible its application in clinical radiology. Properties of standard Fricke gel dosimeter for high dose levels are used as starting point and suitable chemical modifications are introduced and carefully investigated in order to attain high resolution for low dose ranges, like those corresponding to radiology interventions. The developed Fricke gel radiation dosimeter system achieves the expected typical dose dependency, actually showing linear response in the dose range from 20 up to 4000 mGy. Systematic investigations including several chemical compositions are carried out in order to obtain a good enough dosimeter response for low dose levels. A suitable composition among those studied is selected as a good candidate for low dose level radiation dosimetry consisting on a modified Fricke solution fixed to a gel matrix containing benzoic acid along with sulfuric acid, ferrous sulfate, xylenol orange and ultra-pure reactive grade water. Dosimeter samples are prepared in standard vials for its in phantom irradiation and further characterization by spectrophotometry measuring visible light transmission and absorbance before and after irradiation. Samples are irradiated by typical kV X-ray tubes and calibrated Farmer type ionization chamber is used as reference to measure dose rates inside phantoms in at vials locations. Once sensitive material composition is already optimized, dose-response curves show significant improvement regarding overall sensitivity for low dose levels. According to

  7. High sensitive radiation detector for radiology dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valente, M.; Malano, F.; Molina, W.; Vedelago, J.

    2014-08-01

    Fricke solution has a wide range of applications as radiation detector and dosimetry. It is particularly appreciated in terms of relevant comparative advantages, like tissue equivalence when prepared in aqueous media like gel matrix, continuous mapping capability, dose rate recorded and incident direction independence as well as linear dose response. This work presents the development and characterization of a novel Fricke gel system, based on modified chemical compositions making possible its application in clinical radiology. Properties of standard Fricke gel dosimeter for high dose levels are used as starting point and suitable chemical modifications are introduced and carefully investigated in order to attain high resolution for low dose ranges, like those corresponding to radiology interventions. The developed Fricke gel radiation dosimeter system achieves the expected typical dose dependency, actually showing linear response in the dose range from 20 up to 4000 mGy. Systematic investigations including several chemical compositions are carried out in order to obtain a good enough dosimeter response for low dose levels. A suitable composition among those studied is selected as a good candidate for low dose level radiation dosimetry consisting on a modified Fricke solution fixed to a gel matrix containing benzoic acid along with sulfuric acid, ferrous sulfate, xylenol orange and ultra-pure reactive grade water. Dosimeter samples are prepared in standard vials for its in phantom irradiation and further characterization by spectrophotometry measuring visible light transmission and absorbance before and after irradiation. Samples are irradiated by typical kV X-ray tubes and calibrated Farmer type ionization chamber is used as reference to measure dose rates inside phantoms in at vials locations. Once sensitive material composition is already optimized, dose-response curves show significant improvement regarding overall sensitivity for low dose levels. According to

  8. EURADOS strategic research agenda: vision for dosimetry of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehm, W.; Woda, C.; Fantuzzi, E.; Harrison, R.; Schuhmacher, H.; Neumaier, S.; Vanhavere, F.; Alves, J.; Bottollier Depois, J.F.; Fattibene, P.; Knezevic, Z.; Miljanic, S.; Lopez, M. A.; Mayer, S.; Olko, P.; Stadtmann, H.; Tanner, R.

    2016-01-01

    Since autumn 2012, the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has been developing its Strategic Research Agenda (SRA), which is intended to contribute to the identification of future research needs in radiation dosimetry in Europe. The present article summarises-based on input from EURADOS Working Groups (WGs) and Voting Members-five visions in dosimetry and defines key issues in dosimetry research that are considered important for the next decades. The five visions include scientific developments required towards (a) updated fundamental dose concepts and quantities, (b) improved radiation risk estimates deduced from epidemiological cohorts, (c) efficient dose assessment for radiological emergencies, (d) integrated personalised dosimetry in medical applications and (e) improved radiation protection of workers and the public. The SRA of EURADOS will be used as a guideline for future activities of the EURADOS WGs. A detailed version of the SRA can be downloaded as a EURADOS report from the EURADOS web site (www.eurados.org). (authors)

  9. Nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies at the Health Physics Research Reactor: a summary (1965-1978)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, C.S.; Dickson, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    Fifteen nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison studies utilizing the fast pulsed Health Physics Research Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been conducted since 1965. These studies have provided a growing number of participants with a forum for discussing and learning more about accident dosimetry systems and with opportunity to test their systems under simulated nuclear accident conditions and to compare their results with those of others making measurements under identical conditions. Shielded and unshielded measurements of the neutron and the gamma doses to phantoms and at area monitoring stations have been made with a wide variety of dosimeter types. The large amount of data available from these measurements throughout the years is summarized, analyzed and discussed. The information in this summary provides an indication of the status of and trends in nuclear accident dosimetry. (author)

  10. An international co-ordinated research programme on nuclear accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flakus, F.N.

    1977-01-01

    Where fissile materials are being processed in quantities exceeding the minimum critical amounts, a radiation risk to workers arises from the possibility of criticality excursions. Despite the fact that techniques for preventing the occurende of such accidental excursions have reached very high standards it is generally agreed that the availability of suitable nuclear accident dosimetry (NAD) systems is very important. Following the recommendations of an Advisory Group meeting on NAD, the IAEA had established in 1969 an international coordinated research programme on NAD systems and elaborating standarized systems. A large number of research groups from 14 Member States throughout the world participated in this co-ordinated work. Since 1970 four international multilaboratory intercomparison experiments on NAD have been organized and the response of a variety of dosimeters examined in different neutron spectra under simulated accident conditions at Valduc (France), Oak Ridge (USA), Vinca (Yugoslavia) and Harwell (UK). The results achieved in these intercomparison studies show that NAD systems have been substantially improved and that several systems are available now in a number of laboratories throughout the world that perform within the criteria laid down by the initiating advisory group in 1969. A compendium of neutron leakage spectra has also been elaborated for facilitating the determination of dose from readings of detectors exposed to various neutron fields in criticality accidents

  11. Technical basis for nuclear accident dosimetry at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Mei, G.T.

    1993-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental, Safety, and Health Emergency Response Organization has the responsibility of providing analyses of personnel exposures to neutrons and gamma rays from a nuclear accident. This report presents the technical and philosophical basis for the dose assessment aspects of the nuclear accident dosimetry (NAD) system at ORNL. The issues addressed are regulatory guidelines, ORNL NAD system components and performance, and the interpretation of dosimetric information that would be gathered following a nuclear accident

  12. Biological dosimetry following exposure to neutrons in a criticality accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, C. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, STUK (Finland)); Wojcik, A. (Stockholm Univ. (SU), Stockholm (Sweden)); Jaworska, A. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) (Norway))

    2011-01-15

    The aim of the BIONCA project was to implement cytogenetic techniques for biodosimetry purposes in the Nordic countries. The previous NKS-funded biodosimetry activities (BIODOS and BIOPEX) concentrated on experiments using gamma-irradiation and on developing the PCC ring assay for biodosimetry. Experiments conducted during the present BIONCA project has broadened the biodosimetry capacity of the Nordic countries to include dose estimation of exposure to neutrons for both PCC ring and dicentric chromosome techniques. In 2009, experiments were conducted for establishing both PCC ring and dicentric dose calibration curves. Neutron irradiation of human whole blood obtained from two volunteers was conducted in the Netherlands at the Petten reactor. Cell cultures and analysis of whole blood exposed to eight doses between 0 and 10 Gy were performed for both techniques. For the dicentric assay, excellent uniformity in dose calibration for data from both SU and STUK was observed. For PCC rings, the SU and STUK curves were not equally congruent, probably due to the less uniform scoring criteria. However, both curves displayed strong linearity throughout the dose range. In 2010, an exercise was conducted to simulate a criticality accident and to test the validity of the established dose calibration curves. For accident simulation, 16 blood samples were irradiated in Norway at the Kjeller reactor and analysed for dose estimation with both assays. The results showed that, despite a different com-position of the radiation beams in Petten and Kjeller, good dose estimates were obtained. The activity has provided good experience on collaboration required in radiation emergency situations where the biodosimetry capacity and resources of one laboratory may be inadequate. In this respect, the project has strengthened the informal network between the Nordic countries: STUK, the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, NRPA, the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and SU

  13. Radiation risks and the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindell, B

    1986-01-01

    A review is given of the basic of radiation protection, including nomenclature and units and principles for protection at accidents. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Soviet Union and in Sweden is described, and the recommendations and protection measures applied in Sweden are presented. In particular, the radiation levels and restrictions concerning food are discussed. (L.E.).

  14. Emergency handling of radiation accident cases: firemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures for the emergency handling of persons exposed to radiation or radioactive contamination are presented, with emphasis on information needed by firemen. The types of radiation accident patients that may be encountered are described and procedures for first aid, for preventing the spread of radioactive contamination, and for reporting the accident are outlined

  15. Cytogenetic Dosimetry: Applications in Preparedness for and Response to Radiation Emergencies - Training Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    These materials are designed for use at a four day training course on the application of cytogenetic dosimetry in preparedness for and response to radiation emergencies. They contain information on: (1) Basics of biological effects of ionizing radiation: Parts 1+2; (2) Basics of dosimetry; (3) dicentric assay; (4) Retrospective dosimetry by translocation analysis; (5) Premature chromosome condensation analysis; (6) Cytokinesis block micronucleus assay; (7) Applied statistics for biodosimetry; (8) Automatic analysis of chromosomal assays; (9) Biodosimetry in mass casualty events; (10) Safety of laboratory staff and quality programmes; (11) Examples of accident investigations; (12) Cytogenetic dose estimation in the criticality accident in Tokaimura; (13) Radiological accidents in Latin America; (14) Radiological accidents in Georgia. Additionally, the CD contains two working sessions with the reference materials for use and a standard training programme. This training course consists of lectures and work sessions that can easily be utilized by a State to build a basic capability in biodosimetry application in a nuclear or radiological emergency

  16. Internal dose assessment in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toohey, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    Although numerous models have been developed for occupational and medical internal dosimetry, they may not be applicable to an accident situation. Published dose coefficients relate effective dose to intake, but if acute deterministic effects are possible, effective dose is not a useful parameter. Consequently, dose rates to the organs of interest need to be computed from first principles. Standard bioassay methods may be used to assess body contents, but, again, the standard models for bioassay interpretation may not be applicable because of the circumstances of the accident and the prompt initiation of decorporation therapy. Examples of modifications to the standard methodologies include adjustment of biological half-times under therapy, such as in the Goiania accident, and the same effect, complicated by continued input from contaminated wounds, in the Hanford 241 Am accident. (author)

  17. Semiconductor dosimetry system for gamma and neutron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savic, Z.; Pavlovic, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The semiconductor dosimetry system for gamma and neutron radiation based on pMOS transistor and PIN diode is described. It is intended for tactical or accidental personal dosimetry. The production steps are given. The temperature, dose and time (fading) response are reported. Hardware and software requirements which are needed for obtaining the desired measurement error are pointed. (author)

  18. Present status and expected progress in radiation processing dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovács, A.; Miller, A.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the present status of radiation processing dosimetry including the methods used most widely in gamma- and electron processing as well as the new methods under development or introduction. The recent trends with respect to calibrationof routine dosimetry systems as well...

  19. High level radiation dosimetry in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Tetsuo

    1979-01-01

    The physical and biological dosimetries relating to cancer therapy with radiation were taken up at the first place in the late intercomparison on high LET radiation therapy in Japan-US cancer research cooperative study. The biological dosimetry, the large dose in biomedical research, the high dose rate in biomedical research and the practical dosimeters for pulsed neutrons or protons are outlined with the main development history and the characteristics which were obtained in the relating experiments. The clinical neutron facilities in the US and Japan involved in the intercomparison are presented. Concerning the experimental results of dosimeters, the relation between the R.B.E. compared with Chiba (Cyclotron in National Institute of Radiological Sciences) and the energy of deuterons or protons used for neutron production, the survival curves of three cultured cell lines derived from human cancers, after the irradiation of 250 keV X-ray, cyclotron neutrons of about 13 MeV and Van de Graaff neutrons of about 2 MeV, the hatchability of dry Artemia eggs at the several depths in an absorber stack irradiated by 60 MeV proton beam of 40, 120 and 200 krad, the peak skin reaction of mouse legs observed at various sets of average and instantaneous dose rates, and the peak skin reaction versus three instantaneous dose rates at fixed average dose rate of 7,300 rad/min are shown. These actual data were evaluated numerically and in relation to the physical meaning from the viewpoint of the fundamental aspect of cancer therapy, comparing the Japanese measured values to the US data. The discussion record on the high dose rate effect of low LET particles on biological substances and others is added. (Nakai, Y.)

  20. The ENEA criticality accident dosimetry system: a contribution to the 2002 international intercomparison at the SILENE reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdrini, G; Bedogni, R; Fantuzzi, E; Mariotti, F

    2004-01-01

    The present paper summarises the activity carried out at the ENEA Radiation Protection Institute for updating the methodologies employed for the evaluation of the neutron and photon dose to the exposed workers in case of a criticality accident, in the framework of the 'International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems' (Silène reactor, IRSN-CEA-Valduc June 2002). The evaluation of the neutron spectra and the neutron dosimetric quantities relies on activation detectors and on unfolding algorithms. Thermoluminescent detectors are employed for the gamma dose measurement. The work is aimed at accurately characterising the measurement system and, at the same time, testing the algorithms. Useful spectral information were included, based on Monte Carlo simulations, to take into account the potential accident scenarios of practical interest. All along this exercise intercomparison a particular attention was devoted to the 'traceability' of all the experimental and computational parameters and therefore, aimed at an easy treatment by the user.

  1. Proceedings of the recent developments in radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, Nagesh; Palani Selvan, T.

    2016-01-01

    Whilst 'Dosimetry' in its original sense deals with methods for a quantitative determination of energy deposited in a given medium by directly or indirectly ionizing radiations, the term is better known as a scientific sub-specialty in the fields of health physics and medical physics, where it is the calculation and assessment of the radiation dose received by the human body. Dosimetry is used extensively for radiation protection and is routinely applied to ensure radiological safety of occupational radiation workers. Internal dosimetry due to the ingestion or inhalation of radioactive materials relies on a variety of physiological or imaging techniques. External dosimetry, due to irradiation from an external source is based on measurements with a dosimeter, or inferred from other radiological protection instruments. Radiation dosimetry is one of the important research areas of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). This research work is centered on the facilities such as nuclear reactors, reprocessing plants, high energy accelerators (research/industry/medical), radiation standards, food processing, radiation technology development, etc. In each of these facilities, radiation field environment is different and the associated dosimetry concepts are different. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  2. Film Dosimetry for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benites-Rengifo, J.; Martinez-Davalos, A.; Celis, M.; Larraga, J.

    2004-01-01

    Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is an oncology treatment technique that employs non-uniform beam intensities to deliver highly conformal radiation to the targets while minimizing doses to normal tissues and critical organs. A key element for a successful clinical implementation of IMRT is establishing a dosimetric verification process that can ensure that delivered doses are consistent with calculated ones for each patient. To this end we are developing a fast quality control procedure, based on film dosimetry techniques, to be applied to the 6 MV Novalis linear accelerator for IMRT of the Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia (INNN) in Mexico City. The procedure includes measurements of individual fluence maps for a limited number of fields and dose distributions in 3D using extended dose-range radiographic film. However, the film response to radiation might depend on depth, energy and field size, and therefore compromise the accuracy of measurements. In this work we present a study of the dependence of Kodak EDR2 film's response on the depth, field size and energy, compared with those of Kodak XV2 film. The first aim is to devise a fast and accurate method to determine the calibration curve of film (optical density vs. doses) commonly called a sensitometric curve. This was accomplished by using three types of irradiation techniques: Step-and-shoot, dynamic and static fields

  3. Advances on radiation protection dosimetry research, development and services at AEOI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry is the main counterpart of an effective national radiation protection program to protect radiation workers, public and the environment against harmful effects of radiation. Research and development on radiation dosimetry are of vital needs to support national dosimetry services. The National Radiation Protection Department (NRPD) of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) being a National Authority on radiation protection is also responsible for radiation dosimetry research, development and services. Some highlights of such activities at NRPD are reviewed and discussed

  4. Conventional radiation-biological dosimetry using frequencies of unstable chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, Adriana T.; Costa, Maria Lucia P.; Oliveira, Monica S.

    1998-01-01

    Frequency of chromosome aberrations detected by conventional cytogenetics is a very useful parameter in biological radiodosimetry. It can be used for estimating absorbed doses in individuals working with radioactive sources and individuals accidentally exposed to radiation. In the first case subjects wear physical dosimeters as a routine safety habit. The laboratory at the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD, Brazil) has been using conventional cytogenetic analysis to complement data obtained by physical dosimetry since 1983. Until now, more than one hundred cases were investigated where individual physical dosimeters detected occupational exposure (above the safety limits allowed). In total, only 34% of these cases were confirmed by conventional cytogenetic dosimetry. Also, conventional cytogenetic analysis following the radiation accident of Goiania (Brazil) in 1987 have been used. Peripheral lymphocytes from 129 exposed or potentially exposed individuals were analyzed for the frequencies of unstable chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics, centric rings and acentrics fragments) to estimate absorbed radiation doses. During the emergency period, doses were estimated to help immediate medical treatment using in vitro calibration curves produced before the accident. Later on, doses were assessed once more using new in vitro calibration curves. A drawback of this technique is that unstable aberrations are lost after exposure. To investigate the mean lifespan of lymphocytes containing dicentric and ring aberrations, we have followed 15 victims of the Goiania accident over all these years. Results suggest that the disappearance of unstable aberrations is dose-dependent. This could explain the variation in the results found among studies in this field

  5. Conventional radiation-biological dosimetry using frequencies of unstable chromosome aberrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalho, Adriana T.; Costa, Maria Lucia P.; Oliveira, Monica S. [Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD), National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende, Cx. P. 37750, Rio de Janeiro 22.780-160 (Brazil)

    1998-08-03

    Frequency of chromosome aberrations detected by conventional cytogenetics is a very useful parameter in biological radiodosimetry. It can be used for estimating absorbed doses in individuals working with radioactive sources and individuals accidentally exposed to radiation. In the first case subjects wear physical dosimeters as a routine safety habit. The laboratory at the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD, Brazil) has been using conventional cytogenetic analysis to complement data obtained by physical dosimetry since 1983. Until now, more than one hundred cases were investigated where individual physical dosimeters detected occupational exposure (above the safety limits allowed). In total, only 34% of these cases were confirmed by conventional cytogenetic dosimetry. Also, conventional cytogenetic analysis following the radiation accident of Goiania (Brazil) in 1987 have been used. Peripheral lymphocytes from 129 exposed or potentially exposed individuals were analyzed for the frequencies of unstable chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics, centric rings and acentrics fragments) to estimate absorbed radiation doses. During the emergency period, doses were estimated to help immediate medical treatment using in vitro calibration curves produced before the accident. Later on, doses were assessed once more using new in vitro calibration curves. A drawback of this technique is that unstable aberrations are lost after exposure. To investigate the mean lifespan of lymphocytes containing dicentric and ring aberrations, we have followed 15 victims of the Goiania accident over all these years. Results suggest that the disappearance of unstable aberrations is dose-dependent. This could explain the variation in the results found among studies in this field

  6. ESR accident dosimetry using medicine tablets coated with sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, A.; Miki, T.; Ikeya, M.

    1990-01-01

    Properties of radiation-induced radicals in medicine tablets were investigated using electron spin resonance (ESR). A sharp ESR signal sensitive to gamma ray irradiation was observed in the sugar coating part of the tablets. The signal has anisotropic g values of g 1 = 2.0009, g 2 = 2.0007 and g 3 = 2.0002. The signal grows linearly with dose at least up to about 20 Gy. No fading was observed at room temperature even when exposed to sunlight. The dose to artificially irradiated tablets was estimated using the signal intensity and a previously determined calibration curve. The signal in sugar coated tablets can be utilised for dose measurements. In particular, the wide distribution of sugar coated tablets allows the use of the tablets as accident dosemeters. (author)

  7. Dosimetry services for internal and external radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) sets radiation dose limits for the operation of nuclear facilities and the possession of prescribed substances within Canada. To administer these regulations the AECB must be satisfied that the dosimetry services used by a licensee meet adequate standards. Licensees are required to use the Occupational Dosimetry Service operated by the Bureau of Radiation and Medical Devices, Department of National Health and Welfare (BRMD) to determine doses from external sources of radiation, except where a detailed rationale is given for using another service. No national dosimetry service exists for internal sources of radiation. Licensees who operate or use a dosimetry service other than the BRMD must provide the AECB with evidence of the competence of the staff and adequacy of the equipment, techniques and procedures; provide the AECB with evidence that a quality assurance program has been implemented; and send individual dose or exposure data to the National Dose Registry. (L.L.)

  8. In vivo dosimetry in radiation therapy in Sweden; In vivo-dosimetri inom straalbehandling i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Jacob; Blomquist, Michael (Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeaa (Sweden))

    2010-07-15

    A prerequisite for achieving high radiation safety for patients receiving external beam radiation therapy is that the hospitals have a quality assurance program. The program should include include monitoring of the radiation dose given to the patient. Control measurements are performed both at the system level and at the individual level. Control measurement is normally performed using in vivo dosimetry, e.g. a method to measure the radiation dose at the individual level during the actual radiation treatment time. In vivo dosimetry has proven to be an important tool to detect and prevent serious errors in patient treatment. The purpose of this research project was to identify the extent to which vivo dosimetry is used and the methods available for this at Swedish radiation therapy clinics. The authority also wanted to get an overall picture of how hospitals manage results of in vivo dosimetry, and how clinics control radiation dose when using modern treatment techniques. The report reflects the situation in Swedish radiotherapy clinics 2007. The report shows that all hospitals use some form of in vivo dosimetry. The instruments used are mainly diodes and termoluminiscence dosimeters

  9. Radiation accidents and defence of population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memmedov, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Development of nuclear physics, the fundamental and the applied researches in the field of radioactive insured wide possibility for application of radionuclides and ionizing radiation source in the different fields of national economy. Application of radionuclides in chemical, metallurgical, food industry, in agriculture and etc. Fields provide a large economic profit. It's hard to apprise significance of ionizing radiation source using in medicine for diagnostics and treatment of different disease. Nuclear power engineering and nuclear industry are developing intensively. At same time nuclear power, ionizing radiation sources incur potential treat for surroundings and health of population. As even that stage of protective measure development: there is no possibility of that happening of radiation accidents. A radiation accident qualifies as loss of ionizing radiation sources direction, which provoked by disrepair equipment, natural calamity or other causes which could bring to unplanned irradiation of population or radioactive pollution of surroundings. At present some following typical cases connected with radiation accident have been chosen: Contentious using or keeping of ionizing radiation source with breach of established requires; Loss, theft of ionizing radiation sources or radiation plants, instruments; Leaving the sources of ionizing radiation in the holes; Refusal radiation technic exploited in industry, medicine, SRI and etc; Disrepair in nuclear transport means of conveyance; Crashes and accidents at NPP and at other enterprises of nuclear industry. The radiation accidents according to character, degree and scales have been divided into two groups: Radiation accidents not connected with NPP; Accidents in the nuclear engineering and industry; The radiation accidents not connected with NPP according their consequence divide into 5 groups; accidents which do not come to irradiation of personal, persons from population (more PN-permissible norm

  10. Radiation dosimetry for residents of the Chernobyl region: a comparison of cytogenetic and electron spin resonance methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serezhenkov, V A; Mordvintcev, P I; Vanin, A F; Voevodskaya, N V [AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Fizicheskoj Khimii; Domracheva, E V; Kulikov, S M; Kuznetsov, S A; Schklovsky-Kordi, N E; Vorobiev, A I [National Center for Haematology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Klevezal, G A; Sukhovskaya, L I [Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Developmental Biology

    1992-01-01

    Persons from the Gomel region of Byelorussia who were irradiated by the Chernobyl reactor accident have been studied. Estimations of their radiation doses using electron spin resonance spectrometry of dental enamel showed good agreement with dosimetry by chromosomal analysis of blood lymphocytes. (author).

  11. Investigations of touchscreen glasses from mobile phones for retrospective and accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discher, Michael; Bortolin, Emanuela; Woda, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Touchscreen glasses of mobile phones are sensitive to ionizing radiation and have the potential of usage as an emergency dosimeter for retrospective dosimetry for the purpose of triage after a radiological accident or attack. In this study the TL glow curves and dosimetric properties of touchscreen glasses were studied in detail, such as intrinsic background dose, dose response, reproducibility, optical stability and long-term stability of the TL signal. Preliminary results are additionally presented to minimize the intrinsic background dose by mechanically removing the surface layer of the glass samples. Additionally chemical element analyses of the touchscreen glass samples were carried out to investigate the difference between glass samples which show a TL signal and samples which show neither an intrinsic zero dose signal nor a radiation induced TL signal. An irradiation trial using glass samples stored in the dark demonstrated a successful dose recovery. However, when applying a realistic, external light exposure scenario, dose underestimation was observed, even though samples were pre-bleached prior to measurement. More investigations have to be carried out in the future to solve the challenge of the low optical stability of the TL signal, if touchscreen glasses are to be used as a reliable emergency dosimeter. - Highlights: • Touchscreen glasses are sensitive to ionizing radiation and show suitable dosimetric properties. • Mechanically treated samples demonstrated a significant reduction of the intrinsic zero dose signal. • An irradiation trial showed limitations of the used protocol for strongly bleached samples.

  12. Thermoluminescence of glass display from mobile phones for retrospective and accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discher, M.; Woda, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the thermoluminescence (TL) study of glass displays from mobile phones with the aim to use them as emergency dosimeters after an accident involving ionizing radiation. Dosimetric properties are analysed in order to examine and to critically evaluate the usability. Tests are carried out regarding the characterization of the radiation induced TL signal and the zero dose signal (intrinsic background) on a variety of display samples. Investigations on the thermal and optical stability of TL signals are carried out. The detection limit is mainly determined by the variability of the zero dose signal and lies in the range of 300–400 mGy. A linear relationship between the measured TL signal and the applied dose is observed for doses between 10 mGy and 20 Gy. A measurement protocol for the detection of absorbed radiation dose is developed, considering the experimental dosimetric properties. A reconstruction of the absorbed dose is possible using glass samples from mobile phones, if the signal loss due to storage and optical bleaching of the TL signal is adequately corrected for. This was confirmed by realistic tests. - Highlights: • Glass displays of mobile phones have potential for retrospective dosimetry. • Signal fading can be corrected with an universally fading curve. • Irradiation trials on intact mobile phones demonstrated a reasonable agreement between given and measured dose

  13. Nuclear accident dosimetry systems: U.K. measurements at the sixteenth intercomparison at O.R.N.L. August 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafield, H.J.; Gibson, J.A.B.; Holt, P.D.; Harrison, K.G.

    1980-04-01

    The results are presented of the measurements made by the A.E.R.E., Harwell participants at the Intercomparison of Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Systems held at the Dosimetry Applications Research Facility (DOSAR) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA from 13 - 17 August 1979. The source of pulsed radiation used was the Health Physics Research Reactor which was operated bare for pulse 1, and shielded by concrete (20cm thickness) and steel (5cm thickness) for pulses 2 and 3 respectively. Measurements are reported which were made using personnel dosimeters (both in free-air and on phantoms) and a threshold detector system and compared with the provisional results given by the DOSAR group at the meeting. (U.K.)

  14. Organizational aspects of the handling of radiation accidents in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.

    1977-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany it is a legal requirement that persons exposed to ionizing radiation as a consequence of their employment in radiation facilities should be monitored. Some 90000 persons constitute the population 'at risk' for occupational radiation exposure. The actual radiation accident rate has been very low indeed. Nevertheless, precautions must be taken. Four radiation accident categories may be distinguished: uncomplicated, complicated, contamination and incorporation accidents. In the Federal Republic, the 'Berufsgenossenschaften' (BGS) are required to organize radiation accident care if necessary and take all measures to prevent them. The BGS has issued a pamphlet 'First Aid in case of Increased Exposure to Ionizing Radiation' as a guide to all personnel concerned. The BGS has also organized 5 'Regional Radiation Protection Centres' available to give advice 7 days a week, 24 hours a day in Hamburg, Homburg (Saar), Juelich, Karlsruhe und Munich. These centres are all equipped to provide first aid and decontamination and to cater for a short term stay until a decision is reached as to how to handle a particular accident. The special burns hospital of the BGS in Ludwigshafen is equipped with sterile rooms to handle 'complicated accidents', in particular when skin burns are involved. Two mobile 'radiation protection units' are available in Karlsruhe and Munich to provide help in all problems of dosimetry and health physics. A medical advisory team has been formed to supplement local physicians in dealing with special problems in the handling of radiation accident victims. (author)

  15. Quality audit service of the IAEA for radiation processing dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, K.; Girzikowsky, R.

    1996-01-01

    The mandate of the International Atomic Energy Agency includes assistance to Member States to establish nuclear technologies safely and effectively. In pursuit of this, a quality audit service for dosimetry relevant to radiation processing was initiated as a key element of the High-Dose Standardization Programme of the IAEA. The standardization of dosimetry for radiation processing provides a justification for the regulatory approval of irradiated products and their unrestricted international trade. In recent times, the Agency's Dosimetry Laboratory has placed concentrated effort towards establishing a quality assurance programme based on the ISO 9000 series documents. The need for reliable and accurate dosimetry for radiation processing is increasing in Member States and we can envisage a definite role for the SSDLs in such a programme. (author). 10 refs, 3 figs

  16. Application of Apollo cosmic radiation dosimetry to lunar colonization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, R.A.; Bailey, J.V.; Brown, R.D.

    1972-01-01

    The radiation data gathered from the lunar landing missions of Apollo 11 through Apollo 15 are presented. These data have been analyzed to provide dosimetry evaluation of the ambient radiation and radiation from potential solar particle events for the planning of safe, long-term stays of relatively large numbers of individuals upon the moon. (U.S.)

  17. Modelling of a holographic interferometry based calorimeter for radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigzadeh, A. M.; Vaziri, M. R. Rashidian; Ziaie, F.

    2017-08-01

    In this research work, a model for predicting the behaviour of holographic interferometry based calorimeters for radiation dosimetry is introduced. Using this technique for radiation dosimetry via measuring the variations of refractive index due to energy deposition of radiation has several considerable advantages such as extreme sensitivity and ability of working without normally used temperature sensors that disturb the radiation field. We have shown that the results of our model are in good agreement with the experiments performed by other researchers under the same conditions. This model also reveals that these types of calorimeters have the additional and considerable merits of transforming the dose distribution to a set of discernible interference fringes.

  18. General specifications for silicon semiconductors for use in radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikner, G.; Grusell, E.

    1987-01-01

    Silicon semiconductor detectors used in radiation dosimetry have different properties, just as e.g. ionisation chambers, affecting the interaction of radiation with matter in the vicinity of the sensitive volume of the detector, e.g. wall materials, and also the collection of the charges liberated in the detector by the radiation. The charge collection depends on impurities, lattice imperfections and other properties of the semiconductor crystal. In this paper the relevant parameters of a silicon semiconductor detector intended for dosimetry are reviewed. The influence of doping material, doping level, various effects of radiation damage, mechanical construction, detector size, statistical noise and connection to the electrometer are discussed. (author)

  19. In vivo dosimetry in radiation therapy in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Jacob; Blomquist, Michael

    2010-07-01

    A prerequisite for achieving high radiation safety for patients receiving external beam radiation therapy is that the hospitals have a quality assurance program. The program should include include monitoring of the radiation dose given to the patient. Control measurements are performed both at the system level and at the individual level. Control measurement is normally performed using in vivo dosimetry, e.g. a method to measure the radiation dose at the individual level during the actual radiation treatment time. In vivo dosimetry has proven to be an important tool to detect and prevent serious errors in patient treatment. The purpose of this research project was to identify the extent to which vivo dosimetry is used and the methods available for this at Swedish radiation therapy clinics. The authority also wanted to get an overall picture of how hospitals manage results of in vivo dosimetry, and how clinics control radiation dose when using modern treatment techniques. The report reflects the situation in Swedish radiotherapy clinics 2007. The report shows that all hospitals use some form of in vivo dosimetry. The instruments used are mainly diodes and termoluminiscence dosimeters

  20. Textbook of dosimetry. 4. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.I.

    1999-01-01

    This textbook of dosimetry is devoted to the students in physics and technical physics of high education institutions, confronted with different application of atomic energy as well as with protection of population and environment against ionizing radiations. Atomic energy is highly beneficial for man but unfortunately incorporates potential dangers which manifest in accidents, the source of which is either insufficient training of the personnel, a criminal negligence or insufficient reliability of the nuclear facilities. The majority of the incident and accident events have had as origin the personnel errors. This was the case with both the 'Three Miles Island' (1979) and Chernobyl (1986) NPP accidents. The dosimetry science acquires a vital significance in accident situations since the data obtained by its procedures are essential in choosing the correct immediate actions, behaviour tactics, orientation of liquidation of accident consequences as well as in ensuring the health of population. An important accent is placed in this manual on clarification of the nature of physical processes taken place in dosimetric detectors, in establishing the relation between radiation field characteristics and the detector response as well as in defining different dosimetric quantities. The terminology and the units of physical quantities is based on the international system of units. The book contains the following 15 chapters: 1. Ionizing radiation field; 2. Radiation doses; 3. Physical bases of gamma radiation dosimetry; 4. Ionization dosimetric detectors; 5. Semiconductor dosimetric detectors; 6. Scintillation detection in the gamma radiation dosimetry; 7. Luminescent methods in dosimetry; 8. The photographic and chemical methods of gamma radiation dosimetry; 9. Neutron dosimetry; 10. Dosimetry of high intensity radiation; 11. Dosimetry of high energy Bremsstrahlung; 12. Measurement of the linear energy transfer; 13. Microdosimetry; 14. Dosimetry of incorporated

  1. Planning for the Handling of Radiation Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    The developing atomic energy programmes and the widespread use of radiation sources in medicine, agriculture, industry and research have had admirable safety records. Throughout the world the number of known accidents in which persons have been exposed to harmful am ounts of ionizing radiation is relatively small, and only a few deaths have occurred. Meticulous precautions are being taken to maintain this good record in all work with radiation sources and to keep the exposure of persons as low as practicable. In spite of all the precautions that are taken, accidents may occur and they may be accompanied by the injury or death of persons and damage to property. It is only prudent to take those steps that are practicable to prevent accidents and to plan in advance the emergency action that would limit the injuries and damage caused by those accidents that do occur. Emergency plans should be sufficiently broad to cover unforeseen or very improbable accidents as well as those that are considered credible. Some accidents may involve only the workers in an establishment, those working directly with the source and possibly their colleagues. Other accidents may have consequences, notably in the form of radioactive contamination of the environment, that affect the general public, possibly far from the site of the accident. The preparation of plans for dealing with radiation accidents is therefore obligatory both for the various authorities that are responsible for protecting the health and the food and water supplies of the public, and for the operator of an installation containing radiation sources.

  2. Lyoluminescence dosimetry of the radiation in industrial doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigna Filho, E. del.

    1984-01-01

    The γ-rays lyoluminescence (LL) dosimetry study is presented. The basic principles involved, both in the method and radiation dosimetry, the equivalence between water and lyoluminescent materials, apparatus, irradiation technique and calibration method are discussed. The LL response dependence with environmental conditions are presented. These were temperature, humidity, storage time and the dependence on dissolved mass. A pre-reading thermal treatment was developed to overcome previous difficulties. The developed technique was applied to dose intercomparisons. (M.A.C.) [pt

  3. The thermoluminscent dosimetry service of the radiation protection bureau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    Thermoluminescent materials have been used in radiation dosimetry for many years, but their application to nationwide personnel dosimetry has been scarce. An undertaking of this nature requires that methods be established for identification of dosimeters and for fast interpretation and communication of dose to the users across the country. It is also necessary that records of cumulative dose of individual radiation workers be continuously updated, and such records be maintained for a prolonged period. To do this many problems pertinent to associated equpment, vis. the computer, TL reader, their interfacing, and to the operational procedures of the service had to be resolved. Since April 1977, the Radiation Protection Bureau has been providing a Thermoluminescent Dosimetry Service to Canadian radiation workers. This document describes the RPB dosimeter, its characteristics, various aspects of the service, objectives of the service, and how the objective goals of the service are achieved. (auth)

  4. Radiation dosimetry using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    A new dosimetry system for 3D dose distribution measurements based on the Fricke dosimeter and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been developed. The dosimeter consists of a ferrous sulphate solution incorporated in an agarose gel, which together constitute the dosimeter gel. The absorbed dose to the gel is measured by means of the proton spin-lattice relaxation rate, 1/T1 in an MR scanner. The dose distribution to an arbitrary slice within a dosimeter gel phantom can thus be determined. The chemical yield of the dosimeter gel is significantly higher than that of the for Fricke solution, and is strongly dependent of the initial ferrous sulphate concentration, assuming that the gel is bubbled with oxygen during preparation. A gel of 1.5 mM [Fe 2+ ] and 50 mM [H 2 SO 4 ] has a sensitivity of 0.108 s -1 Gy -1 and is linear up to 50 Gy. The dosimeter gel has uniform dose response over large volumes. Above 50 mM[H 2 SO 4 ] the yield increases only slightly, but the gel strength decreases and results in gel phantoms with non-uniform dose response. Below 50 mM[H 2 SO 4 ] the sensitivity of the dosimeter falls rapidly due to the decreased relaxivity of the ferric ions. The high chemical yield can be explained by a chain reaction and a reaction scheme is accordingly proposed. The dosimeter gel shows no dependence on dose rate or radiation quality and can be regarded as water-equivalent with respect to the interaction of the radiation. The diffusion coefficient of the ferric ions in the agarose gel is 1.19x10 -2 cm 2 /h. The diffusion blurs the dosimeteric image, but poses only a minor problem if the MR measurements are completed within the first two hours after irradiation. Dose distribution data from external radiation therapy units have been determined using the dosimeter gel and MRI with good accuracy, but the precision is poor, about 5-10%. (au) (84 refs.)

  5. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Thomas [German Aerospace Center - DLR, Inst. of Aerospace Medicine, Radiation Biology, Cologne (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature front that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as 'operational' dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on 'scientific' dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities. (orig.)

  6. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature front that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as ''operational'' dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on ''scientific'' dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities. (orig.)

  7. Mutual emergency assistance for radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    This document presents the result of a questionnaire survey conducted in order to assess what type of emergency assistance IAEA member states could provide in the event of radiation accidents. The survey covers resources like skilled personnel in collection, analysis and interpretation of data, surveying and radiation protection equipment, radiochemical analysis facilities, and medical assistance capacities

  8. EURADOS strategic research agenda: vision for dosimetry of ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühm, W; Fantuzzi, E; Harrison, R; Schuhmacher, H; Vanhavere, F; Alves, J; Bottollier Depois, J F; Fattibene, P; Knežević, Ž; Lopez, M A; Mayer, S; Miljanić, S; Neumaier, S; Olko, P; Stadtmann, H; Tanner, R; Woda, C

    2016-02-01

    Since autumn 2012, the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has been developing its Strategic Research Agenda (SRA), which is intended to contribute to the identification of future research needs in radiation dosimetry in Europe. The present article summarises-based on input from EURADOS Working Groups (WGs) and Voting Members-five visions in dosimetry and defines key issues in dosimetry research that are considered important for the next decades. The five visions include scientific developments required towards (a) updated fundamental dose concepts and quantities, (b) improved radiation risk estimates deduced from epidemiological cohorts, (c) efficient dose assessment for radiological emergencies, (d) integrated personalised dosimetry in medical applications and (e) improved radiation protection of workers and the public. The SRA of EURADOS will be used as a guideline for future activities of the EURADOS WGs. A detailed version of the SRA can be downloaded as a EURADOS report from the EURADOS website (www.eurados.org). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Twenty new ISO standards on dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar IV, H.

    2000-01-01

    Twenty standards on essentially all aspects of dosimetry for radiation processing were published as new ISO standards in December 1998. The standards are based on 20 standard practices and guides developed over the past 14 years by Subcommittee E10.01 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The transformation to ISO standards using the 'fast track' process under ISO Technical Committee 85 (ISO/TC85) commenced in 1995 and resulted in some overlap of technical information between three of the new standards and the existing ISO Standard 11137 Sterilization of health care products - Requirements for validation and routine control - Radiation sterilization. Although the technical information in these four standards was consistent, compromise wording in the scopes of the three new ISO standards to establish precedence for use were adopted. Two of the new ISO standards are specifically for food irradiation applications, but the majority apply to all forms of gamma, X-ray, and electron beam radiation processing, including dosimetry for sterilization of health care products and the radiation processing of fruit, vegetables, meats, spices, processed foods, plastics, inks, medical wastes, and paper. Most of the standards provide exact procedures for using individual dosimetry systems or for characterizing various types of irradiation facilities, but one covers the selection and calibration of dosimetry systems, and another covers the treatment of uncertainties using the new ISO Type A and Type B evaluations. Unfortunately, nine of the 20 standards just adopted by the ISO are not the most recent versions of these standards and are therefore already out of date. To help solve this problem, efforts are being made to develop procedures to coordinate the ASTM and ISO development and revision processes for these and future ASTM-originating dosimetry standards. In the meantime, an additional four dosimetry standards have recently been published by the ASTM but have

  10. Photon energy dependence and angular response of glass display used in mobile phones for accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discher, Michael; Greiter, Matthias; Woda, Clemens

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that glass displays extracted from mobile phones are suitable as emergency dosimeters in case of an accidental radiation overexposure using the thermoluminescence (TL) method. So far these studies have focused only on recovering the absorbed dose to the material. However, dose in air or dose to the victim carrying the device might be significantly different. Therefore the aim of this work was to investigate photon energy dependence and angular response of glass display used in modern mobile phones. An over-response of about a factor of five is observed for low photon energies compared to the response to Cs-137 (662 keV) which is in reasonable agreement with calculated values mass energy-absorption coefficients of glass and air. Little variation in the energy dependence can be seen for glass displays coming from three different mobile phone models. The angular response for display glass is flat with regard to air kerma within the incident angle of ±60°, independent of the irradiation setup used (with a water phantom or with air kerma reference conditions). For incident angles of 90° the shielding effect of the mobile phones becomes important. With the dosimetric characterization of the photon energy and angular dependencies the absorbed dose in a glass display can be transferred to a reference air kerma dose and provides a useful option for retrospective accident dosimetry. - Highlights: • Determination of the photon energy dependence and angular response for display glass used as an accident dosimeter. • Over-response of about a factor of five for low photon energies. • Flat angular response within incident angles between ±60°

  11. What constitutes a radiology radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, A.; Edmonds, K.; Hayton, A.; Tingey, D.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: A review of the literature indicates a very small number of articles on radiology radiation accidents. This may be due to there being no agreed definition of the term 'accident' when applied to radiology incidents. As the intensity of X-ray beams and the functionality of various modalities increase there is a consequent development in procedures to which 'high dose' applications are required. We may therefore expect to see more incidents in future. How are we to manage them? Radiology radiation accidents are usually exemplified by deterministic skin burns which may take many weeks or months to become apparent and any procedure leading to a radiation induced fatality is difficult to prove. (author)

  12. Standards in radiation protection at the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czap, L.; Pernicka, F.; Matscheko, G.; Andreo, P.

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 90% of the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) provide users with calibrations of radiation protection instruments, and the Agency is making every necessary effort to insure that SSDLs measurements in radiation protection are traceable to Primary Standards. The IAEA provides traceable calibrations of ionization chambers in terms of air kerma at radiation protection levels and ambient dose equivalent calibrations. SSDLs are encouraged to use the calibrations available from the Agency to provide traceability for their radiation protection measurements. Measurements on diagnostic X ray generators have become increasingly important in radiation protection and some SSDLs are involved in such measurements. The IAEA has proper radiation sources available to provide traceable calibrations to the SSDLs in this field, including an X ray unit specifically for mammography dedicated to standardization procedures. The different photon beam qualities and calibration procedures available in the Agency's Dosimetry Laboratory will be described. (author)

  13. Radiation protection dosimetry in medicine - Report of the working group n.9 of the European radiation dosimetry group (EURADOS) - coordinated network for radiation dosimetry (CONRAD - contract EC N) fp6-12684; Dosimetrie pour la radioprotection en milieu medical - rapport du groupe de travail n. 9 du European radiation dosimetry group (EURADOS) - coordinated netword for radiation dosimetry (CONRAD - contrat CE fp6-12684)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This report present the results achieved within the frame of the work the WP 7 (Radiation Protection Dosimetry of Medical Staff) of the coordination action CONRAD (Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry) funded through the 6. EU Framework Program. This action was coordinated by EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group). EURADOS is an organization founded in 1981 to advance the scientific understanding and the technical development of the dosimetry of ionising radiation in the fields of radiation protection, radiobiology, radiation therapy and medical diagnosis by promoting collaboration between European laboratories. WP7 coordinates and promotes European research for the assessment of occupational exposures to staff in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology workplaces. Research is coordinated through sub-groups covering three specific areas: 1. Extremity dosimetry in nuclear medicine and interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in the specific fields of the hospitals and studies of doses to different parts of the hands, arms, legs and feet; 2. Practice of double dosimetry: this sub-group reviews and evaluates the different methods and algorithms for the use of dosemeters placed above and below lead aprons in large exposure during interventional radiology procedures, especially to determine effective doses to cardiologists during cardiac catheterization; and 3. Use of electronic personal dosemeters in interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in laboratories and hospitals, and intercomparisons with passive dosemeters with the aim to enable the formulation of standards. (authors)

  14. Personnel radiation monitoring by thermoluminescence dosimetry (2000-2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi-Cho-Cho, Daw; Hla-Hla-Win, Daw; Thin-Thin-Kraing

    2001-01-01

    Thermoluminescence dosimetry service was introduced in 1991. Personnel who exposed directly or indirectly to radiation is monitored by thermoluminescent dosimeter. TL materials used for thermoluminescent dosimeter are in the form of thin disc. Personnel whole-body and extremity doses are measured by thermoluminescence dosimetry. The Harshaw Model 4500 TLD reader and Vinten 654E TLD reader are used for TLD evaluation. At present about 600 radiation workers are provided with TLD for routine monitoring. It was found that most personnel had received within permissible dose recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). (author)

  15. Measurement assurance studies of high-energy electron and photon dosimetry in radiation-therapy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlich, M; Soares, C G [National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC (USA)

    1981-08-01

    This is a brief review of surveys on the dosimetry of radiation-therapy beams by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). Covered are the NBS ferrous-sulfate (Fricke) dosimetry service, a recently completed survey carried out with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) on the dosimetry in cobalt-60 teletherapy beams, and plans for a TLD survey of dosimetry in high-energy bremsstrahlung beams.

  16. Neutron dosimetry for radiation damage in fission and fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    The properties of materials subjected to the intense neutron radiation fields characteristic of fission power reactors or proposed fusion energy devices is a field of extensive current research. These investigations seek important information relevant to the safety and economics of nuclear energy. In high-level radiation environments, neutron metrology is accomplished predominantly with passive techniques which require detailed knowledge about many nuclear reactions. The quality of neutron dosimetry has increased noticeably during the past decade owing to the availability of new data and evaluations for both integral and differential cross sections, better quantitative understanding of radioactive decay processes, improvements in radiation detection technology, and the development of reliable spectrum unfolding procedures. However, there are problems caused by the persistence of serious integral-differential discrepancies for several important reactions. There is a need to further develop the data base for exothermic and low-threshold reactions needed in thermal and fast-fission dosimetry, and for high-threshold reactions needed in fusion-energy dosimetry. The unsatisfied data requirements for fission reactor dosimetry appear to be relatively modest and well defined, while the needs for fusion are extensive and less well defined because of the immature state of fusion technology. These various data requirements are examined with the goal of providing suggestions for continued dosimetry-related nuclear data research

  17. The radiation accident at Juarez

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    During unconscious disassembly of a Co-60 therapy unit, 6010 metal pellets of 1 mm diameter each having 2.6 GBq (70 mCi) of activity were distributed in an uncontrolled manner. The incident was detected by mere chance. The event and the consequences are illustrated. The resulting collective dose is estimated to be 100 times bigger than that caused by the Harrisburg accident. (orig.) [de

  18. 9th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    IC3DDose 2016 - 9th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry Preface It was a great pleasure to welcome participants to IC3DDose 2016, the 9th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry, held from 7–10 November 2016 in Galveston, Texas. The series of conferences has evolved considerably during its history. At the first conference, DOSGEL’99, the discussion centered around gel dosimetry. Held in Lexington, Kentucky in 1999, it was timed to coincide with the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Annual Meeting in Nashville, Tennessee. It was my honour to organize that first conference, and it was once again my honour to organize the 9th conference in the series now known as IC3DDose which was held in Galveston, Texas. As was the case with recent IC3DDose conferences, the topic has broadened considerably beyond gel dosimetry. Not only have newer 3D volumetric dosimeters appeared on the scene, but novel electronic dosimetry systems and software that generate quasi-3D dose information have also. These changes have tracked advances in radiation oncology as techniques such as IMRT, VMAT, and IGRT have become almost ubiquitous. At the same time, dynamic treatments including gating and tracking now enjoy widespread use. Novel treatment technologies have appeared with perhaps the most disruptive being combined MR imaging-treatment units such as the ViewRay MR-cobalt unit and the Elekta/Philips MR-Linac. The potential benefits offered by 3D dosimetry were explored, compared and evaluated during IC3DDose 2016. Novel and improved readout techniques, some of which take advantage of the contemporary treatment environment and new QA systems and procedures, as well as other aspects of clinical dosimetry were well represented in the program. Over the past several years, the importance of safety in radiation therapy has been highlighted. The benefits of 3D dosimetry in contributing to safe and accurate treatments cannot be overstated. The

  19. Personnel radiation dosimetry symposium: program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    The purpose was to provide applied and research dosimetrists with sufficient information to evaluate the status and direction of their programs relative to the latest guidelines and techniques. A technical program was presented concerning experience, requirements, and advances in gamma, beta, and neutron personnel dosimetry.

  20. Personnel radiation dosimetry symposium: program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    The purpose was to provide applied and research dosimetrists with sufficient information to evaluate the status and direction of their programs relative to the latest guidelines and techniques. A technical program was presented concerning experience, requirements, and advances in gamma, beta, and neutron personnel dosimetry

  1. Retrospective dosimetry of populations exposed to reactor accident: Chernobyl example, lesson for Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, Vadim V.

    2013-01-01

    Follow-up of the Chernobyl accident had included a good deal of retrospective dosimetry and dose reconstruction. Comparison of Chernobyl and Fukushima shows that despite some differences in course and scale of the two accidents, main elements are present in both situations and Chernobyl experience could be quite educative for better understanding and more optimal handling of Fukushima Dai-ichi accident consequences. This paper contains review of dose reconstruction efforts done to date and extensively published in scientific journals and reports. Specifically the following cases are considered: (i) evaluation of individual doses to evacuees; (ii) validation of ecological dosimetric models and ruling out unconfirmed dose rate measurements; dosimetric support of (iii) case–control study of leukemia among Chernobyl clean-up workers (liquidators), and (iv) cohort study of cataracts among liquidators. Due to limited size of this paper the given application cases are rather outlined while more detailed descriptions could be found in relevant publications. Each considered Chernobyl case is commented with respect to possible application to Fukushima Dai-ichi situation. The presented methodological findings and approaches could be used for retrospective assessment of human exposures in Fukushima. -- Highlights: ► Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for evaluation of individual doses to evacuees. ► Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for validation of ecological dosimetric models, rejection dubious dose rate records. ► Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for risk assessment of leukemia among Chernobyl clean-up workers (liquidators). ► Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for study of cataracts among liquidators. ► Experience of dose reconstruction in Chernobyl could be used for retrospective assessment of exposures in Fukushima

  2. EPR response characterization of drugs excipients for applying in accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczewski, Barbara S.; Rodrigues Junior, Orlando; Galante, Ocimar L.; Costa, Zelia M. da; Campos, Leticia L.

    2002-01-01

    Some drugs are widely used by the population and can be employed to dose retrospective. The carbohydrates (saccharides), commonly used as excipients in the pharmaceutical industry, produce a quantity of free radicals after gamma irradiation, making them useful for dosimetry in emergency or accident situations that imply in dose evaluation from the materials found nearly or in contact with victims. In general, EPR signal from pulverized pills of some drugs are very complex due to the variety of components in the formulation. Because of this fact, some pharmaceutical excipients identified in the pill composition were also analysed by EPR spectrometry. On the counter drugs were studied: Cebion glucose, AAS, Aspirina, Conmel, Lacto-Purga and sugar substitutive ZeroCal. The excipients were: lactose, amide, anhydrous glucose and magnesium stearate. In some samples the number of radicals produced increased with the dose, showing a linear response for a dose range of interest and an adequate sensibility for dosimetry in accident cases

  3. Dosimetry of beams for negative pi-meson radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicello, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    Several new facilities have been built in the last few years which can produce high intensity beams of pions. As a result, a significant amount of new data related to pion dosimetry is available. Results of beam composition, beam shaping, and collimation are given along with depth dose curves and isodose contours. Experimental data which describe the radiation quality of pion beams and the change in radiation quality with position are presented. Experimental data determining the fraction of the dose resulting from neutrons are discussed. The present techniques used in pion dosimetry are summarized, and those areas of pion dosimetry which require additional effort in order to achieve routine treatment planning for patients are reviewed

  4. Radiation Protection and Dosimetry An Introduction to Health Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stabin, Michael G

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive text provides an overview of all relevant topics in the field of radiation protection (health physics). Radiation Protection and Dosimetry serves as an essential handbook for practicing health physics professionals, and is also ideal as a teaching text for courses at the university level. The book is organized to introduce the reader to basic principles of radiation decay and interactions, to review current knowledge and historical aspects of the biological effects of radiation, and to cover important operational topics such as radiation shielding and dosimetry. In addition to presenting the most up to date treatment of the topics and references to the literature, most chapters contain numerical problems with their solutions for use in teaching or self assessment. One chapter is devoted to Environmental Health Physics, which was written in collaboration with leading professionals in the area.

  5. On the use of new generation mobile phone (smart phone) for retrospective accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.I.; Chang, I.; Pradhan, A.S.; Kim, J.L.; Kim, B.H.; Chung, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) characteristics of resistors, inductors and integrated-circuit (IC) chips, extracted from new generation smart phones, were investigated for the purpose of retrospective accident dosimetry. Inductor samples were found to exhibit OSL sensitivity about 5 times and 40 times higher than that of the resistors and the IC chips, respectively. On post-irradiation storage, the resistors exhibited a much higher OSL fading (about 80 % in 36 h as compared to the value 3 min after irradiation) than IC chips (about 20 % after 36 h) and inductors (about 50 % in 36 h). Higher OSL sensitivity, linear dose response (from 8.7 mGy up to 8.9 Gy) and acceptable fading make inductors more attractive for accident dosimetry than widely studied resistors. - Highlights: • OSL properties of electronic components from a smart phone were investigated. • OSL Sensitivity of inductor was estimated to 5 times higher than that of resistor. • Inductor exhibits most attractive properties for retrospective accident dosimetry.

  6. Computational hybrid anthropometric paediatric phantom library for internal radiation dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Tianwu; Kuster, Niels; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-01-01

    for children demonstrated that they follow the same trend when correlated with age. The constructed hybrid computational phantom library opens up the prospect of comprehensive radiation dosimetry calculations and risk assessment for the paediatric population of different age groups and diverse anthropometric...

  7. Radiation dosimetry of computed tomography x-ray scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, J.L.; Williamson, B.D.P.; Le Heron, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the development and application of the methods employed in National Radiation Laboratory (NRL) surveys of computed tomography x-ray scanners (CT scanners). It includes descriptions of the phantoms and equipment used, discussion of the various dose parameters measured, the principles of the various dosimetry systems employed and some indication of the doses to occupationally exposed personnel

  8. Radiation Dosimetry for Quality Control of Food Preservation and Disinfestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, Arne; Uribe, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    In the use of x and gamma rays and scanned electron beams to extend the shelf life of food by delay of sprouting and ripening, killing of microbes, and control of insect population, quality assurance is provided by standardized radiation dosimetry. By strategic placement of calibrated dosimeters...

  9. Dosimetry of accidents using thermoluminescence of dental restorative porcelains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauricio, C.L.P.; Rosa, L.A.R. da; Cunha, P.G. da

    1986-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of dental restorative porcelain were investigated with the aim of using this material as a TL dosemeter to estimate high doses in radiological accidents. The irradiations were carried out with a 60 Co gamma source and X rays with effective energies from 29 to 95 KeV. The samples have a limit of detection at about 50R and their reproducibility is better than 15%. Linearity was observed from 50 to 5000R. (Author) [pt

  10. Determination of beta radiation doses received by personnel involved in the mitigation of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osanov, D.P.; Krjuchkov, V.P.; Shaks, A.I.

    1993-01-01

    During the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on April 26, 1986, and in the post-accident period, workers were exposed to beta and low-energy-photon radiation. This paper describes a method of retrospective estimation of skin doses from these radiations by correlating known doses from gamma radiation. Dose distributions of beta and gamma radiation in tissue-equivalent materials were both calculated and measured using multilayer thermoluminescent dosimeters placed at different site locations. It was determined that the doses to the skin from beta radiation exceeded the maximum doses to the whole-body from gamma radiation by 1 or even 2 orders of magnitude. It is concluded that nuclear power plants should be equipped with multilayer skin dosimeters in order to ensure accurate skin dosimetry. 16 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Development of radiation dose assessment system for radiation accident (RADARAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Shigemori, Yuji; Seki, Akiyuki

    2009-07-01

    The possibility of radiation accident is very rare, but cannot be regarded as zero. Medical treatments are quite essential for a heavily exposed person in an occurrence of a radiation accident. Radiation dose distribution in a human body is useful information to carry out effectively the medical treatments. A radiation transport calculation utilizing the Monte Carlo method has an advantageous in the analysis of radiation dose inside of the body, which cannot be measured. An input file, which describes models for the accident condition and quantities of interest, should be prepared to execute the radiation transport calculation. Since the accident situation, however, cannot be prospected, many complicated procedures are needed to make effectively the input file soon after the occurrence of the accident. In addition, the calculated doses are to be given in output files, which usually include much information concerning the radiation transport calculation. Thus, Radiation Dose Assessment system for Radiation Accident (RADARAC) was developed to derive effectively radiation dose by using the MCNPX or MCNP code. RADARAC mainly consists of two parts. One part is RADARAC - INPUT, which involves three programs. A user can interactively set up necessary resources to make input files for the codes, with graphical user interfaces in a personnel computer. The input file includes information concerning the geometric structure of the radiation source and the exposed person, emission of radiations during the accident, physical quantities of interest and so on. The other part is RADARAC - DOSE, which has one program. The results of radiation doses can be effectively indicated with numerical tables, graphs and color figures visibly depicting dose distribution by using this program. These results are obtained from the outputs of the radiation transport calculations. It is confirmed that the system can effectively make input files with a few thousand lines and indicate more than 20

  12. The application of radiation-induced free radicals signals in retrospective dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhongchao; Zhang Wenyi; Jiao Ling

    2013-01-01

    For some materials and biological samples, free radicals can be induced after ionizing radiation. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy can detect free radical signal and its intensity can reflect the dose of the ionizing radiation. It is a typical way to estimate the radiation dosimetry by using the ESR spectroscopy of teeth. In recent years, many researchers studied on ESR of easy-getting materials such as finger (toe) nail, hair, cell phone screen, in order to investigate the relationship between signal intensity and radiation dose. The aim of this paper is to survey the current literature about methodologies and the materials on background signal, linearity of dose-response relationship, minimum detection limit and post-irradiation signal stability, so that more data will be provided for nuclear accident dose estimation. (authors)

  13. Post-accident radiation monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughlin, G.J.; Kathren, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Under contract to the Nuclear Safety Analysis Center of the Electric Power Research Institute, technical information and specifications were obtained for commercially available radiological monitoring instrumentation designed for use as post-accident monitors. The information was collated and published in the NSAC Handbook of Postaccident Instrumentation (Kathren and Laughlin 1981), and included such data as range, accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and energy dependence of the detector, environmental and seismic limitations of the equipment, the testing program performed to evaluate the equipment, a list of references where the instrumentation is currently installed, and a list of features and accessories available with the monitoring systems. The information presented in this section reveals that, even though a number of vendors claim to be able to meet the guidance of Regulatory Guide 1.97 (USNRC 1980), few have actually conducted tests to verify that their equipment does indeed satisfy the guidance of this Regulatory Guide, and that some of the guidance may in fact be unrealistic

  14. Medical radiation dosimetry theory of charged particle collision energy loss

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Accurate radiation dosimetry is a requirement of radiation oncology, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. It is necessary so as to satisfy the needs of patient safety, therapeutic and diagnostic optimisation, and retrospective epidemiological studies of the biological effects resulting from low absorbed doses of ionising radiation. The radiation absorbed dose received by the patient is the ultimate consequence of the transfer of kinetic energy through collisions between energetic charged particles and atoms of the tissue being traversed. Thus, the ability of the medical physicist to both measure and calculate accurately patient dosimetry demands a deep understanding of the physics of charged particle interactions with matter. Interestingly, the physics of charged particle energy loss has an almost exclusively theoretical basis, thus necessitating an advanced theoretical understanding of the subject in order to apply it appropriately to the clinical regime. ​ Each year, about one-third of the worl...

  15. Dosimetry of ionizing radiation. Fundamentals and applications. Dosimetrie ionisierender Strahlen. Grundlagen und Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, H [ed.

    1990-01-01

    In the first chapter of the book, a brief description is given of the historical development of dosimetry, of its objectives and special role within the context of general physical metrology, followed by detailed explanations of the physical fundamentals of this science: the sources and fields of radiation, interactions between radiation and matter as well as radiation detectors. The terminology and units of measurement used in dosimetry are explained in a separate chapter. Chapters 7 and 8, which outline the various theoretical and experimental methods of dose determination, are the most essential contributions to this volume. Chapter 9 deals with the ways in which dosimetry is used in special cases in radiotherapy as well as in the measurement of very small or very large doses. Chapter 10 gives a survey of recently introduced units of measurements and methods to calculate the body dose with reference to the particular type of exposure used. Appendix A contains tables of measuring units, physical constants and measuring techniques along with at-a-glance information on the legal regulations concerning the calibration of dosimeters. Appendix B gives practical guidance on the handling of hardware-related inaccuracies of measurement in dose determination procedures and appendix C embraces 22 pages of tables showing data on radiation physics. (orig./HP) With 150 figs., 50 tabs. in the text, and annex with tables.

  16. Thermoluminescent phosphors for ultraviolet radiation dosimetry - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagpal, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Intrinsic TL response of CaSO 4 , CaF 2 , Al 2 O 3 (Si,Ti), Mg 2 SiO 4 : Tb and lamp phosphors to ultraviolet radiation is reviewed. Taking into consideration the characteristics such as afterglow at RT, rate/flux dependence, linearity of response, useful range, spectral dependence and effect of sequential/tandem UV exposures CaF 2 :Eu 2+ is an ideal TL dosemeter for UV radiation dosimetry. (author)

  17. Ionizing radiation accidents. Data interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cascon, Adriana S.

    2003-01-01

    After a general outlook of the biological effects at the cellular and molecular level, the somatic effects of the ionizing radiation are described. Argentine regulations and the ICRP recommendations on radiological protection of professionally exposed workers are also summarized. The paper includes practical advices for the physician that has to take care of an irradiated patient

  18. Nineteenth nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison study, August 9-13, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, R.T.; Sims, C.C.; Swaja, R.E.

    1983-11-01

    The Nineteenth Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison Study was held August 9 to 13, 1982, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the Health Physics Research Reactor operated in the pulse mode to simulate nuclear criticality accidents. Participants from eight organizations measured neutron and gamma doses at air stations and on phantoms for three different shielding conditions. Measured results were compared to nuclear industry guidelines for criticality accident dosimeters which suggest accuracies of +-25% for neutron dose and +-20% for gamma dose. Seventy-two percent of the neutron dose measurements using foil activation, sodium activation, hair sulfur activation, and thermoluminescent methods met the guidelines while less than 40% of the gamma dose measurements were within +-20% of reference values. The softest neutron energy spectrum (also lowest neutron/gamma dose ratio) provided the most difficulty in measuring neutron and gamma doses. Results of this study indicate the need for continued intercomparison and testing of nuclear accident dosimetry systems and for training of evaluating personnel. 14 references, 7 figures, 16 tables

  19. Dosimetry practices at the Radiation Technology Centre (Ghana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emi-Reynolds, G.; Banini, G.K.; Ennison, I.

    1997-01-01

    Dosimetry practices undertaken to support research and pilot scale gamma irradiation activities at the Radiation Technology Centre of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission are presented. The Fricke dosemeter was used for calibrating the gamma field of the gammacell-220. The Fricke system and the gammacell-220 were then used to calibrate the ethanol chlorobenzene (ECB) dosemeter. The Fricke and ECB dosemeter systems have become routine dosemeters at the centre. Dosimetry work has covered a wide range of research specimens and pilot scale products to establish the relevant irradiation protocol and parameters for routine treatment. These include yams, pineapple explants, blood for feeding tsetseflies, cocoa bud wood and cassava sticks. Pilot scale dosimetry studies on maize, medical devices like intravenous infusion sets and surgical gauze have also been completed. The results and observations made on some of these products are reported. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs

  20. Personnel radiation monitoring by thermoluminescence dosimetry (1995-96)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daw Mi Cho Cho; Daw Yi Yi Khin; Daw San San; U Maung Maung Tin; Daw Hla Hla Win

    2001-01-01

    Personnel radiation monitoring which is the dose assessment of individual doses from external radiation received by radiation workers has been carried out by Thermoluminescence Dosimetry system consisting of a Vinten Toledo TLD reader, LiF dosimeters and associated equipment. The exposed TLD dosimeters were measured by TLD reader and the dose evaluation and dose registration were done on personal computer. Due to the records of 1995-96, most of the radiation workers complied with the permissible dose recommended by IAEA and ICRP 60. (author)

  1. The Chernobyl accident: EPR dosimetry on dental enamel of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualtieri, G.; Colacicchi, S.; Sgattoni, R.; Giannoni, M.

    2001-01-01

    The radiation dose on tooth enamel of children living close to Chernobyl has been evaluated by EPR. The sample preparation was reduced to a minimum of mechanical steps to remove a piece of enamel. A standard X-ray tube at low energy was used for additive irradiation. The filtration effect of facial soft tissue was taken into account. The radiation dose for a group of teeth slightly exceeds the annual dose, whereas for another group the dose very much exceeds the annual dose. Since the higher dose is found in teeth whose enamel have much lower EPR sensitivity to the radiation, it can be suggested that for these teeth the native signal could alter the evaluation of the smaller radiation signal

  2. EPR dosimetry in a mixed neutron and gamma radiation field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompier, F; Fattibene, P; Tikunov, D; Bartolotta, A; Carosi, A; Doca, M C

    2004-01-01

    Suitability of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy for criticality dosimetry was evaluated for tooth enamel, mannose and alanine pellets during the 'international intercomparison of criticality dosimetry techniques' at the SILENE reactor held in Valduc in June 2002, France. These three materials were irradiated in neutron and gamma-ray fields of various relative intensities and spectral distributions in order to evaluate their neutron sensitivity. The neutron response was found to be around 10% for tooth enamel, 45% for mannose and between 40 and 90% for alanine pellets according their type. According to the IAEA recommendations on the early estimate of criticality accident absorbed dose, analyzed results show the EPR potentiality and complementarity with regular criticality techniques.

  3. Radiation accidents over the last 60 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    Since the end of the Second World War, industrial and medical uses of radiation have been considerably increasing. Accidental overexposures of persons, in either the occupational or public field, have caused deaths and severe injuries and complications. The rate of severe accidents seems to increase with time, especially those involving the public; in addition, accidents are often not immediately recognised, which means that the real number of events remains unknown. Human factors, as well as the lack of elementary rules in the domains of radiological safety and protection, such as inadequate training, play a major role in the occurrence of the accidents which have been reported in the industrial, medical and military arenas. (review)

  4. Dosimetry of external radiation: Recent developments. Advanced training course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, P.; Boehm, J.; Doerschel, B.

    1999-02-01

    Between February 24 and 26, 1999, the Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz e.V. held an advanced training course in Tabarz/Thuringia on the subject 'Dosimetry of external radiation: Recent developments'. The following subject matters were dealt with: New concepts and measurands; Present national and international rules; Measurement of the body dose; Exposure conditions at workplaces; and Present state of dosimetric metrology. In correspondence with the subject, the course was organized by the working group 'Dosimetry of external radiation'. Target groups of the course were persons bearing responsibility in the radiation protection sector and interested persons with basic knowledge of this field. The present report comprises the written versions of lectures delivered at the meeting. (orig.) [de

  5. Introduction to the special issue of Radiation Protection Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2016-01-01

    This special issue is a collection of peer-reviewed articles derived from presentations at the fourth EPR BioDose Meeting, held in Hanover, NH, USA in 4-8 October 2015. Organised by The International Association of Biological and EPR Radiation Dosimetry (IABERD), this meeting was held in combination with two international conferences (The International Symposium on EPR Dosimetry and Dating and The International Conference on Biodosimetry) and a symposium (The International EPR Society). The primary focus of this conference was on medical response to events in which large numbers of individuals may be exposed to significant levels of ionising radiation; topics included biodosimetry techniques, radiation mitigators, model systems to develop countermeasures, new data from different exposure events and the implication of these methods in a radiological emergency or in terrorist attack scenarios. (authors)

  6. EPR dosimetry of teeth in past and future accidents: a prospective look at a retrospective method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskell, E.H.; Kenner, G.H.; Hayes, R.B. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Center for Applied Dosimetry; Chumak, V.; Shalom, S. [All-Union Scientific Centre of Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1996-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) of tooth enamel is a relatively new technique for retrospective dosimetry that in the past two years has seen increasing effort towards its development and evaluation. Efforts have centered on determining the accuracy which may be achieved with current measurement techniques as well as the minimum doses detectable. The study was focused on evaluating some factors which influence the accuracy of EPR dosimetry of enamel. Reported are studies on sample intercomparisions, instrumental considerations, and effects of dental x-rays, environmental sunlight and ultraviolet radiation.

  7. EPR dosimetry of teeth in past and future accidents: a prospective look at a retrospective method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskell, E.H.; Kenner, G.H.; Hayes, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) of tooth enamel is a relatively new technique for retrospective dosimetry that in the past two years has seen increasing effort towards its development and evaluation. Efforts have centered on determining the accuracy which may be achieved with current measurement techniques as well as the minimum doses detectable. The study was focused on evaluating some factors which influence the accuracy of EPR dosimetry of enamel. Reported are studies on sample intercomparisions, instrumental considerations, and effects of dental x-rays, environmental sunlight and ultraviolet radiation

  8. Theory, development and principal application trends of lyoluminescence in integral radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubicek, I.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanism of lyoluminescence (LL) of inorganic and organic compounds is described in detail and discussed are the basic characteristics of the LL process, the physico-chemical properties of the system, the principle of measurement and the possibility of increasing the LL yield. Attention is also devoted to the design of evaluation kits developed and used by different laboratories. A substantial part of the study is devoted to the response of LL dosemeters to different types of ionizing radiation (gamma radiation, fast and slow neutrons and heavy charged particles). The high level of tissue equivalence of some organic materials, their sensitivity to gamma radiation and fast neutrons and finally the possible use of human biological tissue as a dosemeter predestinates the LL method for uses mainly in clinical and accident dosimetry. (author)

  9. Reconstructive dosimetry of radiological accidents - study of a brazilian case of industrial gamma radiography; Dosimetria reconstrutiva de acidentes radiologicos - estudo de um caso brasileiro de gamagrafia industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Francisco Cesar Augusto da; Hunt, John G.; Ramalho, Adriana [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinto, Livia M.F. Amalfi [ARCtest - Servicos Tecnicos de Inspecao e Manutencao Industrial Ltda., Paulinia, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: protecao@arctest.com.br

    2002-07-01

    On May 2000, an industrial gamma radiography operator, during a maintenance work of a {sup 60}Co irradiator, has suffered a radiological accident with severe consequences to the left hand. The experts of the High Doses Analysis Group (GADE/IRD/CNEN) initiated the reconstructive dosimetry for the radiation dose estimation, in order to determine the real dose received by the operator, and to help the medical evaluation for prescribing the medical procedures for treatment of the involved victim. This paper presents the reconstructive dosimetry performed through the determination of the radiation doses of the operator, based on theoretical, experimental and computational methods. For the computer methods, a program for the calculation of external doses were used, based on the Monte Carlo method, and a human body simulator composed by voxels. The values of effective and equivalent doses are also presented which has caused severe lesions on the operator hand.

  10. International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, Harry IV

    1990-01-01

    Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms and applications of radiation processing. To date, the group has completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment. This set will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies or other standards-setting organizations for their procedures and protocols. (author)

  11. International cooperative effort to establish dosimetry standardization for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, H. IV.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation processing is a rapidly developing technology with numerous applications in food treatment, sterilization, and polymer modification. The effectiveness of the process depends, however, on the proper application of dose and its measurement. These aspects are being considered by a wide group of experts from around the world who have joined together to write a comprehensive set of standards for dosimetry for radiation processing. Originally formed in 1984 to develop standards for food processing dosimetry, the group has now expanded into a full subcommittee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), with 97 members from 19 countries. The scope of the standards now includes dosimetry for all forms of radiation processing. The group has now completed and published four standards, and is working on an additional seven. Three are specifically for food applications and the others are for all radiation applications, including food processing. Together, this set of standards will specify acceptable guidelines and methods for accomplishing the required irradiation treatment, and will be available for adoption by national regulatory agencies in their procedures and protocols. 1 tab

  12. Nuclear accident dosimetry measurements at third IAEA intercomparison Vinca, Yugoslavia, May 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palfalvi, J.; Makra, S.

    1974-09-01

    Nuclear accident dosimeters from several countries were compared in Vinca, Yugoslavia at an IAEA meeting. The Hungarian Central Research Institute for Physics team performed measurements for the dosimetry of a heavy water assembly which has an escape spectrum significantly differing from the escape spectra of the fast reactors used in previous intercomparisons or from the light water systems used in the Institute. Another problem investigated was the influence of minor spectral differences on the dose determined by activation measurement and spectrum fitting. The importance of sophisticated spectrum calculations was proved. The Vinca irradiations were used for the calibration of the albedo dosimeters of the institute, which are currently applied for personal dosimetry. (K.A.)

  13. Chernobyl accident: lessons learned for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenigsberg, Jacov

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The long-term nature of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences. After more than twenty years we can conclude that Chernobyl accident was requested the big efforts of the national governments and international organisations for improvement new approaches to radiation safety, radiation protection, health care, emergency preparedness and response. During first years after accident some response actions did more harm than good because not based on international radiation protection principles, based on criteria developed during emergency and associated with mistrust, emotions, political pressure. As a result was inappropriate government reaction: unjustified relocation and decontamination - loss jobs, homes, billions of $ cost; unjustified compensation (high portion of annual national budgets). Non-radiological (e.g. detrimental economic, social and psychological) consequences was worse than direct radiological consequences. Psychological effects do not correlate with real exposure but with perception of risk. The affected people believe in threat to their health, doubt what has been reported about accident and resulted doses, got modification in life style, have somatic complains, got substance abuse (alcohol, tranquilizers, sleeping pills). The lack of accurate information and misperception of real radiation risk is believed also to have lead to change in behavior of some affected people. Possible long-term health effect due to the accidental exposure remains an issue. There is no doubt that excess thyroid cancer incidence results from exposure to radioactive iodines, mainly by iodine-131. Radiation induced thyroid cancer could easily be prevented by timely warning, effective thyroid blocking, timely restriction of consumption for contaminated food. The

  14. Mutual emergency assistance for radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    A revised document on ''Mutual Emergency Assistance for Radiation Accidents'' jointly prepared by the Agency with the participation of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and the Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Co-ordinator (UNDRO) was issued in 1980 as TECDOC-237. The present document lists the additional information received after publication of the 1980 edition and is issued as a Supplement to TECDOC-237 (1980 Edition). Some useful information contained in TECDOC-237 such as the IAEA arrangement and the WHO Collaborating Centres for Radiation Emergency Assistance are reprinted for ready reference

  15. Keynote on lessons from major radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, P.; Oresegun, M.; Wheatley, J.

    2000-01-01

    Generic lessons have been learned from a relatively large number of accidents in the most relevant practices (a set of analysis have been made on about 90 radiotherapy events, 43 industrial radiography and nine from industrial irradiations); more specific lessons have been drawn from in-depth investigations of individual accidents. The body of knowledge is grouped as follows: a) radiotherapy is very unique in that humans (patients) are purposely given very high radiation doses (20-75 Gy) by placing them in the radiation beam or by placing radioactive sources in contact with tissues. Intended deterministic effects are the essence of the normal radiotherapy practice and relatively small deviation from the intended doses, i.e,, slightly higher or lower than intended may cause increased rate of severe complication or reduce probability of cure. Consequences of major accidents have been devastating, affecting tens, even hundreds of patients and causing death (directly or indirectly) to a large number of them; b) accidents involving industrial radiography are the most frequent cause of overexposure to workers (radiographers); c) accidents with industrial irradiators have lower probability of occurrence, however, they are deemed to be fatal, especially when whole body exposure to panoramic gamma irradiators occur; partial body irradiation from industrial or research accelerator beams has led to amputation of hands and legs; d) when control of sources was relinquished ('orphan' sources) this has resulted in severe injuries, in some cases death and widespread contamination of the environment. A tool for further dissemination of lessons will be an international reporting system of unusual radiation events (RADEV), being introduced world-wide. Accidents were rarely due to a single human error or isolated equipment failure. In most cases there was a combination of elements such as: a) unawareness of the potential for an accident, b) poor education, which usually did not

  16. Irrigoscopy - irrigography method, dosimetry and radiation shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubanov, Z.; Kolarevic, G.

    1999-01-01

    Use of patient's radiation shielding during radiology diagnostic procedures in our country is insufficiently represent, so patients needlessly receive very high entrance skin doses in body areas which are not in direct x-ray beam. During irrigoscopy, patient's radiation shielding is very complex problem, because of the organs position. In the future that problem must be solved. We hope that some of our suggestions about patient's radiation shielding during irrigoscopy, can be a small step in that way. (author)

  17. Dosimetry of ionizing radiations by Electron paramagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin N, J.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, some historical and theoretical aspects about the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), its characteristics, the resonance detection, the paramagnetic species, the radiation effects on inorganic and organic materials, the diagrams of the instrumentation for the EPR detection, the performance of an EPR spectrometer, the coherence among EPR and dosimetry and, practical applications as well as in the food science there are presented. (Author)

  18. Internal radiation dosimetry of F-18-5-fluorouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shani, J.; Schlesinger, T.; Wolf, W.

    1980-01-01

    The projected internal radiations dose to different human organs per millicurie of injected F-18-5-Fluorouracil is calculated from rat distribution studies and human urinary excretion data. The calculations assume a similar distribution of labelled drug in humans as in rats, inasmuch as preliminary human distribution studies appeared to validate the use of the rat model for human dosimetry calculations. (U.K.)

  19. Modern methods of personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.; Herrmann, D.; Kiesewetter, W.

    The physical properties of radiation detectors for personnel dosimetry are described and compared. The suitability of different types of dosimeters for operational and central monitoring of normal occupational exposure, for accident and catastrophe dosimetry and for background and space-flight dosimetry is discussed. The difficulties in interpreting the dosimeter reading with respect to the dose in individual body organs are discussed briefly. 430 literature citations (up to Spring 1966) are given

  20. Radiation dosimetry by ESR in bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, R. (Universidad de San Agustin de Arequipa (Peru)); Marticorena, B. (Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima)

    1983-05-01

    The absorption speed in bovine bone samples irradiated with a /sup 90/Sr ..beta..-source of 45 mCi is studied with ESR. The signal changes linearly with the absorbed quantity of radiation to a maximum dose of 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ rads. This positive result allows to foresee the use of bone as a radiation dosimeter.

  1. Radiation dosimetry by ESR in bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, R.; Marticorena, B.

    1983-01-01

    The absorption speed in bovine bone samples irradiated with a 90 Sr β-source of 45 mCi is studied with ESR. The signal changes linearly with the absorbed quantity of radiation to a maximum dose of 1.5 x 10 6 rads. This positive result allows to foresee the use of bone as a radiation dosimeter

  2. Proceedings of the second conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.

    1988-11-01

    The Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 31--November 3, 1988, at the Holiday Inn, Crowne Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To facilitate meeting these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical sessions included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, calibration, standards and regulations, instrumentation, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. This document provides a summary of the conference technical program and a partial collection of full papers for the oral presentations in order of delivery. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base

  3. Proceedings of the second conference on radiation protection and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R. E.; Sims, C. S. [eds.

    1988-11-01

    The Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry was held during October 31--November 3, 1988, at the Holiday Inn, Crowne Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. This meeting was designed with the objectives of promoting communication among applied, research, regulatory, and standards personnel involved in radiation protection and providing them with sufficient information to evaluate their programs. To facilitate meeting these objectives, a technical program consisting of more than 75 invited and contributed oral presentations encompassing all aspects of radiation protection was prepared. General topics considered in the technical sessions included external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, calibration, standards and regulations, instrumentation, accreditation and test programs, research advances, and applied program experience. In addition, special sessions were held to afford attendees the opportunity to make short presentations of recent work or to discuss topics of general interest. This document provides a summary of the conference technical program and a partial collection of full papers for the oral presentations in order of delivery. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  4. The management of individuals involved in radiation accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindon, T N [Australian Radiation Lab., Melbourne (Australia)

    1991-09-01

    The author defines the objectives and the coverage of two radiation accident courses presented in 1990 by the US Radiation Emergency Assistance Centre and Training Site of the Oak Ridge Associated Universities together with some Australian Medical institutions. It is estimated that the courses, directed towards physicians, radiotherapists and nurses gave plenty practical advices and details on how to go about radiation accident managements. A manual on handling radiation accidents is also to be prepared after the courses.

  5. Radiochromic dye film for ionizing and non ionizing radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, F.I.; Elbahay, A.Z.

    1984-01-01

    During the present study different types of radiochromic dye films have been investigated for γ-ray as well as ultraviolet radiation dosimetry. The technique is based on the change in absorption spectra for dosed samples with special emphasis at optical absorption bands observed at 510nm and 605nm. Dose response of different types of radiochromic dye films was determined in the range between 1 to 40 KGy γ rays. The technique is used for γ-ray dosimetry in processing with high quality. The increasing use of U.V. light in industry and medicine makes it necessary to have simple practical methods for U.V. dosimetry. To this purpose radiochromic dye films are suggested for the first time. The response was investigated for emission consisted mainly of 254 and 366nm photons over the range from 50-700 m W.S. cm -2 . The experimental results indicate that radiochromic dye films are practical and simple technique for γ-ray and U.V. dosimetry for industrial and medical applications

  6. Medical basis for radiation accident preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, K.F.; Fry, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    The International Conference on The Medical Basis for Radiation Accident Preparedness was organized by the staff of the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) of the Medical and Health Sciences Division of Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU). The philosophical importance of relating, through investigation and education, the intellectual resources of higher education to the important social problems associated with energy, health, and the environment was the foundation of the meeting. The symposium, held under the auspices of the US Department of Energy, was the ninth since 1960 of a series of international conferences addressing the various aspects of radiation accidents. The approach of this most recent conference differed somewhat from that of those preceding it, in that it sought an international review of the gamut of the medical aspects of radiation injury, not only for the experts in the field, but also for other physicians and scientists who, in view of current events, have had the need to know thrust upon them. Individual entries were made for the separate papers

  7. Dissolution rate and radiation dosimetry of metal tritides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1993-01-01

    Metal tritides including titanium tritide (Ti 3 H x ) and erbium tritide (Er 3 H x ) have been used as components of neutron generators. These compounds can be released to the air as aerosols during fabrication, assembling and testing of components or in accidental or fugitive releases. As a result, workers could be exposed to these compounds by inhalation. A joint research project between SNL and ITRI (Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute) was initiated last fall to investigate the solubility of metal tritides, retention and translocation of inhaled particles and internal dosimetry of metal tritides. The current understanding of metal tritides and their radiation dosimetry for internal exposure are very limited. There is no provision in the ICRP-30 for tritium dosimetry in metal tritide form. However, a few papers in the literature suggested that the solubility of metal tritide could be low. The current radiation protection guidelines for metal tritide particles are based on the assumption that the biological behavior is similar to tritiated water which behaves like body fluid with a relative short biological half life (10 days). If the solubility of metal tritide is low, the biological half life of metal tritide particles and the dosimetry of inhalation exposure to these particles could be quite different from tritiated water. This would have major implications in current radiation protection guidelines for metal tritides Including annual limits of intakes and derived air concentrations. The preliminary results of metal tritide dissolution study at ITRI indicate that the solubility of titanium tritide is low. The outlines of the project, the preliminary results and future work will be discussed in presentation

  8. Energy and entropy in radiation dosimetry and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    In this work we present and discuss a proposal to describe the degradation of the energy of photons when they interact with matter, which can be applied in radiation dosimetry and protection. Radiation dosimetry is founded in the well known physical approach of field theory as showed by Roesch and Rossi. Fluence and energy deposited are the most fundamental quantities in radiation dosimetry allowing us to calculate absorbed dose. One of the main characteristics of absorbed dose, sometimes ignored, is that it is an intensive quantity pushing radiation dosimetry into the field of statistical physics. In radiation dosimetry it is often used what we can call collective or macroscopic concepts, such as, for example, effective energy, beam quality or beam hardening and absorbed dose. Some of these concepts are trials to describe macroscopically and with simplicity what happens microscopically with a rather higher degree of complexity. In other words, is a tentative to make a bridge between the non continuous world of atoms and photons to the continuous world of radiation protection dosimetry. In computer simulations, that allow to known accurately the energy deposited in matter, absorbed dose (or fluence) is still a very useful and used quantity; however, some issues are still open problems, source of many discussions in conferences and journals in spite of the development of microdosimetry and nano-dosimetry. In spite of that, macroscopic quantities like absorbed dose are still important quantities. One of the important and controversial open question in biological effects at low doses is the linear no threshold concept (L.N.T.). In our opinion this problem is directly related with the problem mentioned above of the bridge between microscopic and macroscopic concepts. Actually, the extrapolation to low dose region is a good expression of the challenge we have to deal in order to make the connections between both worlds, the discrete micro-world to the continuous macro

  9. Radiation processing and high-dose dosimetry at ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gant, G.J.; Saunders, M.; Banos, C.; Mo, L.; Davies, J.; Evans, O.

    2001-01-01

    The Radiation Technology group at ANSTO is part of the Physics Division and provides services and advice in the areas of gamma irradiation and high-dose dosimetry. ANSTO's irradiation facilities are designed for maximum dose uniformity and provide a precision irradiation service unique in Australia. Radiation Technology makes and sells reference and transfer standard dosimeters which are purchased by users and suppliers of commercial irradiation services in Australia and the Asia-Pacific region. A calibration service is also provided for dosimeters purchased from other suppliers

  10. Radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, E T

    1959-01-01

    This report summarizes the present state of knowledge in dosimetry of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. Data have been presented on the physical factors involved in the two cities and on attenuation of radiation by various shielding situations. This information is being used to estimate a tentative radiation dose to individual A-bomb survivors. It should be emphasized that many important problems remain to be solved before accurate doses can be assigned to individual survivors. Such information will greatly strengthen investigation of biological consequences of instantaneous doses of gamma and neutron irradiation in men. 18 references, 9 figures.

  11. Computer codes in nuclear safety, radiation transport and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordy, J.M.; Kodeli, I.; Menard, St.; Bouchet, J.L.; Renard, F.; Martin, E.; Blazy, L.; Voros, S.; Bochud, F.; Laedermann, J.P.; Beaugelin, K.; Makovicka, L.; Quiot, A.; Vermeersch, F.; Roche, H.; Perrin, M.C.; Laye, F.; Bardies, M.; Struelens, L.; Vanhavere, F.; Gschwind, R.; Fernandez, F.; Quesne, B.; Fritsch, P.; Lamart, St.; Crovisier, Ph.; Leservot, A.; Antoni, R.; Huet, Ch.; Thiam, Ch.; Donadille, L.; Monfort, M.; Diop, Ch.; Ricard, M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this conference was to describe the present state of computer codes dedicated to radiation transport or radiation source assessment or dosimetry. The presentations have been parted into 2 sessions: 1) methodology and 2) uses in industrial or medical or research domains. It appears that 2 different calculation strategies are prevailing, both are based on preliminary Monte-Carlo calculations with data storage. First, quick simulations made from a database of particle histories built though a previous Monte-Carlo simulation and secondly, a neuronal approach involving a learning platform generated through a previous Monte-Carlo simulation. This document gathers the slides of the presentations

  12. Quality management system in the CIEMAT Radiation Dosimetry Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, R; Navarro, T; Romero, A M; López, M A

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes the activities realised by the CIEMAT Radiation Dosimetry Service (SDR) for the implementation of a quality management system (QMS) in order to achieve compliance with the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025 and to apply for the accreditation for testing measurements of radiation dose. SDR has decided the accreditation of the service as a whole and not for each of its component laboratories. This makes it necessary to design a QMS common to all, thus ensuring alignment and compliance with standard requirements, and simplifying routine works as possible.

  13. Radiation fields, dosimetry, biokinetics and biophysical models for cancer induction by ionising radiation 1996-1999. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Paretzke, H.G.; Roth, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Association Contract covers a range of research domains that are important to the Radiation Protection Research Action, especially in the areas 'Evaluation of Radiation Risks' and 'Understanding Radiation Mechanisms and Epidemiology'. Three research projects concentrate on radiation dosimetry research and two projects on the modelling of radiation carcinogenesis. The following list gives an overview on the topics and responsible scientific project leaders of the Association Contract: Study of radiation fields and dosimetry at aviation altitudes. Biokinetics and dosimetry of incorporated radionuclides. Dose reconstruction. Biophysical models for the induction of cancer by radiation. Experimental data for the induction of cancer by radiation of different qualities. (orig.)

  14. Measurement assurance studies of high-energy electron and photon dosimetry in radiation-therapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, M.; Soares, C.G.

    1981-01-01

    This is a brief review of surveys on the dosimetry of radiation-therapy beams by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). Covered are the NBS ferrous-sulfate (Fricke) dosimetry service, a recently completed survey carried out with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) on the dosimetry in cobalt-60 teletherapy beams, and plans for a TLD survey of dosimetry in high-energy bremsstrahlung beams. (author)

  15. Dosimetry Methods for Human Exposure to Non-Ionising Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poljak, D.; Sarolic, A.; Doric, V.; Peratta, C.; Peratta, A.

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with human exposure to electromagnetic fields from extremely low frequencies (ELF) to GSM frequencies. The problem requires (1) the assessment of external field generated by electromagnetic interference (EMI) source at a given frequency (incident field dosimetry) and then (2) the assessment of corresponding fields induced inside the human body (internal field dosimetry). Several methods used in theoretical and experimental dosimetry are discussed within this work. Theoretical dosimetry models at low frequencies are based on quasistatic approaches, while analyses at higher frequencies use the full-wave models. Experimental techniques involve near and far field measurement. Human exposure to power lines, transformer substations, power line communication (PLC) systems, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) antennas and GSM base station antenna systems is analyzed. The results o are compared to the exposure limits proposed by relevant safety guidelines. Theoretical incident dosimetry used in this paper is based on the set of Pocklington integro-differential equations for the calculation of the current distribution and subsequently radiated field from power lines. Experimental incident dosimetry techniques involve measurement techniques of fields radiated by RFID antennas and GSM base station antennas. First example set of numerical results is related to the internal dosimetry of realistic well-grounded body model exposed to vertical component of the electric field E = 10 kV/m generated by high voltage power line. The results obtained via the HNA model exceed the ICNIRP basic restrictions for public exposure (2 mA/m 2 ) in knee (8.6 mA/m 2 ) and neck (9.8 mA/m 2 ) and for occupational exposure (10 mA/m 2 ) in ankle (32 mA/m 2 ). In the case of a conceptual model of a realistic human body inside a transformer substation room touching a control panel at the potential φ0 = 400 V and with two scenarios for dry-air between worker's hand and panel, the values

  16. Computer aided dosimetry and verification of exposure to radiation. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, D.; Stodilka, R.Z.; Leach, K.E.; Prud'homme-Lalonde, L.

    2002-06-01

    In the timeframe following the September 11th attacks on the United States, increased emphasis has been placed on Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) preparedness. Of prime importance is rapid field assessment of potential radiation exposure to Canadian Forces field personnel. This work set up a framework for generating an 'expert' computer system for aiding and assisting field personnel in determining the extent of radiation insult to military personnel. Data was gathered by review of the available literature, discussions with medical and health physics personnel having hands-on experience dealing with radiation accident victims, and from experience of the principal investigator. Flow charts and generic data fusion algorithms were developed. Relationships between known exposure parameters, patient interview and history, clinical symptoms, clinical work-ups, physical dosimetry, biological dosimetry, and dose reconstruction as critical data indicators were investigated. The data obtained was examined in terms of information theory. A main goal was to determine how best to generate an adaptive model (i.e. when more data becomes available, how is the prediction improved). Consideration was given to determination of predictive algorithms for health outcome. In addition, the concept of coding an expert medical treatment advisor system was developed. (author)

  17. Computer aided dosimetry and verification of exposure to radiation. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waller, D. [SAIC Canada (Canada); Stodilka, R.Z.; Leach, K.E.; Prud' homme-Lalonde, L. [Defence R and D Canada (DRDC), Radiation Effects Group, Space Systems and Technology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-06-15

    In the timeframe following the September 11th attacks on the United States, increased emphasis has been placed on Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) preparedness. Of prime importance is rapid field assessment of potential radiation exposure to Canadian Forces field personnel. This work set up a framework for generating an 'expert' computer system for aiding and assisting field personnel in determining the extent of radiation insult to military personnel. Data was gathered by review of the available literature, discussions with medical and health physics personnel having hands-on experience dealing with radiation accident victims, and from experience of the principal investigator. Flow charts and generic data fusion algorithms were developed. Relationships between known exposure parameters, patient interview and history, clinical symptoms, clinical work-ups, physical dosimetry, biological dosimetry, and dose reconstruction as critical data indicators were investigated. The data obtained was examined in terms of information theory. A main goal was to determine how best to generate an adaptive model (i.e. when more data becomes available, how is the prediction improved). Consideration was given to determination of predictive algorithms for health outcome. In addition, the concept of coding an expert medical treatment advisor system was developed. (author)

  18. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy of polyacrylamide gels for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldock, C.; Murry, P.; Pope, J.; Rintoul, L.; George, G.

    1998-01-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAG) gels are used in magnetic resonance imaging radiation dosimetry. The PAG dosimeter is based on the radiation-induced co-polymerisation and cross-linking of acrylic monomers infused in a gel matrix. PAG was manufactured with a composition of 5% gelatine, 3% acrylamide and 3% N,N'methylene-bis-acrylamide by mass, with distilled water as the remaining constituent [Baldock, 1998]. FT-Raman spectroscopy studies were undertaken to investigate cross-linking changes during the co-polymerisation of PAG in the spectral range of 200 - 3500 cm -1 . Vibrational bands of 1285 cm -1 and 1256 cm -1 were assigned to the acrylamide and bis-acrylamide single CH 2 δ CH2 binding modes. These bands were found to decrease in amplitude with increasing absorbed radiation dose, as a result of co-polymerisation. Principal Component Regression was performed on FT-Raman spectra of PAG samples irradiated to 50 Gy and two components were found to be sufficient to account for 98.7% of variance in the data. Cross validation was used to establish the absorbed radiation dose of an unknown PAG sample from the FT-Raman spectra. The calculated correlation coefficient between measured and predictive samples was 0.997 with a standard error of estimate of 0.976 and a standard error of prediction of 1.140. These results demonstrate the potential of FT-Raman spectroscopy for ionising radiation dosimetry using polyacrylamide gels

  19. Gamma Radiation Dosimetry Using Tellurium Dioxide Thin Film Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Korostynska

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of Tellurium dioxide (TeO2 were investigated for γ-radiation dosimetry purposes. Samples were fabricated using thin film vapour deposition technique. Thin films of TeO2 were exposed to a 60Co γ-radiation source at a dose rate of 6 Gy/min at room temperature. Absorption spectra for TeO2 films were recorded and the values of the optical band gap and energies of the localized states for as-deposited and γ-irradiated samples were calculated. It was found that the optical band gap values were decreased as the radiation dose was increased. Samples with electrical contacts having a planar structure showed a linear increase in current values with the increase in radiation dose up to a certain dose level. The observed changes in both the optical and the electrical properties suggest that TeO2 thin film may be considered as an effective material for room temperature real time γ-radiation dosimetry.

  20. Solid-state radiation detectors for active personal dosimetry and radiations source tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talpalariu, Corneliu; Talpalariu, Jeni; Matei, Corina; Lita, Ioan; Popescu, Oana

    2010-01-01

    We report on the design of the readout electronics using PIN diode radiation detector of 5 mm thickness for nuclear safety and active personal dosimetry. Our effort consisted in designing and fabricating the electronics to reflect the needs of gamma radiations dosimetry and hybrids PIN diode arrays for charged particle detectors. We report results obtained during testing and characterizing the new devices in gamma fields, operating at room temperature. There were determined the energy spectrum resolution, radiation hardness and readout rate. Also, data recording methods and parallel acquisition problems from a transducer matrix are presented. (authors)

  1. Radiation protection program for assistance of victims of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, P.W.; Costa Silva, L.H. da; Rosa, R.

    1991-11-01

    The principles aspects of a radiological protection program for hospitals in case of medical assistance to external and internal contaminated persons are showed. It is based on the experience obtained at Centro Medico Naval Marcilio Dias during the assistance to the victims of Goiania accident in 1987. This paper describes the basic infrastructure of a nursery and the radiation protection procedures for the access control of people and materials, area and personal monitoring, decontamination and the support activities such as calibration of radiation monitors and waste management. Is is also estimated the necessary radiation protection materials and the daily quantity of waste generated. (author)

  2. Effect of respiratory motion on internal radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Tianwu [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva 4 CH-1211 (Switzerland); Zaidi, Habib, E-mail: habib.zaidi@hcuge.ch [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva 4 CH-1211 (Switzerland); Geneva Neuroscience Center, Geneva University, Geneva CH-1205 (Switzerland); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen 9700 RB (Netherlands)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Estimation of the radiation dose to internal organs is essential for the assessment of radiation risks and benefits to patients undergoing diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures including PET. Respiratory motion induces notable internal organ displacement, which influences the absorbed dose for external exposure to radiation. However, to their knowledge, the effect of respiratory motion on internal radiation dosimetry has never been reported before. Methods: Thirteen computational models representing the adult male at different respiratory phases corresponding to the normal respiratory cycle were generated from the 4D dynamic XCAT phantom. Monte Carlo calculations were performed using the MCNP transport code to estimate the specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) of monoenergetic photons/electrons, the S-values of common positron-emitting radionuclides (C-11, N-13, O-15, F-18, Cu-64, Ga-68, Rb-82, Y-86, and I-124), and the absorbed dose of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) in 28 target regions for both the static (average of dynamic frames) and dynamic phantoms. Results: The self-absorbed dose for most organs/tissues is only slightly influenced by respiratory motion. However, for the lung, the self-absorbed SAF is about 11.5% higher at the peak exhale phase than the peak inhale phase for photon energies above 50 keV. The cross-absorbed dose is obviously affected by respiratory motion for many combinations of source-target pairs. The cross-absorbed S-values for the heart contents irradiating the lung are about 7.5% higher in the peak exhale phase than the peak inhale phase for different positron-emitting radionuclides. For {sup 18}F-FDG, organ absorbed doses are less influenced by respiratory motion. Conclusions: Respiration-induced volume variations of the lungs and the repositioning of internal organs affect the self-absorbed dose of the lungs and cross-absorbed dose between organs in internal radiation dosimetry. The dynamic

  3. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for internal dosimetry. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harrison, J.D. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA internal dosimetry models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on internal dosimetry, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  4. Canadian Cytogenetic Emergency network (CEN) for biological dosimetry following radiological/nuclear accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Susan M; Ferrarotto, Catherine L; Vlahovich, Slavica; Wilkins, Ruth C; Boreham, Douglas R; Dolling, Jo-Anna

    2007-07-01

    To test the ability of the cytogenetic emergency network (CEN) of laboratories, currently under development across Canada, to provide rapid biological dosimetry using the dicentric assay for triage assessment, that could be implemented in the event of a large-scale radiation/nuclear emergency. A workshop was held in May 2004 in Toronto, Canada, to introduce the concept of CEN and recruit clinical cytogenetic laboratories at hospitals across the country. Slides were prepared for dicentric assay analysis following in vitro irradiation of blood to a range of gamma-ray doses. A minimum of 50 metaphases per slide were analyzed by 41 people at 22 different laboratories to estimate the exposure level. Dose estimates were calculated based on a dose response curve generated at Health Canada. There were a total of 104 dose estimates and 96 (92.3%) of them fell within the expected range using triage scoring criteria. Half of the laboratories analyzed 50 metaphases in dosimetry. When this network is fully operational, it will be the first of its kind in Canada able to respond to radiological/nuclear emergencies by providing triage quality biological dosimetry for a large number of samples. This network represents an alternate expansion of existing international emergency biological dosimetry cytogenetic networks.

  5. Classical microdosimetry in radiation protection dosimetry and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waker, A.J.; Schrewe, U.; Burmeister, J.; Dubeau, J.; Surette, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Classical microdosimetry concerns the measurement and analysis of the spectrum of radiation energy deposition events in simulated microscopic tissue-equivalent sites. Over the past three decades, classical microdosimetry has been extensively applied for the direct measurement of dosimetric quantities, such as the ambient dose equivalent, and for the spectroscopic properties of tissue-equivalent proportional counters that have led to the methods of mixed-field analysis and particle identification. This paper reviews some of the special applications of classical microdosimetry such as the determination of kerma coefficients, differential dosimetry and aviation dosimetry. Also reviewed are some of the technological innovations related to the application of microdosimetry in operational health physics and in particular the development of multi-element proportional counters and detectors based on gas microstrip technology. (author)

  6. Handbook of anatomical models for radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Eckerman, Keith F

    2010-01-01

    Covering the history of human model development, this title presents the major anatomical and physical models that have been developed for human body radiation protection, diagnostic imaging, and nuclear medicine therapy. It explores how these models have evolved and the role that modern technologies have played in this development.

  7. A practical three-dimensional dosimetry system for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Pengyi; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark

    2006-01-01

    There is a pressing need for a practical three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry system, convenient for clinical use, and with the accuracy and resolution to enable comprehensive verification of the complex dose distributions typical of modern radiation therapy. Here we introduce a dosimetry system that can achieve this challenge, consisting of a radiochromic dosimeter (PRESAGE trade mark sign ) and a commercial optical computed tomography (CT) scanning system (OCTOPUS trade mark sign ). PRESAGE trade mark sign is a transparent material with compelling properties for dosimetry, including insensitivity of the dose response to atmospheric exposure, a solid texture negating the need for an external container (reducing edge effects), and amenability to accurate optical CT scanning due to radiochromic optical contrast as opposed to light-scattering contrast. An evaluation of the performance and viability of the PRESAGE trade mark sign /OCTOPUS, combination for routine clinical 3D dosimetry is presented. The performance of the two components (scanner and dosimeter) was investigated separately prior to full system test. The optical CT scanner has a spatial resolution of ≤1 mm, geometric accuracy within 1 mm, and high reconstruction linearity (with a R 2 value of 0.9979 and a standard error of estimation of ∼1%) relative to independent measurement. The overall performance of the PRESAGE trade mark sign /OCTOPUS system was evaluated with respect to a simple known 3D dose distribution, by comparison with GAFCHROMIC[reg] EBT film and the calculated dose from a commissioned planning system. The 'measured' dose distribution in a cylindrical PRESAGE trade mark sign dosimeter (16 cm diameter and 11 cm height) was determined by optical-CT, using a filtered backprojection reconstruction algorithm. A three-way Gamma map comparison (4% dose difference and 4 mm distance to agreement), between the PRESAGE trade mark sign , EBT and calculated dose distributions, showed full agreement in

  8. Dosimetry studies during breast cancer radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M. O. M.

    2005-06-01

    Previous studies indicated that breast cancer is wildly spread especially in women as compared to men. It is increased after an age of thirty five years in women so it is important to study the effect of exposure to the radiation on the intact breast during the treatment of the breast suffering from cancer. In this work the scattered doses for the intact breast during the treatment of the breast suffering from cancer were measured and also the probability of inducing cancer in it is also discussed. The study was performed for a group of patients composed of twenty five females. Also the backscattered doses to the intact breast were measured for thirteen female patients. During the treatment using gamma rays from Co-60 source the two tangential fields (lateral and medial) were selected for the measurements. The results of exposure to gamma radiation for the lateral and medial fields showed that the mean scattered and backscattered doses to the intact breast were (241.26 cGY,47.49 cGY) and (371.6 cGY,385.4 cGY), respectively. Beside that the somatic risk of induced cancer to the intact breast was found to be (6 .1X10 -3 ,1.2X10 -3 ) and (9.29X10 -3 , 9.63X10 -3 ), respectively. From the results obtained it was concluded that the intact breast received small amounts of radiation doses which may lead to breast cancer for the healthy breast. The recommendations from the present study are to take care of radiation protection to the patient, and also to take care of the patient treatment conditions like temperature, pressure and humidity during the radiation exposure.(Author)

  9. Mutual emergency assistance for radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    In 1963 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) issued a document, WP.35, dated 23 November 1963, based on information provided by a number of its Member States on the type of radiological assistance that they might be able to make available in the event of a radiation emergency in another country at the request of that country. The document was subsequently revised in 1968 and 1971 with the participation of the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Labour Organisation (ILO). In 1979, an expanded questionnaire to ascertain what could be required by the State in the event of a major radiation accident, was sent jointly by these organizations with the participation of the Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Co-ordinator (UNDRO), to all their Member States. The text of the expanded questionnaire is reproduced. The present document lists all the information, received up to mid 1980, that contains offers of assistance made by a State. It also lists information on the assistance that might be required by the State. In general, the replies have been reproduced in the form in which they were received, although a few changes in presentation have been introduced in the interest of brevity and clarity. Some countries have pointed out that their replies are necessarily of a general character and that the full extent of the assistance they would be capable of providing could be determined only after a specific request had been received. The information given in this document should therefore be regarded only as a guide to the type of radiological assistance that might be available and/or needed. Other available international assistance includes that provided by the Agency through the IAEA Radiation (Emergency) Assistance Procedures, by WHO through its system of Collaborating Centres on human radiation pathology, and by various States via regional or inter-countries' agreements on

  10. Radiation accident at the South Urals in 1957

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikipelov, B.V.; Romanov, G.N.; Buldakov, L.A.; Babaev, N.S.; Kholina, Yu.B.; Mikerin, E.I.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation accidents with release of radioactive substances into environment which took place in the South Ural in 1957 is evaluated. Scientific researches conducted since 1957 are described. Scientific data of unique fundamental and applied value were obtaibed. Recommendations for the organization and content of radiation sanctuary are developed. Scientific researches permitted to make reliable long-turm prediction of radiation situation developed owing to the Chernobyl NPP accident and to work out practical recommendations so as to reduce adverse aftereffects of the accident

  11. Dye film dosimetry for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, J.C.; McLaughlin, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    Commercially available plastic films containing dyes or dye precursors are convenient dosimeters and imaging media for electron beams or photons used for industrial radiation processing. As ''grainless'' imaging systems having thicknesses down to a few micrometers, they provide high spatial resolution for determining detailed absorbed dose distributions through microdensitometric analysis. The radiation absorption properties of these systems are adjusted by changing film composition so that the dosimeter materials can be made to simulate the material of interest undergoing irradiation. Other advantages include long-term stability, dose-rate independence, and ease of use and calibration. Radiochromic dye films with thicknesses varying from 0.005 to 1 mm are presently used to monitor electron-beam or gamma-ray doses from 10 to 10 5 Gy (10 3 to 10 7 rad), typical of those encountered in medical applications, radiation curing of polymeric composites, wire and cable insulation, shrinkable plastic tubing and film, as well as sterilization of medical supplies and treatment of municipal and industrial wastes. An NBS calibration service to industry involves the traceability of standard 60 Co gamma ray absorbed dose measurements by means of these films employed as transfer standards

  12. Radiation dosimetry in human bone using electron paramagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breen, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    Accurate measurements of dose in bone are required in order to improve the dosimetry of systemic radiotherapy for osseous metastases. Bone is an integrating dosimeter which records the radiation history of the skeleton. During irradiation, electrons become trapped in the crystalline component of bone mineral (hydroxyapatite). The traps are very stable; at room temperature, emptying of the traps occurs with a half-life of many years. The population of trapped unpaired electrons is proportional to the radiation dose administered to the bone and can be measured in excised bone samples using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). EPR spectra of synthetic hydroxyapatite, irradiated with Co-60, were obtained at room temperature and at 77 K. At room temperature, the radiation-induced signal, with a g-value of 2.001 ± 0.001 increased linearly with absorbed dose above a lower threshold of 3 Gy, up to doses of 200 Gy. In contrast with pure hydroxyapatite, EPR spectra of excised human bone showed a broad 'native' signal, due to the organic component of bone, which masks the dosimetrically important signal. This native signal is highly variable from sample to sample and precludes the use of EPR as an absolute dosimetry technique. However, after subtraction of the background signal, irradiated human bone showed a linear response with a lower limit of measurement similar to that of synthetic hydroxyapatite. Bone is an in vivo linear dosimeter which can be exploited to develop accurate estimates of the radiation dose delivered during systemic radiotherapy and teletherapy. However, improved sensitivity of the EPR dosimetry technique is necessary before it can be applied reliably in clinical situations. (author)

  13. Computational anthropomorphic phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: evolution and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choonsik; Lee, Jaiki

    2006-01-01

    Computational anthropomorphic phantoms are computer models of human anatomy used in the calculation of radiation dose distribution in the human body upon exposure to a radiation source. Depending on the manner to represent human anatomy, they are categorized into two classes: stylized and tomographic phantoms. Stylized phantoms, which have mainly been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), describe human anatomy by using simple mathematical equations of analytical geometry. Several improved stylized phantoms such as male and female adults, pediatric series, and enhanced organ models have been developed following the first hermaphrodite adult stylized phantom, Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD)-5 phantom. Although stylized phantoms have significantly contributed to dosimetry calculation, they provide only approximations of the true anatomical features of the human body and the resulting organ dose distribution. An alternative class of computational phantom, the tomographic phantom, is based upon three-dimensional imaging techniques such as Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging and Computed Tomography (CT). The tomographic phantoms represent the human anatomy with a large number of voxels that are assigned tissue type and organ identity. To date, a total of around 30 tomographic phantoms including male and female adults, pediatric phantoms, and even a pregnant female, have been developed and utilized for realistic radiation dosimetry calculation. They are based on MRI/CT images or sectional color photos from patients, volunteers or cadavers. Several investigators have compared tomographic phantoms with stylized phantoms, and demonstrated the superiority of tomographic phantoms in terms of realistic anatomy and dosimetry calculation. This paper summarizes the history and current status of both stylized and tomographic phantoms, including Korean computational phantoms. Advantages, limitations, and future prospects are also discussed

  14. Air-crew radiation dosimetry - last development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.

    2001-01-01

    Exposure to cosmic radiation increases rapidly with the altitude. At the flight levels of commercial aircraft it is of the order of several μSv per hour. The most of air-crew are exposed regularly to the effective dose exceeding 1 mSv per year, the limit of exposure of non-professionals defined in ICRP 60 recommendation. That is why this problem has been intensively studied from many aspects since the beginning of 90's. This contribution summarises new developments in the field during last two years. First, new international activities are presented, further, new achievement obtained mainly in the author's laboratory are presented and discussed. (authors)

  15. Radiation protection dosimetry in medicine - Report of the working group n.9 of the European radiation dosimetry group (EURADOS) - coordinated network for radiation dosimetry (CONRAD - contract EC N) fp6-12684

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report present the results achieved within the frame of the work the WP 7 (Radiation Protection Dosimetry of Medical Staff) of the coordination action CONRAD (Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry) funded through the 6. EU Framework Program. This action was coordinated by EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group). EURADOS is an organization founded in 1981 to advance the scientific understanding and the technical development of the dosimetry of ionising radiation in the fields of radiation protection, radiobiology, radiation therapy and medical diagnosis by promoting collaboration between European laboratories. WP7 coordinates and promotes European research for the assessment of occupational exposures to staff in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology workplaces. Research is coordinated through sub-groups covering three specific areas: 1. Extremity dosimetry in nuclear medicine and interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in the specific fields of the hospitals and studies of doses to different parts of the hands, arms, legs and feet; 2. Practice of double dosimetry: this sub-group reviews and evaluates the different methods and algorithms for the use of dosemeters placed above and below lead aprons in large exposure during interventional radiology procedures, especially to determine effective doses to cardiologists during cardiac catheterization; and 3. Use of electronic personal dosemeters in interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in laboratories and hospitals, and intercomparisons with passive dosemeters with the aim to enable the formulation of standards. (authors)

  16. Patient dosimetry in intravascular radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putte, S. van de; Thierens, H.; Taeymans, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty is a well-accepted method for nonsurgical myocardial revascularization. However, the long-term success of this method is limited by the occurrence of restenosis. Endovascular brachytherapy has been put forward as a means to avoid restenosis. Since this technique involves the placement of a radioactive source in a catheter in the patient's arteries, the possible radiation risk should be considered. In this paper the effective dose of the patient associated with the use of Iridium-192 for IRT treatment has been calculated using Monte Carlo techniques. To put the results into perspective the effective dose form the PTCA procedure was also calculated using the same techniques. Calculations were based on the measurement of DAP (Dose Area Product) for the procedure. We found a mean effective dose of 9 mSv for both the PTCA procedures as for the IRT treatment. Thus leading to the conclusion that, from the perspective of radiation burden, the elimination of one PTCA procedure through the use of IRT is a benefit for the patient. (author)

  17. Radiation-induced damage analysed by luminescence methods in retrospective dosimetry and emergency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woda, Clemens; Bassinet, Céline; Trompier, François; Bortolin, Emanuela; Della Monaca, Sara; Fattibene, Paola

    2009-01-01

    The increasing risk of a mass casualty scenario following a large scale radiological accident or attack necessitates the development of appropriate dosimetric tools for emergency response. Luminescence dosimetry has been reliably applied for dose reconstruction in contaminated settlements for several decades and recent research into new materials carried close to the human body opens the possibility of estimating individual doses for accident and emergency dosimetry using the same technique. This paper reviews the luminescence research into materials useful for accident dosimetry and applications in retrospective dosimetry. The properties of the materials are critically discussed with regard to the requirements for population triage. It is concluded that electronic components found within portable electronic devices, such as e.g. mobile phones, are at present the most promising material to function as a fortuitous dosimeter in an emergency response.

  18. Comparisons of radiation dosimetry between Louvain (Belgium) and Edinburgh (UK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, J.; Prignot, M.; Wambersie, A.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison of radiation dosimetry performed between Edinburgh and Louvain using the FeSO 4 system, was reported. The procedure adopted provided comparisons both of solution response and of spectrophotometer calibration, and also provided a comparison of ionization dosimetry and irradiation techniques at the two centres. Therefore dosimeter solutions were prepared in both centres, FeSO 4 samples were irradiated either in Edinburgh (4 MV X-rays) or in Louvain ( 60 Co), finally optical densities were measured using the spectrophotometer of either centre. For these different comparisons, the samples were transported once of twice. An agreement between the two centres better than 1% was observed, both for ionization dosimetry and irradiation techniques and for spectrophotometer calibration. The ratio of Louvain to Edinburgh solution response was found close to 1 (0.998+-0.004). However, a previous comparison showed a discrepancy of 2% which illustrates the care needed in checking the purity of the solution components and mainly of the distilled water

  19. Ionizing radiations dosimetry: new results in the megagray range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, P.

    1989-01-01

    Industrial irradiation for food preservation, medical sterilization and plastic processing is in great expansion and an accurate dosimetry in the megagray range is required. It is also required for safety purposes around nuclear reactors or waste storage sites. The study of photon-matter interaction leads us to consider high-dose dosimeters among the solids in which radiolysis occurs. Organic conductors are indeed good candidates for high-dose dosimetry. These materials show original properties due to the great anisotropy of their electronic system. Radiation effects, especially on the resistivity and on the (E.S.R.) Electron Spin Resonance linewidth, are very important. We show that a simple resistance measurement allows an accurate monitoring of the absorbed dose, in the range 0.01 - 50 MGy, for X-rays, gamma-rays and electron irradiations. The E.S.R. linewidth measurements permits the use of small dosimeters between 1 and 100 MGy. Finally, some organic conductors are proposed as high-temperature dosimeters for irradiation performed up to 120 0 C. The irradiated pure silica contains a large variety of defects. Only the E' center seems helpful for dosimetry purposes, and its electron spin resonance (E.S.R.) signal is simply related to the absorbed dose in the range 0.1 - 3 MGy or even, 0.5 kGy - 5 MGy [fr

  20. Application of an alanine dosimetry system for industrial irradiation and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohs, U.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the application of alanine dosimetry in radiation processing. Continuous checks of the EPR measuring conditions as well as using high-quality alanine dosimeters and consistent technique for dose determination guarantee an accuracy of about ± 3% intermediate dose levels. The alanine dosimetry system was applied for dose mapping measurements during irradiator qualification and performance qualification of different products, routine dosimetry, and special radiation protection applications within the gamma irradiator. (author)

  1. Properties of an extrapolation chamber for beta radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, L.V.E.

    The properties of a commercial extrapolation chamber were studied, and the possibility is shown of its use in beta radiation dosimetry. The chamber calibration factors were determined for several sources ( 90 Sr, 90 Y- 204 Tl and 147 Pm) making known the dependence of its response on the energy of the incident radiation. Extrapolation curves allow to obtain independence on energy for each source. One of such curves, shown for the 90 Sr- 90 Y source at 50 cm from the detector, is obtained through the variation of the chamber window thickness and the extrapolation to the null distance (determined graphically). Different curves shown also: 1) the dependence of the calibration factor on the average energy of beta radiation; 2) the variation of ionization current with the distance between the chamber and the sources; 3) the effect of the collecting electrode area on the value of calibration factors for the different sources. (I.C.R.) [pt

  2. Comparative study of Si diodes for gamma radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascoalino, Kelly Cristina da Silva

    2010-01-01

    In this work it is presented the comparative study of Si diodes response for gamma radiation dosimetry. The diodes investigated, grown by float zone (Fz) and magnetic Czochralski (MCz) techniques, were processed at the Physics Institute of Helsinki University in the framework of the research and development of rad-hard silicon devices. To study the dosimetric response of these diodes they were connected in the photovoltaic mode to the input of a digital electrometer to measure the photocurrent signal due to the incidence of gamma-rays from a 60 Co source (Gammacell 220). The dosimetric parameter utilized to study the response of these devices was the charge, obtained trough the integration of the current signals, as a function of the absorbed dose. Studies of the influence of the pre-irradiation procedures on both sensitivity and stability of these diodes showed that the sensitivity decreased with the total absorbed dose but after a preirradiation of about 873 kGy they became more stable. Radiation damage effects eventually produced in the devices were monitored trough dynamic current and capacitance measurements after each irradiation step. Both samples also exhibited good response reproducibility, 2,21% (Fz) and 2,94% (MCz), obtained with 13 consecutive measurements of 15 kGy compared with the equivalent 195 kGy absorbed dose in one step of irradiation. It is important to note that these results are better than those obtained with routine polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) dosimeters used in radiation processing dosimetry. (author)

  3. Calorimetric dosimetry of reactor radiation; Kalorimetriska dozimetrija reaktorskog zracenja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radak, B; Markovic, V; Draganic, I [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Odeljenje za radijacionu hemiju, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1961-12-15

    Calorimetric dosimetry of reactor radiation is relatively new reactor dosimetry method and the number of relevant papers is rather small. Some difficulties in applying standard methods (chemical dosemeters, ionization chambers) exist because of the complexity of radiation. In general application of calorimetric dosemeters for measuring absorbed doses is most precise. In addition to adequate choice of calorimetric bodies there is a possibility of determining the yields of each component of the radiation mixture in the total absorbed dose. This paper contains a short review of the basic calorimetry methods and some results of measurements at the RA reactor in Vinca performed by isothermal calorimeter. Kalorimetrijska dozimetrija reaktorskog zracenja je relativno nova metoda dozimetrije reaktora i broj do sada objavljenih radova je vrlo skroman. S obzirom na slozenu prirodu zracenja postoje neke teskoce pri radu sa standardnim metodama (hemijski dozimetri, jonizacione komere). U principu, upotreba kalorimetra za merenje apsorbovanih doza je najegzaktnija. Osim toga, uz pogodni izbor kalorimetrijskih tela postoji mogucnost za odredjivanje doprinosa pojedinih komponenti smese zracenja u totalnoj apsorbovanoj dozi. U tekstu je dat kratak pregled osnovnih metoda kalorimetrije i neki rezultati merenja sa izotermskim kalorimetrom na reaktoru RA u Vinci.

  4. Human biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of 82Rb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthamizhchelvan, Srinivasan; Bravo, Paco E; Esaias, Caroline; Lodge, Martin A; Merrill, Jennifer; Hobbs, Robert F; Sgouros, George; Bengel, Frank M

    2010-10-01

    Prior estimates of radiation-absorbed doses from (82)Rb, a frequently used PET perfusion tracer, yielded discrepant results. We reevaluated (82)Rb dosimetry using human in vivo biokinetic measurements. Ten healthy volunteers underwent dynamic PET/CT (6 contiguous table positions, each with separate (82)Rb infusion). Source organ volumes of interest were delineated on the CT images and transferred to the PET images to obtain time-integrated activity coefficients. Radiation doses were estimated using OLINDA/EXM 1.0. The highest mean absorbed organ doses (μGy/MBq) were observed for the kidneys (5.81), heart wall (3.86), and lungs (2.96). Mean effective doses were 1.11 ± 0.22 and 1.26 ± 0.20 μSv/MBq using the tissue-weighting factors of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), publications 60 and 103, respectively. Our current (82)Rb dosimetry suggests reasonably low radiation exposure. On the basis of this study, a clinical (82)Rb injection of 2 × 1,480 MBq (80 mCi) would result in a mean effective dose of 3.7 mSv using the weighting factors of the ICRP 103-only slightly above the average annual natural background exposure in the United States (3.1 mSv).

  5. Photographic film dosimetry for high-energy accelerator radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komochkov, M.M.; Salatskaya, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for personnel photographic film dosimetry (PPFDN) of wide energy spectrum neutrons intended for measuring the effect of accelerating device radiation on personnel is described. Procedures of data measurement and processing as well as corrections to hadron contribution are presented. It is noted that the PPFDN method permits to measure a neutron dose equivalent for personnel in the range from 0.01 to 0.02 up to 100 rem, if the relativistic neutron contribution to a total dose does not exceed 5%. The upper limit of the measured dose reduced several times for a greater contribution of relativistic neutrons to the total dose [ru

  6. Applications of Cherenkov Light Emission for Dosimetry in Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Adam Kenneth

    Since its discovery in the 1930's, the Cherenkov effect has been paramount in the development of high-energy physics research. It results in light emission from charged particles traveling faster than the local speed of light in a dielectric medium. The ability of this emitted light to describe a charged particle's trajectory, energy, velocity, and mass has allowed scientists to study subatomic particles, detect neutrinos, and explore the properties of interstellar matter. However, only recently has the phenomenon been considered in the practical context of medical physics and radiation therapy dosimetry, where Cherenkov light is induced by clinical x-ray photon, electron, and proton beams. To investigate the relationship between this phenomenon and dose deposition, a Monte Carlo plug-in was developed within the Geant4 architecture for medically-oriented simulations (GAMOS) to simulate radiation-induced optical emission in biological media. Using this simulation framework, it was determined that Cherenkov light emission may be well suited for radiation dosimetry of clinically used x-ray photon beams. To advance this application, several novel techniques were implemented to realize the maximum potential of the signal, such as time-gating for maximizing the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and Cherenkov-excited fluorescence for generating isotropic light release in water. Proof of concept experiments were conducted in water tanks to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method for two-dimensional (2D) projection imaging, three-dimensional (3D) parallel beam tomography, large field of view 3D cone beam tomography, and video-rate dynamic imaging of treatment plans for a number of common radiotherapy applications. The proposed dosimetry method was found to have a number of unique advantages, including but not limited to its non-invasive nature, water-equivalence, speed, high-resolution, ability to provide full 3D data, and potential to yield data in-vivo. Based on

  7. Activities of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry on radiation overexposure analysis - results from 1994 to 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Francisco C.A. da; Ramalho, Adriana

    1999-01-01

    Since 1985 the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry has operated a service carried out by a multi-disciplinary Group called Radiation Overexposure analysis Group - GADE. It is composed of specialists in radiation protection and dosimetry and has the main objective of taking coordinated actions on radiation overexposure cases. This paper shows mainly the results got from 1984 to 1997 with the methodology used. It was observed that the cases are falling down due to radiation protection activities in the installation. (author)

  8. PNNL Measurement Results for the 2016 Criticality Accident Dosimetry Exercise at the Nevada National Security Stite (IER-148)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.; Morley, Shannon M.; Stephens, John A.

    2017-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) participated in a criticality accident dosimetry intercomparison exercise held at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) May 24-27, 2016. The exercise was administered by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and consisted of three exposures performed using the Godiva-IV critical assembly housed in the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) located on the NNSS site. The exercise allowed participants to test the ability of their nuclear accident dosimeters to meet the performance criteria in ANSI/HPS N13.3-2013, Dosimetry for Criticality Accidents and to obtain new measurement data for use in revising dose calculation methods and quick sort screening methods where appropriate. PNNL participated with new prototype Personal Nuclear Accident Dosimeter (PNAD) and Fixed Nuclear Accident Dosimeter (FNAD) designs as well as the existing historical PNAD design. The new prototype designs incorporate optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters in place of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs), among other design changes, while retaining the same set of activation foils historically used. The default dose calculation methodology established decades ago for use with activation foils in PNNL PNADs and FNADs was used to calculate neutron dose results for both the existing and prototype dosimeters tested in the exercise. The results indicate that the effective cross sections and/or dose conversion factors used historically need to be updated to accurately measure the operational quantities recommended for nuclear accident dosimetry in ANSI/HPS N13.3-2013 and to ensure PNAD and FNAD performance meets the ANSI/HPS N13.3-2013 performance criteria. The operational quantities recommended for nuclear accident dosimetry are personal absorbed dose, Dp(10), and ambient absorbed dose, D*(10).

  9. Chernobyl accident: Causes, consequences and problems of radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortov, V.; Ustyantsev, Yu.

    2013-01-01

    General description of Chernobyl accident is given in the review. The accident causes are briefly described. Special attention is paid to radiation situation after the accident and radiation measurements problems. Some data on Chernobyl disaster are compared with the corresponding data on Fukushima accident. It is noted that Chernobyl and Fukushima lessons should be taken into account while developing further measures on raising nuclear industry safety. -- Highlights: ► The short comparative analysis of accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima is given. ► We note the great effect of β-radiation on the radiation situation at Chernobyl. ► We discuss the problems of radiation measurements under these conditions. ► The impact of shelter on the radiation situation near Chernobyl NPS is described

  10. Dosimetry of an accident in mixed field (neutrons, photons) using the spectrometry by electronic paramagnetic resonance(EPR); Dosimetrie d'accident en champ mixte (neutrons, photons) utilisant la spectrometrie par resonance paramagnetique electronique (RPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herve, M.L

    2006-03-15

    In a radiological accident, the assessment of the dose received by the victim is relevant information for the therapeutic strategy. Two complementary dosimetric techniques based on physical means are used in routine practice in the laboratory: EPR spectroscopy performed on materials removed from the victim or gathered from the vicinity of the victim and Monte Carlo calculations. EPR dosimetry, has been used successfully several times in cases of photon or electron overexposures. Accidental exposure may also occur with a neutron component. The aim of this work is to investigate the potentiality of EPR dosimetry for mixed photon and neutron field exposure with different organic materials (ascorbic acid, sorbitol, glucose, galactose, fructose, mannose, lactose and sucrose). The influence of irradiation parameters (dose, dose rate, photon energy) and of environmental parameters (temperature of heating, light exposure) on the EPR signal amplitude was studied. To assess the neutron sensitivity, the materials were exposed to a mixed radiation field of experimental reactors with different neutron to photon ratios. The relative neutron sensitivity was found to range from 10% to 43% according to the materials. Prior knowledge of the ratio between the dose in samples measured by EPR spectrometry and organ or whole body dose obtained by calculations previously performed for these different configurations, makes it possible to give a first estimation of the dose received by the victim in a short delay. The second aim of this work is to provide data relevant for a quick assessment of the dose distribution in case of accidental overexposure based on EPR measurements performed on one or several points of the body. The study consists in determining by calculation the relation between the dose to the organs and whole body and the dose to specific points of the body, like teeth, bones or samples located in the pockets of victim clothes, for different external exposures corresponding

  11. Dosimetry of environmental radiations (cosmic ray)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Keizo

    1978-01-01

    Cosmic ray is dominant as environmental radiation, though the experimental determination made on cosmic ray doses is few in Japan. The free air ionization intensity at sea level due to cosmic ray has been estimated in the Bay of Wakasa, Japan, at middle geomagnetic latitude (25 deg. N), in October 1977. The ionization chambers used were two air and one argon types. Where the responses to cosmic and terrestrial gamma rays were equal, the ionization intensity due to cosmic ray was obtained by subtracting the ionization intensity due to terrestrial gamma ray from the total ionization intensity. As the terrestrial gamma ray, (1) U-238 series, Th-232 series, and K-40 in seawater, (2) K-40 in the material of a wooden ship, and (3) Rn-222 and its daughter products in the atmosphere were considered. The result of free air ionization due to cosmic ray with the argon chamber was slightly smaller than those with the other two air chambers; however, both were in good agreement within standard errors. (JPN.)

  12. EURADOS. A success story for European cooperation in the dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehm, Werner [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany). German Research Center for Environmental Health (GMBH); Schuhmacher, Helmut [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2017-10-01

    EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group) is a European research platform aiming at the promotion of research and development and European cooperation in the field of the dosimetry of ionizing radiation (www.eurados.org). Initially founded in 1982, it was established in 2008 as a non-profit registered society under German law and is currently based in Neuherberg, Germany.

  13. Radiolabeled blood cells: radiation dosimetry and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Over the past few years blood cells labeled with In-111 have become increasingly useful in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research. Indium-111 by the virtue of its physical characteristics and ability to bind to cell cytoplasmic components, provides an excellent cell tracer and thereby, allows investigators to monitor in vivo cell distribution by external imaging and help determine a course of regimen in treating life threatening diseases. Due to natural phenomena such as margination, blood pool, and reticuloendothelial cell activity, in the normal state, depending upon the cell type and the quality of cell preparations, 30%-50% of the administered radioactivity is immediately distributed in the liver, spleen and bone marrow. Over a period of time the radioactivity in these organs slightly increases and decays with a physical half-life of In-111. The resulting radiation dose to these organs ranges between 1-25 rads/mCi In-111 administered. The authors have developed a new In-111 labeling technique which preserves platelet ultrastructure and shown that human lymphocytes labeled with In-111 in mixed leukocytes preparations a) are only 0.003% of the total -body lymphocytes population and b) are killed. The consequence if any may be considered insignificant, particularly because 5.6% metaphases from normal men and 6.5% metaphases from normal women in the US have at least one chromosome aberration. Calculations have shown that the risk of fatal hematological malignancy, over a 30 year period, in recipients of 100 million lymphocytes labeled with 100 μCi In-111 is 1/million patients studied. This risk is less than 0.025% of the 1981 spontaneous cancer patient rate in the country. 32 references, 10 tables

  14. Guide for selection and calibration of dosimetry systems for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This guide covers the basis for selecting and calibrating dosimetry systems used to measure absorbed dose in gamma ray or X-ray fields and in electron beams used for radiation processing. It discusses the types of dosimetry systems that may be employed during calibration or on a routine basis as part of quality assurance in commercial radiation processing of products. This guide also discusses interpretation of absorbed dose and briefly outlines measurements of the uncertainties associated with the dosimetry. The details of the calibration of the analytical instrumentation are addressed in individual dosimetry system standard practices. The absorbed-dose range covered is up to 1 MGy (100 Mrad). Source energies covered are from 0.1 to 50 MeV photons and electrons. This guide should be used along with standard practices and guides for specific dosimetry systems and applications covered in other standards. Dosimetry for radiation processing with neutrons or heavy charged particles is not covered in this guide

  15. Prevention of radiation accidents and their consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khiski, J.

    1976-01-01

    Clearing out reasons for nuclear accidents enables to take effective measures to minimize them. The number of accidents in 1957 - 1974 is given. The frequency of accidents at various working places, while operating with various radioisotopes is presented. The analysis of accidents and the confirmation of these estimates can lead to the generalization of data and to the formulation of preventive measures [ru

  16. Radiation dosimetry of [(18)F]VAT in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Morvarid; Tu, Zhude; Yue, Xuyi; Zhang, Xiang; Jin, Hongjun; Perlmutter, Joel S; Laforest, Richard

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the radiation dosimetry of a novel radiotracer for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (-)-(1-((2R,3R)-8-(2-[(18)F]fluoro-ethoxy)-3-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)piperidin-4-yl)(4-fluorophenyl)-methanone ([(18)F]VAT) based on PET imaging in nonhuman primates. [(18)F]VAT has potential for investigation of neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and dystonia. Three macaque fascicularis (two males, one female) received 185.4-198.3 MBq [(18)F]VAT prior to whole-body imaging in a MicroPET-F220 scanner. Time activity curves (TACs) were created from regions of interest (ROIs) that encompassed the entire small organs or samples with the highest activity within large organs. Organ residence times were calculated based on the TACs. We then used OLINDA/EXM 1.1 to calculate human radiation dose estimates based on scaled organ residence times. Measurements from directly sampled arterial blood yielded a residence time of 0.30 h in agreement with the residence time of 0.39 h calculated from a PET-generated time activity curve measured in the left ventricle. Organ dosimetry revealed the liver as the critical organ (51.1 and 65.4 μGy/MBq) and an effective dose of 16 and 19 μSv/MBq for male and female, respectively. The macaque biodistribution data showed high retention of [(18)F]VAT in the liver consistent with hepatobiliary clearance. These dosimetry data support that relatively safe doses of [(18)F]VAT can be administered to obtain imaging in humans.

  17. Implementation of MRI gel dosimetry in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeck, S.Aa.J.

    1998-12-01

    Gel dosimetry was used together with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure three-dimensional absorbed dose distributions in radiation therapy. Two different dosimeters were studied: ferrous- and monomer gel, based on the principles of radiation-induced oxidation and polymerisation, respectively. Single clinical electron and photon beams were evaluated and gel dose distributions were mainly within 2% of conventional detector results. The ferrous-gel was also used for clinical proton beams. A decrease in signal per absorbed dose was found close to the end of the range of the protons (15-20%). This effect was explained as a linear energy transfer dependence, further supported with Monte Carlo simulations. A method for analysing and comparing data from treatment planning system (TPS) and gel measurements was developed. The method enables a new pixel by pixel evaluation, isodose comparison and dose volume histogram verification. Two standard clinical radiation therapy procedures were examined using the developed TPS verification method. The treatment regimes included several beams of different radiation qualities. The TPS calculated data were in very good agreement with the dose distribution measured by the ferrous-gel. However, in a beam abutment region, larger dose difference was found. Beam adjustment errors and a minor TPS underestimation of the lateral scatter contribution outside the primary electron beam may explain the discrepancy. The overall uncertainty in the ferrous-gel dose determination was considerably reduced using an optimised MRI acquisition protocol and a new MRI scanner. The relative dose uncertainty was found to be better than 3.3% for all dose levels (95% confidence level). Using the method developed for comparing measured gel data with calculated treatment plans, the gel dosimetry method was proven to be a useful tool for radiation treatment planning verification

  18. Space radiation dosimetry in low-Earth orbit and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, E.R.; Benton, E.V.

    2001-01-01

    Space radiation dosimetry presents one of the greatest challenges in the discipline of radiation protection. This is a result of both the highly complex nature of the radiation fields encountered in low-Earth orbit (LEO) and interplanetary space and of the constraints imposed by spaceflight on instrument design. This paper reviews the sources and composition of the space radiation environment in LEO as well as beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. A review of much of the dosimetric data that have been gathered over the last four decades of human space flight is presented. The different factors affecting the radiation exposures of astronauts and cosmonauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are emphasized. Measurements made aboard the Mir Orbital Station have highlighted the importance of both secondary particle production within the structure of spacecraft and the effect of shielding on both crew dose and dose equivalent. Roughly half the dose on ISS is expected to come from trapped protons and half from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The dearth of neutron measurements aboard LEO spacecraft and the difficulty inherent in making such measurements have led to large uncertainties in estimates of the neutron contribution to total dose equivalent. Except for a limited number of measurements made aboard the Apollo lunar missions, no crew dosimetry has been conducted beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. At the present time we are forced to rely on model-based estimates of crew dose and dose equivalent when planning for interplanetary missions, such as a mission to Mars. While space crews in LEO are unlikely to exceed the exposure limits recommended by such groups as the NCRP, dose equivalents of the same order as the recommended limits are likely over the course of a human mission to Mars

  19. Implementation of MRI gel dosimetry in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeck, S.Aa.J

    1998-12-01

    Gel dosimetry was used together with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure three-dimensional absorbed dose distributions in radiation therapy. Two different dosimeters were studied: ferrous- and monomer gel, based on the principles of radiation-induced oxidation and polymerisation, respectively. Single clinical electron and photon beams were evaluated and gel dose distributions were mainly within 2% of conventional detector results. The ferrous-gel was also used for clinical proton beams. A decrease in signal per absorbed dose was found close to the end of the range of the protons (15-20%). This effect was explained as a linear energy transfer dependence, further supported with Monte Carlo simulations. A method for analysing and comparing data from treatment planning system (TPS) and gel measurements was developed. The method enables a new pixel by pixel evaluation, isodose comparison and dose volume histogram verification. Two standard clinical radiation therapy procedures were examined using the developed TPS verification method. The treatment regimes included several beams of different radiation qualities. The TPS calculated data were in very good agreement with the dose distribution measured by the ferrous-gel. However, in a beam abutment region, larger dose difference was found. Beam adjustment errors and a minor TPS underestimation of the lateral scatter contribution outside the primary electron beam may explain the discrepancy. The overall uncertainty in the ferrous-gel dose determination was considerably reduced using an optimised MRI acquisition protocol and a new MRI scanner. The relative dose uncertainty was found to be better than 3.3% for all dose levels (95% confidence level). Using the method developed for comparing measured gel data with calculated treatment plans, the gel dosimetry method was proven to be a useful tool for radiation treatment planning verification 103 refs, 20 figs, 6 tabs

  20. Dosimetry of an accident in mixed field (neutrons, photons) using the spectrometry by electronic paramagnetic resonance(EPR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve, M.L.

    2006-03-01

    In a radiological accident, the assessment of the dose received by the victim is relevant information for the therapeutic strategy. Two complementary dosimetric techniques based on physical means are used in routine practice in the laboratory: EPR spectroscopy performed on materials removed from the victim or gathered from the vicinity of the victim and Monte Carlo calculations. EPR dosimetry, has been used successfully several times in cases of photon or electron overexposures. Accidental exposure may also occur with a neutron component. The aim of this work is to investigate the potentiality of EPR dosimetry for mixed photon and neutron field exposure with different organic materials (ascorbic acid, sorbitol, glucose, galactose, fructose, mannose, lactose and sucrose). The influence of irradiation parameters (dose, dose rate, photon energy) and of environmental parameters (temperature of heating, light exposure) on the EPR signal amplitude was studied. To assess the neutron sensitivity, the materials were exposed to a mixed radiation field of experimental reactors with different neutron to photon ratios. The relative neutron sensitivity was found to range from 10% to 43% according to the materials. Prior knowledge of the ratio between the dose in samples measured by EPR spectrometry and organ or whole body dose obtained by calculations previously performed for these different configurations, makes it possible to give a first estimation of the dose received by the victim in a short delay. The second aim of this work is to provide data relevant for a quick assessment of the dose distribution in case of accidental overexposure based on EPR measurements performed on one or several points of the body. The study consists in determining by calculation the relation between the dose to the organs and whole body and the dose to specific points of the body, like teeth, bones or samples located in the pockets of victim clothes, for different external exposures corresponding

  1. Thermoluminescence of chip inductors from mobile phones for retrospective and accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler, I.; Woda, C.

    2011-01-01

    Electronic components in portable electronic devices such as mobile phones and portable media player have previously been shown to be useful tools for retrospective and accident dosimetry. In this study the properties of alumina rich inductors removed from mobile phones are investigated using thermoluminescence (TL). The typical glow curve of this component has two main peaks at 170 and 270 °C. With a suitable measurement protocol sensitivity changes of both peaks could be corrected so that the TL signal shows a linear increase in the investigated dose range from 100 mGy to 5 Gy. All inductors studied showed essentially no signal for zero dose. We investigated the fading of the TL signals and the detection limit of inductors extracted from different mobile phones.

  2. On the use of OSL of chip card modules with molding for retrospective and accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woda, Clemens; Fiedler, Irene; Spöttl, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The potential of optically stimulated luminescence of wire-bond chip card modules with molded encapsulations for retrospective and accident dosimetry is investigated. Contact-based and contactless modules were studied, the latter finding potential use in electronic documents (e.g. electronic passports, electronic identity cards). Investigations were carried out on intact as well as chemically prepared modules, extracting the filler material. Contact-based modules are characterized according to zero dose signal, correlation between OSL and TL, dose response and long-term signal stability. For prepared modules, the minimum detectable dose immediately after irradiation is 3 mGy and between 20 and 200 mGy for contact-based and contactless modules, respectively. Dose recovery tests on contact-based modules indicate that the developed methodology yields results with sufficient accuracy for measurements promptly after irradiation, whereas a systematic underestimation is observed for longer delay times. The reasons for this behaviour are as yet not fully understood.

  3. Emergency room management of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, R.; Mettler, F.A. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Emergency room management of radioactively contaminated patients who have an associated medical injury requiring immediate attention must be handled with care. Radioactive contamination of the skin of a worker is not a medical emergency and is usually dealt with at the plant. Effective preplanning and on-the-scene triage will allow the seriously injured and contaminated patients to get the medical care they need with a minimum of confusion and interference. Immediate medical and surgical priorities always take precedence over radiation injuries and radioactive contamination. Probably the most difficult aspect of emergency management is the rarity of such accidents and hence the unfamiliarity of the medical staff with the appropriate procedures. The authors discuss how the answer to these problems is preplanning, having a simple and workable procedure and finally having 24-h access to experts

  4. Dosimetry study for electron beam irradiation in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunaga, Hiromi; Haruyama, Yasuyuki; Takizawa, Haruki; Kojima, Takuji; Yotsumoto, Keiichi

    1995-01-01

    For certain critical applications such as medical device sterilization and food irradiation, accurate calibration of electron energy and absorbed dose is required to assure the quality of irradiated products. To meet this requirement, TRCRE, JAERI has carried out research and development on high dose radiation dosimetry for electron beams in the energy range used in radiation processing (0.15 - 3.0 MeV). JAERI has developed a simultaneous electron beam energy and dosimeter calibration system that consist of a total absorption calorimeter, an electron current density meter, and a stacked thin-film dosimeter set. For low energy electrons, where it is important to measure the depth-dose profile in materials with high depth resolution, we studied the feasibility of a method using Gafchromic film dosimeters. This film, which has an 8-μm thick sensitive layer, is combined with a stepped array of absorber films of the same thickness to produce a high-resolution depth-dose profile on the Gafchromic film. The depth-dose profile obtained in this manner has about five times greater resolution than conventional radiochromic film dosimetry. (author)

  5. Possible application of an imaging plate to space radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohuchi, Hiroko; Yamadera, Akira

    2002-01-01

    Fading correction plays an important role in the application of commercially available BaBrF:Eu 2+ phosphors: imaging plates (IP) to dosimetry. We successfully determined a fading correction equation, which is a function of elapsed time and absolute temperature, as the sum of several exponentially decaying components having different half-lives. In this work, a new method was developed to eliminate a short half-life component by annealing the IP and estimating the radiation dose with the long half-life components. Annealing decreases the effect of fading on the estimated dose, however, it also causes the loss of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL). Considering an IP as an integral detector for a specific period of up to one month, the practically optimum conditions for quantitative measurement with two types of IP (BAS-TR and BAS-MS) were evaluated by using the fading correction equation, which was obtained after irradiation with a 244 Cm source as the alpha-ray source having a specific radioactivity of 1,638.5 Bq/cm 2 including beta and gamma-ray (alpha energy of 5.763 and 5.805 MeV). Annealing at 80 deg C for 24 hours after irradiation for one month using BAS-MS should minimize the effect of the elapsed time, resulting in sufficient sensitivity. The results demonstrate new possibilities for radiation dosimetry offered by the use of an IP. (author)

  6. Clinical application of radiation dosimetry on X-ray radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, Takeo

    1995-01-01

    In the case of radiotherapy, it is important to give proper dose for a tumor, to be treated with the objective of therapy, and to evaluate the dose, considering dose for other organs at risk to a sufficient extent. To provide an exposure dose at the target volume of tumor parts, it should be required to get a good understanding of the correct dosimetric method and also to apply this to clinical application in practice. All over the country, so as not to produce any difference in the given dose, 'A practical code for the dosimetry of high energy X-rays in radiotherapy' was issued by the Japanese Associations of radiological physicists in 1972. In 1986, it was revised. At about 85% of therapeutic facilities in the country, radiation engineers perform dose measurements and controls. Therefore, I have explained the process of measurement and dose calculation, with the main objective directed at the engineers in charge of the radiotherapy so as to easily radiation dosimetry of X-ray with dosemeters and phantom used at each facility according to the 'practical code'. (author)

  7. Calculation codes in radiation protection, radiation physics and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    These scientific days had for objective to draw up the situation of calculation codes of radiation transport, of sources estimation, of radiation doses managements and to draw the future perspectives. (N.C.)

  8. Progress in reassessment of atomic bomb radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1985-01-01

    Studies for reassessment of A-bomb radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are underway in both Japan and the US. The progress made in various reassessment studies has been reported at several US-Japan joint workshops. The medical follow-up studies by the RERF provide data on dose-related parameters such as the location of the survivors and their shielding by surrounding structures at the times of the bombings. To make accurate estimates of the radiation dose for individual survivors in the two cities, they need reliable information concerning (a) the hypocenters and burst heights of the bombs, (b) the energy yields of the bombs and the source terms for the initial radiations from the bombs, (c) the atmospheric radiation transport to determine the initial radiation fields at the location of the survivors, (d) the attenuation factors for shielding afforded by structures and terrain, and (e) the shielding of specific organs by overlying tissues of the body. A computer code combining the above elements has been installed at the RERF and used in a preliminary reassessment of radiation doses to survivors who were indoors, shielded by houses at the times of the bombings. These results will be presented and discussed. The discussions will be focused, however, on specific areas where binational agreement has been reached and on specific areas where additional work is needed before the reassessment can be considered final

  9. An intercomparison of Canadian external dosimetry processors for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The five Canadian external dosimetry processors have participated in a two-stage intercomparison. The first stage involved dosimeters to known radiation fields under controlled laboratory conditions. The second stage involved exposing dosimeters to radiation fields in power reactor working environments. The results for each stage indicated the dose reported by each processor relative to an independently determined dose and relative to the others. The results of the intercomparisons confirm the original supposition: namely that the average differences in reported dose among five processors are much less than the uncertainty limits recommended by the ICRP. This report provides a description of the experimental methods as well as a discussion of the results for each stage. The report also includes a set of recommendations

  10. Statistical methods to evaluate thermoluminescence ionizing radiation dosimetry data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segre, Nadia; Matoso, Erika; Fagundes, Rosane Correa

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation levels, evaluated through the exposure of CaF 2 :Dy thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD- 200), have been monitored at Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA), located at Ipero in Sao Paulo state, Brazil, since 1991 resulting in a large amount of measurements until 2009 (more than 2,000). The data amount associated with measurements dispersion, since every process has deviation, reinforces the utilization of statistical tools to evaluate the results, procedure also imposed by the Brazilian Standard CNEN-NN-3.01/PR- 3.01-008 which regulates the radiometric environmental monitoring. Thermoluminescence ionizing radiation dosimetry data are statistically compared in order to evaluate potential CEA's activities environmental impact. The statistical tools discussed in this work are box plots, control charts and analysis of variance. (author)

  11. Personnel dosimetry in internal radiation exposure by excretory radionuclide measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.I.; Bruk, G.Ya.; Korelina, N.F.; Likhtarev, I.A.; Repin, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    The collaboration with the SAAS resulted in the development of a mathematical method to calculate radiation doses in human tissues attributed to inhaled radionuclides concerning their retention dynamics in the respiratory system and their uptake into the blood as well as the metabolic pathways in the organs. 'Sanep-stations' and radiation protection service elaborated nomograms for the determination of the commitment doses in the critical organs based on the radionuclide content of a 24-hours urinalysis without intermediate calculations. Recommendations for the use of the method and the nomograms for various radionuclides (solubility classes D and N with MAAD of 1 and 10 μm) are given in the methodological document: 'Indirect dosimetry of inhaled radionuclides in workers'. A calculation method for the annual dose of internal irradiation in tritium workers is also cited

  12. Dosimetry of electron and gamma radiation with DL-alanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Z.M. da; Campos, L.L.

    1996-01-01

    A dosimetric method based on the quantitative determination of stabilised free radicals in irradiated crystalline DL-alanine by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was proposed as early in 1962. Since then, alanine dosemeters owing to their unique properties have been investigated by many authors and used in dosimetry of various types of radiation, namely gamma rays, electron and neutrons. Alanine is a simple aminoacid, on irradiation at room temperature predominantly free paramagnetic radicals of the type CH 3 -CH-COOH are produced. This paper reports the application of powder DL-alanine/ESR dosemeter for measurement of absorbed dose of gamma radiation from 60 Co sources and reactor nucleus and electron beams from accelerator. The obtained results give useful information about the instrumental care necessary to obtain the needed overall accuracy in determination of absorbed dose. (author)

  13. Optimization of radiation protection in nuclear medicine: from reference dosimetry to personalized dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadid, Lama

    2011-01-01

    In nuclear medicine, radiopharmaceuticals are distributed in the body through biokinetic processes. Thus, each organ can become a source of radiation delivering a fraction of emitted energy in tissues. Therefore, dose calculations must be assessed accurately and realistically to ensure the patient radiation protection. Absorbed doses were until now based on mathematical standard models and electron transport approximations. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recently adopted voxel phantoms as a more realistic representation of the reference adult. The main goal of this thesis was to study the influence of the use of the new reference models and Monte Carlo methods on the major dosimetric quantities. In addition, the contribution of patients? specific geometry to the absorbed dose was compared to a standard geometry, enabling the evaluation of uncertainties arising from the reference values. Particular attention was paid to the bone marrow which is characterized by a high radiosensitivity and a complex microscopic structure. An accurate alpha dosimetry was assessed for bone marrow using microscopic images of several trabecular bone sites. The results showed variations in the absorbed fractions as a function of the particles? energy, the skeletal site and the amount of fat within marrow cavities, three parameters which are not taken into account in the values published by the ICRP. Finally, the heterogeneous activity distribution of the radiopharmaceuticals was considered within the framework of the treatment of a hepato-cellular carcinoma with selective internal radiotherapy using Yttrium-90 through the analysis of dose-volume histograms. The developments made in this thesis show the importance and the feasibility of performing a personalized dosimetry for nuclear medicine patients. (author)

  14. The MCART radiation physics core: the quest for radiation dosimetry standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Abdul M; MacVittie, Thomas J; Lasio, Giovanni; Lu, Wei; Prado, Karl L

    2014-01-01

    Dose-related radiobiological research results can only be compared meaningfully when radiation dosimetry is standardized. To this purpose, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)-sponsored Medical Countermeasures Against Radiological Threats (MCART) consortium recently created a Radiation Physics Core (RPC) as an entity to assume responsibility of standardizing radiation dosimetry practices among its member laboratories. The animal research activities in these laboratories use a variety of ionizing photon beams from several irradiators such as 250-320 kVp x-ray generators, Cs irradiators, Co teletherapy machines, and medical linear accelerators (LINACs). In addition to this variety of sources, these centers use a range of irradiation techniques and make use of different dose calculation schemes to conduct their experiments. An extremely important objective in these research activities is to obtain a Dose Response Relationship (DRR) appropriate to their respective organ-specific models of acute and delayed radiation effects. A clear and unambiguous definition of the DRR is essential for the development of medical countermeasures. It is imperative that these DRRs are transparent between centers. The MCART RPC has initiated the establishment of standard dosimetry practices among member centers and is introducing a Remote Dosimetry Monitoring Service (RDMS) to ascertain ongoing quality assurance. This paper will describe the initial activities of the MCART RPC toward implementing these standardization goals. It is appropriate to report a summary of initial activities with the intent of reporting the full implementation at a later date.

  15. Reassessment of the atomic bomb radiation dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Dosimetry system 2002. DS02. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Robert W.; Kerr, George D.

    2005-01-01

    The extensive efforts to review the dosimetry of the atomic-bomb survivors and formulate the new dosimetry system DS02 have been greatly welcomed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). This accomplishment is a fine tribute to the importance of the epidemiological studies being conducted at RERF. No other study is so informative of the effects of radiation on human health. The gracious participation in the RERF program by the atomic-bomb survivors allows us to contribute to the well being of these individuals, and the high quality of the data obtained allows the RERF results to feature so prominently in the formulation of international guidelines for radiation protection. Such a great effort to improve and substantiate the dosimetry would not otherwise have been justified. RERF greatly appreciates the independent work of the U.S. and Japanese Working Groups on the atomic-bomb dosimetry and the review by the Joint Senior Review Group of this overall effort. We are assured that unbiased development of the new dosimetry system will reflect well in its application in the RERF epidemiology study. The documentation included in this report will serve as reference for the many deliberations concluded. The title publications are divided into 2 volumes. This is the first volume. The 8 of the reports in each chapter are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  16. Reassessment of the atomic bomb radiation dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Dosimetry system 2002. DS02. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Robert W.; Kerr, George D.

    2005-01-01

    The extensive efforts to review the dosimetry of the atomic-bomb survivors and formulate the new dosimetry system DS02 have been greatly welcomed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). This accomplishment is a fine tribute to the importance of the epidemiological studies being conducted at RERF. No other study is so informative of the effects of radiation on human health. The gracious participation in the RERF program by the atomic-bomb survivors allows us to contribute to the well being of these individuals, and the high quality of the data obtained allows the RERF results to feature so prominently in the formulation of international guidelines for radiation protection. Such a great effort to improve and substantiate the dosimetry would not otherwise have been justified. RERF greatly appreciates the independent work of the U.S. and Japanese Working Groups on the atomic-bomb dosimetry and the review by the Joint Senior Review Group of this overall effort. We are assured that unbiased development of the new dosimetry system will reflect well in its application in the RERF epidemiology study. The documentation included in this report will serve as reference for the many deliberations concluded. The title publications are divided into 2 volumes. This is the second volume. The 29 of the reports in each chapter are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  17. Some methods for calibration and beta radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, Linda V. Ehlin

    1980-01-01

    The calibration of beta radiation was studied from the point of view of primary and secondary standardization, using extrapolation chambers and examining several effects. The properties of a commercial ionization chamber were investigated, and the possibility of its use in calibration and dosimetry of 90 Sr- 90 Y beta radiation was demonstrated . A secondary standard calibration facility was developed and the results obtained with this facility were compared with those obtained from a primary system directly or indirectly. Nearly energy independent response was obtained in.the range 60 keV to 0,8 MeV with this secondary standard. Two solid state techniques namely thermoluminescence (TL) and thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) were also used for beta dosimetry. Various characteristics like reproducibility, response with dose,energy dependence, etc. were studied for the materials: LiF, CaF 2 ,Li 2 B 4 O 7 , Be O, CaSO 4 and Al 2 O 3 . TL detectors of thickness 0,9 mm underestimate the dose 60 μm thick CaSO 4 :Tm embedded on a thin aluminium plate gave energy independent response behind skin layers of 7 mg/cm 2 . Mixed field of beta, X and gamma radiation was analysed using this detector. Quartz based Be O and graphite based alpha beta-Al 2 O 3 were found to be good beta radiation detectors when the TSEE technique is used. Energy independent CaSO 4 :Tm TL dosimeters were used in international comparison for dose measurements and the results obtained were in agreement with the actual given doses within 10%. The TL detectors were also used for dose rate measurements from glazed painted tiles used in construction industry and a 85 Kr source used in textile and metal industries. Results obtained in the later case were Q compared with those using the secondary standard facility. (author)

  18. Radiation dosimetry for commissioning Egypt's 'ega-gamma I' facility for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Behay, A.Z.; Rageh, S.I.; El-Assy, N.B.; Roushdy, H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation for sterilization of medical products and biological tissues has become an alternative to autoclaving or gas treatment by ethylene oxide. Moreover, large radiation facilities are now increasing for processing many industrial products, such as rubber, textiles, plastics, coatings, films, wire and cable. For quality control of irradiated products released to the public, greater consideration is now being given to the use of physical radiation dosimetry, since it is simple, reliable, and reproducible. This work describes dosimetry for the new 60 Co irradiation plant, located at the National Center for Radiation Research and Technology of Egypt. Detailed measurements of absorbed dose extremes in product boxes processed in the plant were made using commercially supplied dyed plastic dosimeters (Red Acrylic and Red Perspex). These physical dosimeters were calibrated against the yield of cerous ion due to γ-ray irradiation of ceric sulphate solution as a standard chemical dosimeter. (author)

  19. Recent developments of optically stimulated luminescence materials and techniques for radiation dosimetry and clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last 10 years, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL has emerged as a formidable competitor not only to thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD but also to several other dosimetry systems. Though a large number of materials have been synthesized and studied for OSL, Al 2 O 3 :C continues to dominate the dosimetric applications. Re-investigations of OSL in BeOindicate that this material might provide an alternative to Al 2 O 3 :C. Study of OSL of electronic components of mobile phones and ID cards appears to have opened up a feasibility of dosimetry and dose reconstruction using the electronic components of gadgets of everyday use in the events of unforeseen situations of radiological accidents, including the event of a dirty bomb by terrorist groups. Among the newly reported materials, a very recent development of NaMgF 3 :Eu 2+ appears fascinating because of its high OSL sensitivity and tolerable tissue equivalence. In clinical dosimetry, an OSL as a passive dosimeter could do all that TLD can do, much faster with a better or at least the same efficiency; and in addition, it provides a possibility of repeated readout unlike TLD, in which all the dose information is lost in a single readout. Of late, OSL has also emerged as a practical real-time dosimeter for in vivo measurements in radiation therapy (for both external beams and brachytherapy and in various diagnostic radiological examinations including mammography and CT dosimetry. For in vivo measurements, a probe of Al 2 O 3 :C of size of a fraction of a millimeter provides the information on both the dose rate and the total dose from the readout of radioluminescence and OSL signals respectively, from the same probe. The availability of OSL dosimeters in various sizes and shapes and their performance characteristics as compared to established dosimeters such as plastic scintillation dosimeters, diode detectors, MOSFET detectors, radiochromic films, etc., shows that OSL may soon become

  20. FDA's requirements for radiation dosimetry of radiopharmaceutical drug products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, N.M.

    1986-01-01

    The primary concern of the Office of Drug Research and Review of the Food and Drug Administration in the field of radiation dosimetry is to ensure that radiopharmaceutical drug products are safe when used as investigational drugs (INDs) and are both safe and effective when a new drug application (NDA) is approved. In order to accomplish this, the sponsor of either an IND or applicant in the case of NDA must provide information that clearly describes the radiation dose that a patient will receive from the administration of the drug. The submitted numerical estimates of the radiation dose should be based on an absorbed fraction method of radiation dose calculation, such as the system set forth by the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine or the system set forth by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This presentation will describe in detail the data that a sponsor of an IND needs to submit to satisfy the regulatory requirements. Examples will be given of common mistakes and omissions by sponsors in their presentation of data

  1. Overview of Brazilian industrial radiography accidents with cutaneous radiation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, C.M.A.; Silva, F.C.A. da, E-mail: dasilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    It is well documented that industrial radiography is related to radiological accidents, which makes it the highest potential risk for human health. More than 80 radiological accidents happened in the world that includes 6 Brazilian accidents with Cutaneous Radiation Syndrome. Five of them happened with {sup 192}Ir and one with {sup 60}Co radioactive sources. Nineteen members of the public and 8 radiographers were involved. All of them suffered severe hands and fingers injuries. The Brazilian radiological accident happened in 1985 with 16 persons is analyzed showing causes, consequences, radiation doses and lessons learned. (author)

  2. Overview of Brazilian industrial radiography accidents with cutaneous radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, C.M.A.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    It is well documented that industrial radiography is related to radiological accidents, which makes it the highest potential risk for human health. More than 80 radiological accidents happened in the world that includes 6 Brazilian accidents with Cutaneous Radiation Syndrome. Five of them happened with 192 Ir and one with 60 Co radioactive sources. Nineteen members of the public and 8 radiographers were involved. All of them suffered severe hands and fingers injuries. The Brazilian radiological accident happened in 1985 with 16 persons is analyzed showing causes, consequences, radiation doses and lessons learned. (author)

  3. Techniques used in CAPRI for the dosimetry of γ radiations and electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laizier, J.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation sources of CAPRI are: Pagure - 60 Co - 20Kcie, Poseidon - 60 Co - 1MCie (presently the activity is 200 Kcie), Vulcain - e - - 3MeV (variable from 0.5 MeV) - 1mA, Promethee - e - - 300 kV - 100 mA. The activities of CAPRI are research and development in industrial applications of irradiation, pilot and small scale production, irradiation (sterilization), nuclear qualification. Dosimetry techniques are: plastic dosimetry, chemical dosimetry, films [fr

  4. On the use of OSL of wire-bond chip card modules for retrospective and accident dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woda, Clemens [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)], E-mail: clemens.woda@helmholtz-muenchen.de; Spoettl, Thomas [Infineon Technologies AG, Wernerwerkstrasse 1, D-93049 Regensburg (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    The potential of optically stimulated luminescence of wire-bond chip card modules, used in health insurance, ID, cash and credit cards for retrospective and accident dosimetry is investigated. Chip card modules obtained directly from the producer, using a widely spread UV-cured epoxy product for encapsulation, are used as basis for the study. The radiation sensitivity is due to silica grains added to the epoxy for controlling the thixotropic properties. Luminescence properties are complex due to the presumed thermo-optical release of electrons from the epoxy and transfer into the silica. Best results and highest sensitivity are obtained by using no or only low preheat treatments. A high degree of fading of the OSL signal during storage at room temperature is observed, which is tentatively explained by the superposition of thermal decay of shallow OSL traps and athermal (anomalous) decay of deeper OSL traps. The dose response of the OSL signal shows exponentially saturating behaviour, with saturation doses of 77 Gy or 9.6 Gy, depending on pretreatment. Dose recovery tests show that given doses can be recovered within a deviation of {+-}14%, if measured signals are corrected for fading. The minimum detectable dose is estimated at {approx}3 mGy, {approx}10 mGy and {approx}20 mGy for readouts immediately, 1 day and 10 days after exposure, respectively.

  5. An extended role for thermoluminescent phosphors in personnel, environmental and accident dosimetry using sensitisation, re-estimation and fast fading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper summarises some techniques for extending the usefulness of conventional phosphors in personnel, environmental and accident dosimetry. An optimised procedure for utilising radiation sensitisation and UV re-estimation in thermoluminescent LiF is presented. In particular it is shown that optimum performance is achieved by using a UV wavelength of 250 +- 10 nm for both the UV/thermal anneal following sensitisation, and for the UV re-estimation procedure. In the case of Harshaw Lif Chips (3x3x0.9 mm 3 ) the sensitivity is increased by a factor of 4-5 to achieve a minimum detectable dose of approx.=10 μGy (2sigma) and a minimum re-estimable dose of 50-100 mGy (2sigma), dependent on batch. Sensitized LiF also exhibits improved tissue equivalence, extended linearity and improved precision at low doses. The information from fast-fading glow peaks, which is normally rejected, is shown to have a useful application to the evaluation of short-term increases in environmental dose rates such as may occur following accidental releases of radioactivity. (orig.)

  6. On the use of OSL of wire-bond chip card modules for retrospective and accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woda, Clemens; Spoettl, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The potential of optically stimulated luminescence of wire-bond chip card modules, used in health insurance, ID, cash and credit cards for retrospective and accident dosimetry is investigated. Chip card modules obtained directly from the producer, using a widely spread UV-cured epoxy product for encapsulation, are used as basis for the study. The radiation sensitivity is due to silica grains added to the epoxy for controlling the thixotropic properties. Luminescence properties are complex due to the presumed thermo-optical release of electrons from the epoxy and transfer into the silica. Best results and highest sensitivity are obtained by using no or only low preheat treatments. A high degree of fading of the OSL signal during storage at room temperature is observed, which is tentatively explained by the superposition of thermal decay of shallow OSL traps and athermal (anomalous) decay of deeper OSL traps. The dose response of the OSL signal shows exponentially saturating behaviour, with saturation doses of 77 Gy or 9.6 Gy, depending on pretreatment. Dose recovery tests show that given doses can be recovered within a deviation of ±14%, if measured signals are corrected for fading. The minimum detectable dose is estimated at ∼3 mGy, ∼10 mGy and ∼20 mGy for readouts immediately, 1 day and 10 days after exposure, respectively.

  7. Variable transformation of calibration equations for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoichi

    2005-01-01

    For radiation dosimetry, dosimetric equipment must be calibrated by using known doses. The calibration is done to determine an equation that relates the absorbed dose to a physically measurable quantity. Since the calibration equation is accompanied by unavoidable uncertainties, the doses estimated with such equations suffer from inherent uncertainties. We presented mathematical formulation of the calibration when the calibration relation is either linear or nonlinear. We also derived equations for the uncertainty of the estimated dose as a function of the uncertainties of the parameters in the equations and the measured physical quantity. We showed that a dosimeter with a linear calibration equation with zero dose-offset enables us to perform relative dosimetry without calibration data. Furthermore, a linear equation justifies useful data manipulations such as rescaling the dose and changing the dose-offset for comparing dose distributions. Considering that some dosimeters exhibit linear response with a large dose-offset or often nonlinear response, we proposed variable transformations of the measured physical quantity, namely, linear- and log-transformation methods. The proposed methods were tested with Kodak X-Omat V radiographic film and BANG (registered) polymer gel dosimeter. We demonstrated that the variable transformation methods could lead to linear equations with zero dose-offset and could reduce the uncertainty of the estimated dose

  8. The implementation of the operational dose quantities into radiation protection dosimetry (NRPB Association)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.C.; Chartier, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The main objectives of this project are to improve the measurement of spectral and angular distributions of external radiations in the workplace and to examine the implications of these measurements for personal dosimetry. They include measurement techniques for X-ray, γ-radiation and neutron radiation, performance testing of personal dosemeters, the implications of spectral and spatial distributions measurements on personal dosimetry. (R.P.)

  9. EVIDOS: Individual dosimetry in mixed neutron and photon radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhavere, F.

    2006-01-01

    The EVIDOS project (partly funded by the European Commission RTD Programme: Nuclear Energy, Euratom Framework Programme V, 1998-2002, Contract No FIKR-CT-2001-00175) aimed at improving individual monitoring in mixed neutron-photon radiation fields by evaluating the performance of routine and novel personal dosimeters for mixed radiation, and by giving guidelines for deriving sufficiently accurate values of personal dose equivalent from the readings of area survey instruments and dosimeters. The main objective of EVIDOS was to evaluate different methods for individual dosimetry in mixed neutron-photon work-places in nuclear industry. This implied a determination of the capabilities and limitations of personal dosimeters and the establishment of methods to enable sufficiently accurate values of personal dose equivalent from spectrometers, area survey instruments and routine personal dosimeters. Also novel electronic personal dosimeters were investigated. To this end spectrometric and dosimetric investigations in selected representative workplaces in nuclear industry where workers can receive significant neutron doses were performed. As part of this project, a number of tasks were executed, in particular: (1) the determination of the energy and direction distribution of the neutron fluence; (2) the derivation of the (conventionally true) values of radiation protection quantities; (3) the determination of the readings of routine and innovative personal dosimeters and of area monitors; and (4) the comparison between dosimeter readings and values of the radiation protection quantities

  10. Occupational Radiation Protection in Severe Accident Management. EG-SAM Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    As an early response to the Fukushima NPP accident, the ISOE Bureau decided to focus on the following issues as an initial response of the joint program after having direct communications with the Japanese official participants in April 2011; - Management of high radiation area worker doses: It has been decided to make available the experience and information from the Chernobyl accident in terms of how emergency worker / responder doses were legally and practically managed, - Personal protective equipment for highly-contaminated areas: It was agreed to collect information about the types of personnel protective equipment and other equipment (e.g. air bottles, respirators, air-hoods or plastic suits, etc.), as well as high-radiation area worker dosimetry use (e.g. type, number and placement of dosimetry) for different types of emergency and high-radiation work situations. Detailed information was collected on dose criteria which are used for emergency workers/responders and their basis, dose management criteria for high dose/dose rate areas, protective equipment which is recommended for emergency workers / responders, recommended individual monitoring procedures, and any special requirement for assessment from the ISOE participating nuclear utilities and regulatory authorities and made available for Japanese utilities. With this positive response of the ISOE actors and interest in the situation in Fukushima, the Expert Group on Occupational Radiation Protection in Severe Accident Management (EG-SAM) was established by the ISOE Management Board in May 2011. The overall objective of the EG-SAM is to contribute to occupational exposure management (providing a view on management of high radiation area worker doses) within the Fukushima plant boundary with the ISOE participants and to develop a state-of-the- art ISOE report on best radiation protection management practices for proper radiation protection job coverage during severe accident initial response and recovery

  11. Risk evaluation for protection of the public in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Evaluation of the risk that would be involved in the exposure of the public in the event of a radiation accident requires information on the biological consequences expected of such an exposure. This report defines a range of reference doses of radiation and their corresponding risks to the public in the event of a radiation accident. The reference doses and the considerations on which they were based will be used for assessing the hazards of nuclear installations and for policy decisions by the authorities responsible for measures taken to safeguards the public in the case of a nuclear accident.

  12. Thermoluminescent characteristics of diopside-teflon composites for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, A.P.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    2006-01-01

    Diopside - Teflon composites were been studied in relation to their dosimetric properties for high-dose dosimetry. Diopside from Minas Gerais, Brazil, CaMg(Si 2 O 6 ), was obtained in form of rude mineral with inclusions of quartz. The samples were prepared and only Diopside grains obtained. Pellets of Diopside-Teflon composites were prepared in the proportion of 2(Teflon): 1 (Diopside).The TL response repeatability presented a maximum coefficient of variation of 7.5%. The calibration curve is linear between 0.5 Gy and 1 kGy. TL emission spectra present three emissions of similar intensities at 570 nm, 590 nm and between 610-635 nm. The results suggest that the material presents good characteristics for use as high-dose radiation detectors. (Author)

  13. The status of radiation processing dosimetry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenxiu; Li Chenghua; Pang Ruicao; Zhang Yanli.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation processing is a rapidly expanding technology in China since 1970s. About 50 facilities of Co-60 source with the designed capacity more than 3.7PBq have been set up in Beijing, Shanghai, and 36 cities. The total charged activity of sources is more than 862PBq some facilities are shown in Table 1. More than 26 electron beam (EB) irradiation facilities have been established as listed in Table 2. The total power of electron beams had reached about 926 kW. The effectiveness of the process depends on the proper application of dose and its measurement. The importance of dosimetry events on the processing control of irradiation technology and the quality assurance of irradiated products has been acknowledged in China, which was introduced in this paper. (author)

  14. Biological dosimetry of ionizing radiation by chromosomal aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Castano, S.; Silva, A.; Navlet, J.

    1990-01-01

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in haematological, biochemical, and cytogenetic data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable. In this case, the study ol chromosomal aberrations, normally dicentric chromosomes, in peripheral lymphocytes can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve, using dicentric chromosomes analysis, X-rays at 300 kVp, 114 rad/min and temperature 37 degree celsius has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y =α + β 1 D + β 2 D 2 , where Y is the number of dicentrics per cell and D the dose. The curve is compared with those produced elsewhere. (Author) 14 refs

  15. Biological dosimetry of ionizing radiation by chromosomal aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navlet Armenta, J.M.; Gonzalez, S.; Silva, A.

    1990-01-01

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in haemathological, biochemical, and cytogenetic data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable. In this case, the study of chromosomal aberrations, normally dicentric chromosomes, in peripheral lymphocytes can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve using dicentric chromosomes analysis, X-rays at 300 kVp, 114 rad/min and temperature 37 o C has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y = α+β 1 D+β 2 D 2 , where Y is the number of dicentrics per cell and D the dose. The curve is compared with those produced elsewhere. (Author)

  16. Radiation safety of the helicopter air crow-liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydov, B.I.; Ponomarenko, V.A.; Ushakov, I.B.

    1992-01-01

    Three aspects of the radiation safety of the helicopter air crew who took part in the elimination of the Chernobyl NPP accident after-effects during the period from the 27-th of April to July 1986 were considered: dosimetry, physical protection and radioprotector use. 1125 subjects from the flight and engineer personnel were irradiated: 6%-2.5 mSv and more, 32%-2.1-2.5 mSv and about 60% - up to 2.0 mSv. It is stated that the use of physical protection (local screening of a pilot seat and use of special antiradiation belts) makes irradiation doe 2-3 times less. In the intense conditions of flight activity the pilots preferred the radioprotector adrenaline to cystamin. Alimentary aids in the earlier and later periods after the accident influenced favourably somatic and psychic states. 16 refs.; 1 tab

  17. Medical aid in the initial period of radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selidovkin, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    The main tasks of medical arrangements on the initial stage of rendering aid after radiation accident are the prime medical classification of the injured persons among the personnel of the plant and population, and realization of measures to avoid the increase of doses. The volume of medical aid depends on the type of accident, on the after-accident radiation situation, on the influence of hazardous factors, on the number of people involved in accident situation and the spectrum of sanitary losses, etc., which is to be predicted in advance and to be taken into consideration when rendering aid. The proper and sufficient aid on the initial stage will build the foundation of the ultimate efficiency of medical aid after radiation accident. 14 refs

  18. Measurement protocols for performance testing of dosimetry services for external radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In the Health and Safety Executive's ''Requirements for the Approval of Dosimetry Services under the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985'', it is stipulated that dosimetry services seeking approval must show that they have successfully completed a performance test. The services must arrange for the tests to be carried out on application and thereafter every 18 months, by a laboratory which has received accreditation from the National Measurement Accreditation Service (NAMAS) for the whole performance testing activity. The performance tests must be carried out to published protocols and the purpose here is to provide protocols for external, whole body film and TLD dosimetry services, and for skin and extremity dosimetry services. (Author)

  19. Radiation Dosimetry Using Three-Dimensional Optical Random Access Memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscovitch, M.

    2001-01-01

    The ability to determine particle type and energy plays an important role in the dosimetry of heavy charged particles (HCP) and neutrons. A new approach to radiation dosimetry is presented, which is shown to be capable of particle type and energy discrimination. This method is based on utilizing radiation induced changes in the digital information stored on three-dimensional optical random access memories (3D ORAM). 3D ORAM is a small cube (a few mm 3 ) composed of poly(methyl methacrylate) doped with a photochromic dye, and it was originally proposed as a memory device in high speed parallel computers. A Nd:YAG laser system is used to write and read binary information (bits) on the ORAM, which functions as a charged particle detector. Both the read and the write processes use two laser beams that simultaneously strike the material to cause a color change at their intersection (similar to the darkening of light-sensitive sunglasses when exposed to sunlight.) The laser produces color changes in the ORAM, which then reverts to the original color (''bit-flips'') at sites where energy is deposited from interaction with incident HCP or neutron-recoil protons. The feasibility of this approach was demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. Calculations based on track structure theory (TST) predict that when HCP interact with the ORAM material, the local energy deposition is capable of inducing measurable ''bit-flips''. These predictions were recently confirmed experimentally using two types of ORAM systems, one based on spirobenzopyran and the other on anthracene, as the photochromic dyes

  20. Radiation dosimetry using three-dimensional optical random access memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscovitch, M.; Phillips, G.W.; Cullum, B.M.; Mobley, J.; Bogard, J.S.; Emfietzoglou, D.; Vo-Dinh, T.

    2002-01-01

    The ability to determine particle type and energy plays an important role in the dosimetry of heavy charged particles (HCP) and neutrons. A new approach to radiation dosimetry is presented, which is shown to be capable of particle type and energy discrimination. This method is based on utilising radiation induced changes in the digital information stored on three-dimensional optical random access memories (3D ORAM). 3D ORAM is a small cube (a few mm 3 ) composed of poly(methyl methacrylate) doped with a photochromic dye, and it was originally proposed as a memory device in high speed parallel computers. A Nd:YAG laser system is used to write and read binary information (bits) on the ORAM, which functions as a charged particle detector. Both the read and the write processes use two laser beams that simultaneously strike the material to cause a colour change at their intersection (similar to the darkening of light-sensitive sunglasses when exposed to sunlight). The laser produces colour changes in the ORAM, which then reverts to the original colour ('bit-flips') at sites where energy is deposited from interaction with incident HCP or neutron-recoil protons. The feasibility of this approach was demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. Calculations based on track structure theory predict that when HCP interact with the ORAM material, the local energy deposition is capable of inducing measurable 'bit-flips'. These predictions were recently confirmed experimentally using two types of ORAM systems, one based on spirobenzopyran and the other on anthracene, as the photochromic dyes. (author)

  1. Bio-dosimetry for radiation-exposed individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvaigo, Sylvie; Chapuis, Violaine; Caillat, Sylvain; Sarrazy, Fanny; Breton, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of civil populations to genotoxic chemicals or radioactive hazard is an increased concern. It is not only an industrial risk (chemistry plant accident for example) but also a national security problem due to the threat of radiological and nuclear terrorism. It is important to anticipate the need of a bio-dosimetry tool aimed at identifying exposed population in the absence of acute syndrome, in order to assure the medical care that would prevent carcinogenic consequences. DNA repair is a bio-marker of exposure to geno-toxics in individuals. A DNA repair signature can be assessed from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) that reflects the exposure history of the individuals, using a functional enzymatic assay on bio-chip. A proof of concept was obtained using PBMCs from patients undergoing radiotherapy regimen. We identified two classes of responses among patients, if we except a very atypical signature in one patient that could reflect defects in DNA repair. Interestingly, repair of the major oxidative lesions increased during the course of the radiotherapy. We propose to implement this fast, quantitative, possibly automatized assay to identify bio-markers of exposure to geno-toxics and to validate the exposure bio-markers through ex vivo exposure of blood from volunteers. (authors)

  2. Requirements for the approval of dosimetry services under the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985: Pt. 2: Internal radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Guidance for dosimetry services on the requirements for approval by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is provided in three parts. This part sets out the procedures and criteria that will be used by HSE in the assessment of dosimetry services seeking approval in relation to internal radiations (including radon decay products). (author)

  3. Sandia National Laboratories results for the 2010 criticality accident dosimetry exercise, at the CALIBAN reactor, CEA Valduc France.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Dann C.

    2011-09-01

    This document describes the personal nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) used by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and presents PNAD dosimetry results obtained during the Nuclear Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Study held 20-23 September, 2010, at CEA Valduc, France. SNL PNADs were exposed in two separate irradiations from the CALIBAN reactor. Biases for reported neutron doses ranged from -15% to +0.4% with an average bias of -7.7%. PNADs were also exposed on the back side of phantoms to assess orientation effects.

  4. Sandia National Laboratories results for the 2010 criticality accident dosimetry exercise, at the CALIBAN reactor, CEA Valduc France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, Dann C.

    2011-01-01

    This document describes the personal nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) used by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and presents PNAD dosimetry results obtained during the Nuclear Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Study held 20-23 September, 2010, at CEA Valduc, France. SNL PNADs were exposed in two separate irradiations from the CALIBAN reactor. Biases for reported neutron doses ranged from -15% to +0.4% with an average bias of -7.7%. PNADs were also exposed on the back side of phantoms to assess orientation effects.

  5. Proceedings of the V. international symposium 'Actual problems of dosimetry'; Materialy V mezhdunarodnogo simpoziuma 'Aktual'nye problemy dozimetrii'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundas, S P; Okeanov, A E [International A. Sakharov environmental univ., Minsk (Belarus); Shevchuk, V E [Komitet po problemam posledstvij katastrofy na Chernobyl' skoj AEhS pri Sovete Ministrov Respubliki Belarus' , Minsk (Belarus)

    2005-10-01

    The main topics of the workshop were: monitoring and reconstruction of radiation doses at radiation accidents, biological dosimetry and markers of radiation effects as well as normative, metrological and technical aspects of dosimetric and radiometric monitoring.

  6. Cosmic radiation dosimetry in international flights argentine airlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciancio, Vicente R.; Oliveri, Pedro V.; Di Giovan B, Gustavo; Ciancio, Vanina L.; Lewis, Brent J.; Green, Anna R.; Bennet, L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: In commercial aviation the most important determinants of radiation exposure in humans are the altitude, latitude, flight duration and the solar cycle's period. This study was conducted to address this type of exposure trough radiation dosimetry. Method: The study was performed in the business-class cabin of an Airbus 340-200 aircraft, provided by Argentine Airlines, during 2 flights routes: New York-Miami-Buenos Aires (trans equatorial) and Buenos Aires-Auckland (circumpolar). Measurements addressed the electromagnetic spectrum or low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) and corpuscular radiation (High LET). The instruments used were an Ion Chamber (IC), to measure the ionizing component of radiation (i.e., gamma radiation), the SWENDI, to measure only the neutron component, and the Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) for measuring all radiation types. Results: The routes' dose rates are presented in the table. TEPC rates agreed with the LET findings. The total dose rates of high latitude flights were higher than those of low latitude flights. The SWENDI (High LET) results for the flights over the equator, at low latitude, represented only 1/3 of the total radiation. The New York-Miami and Buenos Aires-Auckland flights, at high latitude, represented just under 1/2 of the Total radiation (-45%). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the annual dose rates of radiation exposure of air crew personnel serving on international flights offered by Argentine Airlines is between 3 and 7 mSv. This rate is higher than the maximum recommended for the general population by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which is 1 milli Sv./y. Therefore, these personnel must be officially considered 'Occupationally Exposed to Radiation' in way to provide the appropriate measures that must be implemented for their protection in accordance to ICRP guidelines. Dose(uSv): Route N Y-Miami, IC 6.07, SWENDI 5.07, TEPC 11.04; Route

  7. Radiation protection and dosimetry issues in the medical applications of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The technological advances that occurred during the last few decades paved the way to the dissemination of CT-based procedures in radiology, to an increasing number of procedures in interventional radiology and cardiology as well as to new techniques and hybrid modalities in nuclear medicine and in radiotherapy. These technological advances encompass the exposure of patients and medical staff to unprecedentedly high dose values that are a cause for concern due to the potential detrimental effects of ionizing radiation to the human health. As a consequence, new issues and challenges in radiological protection and dosimetry in the medical applications of ionizing radiation have emerged. The scientific knowledge of the radiosensitivity of individuals as a function of age, gender and other factors has also contributed to raising the awareness of scientists, medical staff, regulators, decision makers and other stakeholders (including the patients and the public) for the need to correctly and accurately assess the radiation induced long-term health effects after medical exposure. Pediatric exposures and their late effects became a cause of great concern. The scientific communities of experts involved in the study of the biological effects of ionizing radiation have made a strong case about the need to undertake low dose radiation research and the International System of Radiological Protection is being challenged to address and incorporate issues such as the individual sensitivities, the shape of dose–response relationship and tissue sensitivity for cancer and non-cancer effects. Some of the answers to the radiation protection and dosimetry issues and challenges in the medical applications of ionizing radiation lie in computational studies using Monte Carlo or hybrid methods to model and simulate particle transport in the organs and tissues of the human body. The development of sophisticated Monte Carlo computer programs and voxel phantoms paves the way to an accurate

  8. International Symposium on Standards, Applications and Quality Assurance in Medical Radiation Dosimetry (IDOS). Book of Extended Synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The major goal of the symposium is to provide a forum where advances in radiation dosimetry during the last decade, in radiation medicine and radiation protection can be disseminated and scientific knowledge exchanged. It will include all specialties in radiation medicine and radiation protection dosimetry with a specific focus on those areas where the standardization of dosimetry has improved in the recent years (brachytherapy, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine). It will also summarize the present status and outline future trends in medical radiation dosimetry and identify possible areas for improvement. Its conclusions and summaries should lead to the formulation of recommendations for the scientific community

  9. International Symposium on Standards, Applications and Quality Assurance in Medical Radiation Dosimetry (IDOS). Book of Extended Synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The major goal of the symposium is to provide a forum where advances in radiation dosimetry during the last decade, in radiation medicine and radiation protection can be disseminated and scientific knowledge exchanged. It will include all specialties in radiation medicine and radiation protection dosimetry with a specific focus on those areas where the standardization of dosimetry has improved in the recent years (brachytherapy, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine). It will also summarize the present status and outline future trends in medical radiation dosimetry and identify possible areas for improvement. Its conclusions and summaries should lead to the formulation of recommendations for the scientific community

  10. A micro-gap, air-filled ionisation chamber as a detector for criticality accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murawski, I.; Zielczynski, M.; Gryzinski, M.A.; Golnik, N.

    2014-01-01

    A micro-gap air-filled ionisation chamber was designed for criticality dosimetry. The special feature of the chamber is its very small gap between electrodes of only 0.3 mm. This prevents ion recombination at high dose rates and minimises the influence of gas on secondary particles spectrum. The electrodes are made of polypropylene because of higher content of hydrogen in this material, when compared with soft tissue. The difference between neutron and gamma sensitivity in such chamber becomes practically negligible. The chamber's envelope contains two specially connected capacitors, one for polarising the electrodes and the other for collecting the ionisation charge. Air-filled ionisation chamber with very small gap is a simple dosemeter, which fulfills the most desired properties of criticality accident dosemeters. Short ion collection time is achieved by combination of small gap and relatively high polarising voltage. For the same reason, parasitic recombination of ions in the chamber is negligibly small even at high dose rates. The difference between neutron and gamma sensitivity is small for tissue-equivalent chamber and is expected to become practically negligible when the chamber electrodes are made of polypropylene. Additional capacitor provides a broad measuring range from ∼0.1 Gy up to ∼25 Gy; however, leakage of electrical charge from polarising capacitor has to be observed and taken into account. Periodical re-charging of the device is necessary. Obviously, final test of the device in conditions simulating criticality accident is needed and will be performed as soon as available. (authors)

  11. Standard Practice for Dosimetry of Proton Beams for use in Radiation Effects Testing of Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahan, Margaret A.; Blackmore, Ewart; Cascio, Ethan W.; Castaneda, Carlos; von Przewoski, Barbara; Eisen, Harvey

    2008-01-01

    Representatives of facilities that routinely deliver protons for radiation effect testing are collaborating to establish a set of standard best practices for proton dosimetry. These best practices will be submitted to the ASTM International for adoption

  12. Standard Practice for Dosimetry of Proton Beams for use in Radiation Effects Testing of Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahan, Margaret A.; Blackmore, Ewart; Cascio, Ethan W.; Castaneda, Carlos; von Przewoski, Barbara; Eisen, Harvey

    2008-07-25

    Representatives of facilities that routinely deliver protons for radiation effect testing are collaborating to establish a set of standard best practices for proton dosimetry. These best practices will be submitted to the ASTM International for adoption.

  13. Environmental radiation exposure in case of power plant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eder, K.

    1977-01-01

    The paper tries to overcome prejudices concerning radiation effects due to power plant accidents as well as to show the radiation exposure that may be expected near the the patient and to indicate ways and means to avoid or reduce this radiation exposure and to avoid contamination. It is a contribution to better information on radiation accidents and radiolesions in nuclear power plants with the aim of close cooperation between power plants, physicians, and hospitals and of helping to overcome erroneous popular assumptions. (orig./HP) [de

  14. REAC/TS radiation accident registry. Update of accidents in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricks, R.C.; Berger, M.E.; Holloway, E.C.; Goans, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Serious injury due to ionizing radiation is a rare occurrence. From 1944 to the present, 243 US accidents meeting dose criteria for classification as serious are documented in the REAC/TS Registry. Thirty individuals have lost their lives in radiation accidents in the United States. The Registry is part of the overall REAC/TS program providing 24-hour direct or consultative assistance regarding medical and heath physics problems associated with radiation accidents in local, national, and international incidents. The REAC/TS Registry serves as a repository of medically important information documenting the consequences of these accidents. Registry data are gathered from various sources. These include reports from the World Heath Organization (WHO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC), state radiological health departments, medical/health physics literature, personal communication, the Internet, and most frequently, from calls for medical assistance to REAC/TS, as part of our 24-hour medical assistance program. The REAC/TS Registry for documentation of radiation accidents serves several useful purposes: 1) weaknesses in design, safety practices, training or control can be identified, and trends noted; 2) information regarding the medical consequences of injuries and the efficacy of treatment protocols is available to the treating physician; and 3) Registry case studies serve as valuable teaching tools. This presentation will review and summarize data on the US radiation accidents including their classification by device, accident circumstances, and frequency by respective states. Data regarding accidents with fatal outcomes will be reviewed. The inclusion of Registry data in the IAEA's International Reporting System of Radiation Events (RADEV) will also be discussed. (author)

  15. Standards for radiation protection and diagnostic radiology at the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, F.; Andreo, P.; Meghzifene, A.; Czap, L.; Girzikowsky, R.

    1999-01-01

    International standardization in dosimetry is essential for the successful exploitation of radiation technology. The IAEA dosimetry programme is focused into services provided to Member States through the IAEA/WHO Network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), to radiotherapy centres and radiation processing facilities. Radiation protection quantities defined by ICRU and ICRP are used to relate the risk due to exposure to ionizing radiation to a single quantity, irrespective of the type of radiation, which takes into account the human body as a receptor. Two types of quantities, limiting and operational, can be related to basic physical quantities which are defined without need for considering specific aspects of radiation protection, e.g. air kerma for photons and fluence for neutrons. The use of a dosimeter for measurements in radiation protection requires a calibration in terms of a physical quantity together with a conversion from physical into protection quantities by means of a factor or a coefficient

  16. Thyroid dosimetry in the western trace of the Chernobyl accident plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedveckaite, T.; Filistovic, V.; Mastauskas, A.; Thiessen, K.

    2004-01-01

    According to World Health Organization guidelines (WHO/SDE/PHE/99.6), the reference level for consideration in stable iodine prophylaxis is based on the inhalation exposure pathway. In the western trace of the Chernobyl accident, the measurement of airborne 131 I fractions (aerosol-associated, gaseous reactive and gaseous organic) indicates that airborne gaseous reactive and, especially, organic 131 I fractions were the major contributors to thyroid exposure due to inhalation. The contribution of inhaled short-lived radio-iodines was negligible. To attain more precise thyroid exposure evaluation, 131 I dose factors were determined as a function of age and prevalence of stable iodine deficiency. The results demonstrate that children with a stable iodine deficiency experienced at least two times higher thyroid doses than did children with a dietary iodine sufficiency. The results of these investigations demonstrate that in thyroid dosimetry it is important to know the stable iodine status as well as to have a standardised method for airborne radioiodine measurements, especially for consideration of stable iodine prophylaxis based on the inhalation exposure pathway. (authors)

  17. MOSFET dosimetry of the radiation therapy microbeams at the European synchrotron radiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenfeld, A.; Lerch, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: We have developed an innovative on-line MOSFET readout system for use in the quality assurance of radiation treatment beams. Recently the system has found application in areas where excellent spatial resolution is also a requirement in the quality assurance process, for example IMRT, and microbeam radiation therapy. The excellent spatial resolution is achieved by using a quadruple RADFET TM chip in 'edge on' mode. In developing this approach we have found that the system can be utilised to determine any error in the beam profile measurements due to misalignment of RADFET with respect to the radiation beam or microbeam. Using this approach will ensure that the excellent spatial resolution of the RADFET used in 'edge-on' mode is fully utilised. In this work we report on dosimetry measurements performed at the microbeam radiation therapy beamline located at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The synchrotron planar array microbeam with size 10-30 μm and pitch ∼200 μm has found an important application in microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) of brain tumours in infants for whom other kinds of radiotherapy are inadequate and/or unsafe. The radiation damage from an array of parallel microbeams correlates strongly with the range of peak-valley dose ratios (PVDR), ie, the range of the ratio of the absorbed dose to tissue directly in line with the mid-plane of the microbeam to that in the mid-plane between adjacent microbeams. Novel physical dosimetry of the microbeams using the online MOSFET reader system will be presented. Comparison of the experimental results with both GaF film measurements and Monte Carlo computer-simulated dosimetry are described here for selected points in the peak and valley regions of a microbeam-irradiated tissue phantom

  18. Radiation dosimetry by neutron or X ray fluorescence activation of residual silver in ionographic emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmann, C.

    1987-01-01

    A global measuring technique which is sensitive enough to detect small silver contents in films for dosimetry applications is presented. The applications studied are neutron dosimetry by measuring residual silver due to recoil protons in developed emulsions and high dose dosimetry by the detection of photolytic silver in fixed emulsions. An individual fast neutron dosimeter which can be used in radiation protection was developed, along with an automatic data analysis and readout system. Application of this technique to the measurement of high radiation doses (100 to 1 million Gy) via the measurement of photolytic silver in fixed, but undeveloped, emulsions confirms the usefulness of the method [fr

  19. A method of dosimetry for synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy using radiochromic films and microdensitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, J. C.; Svalbe, I. D.; Lewis, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Normal tissue displays an exceptional tolerance to high doses of radiation (hundreds of Gy) when delivered as a microplanar array of synchrotron-generated x-rays. Furthermore, MRT has been shown to cause significant tumour growth delay and in some case complete ablation. The biological effects of MRT on tissue are not fully understood. This is further complicated by difficulties in performing accurate dosimetry. The majority of dosimetry performed for MRT has been Monte Carlo simulations. The aim of this work was to utilise film dosimetry and microdensitometry to measure the peak-to-valley dose ratios (PVDRs) for synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy.

  20. Gamma radiation processing dosimetry with commercial silicon diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Danilo Cardenuto

    2009-01-01

    This work envisages the development of dosimeters based on Si diodes for gamma radiation dosimetry from 1 Gy up to 100 Gy. This dose range is frequently utilized in radiation processing of crystal modifications, polymers crosslinking and biological studies carried out in the Radiation Technology Center at IPEN-CNEN/SP. The dosimeter was constructed by a commercial SFH00206 (Siemens) Si diode, operating in a photovoltaic mode, whose electrical characteristics are suitable for this application. The current generated in the device by the Cobalt-60 gamma radiation from the Irradiators types I and II was registered with a digital electrometer and stored during the exposure time. In all measurements, the current signals of the diode registered as a function of the exposure time were very stable. Furthermore, the device photocurrent was linearly dependent on the dose rate within a range of 6.1x10 -2 Gy/min up to 1.9x10 2 Gy/min. The calibration curves of the dosimeters, e.g., the average charge registered as a function of the absorbed dose were obtained by the integration of the current signals as a function of the exposure time. The results showed a linear response of the dosimeter with a correlation coefficient better than 0.998 for total absorbed dose up to 120 Gy. Finally, due to the small experimental errors 5 % it was also possible to measure the transit dose due to the movement of the Cobalto- 60 radioactive sources in irradiation facilities used in this work. (author)

  1. EPR dosimetry of radiation background in the Urals region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishkina, E.A.; Degteva, M.O.; Shved, V.A. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, 48-A Vorovsky, Chelyabinsk 454076 (Russian Federation); Fattibene, P.; Onori, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (Italy); Wieser, A. [GSF, Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Ingolstaedter Landstr (Germany); Ivanov, D.V.; Bayankin, S.N. [Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Knyazev, V.A.; Vasilenko, E.I.; Gorelov, M. [ZAO, Closed Corporation ' Company GEOSPETSECOLOGIA' (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    Method of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance is extensively applied to individual retrospective dosimetry. The background dose is unavoidable component of cumulative absorbed dose in the tooth enamel accumulated during the lifetime of donor. Estimation of incidental radiation dose using tooth enamel needs in extraction of background dose. Moreover, the variation of background doses in the population is a limited factor for reliable detection of additional irradiation especially for low dose level. Therefore the accurate knowledge of the natural background radiation dose is a critical element of EPR studies of exposed populations. In the Urals region the method applies for such two large cohorts as the workers of Mayak (Ozersk citizens) and Techa River riverside inhabitants (rural population). Current study aimed to investigate the Urals radiation background detected by EPR spectrometry. For this aim two group of unexposed Urals residents were separated, viz: citizens of Ozersk and rural inhabitants of Chelyabinsk region. Comparison of two investigated territories has demonstrated that from the point of view of radiation background it is impossible to assume the Urals population as uniform. The reliable difference between the urban and rural residents has been found. The average background doses of Ozersk donors is in average 50 mGy higher than those detected for rural residents. The individual variability of background doses for Osersk has been higher than in the rural results. The difference in background dose levels between two population results in different limits of accidental dose detection and individualization. The doses for 'Mayak' workers (Ozyorsk citizens) can be classed as anthropogenic if the EPR measurements exceed 120 mGy for teeth younger than 40 years, and 240 mGy for teeth older than 70 years. The anthropogenic doses for Techa River residents (rural population) would be higher than 95 mGy for teeth younger than 50 years and 270 mGy for

  2. EPR dosimetry of radiation background in the Urals region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkina, E.A.; Degteva, M.O.; Shved, V.A.; Fattibene, P.; Onori, S.; Wieser, A.; Ivanov, D.V.; Bayankin, S.N.; Knyazev, V.A.; Vasilenko, E.I.; Gorelov, M.

    2006-01-01

    Method of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance is extensively applied to individual retrospective dosimetry. The background dose is unavoidable component of cumulative absorbed dose in the tooth enamel accumulated during the lifetime of donor. Estimation of incidental radiation dose using tooth enamel needs in extraction of background dose. Moreover, the variation of background doses in the population is a limited factor for reliable detection of additional irradiation especially for low dose level. Therefore the accurate knowledge of the natural background radiation dose is a critical element of EPR studies of exposed populations. In the Urals region the method applies for such two large cohorts as the workers of Mayak (Ozersk citizens) and Techa River riverside inhabitants (rural population). Current study aimed to investigate the Urals radiation background detected by EPR spectrometry. For this aim two group of unexposed Urals residents were separated, viz: citizens of Ozersk and rural inhabitants of Chelyabinsk region. Comparison of two investigated territories has demonstrated that from the point of view of radiation background it is impossible to assume the Urals population as uniform. The reliable difference between the urban and rural residents has been found. The average background doses of Ozersk donors is in average 50 mGy higher than those detected for rural residents. The individual variability of background doses for Osersk has been higher than in the rural results. The difference in background dose levels between two population results in different limits of accidental dose detection and individualization. The doses for 'Mayak' workers (Ozyorsk citizens) can be classed as anthropogenic if the EPR measurements exceed 120 mGy for teeth younger than 40 years, and 240 mGy for teeth older than 70 years. The anthropogenic doses for Techa River residents (rural population) would be higher than 95 mGy for teeth younger than 50 years and 270 mGy for teeth older

  3. Genetic and molecular dosimetry of HZE radiation (US-1 RADIAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Schubert, W. W.; Kazarians, G. A.; Richards, G. F.; Benton, E. V.; Benton, E. R.; Henke, R. P.

    1995-01-01

    In order to estimate radiation exposure in space, experiments were conducted during the 1st International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1) mission in order to isolate genetic changes in animal cells caused by cosmic rays. The space measurements were evaluated against results from synthetic cosmic rays produced by particle accelerators on the ground. The biological material used was the tiny soil nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. The measurements were made by thermoluminescent detectors and plastic nuclear track detectors. The development and the chromosome mechanics in microgravity were studied, and the mutagenesis induced by radiation exposure was analyzed. The results showed that there are no obvious differences in the development, behavior and chromosome mechanics, as a function of gravity unloading (reproduction, self-fertilization and mating of males with hermaphrodites, gross anatomy, symmetry and gametogenesis, pairing, disjoining and recombination of chromosomes). A variety of mutants were isolated, and it was noted that mutants isolated from regions of identified high particles were more severely affected than those isolated by random screening. Linear energy transfer particles seem to favor large scale genetic lesions.

  4. Comparison of radiation dosimetry for several potential myocardial imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.E.; Stabin, M.G; Goodman, M.M.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Srivastava, P.C.

    1986-01-01

    Although myocardial imaging is currently dominated by Tl-201, several alternative agents with improved physiologic or radionuclidic properties have been proposed. Based on human and animal studies in the literature, the metabolism of several of these compounds was studied for the purpose of generating radiation dose estimates. Dose estimates are listed for several I-123-labeled free fatty acids, an I-123-labeled phosphonium compound, Rb-82, Cu-64, F-18 FDG (all compounds which are taken up by the normal myocardium), and for Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PYP) (which localizes in myocardial infarcts). Dose estimates could not be generated for C-11 palmitate, but his compound was included in a comparison of myocardial retention times. For the I-123-labeled compounds, I-124 was included as a contaminant in generating the dose estimates. Radiation doses were lowest for Rb-82 (gonads 0.3-0.4 Gy/MBq, kidneys 8.6 Gy/MBq). Doses for the I-123-labeled fatty acids were similar to one another, with IPPA being the lowest (gonads 15 Gy/MBq, heart wall 18 Gy/MBq). Doses for Tc-99m PYP were also low (gonads 4-7 Gy/MBq, heart wall 4 Gy/MBq, skeleton 15 Gy/MBq). The desirability of these compounds is discussed briefly, considering half-life, imaging mode and energy, and dosimetry, including a comparison of the effective whole body dose equivalents. 37 references, 11 tables

  5. A systems approach to the management of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, L.L.; Berk, H.W.; Teates, C.D.; Larkham, N.E.; Friesen, E.J.; Edlich, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    Management of radiation accident patients should have a multidisciplinary approach that includes all health professionals as well as members of public safety agencies. Emergency plans for radiation accidents include detection of the ionizing radiation, patient evacuation, resuscitation, and decontamination. The resuscitated patient should be transported to a radiation control area located outside but adjacent to the emergency department. Ideally this area is accessed through an entrance separate from that used for the main flow of daily emergency department patients. The hospital staff, provided with protective clothing, dosimeters, and preprinted guidelines, continues the resuscitation and definitive care of the patient. This system approach to the management of radiation accidents may be tailored to meet the specific needs of other emergency medical systems

  6. Historical update of past and recent skin damage radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushbaugh, C.C.; Fry, S.A.; Ricks, R.C.; Hubner, K.F.; Burr, W.W.

    1986-01-01

    Records of radiation accidents worldwide since 1944 are maintained at the Radiation Accident Registry of the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) in Oak Ridge. These records show that in 263 major radiation accidents there have been 150 severe local radiation injuries, of which 117 have been exposure to sealed radioactive sources. Most lesions resulted from the unsafe handling of 192 Ir radiography sources. Recent redesign of these devices, used for testing the integrity of welds, promises to eliminate these accidents. However, many other kinds of irradiators used in industry and scientific research still remain in the public domain, capable of causing irreparable dermal damage. Registry records reveal many unsolved physical and medical problems whose solution is urgently needed to improve the prognosis and therapy of such lesions. Pathologically, radiation-induced skin lesions are well described and an approximate dose-response relationship is univerally accepted even though the actual 'dose' is rarely known at first. Radiation dose is estimated biologically after the lesion has run its pathological course or after a medical physicist has prepared a retrospective 'mock-up' of the accident. (author)

  7. Chernobyl accident: the crisis of the international radiation community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malko, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    The information given in the present report about the Chernobyl accident and its radiological consequences indicates a serious crisis of the international radiation community. The following signs of this crises can be discerned: The international radiation community did not recognize the real reasons of the accident for a long time. It could not make a correct assessment of the damage to the thyroid of the affected populations of Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. Up to present time it rejects the reliable data on hereditary malformations. It is not able to accept reliable data on the increase in the incidence in all categories of people affected by the Chernobyl accident. The international radiation community supported the Soviet authorities in their attempts to play down the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for a long time. (author)

  8. Experience with first aid in radiation sources accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klener, V.

    1979-01-01

    More than 20 years of experience at the Radiation Hygiene Centre of the Prague Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology with prevention of accidents involving sources of radiation and the Centre's participation in providing medical aid in such accidents are described. A list is given of major types of accidents over the past decade. Prevalent were accidents involving sealed gamma sources, resulting in excessive local irradiation with serious skin damage or injury to some of the deeper structures of the hands, requiring plastic operation. Chromosomal picture investigation allows the estimation of the equivalent body dose which only reached higher values in a single case recorded (1.5 Gy = 150 rad). Organisational measures are described for emergencies and the task is shown by radiation hygiene departments attached to regional hygiene stations. The present system is capable of providing adequate, prompt and effective assistance. (author)

  9. Chernobyl accident. The crisis of the international radiation community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malko, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    The information given in the present report about the Chernobyl accident and its radiological consequences indicates a serious crisis of the international radiation community. The following signs of this crises can be discerned: The international radiation community did not recognize the real reasons of the accident for a long time. It could not make a correct assessment of the damage to the thyroid of the affected populations of Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. Up to present time it rejects the reliable data on hereditary malformations. It is not able to accept reliable data on the increase in the incidence in all categories of people affected by the Chernobyl accident. The international radiation community supported the Soviet authorities in their attempts to play down the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for a long time. (author)

  10. Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of [18F]-5-fluorouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino-Shishikura, Ayako; Suzuki, Akiko; Minamimoto, Ryogo; Shizukuishi, Kazuya; Oka, Takashi; Tateishi, Ukihide; Sugae, Sadatoshi; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Horiuchi, Choichi; Inoue, Tomio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the radiation dose and biodistribution of 18 F-5-fluorouracil ([ 18 F]-5-FU) from positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) data, and to extrapolate mouse data to human data in order to evaluate cross-species consistency. Methods: Fifteen cancer patients (head and neck cancer (n=11), colon cancer (n=4)) were enrolled. Sequential PET/CT images were acquired for 2 h after intravenous administration of [ 18 F]-5-FU, and the percent of the injected dose delivered to each organ was derived. For comparison, [ 18 F]-5-FU was administered to female BALB/cAJcl-nu/nu nude mice (n=19), and the percent of the injected dose delivered to mouse organs was extrapolated to the human model. Absorbed radiation dose was calculated using OLINDA/EXM 1.0 software. Results: In human subjects, high [ 18 F]-5-FU uptake was seen in the liver, gallbladder and kidneys. The absorbed dose was highest in the gallbladder wall. In mice, the biodistribution of [ 18 F]-5-FU corresponded to that of humans. Estimated absorbed radiation doses for all organs were moderately correlated, and doses to organs (except the gallbladder and urinary bladder) were significantly correlated between mice and humans. The mean effective [ 18 F]-5-FU dose was higher in humans (0.0124 mSv/MBq) than in mice (0.0058 mSv/MBq). Conclusion: Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of [ 18 F]-5-FU were compared between humans and mice: biodistribution in mice and humans was similar. Data from mice underestimated the effective dose in humans, suggesting that clinical measurements are needed for more detailed dose estimation in order to ensure radiation safety. The observed effective doses suggest the feasibility of [ 18 F]-5-FU PET/CT for human studies. - Highlights: ► The radiation dose and biodistribution of [ 18 F]-5-FU were estimated from mouse and human data. ► The biodistribution of [ 18 F]-5-FU of mouse and human was corresponded. ► Estimated absorbed radiation doses for organs

  11. Biological dose assessment of 15 victims in Haerbin radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jian-xiang; Huang, Min-yan; Ruan, Jian-lei; Bai, Yu-shu; Xu, Su

    2008-01-01

    Full text: a) On July 5 and 8, 2005, Two patients with bone marrow suppression were successively hospitalized by the First Affiliated Hospital of Haerbin Medical University. Examination results showed that the patients seemed to get suspicious radiation disease. On July 13, 2005, a radioactive source was found in the patients' dwelling. The radiation source is Iridium-192 with 0.5 Ci(1.85 x 10 10 Bq) radioactivity. The radiation source is a metal bar which is a kind of radioactive industrial detection source for welding. The source is currently stored in the urban radioactive waste storehouse of Heilongjiang province. After finding the radioactive source on July 13, The Haerbin municipal government initiated an emergency response plan and developed medical rescue, radioactive source examination and case detection through organizing ministries involving health, environmental protection and public security. After receiving a report at 17:00 on July 14, 2005, Chinese Ministry of Health immediately sent experts to the spot for investigation, dose estimation and direction of patients' rescue. Health authority carried out physical examination twice on 113 residents within 30 meters to the source, among which 4 got radiation sickness, 5 showed abnormal hemotogram, and others showed no abnormal response. Of 4 patients with radiation sickness, one 81 year old patient has died of severe bone marrow form of sub acute radiation sickness coupled with lung infection and prostrate apparatus at 13:00 on Oct., 20. Two children have been treated in Beitaiping Road Hospital in Beijing, another patient has been treated in local hospital. b) Biological dosimetry using conventional chromosome aberration analysis in human peripheral blood lymphocytes has been shown as a reliable and useful tool in medical management of radiation accident victims. Peripheral blood lymphocytes of the victims were cultured using conventional culture medium with colchicine added at the beginning. Chromosome

  12. Assessing economic consequences of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, M.D.; Lee, J.C.; Grimshaw, C.A.; Kalb, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    This project reviewed the literature on the economic consequences of accidents to determine the availability of assessment methods and data and their applicability to the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system before closure; determined needs for expansion, revision, or adaptation of methods and data for modeling economic consequences of accidents of the scale projected for the disposal system; and gathered data that might be useful for the needed revisions. 8 refs., 1 tab

  13. Assessing economic consequences of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, M.D.; Lee, J.C.; Grimshaw, C.A.; Kalb, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    A recent review of existing models and methods for assessing potential consequences of accidents in the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system identifies economic consequence assessment methods as a weak point. Existing methods have mostly been designed to assess economic consequences of reactor accidents, the possible scale of which can be several orders of magnitude greater than anything possible in the HLW disposal system. There is therefore some question about the applicability of these methods, their assumptions, and their level of detail to assessments of smaller accidents. The US Dept. of Energy funded this study to determine needs for code modifications or model development for assessing economic costs of accidents in the HLW disposal system. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) review the literature on economic consequences of accidents to determine the availability of assessment methods and data and their applicability to the HLW disposal system before closure. (2) Determine needs for expansion, revision, or adaptation of methods and data for modeling economic consequences of accidents of the scale projected for the disposal system. (3) Gather data that might be useful for the needed revisions for modeling economic impacts on this scale

  14. Nuclear accident dosimetry measurements at the fourth IAEA intercomparison, Harwell, United Kingdom, April 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majborn, B.

    1975-11-01

    During the fourth IAEA intercomparison at Harwell, teams from several countries compared their systems for assessing doses in criticality accidents. The dosimeters were exposed to mixed pulses of neutron and gamma radiation produced by the VIPER reactor at AWRE, Aldermaston. Risoe participated in this intercomparison with the routine personnel dosimeters employed in 'criticality areas' at Risoe. These include the UKAEA criticality dosimeter for the measurement of neutron doses and the Risoe TLD badge for the measurement of gamma doses. The final results of the Risoe measurements are presented in this report in a form designed for ease of comparison with results of other pparticipants. (author)

  15. Participation of IRD/CNEN-Br in International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at Silene reactor, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauricio, Claudia Lucia P.; Fonseca, Evaldo S. da

    1996-01-01

    IRD has participated in an International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE reactor, France on June 1993. The dosemeters were irradiated on phantoms and free in air, in bare and lead shield reactor pulses, simulating different irradiation fields that can be found in criticality accidents. Comparing with the reference measurements, the calculated mean neutron kerma found by IRD was only 2% greater for lead shield and 14% greater for bare reactor. For gamma absorbed dose, the differences were, respectively + 22% and -9% for the dosemeters free in air and -19% and -9% for dosemeters on phantoms. IRD results are closer to the real values than the mean values measured by the participants. IRD results show a good performance if its simple criticality accident system. (author)

  16. Radiation dosimetry using nano-BaSO{sub 4}:Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, A.; Sharma R, K. [University of Delhi, Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara College, Benito Juarez Road, Dhaula Kuan, 110021 New Delhi (India); Bahl, S.; Kumar, P. [Medical Physics Unit, IRCH, AIIMS, 110029 New Delhi (India); Pal L, S., E-mail: apandey@svc.ac.in [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, 110067 New Delhi (India)

    2015-10-15

    Nanocrystalline barium sulfate doped with europium (BaSO{sub 4}:Eu) was successfully prepared by the chemical co-precipitation technique and its thermoluminescence (Tl) dosimetry characteristics were studied for gamma radiation. Initially the dopant (Eu) concentration was varied, starting from 0.05 mol % to up to 1.00 mol %, and it was found that the nano phosphor BaSO{sub 4}:Eu with the dopant concentration of 0.2 mol % had the highest sensitivity within the given lot. The nano phosphor was also optimized for its annealing temperature in order to obtain the best results and was thereafter tested for its reusability and fading features. Further the nano phosphor was compared with the commercially available standard Tl dosimeter material LiF:Mg,Ti (popularly referred to as TLD-100) and it was found that the nano phosphor not only had a higher Tl sensitivity compared to the standard material over a wide range of doses but also had a Tl response which was linear even beyond the dose of 1 kGy. Linearity in Tl response to up to such high doses (∼1 kGy) is typical of nanocrystalline Tl phosphors. All the samples were irradiated by Co-60 source (having 1.25 MeV average energy) of gamma radiation. In order to test the energy independence of the nano phosphor (an important characteristic of an ideal Tl dosimeter) further studies are being carried out to examine the response of the nano phosphor to ionizing radiations of different energies. (Author)

  17. Biological dosimetry of ionizing radiation: Evaluation of the dose with cytogenetic methodologies by the construction of calibration curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafiropoulos, Demetre; Facco, E.; Sarchiapone, Lucia

    2016-09-01

    In case of a radiation accident, it is well known that in the absence of physical dosimetry biological dosimetry based on cytogenetic methods is a unique tool to estimate individual absorbed dose. Moreover, even when physical dosimetry indicates an overexposure, scoring chromosome aberrations (dicentrics and rings) in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) at metaphase is presently the most widely used method to confirm dose assessment. The analysis of dicentrics and rings in PBLs after Giemsa staining of metaphase cells is considered the most valid assay for radiation injury. This work shows that applying the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, using telomeric/centromeric peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes in metaphase chromosomes for radiation dosimetry, could become a fast scoring, reliable and precise method for biological dosimetry after accidental radiation exposures. In both in vitro methods described above, lymphocyte stimulation is needed, and this limits the application in radiation emergency medicine where speed is considered to be a high priority. Using premature chromosome condensation (PCC), irradiated human PBLs (non-stimulated) were fused with mitotic CHO cells, and the yield of excess PCC fragments in Giemsa stained cells was scored. To score dicentrics and rings under PCC conditions, the necessary centromere and telomere detection of the chromosomes was obtained using FISH and specific PNA probes. Of course, a prerequisite for dose assessment in all cases is a dose-effect calibration curve. This work illustrates the various methods used; dose response calibration curves, with 95% confidence limits used to estimate dose uncertainties, have been constructed for conventional metaphase analysis and FISH. We also compare the dose-response curve constructed after scoring of dicentrics and rings using PCC combined with FISH and PNA probes. Also reported are dose response curves showing scored dicentrics and rings per cell, combining

  18. Biological dosimetry after criticality accidents. Intercomparison exercise in the Silene Reactor - France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Vallerga, Maria B.; Taja, Maria R.

    2004-01-01

    The Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute (IRSN) organized an international biological dosimetry intercomparison, at the SILENE experimental reactor (Valduc, France), simulating different criticality scenarios: bare source 4 Gy, lead shield source 1 and 2 Gy and gamma pure 60 Co source 2 Gy. Fifteen laboratories were involved in this exercise, including the Argentine Biological Dosimetry Laboratory. The purposes of the intercomparison were: 1) To compare the unstable chromosome aberration (UCA) frequency observed by the different laboratories; and 2) To compare the dose estimation for gamma rays and neutrons. The objects of the present work were: I) To compare the mean frequency of UCA observed by the Argentine laboratory with the mean frequency observed by the participant laboratories as a whole. II) To compare the dose estimates performed by the Argentine lab with those estimated by the other laboratories involved in the second stage of the intercomparison. Overall, the mean frequencies of UCA and the correspondent 95% confidence limits obtained by the Argentine lab were consistent with the results obtained by the laboratories as a whole. For the gamma pure scenario, smaller variations were observed among laboratories in terms of dose (CV=18,2%) than in terms of frequency (CV=30,1%). For the mixed field scenarios, only four laboratories, including the Argentine lab, estimated gamma and neutron components of the total dose and just two (Argentine lab and lab 12) were in agreement with the given physical doses. The 1 Gy experiment presented lesser variations both in terms of frequency and dose than the other two scenarios. For the 4 and 2 Gy experiments, variations in neutron dose were more significant than variations in gamma dose, related to the magnitude of the dose. The results suggest that intercomparison exercises jointly with the accreditation of biological dosimetry by cytogenetic service laboratories, in compliance with ISO

  19. Radiological emergency: road map for radiation accident victim transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, V.S.G.; Alcantara, Y.P.; Lima, C.M.A.; Silva, F. C. A. da

    2017-01-01

    During a radiological or nuclear emergency, a number of necessary actions are taken, both within the radiation protection of individuals and the environment, involving many institutions and highly specialized personnel. Among them it is possible to emphasize the air transportation of radiation accident victims.The procedures and measures for the safe transport of these radiation accident victims are generally the responsibility of the armed forces, specifically the Aeronautics, with the action denominated 'Aeromedical Military Evacuation of Radiation Accident Victims'. The experience with the Radiological Accident of Goiânia demonstrated the importance of adequate preparation and response during a radiological emergency and the need for procedures and measures with regard to the transport of radiation victims are clearly defined and clearly presented for the effectiveness of the actions. This work presents the necessary actions for the transport of radiation accident victim during a radiological emergency, through the road map technique, which has been widely used in scientific technical area to facilitate understanding and show the way to be followed to reach the proposed objectives

  20. First aid and subsequent measures after radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, H.D.

    1980-01-01

    An organisation schedule and first aid measures after accidents involving ionizing radiation are presented, both in accordance with the current practice of the responsible professional associations. Optimum care also of persons with radiation injuries will be assured by cooperation between voluntary lay helpers, physicians, and regional centres in which failure symptons of the haematopoietic system can be treated. (DG) [de

  1. Radiation chemical dosimetry by means of nitrate-nitrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tormo Ferrero, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    The different chemical systems used in dosimetry and the selection criteria for them are described. The general topics in dosimetry with alkali nitrates as well as the phenomena occurring in their radiolisis are also treated. The possibility of application in dosimetric areas useful in radiosterilization and industrial processes is studied too. (author) [es

  2. Radiation chemical dosimetry by means of nitrate-nitrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tormo Ferrero, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    The different chemical systems used in dosimetry and the selection criteria for them are described. The general topics in dosimetry with alkali nitrates as well as the phenomena occurring in their radiolysis are also treated. The possibility of application in dosimetric areas useful in radiosterilization and industrial processes is studied too. (Author) 22 refs

  3. Severe accident management: radiation dose control, Fukushima Daiichi and TMI-2 nuclear plant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Roger

    2014-01-01

    This presentation presents valuable dose information related to the Fukushima Daiichi and Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) Nuclear Plant accidents. Dose information is provided for what is well known for TMI-2, and what is available for Fukushima Daiichi. Particular emphasis is placed on the difference between the type of reactors involved, overarching plant damage issues, and radiation worker dose outcomes. For TMI-2, more in depth dose data is available for the accident and the subsequent recovery efforts. The comparisons demonstrate the need to understand the wide variation in potential dose management measures and outcomes for severe reactor accidents. (author)

  4. GENII (Generation II): The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 3, Code maintenance manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-09-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). This coupled system of computer codes is intended for analysis of environmental contamination resulting from acute or chronic releases to, or initial contamination of, air, water, or soil, on through the calculation of radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the serious user, including code logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets to assist with hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. GENII [Generation II]: The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 3, Code maintenance manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-09-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). This coupled system of computer codes is intended for analysis of environmental contamination resulting from acute or chronic releases to, or initial contamination of, air, water, or soil, on through the calculation of radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the serious user, including code logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets to assist with hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. 7 figs., 5 tabs

  6. GENII: The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 2, Users' manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-11-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). The purpose of this coupled system of computer codes is to analyze environmental contamination of, air, water, or soil. This is accomplished by calculating radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The third volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the user who requires knowledge of code detail. It includes logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets, example hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. 27 refs., 17 figs., 23 tabs

  7. Monte Carlo technique applications in field of radiation dosimetry at ENEA radiation protection institute: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualdrini, G.F.; Casalini, L.; Morelli, B.

    1994-12-01

    The present report summarizes the activities concerned with numerical dosimetry as carried out at the Radiation Protection Institute of ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) on photon dosimetric quantities. The first part is concerned with MCNP Monte Carlo calculation of field parameters and operational quantities for the ICRU sphere with reference photon beams for the design of personal dosemeters. The second part is related with studies on the ADAM anthropomorphic phantom using the SABRINA and MCNP codes. The results of other Monte Carlo studies carried out on electron conversion factors for various tissue equivalent slab phantoms are about to be published in other ENEA reports. The report has been produced in the framework of the EURADOS WG4 (numerical dosimetry) activities within a collaboration between the ENEA Environmental Department and ENEA Energy Department

  8. EURADOS strategic research agenda. Visions for dosimetry of ionising radiation; Die strategische Forschungsagenda von EURADOS. Visionen fuer die Dosimetrie ionisierender Strahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehm, W. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz

    2016-07-01

    Since its foundation in 1981, EURADOS (the European Radiation Dosimetry Group e.V.) has been pursuing the goal to harmonise dosimetric practice of ionizing radiation in Europe, and to promote dosimetric research. As of August 2016, EURADOS had 67 institutional members, and up to 500 individual scientists, organized in eight Working Groups, work on improvements in dosimetry. In 2013, the EURADOS Council installed an ad-hoc editorial group, to identify open questions in radiation dosimetry research and to develop strategies that would allow answering these questions. In a joint effort of all EURADOS Working Groups, proposals were developed and summarized in a EURADOS Report. A short version of this report was published early this year in the peer reviewed international literature, in Radiation Protection Dosimetry. The present paper summarizes the proposals made. It is noted that this first version of the EURADOS Strategic Research Agenda already served as an input for a recent call published in Europe for Radiation Protection Research.

  9. Study of radiation dosimetry for child in dentistry, 1. Examination survey on radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateno, H; Shinji, H; Higaki, M; Kanno, M; Higashi, T [Kanagawa Dental Coll., Yokosuka (Japan)

    1980-09-01

    Patients in pedodontics usually do not appropriately report the symptoms of their own disease because of their immaturity. For this reason X-ray inspection plays a big part in diagnosis. It is considered that radiation injury for children is generally more severe than that for adults under the same exposure dose. Therefore it is necessary to detect the effective minimum exposure dose as accurately as possible for protection. The exposure dose was surveyed by use of TLD combined with the 6-films technique for children (child intraoral technique) currently used in the dental clinic. First, the reliability of TLD, the effect of scattered rays and indicator dependence etc. were tested. Second, the distribution of exposure dose in the intraoral technique for children was examined by water phantom. The following results were obtained. 1. It was necessary to select the stabilized TLD as the measuring values were comparatively scattered. 2. Measuring of the effect of scattered rays showed that it was the least in use of Pb, value of which was 101 for air dose 100. This indicated that Pb was the best for scatter protection. 3. For the indicator dependence it was unnecessary to adjust the glancing angle in case it was below 60 degrees. 4. TLD showed a stable result even in the increased time of exposure, and at the same time there was no error with the electric timer. 5. The result of the basic experiment of water phantom required further investigation as to the overlapped exposure in treatment of child patients with much smaller dental arches where the irradiation field was bigger than in that of adult patients with larger dental arches.

  10. A practical proposal for neutron dosimetry in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busuoli, G.; Pelliccioni, M.

    1985-01-01

    The innovations recommended in ICRP Publication 26 give rise to questionable consequences for current radiation protection practice. One of the most efficient is a proliferation of quantities for external exposure, the so called ''operational quantities'', devoid of any physical basis and scientifically undesirable. This risks undermining the unitary order given to the formulation of the limits. Moreover, as soon as an agreement is reached, then most of the instrumentation used at present should be replaced or modified. In the case of neutron dosimetry, at the moment, changes would be inappropriate. This is because one must take into account the results from the reassessment of the doses received by Japanese who were exposed at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the recent rumours about an increase of the quality factor at low doses. While awaiting further reflection on the matter, the way to continue to use the most popular neutron environmental instrument, the rem-counter is explained. The proposed solution, which is as open to question as any other, should at least allow considerable economical advantages and secure the continuity of current practice. (author)

  11. Thermoluminescent properties of CVD diamond: applications to ionising radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitfils, A.

    2007-09-01

    Remarkable properties of synthetic diamond (human soft tissue equivalence, chemical stability, non-toxicity) make this material suitable for medical application as thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). This work highlights the interest of this material as radiotherapy TLD. In the first stage of this work, we looked after thermoluminescent (TL) and dosimetric properties of polycrystalline diamond made by Chemically Vapor Deposited (CVD) synthesis. Dosimetric characteristics are satisfactory as TLD for medical application. Luminescence thermal quenching on diamond has been investigated. This phenomenon leads to a decrease of dosimetric TL peak sensitivity when the heating rate increases. The second part of this work analyses the use of synthetic diamond as TLD in radiotherapy. Dose profiles, depth dose distributions and the cartography of an electron beam obtained with our samples are in very good agreement with results from an ionisation chamber. It is clearly shown that CVD) diamond is of interest to check beams of treatment accelerators. The use of these samples in a control of treatment with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy underlines good response of synthetic diamond in high dose gradient areas. These results indicate that CVD diamond is a promising material for radiotherapy dosimetry. (author)

  12. Lesson from a 60Co source radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yong; Zhang Wenzhong

    2002-01-01

    A serious radiation accident happened an a 60 Co irradiation facility in Shanghai. 7 workers were uniformly exposed acutely. An investigation was done after the accident and a conclusion was achieved that the irregular operation was the direct reason for the accident. The operation of these workers did not comply with the requirements specified in the national standards-- 60 irradiation facility>> which demands that the examination should be done every day before operation, and the irradiation facility does not stop running when the auto-lock safety system on that facility has been removed. Some lessons should be drawn from the accident: popularizing the culture of safety, enhancing the law of safety, and ensuring the operation of radiation devices within the demands of safety

  13. Radiation dosimetry for bolus administration of oxygen-15-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brihaye, C.; Depresseux, J.C.; Comar, D.

    1995-01-01

    The authors describe the development of a biokinetic model which permits an estimation of organ activities and the dosimetry of a bolus of 15 O-water. The aim of this study was to estimate time-activity functions and deduce the cumulated activities in different organs so that the radiation absorbed dose values can be estimated. The model used includes the right heart chambers, lungs, left heart chambers, brain, liver, kidneys, muscles, gasrointestinal tract and the remainder of the body. Activity in an organ will decay by physical decay with the decay constant, γ, and can diffuse in the organ. An exception is the heart, where blood is ejected from the heart chambers. Depending on the location of the organ in relation to the blood sampling point, organ activities can be calculated by convolution or deconvolution. The radiation absorbed dose values were estimated and an effective dose equivalent H E of 1.16 μSv/MBq (4.32 mrem/mCi) as well as an effective dose E of 1.15 μSv/MBq (4.25 mrem/mCi) were calculated. The cumulated activities in select organs measured by PET gave good agreement with the values calculated by this model. The values of effective dose equivalent and effective dose for bolus administration of 15 O-water calculated from the absorbed doses estimated by the proposed kinetic model are almost three times higher than those previously published. A total of 8700 MBq (235 mCi) of 15 O-water can be administered if an effective dose of 10 mSv (1 rem) is accepted. 32 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Radiation accident Hospital San Juan de Dios August - September 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin Cheng, R.

    2000-01-01

    In Costa Rica, a radiation accident occurred in 1996. It took place at the Radiotherapy Service of the San Juan de Dios Hospital, which affected 115 patients. The Unit of Radiotherapy made a mistake in the calibration of the new bundle because of the change of external faeces of cobalt 60 (Alycon II). The work is a retrospective study that describes what happened in this accident, and the medical consequences that derived from it [es

  15. Environmental aftermath of the radiation accident at Tomsk-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porfiriev, B.N.

    1996-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the environmental effects of the most serious radiation accident recorded after Chernobyl, which occurred in the formerly secret town of Tomsk-7 in Siberia, Russia, on 6, April 1993. Fortunately, it appears not to have become a major industrial crisis or disaster. The causes of the accident are described. It is argued that a mixture of both objective and subjective prerequisites, including specific human, organizational, and technological factors, were responsible for the explosion or directly facilitated it. The Tomsk-7 accident's ecological, medical, social, and psychological consequences are discussed. 33 refs., 1 figs., 1 tab

  16. Usage of geotechnologies for risk management in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.A.A.; Marques, F.A.P.; Murta, Y.L.

    2017-01-01

    Through the use of geotechnologies an important tool can be created for risk management in radiation accidents. With the use of the QGIS software (Las Palmas version), it is shown its applicability in situations of radiological emergency, as in the case of the accident with cesium-137 in Goiânia. The work analyses the risk of a possible accident with the deposit of cesium wastes that still remains in the region, aiming to protect the population with the best exit routes and forms of allocation of the residents

  17. Computer codes in nuclear safety, radiation transport and dosimetry; Les codes de calcul en radioprotection, radiophysique et dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordy, J M; Kodeli, I; Menard, St; Bouchet, J L; Renard, F; Martin, E; Blazy, L; Voros, S; Bochud, F; Laedermann, J P; Beaugelin, K; Makovicka, L; Quiot, A; Vermeersch, F; Roche, H; Perrin, M C; Laye, F; Bardies, M; Struelens, L; Vanhavere, F; Gschwind, R; Fernandez, F; Quesne, B; Fritsch, P; Lamart, St; Crovisier, Ph; Leservot, A; Antoni, R; Huet, Ch; Thiam, Ch; Donadille, L; Monfort, M; Diop, Ch; Ricard, M

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this conference was to describe the present state of computer codes dedicated to radiation transport or radiation source assessment or dosimetry. The presentations have been parted into 2 sessions: 1) methodology and 2) uses in industrial or medical or research domains. It appears that 2 different calculation strategies are prevailing, both are based on preliminary Monte-Carlo calculations with data storage. First, quick simulations made from a database of particle histories built though a previous Monte-Carlo simulation and secondly, a neuronal approach involving a learning platform generated through a previous Monte-Carlo simulation. This document gathers the slides of the presentations.

  18. Local emergency arrangements for radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the local and national framework for public protection during peacetime emergencies with particular reference to major accidents or events with radiological consequences. The basis for the development of emergency plans will be described together with the inter-relationship between the responsibilities of individual organisations. (author)

  19. Biological dosimetry, diagnosis, and treatment of bone-marrow syndrome in victims of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugis, V.Yu.; Konchalovskii, M.V.

    1993-01-01

    During our medical investigation and treatment of victims of the Chernobyl accident, we obtained extensive clinical and laboratory data. The injuries to these victims were caused primarily by high external gamma and beta radiation doses. In some cases, these doses were accompanied by skin contamination by beta- and gamma-emitting radionuclides and by an intake of radionuclides, although the latter exposure mode was, for the most part, insignificant. Cytogenetic analysis of lymphocyte cultures of peripheral blood and bone marrow provided early estimations of radiation doses based on frequency of dicentrics. These dose estimates were well correlated with dose estimates derived from analysis of neutrophil numbers in peripheral blood. Early isolation of patients with acute radiation sickness (ARS), selective decontamination of the intestine, and application of a wide range of antibiotics and antifungal and antiviral medications helped avoid the development of fatal infections in many patients. Autological cryopreserved thrombocyte mass treatment was successfully used for victims in the second and third degree of ARS. Transplantation of allogenic bone marrow (13 cases) was ineffective and frequently caused fatal secondary sickness. As a whole, complications from widespread skin contamination by beta-emitting radionuclides, interstitial radiation pneumonia complicated by infection, and gastrointestinal syndrome were the leading factors in thanatogenesis. 21 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  20. International symposium on standards and codes of practice in medical radiation dosimetry. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The development of radiation measurement standards by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and their dissemination to Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), cancer therapy centres and hospitals represent essential aspects of the radiation dosimetry measurement chain. Although the demands for accuracy in radiotherapy initiated the establishment of such measurement chains, similar traceable dosimetry procedures have been implemented, or are being developed, in other areas of radiation medicine (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine), in radiation protection and in industrial applications of radiation. In the past few years the development of primary standards of absorbed dose to water in 60 Co for radiotherapy dosimetry has made direct calibrations in terms of absorbed dose to water available in many countries for the first time. Some laboratories have extended the development of these standards to high energy photon and electron beams and to low and medium energy x-ray beams. Other countries, however, still base their dosimetry for radiotherapy on air kerma standards. Dosimetry for conventional external beam radiotherapy was probably the field where standardized procedures adopted by medical physicists at hospitals were developed first. Those were related to exposure and air kerma standards. The recent development of Codes of Practice (or protocols) based on the concept of absorbed dose to water has led to changes in calibration procedures at hospitals. The International Code of Practice for Dosimetry Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water (TRS 398) was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) and is expected to be adopted in many countries worldwide. It provides recommendations for the dosimetry of all types of beams (except neutrons) used in external radiotherapy and satisfies

  1. International symposium on standards and codes of practice in medical radiation dosimetry. Book of extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The development of radiation measurement standards by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and their dissemination to Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), cancer therapy centres and hospitals represent essential aspects of the radiation dosimetry measurement chain. Although the demands for accuracy in radiotherapy initiated the establishment of such measurement chains, similar traceable dosimetry procedures have been implemented, or are being developed, in other areas of radiation medicine (e.g. diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine), in radiation protection and in industrial applications of radiation. In the past few years the development of primary standards of absorbed dose to water in {sup 60}Co for radiotherapy dosimetry has made direct calibrations in terms of absorbed dose to water available in many countries for the first time. Some laboratories have extended the development of these standards to high energy photon and electron beams and to low and medium energy x-ray beams. Other countries, however, still base their dosimetry for radiotherapy on air kerma standards. Dosimetry for conventional external beam radiotherapy was probably the field where standardized procedures adopted by medical physicists at hospitals were developed first. Those were related to exposure and air kerma standards. The recent development of Codes of Practice (or protocols) based on the concept of absorbed dose to water has led to changes in calibration procedures at hospitals. The International Code of Practice for Dosimetry Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water (TRS 398) was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) and is expected to be adopted in many countries worldwide. It provides recommendations for the dosimetry of all types of beams (except neutrons) used in external radiotherapy and

  2. Development a high-resolution radiation dosimetry system based on Fricke solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedelago, J. [Laboratorio de Investigaciones e Instrumentacion en Fisica Aplicada a la Medicina e Imagenes por Rayos X, Laboratorio 448 FaMAF - UNC, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Mattea, F. [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Departamento de Quimica Organica, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Valente, M., E-mail: josevedelago@gmail.com [Instituto de Fisica E. Gaviola, Oficina 102 FaMAF - UNC, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2014-08-15

    Due to the growing complexity of modern medical procedures involving the use of ionizing radiation, dosimetry by non-conventional techniques is one of the research areas in the field of greatest interest nowadays. Tissue-equivalent high-resolution dosimetry systems capable of attaining continuous dose mapping are required. In this scenario, Fricke gel dosimetry is a very promising option for in-phantom dose measurements in complex radiation techniques. Implementation of this technique requires dedicated instruments capable of measuring and performing the immediate in situ analysis of the acquired data at the radiation facility. The versatility of Fricke gel dosimetry in different applications depending on the chemical and isotopic composition of the dosimeter extends its application to different high performance conventional and non-conventional radiation procedures involving diverse types of radiation treatments and also radiation diagnosis procedures. This work presents an integral dosimetry system, based on Fricke gel solutions and their analysis by optical techniques, aiming for an increase in the precision on dose determinations. The chemical synthesis and dosimeter preparation were accomplished at LIIFAMIRx facilities, following the procedures and protocols described in previous works. Additionally, specific instrumentation for optical sample analysis was completely designed and constructed at LIIFAMIRx facilities. The main outcome of this work was the development of a methodology that improves the integral dose determination performance by the pre-irradiation of Fricke gel dosimeters. (author)

  3. Development a high-resolution radiation dosimetry system based on Fricke solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedelago, J.; Mattea, F.; Valente, M.

    2014-08-01

    Due to the growing complexity of modern medical procedures involving the use of ionizing radiation, dosimetry by non-conventional techniques is one of the research areas in the field of greatest interest nowadays. Tissue-equivalent high-resolution dosimetry systems capable of attaining continuous dose mapping are required. In this scenario, Fricke gel dosimetry is a very promising option for in-phantom dose measurements in complex radiation techniques. Implementation of this technique requires dedicated instruments capable of measuring and performing the immediate in situ analysis of the acquired data at the radiation facility. The versatility of Fricke gel dosimetry in different applications depending on the chemical and isotopic composition of the dosimeter extends its application to different high performance conventional and non-conventional radiation procedures involving diverse types of radiation treatments and also radiation diagnosis procedures. This work presents an integral dosimetry system, based on Fricke gel solutions and their analysis by optical techniques, aiming for an increase in the precision on dose determinations. The chemical synthesis and dosimeter preparation were accomplished at LIIFAMIRx facilities, following the procedures and protocols described in previous works. Additionally, specific instrumentation for optical sample analysis was completely designed and constructed at LIIFAMIRx facilities. The main outcome of this work was the development of a methodology that improves the integral dose determination performance by the pre-irradiation of Fricke gel dosimeters. (author)

  4. Influence of radiation heat transfer during a severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazares R, R. I.; Epinosa P, G.; Varela H, J. R.; Vazquez R, A. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Polo L, M. A., E-mail: ricardo-cazares@hotmail.com [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the radiation heat transfer on an average fuel channel during a severe accident of a BWR nuclear power plant. The analysis considers the radiation heat transfer in a participating medium, where the gases inside the system participate in the radiation heat transfer. We consider the steam-water mixture as an isothermal gray gas, and the boundaries of the system as a gray diffuse isothermal surface for the clad and refractory surfaces for the rest, and consider the average fuel channel as an enclosure system. During a severe accident, generation and diffusion of hydrogen begin at high temperature range (1,273 to 2,100 K), and the fuel rod cladding oxidation, but the hydrogen generated do not participate in the radiation heat transfer because it does not have any radiation properties. The heat transfer process in the fuel assembly is considered with a reduced order model, and from this, the convection and the radiation heat transfer is introduced in the system. In this paper, a system with and without the radiation heat transfer term was calculated and analyzed in order to obtain the influence of the radiation heat transfer on the average fuel channel. We show the behavior of radiation heat transfer effects on the temporal evolution of the hydrogen concentration and temperature profiles in a fuel assembly, where a stream of steam is flowing. Finally, this study is a practical complement for more accurate modeling of a severe accident analysis. (Author)

  5. Influence of radiation heat transfer during a severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazares R, R. I.; Epinosa P, G.; Varela H, J. R.; Vazquez R, A.; Polo L, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the radiation heat transfer on an average fuel channel during a severe accident of a BWR nuclear power plant. The analysis considers the radiation heat transfer in a participating medium, where the gases inside the system participate in the radiation heat transfer. We consider the steam-water mixture as an isothermal gray gas, and the boundaries of the system as a gray diffuse isothermal surface for the clad and refractory surfaces for the rest, and consider the average fuel channel as an enclosure system. During a severe accident, generation and diffusion of hydrogen begin at high temperature range (1,273 to 2,100 K), and the fuel rod cladding oxidation, but the hydrogen generated do not participate in the radiation heat transfer because it does not have any radiation properties. The heat transfer process in the fuel assembly is considered with a reduced order model, and from this, the convection and the radiation heat transfer is introduced in the system. In this paper, a system with and without the radiation heat transfer term was calculated and analyzed in order to obtain the influence of the radiation heat transfer on the average fuel channel. We show the behavior of radiation heat transfer effects on the temporal evolution of the hydrogen concentration and temperature profiles in a fuel assembly, where a stream of steam is flowing. Finally, this study is a practical complement for more accurate modeling of a severe accident analysis. (Author)

  6. Application of MOSFET radiation detector for patient dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soubra, M.; Cygler, J.; Szanto, J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: A new direct reading Metal Oxide-Silicon Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) based radiation detector system has been investigated in a variety of clinical radiotherapy procedures. The aim of this study is to report on the clinical applicability of such a device, its ease of use and on its dosimetric properties that include precision angular and energy dependence. Comparisons of patient dose measurements obtained by the MOSFET based system and the commonly used thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) and diodes are discussed. Material and Methods: A commercially available MOSFET dosimetry system that employs dual MOSFET dual bias arrangements has been used in this study. The detector is bonded with the epoxy to the end of a long (1.5 m) flexible cable whose other end is connected to a bias supply box operated by a battery. The bias box can accommodate up to 5 MOSFETs and after radiation exposure the dose can be determined by connecting the detectors to a pre calibrated reader. For the clinical evaluation 5 MOSFETs were used on patients undergoing total body irradiation (TBI) and high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR). The MOSFET detectors were taped to patient surface adjacent to the routinely used TLDs and/or diodes. To examine energy dependence the MOSFET sensitivity (mV/Gy) was determined in relation to a calibrated dose from 6 and 18 MV photon beams. The directional dependence was investigated by placing a MOSFET during irradiation in a special polystyrene insert that can be manually rotated to the required angle. Precision (reproducibility) measurements were made by exposing MOSFETs to multiple fractions of dose in the range of 3 x 10 -2 to 2 Gy. Results: In 3 of TBI trials the diodes measured average dose was within 1.0% of the prescribed dose compared to 3.7% for TLDs and 1.8% for MOSFETs. The MOSFETs average sensitivity for 6 MV was within 2% of the 18 MV photon beam. The reproducibility of MOSFET response was better than 3 % provided the dose per fraction is

  7. Preparation of hospitals for handling victims of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vince, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to a generalized discussion of the inter-and intraorganizational structure of hospitals for handling radiation emergencies of the kind suggested above as well as the isolated remote minor accident involving radiation. The general elements of hospital planning for radiation accidents have been discussed and a detailed protocol for handling the radioactive patient is presented. Minor additions and emphasis to parts of these earlier works are summarized, reflecting experiences gained in receiving simulated radioactively contaminated victims in drills at St. Luke's Hospital of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Two accidents were simulated involving mock radioactive materials over a two year period. One such ''accident'' was staged at A-B-E Airport, Lehigh County, in 1981 and the other in the Saucon Valley in 1983. It should be mentioned that in neither case was the release of radioactive material possible, in reality, as portrayed. In planning mock radiation accident drills for emergency care units and support staff, one is best-advised not to pay too much attention to the logic of how the release occurred but rather that there are victims who must be treated, decontaminated and evaluated for the necessity of continued medical care

  8. The EURADOS/CONRAD activities on radiation protection dosimetry in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhavere, F.; Struelens, L.; Bordy, J.M.; Daures, J.; Denozieres, M.; Buls, N.; Clerinx, P.; Carinou, E.; Clairand, I.; Debroas, J.; Donadille, L.; Itie, C.; Ginjaume, M.; Jansen, J.; Jaervinen, H.; Miljanic, S.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Nikodemova, D.; Rimpler, A.; Sans Merce, M.; D'Errico, F.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This presentation gives an overview on the research activities that EURADOS coordinates in the field of radiation protection dosimetry in medicine. EURADOS is an organization founded in 1981 to advance the scientific understanding and the technical development of the dosimetry of ionising radiation in the fields of radiation protection, radiobiology, radiation therapy and medical diagnosis by promoting collaboration between European laboratories. EURADOS operates by setting up Working Groups dealing with particular topics. Currently funded through the CONRAD project of the 6th EU Framework Programme, EURADOS has working groups on Computational Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Complex mixed radiation fields at workplaces, and Radiation protection dosimetry of medical staff. The latter working group coordinates and promotes European research for the assessment of occupational exposures to staff in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology workplaces. Research is coordinated by sub-groups covering three specific areas: 1: Extremity dosimetry in nuclear medicine and interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in the specific fields of the hospitals and studies of doses to different parts of the hands, arms, legs and feet; 2: Practice of double dosimetry: this sub-group reviews and evaluates the different methods and algorithms for the use of dosemeters placed above and below lead aprons, especially to determine personal doses to cardiologists during cardiac catheterisation, but also in CT-fluoroscopy and some nuclear medicine developments (e.g. use of Re-188); and 3: Use of electronic personal dosemeters in interventional radiology: this sub-group coordinates investigations in laboratories and hospitals, and intercomparisons with passive dosemeters with the aim to enable the formulation of standards. (author)

  9. Practice for characterization and performance of a high-dose radiation dosimetry calibration laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This practice addresses the specific requirements for laboratories engaged in dosimetry calibrations involving ionizing radiation, namely, gamma-radiation, electron beams or X-radiation (bremsstrahlung) beams. It specifically describes the requirements for the characterization and performance criteria to be met by a high-dose radiation dosimetry calibration laboratory. The absorbed-dose range is typically between 10 and 10 5 Gy. This practice addresses criteria for laboratories seeking accreditation for performing high-dose dosimetry calibrations, and is a supplement to the general requirements described in ISO/IEC 17025. By meeting these criteria and those in ISO/IEC 17025, the laboratory may be accredited by a recognized accreditation organization. Adherence to these criteria will help to ensure high standards of performance and instill confidence regarding the competency of the accredited laboratory with respect to the services it offers

  10. Further studies into the emergency medical care of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Isamu

    1989-01-01

    The emergency medical care of radiation accidents constitute a peculier characteristics of radiation protection including the works of the administrative management, environmental radiological monitoring and health physics around the clinical medicine. It is thought to be an interdisciplinary medical field which is designated as a comprehensive medicine for radiation hazard. Moreover, it will be thought that the radiological medicine is not only the medical science which deals with the use of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, but also the art and science of maintenance of health and cure for radiation injuries, just as the two wheels of a cart. It should reward the needs of today. We would like to expect that this symposium will be a clue to the theoretical systematization of the comprehensive medicine of radiation accidents. (author)

  11. Dosimetry for radiation processing. Final report of the co-ordinated research project on characterization and evaluation of high dose dosimetry techniques for quality assurance in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    In many Member States the use of large cobalt-60 gamma ray facilities and electron beam accelerators with beam energies from about 0.1 to 10 MeV for industrial processing continues to increase. For these processes, quality assurance relies on the application of well established dosimetry systems and procedures. This is especially the case for health regulated processes, such as the radiation sterilization of health care products, and the irradiation of food to eliminate pathogenic organisms or to control insect pests. A co-ordinated research project (CRP) was initiated by the IAEA in June 1995. Research contracts and research agreements in areas of high dose dosimetry were initiated to meet these challenges. The major goals of this CRP were to investigate the parameters that influence the response of dosimeters and to develop reference and transfer dosimetry techniques, especially for electron beams of energy less than 4 MeV and for high energy X ray sources (up to 5 MV). These will help to unify the radiation measurements performed by different radiation processing facilities and other high dose dosimetry users in Member States and encourage efforts to obtain traceability to primary and secondary standards laboratories. It will also aim to strengthen and expand the present International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) provided by the IAEA

  12. Personnel radiation dosimetry laboratory accreditation programme for thermoluminescent dosimeters : a proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, B.C.; Srivastava, J.K.; Iyer, P.S.; Venkatraman, G.

    1993-01-01

    Accreditation for thermoluminescent dosimeters is the process of evaluating a programme intending to use TL personnel dosimeters to measure, report and record dose equivalents received by radiation workers. In order to test the technical competence for conducting personnel dosimetry service as well as to decentralize personnel monitoring service, it has been proposed by Radiological Physics Division (RPhD) to accredit some of the laboratories, in the country. The objectives of this accreditation programme are: (i) to give recognition to competent dosimetry processors, and (ii) to provide periodic evaluation of dosimetry processors, including review of internal quality assurance programme to improve the quality of personnel dosimetry processing. The scientific support for the accreditation programme will be provided by the scientific staff from Radiological Physics Division (RPhD) and Radiation Protection Services Division (RPSD). This paper describes operational and technical requirements for the Personnel Radiation Dosimetry Laboratory Accreditation Programme for Thermoluminescent Dosimeters for Personnel Dosimetry Processors. Besides, many technical documents dealing with the TL Personnel Dosimeter System have been prepared. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs

  13. International Standardization of the Clinical Dosimetry of Beta Radiation Brachytherapy Sources: Progress of an ISO Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Christopher

    2006-03-01

    In 2004 a new work item proposal (NWIP) was accepted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee 85 (TC85 -- Nuclear Energy), Subcommittee 2 (Radiation Protection) for the development of a standard for the clinical dosimetry of beta radiation sources used for brachytherapy. To develop this standard, a new Working Group (WG 22 - Ionizing Radiation Dosimetry and Protocols in Medical Applications) was formed. The standard is based on the work of an ad-hoc working group initiated by the Dosimetry task group of the Deutsches Insitiut für Normung (DIN). Initially the work was geared mainly towards the needs of intravascular brachytherapy, but with the decline of this application, more focus has been placed on the challenges of accurate dosimetry for the concave eye plaques used to treat ocular melanoma. Guidance is given for dosimetry formalisms, reference data to be used, calibrations, measurement methods, modeling, uncertainty determinations, treatment planning and reporting, and clinical quality control. The document is currently undergoing review by the ISO member bodies for acceptance as a Committee Draft (CD) with publication of the final standard expected by 2007. There are opportunities for other ISO standards for medical dosimetry within the framework of WG22.

  14. Substance for thermoluminescent dosimetry of photon radiation in adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmykov, L.Z.; Kandel', T.G.

    1983-01-01

    Substance composition for thermoluminescent photon dosimetry in adipose tissue is proposed which makes it possible to simplify dosimetric measurements and to improve their accuracy. The substance consists of powder-like thermoluminophor Li 2 B 4 O 7 (0.03%Mn) 48-52 mass % and bistriethylammonium dodecahydrododecaborane - 48-52 mass %. The above substance is equivalent in respect to dosimetry to adipose tissue within the 10 keV - 10 MeV energy range

  15. Academic Training - The use of Monte Carlo radiation transport codes in radiation physics and dosimetry

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 27, 28, 29 June 11:00-12:00 - TH Conference Room, bldg. 4 The use of Monte Carlo radiation transport codes in radiation physics and dosimetry F. Salvat Gavalda,Univ. de Barcelona, A. FERRARI, CERN-AB, M. SILARI, CERN-SC Lecture 1. Transport and interaction of electromagnetic radiation F. Salvat Gavalda,Univ. de Barcelona Interaction models and simulation schemes implemented in modern Monte Carlo codes for the simulation of coupled electron-photon transport will be briefly reviewed. Different schemes for simulating electron transport will be discussed. Condensed algorithms, which rely on multiple-scattering theories, are comparatively fast, but less accurate than mixed algorithms, in which hard interactions (with energy loss or angular deflection larger than certain cut-off values) are simulated individually. The reliability, and limitations, of electron-interaction models and multiple-scattering theories will be analyzed. Benchmark comparisons of simu...

  16. Computational hybrid anthropometric paediatric phantom library for internal radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tianwu; Kuster, Niels; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-04-01

    Hybrid computational phantoms combine voxel-based and simplified equation-based modelling approaches to provide unique advantages and more realism for the construction of anthropomorphic models. In this work, a methodology and C++ code are developed to generate hybrid computational phantoms covering statistical distributions of body morphometry in the paediatric population. The paediatric phantoms of the Virtual Population Series (IT’IS Foundation, Switzerland) were modified to match target anthropometric parameters, including body mass, body length, standing height and sitting height/stature ratio, determined from reference databases of the National Centre for Health Statistics and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The phantoms were selected as representative anchor phantoms for the newborn, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 years-old children, and were subsequently remodelled to create 1100 female and male phantoms with 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th body morphometries. Evaluation was performed qualitatively using 3D visualization and quantitatively by analysing internal organ masses. Overall, the newly generated phantoms appear very reasonable and representative of the main characteristics of the paediatric population at various ages and for different genders, body sizes and sitting stature ratios. The mass of internal organs increases with height and body mass. The comparison of organ masses of the heart, kidney, liver, lung and spleen with published autopsy and ICRP reference data for children demonstrated that they follow the same trend when correlated with age. The constructed hybrid computational phantom library opens up the prospect of comprehensive radiation dosimetry calculations and risk assessment for the paediatric population of different age groups and diverse anthropometric parameters.

  17. The radiation accident at Institute for Energy Technology Sept. 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berteig, L.; Flatby, J.

    1983-01-01

    On September 2, 1982 a radiation accident with overexposure of one person happened at the gamma irradiation plant at Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway. This person died from the radiation injury 13 days later. In the report reference is made to the work of different groups and bodies in connection with the accident. An analysis of the causes of the accident is given. For admittance control to the irradiation area there were generally two independent door interlock systems, one irradiation source position related and the other radiation related. The latter was dismantled for repair at the time of the accident. A micro-switch failure left the source in an ushielded position, initiated a green light on the control panel and released the interlock system of the door. According to working instructions a mobile radiation monitor should have been checked for proper function and carried by anyone entering the irradiation room. This seems not to have been carried out correctly. The conditions set forth by the Norwegian Institute of Radiation Hygiene for the restarting of the irradiation plant are presented. (RF)

  18. Personal dosimetry TLD 100 in orthopedic surgeons exposed to ionizing radiation in Bogota - Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra C, B. Y.; Jimenez, Y.; Plazas, M. C.; Eslava S, J.; Groot R, H.

    2014-08-01

    Orthopedic surgeons should be considered as professionals occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation, for using C arc (fluoroscope) an equipment of X type radiation emission, during surgical procedures for imaging generation. Some health institutes, use of C arc under uncontrolled circumstances, such a lack of dosimetry control, incomplete or absence of personnel protective elements and protective measures, which in turn, lead to a high exposition to the personnel. Materials and methods. Study of double match cohort by age and gender, was conducted, in four health institutions of second and third level of attention in Bogota city. Personal dosimetry measurements with TLD-100 dosimetry crystals in both cohorts and environmental dosimetry in each of operation rooms used for orthopedic procedures, were carry out during six months of follow up. Dosimetry crystals were read in a Harshaw 4500 - Bicron equipment, in the Medical Physics Laboratory of National University of Colombia. Results. Dosimetry measurements are compatibles with those of occupationally exposed personnel 3.44 mSv/6 m CI 95% (1.66-3.99), even does not overpass ICRP recommendations, are higher as were expect at the beginning of the study. The median of effective accumulative dose in thorax is 3,4 mSv CI 95% (1,66-3,99), higher in comparison with neck value 2,7 mSv CI 95% (1,73-3,80) and hand dosimetry 1,42 mSv CI 95% (0,96-2,34). Conclusions: Orthopedic surgeons should be considered occupational exposed to ionizing radiation, who has to accomplish to the radiological protection measures, dosimetric follow up and maintenance of the used X ray equipment. It was confirm throughout this study that dosimetry shows higher levels as expected at the beginning of the study, compatible with occupationally exposed personnel. (Author)

  19. Guide on medical management of persons exposed in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The present guide has been prepared in order to provide guidance to medical and para-medical personnel regarding medical management of the different types of radiation accidents. It discusses briefly the physical aspects and biological effect of radiation, for the benefit of those who have not specialised in radiation medicine. The diagnosis, medical management and follow-up of persons involved in different types of radiation accidents are also dealt with. The implementation of the procedures described calls for organisation of appropriate facilities and provision of requisite equipment as well as education and training of the staff. It is emphasised that major radiation accidents are rare events and the multi-disciplinary nature of the response required to deal with them calls for proper planning and continuous liaison among plant management, radiation protection personnel, first-aid assistants and medical and paramedical staff. The organisation and conduct of emergency drills may help in maintaining preparedness of the medical facilities for efficient management of radiation casualities. (original). 64 refs., tabs., figs

  20. Analysis of the radiation accident in El Salvador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melara, N.E.

    1998-01-01

    On 5 February 1989 at 2 a.m. local time in a cobalt-60 industrial irradiation facility, a series of events started leading to one of the most serious radiation accidents in this type of installation. It took place in Soyapango, a city situated 5 km from San Salvador, the capital of the Republic of El Salvador. In this accident, three workers were involved in the first event and a further four in the second. When the accident took place, the activity level was approximately 0.66 PBq (18,000 Ci). The source became blocked when being lowered to its safe position, where upon the technician responsible for the irradiator entered the chamber in breach of the few inadequate safety procedures, accompanied by two colleagues from an adjacent department; the three workers suffered acute radiation exposure, with the result that one of them died six-and-a-half months later, the second had both his legs amputated at mid-thigh, while the third recovered completely. This article describes the irradiator, outlines the causes of the accident and analyses the economic and social repercussions, with the aim of helping teams responsible for radiation protection and safety in industrial irradiation facilities to identify potentially hazardous circumstances and avoid accidents. (author)

  1. Recommendations for prevention of radiation accident in industrial gammagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, L.S.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    Industrial Gammagraphy plays an important role in the quality control of various materials and components. It is classified by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA as Category 2, due to its radiation risk caused by the use of high activity radioactive sources. This risk is based on the harmful consequences of human health, described in some accidents in the world, due to failures. In 2012, the 'Brazilian National Workshop on Accident Prevention in Industrial Gammagraphy' was carried out by DIAPI/CNEN, with the objective of disseminating knowledge about radiation accidents. At the time, the IRD/CNEN-RJ carried out a survey with the 75 participants using a form with 22 recommendations to prevent radiological accidents, in order to select the 10 most voted. A statistical study, using the 'Frequency Distribution' method, was performed to define 10 recommendations. The percentage and vote results were obtained by category of the participants and the 10 most important recommendations were defined to prevent radiation accidents. The recommendation that came in first place was 'Always use an individual monitor with alarm during all work'

  2. Subsidies to cytogenetic dosimetry technique generated from analysis of results of Goiania radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, Adriana Teixeira

    1993-06-01

    Following the Goiania radiation accident, which occurred in September of 1987, peripheral lymphocytes from 129 exposed or potentially exposed individuals were analyzed for the frequency of unstable chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and centric rings) to estimate absorbed radiation dose. During the emergency period, the doses were assessed to help immediate medical treatment. After this initial estimation, doses were reassessed using in vitro calibration curves produced after the accident, more suitable for the conditions prevailing in Goiania. Dose estimates for 24 subjects exceeded 0,5 Gy. Among those, 15 individuals exceeded 1,0 Gy and 5 exceeded 3,0 Gy. None of the estimates exceeded 6,0 Gy. Four of the subjects died. During the emergency period, a cytogenetic follow-up of 14 of the exposed patients was started, aiming to observe the mean lifetime of lymphocytes containing dicentric and ring aberrations. The results suggest that for the highly exposed individuals the disappearance rate of unstable aberrations follows a two- term exponential function. Up to 470 days after the exposure, there is a rapid fall in the aberration frequency. After 470 days, the disappearance rate is very slow, almost constant. The estimated average half-time of elimination of dicentrics and rings among the highly exposed group (> 1 Gy) was 140 days for the initial period after the exposure (up to 470 days). This value is significantly shorter than the usually accepted value of 3 years reported in the literature. Mean disappearance functions of unstable chromosome aberrations were inferred, to be applied in accident situations in which there is a blood sampling delay. Statistical analysis of possible correlations between the individual half-times and biological parameters, such as sex, age, leukopenia level shown during the critical period, absorbed dose (initial frequency of chromosomal aberrations) and the administration of the bone marrow stimulating factor (rHuGM-CSF) was

  3. Plastic scintillation dosimetry for radiation therapy: minimizing capture of Cerenkov radiation noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddar, A Sam; Suchowerska, Natalka; Law, Susan H

    2004-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been an increased interest in scintillation dosimetry using small water-equivalent plastic scintillators, because of their favourable characteristics when compared with other more commonly used detector systems. Although plastic scintillators have been shown to have many desirable dosimetric properties, as yet there is no successful commercial detector system of this type available for routine clinical use in radiation oncology. The main factor preventing this new technology from realizing its full potential in commercial applications is the maximization of signal coupling efficiency and the minimization of noise capture. A principal constituent of noise is Cerenkov radiation. This study reports the calculated capture of Cerenkov radiation by an optical fibre in the special case where the radiation is generated by a relativistic particle on the fibre axis and the fibre axis is parallel to the Cerenkov cone. The fraction of radiation captured is calculated as a function of the fibre core refractive index and the refractive index difference between the core and the cladding of the fibre for relativistic particles. This is then used to deduce the relative intensity captured for a range of fibre core refractive indices and fibre core-cladding refractive index differences. It is shown that the core refractive index has little effect on the amount of radiation captured compared to the refractive index difference. The implications of this result for the design of radiation therapy plastic scintillation dosimeters are considered

  4. French regulatory requirements for the occupational radiation protection in severe accident situations and post-accident recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couasnon, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Workers of the concerned company and other persons and teams called 'intervention personnel' (specialized firemen, first aider, etc.) are to be involved in radiological emergency situations. Radiation protection provisions for workers and for intervention personnel complement one another because they cover persons with different statutes (workers under the responsibility of an employer and persons acting within the framework of agreements with the public authorities or within the framework of the requisitions). Work or operations exposing workers to ionizing radiation in radiological emergency situations can be assigned only to workers satisfying all of the following conditions: classification in category A worker; free of any medical unfitness; on a list drawn up in advance for this purpose; having received appropriate information on the risks and the precautions to take during the work or the operation; not having received, during the preceding twelve months, a dose greater than one of the annual limit values for exposures subject to special authorization. In addition, the worker must be a volunteer to carry out the work or the operations concerned in radiological emergency situations and have individual dosimetry means appropriate for the situation. Intervention personnel are possibly composed of personnel from responding organizations, such as police officers, fire-fighters, medical personnel, drivers and crews of evacuation vehicles, or of workers employed by the head of the damaged plant. In order to determine their selection, training and medical and radiological monitoring conditions, intervention personnel are classified into two groups: personnel forming the special technical, medical and health intervention teams readied in advance to deal with radiological emergency situations and persons not belonging to special teams but intervening as part of the tasks within the scope of their competence. In case of an existing exposure situation (post-accident

  5. Metabolomics in Radiation-Induced Biological Dosimetry: A Mini-Review and a Polyamine Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhyun Roh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we elucidate that polyamine metabolite is a powerful biomarker to study post-radiation changes. Metabolomics in radiation biodosimetry, the application of a metabolomics analysis to the field of radiobiology, promises to increase the understanding of biological responses by ionizing radiation (IR. Radiation exposure triggers a complex network of molecular and cellular responses that impacts metabolic processes and alters the levels of metabolites. Such metabolites have potential as biomarkers for radiation dosimetry. Among metabolites, polyamine is one of many potential biomarkers to estimate radiation response. In addition, this review provides an opportunity for the understanding of a radiation metabolomics in biodosimetry and a polyamine case study.

  6. Accidents and emergency conditions: Tasks of the radiation protection expert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacke, J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews and explains the tasks of the radiation protection expert at a given site in the event of accidents or emergencies involving a radiation hazard to the personnel. The various measures recommended discriminate between the main two types of hazards, namely external radiation or internal radiation. The paper discusses the first-aid and emergency measures recommended in various publications (BG, 1982; ICRP, 1980; MO, 1972; ME, 1980) and also cites recommendations contained therein, referring to preventive means and measures and to communications to the press and the general public. (DG) [de

  7. Treatment of whole-body radiation accident victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drum, D.E.; Rappeport, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses how whole-body radiation exposure incidents present a number of unique challenges. The acute, nonstochastic effects of high doses of radiation over 25 rads (0.25 Gy) delivered to humans is generally manifest in rather categorical fashion; depending on the dose, either the patient is largely unharmed functionally or he is seriously injured. Radiation initiates microchemical changes within a nanosecond time frame; there exists no specific therapy to stop or reverse the sequence of events that follow. Thus, the range for effective therapeutic intervention is rather small, between 150 to 1500 rad (1.5 to 15 Gy) for humans. Nevertheless, it is likely that a large uncomplicated exposure to as much as 750 rad (7.5 Gy) might be survivable without dramatic measures such as bone marrow transplantation. Review of the available information about past accidents shows that the majority of radiation accidents are mixed injuries

  8. ESR Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baffa, Oswaldo; Rossi, Bruno; Graeff, Carlos; Kinoshita, Angela; Chen Abrego, Felipe; Santos, Adevailton Bernardo dos

    2004-01-01

    ESR dosimetry is widely used for several applications such as dose assessment in accidents, medical applications and sterilization of food and other materials. In this work the dosimetric properties of natural and synthetic Hydroxyapatite, Alanine, and 2-Methylalanine are presented. Recent results on the use of a K-Band (24 GHz) ESR spectrometer in dosimetry are also presented

  9. European questionnaire on the use of computer programmes in radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualdrini, G.; Tanner, R.; Terrisol, M.

    1999-01-01

    Because of a potential reduction of necessary experimental efforts, the combination of measurements and supplementing calculations, also in the field of radiation dosimetry, may allow time and money to be saved if computational methods are used which are well suited to reproduce experimental data in a satisfactory quality. The dramatic increase in computing power in recent years now permits the use of computational tools for dosimetry also in routine applications. Many institutions dealing with radiation protection, however, have small groups which, in addition to their routine work, often cannot afford to specialise in the field of computational dosimetry. This means that not only experts but increasingly also casual users employ complicated computational tools such as general-purpose transport codes. This massive use of computer programmes in radiation protection and dosimetry applications motivated the Concerted Action Investigation and Quality Assurance of Numerical Methods in Radiation Protection Dosimetry of the 4th framework programme of the European Commission to prepare, distribute and evaluate a questionnaire on the use of such codes. A significant number of scientists from nearly all the countries of the European Community (and some countries outside Europe) contributed to the questionnaire, that allowed to obtain a satisfactory overview of the state of the art in this field. The results obtained from the questionnaire and summarised in the present Report are felt to be indicative of the situation of using sophisticated computer codes within the European Community although the group of participating scientist may not be a representative sample in a strict statistical sense [it

  10. REAC/TS Radiation Accident Registry: An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doran M. Christensen, DO, REAC/TS Associate Director and Staff Physician Becky Murdock, REAC/TS Registry and Health Physics Technician

    2012-12-12

    Over the past four years, REAC/TS has presented a number of case reports from its Radiation Accident Registry. Victims of radiological or nuclear incidents must meet certain dose criteria for an incident to be categorized as an “accident” and be included in the registry. Although the greatest numbers of “accidents” in the United States that have been entered into the registry involve radiation devices, the greater percentage of serious accidents have involved sealed sources of one kind or another. But if one looks at the kinds of accident scenarios that have resulted in extreme consequence, i.e., death, the greater share of deaths has occurred in medical settings.

  11. Dosimetry techniques of thermal neutrons and {gamma} radiation in reactor cores; Techniques de dosimetrie des neutrons thermiques et du rayonnement {gamma} dans les piles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, J; Draganic, I; Hering, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    Chemical studies under radiation done in the reactor cores require to be followed by dosimetry. When the irradiations are done in the reflector, one can limit to the measure of the {gamma} and the neutron radiation. For the dosimetry of the {gamma} radiation, a dosimeter of ferrous sulfate is convenient until doses of about 10{sup 6} rep. The use of aired oxalic acid solutions permits to reach 10{sup 7} rep. The dosimetry of thermal neutrons has been made with solutions of cobalt sulphate or paper filter impregnated with this salt. The total chemical effect of the {gamma} and of the slow neutrons radiation is obtained with solutions of ferrous sulfate added with lithium sulphate. (M.B.) [French] Les etudes de chimie sous radiation faites dans les piles exigent d'etre suivies par dosimetrie. Lorsque les irradiations sont effectues dans le reflecteur, on peut se limiter a doser le rayonnement {gamma} et les neutrons. Pour la dosimetrie du rayonnement {gamma}, un dosimetre a sulfate ferreux convient jusqu'a des doses d'environ 10{sup 6} rep. L'emploi de solutions aerees d'acide oxalique permet d'atteindre 10{sup 7} rep. La dosimetrie des neutrons thermiques a ete faite avec des solutions de sulfate de cotalt ou du papier filtre impregne de ce sel. L'effet chimique total du rayonnement {gamma} et des neutrons lents est obtenu avec des solutions de sulfate ferreux additionne de sulfate de lithium. (M.B.)

  12. Cytogenetic Dosimetry: Applications in Preparedness for and Response to Radiation Emergencies (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic dosimetry is recognized as a valuable dose assessment method which fills a gap in dosimetric technology, particularly when there are difficulties in interpreting the data, in cases where there is reason to believe that persons not wearing dosimeters have been exposed to radiation, in cases of claims for compensation for radiation injuries that are not supported by unequivocal dosimetric evidence, or in cases of exposure over an individual's working lifetime. The IAEA has maintained a long standing involvement in biological dosimetry commencing in 1978. This association has been through a sequence of coordinated research programmes (CRPs), the running of regional and national training courses, the sponsorship of individual training fellowships, and the provision of equipment to laboratories in Member States, establishing capabilities in biological dosimetry. From this has arisen the provision to Member States of advice regarding the best focus for research and suggestions for the most suitable techniques for future practice in biological dosimetry. One CRP resulted in the publication in 1986 of a manual, entitled Biological Dosimetry: Chromosomal Aberration Analysis for Dose Assessment (Technical Reports Series No. 260). This was superseded in 2001 by a revised second edition, Technical Reports Series No. 405. This present publication constitutes a third edition, with extensive updating to reflect the considerable advances that have been made in cytogenetic biological dosimetry during the past decade

  13. Cytogenetic Dosimetry: Applications in Preparedness for and Response to Radiation Emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Cytogenetic dosimetry is recognized as a valuable dose assessment method which fills a gap in dosimetric technology, particularly when there are difficulties in interpreting the data, in cases where there is reason to believe that persons not wearing dosimeters have been exposed to radiation, in cases of claims for compensation for radiation injuries that are not supported by unequivocal dosimetric evidence, or in cases of exposure over an individual's working lifetime. The IAEA has maintained a long standing involvement in biological dosimetry commencing in 1978. This association has been through a sequence of coordinated research programmes (CRPs), the running of regional and national training courses, the sponsorship of individual training fellowships, and the provision of equipment to laboratories in Member States, establishing capabilities in biological dosimetry. From this has arisen the provision to Member States of advice regarding the best focus for research and suggestions for the most suitable techniques for future practice in biological dosimetry. One CRP resulted in the publication in 1986 of a manual, entitled Biological Dosimetry: Chromosomal Aberration Analysis for Dose Assessment (Technical Reports Series No. 260). This was superseded in 2001 by a revised second edition, Technical Reports Series No. 405. This present publication constitutes a third edition, with extensive updating to reflect the considerable advances that have been made in cytogenetic biological dosimetry during the past decade.

  14. Cytogenetic Dosimetry: Applications in Preparedness for and Response to Radiation Emergencies (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic dosimetry is recognized as a valuable dose assessment method which fills a gap in dosimetric technology, particularly when there are difficulties in interpreting the data, in cases where there is reason to believe that persons not wearing dosimeters have been exposed to radiation, in cases of claims for compensation for radiation injuries that are not supported by unequivocal dosimetric evidence, or in cases of exposure over an individual’s working lifetime. The IAEA has maintained a long standing involvement in biological dosimetry commencing in 1978. This association has been through a sequence of coordinated research programmes (CRPs), the running of regional and national training courses, the sponsorship of individual training fellowships, and the provision of equipment to laboratories in Member States, establishing capabilities in biological dosimetry. From this has arisen the provision to Member States of advice regarding the best focus for research and suggestions for the most suitable techniques for future practice in biological dosimetry. One CRP resulted in the publication in 1986 of a manual, entitled Biological Dosimetry: Chromosomal Aberration Analysis for Dose Assessment (Technical Reports Series No. 260). This was superseded in 2001 by a revised second edition, Technical Reports Series No. 405. This present publication constitutes a third edition, with extensive updating to reflect the considerable advances that have been made in cytogenetic biological dosimetry during the past decade

  15. Cytogenetic Dosimetry: Applications in Preparedness for and Response to Radiation Emergencies (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic dosimetry is recognized as a valuable dose assessment method which fills a gap in dosimetric technology, particularly when there are difficulties in interpreting the data, in cases where there is reason to believe that persons not wearing dosimeters have been exposed to radiation, in cases of claims for compensation for radiation injuries that are not supported by unequivocal dosimetric evidence, or in cases of exposure over an individual's working lifetime. The IAEA has maintained a long standing involvement in biological dosimetry commencing in 1978. This association has been through a sequence of coordinated research programmes (CRPs), the running of regional and national training courses, the sponsorship of individual training fellowships, and the provision of equipment to laboratories in Member States, establishing capabilities in biological dosimetry. From this has arisen the provision to Member States of advice regarding the best focus for research and suggestions for the most suitable techniques for future practice in biological dosimetry. One CRP resulted in the publication in 1986 of a manual, entitled Biological Dosimetry: Chromosomal Aberration Analysis for Dose Assessment (Technical Reports Series No. 260). This was superseded in 2001 by a revised second edition, Technical Reports Series No. 405. This present publication constitutes a third edition, with extensive updating to reflect the considerable advances that have been made in cytogenetic biological dosimetry during the past decade

  16. Cytogenetic Dosimetry: Applications in Preparedness for and Response to Radiation Emergencies (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Cytogenetic dosimetry is recognized as a valuable dose assessment method which fills a gap in dosimetric technology, particularly when there are difficulties in interpreting the data, in cases where there is reason to believe that persons not wearing dosimeters have been exposed to radiation, in cases of claims for compensation for radiation injuries that are not supported by unequivocal dosimetric evidence, or in cases of exposure over an individual's working lifetime. The IAEA has maintained a long standing involvement in biological dosimetry commencing in 1978. This association has been through a sequence of coordinated research programmes (CRPs), the running of regional and national training courses, the sponsorship of individual training fellowships, and the provision of equipment to laboratories in Member States, establishing capabilities in biological dosimetry. From this has arisen the provision to Member States of advice regarding the best focus for research and suggestions for the most suitable techniques for future practice in biological dosimetry. One CRP resulted in the publication in 1986 of a manual, entitled Biological Dosimetry: Chromosomal Aberration Analysis for Dose Assessment (Technical Reports Series No. 260). This was superseded in 2001 by a revised second edition, Technical Reports Series No. 405. This present publication constitutes a third edition, with extensive updating to reflect the considerable advances that have been made in cytogenetic biological dosimetry during the past decade

  17. Cytogenetic Dosimetry: Applications in Preparedness for and Response to Radiation Emergencies (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Cytogenetic dosimetry is recognized as a valuable dose assessment method which fills a gap in dosimetric technology, particularly when there are difficulties in interpreting the data, in cases where there is reason to believe that persons not wearing dosimeters have been exposed to radiation, in cases of claims for compensation for radiation injuries that are not supported by unequivocal dosimetric evidence, or in cases of exposure over an individual's working lifetime. The IAEA has maintained a long standing involvement in biological dosimetry commencing in 1978. This association has been through a sequence of coordinated research programmes (CRPs), the running of regional and national training courses, the sponsorship of individual training fellowships, and the provision of equipment to laboratories in Member States, establishing capabilities in biological dosimetry. From this has arisen the provision to Member States of advice regarding the best focus for research and suggestions for the most suitable techniques for future practice in biological dosimetry. One CRP resulted in the publication in 1986 of a manual, entitled Biological Dosimetry: Chromosomal Aberration Analysis for Dose Assessment (Technical Reports Series No. 260). This was superseded in 2001 by a revised second edition, Technical Reports Series No. 405. This present publication constitutes a third edition, with extensive updating to reflect the considerable advances that have been made in cytogenetic biological dosimetry during the past decade

  18. A Finnish national code of practice for reference dosimetry of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosunen, A.; Sipilae, P.; Jaervinen, H.; Parkkinen, R.; Jokelainen, I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A national Code of Practice (CoP) for reference dosimetry of radiation therapy in Finland will be established during 2002 and will be implemented from the beginning of 2003. The CoP will cover dosimetry of the conventional radiotherapy modalities used in Finland i.e. external radiotherapy with megavoltage photon and electron beams, external radiotherapy with low energy kilovoltage X-ray beams and brachytherapy. The formalisms for external radiation beam dosimetry are those of TRS 389. For brachytherapy the formalism will follow the general guidelines of TECDOC-1274. The CoP will be prepared by the SSDL of STUK in close co-operation with the Finnish radiotherapy physicists. For external beam radiotherapy, the main objective of the national Code of Practice for radiation therapy dosimetry is to maintain the achieved good level of consistency of the dosimetry procedures in external beam radiotherapy as the 'absorbed dose to water' based approach of TRS 389 is implemented in Finland. In the CoP the dosimetry the procedures are described for the whole dosimetry chain starting from the calibration of the ionisation chambers at the SSDL of STUK and ending to the calibration of the beam monitor ionisation chamber of a linear accelerator. For brachytherapy dosimetry the aim is to fix the national practice for reference air kerma rate calibrations both for radioactive sources and for well-type ionisation chambers. Although the dosimetry procedures are described independently of the SSDL service, CoP makes use of the special features of the calibration service offered by the SSDL of STUK. For ionisation chambers used for photon dosimetry the calibration factors for the user measurement chain are given not only for the actual reference beam quality ( 60 Co) but also for a set of user beam qualities. Furthermore, SSDL of STUK offers calibration services for plane parallel ionisation chambers in an electron beam of a user linac. For brachytherapy SSDL of STUK has

  19. γ radiation level simulation and analysis with MCNP in EPR containment during severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Jun; Liu Shuhuan; Wang Yang; Zhai Liang

    2013-01-01

    The γ dosimetry model based on the EPR core structure, material composition and the designed shielding system was established. The γ-ray dose rate distributions in EPR containment under different conditions including normal operation state, loss-of-coolant accident and core melt severe accident were simulated with MCNP5, and the calculation results under normal operation state and severe accident were compared and analyzed respectively with that of the designed limit. The study results may provide some relative data reference for EPR core accident prediction and reactor accident emergency decision making. (authors)

  20. Considerations on radiation protection and accidents in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Carla Flavia de; Avelar, Artur Canella; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2001-01-01

    The present study presents the radiation protection in the services of nuclear medicine in relation to the design of the services, manipulation of sources, cares with the patient, accomplishment of procedures and definition of accidents and incidents; besides approaching the CNEN requirements

  1. Documentation of Occupational Accidents and Diseases caused by Ionising Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehringer, F.; Seitz, G.

    2004-01-01

    . One of the major goals of the institutions for statutory accident insurance is the prevention of occupational diseases. To perform a successful prevention work it is necessary not only to count the number of accidents or diseases in the various working fields but to look for details of the conditions of work and the human response to those conditions. The institutions for statutory accident insurance have engaged the institution for statutory accident insurance in the precision engineering and electrical industry to carry out documentation, in form of a data bank, for all cases of occupational diseases which could be caused by ionising radiation. Those are not only the cases which are accepted as occupational disease but also the cases where a suspicion of an occupational disease is announced but finally rejected. At the moment about 1700 cases are included in the data bank. For preserving the anonymity information to name and residence are deleted. Various data to one single case are linked by a case-specific key-number. Information to occupation and field of working, to details of a possible exposure to ionising radiation like kind of radiation, time and duration of radiation, exposure of the whole body or of parts of the body and whole body or organ doses are collected. Additional information refers to medical aspects like diagnosis and date of diagnosis. (Author)

  2. Radiation protection issues raised in Korea since Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byeongsoo

    2014-01-01

    For the past 3 years since Fukushima accident, various issues related to nuclear safety and radiation safety were raised in Korea. This presentation focuses radiation protection (RP) issues among the various issues and has the purpose to share experiences and lessons-learned related to the RP issues. Special safety inspections on NPPs in Korea were performed immediately after Fukushima accident and 50 follow-up measures were established in May, 2011 to improve the nuclear safety. Some of them were related to radiation protection and emergency responses. Recently, in March, 2014, additional follow-up measures were decided to be taken in additionally strengthening safety-related equipment and emergency response organization. The 50 Fukushima-accident-follow-up measures include radiation protection for members of the public in emergency responses. Based on the follow-up measures, expansion of emergency planning zone (EPZ) is to be made according to the approval of legislation by National Assembly on May 2, 2014. For the past 3 years, the degree of the public concerns on radiation risk has been the highest. Spontaneous activities for radiation monitoring happened in the public. Some members of the public found some contaminated paved roads in November, 2011 and a contaminated kitchen ware in January, 2012. These findings suggest the importance of the management of recycled metal scraps imported from other countries. Fukushima accident gave much impact on Korean society all. The public gets very sensitive to issues about nuclear safety and radiation safety. Most parts of RP issues raised are related to the public. The lessons-learned are that as an issue is raised, it has a chance to be solved. However, RP issues related to radiation workers in accident conditions in NPPs are difficult to be raised enough to confirm and improve the robustness of radiation protection programs in accident conditions. It is necessary to share RP issues raised in each country as well as

  3. TH-A-204-01: Part I - Key Data for Ionizing-Radiation Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltzer, S. [National Institute of Standards & Technology (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The ICRU is currently finalizing a report on key data for radiation dosimetry. This multi-year review has resulted in a number of recommendations regarding “fundamental” data that are used in dosimetry related to radiation therapy. This educational session will explain the background for the ICRU committee’s work, the content and conclusions of the report and the impact on outputs, including NIST primary standards, ADCL calibration coefficients and clinical reference dosimetry. Parameters and beam modalities potentially affected by this report include: The mean excitation energy, I, for graphite, air, and water, The average energy required to create an ion pair in dry air (commonly referred to as W/e), The uncertainty in the determination of air kerma in kV x-rays The absolute value of Co-60 and Cs-137 primary standards and the dissemination of calibration coefficients, The determination of air kerma strength for Ir-192 HDR brachytherapy sources Ion chamber kQ factors for linac MV beams Ion chamber kQ factors for proton beams. The changes in reference dosimetry that would result from adoption of the ICRU recommendations are of the order of 0.5% to 1%, an effect that will not impact clinical dose delivery but will be detectable in the clinical setting. This session will also outline how worldwide metrology is coordinated through the Convention of the Meter and therefore how the international dosimetry community will proceed with adopting these recommendations so that uniformity from country to country in reference dosimetry is maintained. Timelines and communications methods will also be discussed to ensure that users, such as clinical medical physicists, are not surprised when their chamber’s calibration coefficient apparently changes. Learning Objectives: Understand the background for the ICRU committee’s work on key dosimetry data. Understand the proposed changes to key data and the impacts on reference dosimetry. Understand the methodology and timeline

  4. Dose evaluation for external exposure in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    Abnormal exposures including emergency and accidental are categorized into external exposure and internal contamination, although both of these may be associated with external contamination. From a point of view of lifesaving in the abnormal exposures, it is primarily important to evaluate radiation dose of exposed persons as soon as possible. This report reviews the status of early dosimetry in the accidental exposures and discusses the optimum methodology of the early dose determination for external exposures in abnormal exposures. Personal monitors generally give an indication of dose to an exposed person only at a single part of the body. The data obtained from the personal monitors should be interpreted with care and in the light of information about the circumstances of exposure. In most cases, the records of environmental monitors or the survey with area monitors provide valuable information on the radiation fields. In the some cases, the reconstruction of the abnormal exposure is required for the dose evaluation by means of phantom experiments. In the case of neutron exposures, activation products in the body or its components or personnel possession can be useful for the early dosimetry. If the dose received by the whole body is evaluated as being very high, clinical observations and biological investigations may be more important guide to initial medical treatment than the early dosimetry. For the dose evaluation of general public, depending on the size of abnormal exposure, information that could be valuable in the assessment of abnormal exposures will come from the early dose estimates with environmental monitors and radiation survey meters. (author)

  5. Performance of a parallel plate ionization chamber in beta radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Patricia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: patrilan@ipen.b, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    A homemade parallel plate ionization chamber with graphite collecting electrode, and developed for use in mammography beams, was tested in relation to its usefulness in beta radiation dosimetry at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. Characterization tests of this ionization chamber were performed, using the Sr-90 + Y-90, Kr-85 and Pm-147 sources of a beta secondary standard system. The results of saturation, leakage current, stabilization time, response stability, linearity, angular dependence, and calibration coefficients are within the recommended limits of international recommendations that indicate that this chamber may be used for beta radiation dosimetry. (author)

  6. Performance of a parallel plate ionization chamber in beta radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, Patricia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2011-01-01

    A homemade parallel plate ionization chamber with graphite collecting electrode, and developed for use in mammography beams, was tested in relation to its usefulness in beta radiation dosimetry at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. Characterization tests of this ionization chamber were performed, using the Sr-90 + Y-90, Kr-85 and Pm-147 sources of a beta secondary standard system. The results of saturation, leakage current, stabilization time, response stability, linearity, angular dependence, and calibration coefficients are within the recommended limits of international recommendations that indicate that this chamber may be used for beta radiation dosimetry. (author)

  7. The role of the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory in the dissemination of standards for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czap, L.; Andreo, P.; Matscheko, G.

    1998-01-01

    Approximately 90% of the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) provide users with calibrations of radiation protection instruments, and the IAEA is taking every necessary effort to insure that SSDLs measurements are traceable to Primary Standards. The Agency has proper radiation sources available to provide traceable calibrations to the SSDLs involved in measurements on diagnostic x-ray generators, including an x-ray unit specifically for mammography dedicated to standardization procedures. The different photon beam qualities and calibration procedures available in the Agency's Dosimetry Laboratory are described

  8. New ways for the coordination of research for the dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuhmacher, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    The European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) is a network of about 50 institutions from nearly oil European countries which coordinates research and development for the dosimetry of ionizing radiation. EURADOS was supported over many years by the European Communities. Since 2008 EURADOS is registered as a non-profit society (eingetragener Verein, e.V.) in Braunschweig with the office at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). This new formal status and the related independence from European research programmes allows new ways in the coordination of research. (orig.)

  9. Radioprotection program to attend of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, P.W.; Costa Silva, L.H. da; Rosa, R.

    1989-04-01

    The aspects of a radioprotection program to be implanted in hospitals to cases of medical treatment to external and internal contamined people are presented. It is based in the experience acquired in the coordination of radioprotection of the Marcilio Dias Naval Medical Center, Rio de Janeiro, due to accident happened in Goiania in 1987. The infra-structure necessary of a ward and the procedures of radioprotection to acess control, entrance and way out of material area and patients monitoring, decontamination and the activities in the support area such as the control and maintenance of detection equipments and radioactive waste management are described. The radiologic protection materials necessaries and the quantity of radioactive waste generated by patient for day are estimated. (V.R.B.)

  10. Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, D.C.; Purrott, R.J.; Prosser, J.S.; White, A.D.; Hesketh, L.C.; Priseman, S.J.; Lelliot, D.J.; Stimpson, L.W.

    1980-02-01

    The results are reviewed from investigations during 1979 into 82 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation. Of these 45 were associated with industrial radiography, 11 with one or other of the major nuclear organisations, and 26 with an institution of research, education or health. 83% of the dose estimates were in the range 0.0-0.09 Gy (0-9 rad), and 17% in the range 0.1-0.29 Gy (10-29 rad). These data are compared with data obtained by physical dosimetry, and a brief summary is given of the circumstances of each over-exposure, or suspected over-exposure. (author)

  11. Precision dosimetry system suited for low temperature radiation damage experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.H.; Hanke, C.C.; Sørensen, H.

    1967-01-01

    A calorimetric system for dosimetry on a beam of charged particles is described. The calorimeter works at liquid helium temperature. The total dose may be measured with an accuracy of 0.3%, and the dose per area with 0.4%. No theoretical corrections are needed. © 1967 The American Institute...

  12. Radiation dose assessment of ACP hot cell in accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kook, D. H.; Jeong, W. M.; Koo, J. H.; Jeo, I. J.; Lee, E. P.; Ryu, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced spent fuel Condition in Process(ACP) is under development for the effective management of spent fuel which had been generated in nuclear plants. The ACP needs a hot cell where most operations will be performed. To give priority to the environments safety, radiation doses evaluations for the radioactive nuclides in accident cases were preliminarily performed with the meteorological data around facility site. Fire accident prevails over several accidnets. Internal Dose and External Dose evaluation according to short dispersion data for that case show a safe margin for regulation limits and SAR limit of IMEF where this facility will be constructed

  13. Thermally stimulated current in PTFE and its application in radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, S.

    1985-01-01

    Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) measurement was made on PTFE (Polytetrafluoro ethylene) in an attempt to develop an integrating radiation dosimeter material and the system. TSC spectra, dose response, energy response, fading and background charge stability characteristics were used as a measure of suitability of various untreated and heat treated PTFE samples for dosimetry applications. For practical TSC dosimetry system, it was discovered that the PTFE samples should be subjected to a specific heat treatment in order to produce samples with better dosimeter characteristics. A treatment at a temperature of 240 C produces a high dose response and low fading characteristics. It was found that the spurious charges due to storage and low sensitivity to irradiation caused the limitation in the measurement of low doses with PTFE samples for personnel protection. However, a TSC Dosimetry system using PTFE is proposed which is suitable for radiation doses in the radiotherapy range from *approx* 50 to *approx* 800 mGy. (author)

  14. Fourth conference on radiation protection and dosimetry: Proceedings, program, and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casson, W.H.; Thein, C.M.; Bogard, J.S. [eds.

    1994-10-01

    This Conference is the fourth in a series of conferences organized by staff members of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an effort to improve communication in the field of radiation protection and dosimetry. Scientists, regulators, managers, professionals, technologists, and vendors from the United States and countries around the world have taken advantage of this opportunity to meet with their contemporaries and peers in order to exchange information and ideas. The program includes over 100 papers in 9 sessions, plus an additional session for works in progress. Papers are presented in external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, radiation protection programs and assessments, developments in instrumentation and materials, environmental and medical applications, and on topics related to standards, accreditation, and calibration. Individual papers are indexed separately on EDB.

  15. Statistical issues in biological radiation dosimetry for risk assessment using stable chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cologne, J.B.; Preston, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Biological dosimeters are useful for epidemiologic risk assessment in populations exposed to catastrophic nuclear events and as a means of validating physical dosimetry in radiation workers. Application requires knowledge of the magnitude of uncertainty in the biological dose estimates and an understanding of potential statistical pitfalls arising from their use. This paper describes the statistical aspects of biological dosimetry in general and presents a detailed analysis in the specific case of dosimetry for risk assessment using stable chromosome aberration frequency. Biological dose estimates may be obtained from a dose-response curve, but negative estimates can result and adjustment must be made for regression bias due to imprecise estimation when the estimates are used in regression analyses. Posterior-mean estimates, derived as the mean of the distribution of true doses compatible with a given value of the biological endpoint, have several desirable properties: they are nonnegative, less sensitive to extreme skewness in the true dose distribution, and implicitly adjusted to avoid regression bias. The methods necessitate approximating the true-dose distribution in the population in which biological dosimetry is being applied, which calls for careful consideration of this distribution through other information. An important question addressed here is to what extent the methods are robust to misspecification of this distribution, because in many applications of biological dosimetry it cannot be characterized well. The findings suggest that dosimetry based solely on stable chromosome aberration frequency may be useful for population-based risk assessment

  16. Personnel neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankins, D.

    1982-04-01

    This edited transcript of a presentation on personnel neutron discusses the accuracy of present dosimetry practices, requirements, calibration, dosemeter types, quality factors, operational problems, and dosimetry for a criticality accident. 32 figs

  17. Medical precautions of radiation diseases and radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehringer, Franz; Ludwig, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The main topic deals essentially with the role of the Authorized Physician in industrial medicine, with the occupational diseases caused by ionizating radiation, with the tasks of regional radiation protection centers, and with the WHO REMPAN network. (orig.)

  18. Theories of radiation effects and reactor accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.M.; Ball, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    Muckerheide's paper was a public breakthrough on how one might assess the public health effects of low-level radiation. By the organization of a wealth of data, including the consequences of Hiroshima and Nagasaki but not including Chernobyl, he was able to conclude that present radioactive waste disposal and cleanup efforts need to be much less arduous than forecast by the U.S. Department of Energy, which, together with regulators, uses the linear hypothesis of radiation damage to humans. While the linear hypothesis is strongly defended and even recommended for extension to noncarcinogenic pollutants, exploration of a conservative threshold for very low level exposures could save billions of dollars in disposing of radioactive waste, enhance the understanding of reactor accident consequences, and assist in the development of design and operating criteria pertaining to severe accidents. In this context, the authors discuss the major differences between design-basis and severe accidents. The authors propose that what should ultimately be done is to develop a regulatory formula for severe-accident analysis that relates the public health effects to the amount and type of radionuclides released and distributed by the Chernobyl accident. Answers to the following important questions should provide the basis of this study: (1) What should be the criteria for distinguishing between design-basis and severe accidents, and what should be the basis for these criteria? (2) How do, and should, these criteria differ for older plants, newer operating plants, type of plant (i.e., gas cooled, water cooled, and liquid metal), advanced designs, and plants of the former Soviet Union? (3) How safe is safe enough?

  19. Guidelines for the Calibration of Routine Dosimetry Systems for use in Radiation Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharpe, Peter; Miller, Arne

    A set of guidelines has been developed to assist in the calibration of routine dosimetry systems for use in industrial radiation processing plants. Topics covered include the calibration of equipment, the performance of calibration irradiations and the derivation of mathematical functions...

  20. Fostering a culture of interprofessional education for radiation therapy and medical dosimetry students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavender, Charlotte; Miller, Seth; Church, Jessica; Chen, Ronald C.; Muresan, Petronella A.; Adams, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    A less-studied aspect of radiation therapy and medical dosimetry education is experiential learning through attendance at interprofessional conferences. University of North Carolina radiation therapy and medical dosimetry students regularly attended morning conferences and daily pretreatment peer review, including approximately 145 hours of direct interaction with medical attending physicians and residents, medical physicists, and other faculty. We herein assessed the effect of their participation in these interprofessional conferences on knowledge and communication. The students who graduated from our radiation therapy and medical dosimetry programs who were exposed to the interprofessional education initiative were compared with those who graduated in the previous years. The groups were compared with regard to their knowledge (as assessed by grades on end-of-training examinations) and team communication (assessed via survey). The results for the 2 groups were compared via exact tests. There was a trend for the examination scores for the 2012 cohort to be higher than for the 2007 to 2011 groups. Survey results suggested that students who attended the interprofessional education sessions were more comfortable speaking with attending physicians, residents, physicists, and faculty compared with earlier students who did not attend these educational sessions. Interprofessional education, particularly vertical integration, appears to provide an enhanced educational experience both in regard to knowledge (per the examination scores) and in building a sense of communication (via the survey results). Integration of interprofessional education into radiation therapy and medical dosimetry educational programs may represent an opportunity to enrich the learning experience in multiple ways and merits further study